WorldWideScience

Sample records for weight cycling

  1. Approximating maximum weight cycle covers in directed graphs with weights zero and one

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bläser, Markus; Manthey, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    A cycle cover of a graph is a spanning subgraph each node of which is part of exactly one simple cycle. A $k$-cycle cover is a cycle cover where each cycle has length at least $k$. Given a complete directed graph with edge weights zero and one, Max-$k$-DCC(0, 1) is the problem of finding a k-cycle

  2. An Implicit Weighted Degree Condition For Heavy Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Junqing

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For a vertex v in a weighted graph G, idw(v denotes the implicit weighted degree of v. In this paper, we obtain the following result: Let G be a 2-connected weighted graph which satisfies the following conditions: (a The implicit weighted degree sum of any three independent vertices is at least t; (b w(xz = w(yz for every vertex z ∈ N(x ∩ N(y with xy /∈ E(G; (c In every triangle T of G, either all edges of T have different weights or all edges of T have the same weight. Then G contains either a hamiltonian cycle or a cycle of weight at least 2t/3. This generalizes the result of Zhang et al. [9].

  3. Effect of a weight cycle on visceral fat accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effect of a single weight cycle on three fat depots: the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal depots and the subcutaneous depot at the trochanter level. Obese subjects (17 men, 15 women) were examined before and after weight-loss intervention and 67 wk

  4. Normalisation and weighting in life cycle assessment: quo vadis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Laurent, Alexis; Sala, Serenella

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Building on the rhetoric question “quo vadis?” (literally “Where are you going?”), this article critically investigates the state of the art of normalisation and weighting approaches within life cycle assessment. It aims at identifying purposes, current practises, pros and cons, as well...

  5. Weight cycling enhances adipose tissue inflammatory responses in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production, release of cytokines and adipokines and to dysregulated glucose-insulin homeostasis and dyslipidemia. Nutritional interventions such as dieting are often accompanied by repeated bouts of weight loss and regain, a phenomenon known as weight cycling (WC. METHODS: In this work we studied the effects of WC on the feed efficiency, blood lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, adiposity and inflammatory markers in C57BL/6 male mice that WC two or three consecutive times by alternation of a high-fat (HF diet with standard chow (SC. RESULTS: The body mass (BM grew up in each cycle of HF feeding, and decreased after each cycle of SC feeding. The alterations observed in the animals feeding HF diet in the oral glucose tolerance test, in blood lipids, and in serum and adipose tissue expression of adipokines were not recuperated after WC. Moreover, the longer the HF feeding was (two, four and six months, more severe the adiposity was. After three consecutive WC, less marked was the BM reduction during SC feeding, while more severe was the BM increase during HF feeding. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that both the HF diet and WC are relevant to BM evolution and fat pad remodeling in mice, with repercussion in blood lipids, homeostasis of glucose-insulin and adipokine levels. The simple reduction of the BM during a WC is not able to recover the high levels of adipokines in the serum and adipose tissue as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines enhanced during a cycle of HF diet. These findings are significant because a milieu with altered adipokines in association with WC potentially aggravates the chronic inflammation attributed to dysregulated production and release of adipokines in mice.

  6. Weight Cycling and Cancer Incidence in a Large Prospective US Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Victoria L.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Patel, Alpa V.; Sun, Juzhong; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Campbell, Peter T.; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Weight cycling, which consists of repeated cycles of intentional weight loss and regain, is common among individuals who try to lose weight. Some evidence suggests that weight cycling may affect biological processes that could contribute to carcinogenesis, but whether it is associated with cancer risk is unclear. Using 62,792 men and 69,520 women enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort in 1992, we examined the association between weight cycling and cancer incidence. Weight cycles were defined by using baseline questions that asked the number of times ≥10 pounds (4.54 kg) was purposely lost and later regained. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all cancer and 15 individual cancers were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression. During up to 17 years of follow-up, 15,333 men and 9,984 women developed cancer. Weight cycling was not associated with overall risk of cancer in men (hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.83, 1.11 for ≥20 cycles vs. no weight cycles) or women (hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.08) in models that adjusted for body mass index and other covariates. Weight cycling was also not associated with any individual cancer investigated. These results suggest that weight cycling, independent of body weight, is unlikely to influence subsequent cancer risk. PMID:26209523

  7. NORMALIZATION, GROUPING, AND WEIGHTING IN LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter includes a comprehensive overview of weighting methods and principles. The authors propose a very interesting and useful system of criteria for the evaluation of weighting methods; and provide a structured way to discuss the characteristics of weighting methods.

  8. Effects of Weight Loss, Weight Cycling, and Weight Loss Maintenance on Diabetes Incidence and Change in Cardiometabolic Traits in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Aroda, Vanita R.; Watson, Karol E.; Bray, George A.; Kahn, Steven E.; Florez, Jose C.; Perreault, Leigh; Franks, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined specific measures of weight loss in relation to incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective, observational study analyzed nine weight measures, characterizing baseline weight, short- versus long-term weight loss, short- versus long-term weight regain, and weight cycling, within the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention arm (n = 1,000) for predictors of incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors over 2 years. RESULTS Although weight loss in the first 6 months was protective of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 0.94 per kg, 95% CI 0.90, 0.98; P weight loss from 0 to 2 years was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes incidence (HR 0.90 per kg, 95% CI 0.87, 0.93; P Weight cycling (defined as number of 5-lb [2.25-kg] weight cycles) ranged 0–6 times per participant and was positively associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.58; P weight, the effect of weight cycling remained statistically significant for diabetes risk (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02, 1.47; P = 0.03) but not for cardiometabolic traits. CONCLUSIONS Two-year weight loss was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes risk and improvements in cardiometabolic traits. PMID:25024396

  9. Dieting and weight cycling as risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases: who is really at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, J-P; Schutz, Y; Dulloo, A G

    2015-02-01

    Despite the poor prognosis of dieting in obesity management, which often results in repeated attempts at weight loss and hence weight cycling, the prevalence of dieting has increased continuously in the past decades in parallel to the steadily increasing prevalence of obesity. However, dieting and weight cycling are not limited to those who are obese or overweight as substantial proportions of the various population groups with normal body weight also attempt to lose weight. These include young and older adults as well as children and adolescents who perceive themselves as too fat (due to media, parental and social pressures), athletes in weight-sensitive competitive sports (i.e. mandatory weight categories, gravitational and aesthetic sports) or among performers for whom a slim image is professionally an advantage. Of particular concern is the emergence of evidence that some of the potentially negative health consequences of repeated dieting and weight cycling are more readily seen in people of normal body weight rather than in those who are overweight or obese. In particular, several metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors associated with weight cycling in normal-weight individuals have been identified from cross-sectional and prospective studies as well as from studies of experimentally induced weight cycling. In addition, findings from studies of experimental weight cycling have reinforced the notion that fluctuations of cardiovascular risk variables (such as blood pressure, heart rate, sympathetic activity, blood glucose, lipids and insulin) with probable repeated overshoots above normal values during periods of weight regain put an additional stress on the cardiovascular system. As the prevalence of diet-induced weight cycling is increasing due to the opposing forces of an 'obesigenic' environment and the media pressure for a slim figure (that even targets children), dieting and weight cycling is likely to become an increasingly serious public health issue

  10. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina R W; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D

    2016-01-01

    compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. DESIGN: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program...... that was tailored to metabolic changes of the menstrual cycle (Menstralean) or to undergo simple energy restriction (control). RESULTS: Thirty-one women (19 Menstralean and 12 control women) completed the study [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 32.0 ± 5.2]. Both groups lost weight during the study....... CONCLUSION: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...

  11. Bone mineral density and content during weight cycling in female rats: effects of dietary amylase-resistant starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagpal Sugeet

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is considerable evidence for a loss of bone mass with weight loss, the few human studies on the relationship between weight cycling and bone mass or density have differing results. Further, very few studies assessed the role of dietary composition on bone mass during weight cycling. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a diet high in amylase-resistant starch (RS2, which has been shown to increase absorption and balance of dietary minerals, can prevent or reduce loss of bone mass during weight cycling. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 84, age = 20 weeks were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups with 14 rats per group using a 2 × 3 experimental design with 2 diets and 3 weight cycling protocols. Rats were fed calcium-deficient diets without RS2 (controls or diets high in RS2 (18% by weight throughout the 21-week study. The weight cycling protocols were weight maintenance/gain with no weight cycling, 1 round of weight cycling, or 2 rounds of weight cycling. After the rats were euthanized bone mineral density (BMD and bone mineral content (BMC of femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in femur and lumbar vertebrae were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Rats undergoing weight cycling had lower femur BMC (p 2 had higher femur BMD (p 2-fed rats also had higher femur calcium (p Conclusion Weight cycling reduces bone mass. A diet high in RS2 can minimize loss of bone mass during weight cycling and may increase bone mass in the absence of weight cycling.

  12. Weighting comparison of the production of α-emitters in HTR-fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckert, M.; Hecker, R.; Migenda, J.; Mirza, N.

    1976-03-01

    This study compares three fuel-cycles of the OTTO-Pebble-Bed High-Temperature Reactor to each other and as a reference to a Light-Water Reactor with regard to the 'Theoretical Environmental Risk' of their heavy-metal production. For the weighting of the α-activity those water- and air masses are used, which according to the recommendations of the 'International Committee for Radiation Protection' are necessary for the dilution of radioactive substances in the cycle. The Th/U-cycles are better than the U/Pu-cycles; one has to put into account, however, that in the Th/U-cycles the Ra which comes up after long time period increases the 'Theoretical Environmental Risk'. (orig.) [de

  13. Weight loss and body composition changes following three sequential cycles of ketogenic enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cappello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic enteral nutrition (KEN is a modification of the protein sparing modified fast in which a protein solution is introduced with a continuous infusion through a nasogastric tube over 10-days cycles. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the safety, compliance, weight loss and body composition changes after 3 sequential 10-days cycles of KEN therapy. Materials and Methods: From a large number of patients who underwent KEN therapy in our department over a 5-year period, we selected 188 patients who participated in 3 KEN cycles with 10-13 days of break between them. Before and after the treatment cycles, body composition was analyzed by bioelectric impedance; a final assessment was made 10 days after the end of last cycle. During each rest period all the patients were on a low-carbohydrate, normal caloric diet. Results: Most patients (97% successfully tolerated the nasogastric treatment and lost an average of 14.4 kg of body weight, 10.6 kg of fat mass and 3.4 kg of body cell mass. Adverse effects were recorded as mild gastric hypersecretion (2% and constipation (5%. Patients continued to lose fat during the 10-day follow up period after the end of each KEN Cycle. This effect may be explained by abnormality of water distribution during the rapid weight loss inducing the observed change in fat mass. Conclusion: Ten-days KEN treatment cycles can induce rapid weight loss and reduction of fat mass in obese patients. Furthermore, preservation of lean mass can be achieved by infusing 1.9 g of protein/kg of BCM.

  14. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jarod C; Sullivan, John L; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle and vehicle total life-cycle impacts of substituting lightweight materials into vehicles. We determine part-based greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data and evaluating that alongside known mass-based GHG ratios (using and updating Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model) associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts are lightweighted via material substitution, using substitution ratios from a U.S. Department of Energy report, to determine GHG emissions. We then examine fuel-cycle GHG reductions from lightweighting. The fuel reduction value methodology is applied using FRV estimates of 0.15-0.25, and 0.25-0.5 L/(100km·100 kg), with and without powertrain adjustments, respectively. GHG breakeven values are derived for both driving distance and material substitution ratio. While material substitution can reduce vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs. It is likely that replacing steel (the dominant vehicle material) with wrought aluminum, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CRFP), or magnesium will increase vehicle-cycle GHGs. However, lifetime fuel economy benefits often outweigh the vehicle-cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. This is the case for steel replaced by wrought aluminum in all assumed cases, and for CFRP and magnesium except for high substitution ratio and low FRV.

  15. Extracellular matrix remodeling and matrix metalloproteinase inhibition in visceral adipose during weight cycling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caria, Cíntia Rabelo E Paiva; Gotardo, Érica Martins Ferreira; Santos, Paola Souza; Acedo, Simone Coghetto; de Morais, Thainá Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra

    2017-10-15

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is necessary for a health adipose tissue (AT) expansion and also has a role during weight loss. We investigate the ECM alteration during weight cycling (WC) in mice and the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was assessed using GM6001, an MMP inhibitor, during weight loss (WL). Obesity was induced in mice by a high-fat diet. Obese mice were subject to caloric restriction for WL followed by reintroduction to high-fat diet for weight regain (WR), resulting in a WC protocol. In addition, mice were treated with GM6001 during WL period and the effects were observed after WR. Activity and expression of MMPs was intense during WL. MMP inhibition during WL results in inflammation and collagen content reduction. MMP inhibition during WL period interferes with the period of subsequent expansion of AT resulting in improvements in local inflammation and systemic metabolic alterations induced by obesity. Our results suggest that MMPs inhibition could be an interesting target to improve adipose tissue inflammation during WL and to support weight cyclers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect on 12-week Intensive Dietary and Exercise Program on Weight Reduction and Maintenance in Obese Women with Weight Cycling History

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Ha Nui; Nam, Sang-Seok; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of 12-week intensive dietary and exercise intervention program on body composition and stress-related hormones in obese women and to examine the residual effect after the intervention. The participants of this study were 30 obese women who had a body mass index of over 25 kg/m2 and over 30% in body fat. They were classified into 2 groups depending on the history of weight cycling (WC); the WC group (? ?5% of the original body weight) and the non-weight cycling (...

  17. Hypothalamic miR-219 regulates individual metabolic differences in response to diet-induced weight cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Schroeder

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of a low calorie diet is the most common approach to lose weight. While generally effective at first, it is frequently followed by a relapse where the pre-diet weight is regained, and often exceeded. This pattern of repeated weight loss/regain is referred to as weight cycling and the resulting metabolic response varies greatly between individuals. Objective: We attempted to address the issue of individual differences in the response to weight cycling in male mice. Methods: We first exposed adult wild type mice to repeated cycles of high/low fat food. Next, using a lentiviral approach, we knocked-down or over-expressed miR-219 in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH of an additional mouse cohort and performed a full metabolic assessment. Results: Exposure of wild type males to weight cycling resulted in the division of the cohort into subsets of resistant versus metabolic-syndrome-prone (MS animals, which differed in their metabolic profile and hypothalamic miR-219 levels. Lentiviral knock-down of miR-219 in the VMH led to exacerbation of metabolic syndrome. In contrast, over-expression of miR-219 resulted in moderation of the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Conclusions: Our results suggest a role for miR-219 in the mediation of the metabolic phenotype resulting from repeated weight cycling. Keywords: Weight cycling, Metabolic syndrome, miRNAs, Ventromedial hypothalamus, High fat diet, Diabetes

  18. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The computational techniques utilized to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements are described. The characteristics and use of the following computer codes are discussed: (1) NNEP - a very general cycle analysis code that can assemble an arbitrary matrix fans, turbines, ducts, shafts, etc., into a complete gas turbine engine and compute on- and off-design thermodynamic performance; (2) WATE - a preliminary design procedure for calculating engine weight using the component characteristics determined by NNEP; (3) POD DRG - a table look-up program to calculate wave and friction drag of nacelles; (4) LIFCYC - a computer code developed to calculate life cycle costs of engines based on the output from WATE; and (5) INSTAL - a computer code developed to calculate installation effects, inlet performance and inlet weight. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight, and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  19. Computing the Stretch Factor of Paths, Trees, and Cycles in Weighted Fixed Orientation Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Let G be a graph embedded in the L_1-plane. The stretch factor of G is the maximum over all pairs of distinct vertices p and q of G of the ratio L_1^G(p,q)/L_1(p,q), where L_1^G(p,q) is the L_1-distance in G between p and q. We show how to compute the stretch factor of an n-vertex path in O(n*(log...... n)^2) worst-case time and O(n) space and we mention generalizations to trees and cycles, to general weighted fixed orientation metrics, and to higher dimensions....

  20. Forecasting business cycle with chaotic time series based on neural network with weighted fuzzy membership functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Soo H.; Lim, Joon S.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a forecasting model of cyclical fluctuations of the economy based on the time delay coordinate embedding method. The model uses a neuro-fuzzy network called neural network with weighted fuzzy membership functions (NEWFM). The preprocessed time series of the leading composite index using the time delay coordinate embedding method are used as input data to the NEWFM to forecast the business cycle. A comparative study is conducted using other methods based on wavelet transform and Principal Component Analysis for the performance comparison. The forecasting results are tested using a linear regression analysis to compare the approximation of the input data against the target class, gross domestic product (GDP). The chaos based model captures nonlinear dynamics and interactions within the system, which other two models ignore. The test results demonstrated that chaos based method significantly improved the prediction capability, thereby demonstrating superior performance to the other methods.

  1. Effect on 12-week Intensive Dietary and Exercise Program on Weight Reduction and Maintenance in Obese Women with Weight Cycling History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ha Nui; Nam, Sang-Seok; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the effect of 12-week intensive dietary and exercise intervention program on body composition and stress-related hormones in obese women and to examine the residual effect after the intervention. The participants of this study were 30 obese women who had a body mass index of over 25 kg/m 2 and over 30% in body fat. They were classified into 2 groups depending on the history of weight cycling (WC); the WC group (≥ ±5% of the original body weight) and the non-weight cycling (NWC) group. Both groups were subject to a nutritional intervention program every 2 weeks with a mandatory exercise intervention for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the nutrition/exercise interventions were ceased for 12 weeks, after which the participants' levels of the hormones relating to energy metabolism and stress, meal intakes, dietary habits, level of knowledge on sodium intake, frequency of sodium intake, and quality of life (QOL) were checked. The changes of body weight were 71.3 ± 5.5 kg (week 0) vs. 65.0 ± 6.6 kg (week 12) vs. 65.6 ± 7.1 kg (week 24) in WC group and 71.6 ± 8.6 kg (week 0) vs. 68.8 ± 9.7 kg (week 12) vs. 70.3 ± 9.4 kg (week 24) in the NWC group. The levels of hormones, meal intakes, and QOL scores were better in the WC group, as adherence to the nutritional intervention was higher. We suggest that that adherence to dietary habits heavily influences weight loss and maintenance in individuals who frequently attempt to lose weight and consequently go through a vicious cycle of weight recycling.

  2. Increased risk of diabetes development in individuals with weight cycling over 4 years: The Kangbuk Samsung Health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Cho, Jung Hwan; Kwon, Hyemi; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Lee, Won-Young

    2018-05-01

    Weight cycling is defined as cyclical loss and gain of weight and recent studies suggest deleterious effects of weight cycling on cardiometabolic health. We aimed to analyze the risk for diabetes development in association with weight cycling over 4 years of follow-up. A retrospective study performed in 4,818 non-diabetic participants (mean age 43 years, 78.3% men) in a health screening program in whom serial health examinations were performed in 5 consecutive years from 2010 to 2014. Average successive variability of weight (ASVW) was defined by the amount of body weight change in absolute value between the successive years over 5 years summed and divided by four. The subjects were divided into two groups according to body mass index (BMI), normal weight (<23 kg/m 2 ) and overweight (≥23 kg/m 2 ). Over 4 years, 3.2% developed diabetes. When the subjects were divided into 3 groups according to tertile groups of ASVW, those in the highest tertile showed significantly increased risk for diabetes development compared to those with the lowest tertile {odds ratio (OR) 1.860; 95% CI 1.130-3.063}. When similar analyses were performed according to the 4 groups divided by baseline body weight and ASVW over four years, those who were more than overweight at baseline with high ASVW showed significantly increased risk of diabetes development compared to those had normal weight and low ASVW (OR 2.266; 95% 1.123-4.572). When the subjects were divided into six group according to weight change and ASVW, those with increased weight over 4 years and high ASVW showed the highest risk for diabetes development among the groups compared to those with stable weight and low ASVW over four years (OR 3.660; 95% CI 1.402-9.553). Those with high ASVW showed significantly increased risk for diabetes development over four years compared with those who had low ASVW. Weight cycling was significantly associated with increased risk for diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  3. Thyroid function and body weight in girls with irregular menstrual cycle living in mild iodine deficiency region

    OpenAIRE

    L Sh Vagapova; O D Konstantinova; Ya I Koz; L M Shukshina; E O Skrynnik

    2011-01-01

    To establish the relation of body weight indexes and functional state of thyroid in female adolescents with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine-deficiency region, the investigation was conducted in 130 female adolescents with irregular menses. Obesity incidence and overweight in them was 18.5%, body weight deficiency was 43.8%.37.7% of the girls had normal body weight. Statistically significant differences were not defined according to TSH, fT4 and fT3 in patients with different bo...

  4. Thyroid function and body weight in girls with irregular menstrual cycle living in mild iodine deficiency region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sh Vagapova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To establish the relation of body weight indexes and functional state of thyroid in female adolescents with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine-deficiency region, the investigation was conducted in 130 female adolescents with irregular menses. Obesity incidence and overweight in them was 18.5%, body weight deficiency was 43.8%.37.7% of the girls had normal body weight. Statistically significant differences were not defined according to TSH, fT4 and fT3 in patients with different body weight indexes. So, the results of investigation can help to come to the conclusion about the absence of true correlation between body weight and functional thyroid state in female adolescents with irregular menses.

  5. A light/dark cycle in the NICU accelerates body weight gain and shortens time to discharge in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Ruiz, Samuel; Maya-Barrios, José Alfonso; Torres-Narváez, Patricia; Vega-Martínez, Benito Rubén; Rojas-Granados, Adelina; Escobar, Carolina; Angeles-Castellanos, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Bright constant light levels in the NICU may have negative effects on the growth and development of preterm infants The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits of an alternating light/dark cycle in the NICU on weight gain and early discharge from the therapy in premature infants. A randomized interventional study was designed comparing infants in the NICU of Hospital Juarez de México, exposed from birth either to an LD environment (LD, n=19) or to the traditional continuous light (LL, n=19). The LD condition was achieved by placing individual removable helmets over the infant's heads. Body weight gain was analyzed, as the main indicator of stability and the main criteria for discharge in preterm infants born at 31.73±0.31week gestational age. Infants maintained in an LD cycle gained weight faster than infants in LL and therefore attained a shorter hospital stay, (34.37±3.12 vs 51.11±5.29days; P>0.01). Also, LD infants exhibited improved oxygen saturation and developed a daily melatonin rhythm. These findings provide a convenient alternative for establishing an LD environment for preterm healthy newborns in the NICU and confirm the beneficial effects of an alternating LD cycle for growth and weight gain and for earlier discharge time. Here we provide an easy and practical alternative to implement light/dark conditions in the NICU. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (Pfat oxidation when compared with a low-GI diet (Pfat oxidation was associated with regain in fat mass (r=0.43, Pcarbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  7. The levels of adipokines in relation to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in young, normal-weight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wyskida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: The aim of this study was to assess the plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 levels in relation to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in young, healthy, normal-weight women. Methods: The study involved 52 young, healthy, normal-weight women. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and levels of plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 in addition to serum FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, 17-OH progesterone, androgens, SHBG and insulin concentrations were measured during a morning in fasting state three times: between days 2–4, days 12–14 and days 24–26 of the menstrual cycle. Results: Plasma adiponectin, omentin-1, resistin and visfatin/NAMPT, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 concentrations were stable during the menstrual cycle, while leptin and vaspin levels were significantly higher in both the midcycle and the luteal phases than those in the follicular phase. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that changes in leptin and vaspin levels between the follicular and the luteal phase are strongly related to changes in total testosterone levels. Conclusions: Our results revealed stable levels of adipokines during the phases of the physiological menstrual cycle, except for leptin and vaspin, which showed increased levels in both the midcycle and the luteal phases. This effect was significantly associated with changes in the secretion of testosterone, 17-OH progesterone and insulin in the luteal phase.

  8. Endocrine determinants of changes in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion during a weight cycle in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Karschin

    Full Text Available Changes in insulin sensitivity (IS and insulin secretion occur with perturbations in energy balance and glycemic load (GL of the diet that may precede the development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Determinants of changes in IS and insulin secretion with weight cycling in non-obese healthy subjects remain unclear.In a 6wk controlled 2-stage randomized dietary intervention 32 healthy men (26±4y, BMI: 24±2kg/m2 followed 1wk of overfeeding (OF, 3wks of caloric restriction (CR containing either 50% or 65% carbohydrate (CHO and 2wks of refeeding (RF with the same amount of CHO but either low or high glycaemic index at ±50% energy requirement. Measures of IS (basal: HOMA-index, postprandial: Matsuda-ISI, insulin secretion (early: Stumvoll-index, total: tAUC-insulin/tAUC-glucose and potential endocrine determinants (ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, thyroid hormone levels, 24h-urinary catecholamine excretion were assessed.IS improved and insulin secretion decreased due to CR and normalized upon RF. Weight loss-induced improvements in basal and postprandial IS were associated with decreases in leptin and increases in ghrelin levels, respectively (r = 0.36 and r = 0.62, p<0.05. Weight regain-induced decrease in postprandial IS correlated with increases in adiponectin, fT3, TSH, GL of the diet and a decrease in ghrelin levels (r-values between -0.40 and 0.83, p<0.05 whereas increases in early and total insulin secretion were associated with a decrease in leptin/adiponectin-ratio (r = -0.52 and r = -0.46, p<0.05 and a decrease in fT4 (r = -0.38, p<0.05 for total insulin secretion only. After controlling for GL associations between RF-induced decrease in postprandial IS and increases in fT3 and TSH levels were no longer significant.Weight cycling induced changes in IS and insulin secretion were associated with changes in all measured hormones, except for catecholamine excretion. While leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin seem to be the major

  9. Weighting and Aggregation in Life Cycle Assessment: Do Present Aggregated Single Scores Provide Correct Decision Support?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten; Nygaard, Simon Elsborg

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prevailing practice of obtaining single scores in life cycle assessment (LCA) and identifies potential lacunas in impact assessment methodology related to the results of aggregation into endpoints and single scores. In order to conduct this investigation, a detailed...... approach was adopted to facilitate identification of three main problems related to the single-score calculation approach. The prevailing ReCiPe single-score calculation method does not account for either the effect of so-called dominating alternatives (i.e., alternatives having high values across all...

  10. Life cycle assessment in wastewater treatment: : Influence of site-oriented normalization factors, life cycle impact assessment methods, and weighting methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Shunwen; Wang, Xiuheng; Zhang, X.; Zhao, Xinyue; Ren, N

    2017-01-01

    This present study aims to analyze the differences in results of different site-directional life cycle assessment
    (LCA) methods applied in the field of wastewater treatment. Site-generic methods were employed and
    compared with China-specific methods on a full-scale wastewater treatment case.

  11. The maximum temperature of a thermodynamic cycle effect on weight-dimensional characteristics of the NPP energy blocks with air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezborodov, Yu.A.; Bubnov, V.P.; Nesterenko, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    The cycle maximum temperature effect on the properties of individual apparatuses and total NPP energy blocks characteristics has been investigated. Air, nitrogen, helium and chemically reacting system N 2 O 4 +2NO+O 2 have been considered as coolants. The conducted investigations have shown that maximum temperature of thermodynamical cycle affects considerably both the weight-dimensional characteristics of individual elements of NPP and total characteristics of NPP energy block. Energy blocks of NPP with air cooling wherein dissociating nitrogen tetroxide is used as working body, have better indexes on the majority of characteristics in comparison with blocks with air, nitrogen and helium cooling. If technical restrictions are to be taken into account (thermal resistance of metals, coolant decomposition under high temperatures, etc.) then dissociating nitrogen tetroxide should be recommended as working body and maximum cycle temperature in the range from 500 up to 600 deg C

  12. Extended vs. brief intermittent access to palatable food differently promote binge-like intake, rejection of less preferred food, and weight cycling in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisler, A D; Garcia, M G; Spierling, S R; Hui, B E; Zorrilla, E P

    2017-08-01

    Palatable food access promotes obesity leading some to diet. Here, we modeled the roles of duration, intermittency and choice of access in bingeing, escalation of daily intake, and underacceptance of alternatives. Female rats with ("Choice") or without continuous chow access, received chow or continuous (Chocolate), intermittent (MWF) long (24h, Int-Long), or intermittent short (30min, Int-Short) access to a sucrose-rich, chocolate-flavored diet (CHOC). Int-Long rats showed cycling body weight; they overate CHOC, had increased feed efficiency on access days and underate chow and lost weight on non-access days, the latter correlating with their reduced brown fat. Int-Short rats had the greatest 30-min intake upon CHOC access, but did not underaccept chow or weight cycle. Individual vulnerability for intermittent access-induced feeding adaptations was seen. Continuous access rats gained fat disproportionate, but in direct relation, to their normalized energy intake and persistently underaccepted chow despite abstinence and return to normal weight. Abstinence reduced the binge-like CHOC intake of Int-Short rats and increased that of continuous access rats, but not to levels associated with intermittent access history. Choice increased daily CHOC intake under Continuous access and binge-like intake under Int-Short access. Intermittency and duration of past access to palatable food have dissociable, individually-vulnerable influences on its intake and that of alternatives. With extended access, daily intake reflects the palatability of available food, rather than metabolic need. Ongoing restrictedness of access or a history of intermittency each drive binge-like intake. Aspects of palatable food availability, similar and different to drug availability, promote disordered eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting live birth, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in infants born from in vitro fertilisation: a prospective study of 144,018 treatment cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which baseline couple characteristics affect the probability of live birth and adverse perinatal outcomes after assisted conception is unknown.We utilised the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority database to examine the predictors of live birth in all in vitro fertilisation (IVF cycles undertaken in the UK between 2003 and 2007 (n = 144,018. We examined the potential clinical utility of a validated model that pre-dated the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI as compared to a novel model. For those treatment cycles that resulted in a live singleton birth (n = 24,226, we determined the associates of potential risk factors with preterm birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia. The overall rate of at least one live birth was 23.4 per 100 cycles (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.2-23.7. In multivariable models the odds of at least one live birth decreased with increasing maternal age, increasing duration of infertility, a greater number of previously unsuccessful IVF treatments, use of own oocytes, necessity for a second or third treatment cycle, or if it was not unexplained infertility. The association of own versus donor oocyte with reduced odds of live birth strengthened with increasing age of the mother. A previous IVF live birth increased the odds of future success (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.46-1.71 more than that of a previous spontaneous live birth (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.24; p-value for difference in estimate <0.001. Use of ICSI increased the odds of live birth, and male causes of infertility were associated with reduced odds of live birth only in couples who had not received ICSI. Prediction of live birth was feasible with moderate discrimination and excellent calibration; calibration was markedly improved in the novel compared to the established model. Preterm birth and low birth weight were increased if oocyte donation was required and ICSI was not used. Risk of macrosomia increased with advancing

  14. Diffusion weighted imaging of the normal breast: reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient measurements and variation with menstrual cycle and menopausal status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Flynn, Elizabeth A.M.; Morgan, Veronica A.; Giles, Sharon L. [Cancer Research UK and ESPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Clinical Magnetic Resonance Group, Surrey (United Kingdom); deSouza, Nandita M. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Clinical Magnetic Resonance Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    To establish the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in normal fibroglandular breast tissue and to assess variation in ADC values with phase of the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Thirty-one volunteers (13 premenopausal, 18 postmenopausal) underwent magnetic resonance twice (interval 11-22 days) using diffusion-weighted MRI. ADC{sub total} and a perfusion-insensitive ADC{sub high} (omitting b = 0) were calculated. Reproducibility and inter-observer variability of mean ADC values were assessed. The difference in mean ADC values between the two phases of the menstrual cycle and the postmenopausal breast were evaluated. ADC{sub total} and ADC{sub high} showed good reproducibility (r% = 17.6, 22.4). ADC{sub high} showed very good inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.83). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.93 and 0.91. Mean ADC values were significantly lower in the postmenopausal breast (ADC{sub total} 1.46 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, ADC{sub high} 1.33 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) compared with the premenopausal breast (ADC{sub total} 1.84 {+-} 0.26 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, ADC{sub high} 1.77 {+-} 0.26 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; both P < 0.001). No significant difference was seen in ADC values in relation to menstrual cycle (ADC{sub total} P = 0.2, ADC{sub high} P = 0.24) or between postmenopausal women taking or not taking oestrogen supplements (ADC{sub total} P = 0.6, ADC{sub high} P = 0.46). ADC values in fibroglandular breast tissue are reproducible. Lower ADC values within the postmenopausal breast may reduce diffusion-weighted contrast and have implications for accurately detecting tumours. (orig.)

  15. Diffusion weighted imaging of the normal breast: reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient measurements and variation with menstrual cycle and menopausal status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Flynn, Elizabeth A.M.; Morgan, Veronica A.; Giles, Sharon L.; de Souza, Nandita M.

    2012-01-01

    To establish the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in normal fibroglandular breast tissue and to assess variation in ADC values with phase of the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Thirty-one volunteers (13 premenopausal, 18 postmenopausal) underwent magnetic resonance twice (interval 11-22 days) using diffusion-weighted MRI. ADC total and a perfusion-insensitive ADC high (omitting b = 0) were calculated. Reproducibility and inter-observer variability of mean ADC values were assessed. The difference in mean ADC values between the two phases of the menstrual cycle and the postmenopausal breast were evaluated. ADC total and ADC high showed good reproducibility (r% = 17.6, 22.4). ADC high showed very good inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.83). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.93 and 0.91. Mean ADC values were significantly lower in the postmenopausal breast (ADC total 1.46 ± 0.3 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, ADC high 1.33 ± 0.3 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) compared with the premenopausal breast (ADC total 1.84 ± 0.26 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, ADC high 1.77 ± 0.26 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s; both P total P = 0.2, ADC high P = 0.24) or between postmenopausal women taking or not taking oestrogen supplements (ADC total P = 0.6, ADC high P = 0.46). ADC values in fibroglandular breast tissue are reproducible. Lower ADC values within the postmenopausal breast may reduce diffusion-weighted contrast and have implications for accurately detecting tumours. (orig.)

  16. Apparent diffusion coefficient of breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue in diffusion-weighted imaging: the effects of menstrual cycle and menopausal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin You; Suh, Hie Bum; Kang, Hyun Jung; Shin, Jong Ki; Choo, Ki Seok; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Seok Won; Jung, Young Lae; Bae, Young Tae

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prospectively whether the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of both breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue vary with the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and informed consent was obtained from each participant. Fifty-seven women (29 premenopausal, 28 postmenopausal) with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent diffusion-weighted imaging twice (interval 12-20 days) before surgery. Two radiologists independently measured ADC of breast cancer and normal contralateral breast tissue, and we quantified the differences according to the phases of menstrual cycle and menopausal status. With normal fibroglandular tissue, ADC was significantly lower in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women (P = 0.035). In premenopausal women, ADC did not differ significantly between proliferative and secretory phases in either breast cancer or normal fibroglandular tissue (P = 0.969 and P = 0.519, respectively). In postmenopausal women, no significant differences were found between ADCs measured at different time intervals in either breast cancer or normal fibroglandular tissue (P = 0.948 and P = 0.961, respectively). The within-subject variability of the ADC measurements was quantified using the coefficient of variation (CV) and was small: the mean CVs of tumor ADC were 2.90 % (premenopausal) and 3.43 % (postmenopausal), and those of fibroglandular tissue ADC were 4.37 % (premenopausal) and 2.55 % (postmenopausal). Both intra- and interobserver agreements were excellent for ADC measurements, with intraclass correlation coefficients in the range of 0.834-0.974. In conclusion, the measured ADCs of breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue were not affected significantly by menstrual cycle, and the measurements were highly reproducible both within and between observers.

  17. On approximating restricted cycle covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    A cycle cover of a graph is a set of cycles such that every vertex is part of exactly one cycle. An $L$-cycle cover is a cycle cover in which the length of every cycle is in the set $L$. The weight of a cycle cover of an edge-weighted graph is the sum of the weights of its edges. We come close to

  18. Using a combination of weighting factor method and imperialist competitive algorithm to improve speed and enhance process of reloading pattern optimization of VVER-1000 reactors in transient cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, Yashar, E-mail: yashar.rahmani@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahvari, Yaser [Department of Computer Engineering, Payame Noor University (PNU), P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kia, Faezeh [Golestan Institute of Higher Education, Gorgan 49139-83635 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • This article was an attempt to optimize reloading pattern of Bushehr VVER-1000 reactor. • A combination of weighting factor method and the imperialist competitive algorithm was used. • The speed of optimization and desirability of the proposed pattern increased considerably. • To evaluate arrangements, a coupling of WIMSD5-B, CITATION-LDI2 and WERL codes was used. • Results reflected the considerable superiority of the proposed method over direct optimization. - Abstract: In this research, an innovative solution is described which can be used with a combination of the new imperialist competitive algorithm and the weighting factor method to improve speed and increase globality of search in reloading pattern optimization of VVER-1000 reactors in transient cycles and even obtain more desirable results than conventional direct method. In this regard, to reduce the scope of the assumed searchable arrangements, first using the weighting factor method and based on values of these coefficients in each of the 16 types of loadable fuel assemblies in the second cycle, the fuel assemblies were classified in more limited groups. In consequence, the types of fuel assemblies were reduced from 16 to 6 and consequently the number of possible arrangements was reduced considerably. Afterwards, in the first phase of optimization the imperialist competitive algorithm was used to propose an optimum reloading pattern with 6 groups. In the second phase, the algorithm was reused for finding desirable placement of the subset assemblies of each group in the optimum arrangement obtained from the previous phase, and thus the retransformation of the optimum arrangement takes place from the virtual 6-group mode to the real mode with 16 fuel types. In this research, the optimization process was conducted in two states. In the first state, it was tried to obtain an arrangement with the maximum effective multiplication factor and the smallest maximum power peaking factor. In

  19. Pre-term birth and low birth weight following preimplantation genetic diagnosis: analysis of 88 010 singleton live births following PGD and IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Sesh Kamal; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Selliah, Hepsy Y; Kamath, Mohan S

    2017-02-01

    Is PGD associated with the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes such as pre-term birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW)? There was no increase in the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes of PTB, and LBW following PGD compared with autologous IVF. Pregnancies resulting from ART are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy complications compared with spontaneously conceived pregnancies. The possible reason of adverse obstetric outcomes following ART has been attributed to the underlying infertility itself and embryo specific epigenetic modifications due to the IVF techniques. It is of interest whether interventions such as embryo biopsy as performed in PGD affect perinatal outcomes. Anonymous data were obtained from the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA), the statutory regulator of ART in the UK. The HFEA has collected data prospectively on all ART performed in the UK since 1991. Data from 1996 to 2011 involving a total of 88 010 singleton live births were analysed including 87 571 following autologous stimulated IVF ± ICSI and 439 following PGD cycles. Data on all women undergoing either a stimulated fresh IVF ± ICSI treatment cycle or a PGD cycle during the period from 1996 to 2011 were analysed to compare perinatal outcomes of PTB and LBW among singleton live births. Logistic regression analysis was performed adjusting for female age category, year of treatment, previous IVF cycles, infertility diagnosis, number of oocytes retrieved, whether IVF or ICSI was used and day of embryo transfer. There was no increase in the risk of PTB and LBW following PGD versus autologous stimulated IVF ± ICSI treatment, unadjusted odds of PTB (odds ratio (OR) 0.68, 95% CI: 0.46-0.99) and LBW (OR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.37-0.85). After adjusting for the potential confounders, there was again no increase in the risk of the adverse perinatal outcomes following PGD: PTB (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45-0.98) and LBW (aOR 0.58, 95% CI: 0.38-0.88). Although the

  20. Ultra-light-weight high torque density brushless PM machine design: considering driving-cycle of a four-wheel drive race car (EVER15-138)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Encica, L.; Beernaert, T.F.; Velden, van der H.H.F.; Parfant, A.G.P.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the design of an ultra-light-weight power and torque dense motor to enhance the performance of a light-weight electric racing vehicle. Such a racing vehicle is to compete in formula student racing events. The state-of-the-art powertrain in these vehicles are axial-field machines

  1. Plasma acylcarnitine profiling indicates increased fatty acid oxidation relative to tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity in young, healthy low birth weight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that an increased, incomplete fatty acid beta‐oxidation in mitochondria could be part of the metabolic events leading to insulin resistance and thereby an increased type 2 diabetes risk in low birth weight (LBW) compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. Therefore, we...... measured fasting plasma levels of 45 acylcarnitine species in 18 LBW and 25 NBW men after an isocaloric control diet and a 5‐day high‐fat, high‐calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW men had higher C2 and C4‐OH levels after the control diet compared with NBW men, indicating an increased fatty acid beta...

  2. Postpartum Maternal Weight Changes: Implications for Military Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abrams, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    .... Multivariate analysis suggested that high level of maternal weight gain during pregnancy, history of weight cycling, postpartum depression, and financial insecurity were associated with increased weight after birth...

  3. Overexpression of high molecular weight FGF-2 forms inhibits glioma growth by acting on cell-cycle progression and protein translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemiere, Sylvie; Azar, Rania; Belloc, Francis; Guersel, Demir; Pyronnet, Stephane; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Auguste, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In order to clarify the role of HMW FGF-2 in glioma development and angiogenesis, we over-expressed different human FGF-2 isoforms in C6 rat glioma cell line using a tetracycline-regulated expression system. Phenotypic modifications were analyzed in vitro and compared to untransfected cells or to cells over-expressing 18 kDa FGF-2 or all FGF-2 isoforms. In particular, we demonstrate that HMW FGF-2 has unique features in inhibiting glioma cell proliferation. HMW FGF-2 expressing cells showed a cell-cycle arrest at the G2M, demonstrating a role of HMW FGF-2 in controlling the entry in mitosis. Moreover, hydroxyurea was ineffective in blocking cells at the G1S boundary when HMW FGF-2 was expressed. We also show that the HMW FGF-2 isoforms inhibit 4E-BP1 phosphorylation at critical sites restoring the translation inhibitory activity of 4E-BP1. In vivo, inhibition of tumor growth was observed when cells expressed HMW FGF-2. This indicates that HMW FGF-2 inhibits tumor growth in glioma cells by acting on cell-cycle progression and protein translation

  4. Temporally resolved electrocardiogram-triggered diffusion-weighted imaging of the human kidney: correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion parameters and renal blood flow at different time points of the cardiac cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Lanzman, Rotem S; Quentin, Michael; Kuhlemann, Julia; Klasen, Janina; Pentang, Gael; Riegger, Caroline; Antoch, Gerald; Blondin, Dirk

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of pulsatile blood flow on apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and the fraction of pseudodiffusion (F(P)) in the human kidney. The kidneys of 6 healthy volunteers were examined by a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated and respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and phase-contrast flow measurements were performed. Flow imaging of renal arteries was carried out to quantify the dependence of renal blood flow on the cardiac cycle. ECG-triggered DWI was acquired in the coronal plane with 16 b values in the range of 0 s/mm(2) and 750 s/mm(2) at the time of minimum (MIN) (20 milliseconds after R wave) and maximum renal blood flow (MAX) (197 ± 24 milliseconds after R wave). The diffusion coefficients were calculated using the monoexponential approach as well as the biexponential intravoxel incoherent motion model and correlated to phase-contrast flow measurements. Flow imaging showed pulsatile renal blood flow depending on the cardiac cycle. The mean flow velocity at MIN was 45 cm/s as compared with 61 cm/s at MAX. F(p) at MIN (0.29) was significantly lower than at MAX (0.40) (P = 0.001). Similarly, ADC(mono), derived from the monoexponential model, also showed a significant difference (P renal blood flow and F(p) (r = 0.85) as well as ADC(mono) (r = 0.67) was statistically significant. Temporally resolved ECG-gated DWI enables for the determination of the diffusion coefficients at different time points of the cardiac cycle. ADC(mono) and FP vary significantly among acquisitions at minimum (diastole) and maximum (systole) renal blood flow. Temporally resolved ECG-gated DWI might therefore serve as a novel technique for the assessment of pulsatility in the human kidney.

  5. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  6. Cycles in weighted graphs and related topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shenggui

    2002-01-01

    This thesis contains results on paths andcycles in graphs andon a more or less relatedtopic, the vulnerability of graphs. In the first part of the thesis, Chapters 2 through 5, we concentrate on paths andcycles in weightedgraphs. A number of sufficient conditions are presentedfor graphs to contain

  7. Metabolite-cycled density-weighted concentric rings k-space trajectory (DW-CRT) enables high-resolution 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 3-Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Adam; Chiew, Mark; Jezzard, Peter; Voets, Natalie L; Plaha, Puneet; Thomas, Michael Albert; Stagg, Charlotte J; Emir, Uzay E

    2018-05-17

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a promising technique in both experimental and clinical settings. However, to date, MRSI has been hampered by prohibitively long acquisition times and artifacts caused by subject motion and hardware-related frequency drift. In the present study, we demonstrate that density weighted concentric ring trajectory (DW-CRT) k-space sampling in combination with semi-LASER excitation and metabolite-cycling enables high-resolution MRSI data to be rapidly acquired at 3 Tesla. Single-slice full-intensity MRSI data (short echo time (TE) semi-LASER TE = 32 ms) were acquired from 6 healthy volunteers with an in-plane resolution of 5 × 5 mm in 13 min 30 sec using this approach. Using LCModel analysis, we found that the acquired spectra allowed for the mapping of total N-acetylaspartate (median Cramer-Rao Lower Bound [CRLB] = 3%), glutamate+glutamine (8%), and glutathione (13%). In addition, we demonstrate potential clinical utility of this technique by optimizing the TE to detect 2-hydroxyglutarate (long TE semi-LASER, TE = 110 ms), to produce relevant high-resolution metabolite maps of grade III IDH-mutant oligodendroglioma in a single patient. This study demonstrates the potential utility of MRSI in the clinical setting at 3 Tesla.

  8. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  9. Social causes of low birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Kogan, M D

    1995-01-01

    The manifest importance of reducing the incidence of low birth weight is most obvious for the first year of life: low birth weight is the single most important factor affecting infant morbidity and mortality. However, there is growing evidence that the adverse consequences of low birth weight continue throughout the life cycle. This review deals primarily with social causes of low birth weight.

  10. Sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  11. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  12. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail in the long run. The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't about short-term dietary changes. It's about a lifestyle that includes healthy eating, regular physical activity, and ...

  13. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  14. Weight Rhythms: Weight Increases during Weekends and Decreases during Weekdays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Leena Orsama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The week's cycle influences sleep, exercise, and eating habits. An accurate description of weekly weight rhythms has not been reported yet - especially across people who lose weight versus those who maintain or gain weight. Methods: The daily weight in 80 adults (BMI 20.0-33.5 kg/m2; age, 25-62 years was recorded and analysed to determine if a group-level weekly weight fluctuation exists. This was a retrospective study of 4,657 measurements during 15-330 monitoring days. Semi-parametric regression was used to model the rhythm. Results: A pattern of daily weight changes was found (p Conclusion: Weight variations between weekends and weekdays should be considered as normal instead of signs of weight gain. Those who compensate the most are most likely to either lose or maintain weight over time. Long-term habits may make more of a difference than short-term splurges. People prone to weight gain could be counselled about the importance of weekday compensation.

  15. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity...... and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed...... to simulate glacial cycles accurately. Also, results suggest that non-linear 10 dynamics, threshold effects, and/or free oscillations may not play an overriding role in glacial cycles....

  16. Fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1983-05-01

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  17. Response of male turkeys hatched from first-cycle and force-molted breeder hens to a regimen providing progressive feeds by weight and the value of increased lysine prior to marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, E T; Krueger, K K; Acar, N

    1992-11-01

    Male poults originating from 41- and 85-wk-old Nicholas Large White breeder turkey hens were compared using a six-feed system provided on the basis of weight. Each source of poult was compared further in its response to lysine at .65 and .80% in the final feed (14.5% CP and 3.40 kcal AMEn/g) before marketing at 18 wk of age. Poults from 85-wk-old hens were heavier at placement than those from 41-wk-old hens. Equalization of body weights occurred once the allotment of starting feed had been consumed and for the most part remained similar thereafter. Increasing lysine content of the final feed did not improve body weight of both sources of birds at marketing (P < .13). Feed conversions included accrued mortality, and treatment differences were not apparent. Commercial processing of the flock and measurements on sample birds indicated no ready differences in chilled carcass yield nor proportions of parts occurred among treatments. The overall effects of breeder age with the progeny were negligible, and the .65% level of lysine that presently serves as the 1984 National Research Council minimum requirement when associated with 14% CP and 3.30 kcal/g appears to be adequate for the Nicholas strain of turkey from 16 to 18 wk of age.

  18. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    -, č. 274 (2005), s. 1-26 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp274.pdf

  19. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  20. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2008), s. 308-327 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : global games * coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2008

  1. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  2. Liquid air cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  3. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  4. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  5. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  6. Cycle 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappernman, J.G.; Albertson, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that for many electric utility systems, Solar Cycle 22 has been the first introduction to the phenomena of Geomagnetic Disturbances and the disrupting and damaging effects that they can have upon modern power systems. For all intents and purposes, Power Industry awareness of Cycle 22 started with a bang during the Great Geomagnetic Storm of March 13, 1989. This storm caused a blackout to the entire Province of Quebec, permanently damaged a large nuclear plant GSU transformer in New Jersey, and created enough havoc across the entire North American power grid to create the plausible threat of a massive power system blackout. The flurry of activity and investigation that followed has led many engineers to realize that their power systems are indeed vulnerable to this phenomena and if anything are becoming ever more vulnerable as the system grows to meet future requirements. As a result some organizations such as Hydro Quebec, PSE and G, and the PJM Pool now implement strategic measures as a remedial response to detection of geomagnetic storm conditions. Many more companies pay particularly close attention to storm forecasts and alerts, and the industry in general has accelerated research and monitoring activities through their own means of in concert with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

  7. Combination contraceptives: effects on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Maria F; Lopez, Laureen M; Grimes, David A; Carayon, Florence; Schulz, Kenneth F; Helmerhorst, Frans M

    2014-01-29

    Weight gain is often considered a side effect of combination hormonal contraceptives, and many women and clinicians believe that an association exists. Concern about weight gain can limit the use of this highly effective method of contraception by deterring the initiation of its use and causing early discontinuation among users. However, a causal relationship between combination contraceptives and weight gain has not been established. The aim of the review was to evaluate the potential association between combination contraceptive use and changes in weight. In November 2013, we searched the computerized databases CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, POPLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS for studies of combination contraceptives, as well as ClinicalTrials.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). For the initial review, we also wrote to known investigators and manufacturers to request information about other published or unpublished trials not discovered in our search. All English-language, randomized controlled trials were eligible if they had at least three treatment cycles and compared a combination contraceptive to a placebo or to a combination contraceptive that differed in drug, dosage, regimen, or study length. All titles and abstracts located in the literature searches were assessed. Data were entered and analyzed with RevMan. A second author verified the data entered. For continuous data, we calculated the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the mean change in weight between baseline and post-treatment measurements using a fixed-effect model. For categorical data, such as the proportion of women who gained or lost more than a specified amount of weight, the Peto odds ratio with 95% CI was calculated. We found 49 trials that met our inclusion criteria. The trials included 85 weight change comparisons for 52 distinct contraceptive pairs (or placebos). The four trials with a placebo or no intervention group did not find

  8. Approximating the minimum cycle mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendu Chatterjee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider directed graphs where each edge is labeled with an integer weight and study the fundamental algorithmic question of computing the value of a cycle with minimum mean weight. Our contributions are twofold: (1 First we show that the algorithmic question is reducible in O(n^2 time to the problem of a logarithmic number of min-plus matrix multiplications of n-by-n matrices, where n is the number of vertices of the graph. (2 Second, when the weights are nonnegative, we present the first (1 + ε-approximation algorithm for the problem and the running time of our algorithm is ilde(O(n^ω log^3(nW/ε / ε, where O(n^ω is the time required for the classic n-by-n matrix multiplication and W is the maximum value of the weights.

  9. Mindfulness Approaches and Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy

    2018-03-01

    There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.

  10. Carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, J; Halbritter, G; Neumann-Hauf, G

    1982-05-01

    This report contains a review of literature on the subjects of the carbon cycle, the increase of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration and the possible impacts of an increased CO/sub 2/ concentration on the climate. In addition to this survey, the report discusses the questions that are still open and the resulting research needs. During the last twenty years a continual increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by about 1-2 ppm per years has been observed. In 1958 the concentration was 315 ppm and this increased to 336 ppm in 1978. A rough estimate shows that the increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is about half of the amount of carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere by the combustion of fossil fuels. Two possible sinks for the CO/sub 2/ released into the atmosphere are known: the ocean and the biota. The role of the biota is, however, unclear, since it can act both as a sink and as a source. Most models of the carbon cycle are one-dimensional and cannot be used for accurate predictions. Calculations with climate models have shown that an increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration leads to a warming of the earth's surface and lower atmosphere. Calculations show that a doubling of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/-concentration would lead to a net heating of the lower atmosphere and earth's surface by a global average of about 4 W m/sup -2/. Greater uncertainties arise in estimating the change in surface temperature resulting from this change in heating rate. It is estimated that the global average annual surface temperature would change between 1.5 and 4.5 K. There are, however, latitudinal and seasonal variations of the impact of increased CO/sub 2/ concentration. Other meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation, wind speed etc.) would also be changed. It appears that the impacts of the other products of fossil fuel combustion are unlikely to counteract the impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the climate.

  11. Your Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your menstrual cycle What happens during your menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle includes not just your period, but the rise ... that take place over the weeks in your cycle. Want to know what happens on each day ...

  12. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  13. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Should I Gain Weight? KidsHealth / For Teens / Should I Gain Weight? ... something about it. Why Do People Want to Gain Weight? Some of the reasons people give for ...

  14. Weighted straight skeletons in the plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedl, Therese; Held, Martin; Huber, Stefan; Kaaser, Dominik; Palfrader, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We investigate weighted straight skeletons from a geometric, graph-theoretical, and combinatorial point of view. We start with a thorough definition and shed light on some ambiguity issues in the procedural definition. We investigate the geometry, combinatorics, and topology of faces and the roof model, and we discuss in which cases a weighted straight skeleton is connected. Finally, we show that the weighted straight skeleton of even a simple polygon may be non-planar and may contain cycles, and we discuss under which restrictions on the weights and/or the input polygon the weighted straight skeleton still behaves similar to its unweighted counterpart. In particular, we obtain a non-procedural description and a linear-time construction algorithm for the straight skeleton of strictly convex polygons with arbitrary weights.

  15. Fuel cycle math - part one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article is Part One of a two-part article that reviews some of the numbers associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. The contents of Part One include: composition of the element uranium, considering atomic mass and weight-percent of the isotopes; uranium in the ground, including ore grades; mining, with dilution factors and recovery rates; ore sorting, including concentration factors; and uranium recovery. No financial information is presented in either Part One or Part Two

  16. Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide pandemic and its incidence is on the rise along with associated comorbidities. Currently, there are few effective therapies to combat obesity. The use of lifestyle modification therapy, namely, improvements in diet and exercise, is preferable over bariatric surgery or pharmacotherapy due to surgical risks and issues with drug efficacy and safety. Although they are initially successful in producing weight loss, such lifestyle intervention strategies are generally unsuccessful in achieving long-term weight maintenance, with the vast majority of obese patients regaining their lost weight during followup. Recently, various compensatory mechanisms have been elucidated by which the body may oppose new weight loss, and this compensation may result in weight regain back to the obese baseline. The present review summarizes the available evidence on these compensatory mechanisms, with a focus on weight loss-induced changes in energy expenditure, neuroendocrine pathways, nutrient metabolism, and gut physiology. These findings have added a major focus to the field of antiobesity research. In addition to investigating pathways that induce weight loss, the present work also focuses on pathways that may instead prevent weight regain. Such strategies will be necessary for improving long-term weight loss maintenance and outcomes for patients who struggle with obesity.

  17. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  18. A model for the dynamics of human weight cycling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    Mokdad et al 1999), as many as 25% of men and nearly. 50% of women .... where the reaction rate initially rises with the level of sub- strate and ... The action of all these peripheral signals is .... Consequently P moves to the right on the curve of.

  19. Bipolar mood cycles and lunar tidal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, T A

    2018-04-01

    In 17 patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder, time-series analyses detected synchronies between mood cycles and three lunar cycles that modulate the amplitude of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides: the 14.8-day spring-neap cycle, the 13.7-day declination cycle and the 206-day cycle of perigee-syzygies ('supermoons'). The analyses also revealed shifts among 1:2, 1:3, 2:3 and other modes of coupling of mood cycles to the two bi-weekly lunar cycles. These shifts appear to be responses to the conflicting demands of the mood cycles' being entrained simultaneously to two different bi-weekly lunar cycles with slightly different periods. Measurements of circadian rhythms in body temperature suggest a biological mechanism through which transits of one of the moon's semi-diurnal gravimetric tides might have driven the patients' bipolar cycles, by periodically entraining the circadian pacemaker to its 24.84-h rhythm and altering the pacemaker's phase-relationship to sleep in a manner that is known to cause switches from depression to mania.

  20. The Contemporary Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    The global carbon cycle refers to the exchanges of carbon within and between four major reservoirs: the atmosphere, the oceans, land, and fossil fuels. Carbon may be transferred from one reservoir to another in seconds (e.g., the fixation of atmospheric CO2 into sugar through photosynthesis) or over millennia (e.g., the accumulation of fossil carbon (coal, oil, gas) through deposition and diagenesis of organic matter). This chapter emphasizes the exchanges that are important over years to decades and includes those occurring over the scale of months to a few centuries. The focus will be on the years 1980-2000 but our considerations will broadly include the years ˜1850-2100. Chapter 8.09, deals with longer-term processes that involve rates of carbon exchange that are small on an annual timescale (weathering, vulcanism, sedimentation, and diagenesis).The carbon cycle is important for at least three reasons. First, carbon forms the structure of all life on the planet, making up ˜50% of the dry weight of living things. Second, the cycling of carbon approximates the flows of energy around the Earth, the metabolism of natural, human, and industrial systems. Plants transform radiant energy into chemical energy in the form of sugars, starches, and other forms of organic matter; this energy, whether in living organisms or dead organic matter, supports food chains in natural ecosystems as well as human ecosystems, not the least of which are industrial societies habituated (addicted?) to fossil forms of energy for heating, transportation, and generation of electricity. The increased use of fossil fuels has led to a third reason for interest in the carbon cycle. Carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), forms two of the most important greenhouse gases. These gases contribute to a natural greenhouse effect that has kept the planet warm enough to evolve and support life (without the greenhouse effect the Earth's average temperature would be -33

  1. Weighted network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Illes; Abel, Daniel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos-Renyi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs

  2. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  3. Weight management in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Key learning points:\\ud - Women who start pregnancy in an overweight or obese weight category have increased health risks\\ud - Irrespective of pre-pregnancy weight category, there are health risks associated with gaining too much weight in pregnancy for both mother and baby\\ud - There are currently no official weight gain guidelines for pregnancy in the UK, thus focus needs to be on supporting pregnant women to eat healthily and keep active

  4. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  5. Gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Peaceman, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal care providers are advised to evaluate maternal weight at each regularly scheduled prenatal visit, monitor progress toward meeting weight gain goals, and provide individualized counseling if significant deviations from a woman's goals occur. Today, nearly 50% of women exceed their weight gain goals with overweight and obese women having the highest prevalence of excessive weight gain. Risks of inadequate weight gain include low birthweight and failure to initiate breast-feeding whereas the risks of excessive weight gain include cesarean deliveries and postpartum weight retention for the mother and large-for-gestational-age infants, macrosomia, and childhood overweight or obesity for the offspring. Prenatal care providers have many resources and tools to incorporate weight and other health behavior counseling into routine prenatal practices. Because many women are motivated to improve health behaviors, pregnancy is often considered the optimal time to intervene for issues related to eating habits and physical activity to prevent excessive weight gain. Gestational weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials report that diet or exercise interventions during pregnancy can help reduce excessive weight gain. However, health behavior interventions for gestational weight gain have not significantly improved other maternal and neonatal outcomes and have limited effectiveness in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Closed-cycle gas turbine working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.C.; Campbell, J. Jr.; Wright, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristic requirements of a closed-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) working fluid were identified and the effects of their thermodynamic and transport properties on the CCGT cycle performance, required heat exchanger surface area and metal operating temperature, cycle operating pressure levels, and the turbomachinery design were investigated. Material compatibility, thermal and chemical stability, safety, cost, and availability of the working fluid were also considered in the study. This paper also discusses CCGT working fluids utilizing mixtures of two or more pure gases. Some mixtures of gases exhibit pronounced synergetic effects on their characteristic properties including viscosity, thermal conductivity and Prandtl number, resulting in desirable heat transfer properties and high molecular weights. 21 refs

  7. Essays on economic cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert)

    2006-01-01

    Schumpeter’s line of thought of multiple economic cycles is further investigated. The existence of multiple cycles in economic variables is demonstrated. In basic innovations five different cycles are found. Multiple cycle structures are shown in various macro-economic variables from the United

  8. Thyroid weight with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raulier-Fabry, C.; Hammer, R.

    1965-01-01

    A large number of data on thyroid weight of euthyroid subjects have been collected from the literature in this study. The most probable average weight of the gland appears to be 20 g in the adult and 2 g in the newborn. A decrease in weight has been observed during the first year of life (1 g at 6 months) and only in the second year of life the initial birth weight is reached again. The weight curve may be considered as consisting of three straight lines: from 2 to 7, from 7 to 18 and from 18 to 25 years, their slopes being respectively 0.6, 0.9 and 0.5 g/year. The variations in weight of the thyroid during adulthood are sufficiently small to consider it as having constant value between 25 and 55 years. The available information points to a negligible weight difference between sexes. (authors) [fr

  9. Yogurt and weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  10. Nuclear power fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, S.; Jakesova, L.

    1982-01-01

    Economic problems are discussed of the fuel cycle (cost of the individual parts of the fuel cycle and the share of the fuel cycle in the price of 1 kWh), the technological problems of the fuel cycle (uranium ore mining and processing, uranium isotope enrichment, the manufacture of fuel elements, the building of long-term storage sites for spent fuel, spent fuel reprocessing, liquid and gaseous waste processing), and the ecologic aspects of the fuel cycle. (H.S.)

  11. Effects of sprint interval training and body weight reduction on power to weight ratio in experienced cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, William R; Finn, Joan A; Axtell, Robert S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supramaximal sprint interval training (SIT), body weight reduction, and a combination of both treatments on peak and average anaerobic power to weight ratio (PPOan:Wt, APOan:Wt) by manipulating peak and average anaerobic power output (PPOan, APOan) and body weight (BW) in experienced cyclists. Participants (N = 34, age = 38.0 +/- 7.1 years) were assigned to 4 groups for a 10-week study. One group performed twice-weekly SIT sessions on a cycle ergometer while maintaining body weight (SIT). A second group did not perform SIT but intentionally reduced body weight (WR). A third group simultaneously performed SIT sessions and reduced body weight (SIT+WR). A control group cycled in their normal routine and maintained body weight (CON). The 30-second Wingate Test assessed pretest and posttest POan:Wt scores. There was a significant mean increase (p weight (kg) decreased significantly in WR and SIT + WR (80.3 +/- 13.7 to 75.3 +/- 11.9 and 78.9 +/- 10.8 to 73.4 +/- 10.8, respectively). The results demonstrate that cyclists can use SIT sessions and body weight reduction as singular training interventions to effect significant increases in anaerobic power to weight ratio, which has been correlated to enhanced aerobic cycling performance. However, the treatments were not effective as combined interventions, as there was no significant change in either PPOan:Wt or APOan:Wt in SIT + WR.

  12. The Weight-Inclusive versus Weight-Normative Approach to Health: Evaluating the Evidence for Prioritizing Well-Being over Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Tylka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an ethical lens, this review evaluates two methods of working within patient care and public health: the weight-normative approach (emphasis on weight and weight loss when defining health and well-being and the weight-inclusive approach (emphasis on viewing health and well-being as multifaceted while directing efforts toward improving health access and reducing weight stigma. Data reveal that the weight-normative approach is not effective for most people because of high rates of weight regain and cycling from weight loss interventions, which are linked to adverse health and well-being. Its predominant focus on weight may also foster stigma in health care and society, and data show that weight stigma is also linked to adverse health and well-being. In contrast, data support a weight-inclusive approach, which is included in models such as Health at Every Size for improving physical (e.g., blood pressure, behavioral (e.g., binge eating, and psychological (e.g., depression indices, as well as acceptability of public health messages. Therefore, the weight-inclusive approach upholds nonmaleficience and beneficience, whereas the weight-normative approach does not. We offer a theoretical framework that organizes the research included in this review and discuss how it can guide research efforts and help health professionals intervene with their patients and community.

  13. Proliferation in cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao Yunsong [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.cn

    2009-06-15

    In the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  14. Proliferation in cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao Yunsong

    2009-01-01

    In the contracting phase with w≅0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w≅0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  15. Predictors of weight maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain predictors of weight maintenance after a weight-loss intervention. Research Methods and Procedures: An overall analysis of data from two-long intervention studies [n = 67 women; age: 37.9±1.0 years; body weight (BW): 87.0±1.2 kg; body mass index: 32.1±0.5 kg·m-2; % body fat:

  16. Robustness of weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Cassi, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Complex network response to node loss is a central question in different fields of network science because node failure can cause the fragmentation of the network, thus compromising the system functioning. Previous studies considered binary networks where the intensity (weight) of the links is not accounted for, i.e. a link is either present or absent. However, in real-world networks the weights of connections, and thus their importance for network functioning, can be widely different. Here, we analyzed the response of real-world and model networks to node loss accounting for link intensity and the weighted structure of the network. We used both classic binary node properties and network functioning measure, introduced a weighted rank for node importance (node strength), and used a measure for network functioning that accounts for the weight of the links (weighted efficiency). We find that: (i) the efficiency of the attack strategies changed using binary or weighted network functioning measures, both for real-world or model networks; (ii) in some cases, removing nodes according to weighted rank produced the highest damage when functioning was measured by the weighted efficiency; (iii) adopting weighted measure for the network damage changed the efficacy of the attack strategy with respect the binary analyses. Our results show that if the weighted structure of complex networks is not taken into account, this may produce misleading models to forecast the system response to node failure, i.e. consider binary links may not unveil the real damage induced in the system. Last, once weighted measures are introduced, in order to discover the best attack strategy, it is important to analyze the network response to node loss using nodes rank accounting the intensity of the links to the node.

  17. Cycling in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cycling can be an enjoyable way to meet physical activity recommendations and is suitable for older people; however cycling participation by older Australians is low. This qualitative study explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling among older people through an age-targeted cycling promotion program. Methods. Seventeen adults who aged 50–75 years participated in a 12-week cycling promotion program which included a cycling skills course, mentor, and resource pack. Semistructured interviews at the beginning and end of the program explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling. Results. Fitness and recreation were the primary motivators for cycling. The biggest barrier was fear of cars and traffic, and the cycling skills course was the most important enabler for improving participants’ confidence. Reported outcomes from cycling included improved quality of life (better mental health, social benefit, and empowerment and improved physical health. Conclusions. A simple cycling program increased cycling participation among older people. This work confirms the importance of improving confidence in this age group through a skills course, mentors, and maps and highlights additional strategies for promoting cycling, such as ongoing improvement to infrastructure and advertising.

  18. Weighted Bergman Kernels for Logarithmic Weights

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2010), s. 781-813 ISSN 1558-8599 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190802 Keywords : Bergman kernel * Toeplitz operator * logarithmic weight * pseudodifferential operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.462, year: 2010 http://www.intlpress.com/site/pub/pages/journals/items/pamq/content/vols/0006/0003/a008/

  19. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Body Weight URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  20. Concurrent weighted logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....

  1. Unexplained Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight is affected by your calorie intake, activity level, overall health, age, nutrient absorption, and economic and social factors. If you're losing weight without trying and you're concerned about it, consult your doctor — as a rule of thumb, losing more than 5 ...

  2. Thyroid and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid and Weight Resources Thyroid and Weight Brochure PDF En Español La Tiroides y el Peso El folleto de La Tiroides y el ...

  3. Adolescent Weight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort Kjelldgaard, Heidi; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    day) communication with friends through cellphones, SMS messages, or Internet (1.66, 1.03-2.67). In the full population, overweight/obese weight status was associated with not perceiving best friend as a confidant (1.59, 1.11-2.28). No associations were found between weight status and number of close...

  4. Isotopes and atomic weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinglian

    1990-01-01

    A review of the chemical and mass spectrometric methods of determining the atomic weights of elements is presented. A, special discussion is devoted to the calibration of the mass spectrometer with highly enriched isotopes. It is illustrated by the recent work on europium. How to choose the candidate element for new atomic weight determination forms the last section of the article

  5. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  6. Thorium fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac, R.; Darilek, P.; Breza, J.; Necas, V.

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the thorium fuel cycle management. Description of the thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycle benefits and challenges as well as thorium fuel calculations performed by the computer code HELIOS are presented.

  7. Reciprocity of weighted networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation.

  8. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chords in longest cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    If a graph G is 3-connected and has minimum degree at least 4, then some longest cycle in G has a chord. If G is 2-connected and cubic, then every longest cycle in G has a chord.......If a graph G is 3-connected and has minimum degree at least 4, then some longest cycle in G has a chord. If G is 2-connected and cubic, then every longest cycle in G has a chord....

  10. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-02-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  11. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Techn., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2001-10-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  12. Denatured fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper traces the history of the denatured fuel concept and discusses the characteristics of fuel cycles based on the concept. The proliferation resistance of denatured fuel cycles, the reactor types they involve, and the limitations they place on energy generation potential are discussed. The paper concludes with some remarks on the outlook for such cycles

  13. Life Cycle Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2018-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of Life Cycle Management (LCM)—a discipline that deals with the managerial tasks related to practicing sustainable development in an organisation . Just as Life Cycle Assessment, LCM advocates the life cycle perspective , and it applies this perspective in decision...

  14. Termination of cycle rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; König, B.; Bruggink, H.J.S.; Dowek, G.

    2014-01-01

    String rewriting can not only be applied on strings, but also on cycles and even on general graphs. In this paper we investigate termination of string rewriting applied on cycles, shortly denoted as cycle rewriting, which is a strictly stronger requirement than termination on strings. Most

  15. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  16. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) such as the Marine nitrogen cycle The marine nitrogen cycle. ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are intra-cellular intermediates that do not accumulate in water column. (Source: Codispoti et al., 2001) Page 1 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www... and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?, Sci. Mar., 65, 85-105, 2001. Page 2 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle square6 Gruber, N.: The dynamics...

  17. Light-weight plastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2008-11-20

    Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching.

  18. Menstrual Cycle Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your weight falls dramatically, as can occur with ANOREXIA NERVOSA. Self CareSee your doctor. Start OverDiagnosisYour bleeding ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  19. Does culture medium influence offspring birth weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Beatriz; Boada, Montserrat; Rodríguez, Ignacio; Coroleu, Buenaventura; Barri, Pedro N; Veiga, Anna

    2013-11-01

    To determine whether the type of medium used to culture human embryos in vitro influences neonatal birth weight after IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A prospective study and a retrospective study. Private assisted reproduction center. The prospective study included 449 IVF/ICSI cycles from August to December 2008. The retrospective analysis was performed for 2,518 IVF/ICSI cycles from October 2006 to December 2010. In the prospective study, patients were randomized for embryo culture in Cook or Vitrolife medium. The retrospective study was performed with three different culture media (MediCult, Cook, and Vitrolife). Mean birth weight, adjusted for gestational age and gender (z score) of newborns. In the prospective study, the average z score was -0.19 ± 0.85 in Cook and 0.08 ± 1.40 in Vitrolife. In the retrospective study, the z scores obtained in each group were as follows: Cook, -0.14 ± 0.96; MediCult, 0.06 ± 1.13; and Vitrolife, 0.03 ± 1.05. No significant differences were observed regarding the birth weight of children born in the different groups in both studies. The results do not show any relationship between the medium used for in vitro culture and mean birth weight adjusted for gestational age and gender of singletons born after IVF/ICSI. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015;37:46. Blumenthal SR, et al. An electronic health records study of long-term weight gain following antidepressant ... your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy ...

  1. Weight gain - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes Hormone changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive thyroid, or low thyroid (hypothyroidism) Polycystic ovary syndrome Menopause Pregnancy Bloating, or swelling ...

  2. Weight and psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Beyond the physical aspects of weight, the psychological mean- ing sees the virtues of ... sion in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity. Pediat- rics 2002 ... or secondary as in mood, anxiety or psychotic disorders. II. a related.

  3. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including the CRIB (Clinical Risk Index for Babies) score, in a local ... these babies for expensive tertiary care. Subjects. ... patient numbers, the tendency is simply to increase the ... included birth weight, gestational age, 5-minute Apgar score ...

  4. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maclean JC. Alcohol consumption and body weight. Health Econ . 2010;19(7):814-832. PMID: 19548203 www. ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  5. The spatial dimension of cycle logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Staricco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cycle logistics is emerging as a promising alternative in urban freight transport. Compared to fossil fuelled vans, the use of cycles for delivering goods within urban areas offers advantages in terms of environmental friendliness, economic efficiency, flexibility, and liveability of urban neighbourhood. At the same time, cycle logistics has to face limits in terms of weight and volume of goods that can be delivered, distances that can be covered, and spatial urban structures that can be served. This latter issue has till now received less attention in the scientific literature: it is generally recognized that cycle logistics performs at its best in inner urban areas, but no systematic study has been realized to identify specific spatial requisites for the effectiveness of cycle logistics. This paper provides a brief review of the main issues that emerge from the literature over cycle logistics, and contributes to stimulate the debate over the spatial dimension of cycle logistics: it presents a classification of cycle logistics schemes, on the basis of their integration with other urban logistic facilities and of the spatial structure of delivery operations. A three-level classification is proposed, depending on the type of goods consolidation: only distribution without consolidation, consolidation in a fixed urban consolidation centre, or consolidation in a mobile depot; for each level, operational examples and case studies are provided. This systematizing typology could support both public and private operators in decisions about the organization of cycle logistics facilities, such as the location of urban consolidation centres or the composition of cycle fleets.

  6. The Krebs Uric Acid Cycle: A Forgotten Krebs Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Jack G

    2018-05-25

    Hans Kornberg wrote a paper entitled 'Krebs and his trinity of cycles' commenting that every school biology student knows of the Krebs cycle, but few know that Krebs discovered two other cycles. These are (i) the ornithine cycle (urea cycle), (ii) the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid or TCA cycle), and (iii) the glyoxylate cycle that was described by Krebs and Kornberg. Ironically, Kornberg, codiscoverer of the 'glyoxylate cycle', overlooked a fourth Krebs cycle - (iv) the uric acid cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  8. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  9. Compound cycle engine for helicopter application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor, Jere G.

    1986-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded, ultra-high power density, light-weight diesel engine. The turbomachinery is similar to a moderate pressure ratio, free power turbine engine and the diesel core is high speed and a low compression ratio. This engine is considered a potential candidate for future military light helicopter applications. This executive summary presents cycle thermodynamic (SFC) and engine weight analyses performed to establish general engine operating parameters and configuration. An extensive performance and weight analysis based on a typical two hour helicopter (+30 minute reserve) mission determined final conceptual engine design. With this mission, CCE performance was compared to that of a T-800 class gas turbine engine. The CCE had a 31% lower-fuel consumption and resulted in a 16% reduction in engine plus fuel and fuel tank weight. Design SFC of the CCE is 0.33 lb-HP-HR and installed wet weight is 0.43 lbs/HP. The major technology development areas required for the CCE are identified and briefly discussed.

  10. International Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Lubiński

    2007-01-01

    Prime stylized facts of international business cycle theory refer to positive correlation in the cyclical components of important macroeconomic variables across countries. However a number of indicators of business cycle synchronization do not point to clear trends. It can be ascribed to the fact that different forces influence level of business cycle correlation. When investigating into the forces behind the commonness in aggregate fluctuations economic research seems to have pointed in two ...

  11. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Basic elements of the ex-reactor part of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling and transportation) are described. Possible technical and proliferation measures are evaluated, including current methods of accountability, surveillance and protection. The reference oxide based cycle and advanced cycles based on carbide and metallic fuels are considered utilizing conventional processes; advanced nonaqueous reprocessing is also considered. This contribution provides a comprehensive data base for evaluation of proliferation risks

  12. [Cycling in Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Stipan; Krapac, Ladislav; Krapac, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Cycling in Zagreb, as means of urban transport inside and outside the city, has a bright past, hazy presence but a promising future. Every day, aggressive citizens who lack urban traffic culture mistreat many cyclists but also many pedestrians. Sedentary way of living, unhealthy eating habits and inadequate recreation would surely be reduced if Zagreb had a network of cycling tracks (190 cm) or lanes (80 cm). Main city roads were constructed at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, the lack of cycling tracks is particularly evident in terms of missing connections between northern and southern parts of the city. Transportation of bikes in public vehicles, parking of bikes as well as cycling along the foot of the mountains Medvednica and Zumberacko gorje is not adequately organized. Better organization is necessary not only because of the present young generation but also because of the young who will shortly become citizens of the EU, where cycling is enormously popular. Cycling tourism is not known in Zagreb, partly due to inadequate roads. The surroundings of Zagreb are more suitable for cycling tourism and attractive brochures and tourist guides offer information to tourists on bikes. Professional, acrobatic and sports cycling do not have a tradition in Zagreb and in Croatia. The same holds true for recreational cycling and indoor exercise cycling. The authors discuss the impact of popularization of cycling using print and electronic media. The role of district and local self-government in the construction and improvement of traffic roads in Zagreb is very important. It is also significant for the implementation of legal regulations that must be obeyed by all traffic participants in order to protect cyclists, the most vulnerable group of traffic participants besides passengers. Multidisciplinary action of all benevolent experts would surely increase safety and pleasure of cycling in the city and its surroundings. This would also help reduce daily stress and

  13. Measuring Business Cycle Time.

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, James H

    1987-01-01

    The business cycle analysis of Arthur F. Burns and Wesley C. Mitchell and the National Bureau of Economic Research presumed that aggregate economic variables evolve on a time scale defined by business cycle turning points rather than by months or quarters. Do macroeconomic variables appear to evolve on an economic rather than a calendar time scale? Evidence presented here suggests that they do. However, the estimated economic time scales are only weakly related to business cycle time scales, ...

  14. Thorium cycles and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovins, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes several prevalent misconceptions about nuclear fuel cycles that breed fissile uranium-233 from thorium. Its main conclusions are: U-233, despite the gamma radioactivity of associated isotopes, is a rather attractive material for making fission bombs, and is a credible material for subnational as well as national groups to use for this purpose; (2) pure thorium cycles, which in effect merely substitute U-233 for Pu, would take many decades and much U to establish, and offer no significant safeguards advantage over Pu, cycles; (3) denatured Th-U cycles, which dilute the U-233 with inert U-238 to a level not directly usable in bombs, are not an effective safeguard even against subnational bomb-making; (4) several other features of mixed Th-U cycles are rather unattractive from a safeguards point of view; (5) thus, Th cycles of any kind are not a technical fix for proliferation (national or subnational) and, though probably more safeguardable than Pu cycles, are less so than once-through U cycles that entail no reprocessing; (6) while thorium cycles have some potential technical advantages, including flexibility, they cannot provide major savings in nuclear fuel resources compared to simpler ways of saving neutrons and U; and (7) while advocates of nuclear power may find Th cycles worth exploring, such cycles do not differ fundamentally from U cycles in any of the respects--including safeguards and fuel resources--that are relevant to the broader nuclear debate, and should not be euphorically embraced as if they did

  15. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, W.J.

    1979-05-01

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  16. Edgeworth cycles revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Joseph; Muehlegger, Erich; Samphantharak, Krislert

    2010-01-01

    Some gasoline markets exhibit remarkable price cycles, where price spikes are followed by a series of small price declines: a pattern consistent with a model of Edgeworth cycles described by Maskin and Tirole. We extend the model and empirically test its predictions with a new dataset of daily station-level prices in 115 US cities. Consistent with the theory, and often in contrast with previous empirical work, we find the least and most concentrated markets are much less likely to exhibit cycling behavior both within and across cities; areas with more independent convenience-store gas stations are also more likely to cycle. (author)

  17. Weight Management in Phenylketonuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Julio César; van Rijn, Margreet; van Dam, Esther

    2016-01-01

    . It is becoming evident that in addition to acceptable blood phenylalanine control, metabolic dieticians should regard weight management as part of routine clinical practice. SUMMARY: It is important for practitioners to differentiate the 3 levels for overweight interpretation: anthropometry, body composition...... and frequency and severity of associated metabolic comorbidities. The main objectives of this review are to suggest proposals for the minimal standard and gold standard for the assessment of weight management in PKU. While the former aims to underline the importance of nutritional status evaluation in every...... specialized clinic, the second objective is important in establishing an understanding of the breadth of overweight and obesity in PKU in Europe. KEY MESSAGES: In PKU, the importance of adopting a European nutritional management strategy on weight management is highlighted in order to optimize long...

  18. Family Weight School treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowicka, Paulina; Höglund, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a Family Weight School treatment based on family therapy in group meetings with adolescents with a high degree of obesity. METHODS: Seventy-two obese adolescents aged 12-19 years old were referred to a childhood obesity center by pediatricians...... and school nurses and offered a Family Weight School therapy program in group meetings given by a multidisciplinary team. Intervention was compared with an untreated waiting list control group. Body mass index (BMI) and BMI z-scores were calculated before and after intervention. RESULTS: Ninety percent...... group with initial BMI z-score 3.5. CONCLUSIONS: Family Weight School treatment model might be suitable for adolescents with BMI z...

  19. Weight for Stephen Finlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Daan

    2013-04-01

    According to Stephen Finlay, ' A ought to X ' means that X -ing is more conducive to contextually salient ends than relevant alternatives. This in turn is analysed in terms of probability. I show why this theory of 'ought' is hard to square with a theory of a reason's weight which could explain why ' A ought to X ' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X -es. I develop two theories of weight to illustrate my point. I first look at the prospects of a theory of weight based on expected utility theory. I then suggest a simpler theory. Although neither allows that ' A ought to X ' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X -es, this price may be accepted. For there remains a strong pragmatic relation between these claims.

  20. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  1. The Economic Impact of Weight Regain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E. Sheppard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is well known for being associated with significant economic repercussions. Bariatric surgery is the only evidence-based solution to this problem as well as a cost-effective method of addressing the concern. Numerous authors have calculated the cost effectiveness and cost savings of bariatric surgery; however, to date the economic impact of weight regain as a component of overall cost has not been addressed. Methods. The literature search was conducted to elucidate the direct costs of obesity and primary bariatric surgery, the rate of weight recidivism and surgical revision, and any costs therein. Results. The quoted cost of obesity in Canada was $2.0 billion–$6.7 billion in 2013 CAD. The median percentage of bariatric procedures that fail due to weight gain or insufficient weight loss is 20% (average: 21.1%±10.1%, range: 5.2–39, n=10. Revision of primary surgeries on average ranges from 2.5% to 18.4%, and depending on the procedure accounts for an additional cost between $14,000 and $50,000 USD per patient. Discussion. There was a significant deficit of the literature pertaining to the cost of revision surgery as compared with primary bariatric surgery. As such, the cycle of weight recidivism and bariatric revisions has not as of yet been introduced into any previous cost analysis of bariatric surgery.

  2. New Internet search volume-based weighting method for integrating various environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: changyoon@yonsei.ac.kr; Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr

    2016-01-15

    Weighting is one of the steps in life cycle impact assessment that integrates various characterized environmental impacts as a single index. Weighting factors should be based on the society's preferences. However, most previous studies consider only the opinion of some people. Thus, this research proposes a new weighting method that determines the weighting factors of environmental impact categories by considering public opinion on environmental impacts using the Internet search volumes for relevant terms. To validate the new weighting method, the weighting factors for six environmental impacts calculated by the new weighting method were compared with the existing weighting factors. The resulting Pearson's correlation coefficient between the new and existing weighting factors was from 0.8743 to 0.9889. It turned out that the new weighting method presents reasonable weighting factors. It also requires less time and lower cost compared to existing methods and likewise meets the main requirements of weighting methods such as simplicity, transparency, and reproducibility. The new weighting method is expected to be a good alternative for determining the weighting factor. - Highlight: • A new weighting method using Internet search volume is proposed in this research. • The new weighting method reflects the public opinion using Internet search volume. • The correlation coefficient between new and existing weighting factors is over 0.87. • The new weighting method can present the reasonable weighting factors. • The proposed method can be a good alternative for determining the weighting factors.

  3. New Internet search volume-based weighting method for integrating various environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changyoon; Hong, Taehoon

    2016-01-01

    Weighting is one of the steps in life cycle impact assessment that integrates various characterized environmental impacts as a single index. Weighting factors should be based on the society's preferences. However, most previous studies consider only the opinion of some people. Thus, this research proposes a new weighting method that determines the weighting factors of environmental impact categories by considering public opinion on environmental impacts using the Internet search volumes for relevant terms. To validate the new weighting method, the weighting factors for six environmental impacts calculated by the new weighting method were compared with the existing weighting factors. The resulting Pearson's correlation coefficient between the new and existing weighting factors was from 0.8743 to 0.9889. It turned out that the new weighting method presents reasonable weighting factors. It also requires less time and lower cost compared to existing methods and likewise meets the main requirements of weighting methods such as simplicity, transparency, and reproducibility. The new weighting method is expected to be a good alternative for determining the weighting factor. - Highlight: • A new weighting method using Internet search volume is proposed in this research. • The new weighting method reflects the public opinion using Internet search volume. • The correlation coefficient between new and existing weighting factors is over 0.87. • The new weighting method can present the reasonable weighting factors. • The proposed method can be a good alternative for determining the weighting factors.

  4. Life cycle management (LCM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels.......The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels....

  5. Nutrient cycling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews pathways by which plants can influence the nutrient cycle, and thereby the nutrient supply of themselves and of their competitors. Higher or lower internal nutrient use efficiency positively feeds back into the nutrient cycle, and helps to increase or decrease soil

  6. Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Boulay, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the third phase of an LCA study, the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) where the life cycle inventory’s information on elementary flows is translated into environmental impact scores. In contrast to the three other LCA phases, LCIA is in practice largely automated...

  7. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  8. Universal cycle periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis of cycles in historical economic data. The literature on stochastic and deterministic cycles in variables such as the consumer price index, employment, interest rates, commodity prices, and GDP is huge and scattered, but our meta-analysis reveals various communalities. Our

  9. Stability through cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. de Groot (Bert); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractEconomic variables like GDP growth, employment, interest rates and consumption show signs of cyclical behavior. Many variables display multiple cycles, with lengths ranging in between 5 to even up to 100 years. We argue that multiple cycles can be associated with long-run stability of

  10. The experience of weight management in normal weight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann; Hernandez, David A; Wellington, Christine M; Kidd, Art

    2016-11-01

    No prior research has been done with normal weight persons specific to their experience of weight management. The purpose of this research was to discover the experience of weight management in normal weight individuals. Glaserian grounded theory was used. Qualitative data (focus group) and quantitative data (food diary, study questionnaire, and anthropometric measures) were collected. Weight management was an ongoing process of trying to focus on living (family, work, and social), while maintaining their normal weight targets through five consciously and unconsciously used strategies. Despite maintaining normal weights, the nutritional composition of foods eaten was grossly inadequate. These five strategies can be used to develop new weight management strategies that could be integrated into existing weight management programs, or could be developed into novel weight management interventions. Surprisingly, normal weight individuals require dietary assessment and nutrition education to prevent future negative health consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-07-01

    The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and body weight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Compositorial 'Weight' & 'Luminance'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea J.; Gegenfurtner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Compositorial weight might be understood as an operational definition of salience. It is not a psychophysical entity, but holds a key position between psychophysics and aesthetics. Several factors ranging over raw photometric/colorimetric parameters, various kinds of psychophysical contrast, image

  13. Cigarette weight control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, G.F.W.; Bolt, R.C.; Simmons, A.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the weight of a continuous wrapped rod of tobacco formed by a cigarette-making machine. A scanner unit can be used which passes beta-rays from a primary radiation source through the rod. The absorption is measured by comparison of the intensity at a detector on the opposite side of the rod with that at a detector facing another smaller source, the balance unit. This is pre-set so that when the rod weight is correct the detected intensities from the two sources will be equal. It is essential that the scanning station is kept clean otherwise the dust is included in the weight reading and the cigarettes manufactured would be underweight. This can be checked using an artificial cigarette of known weight as a calibration check. In this device a test circuit can be connected to the scanner head and this opens the shutter over the radioactive source when the test is initiated. A warning device is initiated if the reading is beyond predetermined limits and can be made to prevent operation of the cigarette machine if a satisfactory test is not obtained. (U.K.)

  14. Exponential smoothing weighted correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, F.; Di Matteo, T.; Aste, T.

    2012-06-01

    In many practical applications, correlation matrices might be affected by the "curse of dimensionality" and by an excessive sensitiveness to outliers and remote observations. These shortcomings can cause problems of statistical robustness especially accentuated when a system of dynamic correlations over a running window is concerned. These drawbacks can be partially mitigated by assigning a structure of weights to observational events. In this paper, we discuss Pearson's ρ and Kendall's τ correlation matrices, weighted with an exponential smoothing, computed on moving windows using a data-set of daily returns for 300 NYSE highly capitalized companies in the period between 2001 and 2003. Criteria for jointly determining optimal weights together with the optimal length of the running window are proposed. We find that the exponential smoothing can provide more robust and reliable dynamic measures and we discuss that a careful choice of the parameters can reduce the autocorrelation of dynamic correlations whilst keeping significance and robustness of the measure. Weighted correlations are found to be smoother and recovering faster from market turbulence than their unweighted counterparts, helping also to discriminate more effectively genuine from spurious correlations.

  15. Bessel Weighted Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Gamberg, Leonard [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rossi, Patrizia [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Prokudin, Alexei [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld engines with the following steady-state duty cycle: G3 mode No. Engine speed a Torque(percent) b Weighting...

  17. Weight and weight gain during early infancy predict childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Holst, Claus; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain.......Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain....

  18. Self-reported body weight perception and dieting practices in community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassnig, Martin; Brar, Jaspreet S; Ganguli, Rohan

    2005-06-15

    Many patients with schizophrenia are exposed to serious health risks associated with their excess body weight. Evidence exists that even a moderate amount of weight loss may have significant health benefits. Thus, weight control in schizophrenia patients has become an important treatment goal. Although studies in the general population show that satisfaction with body weight is an important predictor for engagement in various weight loss measures, the perspective of schizophrenia patients has not been assessed. Information on self-reported weight perception, desire to lose weight as well as weight loss attempts was obtained according to methods employed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Cycle III (NHANES III). Body weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Perception of body weight and desire to lose weight were correlated to BMI. Both obese female and male subjects (BMI30) were aware of their weight status. However, whereas overweight females (BMI>25weight loss, caloric restriction (diet) was most frequently employed (by more than 80% of study subjects); yet only a third of study subjects (34.4%) engaged in the recommended combination of diet and exercise to lose weight. Questionable weight loss practices were also frequently employed, especially among women. Obese patients (BMI> or =30) were generally aware of their excess body weight and wanted to lose weight. Only non-obese, yet overweight males (BMI>25Weight loss practices did not always follow established recommendations. Especially women were likely to approach weight loss with questionably appropriate and unsafe methods.

  19. Two Quantum Polytropic Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Hernández, L. A.; Morales-Serrano, A. F.

    2002-11-01

    In this work we follow the Bender et al paper [1] to study the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson polytropic cycles. In the context of the classical thermodynamics, the Stirling and Ericsson cycles correspond to reversible heat engines with two isothermal processes joined by two polytropic branches which occur in a device called regenerator. If this device is an ideal one, the efficiency of these cycles is the Carnot efficiency. Here, we introduce the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson cycles, the first one based on a double square potential well with a finite potential barrier, since in this system the tunnel effect could be the analogue to the regeneration classical process, therefore the isochoric quantum branches would really correspond to an internal energy storage, and the last one with an unknown system where the isobaric quantum processes don't induce changes in its quantum state. With these systems the quantum engines have cycles consisting of polytropic and isothermal quantum processes analogues to the corresponding classical processes. We show that in both cases the quantum cycles have an efficiency given by ηCQM = 1 - EC/EH, which is the same expression for the quantum analogue of the Carnot cycle studied by Bender.

  20. Fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbin, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The fuel cycle management is more and more dependent on the management of the generation means among the power plants tied to the grid. This is due mainly because of the importance taken by the nuclear power plants within the power system. The main task of the fuel cycle management is to define the refuelling pattern of the new and irradiated fuel assemblies to load in the core as a function of: 1) the differences which exist between the actual conditions of the core and what was expected for the present cycle, 2) the operating constraints and the reactor availability, 3) the technical requirements in safety and the technological limits of the fuel, 4) the economics. Three levels of fuel cycle management can be considered: 1) a long term management: determination of enrichments and expected cycle lengths, 2) a mid term management whose aim corresponds to the evaluation of the batch to load within the core as a function of both: the next cycle length to achieve and the integrated power history of all the cycles up to the present one, 3) a short term management which deals with the updating of the loaded fuel utilisations to take into account the operation perturbations, or with the alteration of the loading pattern of the next batch to respect unexpected conditions. (orig.) [de

  1. Future fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cycle must offer both financial and resource savings if it is to be considered for introduction into Ontario's nuclear system. The most promising alternative CANDU fuel cycles are examined in the context of both of these factors over a wide range of installed capacity growth rates and economic assumptions, in order to determine which fuel cycle, or cycles, should be introduced, and when. It is concluded that the optimum path for the long term begins with the prompt introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle. For a wide range of conditions, this cycle remains the optimum throughout the very long term. Conditions of rapid nuclear growth and very high uranium price escalation rates warrant the supersedure of the low-enriched-uranium cycle by either a plutonium-topped thorium cycle or plutonium recycle, beginning between 2010 and 2025. It is also found that the uranium resource position is sound in terms of both known resources and production capability. Moreover, introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle and 1250 MWe reactor units will assure the economic viability of nuclear power until at least 2020, even if uranium prices increase at a rate of 3.5% above inflation. The interrelationship between these two conclusions lies in the tremendous incentive for exploration which will occur if the real uranium price escalation rate is high. From a competitive viewpoint, nuclear power can withstand increases in the price of uranium. However, such increases will likely further expand the resource base, making nuclear an even more reliable energy source. (auth)

  2. Body weight perception and body weight control behaviors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Robson; Claumann, Gaia S.; Felden, Érico P.G.; Silva, Diego A.S.; Pelegrini, Andreia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between the perception of body weight (as above or below the desired) and behaviors for body weight control in adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included 1051 adolescents (aged 15-19 years) who were high school students attending public schools. The authors collected information on the perception of body weight (dependent variable), weight control behaviors (initiative to change the weight, physical exercise, eatin...

  3. International Business Cycle Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke Otsu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I extend the business cycle accounting method a la Chari, Kehoe and McGrattan (2007) to a two-country international business cycle model and quantify the effect of the disturbances in relevant markets on the business cycle correlation between Japan and the US over the 1980-2008 period. This paper finds that disturbances in the labor market and production efficiency are important in accounting for the recent increase in the cross-country output correlation. If international fina...

  4. Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traverso, Marzia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Jørgensen, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    One method to assess the sustainability performance of products is life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which assesses product performance considering the environmental,economic, and social dimensions of the life cycle. The results of LCSA can be used to compare different products...... of sustainability is the communicability of the results by means of a graphical representation (a cartogram), characterized by a suitable chromatic scale and ranking score. The integration of LCSA and the dashboard of sustainability into a so-called Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard (LCSD) is described here...

  5. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  6. Calculating Quenching Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the probability (``quenching weight'') that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended QCD matter. This study is based on an exact treatment of finite in-medium path length, it includes the case of a dynamically expanding medium, and it extends to the angular dependence of the medium-induced gluon radiation pattern. All calculations are done in the multiple soft scattering approximation (Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign\\'e-Schiff--Zakharov ``BDMPS-Z''-formalism) and in the single hard scattering approximation (N=1 opacity approximation). By comparison, we establish a simple relation between transport coefficient, Debye screening mass and opacity, for which both approximations lead to comparable results. Together with this paper, a CPU-inexpensive numerical subroutine for calculating quenching weights is provided electronically. To illustrate its applications, we discuss the suppression of hadronic transverse momentum spectra in nucleus-nucleus colli...

  7. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  8. Relationship between Matern al Nutritional Status and Infant Birth Weight of Vegetarians in DKI Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fikawati; Dwi Wahyuni; Ahmad Syafiq

    2012-01-01

    Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW), are  intergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life. Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective study aims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy) and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged...

  9. Link prediction in weighted networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Mørup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Many complex networks feature relations with weight information. Some models utilize this information while other ignore the weight information when inferring the structure. In this paper we investigate if edge-weights when modeling real networks, carry important information about the network...... is to infer presence of edges, but that simpler models are better at inferring the actual weights....

  10. Marijuana and Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patien...

  11. Light Weight Deflectometer (LWD)

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiki, Nayyar Zia

    2012-01-01

    Light weight deflectometer (LWD) has been widely used for quality assurance in road construction, in particular compaction of both chemically treated subgrade soil and aggregate subbase. However, it has been recognized that LWD measurements vary with many factors. Based on LWD tests in actual road construction, this presentation provides updated information on the LWD deflection measurements for both chemically treated subgrade soil and aggregate subbase.

  12. Weighted halfspace depth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotík, Lukáš; Hlubinka, D.; Vencálek, O.

    Vol. 46, č. 1 (2010), s. 125-148 ISSN 0023-5954 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : data depth * nonparametric multivariate analysis * strong consistency of depth * mixture of distributions Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/SI/kotik-weighted halfspace depth.pdf

  13. The weight of color

    OpenAIRE

    Brunberg, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the weight of color, with the focus lying on the symbolic significance ofcolor. Exploring whether color in itself conveys symbolic significance and is the symbolicsignificance of color permanent, or is it an after construction? It will be looking at differentareas such as what makes us humans able to perceive colors in the first place, beginning withan insight at some of the foundations in the area of color theory. Mentioning experiments ondecomposed white light, that cont...

  14. Online weight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John M; Swalm, Ricky L; Stearne, David J; Covassin, Tracey M

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how a traditional weight training class compared to nontraditional classes that were heavily laden with technology. Could students learn resistance exercises by watching video demonstrations over the Internet? Three university weight training classes, each lasting 16 weeks, were compared. Each class had the same curriculum and workout requirements but different attendance requirements. The online group made extensive use of the Internet and was allowed to complete the workouts on their own at any gym that was convenient for them. Seventy-nine college-aged students were randomized into 3 groups: traditional (n = 27), hybrid (n = 25), and online (n = 27). They completed pretest and posttest measures on upper-body strength (i.e., bench press), lower-body strength (i.e., back squat), and knowledge (i.e., written exam). The results indicated that all 3 groups showed significant improvement in knowledge (p students to attend class and may have resulted in significantly lower scores on the bench press (p technology can be used in a weight training class. If this limit is exceeded, some type of monitoring system appears necessary to ensure that students are actually completing their workouts.

  15. STUDYING BUSINESS CYCLES SYNCHRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Servetnyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper researches business cycles synchronization. The fluctuations in post-Soviet countries are considered. The study examines different measures of synchronization in groups of countries according to some criteria.

  16. The thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    The utilization of the thorium fuel cycle has long since been considered attractive owing to the excellent neutronic characteristics of 233 U, and the widespread and cheap thorium resources. Rapidly increasing uranium prices, public reluctance for widespread Pu recycling and expected delays for the market penetration of fast breeders have led to a reconsideration of the thorium fuel cycle merits. In addition, problems associated with reprocessing and waste handling, particularly with re-fabrication by remote handling of 233 U, are certainly not appreciably more difficult than for Pu recycling. To divert from uranium as a nuclear energy source it seems worth while intensifying future efforts for closing the Th/ 233 U fuel cycle. HTGRs are particularly promising for economic application. However, further research and development activities should not concentrate on this reactor type alone. Light- and heavy-water-moderated reactors, and even future fast breeders, may just as well take advantage of a demonstrated thorium fuel cycle. (author)

  17. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    Strong institutional constraints and better-informed voters may lead re-election seeking incumbents to shift the use of political business cycle mechanisms away from monetary and fiscal policy towards other policy domains that are more easily manipulable, targetable, and timeable. We investigate...... teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...... periods and partly reverse this during politically safer points in the electoral cycle. Cycles are mediated by issue salience: heightened attention to German public schooling after the notorious PISA-2000 tests further strengthens the manipulation of new teacher hiring for electoral purposes....

  18. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Strong institutional constraints and better-informed voters may lead re-election seeking incumbents to shift the use of political business cycle mechanisms away from monetary and fiscal policy towards other policy domains that are more easily manipulable, targetable, and timeable. We investigate...... teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...... periods and partly reverse this during politically safer points in the electoral cycle. Cycles are mediated by issue salience: heightened attention to German public schooling after the notorious PISA-2000 tests further strengthens the manipulation of new teacher hiring for electoral purposes....

  19. Cycles in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Alspach, BR

    1985-01-01

    This volume deals with a variety of problems involving cycles in graphs and circuits in digraphs. Leading researchers in this area present here 3 survey papers and 42 papers containing new results. There is also a collection of unsolved problems.

  20. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  1. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  2. Fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Programs are being conducted in the following areas: advanced solvent extraction techniques, accident consequences, fuel cycles for nonproliferation, pyrochemical and dry processes, waste encapsulation, radionuclide transport in geologic media, hull treatment, and analytical support for LWBR

  3. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  4. International Real Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Mario J. Crucini

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a non-technical review of research developments in the international real business cycle literature. International business cycle facts are summarize with particular attention to the sources of output variance from the expenditure side of the NIPA and the production side, using a familiar neoclassical production function. Theoretical developments focus on the how consumption smoothing and investment dynamics shape the current account; the search for sources and propagation mecha...

  5. The global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Reimer, E.

    1991-01-01

    Basic concepts of the global carbon cycle on earth are described; by careful analyses of isotopic ratios, emission history and oceanic ventilation rates are derived, which provide crucial tests for constraining and calibrating models. Effects of deforestation, fertilizing, fossil fuel burning, soil erosion, etc. are quantified and compared, and the oceanic carbon process is evaluated. Oceanic and terrestrial biosphere modifications are discussed and a carbon cycle model is proposed

  6. IFR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E.; Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase, which includes completion of facility modifications and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the development of the electrorefining pyroprocess, the design and construction of the facility for the hot demonstration, the design and fabrication of the equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation

  7. Hat cycle dynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trucco, A.; Corallo, C.; Pini Prato, A.; Porro, S.

    1999-01-01

    Among the innovative cycle recently proposed in literature, the Humid Air Turbine Cycle - Hat better seems to fulfil the main energy market requirements of today: High efficiency in a large power ranger, low pollution, low specific capital cost. The previous results of an analysis at partial load and transient conditions are here presented, where the Hat plant has been simulated using the original model implemented in LEGO environment [it

  8. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  9. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    This brochure describes the nuclear fuel cycle, which is an industrial process involving various activities to produce electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. The cycle starts with the mining of uranium and ends with the disposal of nuclear waste. The raw material for today's nuclear fuel is uranium. It must be processed through a series of steps to produce an efficient fuel for generating electricity. Used fuel also needs to be taken care of for reuse and disposal. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the 'front end', i.e. preparation of the fuel, the 'service period' in which fuel is used during reactor operation to generate electricity, and the 'back end', i.e. the safe management of spent nuclear fuel including reprocessing and reuse and disposal. If spent fuel is not reprocessed, the fuel cycle is referred to as an 'open' or 'once-through' fuel cycle; if spent fuel is reprocessed, and partly reused, it is referred to as a 'closed' nuclear fuel cycle.

  10. Thorium fuel cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaji, K [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1980-07-01

    Systems analysis of the thorium cycle, a nuclear fuel cycle accomplished by using thorium, is reported in this paper. Following a brief review on the history of the thorium cycle development, analysis is made on the three functions of the thorium cycle; (1) auxiliary system of U-Pu cycle to save uranium consumption, (2) thermal breeder system to exert full capacity of the thorium resource, (3) symbiotic system to utilize special features of /sup 233/U and neutron sources. The effects of the thorium loading in LWR (Light Water Reactor), HWR (Heavy Water Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) are considered for the function of auxiliary system of U-Pu cycle. Analysis is made to find how much uranium is saved by /sup 233/U recycling and how the decrease in Pu production influences the introduction of FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor). Study on thermal breeder system is carried out in the case of MSBR (Molten Salt Breeder Reactor). Under a certain amount of fissile material supply, the potential system expansion rate of MSBR, which is determined by fissile material balance, is superior to that of FBR because of the smaller specific fissile inventory of MSBR. For symbiotic system, three cases are treated; i) nuclear heat supply system using HTGR, ii) denatured fuel supply system for nonproliferation purpose, and iii) hybrid system utilizing neutron sources other than fission reactor.

  11. Vehicle Maximum Weight Limitation Based on Intelligent Weight Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihan, W.; Tessar, R. M.; Ernest, C. O. S.; E Byan, W. R.; Winda, A.

    2017-03-01

    Vehicle weight is an important factor to be maintained for transportation safety. A weight limitation system is proposed to make sure the vehicle weight is always below its designation prior the vehicle is being used by the driver. The proposed system is divided into two systems, namely vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system. In vehicle weight confirmation system, the weight sensor work for the first time after the ignition switch is turned on. When the weight is under the weight limit, the starter engine can be switched on to start the engine system, otherwise it will be locked. The seconds system, will operated after checking all the door at close position, once the door of the car is closed, the weight warning system will check once again the weight during runing engine condition. The results of these two systems, vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system have 100 % accuracy, respectively. These show that the proposed vehicle weight limitation system operate well.

  12. Cycles and Common Cycles in Property and Related Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Peijie Wang

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines cycles and common cycles in the property market and the economy. While focusing on common cycles, the study also incorporates common trends in the meantime, so it covers the whole spectrum of dynamic analysis. It has been found that property shares common cycles, particularly with those sectors that are the user markets of property. The mechanisms of common cycles and the relative magnitudes of cycles of the sectors related to property are discussed to shed light on proper...

  13. Optimization of Gad Pattern with Geometrical Weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Do Ik; Woo, Hae Seuk; Choi, Seong Min

    2009-01-01

    The prevailing burnable absorber for domestic nuclear power plants is a gad fuel rod which is used for the partial control of excess reactivity and power peaking. The radial peaking factor, which is one of the critical constraints for the plant safety depends largely on the number of gad bearing rods and the location of gad rods within fuel assembly. Also the concentration of gad, UO 2 enrichment in the gad fuel rod, and fuel lattice type play important roles for the resultant radial power peaking. Since fuel is upgraded periodically and longer fuel cycle management requires more burnable absorbers or higher gad weight percent, it is required frequently to search for the optimized gad patterns, i.e., the distribution of gad fuel rods within assembly, for the various fuel environment and fuel management changes. In this study, the gad pattern optimization algorithm with respect to radial power peaking factor using geometrical weight is proposed for a single gad weight percent, in which the candidates of the optimized gad pattern are determined based on the weighting of the gad rod location and the guide tube. Also the pattern evaluation is performed systematically to determine the optimal gad pattern for the various situation

  14. Bite weight prediction from acoustic recognition of chewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amft, O.D.; Kusserow, M.; Tröster, G.

    2009-01-01

    Automatic dietary monitoring (ADM) offers new perspectives to reduce the self-reporting burden for participants in diet coaching programs. This paper presents an approach to predict weight of individual bites taken. We utilize a pattern recognition procedure to spot chewing cycles and food type in

  15. Multiparameter Cell Cycle Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobberger, James W; Sramkoski, R Michael; Stefan, Tammy; Woost, Philip G

    2018-01-01

    Cell cycle cytometry and analysis are essential tools for studying cells of model organisms and natural populations (e.g., bone marrow). Methods have not changed much for many years. The simplest and most common protocol is DNA content analysis, which is extensively published and reviewed. The next most common protocol, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine S phase labeling detected by specific antibodies, is also well published and reviewed. More recently, S phase labeling using 5'-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and a chemical reaction to label substituted DNA has been established as a basic, reliable protocol. Multiple antibody labeling to detect epitopes on cell cycle regulated proteins, which is what this chapter is about, is the most complex of these cytometric cell cycle assays, requiring knowledge of the chemistry of fixation, the biochemistry of antibody-antigen reactions, and spectral compensation. However, because this knowledge is relatively well presented methodologically in many papers and reviews, this chapter will present a minimal Methods section for one mammalian cell type and an extended Notes section, focusing on aspects that are problematic or not well described in the literature. Most of the presented work involves how to segment the data to produce a complete, progressive, and compartmentalized cell cycle analysis from early G1 to late mitosis (telophase). A more recent development, using fluorescent proteins fused with proteins or peptides that are degraded by ubiquitination during specific periods of the cell cycle, termed "Fucci" (fluorescent, ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicators) provide an analysis similar in concept to multiple antibody labeling, except in this case cells can be analyzed while living and transgenic organisms can be created to perform cell cycle analysis ex or in vivo (Sakaue-Sawano et al., Cell 132:487-498, 2007). This technology will not be discussed.

  16. On Weighted Support Vector Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new type of weighted support vector regression (SVR), motivated by modeling local dependencies in time and space in prediction of house prices. The classic weights of the weighted SVR are added to the slack variables in the objective function (OF‐weights). This procedure directly...... shrinks the coefficient of each observation in the estimated functions; thus, it is widely used for minimizing influence of outliers. We propose to additionally add weights to the slack variables in the constraints (CF‐weights) and call the combination of weights the doubly weighted SVR. We illustrate...... the differences and similarities of the two types of weights by demonstrating the connection between the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and the SVR. We show that an SVR problem can be transformed to a LASSO problem plus a linear constraint and a box constraint. We demonstrate...

  17. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. All rights reserved Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Rats Fed ... ABSTRACT: Food insecurity is a major problem of the developing nations. ... Except for the values of haemoglobin and packed cell volume that were ...

  19. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are those born weighing less ... an association between retinopathy of prematurity and poor weight gain. .... LGA = large for gestational age; SGA = small for gestational age; NEC = necrotising enterocolitis;.

  20. Historicising the Hydrosocial Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy J. Schmidt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the historical claims made in support of the hydrosocial cycle. In particular, it considers how arguments advancing the hydrosocial cycle make historical claims regarding modernist conceptions of what water is (i.e. H2O and its fit with society. The paper gives special emphasis to the society/nature dualism and to the notion of agency as key sites of contest in arguments regarding the hydrosocial cycle. It finds that, while several versions of the hydrosocial cycle seek to advance a political ecology more sensitive to non-human actions, these same accounts often do not address the robust account of non-human agency in the historical record. Evidence is presented regarding water’s agency amongst late 19th and early 20th century architects of key water management norms in the United States. This evidence troubles accounts of the hydrosocial cycle that critique the US experience and suggests new directions for rethinking the role of historical and institutional norms in water policy.

  1. [Motivation for weight loss among weight loss treatment participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeglédi, Edit

    2017-12-01

    Unrealistic expectations about weight goal and about weight loss-related benefits can hinder the effort for a successful long-term weight control. To explore weight loss-related goals and their background among overweight/obese patients. Study sample consisted of patients who participated in the inpatient weight loss treatment in the Lipidological Department of Szent Imre Hospital (n = 339, 19% men). Mean age: 50.2 years (SD = 13.47 years), mean BMI: 38.6 (SD = 7.58). self-reported anthropometric data, type and number of treated illnesses, Goals and Relative Weights Questionnaire, Motivations for Weight Loss Scale, Body Shape Questionnaire. Participants would feel disappointed with a possible 10% weight loss in a half-year time span. The acceptable weight loss percentage was higher among women, younger participants and among those who had more excess weight. Motivation regarding the increase in social desirability by weight loss is in association with body dissatisfaction, health related motivation is in association with the number of treated illnesses. Our results are contributing to the understanding of motivational factors behind weight reduction efforts, considering these can improve treatment success rates. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(49): 1960-1967.

  2. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using weight and weight indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Notions about the metabolic syndrome (MS) emphasized the importance of obesity. This may prevent the early diagnosis of the condition in normal weight individuals. Aim: To determine variations in prevalence of MS according to different weight and weight indices. Materials and Methods: 342 apparently ...

  3. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  4. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    2002-01-01

    This book treats of the different aspects of the industrial operations linked with the nuclear fuel, before and after its use in nuclear reactors. The basis science of this nuclear fuel cycle is chemistry. Thus a recall of the elementary notions of chemistry is given in order to understand the phenomena involved in the ore processing, in the isotope enrichment, in the fabrication of fuel pellets and rods (front-end of the cycle), in the extraction of recyclable materials (residual uranium and plutonium), and in the processing and conditioning of wastes (back-end of the fuel cycle). Nuclear reactors produce about 80% of the French electric power and the Cogema group makes 40% of its turnover at the export. Thus this book contains also some economic and geopolitical data in order to clearly position the stakes. The last part, devoted to the management of wastes, presents the solutions already operational and also the research studies in progress. (J.S.)

  5. Fuel cycle based safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Montmollin, J.M.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Gupta, D.

    1985-07-01

    In NPT safeguards the same model approach and absolute-quantity inspection goals are applied at present to all similar facilities, irrespective of the State's fuel cycle. There is a continuing interest and activity on the part of the IAEA in new NPT safeguards approaches that more directly address a State's nuclear activities as a whole. This fuel cycle based safeguards system is expected to a) provide a statement of findings for the entire State rather than only for individual facilities; b) allocate inspection efforts so as to reflect more realistically the different categories of nuclear materials in the different parts of the fuel cycle and c) provide more timely and better coordinated information on the inputs, outputs and inventories of nuclear materials in a State. (orig./RF) [de

  6. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter explains the distinction between fissile and fertile materials, examines briefly the processes involved in fuel manufacture and management, describes the alternative nuclear fuel cycles and considers their advantages and disadvantages. Fuel management is usually divided into three stages; the front end stage of production and fabrication, the back end stage which deals with the fuel after it is removed from the reactor (including reprocessing and waste treatment) and the stage in between when the fuel is actually in the reactor. These stages are illustrated and explained in detail. The plutonium fuel cycle and thorium-uranium-233 fuel cycle are explained. The differences between fuels for thermal reactors and fast reactors are explained. (U.K.)

  7. CO2 cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Byrne, Shane; Colaprete, Anthony; Forget, Francois; Michaels, Timothy I.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of models, observations, and laboratory experiments to understand the cycling of CO2 between the atmosphere and seasonal Martian polar caps. This cycle is primarily controlled by the polar heat budget, and thus the emphasis here is on its components, including solar and infrared radiation, the effect of clouds (water- and CO2-ice), atmospheric transport, and subsurface heat conduction. There is a discussion about cap properties including growth and regression rates, albedos and emissivities, grain sizes and dust and/or water-ice contamination, and curious features like cold gas jets and araneiform (spider-shaped) terrain. The nature of the residual south polar cap is discussed as well as its long-term stability and ability to buffer atmospheric pressures. There is also a discussion of the consequences of the CO2 cycle as revealed by the non-condensable gas enrichment observed by Odyssey and modeled by various groups.

  8. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  9. Theory of limit cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Yan-Qian; Lo, Chi Y

    1986-01-01

    Over the past two decades the theory of limit cycles, especially for quadratic differential systems, has progressed dramatically in China as well as in other countries. This monograph, updating the 1964 first edition, includes these recent developments, as revised by eight of the author's colleagues in their own areas of expertise. The first part of the book deals with limit cycles of general plane stationary systems, including their existence, nonexistence, stability, and uniqueness. The second section discusses the global topological structure of limit cycles and phase-portraits of quadratic systems. Finally, the last section collects important results that could not be included under the subject matter of the previous two sections or that have appeared in the literature very recently. The book as a whole serves as a reference for college seniors, graduate students, and researchers in mathematics and physics.

  10. The thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    The utilization of the thorium fuel cycle has long since been considered attractive due to the excellent neutronic characteristics of 233 U, and the widespread and cheap thorium resources. Although the uranium ore as well as the separative work requirements are usually lower for any thorium-based fuel cycle in comparison to present uranium-plutonium fuel cycles of thermal water reactors, interest by nuclear industry has hitherto been marginal. Fast increasing uranium prices, public reluctance against widespread Pu-recycling and expected retardations for the market penetration of fast breeders have led to a reconsideration of the thorium fuel cycle merits. In addition, it could be learned in the meantime that problems associated with reprocessing and waste handling, but particularly with a remote refabrication of 233 U are certainly not appreciably more difficult than for Pu-recycling. This may not only be due to psychological constraints but be based upon technological as well as economical facts, which have been mostly neglected up till now. In order to diversify from uranium as a nuclear energy source it seems to be worthwhile to greatly intensify efforts in the future for closing the Th/ 233 U fuel cycle. HTGR's are particularly promising for economic application. However, further R and D activites should not be solely focussed on this reactor type alone. Light and heavy-water moderated reactors, as well as even fast breeders later on, may just as well take advantage of a demonstrated thorium fuel cycle. A summary is presented of the state-of-the-art of Th/ 233 U-recycling technology and the efforts still necessary to demonstrate this technology all the way through to its industrial application

  11. Steam turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuzumi, Naoaki.

    1994-01-01

    In a steam turbine cycle, steams exhausted from the turbine are extracted, and they are connected to a steam sucking pipe of a steam injector, and a discharge pipe of the steam injector is connected to an inlet of a water turbine. High pressure discharge water is obtained from low pressure steams by utilizing a pressurizing performance of the steam injector and the water turbine is rotated by the high pressure water to generate electric power. This recover and reutilize discharged heat of the steam turbine effectively, thereby enabling to improve heat efficiency of the steam turbine cycle. (T.M.)

  12. Life Cycle Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Morten Als

    1996-01-01

    A precondition for environmentally conscious management is the awareness of the environmental impact potentials created by an industrial company. There is an obvious need for management tools to support the implementation of relevant environmental criteria into the industrial decision making...... processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criteria from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. This paper introduces the concept of LCEM as an important element...... of the complete set of environmental objects in an industrial manufacturing company....

  13. Carbon cycle makeover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Kump, Lee R.

    2013-01-01

    remaining in sediments after respiration leave a residual of oxygen in the atmosphere. The source of oxygen to the atmosphere represented by organic matter burial is balanced by oxygen sinks associated with rock weathering and chemical reaction with volcanic gases. This is the long-term carbon and oxygen...... geochemical cycle. But Earth is an old planet, and oxygen levels have changed through time (2). On page 540 of this issue, Schrag et al. (3) challenge the most commonly used geochemical approach to assess long-term changes in the coupled oxygen and carbon cycles....

  14. Resurrecting Equilibria Through Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, Richard C.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep; Bunzel, Helle

    equilibria because they asymptotically violate some economic restriction of the model. The literature has always ruled out such paths. This paper studies a pure-exchange monetary overlapping generations economy in which real balances cycle forever between momentary equilibrium points. The novelty is to show...... that segments of the offer curve that have been previously ignored, can in fact be used to produce asymptotically valid cyclical paths. Indeed, a cycle can bestow dynamic validity on momentary equilibrium points that had erstwhile been classified as dynamically invalid....

  15. 24-month fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, R.G.; Sipes, D.E.; Beall, R.H.; Donovan, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four month reload cycles can potentially lessen total power generation costs. While 24-month cores increase purchased fuel costs, the longer cycles reduce the number of refueling outages and thus enhance plant availability; men-rem exposure to site personnel and other costs associated with reload core design and licensing are also reduced. At dual unit sites an operational advantage can be realized by refueling each plant alternately on a 1-year offset basis. This results in a single outage per site per year which can be scheduled for off-peak periods or when replacement power costs are low

  16. Global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  17. Weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain in outpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances A; Boden, Joseph M; Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Bulik, Cynthia M; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    The present study sought to replicate the finding of Wildes and Marcus, Behav Res Ther, 50, 266-274, 2012 that higher levels of weight suppression at pretreatment predict greater total weight gain, faster rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms amongst patients admitted with anorexia nervosa. Participants were 56 women with anorexia nervosa diagnosed by using strict or lenient weight criteria, who were participating in a randomized controlled psychotherapy trial (McIntosh et al., Am J Psychiatry, 162, 741-747, 2005). Thirty-five women completed outpatient treatment and post-treatment assessment. Weight suppression was the discrepancy between highest lifetime weight at adult height and weight at pretreatment assessment. Outcome variables were total weight gain, rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment [assessed using the Eating Disorders Examination (Fairburn et al., Binge-Eating: Nature, Assessment and Treatment. New York: Guilford, 1993)]. Weight suppression was positively associated with total weight gain and rate of weight gain over treatment. Regression models showed that this association could not be explained by covariates (age at onset of anorexia nervosa and treatment modality). Weight suppression was not significantly associated with bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment, regardless of whether bulimic symptoms were examined as continuous or dichotomous variables. The present study reinforces the previous finding that weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain amongst patients being treated for anorexia nervosa. Methodological issues may explain the failure of the present study to find that weight suppression predicts bulimic symptoms. Weight suppression at pretreatment for anorexia nervosa should be assessed routinely and may inform treatment planning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [IM and T Ltd., Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Department of Applied Chemistry, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    The effect of negative to positive electrode materials' weight ratio on the electrochemical performance of both activated carbon (AC)/AC and AC/graphite capacitors has been investigated, especially in the terms of capacity and cycle-ability. The limited capacity charge mode has been proposed to improve the cycle performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite. (author)

  19. Stabilizing weighted complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Linying; Chen Zengqiang; Liu Zhongxin; Chen Fei; Yuan Zhuzhi

    2007-01-01

    Real networks often consist of local units which interact with each other via asymmetric and heterogeneous connections. In this paper, the V-stability problem is investigated for a class of asymmetric weighted coupled networks with nonidentical node dynamics, which includes the unweighted network as a special case. Pinning control is suggested to stabilize such a coupled network. The complicated stabilization problem is reduced to measuring the semi-negative property of the characteristic matrix which embodies not only the network topology, but also the node self-dynamics and the control gains. It is found that network stabilizability depends critically on the second largest eigenvalue of the characteristic matrix. The smaller the second largest eigenvalue is, the more the network is pinning controllable. Numerical simulations of two representative networks composed of non-chaotic systems and chaotic systems, respectively, are shown for illustration and verification

  20. Weighted Lomax distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, N M

    2016-01-01

    The Lomax distribution (Pareto Type-II) is widely applicable in reliability and life testing problems in engineering as well as in survival analysis as an alternative distribution. In this paper, Weighted Lomax distribution is proposed and studied. The density function and its behavior, moments, hazard and survival functions, mean residual life and reversed failure rate, extreme values distributions and order statistics are derived and studied. The parameters of this distribution are estimated by the method of moments and the maximum likelihood estimation method and the observed information matrix is derived. Moreover, simulation schemes are derived. Finally, an application of the model to a real data set is presented and compared with some other well-known distributions.

  1. Weight simulation fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumikawa, Kiyokazu; Tokomatsu, Mutsuo.

    1993-01-01

    A tungsten pellet is not applied with hollow fabrication but a tungsten rod is inserted and filled into a zircaloy fuel cladding tube, as well as different kind of material having a density lower than that of tungsten, for example, stainless steel rods, are disposed successively intermittently and alternately for simulating the weight of one fuel rod. The filling method and the length of the individual pellets are optional depending on the method of usage, providing that the outer diameter of the simulation pellet is made identical with that of the actual fuel pellet. With such a constitution, there is no need to dispose a hollow portion as in the case of using only tungsten pellets, and the costs for both the materials and the fabrication can be saved. (T.M.)

  2. Weight Changes in General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This PhD thesis is about weight changes. What determines long-term weight changes in the adult general population? Is it possible that weight loss may not always be healthy? The present clinical guidelines for general practice advice most overweight persons and patients with type 2 ...... lifestyle changes like for instance Mediterranean diet and increased exercise....

  3. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  4. On weighted dyadic Carleson's inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachizawa K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We give an alternate proof of weighted dyadic Carleson's inequalities which are essentially proved by Sawyer and Wheeden. We use the Bellman function approach of Nazarov and Treil. As an application we give an alternate proof of weighted inequalities for dyadic fractional maximal operators. A result on weighted inequalities for fractional integral operators is given.

  5. Weight Training for Wheelchair Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Practical Pointers, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…

  6. Engine cycle design considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaccio, D.G.; Scheil, C.M.; Collins, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    A top-level study was performed which addresses nuclear thermal propulsion system engine cycle options and their applicability to support future Space Exploration Initiative manned lunar and Mars missions. Technical and development issues associated with expander, gas generator, and bleed cycle near-term, solid core nuclear thermal propulsion engines are identified and examined. In addition to performance and weight the influence of the engine cycle type on key design selection parameters such as design complexity, reliability, development time, and cost are discussed. Representative engine designs are presented and compared. Their applicability and performance impact on typical near-term lunar and Mars missions are shown

  7. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss.......To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss....

  8. Entrepreneurship and the business cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koellinger, Philipp D.; Thurik, A. Roy

    2012-01-01

    We find new empirical regularities in the business cycle in a cross-country panel of 22 OECD countries for the period 1972 to 2007; entrepreneurship Granger-causes the cycles of the world economy. Furthermore, the entrepreneurial cycle is positively affected by the national unemployment cycle. We

  9. World nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    A coloured pull-out wall chart is presented showing the fuel cycle interests of the world. Place names are marked and symbols are used to indicate regions associated with uranium or thorium deposits, mining, milling, enrichment, reprocessing and fabrication. (UK)

  10. Deuterium in atmospheric cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontikis, M.C.

    Interest of the study concerning the deuterium content variation (HDO) in the atmospheric water. Standards and measurement methods. Molecule HDO cycle in the atmospheric water. Application to the study of hail-generating cumulus-nimbus and of the mantle of snow [fr

  11. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Status of different nuclear fuel cycle phases in 1992 is discussed including the following issues: uranium exploration, resources, supply and demand, production, market prices, conversion, enrichment; reactor fuel technology; spent fuel management, as well as trends of these phases development up to the year 2010. 10 refs, 11 figs, 15 tabs

  12. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Moltesen, Andreas; Laurent, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    of different sources. The output is a compiled inventory of elementary flows that is used as basis of the subsequent life cycle impact assessment phase. This chapter teaches how to carry out this task through six steps: (1) identifying processes for the LCI model of the product system; (2) planning...

  13. Fuel cycle centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, M.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of co-locating and integrating fuel cycle facilities at one site is discussed. This concept offers considerable advantages, especially in minimizing the amount of radioactive material to be transported on public roads. Safeguards and physical protection as relating to such an integrated system of facilities are analysed in detail, also industrial and commercial questions. An overall risk-benefit evaluation turns out to be in favour of fuel cycle centres. These centres seem to be specifically attractive with regard to the back end of the fuel cycle, including on-site disposal of radioactive wastes. The respective German approach is presented as an example. Special emphasis is given to the site selection procedures in this case. Time scale and cost for the implementation of this concept are important factors to be looked at. Since participation of governmental institutions in these centres seems to be indispensable their respective roles as compared to industry must be clearly defined. The idea of adjusting fuel cycle centres to regional rather than national use might be an attractive option, depending on the specific parameters in the region, though results of existing multinational ventures are inconclusive in this respect. Major difficulties might be expected e.g. because of different national safety regulations and standards as well as commercial conditions among partner countries. Public acceptance in the host country seems to be another stumbling block for the realization of this type of multinational facilities

  14. Life Cycle Collection Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle collection management is a way of taking a long-term approach to the responsible stewardship of the British Library's collections and is one of the Library's strategic strands. It defines the different stages in a collection item's existence over time. These stages range from selection and acquisitions processing, cataloguing and press marking, through to preventive conservation, storage and retrieval. Life cycle collection management seeks to identify the costs of each stage in order to show the economic interdependencies between the phases over time. It thereby aims to demonstrate the long-term consequences of what the library takes into its collections, by making explicit the financial and other implications of decisions made at the beginning of the life cycle for the next 100 plus years. This paper describes the work over the past year at the British Library on this complex and complicated subject. It presents the emerging findings and suggests how it can be used for practical reasons (by individual curators and selectors and for economic, governance and political purposes. The paper describes the next steps in the project, for example, on a predictive data model. The British Library is seeking to benchmark itself against comparable organisations in this area. It intends to work with others on specific comparison for example, of life cycle costing of electronic and paper journals, as a prelude to eliding digital and 'traditional' formats.

  15. Boundedly rational credit cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez, María

    1996-01-01

    We propose an evolutionary model of a credit market. We show that the economy exhibits credit cycles. The model predicts dynamics which are consistent with some evidence about the Great Depression. Real shocks trigger episodes of credit--crunch which are observed in the process of adjustment towards the post shock equilibrium.

  16. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  17. Mosquito Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the stages of the mosquito's life will help you prevent mosquitoes around your home and help you choose the right pesticides for your needs, if you decide to use them. All mosquito species go through four distinct stages during their live cycle.

  18. Reasoning with Causal Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Bob

    2017-01-01

    This article assesses how people reason with categories whose features are related in causal cycles. Whereas models based on causal graphical models (CGMs) have enjoyed success modeling category-based judgments as well as a number of other cognitive phenomena, CGMs are only able to represent causal structures that are acyclic. A number of new…

  19. Skills, sunspots and cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Marchetti, Enrico

    This paper explores the ability of a class of one-sector,multi-input models to generate indeterminate equilibrium paths, andendogenous cycles, without relying on factors' hoarding. The modelpresents a novel theoretical economic mechanism that supportssunspot-driven expansions without requiring...

  20. WLTP Random Cycle Generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, D.G.; Balau, A.E.; Wilkins, S.; Ligterink, N.; Cuelenaere, R.

    2015-01-01

    European light duty vehicle emission legislation is gradually shifting the focus from test procedures with merely static test cycles, towards procedures including Real Driving Emissions (RDE), as they are a mean to achieve the European (NOx) emission reduction target. Hence a RDE trip must represent

  1. WLTP random cycle generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, D.G.; Balau, A.E.; Wilkins, S.; Ligterink, N.; Cuelenaere, R.

    2015-01-01

    European light duty vehicle emission legislation is gradually shifting the focus from test procedures with merely static test cycles, towards procedures including Real Driving Emissions (RDE), as they are a mean to achieve the European (NOx) emission reduction target. Hence a RDE trip must represent

  2. Combined-cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that as tougher emissions standards take hold throughout the industrialized world, manufacturers such as GE, Siemens, Foster Wheeler, and Asea Brown Boveri are designing advanced combined-cycle equipment that offers improved environmental performance without sacrificing power efficiency

  3. ITER fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, D.; Dinner, P.; Yoshida, H.

    1991-01-01

    Resulting from the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) by the parties involved in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, this document summarizes the design requirements and the Conceptual Design Descriptions for each of the principal subsystems and design options of the ITER Fuel Cycle conceptual design. The ITER Fuel Cycle system provides for the handling of all tritiated water and gas mixtures on ITER. The system is subdivided into subsystems for fuelling, primary (torus) vacuum pumping, fuel processing, blanket tritium recovery, and common processes (including isotopic separation, fuel management and storage, and processes for detritiation of solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes). After an introduction describing system function and conceptual design procedure, a summary of the design is presented including a discussion of scope and main parameters, and the fuel design options for fuelling, plasma chamber vacuum pumping, fuel cleanup, blanket tritium recovery, and auxiliary and common processes. Design requirements are defined and design descriptions are given for the various subsystems (fuelling, plasma vacuum pumping, fuel cleanup, blanket tritium recovery, and auxiliary/common processes). The document ends with sections on fuel cycle design integration, fuel cycle building layout, safety considerations, a summary of the research and development programme, costing, and conclusions. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Understanding Solar Cycle Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M., E-mail: cameron@mps.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-07-10

    The level of solar magnetic activity, as exemplified by the number of sunspots and by energetic events in the corona, varies on a wide range of timescales. Most prominent is the 11-year solar cycle, which is significantly modulated on longer timescales. Drawing from dynamo theory, together with the empirical results of past solar activity and similar phenomena for solar-like stars, we show that the variability of the solar cycle can be essentially understood in terms of a weakly nonlinear limit cycle affected by random noise. In contrast to ad hoc “toy models” for the solar cycle, this leads to a generic normal-form model, whose parameters are all constrained by observations. The model reproduces the characteristics of the variable solar activity on timescales between decades and millennia, including the occurrence and statistics of extended periods of very low activity (grand minima). Comparison with results obtained with a Babcock–Leighton-type dynamo model confirm the validity of the normal-mode approach.

  5. The plutonium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000-MW water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium and recycled uranium. The radioactivity quantities of plutonium, americium and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the U.S. nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing ad fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (author)

  6. Fuel cycle oriented approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, A.

    1987-01-01

    The term fuel cycle oriented approach is currently used to designate two quite different things: the attempt to consider all or part of a national fuel cycle as one material balance area (MBA) or to consider individual MBAs existing in a state while designing a unique safeguards approach for each and applying the principle of nondiscrimination to fuel cycles as a whole, rather than to individual facilities. The merits of such an approach are acceptability by the industry and comparison with the contemplated establishment of long-term criteria. The following points concern the acceptability by the industry: (1) The main interest of the industry is to keep an open international market and therefore, to have effective and efficient safeguards. (2) The main concerns of the industry regarding international safeguards are economic burden, intrusiveness, and discrimination. Answers to these legitimate concerns, which retain the benefits of a fuel cycle oriented approach, are needed. More specifically, the problem of reimbursing the operator the costs that he has incurred for the safeguards must be considered

  7. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  8. Evaluation of undeveloped rocket engine cycle applications to advanced transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Undeveloped pump-fed, liquid propellant rocket engine cycles were assessed and evaluated for application to Next Manned Transportation System (NMTS) vehicles, which would include the evolving Space Transportation System (STS Evolution), the Personnel Launch System (PLS), and the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Undeveloped engine cycles selected for further analysis had potential for increased reliability, more maintainability, reduced cost, and improved (or possibly level) performance when compared to the existing SSME and proposed STME engines. The split expander (SX) cycle, the full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle, and a hybrid version of the FFSC, which has a LOX expander drive for the LOX pump, were selected for definition and analysis. Technology requirements and issues were identified and analyses of vehicle systems weight deltas using the SX and FFSC cycles in AMLS vehicles were performed. A strawman schedule and cost estimate for FFSC subsystem technology developments and integrated engine system demonstration was also provided.

  9. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

    2008-01-01

    This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

  10. Cycling and bone health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmedillas Hugo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling is considered to be a highly beneficial sport for significantly enhancing cardiovascular fitness in individuals, yet studies show little or no corresponding improvements in bone mass. Methods A scientific literature search on studies discussing bone mass and bone metabolism in cyclists was performed to collect all relevant published material up to April 2012. Descriptive, cross-sectional, longitudinal and interventional studies were all reviewed. Inclusion criteria were met by 31 studies. Results Heterogeneous studies in terms of gender, age, data source, group of comparison, cycling level or modality practiced among others factors showed minor but important differences in results. Despite some controversial results, it has been observed that adult road cyclists participating in regular training have low bone mineral density in key regions (for example, lumbar spine. Conversely, other types of cycling (such as mountain biking, or combination with other sports could reduce this unsafe effect. These results cannot yet be explained by differences in dietary patterns or endocrine factors. Conclusions From our comprehensive survey of the current available literature it can be concluded that road cycling does not appear to confer any significant osteogenic benefit. The cause of this may be related to spending long hours in a weight-supported position on the bike in combination with the necessary enforced recovery time that involves a large amount of time sitting or lying supine, especially at the competitive level.

  11. Life cycle cost report of VHLW cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This document, the Life Cycle Cost Report (LCCR) for the VHLW Cask, presents the life cycle costs for acquiring, using, and disposing of the VHLW casks. The VHLW cask consists of a ductile iron cask body, called the shielding insert, which is used for storage and transportation, and ultimately for disposal of Defense High Level Waste which has been vitrified and placed into VHLW canisters. Each ductile iron VHLW shielding insert holds one VHLW canister. For transportation, the shielding insert is placed into a containment overpack. The VHLW cask as configured for transportation is a legal weight truck cask which will be licensed by NRC. The purpose of this LCCR is to present the development of the life cycle costs for using the VHLW cask to transport VHLW canisters from the generating sites to a disposal site. Life cycle costs include the cost of acquiring, operating, maintaining, and ultimately dispositioning the VHLW cask and its associated hardware. This report summarizes costs associated with transportation of the VHLW casks. Costs are developed on the basis of expected usage, anticipated source and destination locations, and expected quantities of VHLW which must be transported. DOE overhead costs, such as the costs associated with source and destination facility handling of the VHLW, are not included. Also not included are costs exclusive to storage or disposal of the VHLW waste

  12. Some observations on weighted GMRES

    KAUST Repository

    Güttel, Stefan

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the convergence of the weighted GMRES method for solving linear systems. Two different weighting variants are compared with unweighted GMRES for three model problems, giving a phenomenological explanation of cases where weighting improves convergence, and a case where weighting has no effect on the convergence. We also present a new alternative implementation of the weighted Arnoldi algorithm which under known circumstances will be favourable in terms of computational complexity. These implementations of weighted GMRES are compared for a large number of examples. We find that weighted GMRES may outperform unweighted GMRES for some problems, but more often this method is not competitive with other Krylov subspace methods like GMRES with deflated restarting or BICGSTAB, in particular when a preconditioner is used. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  13. Some observations on weighted GMRES

    KAUST Repository

    Gü ttel, Stefan; Pestana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the convergence of the weighted GMRES method for solving linear systems. Two different weighting variants are compared with unweighted GMRES for three model problems, giving a phenomenological explanation of cases where weighting improves convergence, and a case where weighting has no effect on the convergence. We also present a new alternative implementation of the weighted Arnoldi algorithm which under known circumstances will be favourable in terms of computational complexity. These implementations of weighted GMRES are compared for a large number of examples. We find that weighted GMRES may outperform unweighted GMRES for some problems, but more often this method is not competitive with other Krylov subspace methods like GMRES with deflated restarting or BICGSTAB, in particular when a preconditioner is used. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  14. Titan's Methane Cycle is Closed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofgartner, J. D.; Lunine, J. I.

    2013-12-01

    Doppler tracking of the Cassini spacecraft determined a polar moment of inertia for Titan of 0.34 (Iess et al., 2010, Science, 327, 1367). Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, one interpretation is that Titan's silicate core is partially hydrated (Castillo-Rogez and Lunine, 2010, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L20205). These authors point out that for the core to have avoided complete thermal dehydration to the present day, at least 30% of the potassium content of Titan must have leached into an overlying water ocean by the end of the core overturn. We calculate that for probable ammonia compositions of Titan's ocean (compositions with greater than 1% ammonia by weight), that this amount of potassium leaching is achievable via the substitution of ammonium for potassium during the hydration epoch. Formation of a hydrous core early in Titan's history by serpentinization results in the loss of one hydrogen molecule for every hydrating water molecule. We calculate that complete serpentinization of Titan's core corresponds to the release of more than enough hydrogen to reconstitute all of the methane atoms photolyzed throughout Titan's history. Insertion of molecular hydrogen by double occupancy into crustal clathrates provides a storage medium and an opportunity for ethane to be converted back to methane slowly over time--potentially completing a cycle that extends the lifetime of methane in Titan's surface atmosphere system by factors of several to an order of magnitude over the photochemically-calculated lifetime.

  15. Heterotic weight lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-03-21

    We describe a method for constructing genuinely asymmetric (2,0) heterotic strings out of N=2 minimal models in the fermionic sector, whereas the bosonic sector is only partly build out of N=2 minimal models. This is achieved by replacing one minimal model plus the superfluous E{sub 8} factor by a non-supersymmetric CFT with identical modular properties. This CFT generically lifts the weights in the bosonic sector, giving rise to a spectrum with fewer massless states. We identify more than 30 such lifts, and we expect many more to exist. This yields more than 450 different combinations. Remarkably, despite the lifting of all Ramond states, it is still possible to get chiral spectra. Even more surprisingly, these chiral spectra include examples with a certain number of chiral families of SO(10), SU(5) or other subgroups, including just SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1). The number of families and mirror families is typically smaller than in standard Gepner models. Furthermore, in a large number of different cases, spectra with three chiral families can be obtained. Based on a first scan of about 10% of the lifted Gepner models we can construct, we have collected more than 10,000 distinct spectra with three families, including examples without mirror fermions. We present an example where the GUT group is completely broken to the standard model, but the resulting and inevitable fractionally charged particles are confined by an additional gauge group factor.

  16. Heterotic weight lifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gato-Rivera, B.; Schellekens, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method for constructing genuinely asymmetric (2,0) heterotic strings out of N=2 minimal models in the fermionic sector, whereas the bosonic sector is only partly build out of N=2 minimal models. This is achieved by replacing one minimal model plus the superfluous E 8 factor by a non-supersymmetric CFT with identical modular properties. This CFT generically lifts the weights in the bosonic sector, giving rise to a spectrum with fewer massless states. We identify more than 30 such lifts, and we expect many more to exist. This yields more than 450 different combinations. Remarkably, despite the lifting of all Ramond states, it is still possible to get chiral spectra. Even more surprisingly, these chiral spectra include examples with a certain number of chiral families of SO(10), SU(5) or other subgroups, including just SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1). The number of families and mirror families is typically smaller than in standard Gepner models. Furthermore, in a large number of different cases, spectra with three chiral families can be obtained. Based on a first scan of about 10% of the lifted Gepner models we can construct, we have collected more than 10,000 distinct spectra with three families, including examples without mirror fermions. We present an example where the GUT group is completely broken to the standard model, but the resulting and inevitable fractionally charged particles are confined by an additional gauge group factor.

  17. Monetary valuation in Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Brandão, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    different impacts and/or with other economic costs and benefits. For this reason, monetary valuation has a great potential to be applied also in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), especially in the weighting phase. However, several challenges limit its diffusion in the field, which resulted in only a few......Monetary valuation is the practice of converting measures of social and biophysical impacts into monetary units and is used to determine the economic value of non-market goods, i.e. goods for which no market exists. It is applied in cost benefit analysis to enable the cross-comparison between...

  18. Reducing the Incidence of Low Birth Weight in Low-Income Countries Has Substantial Economic Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the incidence of low birth weight not only lowers infant mortality rates but also has multiple benefits over the life cycle. This study estimates the economic benefits of reducing the incidence of low birth weight in low-income countries, both through lower mortality rates and medical costs and through increased learning and productivity. The estimated economic benefits, under pla...

  19. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  20. Gestational weight gain among minority adolescents predicts term birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward

    2018-03-07

    In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.

  1. Age-related decrements in cycling and running performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Sports Medicine ... This study examined age-related decrements in athletic performance during running and cycling activities. ... These findings establish a trend that there is 'accelerated' aging during running which can perhaps be attributed to the increased weight-bearing stress on the muscles ...

  2. Weight Science: Evaluating the Evidence for a Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphramor Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current guidelines recommend that "overweight" and "obese" individuals lose weight through engaging in lifestyle modification involving diet, exercise and other behavior change. This approach reliably induces short term weight loss, but the majority of individuals are unable to maintain weight loss over the long term and do not achieve the putative benefits of improved morbidity and mortality. Concern has arisen that this weight focus is not only ineffective at producing thinner, healthier bodies, but may also have unintended consequences, contributing to food and body preoccupation, repeated cycles of weight loss and regain, distraction from other personal health goals and wider health determinants, reduced self-esteem, eating disorders, other health decrement, and weight stigmatization and discrimination. This concern has drawn increased attention to the ethical implications of recommending treatment that may be ineffective or damaging. A growing trans-disciplinary movement called Health at Every Size (HAES challenges the value of promoting weight loss and dieting behavior and argues for a shift in focus to weight-neutral outcomes. Randomized controlled clinical trials indicate that a HAES approach is associated with statistically and clinically relevant improvements in physiological measures (e.g., blood pressure, blood lipids, health behaviors (e.g., eating and activity habits, dietary quality, and psychosocial outcomes (such as self-esteem and body image, and that HAES achieves these health outcomes more successfully than weight loss treatment and without the contraindications associated with a weight focus. This paper evaluates the evidence and rationale that justifies shifting the health care paradigm from a conventional weight focus to HAES.

  3. Weight Management Practices of Australian Olympic Combat Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Reid; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2017-09-05

    Combat sport athletes undertake chronic and rapid weight loss (RWL) practices to qualify for weight divisions lower than their training weight. Variation between sports in the prevalence, methods, and magnitude of weight loss as well as recovery practices may be influenced by factors including competition level and culture. Differences in methodologies of previous research in combat sports make direct comparisons difficult, thus this study aimed to examine weight loss practices among all Olympic combat sports in Australia, using standardised methodology. High calibre competitors in wrestling, boxing, judo and taekwondo (n=260) at Australian competitions were surveyed using a validated tool which provides quantification of how extreme an athlete's weight loss practices are; the RWL score (RWLS). Additional qualitative and quantitative survey data were also collected. Neither sport, sex or weight division group had an effect on RWLS however a significant effect of athlete calibre was detected [F (2,215) = 4.953, MSE = 4.757, p = 0.00792]. Differences between sports were also evident for: most weight ever lost in order to compete [H = 19.92, p = 0.0002), age at which weight cutting began (H = 16.34, p = 0.001) and selected methods/patterns of RWL (p < 0.001). Weight cycling between competitions was common among all sports as were influences on athlete's behaviours. While many similarities in weight loss practices and experiences exist between combat sports, specific differences were evident. Nuanced, context/culturally specific guidelines should be devised to assist fighters' in optimising performance while minimising health implications.

  4. Riding the cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, G. [Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The current state of the Canadian oil and natural gas industry is reviewed as part of a discussion of economic cycles focusing in particular on the most recent cycle and the impact it has had on the industry. The review of the state of the industry includes discussion of production, exports, commodity prices, the stimulating effect of price increases on the number of oil and natural gas wells drilled, drilling rig operating days. Also discussed are the effect of foreign exchange rates, capital spending, industry financial performance in terms of return on capital employed, the impact of oil and gas prices on Alberta provincial revenues, estimates of Canada's ultimate crude oil and natural gas resources potential, pipelines and pipeline proposals for northern gas, and projection of crude oil and natural gas production in Canada to 2010.

  5. Fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Gerhard J.

    1990-01-01

    TRIGA reactor operators are increasingly concerned about the back end of their Fuel Cycle due to a new environmental policy in the USA. The question how to close the Fuel Cycle will have to be answered by all operators sooner or later. Reprocessing of the TRIGA fuel elements is not available. Only long term storage and final disposal can be considered. But for such a storage or disposal a special treatment of the fuel elements and of course a final depository is necessary. NUKEM plans to undertake efforts to assist the TRIGA operators in this area. For that reason we need to know your special needs for today and tomorrow - so that potential processors can consider whether to offer these services on the market. (orig.)

  6. Riding the cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, G.

    2001-01-01

    The current state of the Canadian oil and natural gas industry is reviewed as part of a discussion of economic cycles focusing in particular on the most recent cycle and the impact it has had on the industry. The review of the state of the industry includes discussion of production, exports, commodity prices, the stimulating effect of price increases on the number of oil and natural gas wells drilled, drilling rig operating days. Also discussed are the effect of foreign exchange rates, capital spending, industry financial performance in terms of return on capital employed, the impact of oil and gas prices on Alberta provincial revenues, estimates of Canada's ultimate crude oil and natural gas resources potential, pipelines and pipeline proposals for northern gas, and projection of crude oil and natural gas production in Canada to 2010

  7. Handling Dynamic Weights in Weighted Frequent Pattern Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Chowdhury Farhan; Tanbeer, Syed Khairuzzaman; Jeong, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Young-Koo

    Even though weighted frequent pattern (WFP) mining is more effective than traditional frequent pattern mining because it can consider different semantic significances (weights) of items, existing WFP algorithms assume that each item has a fixed weight. But in real world scenarios, the weight (price or significance) of an item can vary with time. Reflecting these changes in item weight is necessary in several mining applications, such as retail market data analysis and web click stream analysis. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a dynamic weight for each item, and propose an algorithm, DWFPM (dynamic weighted frequent pattern mining), that makes use of this concept. Our algorithm can address situations where the weight (price or significance) of an item varies dynamically. It exploits a pattern growth mining technique to avoid the level-wise candidate set generation-and-test methodology. Furthermore, it requires only one database scan, so it is eligible for use in stream data mining. An extensive performance analysis shows that our algorithm is efficient and scalable for WFP mining using dynamic weights.

  8. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years.......Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  9. Assessing Cycling Participation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rissel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and evaluating cycling programs at a national or state level requires accurate measures of cycling participation. However, recent reports of cycling participation have produced very different estimates. This paper examines the reported rates of cycling in five recent population surveys of cycling. Three surveys (one national and two from Sydney asking respondents when they last rode a bicycle generated cycling participation (cycled in the past year estimates of 29.7%, 34.1% and 28.9%. Two other national surveys which asked participants to recall (unprompted any physical activity done for exercise, recreation or sport in the previous 12 months, estimated cycling in the past year as 11.1% and 6.5%. While unprompted recall of cycling as a type of physical activity generates lower estimates of cycling participation than specific recall questions, both assessment approaches produced similar patterns of cycling by age and sex with both approaches indicating fewer women and older adults cycling. The different question styles most likely explain the substantial discrepancies between the estimates of cycling participation. Some differences are to be expected due to sampling variability, question differences, and regional variation in cycling.

  10. Weight misperception and disordered weight control behaviors among U.S. high school students with overweight and obesity: Associations and trends, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Vivienne M; Hahn, Samantha L; Sonneville, Kendrin R

    2017-08-01

    To examine prevalence of weight misperception (incongruence between one's perceived weight status and one's actual weight status) and disordered weight control behaviors (DWCBs; unhealthy behaviors aiming to control or modify weight), associations between weight misperception and DWCBs, and temporal trends in prevalence and associations among adolescents with overweight and obesity from 1999 to 2013. Self-reported data from eight biennial cycles (1999-2013) of the cross-sectional national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used in analyses restricted to respondents with overweight/obesity. Data on weight status perception, use of fasting, purging, and diet pills to control weight, sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school were used in multivariate logistic regression models. Among U.S. high school students with overweight and obesity, no linear temporal trends were detected for prevalence of weight misperception, fasting, or purging between 1999 and 2013, while a significant linear decrease was observed for prevalence of diet pill use between 1999 and 2013 (b=-0.81, pfasting to control weight among males. No significant changes over time in associations of weight misperception with fasting or purging were observed, though the association between weight misperception and diet pill use weakened somewhat across 1999-2013. In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight misperception appears to be a robust protective factor for DWCBs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Forests and water cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovino F

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, a review on factors that control water cycle and water use in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is presented, including environmental variables and silvicultural treatments. This important issue is considered in the perspective of sustainable forest management of Mediterranean forests, with special regard to crucial environmental hazards such as forest fires and desertification risks related to climate change.

  12. Stirling cycle engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Gunnar

    1983-01-01

    In a Stirling cycle engine having a plurality of working gas charges separated by pistons reciprocating in cylinders, the total gas content is minimized and the mean pressure equalization among the serial cylinders is improved by using two piston rings axially spaced at least as much as the piston stroke and by providing a duct in the cylinder wall opening in the space between the two piston rings and leading to a source of minimum or maximum working gas pressure.

  13. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented at the International Conference on The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, held at Stockholm, 28 to 31 October 1975, are reviewed. The meeting, organised by the U.S. Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Swedish Nuclear Forum, was concerned more particularly with economic, political, social and commercial aspects than with tecnology. The papers discussed were considered under the subject heading of current status, uranium resources, enrichment, and reprocessing. (U.K.)

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-12-01

    The papers presented at the International Conference on The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, held at Stockholm, 28 to 31 October 1975, are reviewed. The meeting, organised by the U.S. Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Swedish Nuclear Forum, was concerned more particularly with economic, political, social and commercial aspects than with tecnology. The papers discussed were considered under the subject heading of current status, uranium resources, enrichment, and reprocessing.

  15. Alternative nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This diffuse subject involves value judgments that are political as well as technical, and is best understood in that context. The four questions raised here, however, are mostly from the technical viewpoints: (1) what are alternative nuclear fuel cycles; (2) what generalizations are possible about their characteristics; (3) what are the major practical considerations; and (4) what is the present situation and what can be said about the outlook for the future

  16. HCl removal using cycled carbide slag from calcium looping cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xin; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Wenjing; Shi, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cycled carbide slag from calcium looping cycles is used to remove HCl. • The optimum temperature for HCl removal of cycled carbide slag is 700 °C. • The presence of CO 2 restrains HCl removal of cycled carbide slag. • CO 2 capture conditions have important effects on HCl removal of cycled carbide slag. • HCl removal capacity of carbide slag drops with cycle number rising from 1 to 50. - Abstract: The carbide slag is an industrial waste from chlor-alkali plants, which can be used to capture CO 2 in the calcium looping cycles, i.e. carbonation/calcination cycles. In this work, the cycled carbide slag from the calcium looping cycles for CO 2 capture was proposed to remove HCl in the flue gas from the biomass-fired and RDFs-fired boilers. The effects of chlorination temperature, HCl concentration, particle size, presence of CO 2 , presence of O 2 , cycle number and CO 2 capture conditions in calcium looping cycles on the HCl removal behavior of the carbide slag experienced carbonation/calcination cycles were investigated in a triple fixed-bed reactor. The chlorination product of the cycled carbide slag from the calcium looping after absorbing HCl is not CaCl 2 but CaClOH. The optimum temperature for HCl removal of the cycled carbide slag from the carbonation/calcination cycles is 700 °C. The chlorination conversion of the cycled carbide slag increases with increasing the HCl concentration. The cycled carbide slag with larger particle size exhibits a lower chlorination conversion. The presence of CO 2 decreases the chlorination conversions of the cycled carbide slag and the presence of O 2 has a trifling impact. The chlorination conversion of the carbide slag experienced 1 carbonation/calcination cycle is higher than that of the uncycled calcined sorbent. As the number of carbonation/calcination cycles increases from 1 to 50, the chlorination conversion of carbide slag drops gradually. The high calcination temperature and high CO 2

  17. The urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Guy; Pacheco-Colón, Ileana; Gropman, Andrea L

    2014-07-01

    The urea cycle is the primary nitrogen-disposal pathway in humans. It requires the coordinated function of six enzymes and two mitochondrial transporters to catalyze the conversion of a molecule of ammonia, the α-nitrogen of aspartate, and bicarbonate into urea. Whereas ammonia is toxic, urea is relatively inert, soluble in water, and readily excreted by the kidney in the urine. Accumulation of ammonia and other toxic intermediates of the cycle lead to predominantly neurologic sequelae. The disorders may present at any age from the neonatal period to adulthood, with the more severely affected patients presenting earlier in life. Patients are at risk for metabolic decompensation throughout life, often triggered by illness, fasting, surgery and postoperative states, peripartum, stress, and increased exogenous protein load. Here the authors address neurologic presentations of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in detail, the most common of the urea cycle disorders, neuropathology, neurophysiology, and our studies in neuroimaging. Special attention to late-onset presentations is given. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. International Business Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Lubiński

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Prime stylized facts of international business cycle theory refer to positive correlation in the cyclical components of important macroeconomic variables across countries. However a number of indicators of business cycle synchronization do not point to clear trends. It can be ascribed to the fact that different forces influence level of business cycle correlation. When investigating into the forces behind the commonness in aggregate fluctuations economic research seems to have pointed in two directions. One strand of the literature examines the idea of common exogenous shocks that affect economies simultaneously. In addition to that economic interdependencies such as trade in goods and services or capital account transactions may serve as the channels through which disturbances spill over across countries.The observed degree of output co movement reflects both the nature of the shocks that have occurred and the degree of economic interdependence. In the periods when common shocks prevail level of synchronization is usually higher than in times of transmission dominance.

  19. Closing the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycoberry, C.; Rougeau, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The progressive implementation of some key nuclear fuel cycle capecities in a country corresponds to a strategy for the acquisition of an independant energy source, France, Japan, and some European countries are engaged in such strategic programs. In France, COGEMA, the nuclear fuel company, has now completed the industrial demonstration of the closed fuel cycle. Its experience covers every step of the front-end and of the back-end: transportation of spent fuels, storage, reprocessing, wastes conditioning. The La Hague reprocessing plant smooth operation, as well as the large investment program under active progress can testify of full mastering of this industry. Together with other French and European companies, COGEMA is engaged in the recycling industry, both for uranium through conversion of uranyl nitrate for its further reeichment, and for plutonium through MOX fuel fabrication. Reprocessing and recycling offer the optimum solution for a complete, economic, safe and future-oriented fuel cycle, hence contributing to the necessary development of nuclear energy. (author)

  20. How well can business cycle accounting account for business cycles?

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke Otsu

    2012-01-01

    The business cycle accounting method introduced by Chari, Kehoe and McGrattan (2007) is a useful tool to decompose business cycle fluctuations into their contributing factors. However, the model estimated by the maximum likelihood method cannot replicate business cycle moments computed from data. Moment-based estimation might be an attractive alternative if the purpose of the research is to study business cycle properties such as volatility, persistence and cross-correlation of variables inst...

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, S. G.; Park, B. H.; Song, K. C.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, H. H.; Chang, H. L.; Jeong, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle system analysis method has been designed and established for an integrated nuclear fuel cycle system assessment by analyzing various methodologies. The economics, PR(Proliferation Resistance) and environmental impact evaluation of the fuel cycle system were performed using improved DB, and finally the best fuel cycle option which is applicable in Korea was derived. In addition, this research is helped to increase the national credibility and transparency for PR with developing and fulfilling PR enhancement program. The detailed contents of the work are as follows: 1)Establish and improve the DB for nuclear fuel cycle system analysis 2)Development of the analysis model for nuclear fuel cycle 3)Preliminary study for nuclear fuel cycle analysis 4)Development of overall evaluation model of nuclear fuel cycle system 5)Overall evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle system 6)Evaluate the PR for nuclear fuel cycle system and derive the enhancement method 7)Derive and fulfill of nuclear transparency enhancement method The optimum fuel cycle option which is economical and applicable to domestic situation was derived in this research. It would be a basis for establishment of the long-term strategy for nuclear fuel cycle. This work contributes for guaranteeing the technical, economical validity of the optimal fuel cycle option. Deriving and fulfillment of the method for enhancing nuclear transparency will also contribute to renewing the ROK-U.S Atomic Energy Agreement in 2014

  2. Alternative ORC bottoming cycles FOR combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacartegui, R.; Sanchez, D.; Munoz, J.M.; Sanchez, T.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, low temperature Organic Rankine Cycles are studied as bottoming cycle in medium and large scale combined cycle power plants. The analysis aims to show the interest of using these alternative cycles with high efficiency heavy duty gas turbines, for example recuperative gas turbines with lower gas turbine exhaust temperatures than in conventional combined cycle gas turbines. The following organic fluids have been considered: R113, R245, isobutene, toluene, cyclohexane and isopentane. Competitive results have been obtained for toluene and cyclohexane ORC combined cycles, with reasonably high global efficiencies. The paper is structured in four main parts. A review of combined cycle and ORC cycle technologies is presented, followed by a thermodynamic analysis of combined cycles with commercial gas turbines and ORC low temperature bottoming cycles. Then, a parametric optimization of an ORC combined cycle plant is performed in order to achieve a better integration between these two technologies. Finally, some economic considerations related to the use of ORC in combined cycles are discussed.

  3. Weight Maintenance: Determinants of Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Cynthia L

    2005-01-01

    .... Obesity and physical inactivity are major preventable health problems in the United States, but despite overwhelming evidence regarding the benefits of a healthy weight and regular physical activity...

  4. Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats fed raw kudzu and negative control diet showed negative mean weight changes(- 6.50g and -10.0g )while those fed with positive control and treated kudzu diet showed positive mean weight ... The result showed that the treated flour supported growth but had no definite effect on other parameters measured.

  5. Length-weight relationships, condition factors and relative weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to record the length-weight relationship parameters and condition factors for some commercially important fish of Bushehr coastal waters of Persian Gulf. The length-weight relationships were calculated for five species caught during fishing surveys using different types of fishing gears (trawls, pots ...

  6. Weighted Branching Simulation Distance for Parametric Weighted Kripke Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foshammer, Louise; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mariegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns branching simulation for weighted Kripke structures with parametric weights. Concretely, we consider a weighted extension of branching simulation where a single transitions can be matched by a sequence of transitions while preserving the branching behavior. We relax this notion...... to allow for a small degree of deviation in the matching of weights, inducing a directed distance on states. The distance between two states can be used directly to relate properties of the states within a sub-fragment of weighted CTL. The problem of relating systems thus changes to minimizing the distance...... which, in the general parametric case, corresponds to finding suitable parameter valuations such that one system can approximately simulate another. Although the distance considers a potentially infinite set of transition sequences we demonstrate that there exists an upper bound on the length...

  7. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses during straight and bent knee cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandroukas, K; Angelopoulou, N; Christoulas, K; Vrabas, I S

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the influence of knee angle on the cardiorespiratory system loading during submaximal and maximal stationary cycle ergometry. Experimental design and participants: eighteen untrained women (age: 21+/-1.88 years, weight: 57+/-5.75 kg, height: 165+/-5.03 cm, values are mean+/-SD) volunteered as subjects and underwent two-cycle ergometer incremental (Jaeger ER900) tests: 1) straight knee (180 degrees), 2) bent knee (140 degrees). oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation (VE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured continuously during each test using an open circuit spirometry and blood lactate concentration was determined by means of an enzymatic method. Comparing cycling with "straight knee" to cycling with "bent knee" at 50 W, heart rate (HR), V(E) and VO2 were significantly higher (10.6%, 12.5%, 17.8%). At 100 W, blood lactate was significantly lower (10.8%) while VO2 and RER was higher (5.5%, 7.1%). During maximal exercise, the total exercise time was significantly longer (11.2%) and VE, VO2 and HR were significantly higher during cycling with "straight knee" compared to cycling with "bent knee". No significant difference in peak lactate was evident between the two sitting positions. The results of this study indicate that cycling with bent knee requires lower oxygen uptake while pedaling with straight knee is the only way to reach VO2max during cycle testing, since the cardiorespiratory system is fully taxed.

  8. Comprehensive Evaluation of Car-Body Light-Weighting Scheme Based on LCC Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Qing-lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation model of light-weighting scheme is established, which is based on three dimensions, including the life cycle costs of the resource consumed by the designed objects (LCC, willingness to pay for the environmental effect of resource consumption (WTP and performance (P. Firstly, cost of each stage is determined. Then, based on the resource classification, which is based on cost elements, determine the material list needed, and apply WTP weight coefficient to monetize life cycle environmental impact and obtain the life cycle comprehensive cost of designed scheme (TCC. In the next step Performance (P index is calculated to measure the value of the life cycle costs by applying AHP and SAW method, integrated (TCC and (P to achieve comprehensive evaluation of light-weighting scheme. Finally, the effectiveness of the evaluation model is verified by the example of car engine hood.

  9. GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Toshio; Lawford, Richard; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    It is critically important to recognize and co-manage the fundamental linkages across the water-dependent domains; land use, including deforestation; ecosystem services; and food-, energy- and health-securities. Sharing coordinated, comprehensive and sustained observations and information for sound decision-making is a first step; however, to take full advantage of these opportunities, we need to develop an effective collaboration mechanism for working together across different disciplines, sectors and agencies, and thereby gain a holistic view of the continuity between environmentally sustainable development, climate change adaptation and enhanced resilience. To promote effective multi-sectoral, interdisciplinary collaboration based on coordinated and integrated efforts, the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is implementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). A component of GEOSS now under development is the "GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator (WCI)", which integrates Earth observations, modeling, data and information, management systems and education systems. GEOSS/WCI sets up "work benches" by which partners can share data, information and applications in an interoperable way, exchange knowledge and experiences, deepen mutual understanding and work together effectively to ultimately respond to issues of both mitigation and adaptation. (A work bench is a virtual geographical or phenomenological space where experts and managers collaborate to use information to address a problem within that space). GEOSS/WCI enhances the coordination of efforts to strengthen individual, institutional and infrastructure capacities, especially for effective interdisciplinary coordination and integration. GEO has established the GEOSS Asian Water Cycle Initiative (AWCI) and GEOSS African Water Cycle Coordination Initiative (AfWCCI). Through regional, inter-disciplinary, multi-sectoral integration and inter-agency coordination in Asia and Africa, GEOSS

  10. Mole sieve cycle optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, P. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Maturing gas basins and declining reservoirs have prompted the search for energy and cost reduction initiatives to maintain operation sustainability. This paper discusses the development of an algorithm to improve the efficiency of the Brazeau mole sieve dehydration system. Details of the operating unit and an outline of the system were provided, as well as an operator interface. The main objectives of the research were to reduce the number of corresponding regeneration cycles; reduce annual energy requirements; and extend the life of the dessicant. Reductions were anticipated at 35 per cent, leading towards fuel savings of $45,000 a year, and carbon dioxide reductions of 670 tonnes a year. However, significant barriers were also noted, including operations, maintenance and equipment replacement issues. Equations of state were used to estimate vapor pressure or water content in gases. Approximate water content was measured with gas flow rate. The resulting algorithm was implemented using a basic best fit curve generated for one variable with a correction factor applied as a second variable. Data books were provided to present water content of hydrocarbon gas, with implementation procedures. Benefits of the new system included longer service life and reduced chemical and outside service costs, and reduced lost production during sieve changes. Additional benefits included enhanced distributed computing system (DCS) interfaces within plant operations; extension of the adsorption cycle via the functionality of the algorithm; and the fact that during a plant upset, the algorithm froze cycle sequencing and eliminated the possibility of switching the beds and repeating regeneration. The improved system resulted in savings of $87,000. tabs, figs.

  11. The Life Cycle of Centrioles

    OpenAIRE

    Hatch, E.; Stearns, T.

    2010-01-01

    Centrioles organize the centrosome and nucleate the ciliary axoneme, and the centriole life cycle has many parallels to the chromosome cycle. The centriole cycle in animals begins at fertilization with the contribution of two centrioles by the male gamete. In the ensuing cell cycles, the duplication of centrioles is controlled temporally, spatially, and numerically. As a consequence of the duplication mechanism, the two centrioles in a typical interphase cell are of different ages and have di...

  12. DETECTING ALIEN LIMIT CYCLES NEAR A HAMILTONIAN 2-SADDLE CYCLE

    OpenAIRE

    LUCA, Stijn; DUMORTIER, Freddy; Caubergh, M.; Roussarie, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at providing and example of a cubic Hamiltonian 2-saddle cycle that after bifurcation can give rise to an alien limit cycle; this is a limit cycle that is not controlled by a zero of the related Abelian integral. To guarantee the existence of an alien limit cycle one can verify generic conditions on the Abelian integral and on the transition map associated to the connections of the 2-saddle cycle. In this paper, a general method is developed to compute the first and second der...

  13. Optimum gas turbine cycle for combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyzakis, A.L.; Koroneos, C.; Xydis, G.

    2008-01-01

    The gas turbine based power plant is characterized by its relatively low capital cost compared with the steam power plant. It has environmental advantages and short construction lead time. However, conventional industrial engines have lower efficiencies, especially at part load. One of the technologies adopted nowadays for efficiency improvement is the 'combined cycle'. The combined cycle technology is now well established and offers superior efficiency to any of the competing gas turbine based systems that are likely to be available in the medium term for large scale power generation applications. This paper has as objective the optimization of a combined cycle power plant describing and comparing four different gas turbine cycles: simple cycle, intercooled cycle, reheated cycle and intercooled and reheated cycle. The proposed combined cycle plant would produce 300 MW of power (200 MW from the gas turbine and 100 MW from the steam turbine). The results showed that the reheated gas turbine is the most desirable overall, mainly because of its high turbine exhaust gas temperature and resulting high thermal efficiency of the bottoming steam cycle. The optimal gas turbine (GT) cycle will lead to a more efficient combined cycle power plant (CCPP), and this will result in great savings. The initial approach adopted is to investigate independently the four theoretically possible configurations of the gas plant. On the basis of combining these with a single pressure Rankine cycle, the optimum gas scheme is found. Once the gas turbine is selected, the next step is to investigate the impact of the steam cycle design and parameters on the overall performance of the plant, in order to choose the combined cycle offering the best fit with the objectives of the work as depicted above. Each alterative cycle was studied, aiming to find the best option from the standpoint of overall efficiency, installation and operational costs, maintainability and reliability for a combined power

  14. Relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p chewing rate (p = 0.597). A statistically significant negative correlation between body mass index and the number of chewing cycles (r = -0.296, p = 0.020) and chewing duration (r = -0.354, p = 0.005) was observed. In conclusion, these results suggest that chewing behavior is associated with body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

  15. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  16. Cycle 7 outage experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadeken, A.D.

    1986-03-01

    The scheduled 58-day refueling outage in preparation for the seventh operating cycle of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was successfully completed three days ahead of schedule. The planning and execution of the outage was greatly aided by Project/2 automated scheduling capabilities. For example, the use of ''maintenance windows'' and resource loading capabilities was particularly effective. The value of the planning process was demonstrated by the smooth transition into the outage phase after an early shutdown and set the stage for our best outage to date

  17. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    . The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The five topics included in this publication are: resources; fuel engineering and performance; spent fuel management and reprocessing; fuel cycles; and the research reactor nuclear fuel cycle

  18. The software life cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, Darrel

    1990-01-01

    The Software Life Cycle deals with the software lifecycle, that is, what exactly happens when software is developed. Topics covered include aspects of software engineering, structured techniques of software development, and software project management. The use of mathematics to design and develop computer systems is also discussed. This book is comprised of 20 chapters divided into four sections and begins with an overview of software engineering and software development, paying particular attention to the birth of software engineering and the introduction of formal methods of software develop

  19. Closing the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.; Judson, B.F.

    1984-01-01

    The possibilities for closing the fuel cycle in today's nuclear climate in the US are compared with those envisioned in 1977. Reprocessing, the fast breeder reactor program, and the uranium supply are discussed. The conclusion drawn is that the nuclear world is less healthy and less stable than the one previously envisioned and that the major task before the international nuclear community is to develop technologies, institutions, and accepted procedures that will allow to economically provide the huge store of energy from reprocessing and the breeder that it appears the world will desperately need

  20. Closed cycle electric discharge laser design investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, P. K.; Smith, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Closed cycle CO2 and CO electric discharge lasers were studied. An analytical investigation assessed scale-up parameters and design features for CO2, closed cycle, continuous wave, unstable resonator, electric discharge lasing systems operating in space and airborne environments. A space based CO system was also examined. The program objectives were the conceptual designs of six CO2 systems and one CO system. Three airborne CO2 designs, with one, five, and ten megawatt outputs, were produced. These designs were based upon five minute run times. Three space based CO2 designs, with the same output levels, were also produced, but based upon one year run times. In addition, a conceptual design for a one megawatt space based CO laser system was also produced. These designs include the flow loop, compressor, and heat exchanger, as well as the laser cavity itself. The designs resulted in a laser loop weight for the space based five megawatt system that is within the space shuttle capacity. For the one megawatt systems, the estimated weight of the entire system including laser loop, solar power generator, and heat radiator is less than the shuttle capacity.

  1. Study of a LH2-fueled topping cycle engine for aircraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of a topping cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine which is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional-type) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping cycle engine is comparable to that of the reference turboshaft engine. Previously announced in STAR as N83-34942

  2. Study of LH2-fueled topping cycle engine for aircraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of a topping cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine which is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional-type) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping cycle engine is comparable to that of the reference turboshaft engine.

  3. Analysis of a topping-cycle, aircraft, gas-turbine-engine system which uses cryogenic fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    A topping-cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel was investigated. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine that is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop, which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping-cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping-cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping-cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping-cycle engine is comparable with that of the reference turboshaft engine.

  4. Entrepreneurship and the Business Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe find new empirical regularities in the business cycle in a cross-country panel of 22 OECD countries for the period 1972-2007; entrepreneurship Granger-causes the cycles of the world economy. Furthermore, the entrepreneurial cycle is positively affected by the national unemployment

  5. Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…

  6. Culture in cycles: considering H.T. Odum's 'information cycle'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    'Culture' remains a conundrum in anthropology. When recast in the mold of 'information cycles,' culture is transformed. New fault lines appear. Information is splintered into parallel or nested forms. Dynamics becomes cycling. Energy is essential. And culture has function in a directional universe. The 'information cycle' is the crowning component of H.T. Odum's theory of general systems. What follows is an application of the information cycle to the cultural domains of discourse, social media, ritual, education, journalism, technology, academia, and law, which were never attempted by Odum. In information cycles, cultural information is perpetuated - maintained against Second Law depreciation. Conclusions are that culture is in fact a nested hierarchy of cultural forms. Each scale of information production is semi-autonomous, with its own evolutionary dynamics of production and selection in an information cycle. Simultaneously, each information cycle is channeled or entrained by its larger scale of information and ultimately human-ecosystem structuring.

  7. Proportioning of light weight concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmus, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory......Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory...

  8. Paranormal weighted conditional type operators

    OpenAIRE

    Estaremi, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, some sub-classes of paranormal weighted conditional expectation type operators, such as *-paranormal, quasi-*-paranormal and (n; k)-quasi-*-paranormal weighted conditional expectation type opera- tors on $L^2(\\Sigma)$ are investigated. Also, some applications about the spectrum, point spectrum, joint point spectrum, approximate point spectrum and joint approximate point spectrum of these classes are presented.

  9. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out of your control, you can make positive lifestyle changes to lose weight and to maintain a healthy weight. These include a healthy eating plan and being more physically active. Take the Challenge When it comes to aiming for a healthy ...

  10. Weight-Control Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  11. The centriole duplication cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fırat-Karalar, Elif Nur; Stearns, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing centre of animal cells and are important for many critical cellular and developmental processes from cell polarization to cell division. At the core of the centrosome are centrioles, which recruit pericentriolar material to form the centrosome and act as basal bodies to nucleate formation of cilia and flagella. Defects in centriole structure, function and number are associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer, brain diseases and ciliopathies. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how new centrioles are assembled and how centriole number is controlled. We propose a general model for centriole duplication control in which cooperative binding of duplication factors defines a centriole ‘origin of duplication’ that initiates duplication, and passage through mitosis effects changes that license the centriole for a new round of duplication in the next cell cycle. We also focus on variations on the general theme in which many centrioles are created in a single cell cycle, including the specialized structures associated with these variations, the deuterosome in animal cells and the blepharoplast in lower plant cells. PMID:25047614

  12. The sunspot cycle revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomb, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The set of sunspot numbers observed since the invention of the telescope is one of the most studied time series in astronomy and yet it is also one of the most complex. Fourteen frequencies are found in the yearly mean sunspot numbers from 1700 to 2011using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and prewhitening. All of the frequencies corresponding to shorter term periods can be matched with simple algebraic combinations of the frequency of the main 11-year period and the frequencies of the longer term periods in the periodogram. This is exactly what can be expected from amplitude and phase modulation of an 11.12-year periodicity by longer term variations. Similar, though not identical, results are obtained after correcting the sunspot number series as proposed by Svalgaard. On looking separately at the amplitude and phase modulation a clear relationship is found between the two modulations although this relationship has broken down for the last four solar cycles. The phase modulation implies that there is a definite underlying period for the solar cycle. Such a clock mechanism does seem to be a possibility in models of the solar dynamo incorporating a conveyor-belt-like meridional circulation between high polar latitudes and the equator.

  13. Reference thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driggers, F.E.

    1978-08-01

    In the reference fuel cycle for the TFCT program, fissile U will be denatured by mixing with 238 U; the plants will be located in secure areas, with Pu being recycled within these secure areas; Th will be recycled with recovered U and Pu; the head end will handle a variety of core and blanket fuel assembly designs for LWRs and HWRs; the fuel may be a homogeneous mixture either of U and Th oxide pellets or sol-gel microspheres; the cladding will be Zircaloy; and MgO may be added to the fuel to improve Th dissolution. Th is being considered as the fertile component of fuel in order to increase proliferation resistance. Spent U recovered from Th-based fuels must be re-enriched before recycle to prevent very rapid buildup of 238 U. Stainless steel will be considered as a backup to Zircaloy cladding in case Zr is incompatible with commercial aqueous dissolution. Storage of recovered irradiated Th will be considered as a backup to its use in the recycle of recovered Pu and U. Estimates are made of the time for introducing the Th fuel cycle into the LWR power industry. Since U fuel exposures in LWRs are likely to increase from 30,000 to 50,000 MWD/MT, the Th reprocessing plant should also be designed for Th fuel with 50,000 MWD/MT exposure

  14. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This contribution is prepared for the answer to the questionnaire of working group 5, subgroup B. B.1. is the short review of the fast breeder fuel cycles based on the reference large commercial Japanese LMFBR. The LMFBRs are devided into two types. FBR-A is the reactor to be used before 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively low. The reference fuel cycle requirement is calculated based on the FBR-A. FBR-B is the one to be used after 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively high. B.2. is basic FBR fuel reprocessing scheme emphasizing the differences with LWR reprocessing. This scheme is based on the conceptual design and research and development work on the small scale LMFBR reprocessing facility of Japan. The facility adopts a conventional PUREX process except head end portions. The report also describes the effects of technical modifications of conventional reprocessing flow sheets, and the problems to be solved before the adoption of these alternatives

  15. Changing global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadell, Pep

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) is the single largest human perturbation on the earth's radiative balance contributing to climate change. Its rate of change reflects the balance between anthropogenic carbon emissions and the dynamics of a number of terrestrial and ocean processes that remove or emit C02. It is the long term evolution of this balance that will determine to large extent the speed and magnitude of the human induced climate change and the mitigation requirements to stabilise atmospheric C02 concentrations at any given level. In this talk, we show new trends in global carbon sources and sinks, with particularly focus on major shifts occurring since 2000 when the growth rate of atmospheric C02 has reached its highest level on record. The acceleration in the C02 growth results from the combination of several changes in properties of the carbon cycle, including: acceleration of anthropogenic carbon emissions; increased carbon intensity of the global economy, and decreased efficiency of natural carbon sinks. We discuss in more detail some of the possible causes of the reduced efficiency of natural carbon sinks on land and oceans, such as the decreased net sink in the Southern Ocean and on terrestrial mid-latitudes due to world-wide occurrence of drought. All these changes reported here characterise a carbon cycle that is generating stronger than expected climate forcing, and sooner than expected

  16. Fungible weights in logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff A; Waller, Niels G

    2016-06-01

    In this article we develop methods for assessing parameter sensitivity in logistic regression models. To set the stage for this work, we first review Waller's (2008) equations for computing fungible weights in linear regression. Next, we describe 2 methods for computing fungible weights in logistic regression. To demonstrate the utility of these methods, we compute fungible logistic regression weights using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (2010) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, and we illustrate how these alternate weights can be used to evaluate parameter sensitivity. To make our work accessible to the research community, we provide R code (R Core Team, 2015) that will generate both kinds of fungible logistic regression weights. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Wildenschild

    Full Text Available To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability.In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, 3,000-3,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using a proportional probabilities regression model.Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12, and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24 for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight.Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability.

  18. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina R Sutin

    Full Text Available Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08 and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97 than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  19. Behavior of Plain Concrete of a High Water-Cement Ratio after Freeze-Thaw Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Huai-Shuai; Yi, Ting-Hua; Song, Yu-Pu

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study of plain concrete specimens of water-cement ratio 0.55, subjected to 0, 15, 25, 40, 50 and 75 cycles of freeze-thaw was completed. The dynamic modulus of elasticity (DME), weight loss, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, cleavage strength and stress-strain relationships of plain concrete specimens suffering from freeze-thaw cycles were measured. The experimental results showed that the strength decreased as the freeze-thaw cycles were repeated. A c...

  20. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...... 29.0 kg/m(2)) women, with emphasis on the use of the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations in Denmark....

  1. Part 5. Fuel cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; McFarlane, H.F.; Amundson, P.I.; Goin, R.W.; Webster, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the FBR fuel cycle study that supported US contributions to the INFCE are presented. Fuel cycle technology is reviewed from both generic and historical standpoints. Technology requirements are developed within the framework of three deployment scenarios: the reference international, the secured area, and the integral cycle. Reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling, transportation, and safeguards are discussed for each deployment scenario. Fuel cycle modifications designed to increase proliferation defenses are described and assessed for effectiveness and technology feasibility. The present status of fuel cycle technology is reviewed and key issues that require resolution are identified

  2. Ammonia-water Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Hanliang; Ma Changwen; Wu Shaorong

    1997-01-01

    On characteristics of heating source and cooling source in nuclear heating reactor cooperation, the authors advance a new kind of power cycle in which a multicomponent mixture as the work fluid, ammonia-water Rankine cycle, describe its running principle, and compare it with steam Rankine cycle in the same situation. The result is that: the new kind of power cycle, ammonia-water Rankine cycle has higher electricity efficiency; it suits for the situation of heating source and cooling source which offered by nuclear heating reactor cooperation. For low temperature heating source, it maybe has a widely application

  3. Drug Delivery Research: The Invention Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kinam

    2016-07-05

    Controlled drug delivery systems have been successful in introducing improved formulations for better use of existing drugs and novel delivery of biologicals. The initial success of producing many oral products and some injectable depot formulations, however, reached a plateau, and the progress over the past three decades has been slow. This is likely due to the difficulties of formulating hydrophilic, high molecular weight drugs, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for targeting specific cells, month-long sustained delivery, and pulsatile release. Since the approaches that have served well for delivery of small molecules are not applicable to large molecules, it is time to develop new methods for biologicals. The process of developing future drug delivery systems, termed as the invention cycle, is proposed, and it starts with clearly defining the problems for developing certain formulations. Once the problems are well-defined, creative imagination examines all potential options and selects the best answer and alternatives. Then, innovation takes over to generate unique solutions for developing new formulations that resolve the previously identified problems. Ultimately, the new delivery systems will have to go through a translational process to produce the final formulations for clinical use. The invention cycle also emphasizes examining the reasons for success of certain formulations, not just the reasons for failure of many systems. Implementation of the new invention cycle requires new mechanisms of funding the younger generation of scientists and a new way of identifying their achievements, thereby releasing them from the burden of short-termism.

  4. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cycling infrastructure for reducing cycling injuries in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Caroline A; Smith, Sherie; Watson, Michael C; Parkin, John; Coupland, Carol; Miller, Philip; Kendrick, Denise; McClintock, Hugh

    2015-12-10

    Cycling is an attractive form of transport. It is beneficial to the individual as a form of physical activity that may fit more readily into an individual's daily routine, such as for cycling to work and to the shops, than other physical activities such as visiting a gym. Cycling is also beneficial to the wider community and the environment as a result of fewer motorised journeys. Cyclists are seen as vulnerable road users who are frequently in close proximity to larger and faster motorised vehicles. Cycling infrastructure aims to make cycling both more convenient and safer for cyclists. This review is needed to guide transport planning. To:1. evaluate the effects of different types of cycling infrastructure on reducing cycling injuries in cyclists, by type of infrastructure;2. evaluate the effects of cycling infrastructure on reducing the severity of cycling injuries in cyclists;3. evaluate the effects of cycling infrastructure on reducing cycling injuries in cyclists with respect to age, sex and social group. We ran the most recent search on 2nd March 2015. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase Classic + Embase(OvidSP), PubMed and 10 other databases. We searched websites, handsearched conference proceedings, screened reference lists of included studies and previously published reviews and contacted relevant organisations. We included randomised controlled trials, cluster randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series studies which evaluated the effect of cycling infrastructure (such as cycle lanes, tracks or paths, speed management, roundabout design) on cyclist injury or collision rates. Studies had to include a comparator, that is, either no infrastructure or a different type of infrastructure. We excluded studies that assessed collisions that occurred as a result of competitive cycling. Two review authors examined the titles and

  6. Infertility and Weight Reduction: Influence and Outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskheli, M. N.; Baloch, S.; Baloch, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of weight reduction in obese infertile women on conception rate spontaneously as well as with ovulation induction and pregnancy outcome. Study Design: Observational experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Different private clinics at Mirpurkhas, Thana Bola Khan and Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan, from March 2008 to February 2011. Methodology: Infertile women who were obese with the body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/ m2 and failed to conceive within 2-5 years after taking treatment of infertility for many cycles were inducted. These women underwent life style change program related to exercise and diet for 6 months and in the next 6 months they were observed for spontaneous conception. Those women who failed to conceive were prescribed ovulation induction (clomifene citrate) for the next 6 months and were observed for conception. After conception, they visited regularly during antenatal period till delivery. The data was collected and analyzed on SPSS version 17. Results: The mean decrease in the body index observed was 9.6 +- 1.23 kg/m2, spontaneous conception rate was (n = 35, 41.17%) and miscarriage rate was (n = 9, 16.66%). Conclusion: Weight reduction leads to high spontaneous conception rate as well as with ovulation induction therapy and improves the pregnancy outcome. (author)

  7. A seven day running training period increases basal urinary hepcidin levels as compared to cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M.; Dawson, B.; Landers, G.J.; Swinkels, D.W.; Tjalsma, H.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Trinder, D.; Peeling, P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This investigation compared the effects of an extended period of weight-bearing (running) vs. non-weight-bearing (cycling) exercise on hepcidin production and its implications for iron status. METHODS: Ten active males performed two separate exercise training blocks with either running

  8. LIFE CYCLE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Sennik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is a generalization of the theoretical propositions related to the life cycle of information systems. There was given the definition of the life cycle, specify which items you should include every step of the cycle. Describes the methodology division of the life cycle on the main stage, including methodology Rational Unified Process. The description of the fundamental standards in this area. Special attention was paid to the work of the basic life cycle models. It was carried out their comparative characteristics. On the basis of the theoretical propositions, it was concluded that the preferred model of the life cycle for the corporate network is a spiral model and the use of international standards in the life cycle saves a lot of effort, time and material resources.

  9. Weight Changes in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    This PhD thesis is about weight changes. What determines long-term weight changes in the adult general population? Is it possible that weight loss may not always be healthy? The present clinical guidelines for general practice advice most overweight persons and patients with type 2 diabetes to lose weight. Are the guidelines based on firm evidence?   METHODS: The back-bone of the thesis is constituted by three scientific articles based on three different population based cohort studies. Multivariable modeling and other epidemiological methods were used.   RESULTS: Article 1 examined weight changes in the general population in relation to smoking status, and proposed a graphical 'smoking cessation weight change model', demonstrating the importance of time, age and smoking status in relation to long-term weight changes. Article 2 suggested new methods to improve the processing of dietary data. It was demonstrated how median imputation for missing values and assumptions about standard portion sizes were inferior to stochastic methods conditioning on information about physiology of the individual. Article 3 evaluated the influence of prospectively planned intentional weight loss on long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therapeutic intentional weight loss supervised by a medical doctor was not associated with reduced morbidity or mortality. In the general population the dietary intake of fructose and soft drinks sweetened with sugar was not associated with weight change over 9 years. Weight gain rates were large in young adults and incrementally smaller in middle aged adults. Subjects more than 60 years lost weight on average. Historical weight data suggest that the body weight increases throughout life to the age of 60-65years. A study with simulated data indicates that bias in baseline BMI may misleadingly have favored weight loss in earlier cohort studies of intentional weight loss and mortality.   DISCUSSION: The findings regarding

  10. Early weight loss predicts weight loss treatment response regardless of binge-eating disorder status and pretreatment weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Pittman, Brian P; Grilo, Carlos M

    2018-04-10

    Individuals seeking weight loss treatment have diverse pretreatment weight trajectories, and once enrolled, individuals' response to weight loss treatments also varies greatly and may be influenced by the presence of binge-eating disorder (BED). Reported average weight losses may obscure these considerable differences. This study examined whether BED status and different weight-related change variables are associated with successful weight loss treatment outcomes in a controlled treatment study. Participants (N = 89) with overweight/obesity, with and without BED, participated in a 3-month weight loss trial in primary care with 3- and 12-month follow-ups. We tested the prognostic significance of four weight-related change variables (the last supper, early weight loss, pretreatment weight trajectory, weight suppression) on outcomes (weight loss-overall, weight loss-"subsequent," weight loss during second half of treatment). Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-overall at post-treatment, and at 3-month and 12-month follow-up. Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-subsequent at post-treatment only. No other weight-related variables were significantly associated with weight loss. Models including BED status and treatment condition were not significant. Participants with early weight loss were more likely to continue losing weight, regardless of BED status or treatment condition. The results highlight the importance of early dedication to weight loss treatment to increase the likelihood of positive outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Weight control behaviors of highly successful weight loss maintainers: the Portuguese Weight Control Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês; Vieira, Paulo N; Silva, Marlene N; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2017-04-01

    To describe key behaviors reported by participants in the Portuguese Weight Control Registry and to determine associations between these behaviors and weight loss maintenance. A total of 388 adults participated in this cross-sectional study. Assessments included demographic information, weight history, weight loss and weight maintenance strategies, dietary intake, and physical activity. Participants lost on average 18 kg, which they had maintained for ~28 months. Their average dietary intake was 2199 kcal/day, with 33 % of energy coming from fat. About 78 % of participants engaged in levels of moderate-plus-vigorous physical activity exceeding 150 min/week (51 % above 250 min/week), with men accumulating 82 more minutes than women (p breakfast. Greater weight loss maintenance was associated with higher levels of physical activity, walking, weight self-monitoring, establishing specific goals, and with reduced portion size use, reduced consumption of carbohydrates, and increased consumption of protein, (p < 0.05). Results indicate that weight loss maintenance is possible through the adoption of a nutritionally-balanced diet and regular participation in physical activity, but also suggest that adopting different (and, to a degree, individualized) set of behavioral strategies is key for achieving success.

  12. Iterative Selection of Unknown Weights in Direct Weight Optimization Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To the direct weight optimization identification of the nonlinear system, we add some linear terms about input sequences in the former linear affine function so as to approximate the nonlinear property. To choose the two classes of unknown weights in the more linear terms, this paper derives the detailed process on how to choose these unknown weights from theoretical analysis and engineering practice, respectively, and makes sure of their key roles between the unknown weights. From the theoretical analysis, the added unknown weights’ auxiliary role can be known in the whole process of approximating the nonlinear system. From the practical analysis, we learn how to transform one complex optimization problem to its corresponding common quadratic program problem. Then, the common quadratic program problem can be solved by the basic interior point method. Finally, the efficiency and possibility of the proposed strategies can be confirmed by the simulation results.

  13. Shellfish Feeding Experiments, Filter Weight and Tissue Weight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Particulate matter removal by shellfish was quantified in several geographic locations, across several years. Data include filter and shellfish tissue weights.

  14. Change in women's eating habits during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, Ines; Ben Saâda, Wafa; Sifaou, Amira; Haouat, Emna; Kandara, Hajer; Ben Salem, Leila; Ben Slama, Claude

    2017-02-01

    During the menstrual cycle, the influence of hormonal variations on dietary habits in women has been suggested by several studies. In this context, our work aimed to assess the spontaneous food intake and the anthropometric parameters of women at different periods of their menstrual cycles. This prospective study included 30 healthy women with regular periods (28 to 30 days), aged between 18 and 45. We assessed the spontaneous food intake and the anthropometric measurements (weight and waist circumference) of the participants, during the follicular, peri-ovulatory and luteal phases of their menstrual cycles. Our results showed a slight but significant increase in body weight during the luteal phase (P=0.022) and the follicular phase (P=0.017) compared with the peri-ovulatory phase, without any significant change in waist circumference. The caloric intake increased during the peri-ovulatory (P<0.001) and the luteal phases (P<0.001), compared with the follicular phase, with a significant increase in carbohydrate (P<0.001), lipid (P=0.008) and protein (P=0.008) intake. Our study showed a significant decrease in women's weight during the peri-ovulatory phase, with a significant increase in caloric intake during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Divergent results have been reported by other authors and the physiopathology of these changes is still poorly understood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  16. The supercontinent cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nance, R.D.; Worsley, T.R.; Moody, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    This paper discusses a new theory of plate tectonics which proposes that Pangaea was only the most recent in a series of supercontinents that have been breaking up and reassembling every 500 million years or so. The cycle, driven by heat percolating up from the mantle, splits continents and drives interrelated processes that shape the earth's geology and climate and play a role in biological evolution. The framework of the supercontinent theory makes it possible to understand the timing of changes in sea level that have taken place in the past 570 million years, and also helps to explain periods of intense mountain building, episodes of glaciation, and changes in the nature of life on the earth.

  17. The nuclear power cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Fifty years after the first nuclear reactor come on-line, nuclear power is fourth among the world's primary energy sources, after oil, coal and gas. In 2002, there were 441 reactors in operation worldwide. The United States led the world with 104 reactors and an installed capacity of 100,000 MWe, or more than one fourth of global capacity. Electricity from nuclear energy represents 78% of the production in France, 57% in Belgium, 46% in Sweden, 40% in Switzerland, 39% in South Korea, 34% in Japan, 30% in Germany, 30% in Finland, 26% in Spain, 22% in Great Britain, 20% in the United States and 16% in Russia. Worldwide, 32 reactors are under construction, including 21 in Asia. This information document presents the Areva activities in the nuclear power cycle: the nuclear fuel, the nuclear reactors, the spent fuel reprocessing and recycling and nuclear cleanup and dismantling. (A.L.B.)

  18. CANDU advanced fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, J.B.

    1986-03-01

    This report is based on informal lectures and presentations made on CANDU Advanced Fuel Cycles over the past year or so, and discusses the future role of CANDU in the changing environment for the Canadian and international nuclear power industry. The changing perspectives of the past decade lead to the conclusion that a significant future market for a CANDU advanced thermal reactor will exist for many decades. Such a reactor could operate in a stand-alone strategy or integrate with a mixed CANDU-LWR or CANDU-FBR strategy. The consistent design focus of CANDU on enhanced efficiency of resource utilization combined with a simple technology to achieve economic targets, will provide sufficient flexibility to maintain CANDU as a viable power producer for both the medium- and long-term future

  19. Open cycle thermoacoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Robert Stowers [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  20. The planning cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William

    2005-01-01

    Information technology planning can be described as a continuous cyclical process composed of three phases whose primary purpose is optimum allocation of scarce resources. In the assessment phase, planners assess user needs, environmental factors, business objectives, and IT infrastructure needs to develop IT projects that address needs in each of these areas. A major goal of this phase is to develop a broad IT inventory. The prioritization phase seeks to ensure optimum allocation of scarce resources by prioritizing ITprojects based on: Costs--total life cycle costs. Benefits--both quantitative and non-quantitative, including support for the organization's strategic business objectives. Risks--subjective assessments of technological and non-technological risks. Implementation requirements--time and personnel requirements to implement the system. The scheduling phase incorporates sequencing considerations, personnel availability, and budgetary constraints to produce an IT plan in which project priorities are adjusted to meet organizational realities.

  1. Variable cycle engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, A.P.; Sprunger, E.V.

    1980-09-16

    A variable cycle turboshaft engine includes a remote fan system and respective high and low pressure systems for selectively driving the fan system in such a manner as to provide VTOL takeoff capability and minimum specific fuel consumption (SFC) at cruise and loiter conditions. For takeoff the fan system is primarily driven by the relatively large low pressure system whose combustor receives the motive fluid from a core bypass duct and, for cruise and loiter conditions, the fan system is driven by both a relatively small high pressure core and the low pressure system with its combustor inoperative. A mixer is disposed downstream of the high pressure system for mixing the relatively cold air from the bypass duct and the relatively hot air from the core prior to its flow to the low pressure turbine.

  2. HTGR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In the spring of 1987, the HTGR fuel cycle project has been existing for ten years, and for this reason a status seminar has been held on May 12, 1987 in the Juelich Nuclear Research Center, that gathered the participants in this project for a discussion on the state of the art in HTGR fuel element development, graphite development, and waste management. The papers present an overview of work performed so far and an outlook on future tasks and goals, and on taking stock one can say that the project has been very successful so far: The HTGR fuel element now available meets highest requirements and forms the basis of today's HTGR safety philosophy; research work on graphite behaviour in a high-temperature reactor has led to complete knowledge of the temperature or neutron-induced effects, and with the concept of direct ultimate waste disposal, the waste management problem has found a feasible solution. (orig./GL) [de

  3. Evaluation method for regional water cycle health based on nature-society water cycle theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanghong; Fan, Weiwei; Yi, Yujun; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Jiahong

    2017-08-01

    Regional water cycles increasingly reflect the dual influences of natural and social processes, and are affected by global climate change and expanding human activities. Understanding how to maintain a healthy state of the water cycle has become an important proposition for sustainable development of human society. In this paper, natural-social attributes of the water cycle are synthesized and 19 evaluation indices are selected from four dimensions, i.e., water-based ecosystem integrity, water quality, water resource abundance and water resource use. A hierarchical water-cycle health evaluation system is established. An analytic hierarchy process is used to set the weight of the criteria layer and index layer, and the health threshold for each index is defined. Finally, a water-cycle health composite-index assessment model and fuzzy recognition model are constructed based on the comprehensive index method and fuzzy mathematics theory. The model is used to evaluate the state of health of the water cycle in Beijing during 2010-2014 and in the planning year (late 2014), considering the transfer of 1 billion m3 of water by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP). The results show health scores for Beijing of 2.87, 3.10, 3.38, 3.11 and 3.02 during 2010-2014. The results of fuzzy recognition show that the sub-healthy grade accounted for 54%, 49%, 61% and 49% of the total score, and all years had a sub-healthy state. Results of the criteria layer analysis show that water ecosystem function, water quality and water use were all at the sub-healthy level and that water abundance was at the lowest, or sick, level. With the water transfer from the SNWDP, the health score of the water cycle in Beijing reached 4.04. The healthy grade accounted for 60% of the total score, and the water cycle system was generally in a healthy state. Beijing's water cycle health level is expected to further improve with increasing water diversion from the SNWDP and industrial

  4. Maintenance of weight loss or stability in subjects with obesity: a retrospective longitudinal analysis of a real-world population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DerSarkissian, Maral; Bhak, Rachel H; Huang, Joanna; Buchs, Sarah; Vekeman, Francis; Smolarz, B Gabriel; Brett, Jason; Ganguly, Rahul; Duh, Mei Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Characterize patterns of weight change among subjects with obesity. A retrospective observational longitudinal study of subjects with obesity was conducted using the General Electric Centricity electronic medical record database. Subjects who were ≥18 years old with BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 (first defining index BMI), had no medical conditions associated with unintentional weight loss, and had ≥4 BMI measurements/year for ≥2.5 years were included and categorized into groups (stable weight: within <5% of index BMI; modest weight loss: ≥5 to <10% of index BMI lost; moderate weight loss: ≥10 to <15% of index BMI lost; and high weight loss: ≥15% of index BMI lost) based on weight change during 6 months following index. No interventions were considered. Patterns of weight change were then assessed for 2 years. A total of 177,743 subjects were included: 85.1% of subjects were in the stable weight, 9.3% in the modest, 2.3% in the moderate, and 3.3% in the high weight loss groups. The proportion of subjects who maintained or continued to lose weight decreased over the 2 year observation period; 11% of those with high weight loss continued to lose weight and 19% maintained their weight loss. This group had the lowest percentage of subjects who regained ≥50% of lost weight and the lowest proportion of subjects with weight cycling (defined as not continuously losing, gaining, or maintaining weight throughout the 2 year observation period relative to its beginning). This trend persisted in subgroups with class II-III obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. Weight cycling and regain were commonly observed. Subjects losing the most weight during the initial period were more likely to continue losing weight.

  5. The uranium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.

    1988-01-01

    In identifying uranium provinces, and, more importantly, mineralized zones within these provinces, it is of paramount importance to attempt to trace the geochemical behaviour of an element through all stages of Earth's evolution. Aspects that need to be addressed in this regard include solar abundance levels and fractionation processes during accretion, changing patterns of crustal evolution, effects of an evolving atmosphere, and the weathering cycle. Abundance patterns and partition coefficients of some of the siderophile elements in mantle rocks lend support to a multistage accretionary process. Lack of a terrestrial record in the first 500 Ma necessitates that lunar models be invoked, which suggests that early fractionation of a mafic/ultramafic magma resulted in an anorthositic crust. Fractionation of the mantle and transfer of materials to the upper levels must be central to any model invoked for development of the crust. Given high heat flow conditions in the early Archaean it would seem inescapable that the process of sea floor spreading and plate tectonics was an ongoing process. If the plate tectonic model is taken back to 3500 Ma, and assuming current speading rates, then about half of the mantle has passed through the irreversible differentiation cycle. Arguments in support of recycled material must be balanced against mantle metasomatism effects. With the associated advent of partial melting of the mantle material a partitioning of minor and trace elements into the melt fraction would take place. The early primitive mafic and ultramafic komatiites exemplify this feature by concentrating U and Th by a factor of 5 compared to chondritic abundances. It is of tantamount importance to understand the generation of the magmas in order to predict which are the 'fertile' bodies in terms of radioelement concentrations. In that the granitoid magmas image their source compositions, the association of high radioelements will primarily be source-dependent. Uranium

  6. Optimal design of condenser weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jing; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    The condenser is an important component in nuclear power plants, which dimension and weight will effect the economical performance and the arrangement of the nuclear power plants. In this paper, the calculation model is established according to the design experience. The corresponding codes are also developed, and the sensitivity of design parameters which influence the condenser weight is analyzed. The present design optimization of the condenser, taking the weight minimization as the objective, is carried out with the self-developed complex-genetic algorithm. The results show that the reference condenser design is far from the best scheme, and also verify the feasibility of the complex-genetic algorithm. (authors)

  7. The Hamburg oceanic carbon cycle circulation model. Cycle 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Reimer, E.; Heinze, C.

    1992-02-01

    The carbon cycle model calculates the prognostic fields of oceanic geochemical carbon cycle tracers making use of a 'frozen' velocity field provided by a run of the LSG oceanic circulation model (see the corresponding manual, LSG=Large Scale Geostrophic). The carbon cycle model includes a crude approximation of interactions between sediment and bottom layer water. A simple (meridionally diffusive) one layer atmosphere model allows to calculate the CO 2 airborne fraction resulting from the oceanic biogeochemical interactions. (orig.)

  8. Creeping of hysteresis cycles; Reptation des cycles d'hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Faculte des Sciences de Grenoble, 38 (France)

    1959-07-01

    Creeping consists of a kind of progressive translation of dissymmetric ferromagnetic hysteresis cycles as a function of the order number of the cycle. It is interpreted here by means of a probable coupling field, the existence of which is connected to a statistical conception of the distribution of the elementary regions. (author) [French] La reptation consiste en une sorte de translation progressive des cycles d'hysteresis ferromagnetiques dissymetriques en fonction du numero d'ordre du cycle. L'auteur l'interprete au moyen d'un champ aleatoire de couplage dont l'existence est liee a une conception statistique de la distribution des domaines elementaires. (auteur)

  9. Bipolar Medications and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mood stabilizer. The medication Symbyax combines the antidepressant fluoxetine and the antipsychotic olanzapine and is associated with ... in body weight and psychotropic drugs: A systematic synthesis of the literature. PLOS One. 2012;7:e36889. ...

  10. Efficient Completion of Weighted Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Waldmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider directed graphs with edge labels from a semiring. We present an algorithm that allows efficient execution of queries for existence and weights of paths, and allows updates of the graph: adding nodes and edges, and changing weights of existing edges. We apply this method in the construction of matchbound certificates for automatically proving termination of string rewriting. We re-implement the decomposition/completion algorithm of Endrullis et al. (2006 in our framework, and achieve comparable performance.

  11. Wastes from the light water reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steindler, M.J.; Trevorrow, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    The LWR fuel cycle is represented, in the minimum detail necessary to indicate the origin of the wastes, as a system of operations that is typical of those proposed for various commercial fuel cycle ventures. The primary wastes (before any treatment) are described in terms of form, volume, radioactivity, chemical composition, weight, and combustibility (in anticipation of volume reduction treatments). Properties of the wastes expected from the operation of reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants are expressed in terms of their amounts per unit of nuclear energy produced

  12. Intersections of Hirzebruch–Zagier divisors and CM cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This monograph treats one case of a series of conjectures by S. Kudla, whose goal is to show that Fourier of Eisenstein series encode information about the Arakelov intersection theory of special cycles on Shimura varieties of orthogonal and unitary type. Here, the Eisenstein series is a Hilbert modular form of weight one over a real quadratic field, the Shimura variety is a classical Hilbert modular surface, and the special cycles are complex multiplication points and the Hirzebruch–Zagier divisors. By developing new techniques in deformation theory, the authors successfully compute the Arakelov intersection multiplicities of these divisors, and show that they agree with the Fourier coefficients of derivatives of Eisenstein series.

  13. In anticipation of cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunches, Joseph; van der Linden, Ronald; Lundstedt, Henrik

    Anxious eyes are watching for the beginnings of new solar cycle 24. The watchers are many; scientists, engineers, academics, forecasters, end users. Their needs however vary, from the attraction of a better understanding of our nearest star, to how its increase in luminosity will affect particular aspects such as satellite orbits or the strength of the episodic storms that are most likely to occur during the height of the cycle. The first sign, however fleeting, occurred in January, 2008, when an ephemeral new cycle spot was numbered by NOAA as 10981. It was gone quickly but did mark the possible beginning of the new cycle. There has been great debate among solar physicists on how strong cycle 24 will be; and when it will start, reach maximum, and decline. This talk will give the status of the efforts to predict cycle 24, and the most recent projections.

  14. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Healthy couples recruited throughout Denmark....... PATIENT(S): Two hundred ninety-five couples who were planning their first pregnancy were followed up from the discontinuation of birth control until a pregnancy was recognized within six menstrual cycles. Early embryonal losses were detected by changes in urinary hCG levels. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The probability of pregnancy occurring within one menstrual cycle (fecundity). RESULT(S): In women who had a cycle length that differed by >10 days from the usual cycle length, fecundity was approximately 25% that of women who had no variation (odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval...

  15. The Global Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, J. N.

    2003-12-01

    Once upon a time nitrogen did not exist. Today it does. In the intervening time the universe was formed, nitrogen was created, the Earth came into existence, and its atmosphere and oceans were formed! In this analysis of the Earth's nitrogen cycle, I start with an overview of these important events relative to nitrogen and then move on to the more traditional analysis of the nitrogen cycle itself and the role of humans in its alteration.The universe is ˜15 Gyr old. Even after its formation, there was still a period when nitrogen did not exist. It took ˜300 thousand years after the big bang for the Universe to cool enough to create atoms; hydrogen and helium formed first. Nitrogen was formed in the stars through the process of nucleosynthesis. When a star's helium mass becomes great enough to reach the necessary pressure and temperature, helium begins to fuse into still heavier elements, including nitrogen.Approximately 10 Gyr elapsed before Earth was formed (˜4.5 Ga (billion years ago)) by the accumulation of pre-assembled materials in a multistage process. Assuming that N2 was the predominate nitrogen species in these materials and given that the temperature of space is -270 °C, N2 was probably a solid when the Earth was formed since its boiling point (b.p.) and melting point (m.p.) are -196 °C and -210 °C, respectively. Towards the end of the accumulation period, temperatures were probably high enough for significant melting of some of the accumulated material. The volcanic gases emitted by the resulting volcanism strongly influenced the surface environment. Nitrogen was converted from a solid to a gas and emitted as N2. Carbon and sulfur were probably emitted as CO and H2S (Holland, 1984). N2 is still the most common nitrogen volcanic gas emitted today at a rate of ˜2 TgN yr-1 (Jaffee, 1992).Once emitted, the gases either remained in the atmosphere or were deposited to the Earth's surface, thus continuing the process of biogeochemical cycling. The rate of

  16. Temporal trends in pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in Bavaria 2000–2007: slightly decreasing birth weight with increasing weight gain in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Schiessl, Barbara; Beyerlein, Andreas; Lack, Nicholas; Kries, Rüdiger von

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To assess temporal trends in birth weight and pregnancy weight gain in Bavaria from 2000 to 2007. Methods: Data on 695,707 mother and infant pairs (singleton term births) were available from a compulsory reporting system for quality assurance, including information on birth weight, maternal weight at delivery and at booking, maternal smoking, age, and further anthropometric and lifestyle factors. Pregnancy weight gain was defined as: weight prior to delivery minus weight at first booki...

  17. The life cycle of centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, E; Stearns, T

    2010-01-01

    Centrioles organize the centrosome and nucleate the ciliary axoneme, and the centriole life cycle has many parallels to the chromosome cycle. The centriole cycle in animals begins at fertilization with the contribution of two centrioles by the male gamete. In the ensuing cell cycles, the duplication of centrioles is controlled temporally, spatially, and numerically. As a consequence of the duplication mechanism, the two centrioles in a typical interphase cell are of different ages and have different functions. Here, we discuss how new centrioles are assembled, what mechanisms limit centriole number, and the consequences of the inherent asymmetry of centriole duplication and segregation.

  18. Reproductive cycles of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W

    2011-04-01

    The cervids are a complex assemblage of taxa showing extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. Reproductive strategies adopted by various species are also diverse, and include a range from highly seasonal to completely aseasonal birth patterns. The recent growth in knowledge on cervid reproduction is strongly biased towards the larger-bodied, gregarious mixed grazer-browser species that have adapted well to human management and commercialisation. These species tend to represent 'K-selected' climax species characterised by very productive annual breeding success, singleton births and long breeding life (10+ years). Conversely, we know relatively little about the reproductive patterns of the 'r-selected' smaller-bodied, solitary (and often highly territorial), forest-dwelling browser species, often characterised by great fecundity (twinning) and shorter breeding life (<10 years). This group includes many of the endangered cervid taxa. This review extends earlier reviews to include more recent work on cervid reproductive cycles, particularly in relation to environmental factors influencing gestation length. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Lisa Y; Klotz, Martin G

    2016-02-08

    Nitrogen is the fourth most abundant element in cellular biomass, and it comprises the majority of Earth's atmosphere. The interchange between inert dinitrogen gas (N2) in the extant atmosphere and 'reactive nitrogen' (those nitrogen compounds that support, or are products of, cellular metabolism and growth) is entirely controlled by microbial activities. This was not the case, however, in the primordial atmosphere, when abiotic reactions likely played a significant role in the inter-transformation of nitrogen oxides. Although such abiotic reactions are still important, the extant nitrogen cycle is driven by reductive fixation of dinitrogen and an enzyme inventory that facilitates dinitrogen-producing reactions. Prior to the advent of the Haber-Bosch process (the industrial fixation of N2 into ammonia, NH3) in 1909, nearly all of the reactive nitrogen in the biosphere was generated and recycled by microorganisms. Although the Haber-Bosch process more than quadrupled the productivity of agricultural crops, chemical fertilizers and other anthropogenic sources of fixed nitrogen now far exceed natural contributions, leading to unprecedented environmental degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  1. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  2. The closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froment, Antoine; Gillet, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

  3. Life-cycle cost analysis of adsorption cycles for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Chakraborty, A.; Saha, B.B.; Chun, Won Gee; Ng, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the thermo-economic analysis of the adsorption desalination (AD) cycle that is driven by low-temperature waste heat from exhaust of industrial processes or renewable sources. The AD cycle uses an adsorbent such as the silica gel

  4. 'Benefits cycle' replacing premium cycle as consumerism takes hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The traditional premium cycle of ups and downs in rates is giving way to a new phenomenon--driven by the advent of consumerism in health care--termed the "benefits cycle" by one consultant. Rather than shifts in rates, he argues, the future will see shifts in benefits packages.

  5. Preventing Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Postpartum Weight Retention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Dwyer, V

    2017-10-01

    regnancy and the postpartum period are unique opportunities to promote healthy lifestyle choices including a healthy diet and regular exercise. This is especially important for those who are overweight or obese. Women are weighed at their first antenatal visit and body mass index (BMI) calculated, but not all hospitals routinely weigh women throughout pregnancy. A qualitative Dublin study examined experiences of routine weighing during antenatal care. This study found that women expected to be weighed during pregnancy and postpartum. The benefits of this included providing reassurance and minimising postpartum weight retention. Furthermore, women were eager to receive more information about healthy lifestyle interventions and gestational weight gain (GWG) from healthcare professionals

  6. (Dis-)solving the Weight Problem in Binge-Eating Disorder: Systemic Insights From Three Treatment Contexts With Weight Stability, Weight Loss, and Weight Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lene Bomholt; Waaddegaard, Mette; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2018-04-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is a severe eating disorder strongly associated with obesity. Treatments struggle to provide safe and effective ways of addressing weight in a BED context. This study explored a two-phased treatment for BED developed at a major out-patient eating disorder service in Denmark. The study used interviews and participant observations to gain insight into experiences and processes related to weight and body issues in three treatment contexts that addressed weight stability, weight acceptance, and weight loss. Using systems theory, the study proposed a relational weight problem that embeds feelings of non-acceptance due to weight, a merge of weight and identity, and an internalized body- and weight-critical gaze of others. Contrary to critical claims that weight acceptance discourages people with obesity from engaging in weight loss efforts, this study suggests that acceptance and a disentanglement of weight and identity are prerequisites for weight loss for this group.

  7. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd [Department of Information System, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia); Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku [Department of Computer Science, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

  8. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

    2014-01-01

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power

  9. Executive function in weight loss and weight loss maintenance: a conceptual review and novel neuropsychological model of weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettens, Katelyn M; Gorin, Amy A

    2017-10-01

    Weight loss maintenance is a complex, multifaceted process that presents a significant challenge for most individuals who lose weight. A growing body of literature indicates a strong relationship between cognitive dysfunction and excessive body weight, and suggests that a subset of high-order cognitive processes known as executive functions (EF) likely play an important role in weight management. Recent reviews cover neuropsychological correlates of weight status yet fail to address the role of executive function in the central dilemma of successful weight loss maintenance. In this paper, we provide an overview of the existing literature examining executive functions as they relate to weight status and initial weight loss. Further, we propose a novel conceptual model of the relationships between EF, initial weight loss, and weight loss maintenance, mapping specific executive functions onto strategies known to be associated with both phases of the weight control process. Implications for the development of more efficacious weight loss maintenance interventions are discussed.

  10. Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    A presentation based on life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels is given. The presentation focuses on energy and biofuels, interesting environmental aspects of biofuels, and how to do a life cycle assessment with some examples related to biofuel systems. The stages of a (biofuel...

  11. Hamiltonian cycles in polyhedral maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a necessary and sufficient condition for existence of a contractible, non-separating and non-contractible separating Hamiltonian cycle in the edge graph of polyhedral maps on surfaces.We also present algorithms to construct such cycles whenever it exists where one of them is linear time and another is ...

  12. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Kim, H.C.; Alsema, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416258

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004–2006, this study presents the life-cycle

  13. Drought and ecosystem carbon cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, M.K. van der; Dolman, A.J.; Ciais, P.; Eglin, T.; Gobron, N.; Law, B.E.; Meir, P.; Peters, P.; Philips, O.L.; Reichstein, M.; Chen, T.; Dekker, S.C.; Doubkova, M.; Friedl, M.A.; Jung, M.; Hurk, B.J.J.M. van den; Jeu, R.A.M. de; Kruijt, B.; Ohta, T.; Rebel, K.T.; Plummer, S.; Seneviratne, S.I.; Sitch, S.; Teuling, A.J.; Werf, G.R. van der; Wang, G.

    2011-01-01

    Drought as an intermittent disturbance of the water cycle interacts with the carbon cycle differently than the ‘gradual’ climate change. During drought plants respond physiologically and structurally to prevent excessive water loss according to species-specific water use strategies. This has

  14. Economic growth and business cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton, E.J.F.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis contains five essays on economic growth and business cycles. The main focus is on the interaction between economic growth and the cycle: is cyclical variability good or bad for the long-run rate of economic growth? The introduction aims to provide some empirical evidence for an

  15. Variations on the Zilch Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, P.-M.; Tanoue, C. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Thermo dynamic cycles in introductory physics courses are usually made up from a small number of permutations of isothermal, adiabatic, and constant-pressure and volume quasistatic strokes, with the working fluid usually being an ideal gas. Among them we find the Carnot, Stirling, Otto, Diesel, and Joule-Brayton cycles; in more advanced courses,…

  16. Quadratic reactivity fuel cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    For educational purposes it is highly desirable to provide simple yet realistic models for fuel cycle and fuel economy. In particular, a lumped model without recourse to detailed spatial calculations would be very helpful in providing the student with a proper understanding of the purposes of fuel cycle calculations. A teaching model for fuel cycle studies based on a lumped model assuming the summability of partial reactivities with a linear dependence of reactivity usefully illustrates fuel utilization concepts. The linear burnup model does not satisfactorily represent natural enrichment reactors. A better model, showing the trend of initial plutonium production before subsequent fuel burnup and fission product generation, is a quadratic fit. The study of M-batch cycles, reloading 1/Mth of the core at end of cycle, is now complicated by nonlinear equations. A complete account of the asymptotic cycle for any order of M-batch refueling can be given and compared with the linear model. A complete account of the transient cycle can be obtained readily in the two-batch model and this exact solution would be useful in verifying numerical marching models. It is convenient to treat the parabolic fit rho = 1 - tau 2 as a special case of the general quadratic fit rho = 1 - C/sub tau/ - (1 - C)tau 2 in suitably normalized reactivity and cycle time units. The parabolic results are given in this paper

  17. National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urea cycle disorders. Donate Now To End Urea Cycle Disorders © 2005-2017 NUCDF. All rights reserved. This site may be freely linked to but not copied or duplicated in any fashion without the Foundation's consent. Make A Donation in ...

  18. The water cycle for kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neno, Stephanie; Morgan, Jim; Zonolli, Gabriele; Perlman, Howard; Gonthier, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have created a water-cycle diagram for use in elementary and middle schools. The diagram is available in many languages. This diagram is part of the USGS's Water Science School, in which the water cycle is described in detail.

  19. Credit cycles and macro fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Kraeussl, R.G.W.; Lucas, A.; Monteiro, A.

    2009-01-01

    We use an intensity-based framework to study the relation between macroeconomic fundamentals and cycles in defaults and rating activity. Using Standard and Poor's U.S. corporate rating transition and default data over the period 1980-2005, we directly estimate the default and rating cycle from micro

  20. Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US

  1. Beliefs about causes of weight gain, effective weight gain prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management in the Australian population

    OpenAIRE

    Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight preve...

  2. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding...... duration is long. DESIGN: We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses to investigate whether breastfeeding (scored to account for duration and intensity......) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P postpartum. Breastfeeding was negatively associated with PPWR in all women but those...

  3. Maternal Gestational and Postdelivery Weight Gain and Child Weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is a risk factor for the development of overweight in her child. It is unknown whether GWG programs the child's health or whether GWG indicates a shared familial lifestyle during childhood. To disentangle these influences, we studied the association

  4. Maternal gestational and postdelivery weight gain and child weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is a risk factor for the development of overweight in her child. It is unknown whether GWG programs the child's health or whether GWG indicates a shared familial lifestyle during childhood. To disentangle these influences, we studied the association

  5. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiple linear regression showed a negative association between ZSW at discharge and number of days nil per os without parenteral nutrition (PN). Antenatal steroids were associated with poor GV. There were no factors associated with regaining birth weight after 21 days on multiple logistic regression. Conclusion.

  6. Life cycle assessment. Specific indicators for Italy in impact evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoni, P.

    1999-01-01

    After a brief recall and a short description of the LCA (life cycle assessment) methodology, the work is focused on the impact assessment step, discussing the state of the art and a critical identification of environmental indicators, of normalization and weighting principles for the different environmental categories specific for Italy. The application methodology to a case study concerning the production of butter by the Consorzio Granterre of Modena (Italy) is also described [it

  7. Analysis of possible fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.; Kessler, G.; Engelmann, P.; Maerkl, H.; Stoll, W.

    1978-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of the most important fuel cycles. A rough analysis of fuel cycles is attempted under the aspects of proliferation, status of technical feasibility, resource conservation and waste management and the most important criteria for such an analysis are discussed. Among the multitude of potential combinations of fuel cycles and types of reactors only a few have reached a level of technical feasibility which would make them eligible for commercial implementation within the next decade. However, if, for instance, the higher proliferation resistance of a specific fuel cycle is to be utilized to diminish the worldwide proliferation hazard, that cycle would first of all have to be introduced on an industrial scale as quickly as possible. The analysis shows that the reduction of the bazard of worldwide proliferation will continue to be the objective primarily of international agreements and measures taken in the political realm. (orig.) [de

  8. Fuel cycle optimization in PWR'S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Lobo, P.D. de; Amorim, E.S. do.

    1979-08-01

    Neutronics aspects of a reactor core throughout its cycle were investigated in a search for increasing in-core utilization of the residual fissile isotopes content in the cycle discharged disposal. The effects due to design modifications introduced at burnup levels near the end-of-cycle, in an equilibrium cycle condition, have indicated the possibility of a better in-core utilization of the residual fissile isotopes existing in the cycle discharged disposal. The potential benefits are significant to warranty an examination of the mechanical and thermal hydraulic involved. At convenient burnup levels, change in H 2 O/UO 2 volume ratio were introduced allowing an intense depletion of the residual fissile isotopes existing in assemblies with high exposures levels. (Author) [pt

  9. Fuel cycle cost uncertainty from nuclear fuel cycle comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; McNelis, D.; Yim, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the uncertainty in fuel cycle cost (FCC) calculation by considering both model and parameter uncertainty. Four different fuel cycle options were compared in the analysis including the once-through cycle (OT), the DUPIC cycle, the MOX cycle and a closed fuel cycle with fast reactors (FR). The model uncertainty was addressed by using three different FCC modeling approaches with and without the time value of money consideration. The relative ratios of FCC in comparison to OT did not change much by using different modeling approaches. This observation was consistent with the results of the sensitivity study for the discount rate. Two different sets of data with uncertainty range of unit costs were used to address the parameter uncertainty of the FCC calculation. The sensitivity study showed that the dominating contributor to the total variance of FCC is the uranium price. In general, the FCC of OT was found to be the lowest followed by FR, MOX, and DUPIC. But depending on the uranium price, the FR cycle was found to have lower FCC over OT. The reprocessing cost was also found to have a major impact on FCC

  10. Cerebral malaria: susceptibility weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit Baliyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is one of the fatal complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Pathogenesis involves cerebral microangiopathy related to microvascular plugging by infected red blood cells. Conventional imaging with MRI and CT do not reveal anything specific in case of cerebral malaria. Susceptibility weighted imaging, a recent advance in the MRI, is very sensitive to microbleeds related to microangiopathy. Histopathological studies in cerebral malaria have revealed microbleeds in brain parenchyma secondary to microangiopathy. Susceptibility weighted imaging, being exquisitely sensitive to microbleeds may provide additional information and improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in cerebral malaria.

  11. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  12. Minimum weight design of inhomogeneous rotating discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahed, Hamid; Farshi, Behrooz; Bidabadi, Jalal

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous applications for gas turbine discs in the aerospace industry such as in turbojet engines. These discs normally work under high temperatures while subjected to high angular velocities. Minimizing the weight of such items in aerospace applications results in benefits such as low dead weights and lower costs. High speed of rotation causes large centrifugal forces in a disc and simultaneous application of high temperatures reduces disc material strength. Thus, the latter effects tend to increase deformations of the disc under the applied loads. In order to obtain a reliable disc analysis and arrive at the corresponding correct stress distribution, solutions should consider changes in material properties due to the temperature field throughout the disc. To achieve this goal, an inhomogeneous disc model with variable thickness is considered. Using the variable material properties method, stresses are obtained for the disc under rotation and a steady temperature field. In this paper this is done by modelling the rotating disc as a series of rings of different but constant properties. The optimum disc profile is arrived at by sequentially proportioning the thicknesses of each ring to satisfy the stress requirements. This method vis-a-vis a mathematical programming procedure for optimization shows several advantages. Firstly, it is simple iterative proportioning in each design cycle not requiring involved mathematical operations. Secondly, due to its simplicity it alleviates the necessity of certain simplifications that are common in so-called rigorous mathematical procedures. The results obtained, compared to those published in the literature show agreement and superiority. A further advantage of the proposed method is the independence of the end results from the initially assumed point in the iterative design routine, unlike most methods published so far

  13. Out-of-core fuel cycle optimization for nonequilibrium cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comes, S.A.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for determining the family of near-optimum fuel management schemes that minimize the levelized fuel cycle costs of a light water reactor over a multicycle planning horizon. Feed batch enrichments and sizes, burned batches to reinsert, and burnable poison loadings are determined for each cycle in the planning horizon. Flexibility in the methodology includes the capability to assess the economic benefits of various partially burned bath reload strategies as well as the effects of using split feed enrichments and enrichment palettes. Constraint limitations are imposed on feed enrichments, discharge burnups, moderator temperature coefficient, and cycle energy requirements

  14. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models, but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie". Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1 dietary carbohydrate, via its

  15. The Ferrocyanide/Stabilized Carbon System, a New Class of High Rate, Long Cycle Life, Aqueous Electrolyte Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Huggins, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    different from those for energy storage in portable devices. Size and weight are not so important. Instead, matters such as power, cost, calendar life, cycle life, and safety become paramount. A new family of hexacyanoferrate materials with the same open

  16. Relationship between chest compression depth and novice rescuer body weight during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Chan Woong

    2016-12-01

    This study determined if rescuer body weight is a major determinant of chest compression depth (CCD) among novice rescuers by analyzing the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skill tests among medical students and determined the body weight threshold for those unable to achieve adequate CCD. Retrospective analysis of CPR test results was performed. A total of 107 medical students completed the tests, which included 5 cycles of CPR. Data were collected using a ResusciAnne SkillReporter. Anthropometric data including participant body weight, body mass index, and height were also collected. The relationships between CCD and anthropometric data were evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient. In addition, univariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between body weight and CCD. The highest positive correlation was found between CCD and body weight (r = 0.636, P compression should preferentially be performed by rescuers of healthy weight or overweight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Technology developments for a compound cycle engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobula, George A.; Wintucky, William T.; Castor, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the light weight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burned for a typical 2 hour (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. Results of recent activities in a program to establish the technology base for a CCE are presented. The objective of this program is to research and develop those critical technologies which are necessary for the demonstration of a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990s. A major accomplishment was the initial screening and identification of a lubricant which has potential for meeting the material wear rate limits of the application. An in-situ wear measurement system also was developed to provide accurate, readily obtainable, real time measurements of ring and liner wear. Wear data, from early single cylinder engine tests, are presented to show correlation of the in-situ measurements and the system's utility in determining parametric wear trends. A plan to demonstrate a compound cycle engine by the mid 1990s is included.

  18. Spent fuel transport in fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrousse, M.

    1977-01-01

    The transport of radioactive substances is a minor part of the fuel cycle because the quantities of matter involved are very small. However the length and complexity of the cycle, the weight of the packing, the respective distances between stations, enrichment plants and reprocessing plants are such that the problem is not negligible. In addition these transports have considerable psychological importance. The most interesting is spent fuel transport which requires exceptionally efficient packaging, especially where thermal and mechanical resistance are concerned. To meet the safety criteria necessary for the protection of both public and users it was decided to use the maximum capacity consistent with rail transport and to avoid coolant fluids under pressure. Since no single type of packing is suitable for all existing stations an effort has been made to standardise handling accessories, and future trands are towards maximum automation. A discussion on the various technical solutions available for the construction of these packing systems is followed by a description of those used for the two types of packaging ordered by COGEMA [fr

  19. Associations between Safety from Crime, Cycling, and Obesity in a Dutch Elderly Population: Results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef P. J. Kremers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in associations between crime rates, cycling, and weight status between people living in low and high socioeconomic status (SES neighbourhoods. In total, 470 participants in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were included (age: 63–70 y. Body height and weight were measured using a stadiometer and calibrated weight scale, respectively. Cycling behaviour was assessed in a face-to-face interview, and neighbourhood crime rates were assessed using data from police reports. Men residing in high SES neighbourhoods cycled more than males residing in low SES neighbourhoods. Cycling was negatively related to crime rates among both men and women living in low SES neighbourhoods. Among men living in low SES neighbourhoods, more cycling was associated with lower BMI. Interventions aiming to prevent obesity in older people may consider aiming at increasing bicycle use in lower SES neighbourhoods, but neighbourhood safety issues should be considered.

  20. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D

    2016-01-01

    : Ovid Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane from inception to November 2015. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials in overweight or obese adults reporting reduction in body mass index, body weight, or waist circumference by FTO genotype (rs9939609 or a proxy) after...

  1. Discrete fourier transformations with weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qin; Jiang Yong

    1988-01-01

    DFT and FFT with weight were considered and their properties were studied. The usual DFT and FFT were modified by reducing the number of sample points within a certain error band and therefore speeded up the computation. Finally, the practical applications of the new method in the fields of spectrum analysis, pulse tracing research and so on were pointed out

  2. Common weights under dea control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrell, P.J.; Bogetoft, P.; Fristrup, P.

    2003-01-01

    DEA relies so far on endogenous local or exogenous general weights, limited to available information. We offer endogenous general prices based on a reformulation of DEA. The potential application could be to precipitate collective bargaining on cost efficiency. The models are exemplified with data from the Danish district heating plants, where the open evaluation of multiple non-priced outputs is relevant (au)

  3. Why Should I Lose Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to lose weight too fast. • Think about your eating habits. Do you tend to mindlessly eat in front ... back on track. How should I change my eating habits? • Eat slowly, take smaller portions and avoid “seconds.” • ...

  4. "WOW" (War on Weight) Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Jane

    1976-01-01

    The article describes the content and successful use of the "WOW" Club Kit which provides general guidelines and 12 specific meeting outlines for public health nurses, home economics teachers and others with basic nutrition background to use in conducting nutrition and weight control programs in secondary schools. (MS)

  5. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURC...

  6. Citrulline for urea cycle disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Kido, Jun; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Ohura, Toshihiro; Endo, Fumio

    2017-04-01

    The amino acid l-citrulline is used as a therapeutic agent for urea cycle disorders (UCD) including ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency (CPSD), and N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency. There are few reports, however, on the use of l-citrulline in Japan and little consensus regarding the effects of l-citrulline. We conducted a questionnaire survey of patients undergoing l-citrulline treatment for a UCD to evaluate the current status of this therapy. The survey included patient background, details of l-citrulline treatment, clinical examination data, treatment, frequency of vomiting, and liver transplantation. We retrospectively investigated 43 questionnaire respondents (OTCD, n = 33; CPSD, n = 10). The weight of male OTCD patients improved by +0.79 SD, and the ammonia level decreased by a mean of 44.3 μmol/L in all patients. The protein intake of all patients and of male OTCD patients increased by 0.14 g/kg/day and 0.17 g/kg/day, respectively. l-Citrulline effectively reduced ammonia level, increased protein intake, and improved weight gain in UCD patients. l-Citrulline should be considered a standard therapy in OTCD and CPSD patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Stores, Weight and Inertial System Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides stores weight, center of gravity, and inertia measurements in support of weapon/aircraft compatibility testing. System provides store weight...

  8. Cycling biomechanics: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak Timmer, C A

    1991-01-01

    Submitted in partial fulfillment for a Master of Science degree at the University of Pittsburgh, School of Health Related Professions, Pittsburgh, PA 1.5213 This review of current literature on cycling biomechanics emphasizes lower extremity muscle actions and joint excursions, seat height, pedal position, pedaling rate, force application, and pedaling symmetry. Guidelines are discussed for optimal seat height, pedal position, and pedaling rate. Force application in the power and recovery phases of cycling and the relationship of force application to pedaling symmetry are discussed. The need for a biomechanical approach to cycling exists since a great deal of the literature is primarily physiologic in nature. The purpose of this review is to make cyclists and their advisors aware of the biomechanics of cycling and guidelines to follow. This approach is also important because cycling is a very common form of exercise prescribed by physical therapists for clinic or home programs. Biomechanical aspects of cycling should be considered by cyclists at any level of participation and by physical therapists in order for goal-oriented, efficient cycling to occur. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1991;14(3):106-113.

  9. Cell Cycle Control by PTEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andrew; Hou, Sheng-Qi; Shen, Wen H

    2017-07-21

    Continuous and error-free chromosome inheritance through the cell cycle is essential for genomic stability and tumor suppression. However, accumulation of aberrant genetic materials often causes the cell cycle to go awry, leading to malignant transformation. In response to genotoxic stress, cells employ diverse adaptive mechanisms to halt or exit the cell cycle temporarily or permanently. The intrinsic machinery of cycling, resting, and exiting shapes the cellular response to extrinsic stimuli, whereas prevalent disruption of the cell cycle machinery in tumor cells often confers resistance to anticancer therapy. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor and a guardian of the genome that is frequently mutated or deleted in human cancer. Moreover, it is increasingly evident that PTEN deficiency disrupts the fundamental processes of genetic transmission. Cells lacking PTEN exhibit cell cycle deregulation and cell fate reprogramming. Here, we review the role of PTEN in regulating the key processes in and out of cell cycle to optimize genomic integrity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  11. When Product Life Cycle Meets Customer Activity Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Manufacturing companies have traditionally focused their efforts on designing, developing and producing products to offer on the market. Today global competition and demands for greater company responsibility of products throughout their entire life cycle are driving manufacturing companies to sh...

  12. Fuel cycle economics of HTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U.

    1975-06-15

    The High Temperature Reactor commands a unique fuel cycle flexibility and alternative options are open to the utilities. The reference thorium reactor operating in the U-233 recycle mode is 10 to 20% cheaper than the low-enriched reactor; however, the thorium cycle depends on the supply of 93% enriched uranium and the availability of reprocessing and refabrication facilities to utilize its bred fissile material. The economic landscape towards the end of the 20th Century will presumably be dominated by pronounced increases in the costs of natural resources. In the case of nuclear energy, resource considerations are reflected in the price of uranium, which is expected Lo have reached 50 $/lbm U3O8 in the early 1990s and around 100 $/lbm U3O8 around 2010. In this economic environment the fuel cycle advantage of the thorium system amounts to some 20% and is capable of absorbing substantial expenses in bringing about the closing of the out-of-pile cycle. A most attractive aspect of the HTR fuel cycle flexibility is for the utility to start operating the reactor on the low enriched uranium cycle and at a later date switch over to the thorium cycle as this becomes economically more and more attractive. The incentive amounts to some 50 M$ in terms of present worth money at the time of decision making, assumed to take place 10 years after start-up. The closing of the thorium cycle is of paramount importance and a step to realize this objective lies in simplifying the head-end reprocessing technology by abandoning the segregation concept of feed and breed coated particles in the reference cycle. A one-coated-particle scheme in which all discharged uranium isotopes are recycled in mixed oxide particles is feasible and suffers a very minor economic penalty only.

  13. The evolving nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.D.; Hanson, G.E.; Coleman, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    Various economics and political pressures have shaped the evolution of nuclear fuel cycles over the past 10 to 15 yr. Future trends will no doubt be similarly driven. This paper discusses the influences that long cycles, high discharge burnups, fuel reliability, and costs will have on the future nuclear cycle. Maintaining the economic viability of nuclear generation is a key issue facing many utilities. Nuclear fuel has been a tremendous bargain for utilities, helping to offset major increases in operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) expenses. An important factor in reducing O ampersand M costs is increasing capacity factor by eliminating outages

  14. Introducing Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Huijbregts, Mark AJ

    2015-01-01

    This chapter serves as an introduction to the presentation of the many aspects of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in this volume of the book series ‘LCA Compendium’. It starts with a brief historical overview of the development of life cycle impact assessment driven by numerous national LCIA...... methodology projects and presents the international scientific discussions and methodological consensus attempts in consecutive working groups under the auspices of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) as well as the UNEP/ SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, and the (almost) parallel...

  15. The fuel cycle scoping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, G.D.; Malone, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Scoping System (FCSS) was created to fill the need for a scoping tool which provides the utilities with the ability to quickly evaluate alternative fuel management strategies, tails assay choices, fuel fabrication quotes, fuel financing alternatives, fuel cycle schedules, and other fuel cycle perturbations. The FCSS was specifically designed for PC's that support dBASE-III(TM), a relational data base software system by Ashton-Tate. However, knowledge of dBASE-III is not necessary in order to utilize the FCSS. The FCSS is menu driven and can be utilized as a teaching tool as well as a scoping tool

  16. Digital daily cycles of individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader...... day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We...

  17. Solar cycles and climate variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chistyakov, V.F.

    1990-01-01

    Climate oscillations with 100-, 200- and 300-year periods are positively correlated with solar activity oscillations: the higher is solar activity the warmer is climate. According to geological data (varved clays) it is determined, that length of cycles has decreased from 23.4 up to 11 years during latter 2.5 billion years. 12-year cycles occurred during the great glaciation periods, while 10-year cycles occurred during interglaciation periods. It is suggested, that these oscillations are related with variations of the solar activity and luminescence

  18. BWROPT: A multi-cycle BWR fuel cycle optimization code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottinger, Keith E.; Maldonado, G. Ivan, E-mail: Ivan.Maldonado@utk.edu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A multi-cycle BWR fuel cycle optimization algorithm is presented. • New fuel inventory and core loading pattern determination. • The parallel simulated annealing algorithm was used for the optimization. • Variable sampling probabilities were compared to constant sampling probabilities. - Abstract: A new computer code for performing BWR in-core and out-of-core fuel cycle optimization for multiple cycles simultaneously has been developed. Parallel simulated annealing (PSA) is used to optimize the new fuel inventory and placement of new and reload fuel for each cycle considered. Several algorithm improvements were implemented and evaluated. The most significant of these are variable sampling probabilities and sampling new fuel types from an ordered array. A heuristic control rod pattern (CRP) search algorithm was also implemented, which is useful for single CRP determinations, however, this feature requires significant computational resources and is currently not practical for use in a full multi-cycle optimization. The PSA algorithm was demonstrated to be capable of significant objective function reduction and finding candidate loading patterns without constraint violations. The use of variable sampling probabilities was shown to reduce runtime while producing better results compared to using constant sampling probabilities. Sampling new fuel types from an ordered array was shown to have a mixed effect compared to random new fuel type sampling, whereby using both random and ordered sampling produced better results but required longer runtimes.

  19. Life-cycle cost analysis of adsorption cycles for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the thermo-economic analysis of the adsorption desalination (AD) cycle that is driven by low-temperature waste heat from exhaust of industrial processes or renewable sources. The AD cycle uses an adsorbent such as the silica gel to desalt the sea or brackish water. Based on an experimental prototype AD plant, the life-cycle cost analysis of AD plants of assorted water production capacities has been simulated and these predictions are translated into unit cost of water production. Our results show that the specific energy consumption of the AD cycle is 1.38 kWh/m3 which is the lowest ever reported. For a plant capacity of 1000 m3/d, the AD cycle offers a unit cost of $0.457/m3 as compared to more than $0.9 for the average RO plants. Besides being cost-effective, the AD cycle is also environment-friendly as it emits less CO2 emission per m3 generated, typically 85% less, by comparison to an RO process. © 2010 Desalination Publications.

  20. 14 CFR 25.1519 - Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution. The airplane weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution limitations determined under §§ 25.23 through 25.27... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight, center of gravity, and weight...

  1. 40 CFR 86.229-94 - Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inertia weight class determination. 86.229-94 Section 86.229-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 86.229-94 Road load force, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. (a) Flywheels... vehicle weight (pounds) Equivalent test weight (pounds) Inertia weight class (pounds) Up-1,062 1,000 1,000...

  2. 40 CFR 86.129-80 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inertia weight class determination. 86.129-80 Section 86.129-80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. (a) Flywheels, electrical or other means of... weight (pounds) Equivalent test weight (pounds) Inertia weight class (pounds) Up to 1,062 1,000 1,000 1...

  3. Breastfeeding Trends Among Very Low Birth Weight, Low Birth Weight, and Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Angela G; Miranda, Patricia Y

    2018-05-18

    To examine the change in breastfeeding behaviors over time, among low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), and normal birth weight (NBW) infants using nationally representative US data. Univariate statistics and bivariate logistic models were examined using the Early Child Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001) and National Study of Children's Health (2007 and 2011/2012). Breastfeeding behaviors improved for infants of all birth weights from 2007 to 2011/2012. In 2011/2012, a higher percentage of VLBW infants were ever breastfed compared with LBW and NBW infants. In 2011/2012, LBW infants had a 28% lower odds (95% CI, 0.57-0.92) of ever breastfeeding and a 52% lower odds (95% CI, 0.38-0.61) of breastfeeding for ≥6 months compared with NBW infants. Among black infants, a larger percentage of VLBW infants were breastfed for ≥6 months (26.2%) compared with LBW infants (14.9%). Breastfeeding rates for VLBW and NBW infants have improved over time. Both VLBW and NBW infants are close to meeting the Healthy People 2020 ever breastfeeding goal of 81.9%. LBW infants are farther from this goal than VLBW infants. The results suggest a need for policies that encourage breastfeeding specifically among LBW infants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure. Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  5. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  6. Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Traverso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is nowadays accepted by all stakeholders as a guiding principle for both public policy making and corporate strategies. However, the biggest challenge for most organizations remains in the real and substantial implementation of the sustainability concept. The core of the implementation challenge is the question, how sustainability performance can be measured, especially for products and processes. This paper explores the current status of Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA for products and processes. For the environmental dimension well established tools like Life Cycle Assessment are available. For the economic and social dimension, there is still need for consistent and robust indicators and methods. In addition to measuring the individual sustainability dimensions, another challenge is a comprehensive, yet understandable presentation of the results. The “Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard” and the “Life Cycle Sustainability Triangle” are presented as examples for communication tools for both experts and non expert stakeholders.

  7. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized...... by monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely....... In particular, imperfect competition on the product markets and the positive profits associated with it may have the effect that there is a cycle even if the labor supply curve is increasing in the real-wage rate. For competitive cycles is required not only a decreasing labor supply curve, but a wage elasticity...

  8. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  9. Ammonium generation during SRAT cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    During the IDMS noble-metal demonstration runs ammonium nitrate deposition was found in the vessel vent system of the feed preparation area. In the bench-scale experiments of studying the hydrogen generation during the sludge treatment cycle, ammonium ion production was also monitored. It was found that: During a simulation of the DWPF Cold Chemical Runs SRAT cycle no detectable amount of ammonium ions was generated when treating a non-noble-metal containing sludge simulant according to the nitric acid flowsheet. Ammonium ions were generated during the SRAT-SME cycle when treating the noble-metal containing sludge with either formic acid or nitric acid/late-washing PHA. This is due to the reaction between formic acid and nitrate catalyzed by the noble metals in the sludge simulant. Ammonium ion production closely followed the hydrogen evolution from the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. This report summarizes the results of the production of ammonia during the SRAT cycle

  10. EPA Nonregulatory Nonroad Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA nonregulatory, nonroad duty cycles for equipment such as agricultural tractors, backhoe loaders,crawlers tractors, excavators, arc welding skid steer loaders, and wheel loaders. Also,test procedures, laboratory methods, and emissions for this equipmen

  11. Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) database integrates premarket and postmarket data about medical devices. It includes information pulled from CDRH databases...

  12. Detonation Jet Engine. Part 1--Thermodynamic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most relevant works on jet engine design that utilize thermodynamic cycle of detonative combustion. The efficiency advantages of thermodynamic detonative combustion cycle over Humphrey combustion cycle at constant volume and Brayton combustion cycle at constant pressure were demonstrated. An ideal Ficket-Jacobs detonation cycle, and…

  13. On acyclicity of games with cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Olof Daniel; Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Gurvich, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    We study restricted improvement cycles (ri-cycles) in finite positional n-person games with perfect information modeled by directed graphs (di-graphs) that may contain directed cycles (di-cycles). We assume that all these di-cycles form one outcome c, for example, a draw. We obtain criteria...

  14. Implications of alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The United States is re-examining alternative fuel cycles and nuclear power strategies, and doubtful attempts are being made to justify the economics of the 'throw-away' fuel cycle. At an international forum on 'An acceptable nuclear energy future for the world' at Fort Lauderdale, Karl Cohen of General Electric and a leading authority on this topic put the implications into perspective. Extracts from his address are presented

  15. Business Cycle Theory and Econometrics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Allan W; Smith, Gregor W

    1995-01-01

    We outline in turn criticisms made by econometricians of the methods used in empirical business-cycle research and then criticisms made by business-cycle researchers of some methods used by econometricians. The aim is to clarify and in some cases correct these criticisms. Overall there is no conflict in using rigourous statistical procedures to study modern dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models. We also provide a concise bibliography of recent research on statistical methods for busin...

  16. Advertising and Business Cycle Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetto Molinari; Francesco Turino

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides new empirical evidence of quarterly U.S. aggregate advertising expenditures, showing that advertising has a well defined pattern over the Business Cycle. To understand this pattern we develop a general equilibrium model where targeted advertising increases the marginal utility of the advertised good. Advertising intensity is endogenously determined by profit maximizing firms. We embed this assumption into an otherwise standard model of business cycle with monopolistic comp...

  17. Rapsodie: A closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levallet, E.H.; Costa, L.; Mougniot, J.C.; Robin, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Fortissimo Version of the core of the RAPSODIE fast reactor produces 40 MWTh. Since its start up in May 1970 in the CEN-CADARACHE its availability has stayed around 85%. Some of the mixed oxyde fuel pins UO 2 - 30% PuO 2 have already reached 150.000 MWd/t. The reprocessing is done in the pilot plant located in the La Hague Center and the plutonium obtained has already been re-used in the reactor. The Rapsodie-Fortissimo cycle is therefore now a closed cycle. This cycle is quite representative of fast reactor cycle characteristics and thus provides a remarkable research and development tool for the study of fabrication, in-reactor performances, transport, storage and reprocessing. These studies concern in particular the evolution of fission products and heavy isotopes content in fuel which controls both reprocessing schemes and intensity of emitted radiations. A program for the analysis of irradiated fuel has been developed either using samples collected all along the cycle, or following the actual reprocessing subassemblies. A set of basic data and calculation models has been established with two objectives: to give a better interpretation of the experimental program on one hand, and to extrapolate these results to the fuel cycle of fast reactors in general on the other hand. The first results have been quite encouraging up to now [fr

  18. Cycle bases to the rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóbiás, Roland; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Császár, Attila G.

    2017-12-01

    Cycle bases of graph theory are introduced for the analysis of transition data deposited in line-by-line rovibronic spectroscopic databases. The principal advantage of using cycle bases is that outlier transitions -almost always present in spectroscopic databases built from experimental data originating from many different sources- can be detected and identified straightforwardly and automatically. The data available for six water isotopologues, H216O, H217O, H218O, HD16O, HD17O, and HD18O, in the HITRAN2012 and GEISA2015 databases are used to demonstrate the utility of cycle-basis-based outlier-detection approaches. The spectroscopic databases appear to be sufficiently complete so that the great majority of the entries of the minimum cycle basis have the minimum possible length of four. More than 2000 transition conflicts have been identified for the isotopologue H216O in the HITRAN2012 database, the seven common conflict types are discussed. It is recommended to employ cycle bases, and especially a minimum cycle basis, for the analysis of transitions deposited in high-resolution spectroscopic databases.

  19. Fuel cycles using adulterated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Campbell, D.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Lindauer, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Adjustments in the U-Pu fuel cycle necessitated by decisions made to improve the nonproliferation objectives of the US are examined. The uranium-based fuel cycle, using bred plutonium to provide the fissile enrichment, is the fuel system with the highest degree of commercial development at the present time. However, because purified plutonium can be used in weapons, this fuel cycle is potentially vulnerable to diversion of that plutonium. It does appear that there are technologically sound ways in which the plutonium might be adulterated by admixture with 238 U and/or radioisotopes, and maintained in that state throughout the fuel cycle, so that the likelihood of a successful diversion is small. Adulteration of the plutonium in this manner would have relatively little effect on the operations of existing or planned reactors. Studies now in progress should show within a year or two whether the less expensive coprocessing scheme would provide adequate protection (coupled perhaps with elaborate conventional safeguards procedures) or if the more expensive spiked fuel cycle is needed as in the proposed civex pocess. If the latter is the case, it will be further necessary to determine the optimum spiking level, which could vary as much as a factor of a billion. A very basic question hangs on these determinations: What is to be the nature of the recycle fuel fabrication facilities. If the hot, fully remote fuel fabrication is required, then a great deal of further development work will be required to make the full cycle fully commercial

  20. Optimization of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, S.W.; Balu, K.; Boczar, P.G.; Krebs, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle can be optimized subject to a wide range of criteria. Prime amongst these are economics, sustainability of resources, environmental aspects, and proliferation-resistance of the fuel cycle. Other specific national objectives will also be important. These criteria, and their relative importance, will vary from country to country, and with time. There is no single fuel cycle strategy that is optimal for all countries. Within the short term, the industry is attached to dominant thermal reactor technologies, which themselves have two main variants, a cycle closed by reprocessing of spent fuel and subsequent recycling and a once through one where spent fuel is stored in advance of geological disposal. However, even with current technologies, much can be done to optimize the fuel cycles to meet the relevant criteria. In the long term, resource sustainability can be assured for centuries through the use of fast breeder reactors, supporting high-conversion thermal reactors, possibly also utilizing the thorium cycle. These must, however, meet the other key criteria by being both economic and safe. (author)

  1. The NEWS Water Cycle Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Olson, W. S.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the first phase of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project was to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project was a multi-institutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe the results of the water cycle component of the first phase of the project, which include seasonal (monthly) climatologies of water fluxes over land, ocean, and atmosphere at continental and ocean basin scales. The requirement of closure of the water budget (i.e., mass conservation) at various scales was exploited to constrain the flux estimates via an optimization approach that will also be described. Further, error assessments were included with the input datasets, and we examine these in relation to inferred uncertainty in the optimized flux estimates in order to gauge our current ability to close the water budget within an expected uncertainty range.

  2. The NEWS Water Cycle Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; William, Olson

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the first phase of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project was to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project was a multi-institutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe the results of the water cycle component of the first phase of the project, which include seasonal (monthly) climatologies of water fluxes over land, ocean, and atmosphere at continental and ocean basin scales. The requirement of closure of the water budget (i.e., mass conservation) at various scales was exploited to constrain the flux estimates via an optimization approach that will also be described. Further, error assessments were included with the input datasets, and we examine these in relation to inferred uncertainty in the optimized flux estimates in order to gauge our current ability to close the water budget within an expected uncertainty range.

  3. Polynomial weights and code constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massey, J; Costello, D; Justesen, Jørn

    1973-01-01

    polynomial included. This fundamental property is then used as the key to a variety of code constructions including 1) a simplified derivation of the binary Reed-Muller codes and, for any primepgreater than 2, a new extensive class ofp-ary "Reed-Muller codes," 2) a new class of "repeated-root" cyclic codes...... of long constraint length binary convolutional codes derived from2^r-ary Reed-Solomon codes, and 6) a new class ofq-ary "repeated-root" constacyclic codes with an algebraic decoding algorithm.......For any nonzero elementcof a general finite fieldGF(q), it is shown that the polynomials(x - c)^i, i = 0,1,2,cdots, have the "weight-retaining" property that any linear combination of these polynomials with coefficients inGF(q)has Hamming weight at least as great as that of the minimum degree...

  4. Weightlifting, weight training and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basford, J R

    1985-08-01

    Although millions of men and women in the United States are regularly involved in some form of weightlifting, the average physician knows, and frequently cares, little about the sports involved. As a result, his or her knowledge of the medical and physiological issues involved is limited This article attempts to address this lack by beginning with a brief introductory section outlining some of the similarities differences between the major weight lifting approaches (power lifting, olympic lifting, weight training and body building). Next it reviews major issues and controversies such as age restrictions for lifters, physiological effects, drug use, potential strength gains and hypertrophy. Finally, it discusses some of the more frequent and unique injuries that can occur in lifters.

  5. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause weight gain? Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes. Weight gain can occur as a side effect of some ... and metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL). The average weight gain is about 2.6 pounds (about 1.2 ...

  6. Weight Training for Strength and Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This paper begins by defining the terms "weight training,""weight lifting,""strength,""power," and "muscular endurance.""Weight training" is differentiated from "weight lifting" and defined as a systematic series of resistance exercises designed to promote physical development and conditioning or to rehabilitate persons who have suffered injury or…

  7. 7 CFR 981.9 - Kernel weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kernel weight. 981.9 Section 981.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.9 Kernel weight. Kernel weight means the weight of kernels, including...

  8. Asymptotics of weighted random sums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corcuera, José Manuel; Nualart, David; Podolskij, Mark

    2014-01-01

    of the weight process with respect to the Brownian motion when the distance between observations goes to zero. The result is obtained with the help of fractional calculus showing the power of this technique. This study, though interesting by itself, is motivated by an error found in the proof of Theorem 4...... in Corcuera, J.M. Nualart, D., Woerner, J. H. C. (2006). Power variation of some integral fractional processes, Bernoulli 12(4) 713-735....

  9. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2012-02-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  10. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2009-06-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  11. Weight, gravitation, inertia, and tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Olivier; Lagoute, Christophe; Pérez, José-Philippe

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the factors that influence the weight of an object near the Earth's surface. They are: (1) the Earth's gravitational force, (2) the centrifugal force due to the Earth's diurnal rotation, and (3) tidal forces due to the gravitational field of the Moon and Sun, and other solar system bodies to a lesser extent. Each of these three contributions is discussed and expressions are derived. The relationship between weight and gravitation is thus established in a direct and pedagogical manner readily understandable by undergraduate students. The analysis applies to the Newtonian limit of gravitation. The derivation is based on an experimental (or operational) definition of weight, and it is shown that it coincides with the Earth’s gravitational force modified by diurnal rotation around a polar axis and non-uniformity of external gravitational bodies (tidal term). Two examples illustrate and quantify these modifications, respectively the Eötvös effect and the oceanic tides; tidal forces due to differential gravitation on a spacecraft and an asteroid are also proposed as examples. Considerations about inertia are also given and some comments are made about a widespread, yet confusing, explanation of tides based on a centrifugal force. Finally, the expression of the potential energy of the tide-generating force is established rigorously in the appendix.

  12. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Lukac

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.

  13. Weight, gravitation, inertia, and tides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, Olivier; Lagoute, Christophe; Pérez, José-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the factors that influence the weight of an object near the Earth's surface. They are: (1) the Earth's gravitational force, (2) the centrifugal force due to the Earth's diurnal rotation, and (3) tidal forces due to the gravitational field of the Moon and Sun, and other solar system bodies to a lesser extent. Each of these three contributions is discussed and expressions are derived. The relationship between weight and gravitation is thus established in a direct and pedagogical manner readily understandable by undergraduate students. The analysis applies to the Newtonian limit of gravitation. The derivation is based on an experimental (or operational) definition of weight, and it is shown that it coincides with the Earth’s gravitational force modified by diurnal rotation around a polar axis and non-uniformity of external gravitational bodies (tidal term). Two examples illustrate and quantify these modifications, respectively the Eötvös effect and the oceanic tides; tidal forces due to differential gravitation on a spacecraft and an asteroid are also proposed as examples. Considerations about inertia are also given and some comments are made about a widespread, yet confusing, explanation of tides based on a centrifugal force. Finally, the expression of the potential energy of the tide-generating force is established rigorously in the appendix. (paper)

  14. Relationship between Matern al Nutritional Status and Infant Birth Weight of Vegetarians in DKI Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW, areintergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life.Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective studyaims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged 1 month to 5 years was selected purposively. Results showed that the mean of pre-pregnancy BMI of vegetarian mothers is 20.2 kg/m2 (±2.2 kg/m2, pregnancy weight gain is 15.5 kg (±6.4 kg and infant’s birth weight is 3212 gs (±417.7 gs. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were significantly associated with infant’s birth weight of vegetarians. There is no relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain. Multivariate analysis found that pre-pregnancy BMI, protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn intakes and sex has relationship with infant’s birthweight. It is recommended that vegetarian mothers should get information about the importance of pre-pregnancy nutrition, optimal pregnancy weight gain, and maintaining adequate intake of protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn during pregnancy

  15. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Very high cycle fatigue testing of concrete using ultrasonic cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, Ulrike; Schuller, Reinhard; Fitzka, Michael; Mayer, Herwig [Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Physics and Materials Science; Denk, Andreas; Strauss, Alfred [Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-06-01

    The ultrasonic fatigue testing method has been further developed to perform cyclic compression tests with concrete. Cylindrical specimens vibrate in resonance at a frequency of approximately 20 kHz with superimposed compressive static loads. The high testing frequency allows time-saving investigations in the very high cycle fatigue regime. Fatigue tests were carried out on ''Concrete 1'' (compressive strength f{sub c} = 80 MPa) and ''Concrete 2'' (f{sub c} = 107 MPa) under purely compressive loading conditions. Experiments at maximum compressive stresses of 0.44 f{sub c} (Concrete 1) and 0.38 f{sub c} (Concrete 2) delivered specimen failures above 109 cycles, indicating that no fatigue limit exists for concrete below one billion load cycles. Resonance frequency, power required to resonate the specimen and second order harmonics of the vibration are used to monitor fatigue damage in situ. Specimens were scanned by X-ray computed tomography prior to and after testing. Fatigue cracks were produced by ultrasonic cycling in the very high cycle fatigue regime at interfaces of grains as well as in cement. The possibilities as well as limitations of ultrasonic fatigue testing of concrete are discussed.

  17. Gestational Weight Gain and Interpregnancy Weight Change in Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Emily; Armson, B Anthony; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; MacSween, Kayla; Woolcott, Christy

    2017-06-01

    To examine the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and interpregnancy weight change (IPWC) in adolescent mothers (younger than 20 years), and to determine if this association differs from adult women (aged 20-35 years). Retrospective cohort study. We included 3055 adolescents and 17,090 adult women with singleton pregnancies recorded in the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database with a subsequent pregnancy occurring between 2003 and 2014. GWG in the first pregnancy was categorized as below, within, or above the current Institute of Medicine recommendations. IPWC was defined as the difference between the prepregnancy weights of the 2 pregnancies. Analyses were adjusted for parity, body mass index in the first pregnancy, and time between pregnancies. Relative to adolescents with GWG within the recommendations, those who gained below had a 2.7 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.9) lower mean IPWC whereas those who gained above had a 4.2 kg (95% CI, 3.3-5.1) higher mean IPWC. Smaller differences in IPWC between GWG categories were observed in adult women; relative to those with GWG within the recommendations, adults who gained below had a 1.3 kg (95% CI, 0.9-1.7) lower mean IPWC and those who gained above had a 2.9 kg (95% CI, 2.6-3.2) higher mean IPWC. Mean IPWC differed across GWG categories and the differences were greater in adolescents than in adult women. This difference should be considered when assessing whether specific GWG recommendations are needed for adolescents. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk Factors Affecting Breast Cancer-related Lymphedema: Serial Body Weight Change During Neoadjuvant Anthracycline Plus Cyclophosphamide Followed by Taxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Yu, Jonghan; Paik, Hyun-June; Ryu, Jai Min; Kim, Isaac; Bae, Soo Youn; Lee, Se Kyung; Kim, Seok Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Kang, Eunyoung; Yang, Eun Joo

    2018-02-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the risk of lymphedema (LE) according to the clinicopathologic factors and to investigate the serial change in body weight during neoadjuvant anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide followed by taxane and its correlation with the incidence of LE. We performed a retrospective 2-center study of 406 patients who had undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by surgery from 2007 to 2014. The regimen included 4 cycles of anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide, followed by 4 cycles of taxane. We investigated the presence and degree of LE using a telephone questionnaire assessment. Weight changes were calculated at each cycle of NAC, and the baseline and preoperative body weights were used to calculate the rate of change to account for the change in weight before and after NAC. Of the 406 patients, 270 answered the questionnaires, of whom 97 (35.9%) experienced LE. The increase in body weight was significant during the 4 cycles of taxane, but the change in weight was not significant during the 4 cycles of anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide. The change in body weight was most significant just after the fourth cycle of taxane (P weight was not a significant factor for the incidence of LE. Because a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 was an independent factor of LE occurrence on multivariate analysis, patients with a preoperative BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 should be closely monitored for LE given their increased risk, and monitoring and education should be initiated before surgery and continued throughout the course of NAC. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Sphinx's Riddle: Life and Career Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burack, Elmer H.

    1984-01-01

    Career cycles should be considered apart from life cycles, even though the two are interrelated. This essay examines five theories about life and career cycles, and offers insights into their limitations and potential uses. (JB)

  20. Management Cycle: from Planning to Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kova?i?, Luka; Jakši?, Želimir

    2008-01-01

    The planning process in health care known as management cycle or cycle of organization and management is described. The cycle is divided in four main elements: planning, organization, implementation and evaluation. Each element is defined and described.

  1. Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: cognitive performance after weight recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Serra, Estefanía; Andrés-Perpiña, Susana; Lázaro-García, Luisa; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Although there is no definitive consensus on the impairment of neuropsychological functions, most studies of adults with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) find impaired functioning in cognitive domains such as visual-spatial abilities. The objective of this study is to assess the cognitive functions in adolescents with AN before and after weight recovery and to explore the relationship between cognitive performance and menstruation. Twenty-five female adolescents with AN were assessed by a neuropsychological battery while underweight and then following six months of treatment and weight recovery. Twenty-six healthy female subjects of a similar age were also evaluated at both time points. Underweight patients with AN showed worse cognitive performance than control subjects in immediate recall, organization and time taken to copy the Rey's Complex Figure Test (RCFT). After weight recovery, AN patients presented significant improvements in all tests, and differences between patients and controls disappeared. Patients with AN and persistence of amenorrhea at follow-up (n=8) performed worse on Block Design, delayed recall of Visual Reproduction and Stroop Test than patients with resumed menstruation (n=14) and the control group, though the two AN groups were similar in body mass index, age and psychopathological scale scores. Weight recovery improves cognitive functioning in adolescents with AN. The normalization of neuropsychological performance is better in patients who have recovered at least one menstrual cycle. The normalization of hormonal function seems to be essential for the normalization of cognitive performance, even in adolescents with a very short recovery time. © 2013.

  2. Weighted statistical parameters for irregularly sampled time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldini, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Unevenly spaced time series are common in astronomy because of the day-night cycle, weather conditions, dependence on the source position in the sky, allocated telescope time and corrupt measurements, for example, or inherent to the scanning law of satellites like Hipparcos and the forthcoming Gaia. Irregular sampling often causes clumps of measurements and gaps with no data which can severely disrupt the values of estimators. This paper aims at improving the accuracy of common statistical parameters when linear interpolation (in time or phase) can be considered an acceptable approximation of a deterministic signal. A pragmatic solution is formulated in terms of a simple weighting scheme, adapting to the sampling density and noise level, applicable to large data volumes at minimal computational cost. Tests on time series from the Hipparcos periodic catalogue led to significant improvements in the overall accuracy and precision of the estimators with respect to the unweighted counterparts and those weighted by inverse-squared uncertainties. Automated classification procedures employing statistical parameters weighted by the suggested scheme confirmed the benefits of the improved input attributes. The classification of eclipsing binaries, Mira, RR Lyrae, Delta Cephei and Alpha2 Canum Venaticorum stars employing exclusively weighted descriptive statistics achieved an overall accuracy of 92 per cent, about 6 per cent higher than with unweighted estimators.

  3. Optimal Life Cycle Portfolio Choice with Housing Market Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Stamos, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    income, and pre-existing housing wealth but also the state of the housing market significantly affect household decisions. Consistently with the data, the model predicts that in good states of housing market cycles (1) homeownership rates increase, (2) households buying homes invest a larger share......In recent decades U.S. households have experienced residential house prices moving persistently, that is, returns being positively serially correlated. We set up a realistically calibrated life cycle model with slow-moving time variation in expected housing returns, showing that not only age, labor...

  4. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image.

  5. Tributyltin impairs the reproductive cycle in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang Podratz, Priscila; Delgado Filho, Vicente Sathler; Lopes, Pedro Francisco Iguatemy; Cavati Sena, Gabriela; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie; Samoto, Vivian Yochiko; Takiya, Christina Maeda; de Castro Miguel, Emilio; Silva, Ian Victor; Graceli, Jones Bernardes

    2012-01-01

    Triorganotins are environmental contaminants, commonly used in antifouling agents for boats, that bioaccumulate and thus are found in mammals and humans due to ingestion of contaminated seafood diets. The importance of triorganotins as environmental endocrine disruptors and consequent reproductive toxicity in different animal models is well known; however, the adverse effects on reproductive cycle are less well understood. The potential reproductive toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) on regular reproductive cycling of female rats was examined. Wistar female rats (12 wk old, weighing approximately 230 g) were divided into two groups: control (vehicle, ethanol 0.4%) and tributyltin (100 ng/kg/d, 7 d/wk, for 16 d by gavage). Tributyltin significantly decreased the cycle regularity (%), duration of the reproductive cycle, the proestrus and diestrus phases, and number of epithelial cell in proestrus phase. TBT also increased the duration of metestrus and the number of cornified cells in this phase. Ovary weight and serum 17β-estradiol levels decreased markedly, accompanied by a significant increase in progesterone levels. Histological analysis showed apoptotic cells in corpus luteum and granulosa cells layer, with cystic follicles after TBT exposure. Tributyltin also elevated number of atretic follicles and corpoa lutea. The micronucleus (MN) test, using Chinese hamster ovary cells, demonstrated a concentration-dependent mutagenic effect of TBT, and at 2.0 × 10(-2)ng/ml most of the cells were nonviable. The toxic potential of TBT over the reproductive cycle may be attributed to changes found in the ovarian weight, unbalanced levels of sexual female hormones, and number of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea.

  6. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  7. Antifreeze life cycle assessment (LCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesić Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifreeze based on ethylene glycol is a commonly used commercial product The classification of ethylene glycol as a toxic material increased the disposal costs for used antifreeze and life cycle assessment became a necessity. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA considers the identification and quantification of raw materials and energy inputs and waste outputs during the whole life cycle of the analyzed product. The objectives of LCA are the evaluation of impacts on the environment and improvements of processes in order to reduce and/or eliminate waste. LCA is conducted through a mathematical model derived from mass and energy balances of all the processes included in the life cycle. In all energy processes the part of energy that can be transformed into some other kind of energy is called exergy. The concept of exergy considers the quality of different types of energy and the quality of different materials. It is also a connection between energy and mass transformations. The whole life cycle can be described by the value of the total loss of exergy. The physical meaning of this value is the loss of material and energy that can be used. The results of LCA are very useful for the analyzed products and processes and for the determined conditions under which the analysis was conducted. The results of this study indicate that recycling is the most satisfactory solution for the treatment of used antifreeze regarding material and energy consumption but the re-use of antifreeze should not be neglected as a solution.

  8. Origins of the supercontinent cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Damian Nance

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The supercontinent cycle, by which Earth history is seen as having been punctuated by the episodic assembly and breakup of supercontinents, has influenced the rock record more than any other geologic phenomena, and its recognition is arguably the most important advance in Earth Science since plate tectonics. It documents fundamental aspects of the planet's interior dynamics and has charted the course of Earth's tectonic, climatic and biogeochemical evolution for billions of years. But while the widespread realization of the importance of supercontinents in Earth history is a relatively recent development, the supercontinent cycle was first proposed thirty years ago and episodicity in tectonic processes was recognized long before plate tectonics provided a potential explanation for its occurrence. With interest in the supercontinent cycle gaining momentum and the literature expanding rapidly, it is instructive to recall the historical context from which the concept developed. Here we examine the supercontinent cycle from this perspective by tracing its development from the early recognition of long-term episodicity in tectonic processes, through the identification of tectonic cycles following the advent of plate tectonics, to the first realization that these phenomena were the manifestation of episodic supercontinent assembly and breakup.

  9. Characteristics of fuel cycle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilina, C.A.; Everette, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Management System started in 1979 to describe and model the existing commercial low-level waste management system. The system description produced is based on the identification of the different elements making up both the fuel and non-fuel cycle and their relationships to each other. A systems model based on the system description can accurately reflect the flow of low-level waste from generator to disposal site and is only limited by the reliability of the information it uses. For both the fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle large quantities of information is required in order to allow the system to operate at its full potential. Work is ongoing to collect this information. Significant progress is being made in the fuel cycle area primarily because the majority of fuel cycle low-level radioactive waste is produced by commercial power reactor plant operations. The Low-Level Waste Management system is only beginning to derive the benefits to be obtained from an accurate low-level waste management information system. As data is verified and analyzed, results on a national as well as individual organization level will be gained. Comparisons to previous studies will be made. Accurate projections of waste volumes and activities to be produced, projected impacts of waste streams of treatment or management changes are only examples of information to be produced. 1 figure, 1 table

  10. Effects of repeated cycles of starvation and refeeding on lungs of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebjami, H; Domino, M

    1992-12-01

    Adult male rats were subjected to four cycles of mild starvation (2 wk) and refeeding (1 wk) and were compared with a fed group. Starvation was induced by giving rats one-third of their measured daily food consumption. During each starvation cycle, rats lost approximately 20% of their body weight. Despite catch-up growth and overall weight gain, starved rats had lower final body weight than fed rats. Lung dry weight and lung volumes were also reduced in the starved group. The mechanical properties of air- and saline-filled lungs did not change significantly with repeated cycles of starvation. Mean linear intercept was similar in the two groups, but alveolar surface area was reduced in the starved rats. Total content of crude connective tissue and concentration per lung dry weight of hydroxyproline and crude connective tissue were reduced in starved rats. We conclude that lung growth is retarded in growing rats subjected to repeated cycles of mild starvation and refeeding, as manifested by smaller lung volume and reduced alveolar surface area. Because alveolar size is unchanged, a reduced number of alveoli is most likely responsible for decreased lung volumes.

  11. Cancer Cachexia: Beyond Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Andrew R; Kamal, Arif H; LeBlanc, Thomas W; Ma, Joseph D; Baracos, Vickie E; Roeland, Eric J

    2016-11-01

    Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle loss leading to progressive functional impairment. Despite the ubiquity of cachexia in clinical practice, prevention, early identification, and intervention remain challenging. The impact of cancer cachexia on quality of life, treatment-related toxicity, physical function, and mortality are well established; however, establishing a clinically meaningful definition has proven challenging because of the focus on weight loss alone. Attempts to more comprehensively define cachexia through body composition, physical functioning, and molecular biomarkers, while promising, are yet to be routinely incorporated into clinical practice. Pharmacologic agents that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration but that are currently used in cancer cachexia (ie, megestrol, dronabinol) may improve weight but not outcomes of interest such as muscle mass, physical activity, or mortality. Their routine use is limited by adverse effects. For the practicing oncologist, early identification and management of cachexia is critical. Oncologists must recognize cachexia beyond weight loss alone, focusing instead on body composition and physical functioning. In fact, becoming emaciated is a late sign of cachexia that characterizes its refractory stage. Given that cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome, it requires early identification and polymodal intervention, including optimal cancer therapy, symptom management, nutrition, exercise, and psychosocial support. Consequently, oncologists have a role in ensuring that these resources are available to their patients. In addition, in light of the promising investigational agents, it remains imperative to refer patients with cachexia to clinical trials so that available options can be expanded to effectively treat this pervasive problem.

  12. Polycystic ovary syndrome and weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Lombard, Catherine B; Lim, Siew; Noakes, Manny; Teede, Helena J

    2010-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in women of reproductive age, and has reproductive, metabolic and psychological implications. Weight gain and obesity worsen the features of PCOS, while weight loss improves the features of PCOS. While there are potential barriers to successful weight management in young women who do not suffer from PCOS, women with PCOS may experience additional barriers. Weight management strategies in younger women with or without PCOS should encompass both the prevention of excess weight gain and achieving and maintaining a reduced weight through multidisciplinary lifestyle management, comprising dietary, exercise and behavioral therapy, as well as attention to psychosocial stress and practical and physiological barriers to weight management. Further research is warranted in the examination of specific barriers to weight management in women with PCOS, as well as in the determination of optimal components of lifestyle weight management interventions in young women in order to facilitate long-term compliance.

  13. THE ATOMIC WEIGHT OF ANTIMONY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青莲; 钱秋宇; 赵墨田

    1989-01-01

    With enriched antimony isotopes of 99.224 atom% 121Sb and 99.528 atom% 123Sb, twotracer solutions were prepared, whose antimony content was ascertained by the isotopicdilution analysis utilizing an accurately assayed laboratory standard. Mass spectrometricmeasurements were made on a Finnigan MAT- 261 instrument to find the ratio of masses121 and 123. Five synthetic mixtures formed from the tracers served to determine thecorrection factor of mass discrimination. The isotopic abundances thus found for the anti-mony in the mineral stibnite together with the known nuclidic masses yield an accurateatomic weight of antimony as 121 .7575± 0 .0009.

  14. Weight-controlled capillary viscometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digilov, Rafael M.; Reiner, M.

    2005-11-01

    The draining of a water column through a vertical discharge capillary tube is examined with the aid of a force sensor. The change of the mass of the liquid in the column with time is found to be not purely exponential as implied by Poiseuille's law. Using observed residuals associated with a kinetic energy correction, an approximate formula for the mass as a function of time is derived and excellent agreement with experimental data is attained. These results are verified by a viscosity test of distilled water at room temperature. A simple and inexpensive weight-controlled capillary viscometer is proposed that is especially suitable for undergraduate physics and chemistry laboratories.

  15. Moduli of weighted hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Lahoz, Martí; Macrí, Emanuele; Stellari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on a large class of geometric objects in moduli theory and provides explicit computations to investigate their families. Concrete examples are developed that take advantage of the intricate interplay between Algebraic Geometry and Combinatorics. Compactifications of moduli spaces play a crucial role in Number Theory, String Theory, and Quantum Field Theory – to mention just a few. In particular, the notion of compactification of moduli spaces has been crucial for solving various open problems and long-standing conjectures. Further, the book reports on compactification techniques for moduli spaces in a large class where computations are possible, namely that of weighted stable hyperplane arrangements.

  16. [Fast food promotes weight gain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne V

    2007-05-07

    The total amounts of fat in a fast food menu consisting of French fries and fried Chicken Nuggets from McDonald's and KFC, respectively, bought in 35 different countries vary from 41 to 71 gram. In most countries the menu contained unacceptably high amounts of industrially-produced trans fat which contributes to an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes. The quality of the ingredients in fast food ought to be better and the size of the portions smaller and less energy-dense so that frequent fast food meals do not increase the risk of obesity and diseases among customers.

  17. CANDU fuel-cycle vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P.G.

    1999-01-01

    The fuel-cycle path chosen by a particular country will depend on a range of local and global factors. The CANDU reactor provides the fuel-cycle flexibility to enable any country to optimize its fuel-cycle strategy to suit its own needs. AECL has developed the CANFLEX fuel bundle as the near-term carrier of advanced fuel cycles. A demonstration irradiation of 24 CANFLEX bundles in the Point Lepreau power station, and a full-scale critical heat flux (CHF) test in water are planned in 1998, before commercial implementation of CANFLEX fuelling. CANFLEX fuel provides a reduction in peak linear element ratings, and a significant enhancement in thermalhydraulic performance. Whereas natural uranium fuel provides many advantages, the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU) in CANDU reactors offers even lower fuel-cycle costs and other benefits, such as uprating capability through flattening the channel power distribution across the core. Recycled uranium (RU) from reprocessing spent PWR fuel is a subset of SEU that has significant economic promise. AECL views the use of SEU/RU in the CANFLEX bundle as the first logical step from natural uranium. High neutron economy enables the use of low-fissile fuel in CANDU reactors, which opens up a spectrum of unique fuel-cycle opportunities that exploit the synergism between CANDU reactors and LWRs. At one end of this spectrum is the use of materials from conventional reprocessing: CANDU reactors can utilize the RU directly without re-enrichment, the plutonium as conventional Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, and the actinide waste mixed with plutonium in an inert-matrix carrier. At the other end of the spectrum is the DUPIC cycle, employing only thermal-mechanical processes to convert spent LWR fuel into CANDU fuel, with no purposeful separation of isotopes from the fuel, and possessing a high degree of proliferation resistance. Between these two extremes are other advanced recycling options that offer particular advantages in exploiting the

  18. CANDU fuel-cycle vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P.G

    1998-05-01

    The fuel-cycle path chosen by a particular country will depend on a range of local and global factors. The CANDU reactor provides the fuel-cycle flexibility to enable any country to optimize its fuel-cycle strategy to suit its own needs. AECL has developed the CANFLEX fuel bundle as the near-term carrier of advanced fuel cycles. A demonstration irradiation of 24 CANFLEX bundles in the Point Lepreau power station, and a full-scale critical heat flux (CHF) test in water are planned in 1998, before commercial implementation of CANFLEX fuelling. CANFLEX fuel provides a reduction in peak linear element ratings, and a significant enhancement in thermalhydraulic performance. Whereas natural uranium fuel provides many advantages, the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU) in CANDU reactors offers even lower fuel-cycle costs and other benefits, such as uprating capability through flattening the channel power distribution across the core. Recycled uranium (RU) from reprocessing spent PWR fuel is a subset of SEU that has significant economic promise. AECL views the use of SEU/RU in the CANFLEX bundle as the first logical step from natural uranium. High neutron economy enables the use of low-fissile fuel in CANDU reactors, which opens up a spectrum of unique fuel-cycle opportunities that exploit the synergism between CANDU reactors and LWRs. At one end of this spectrum is the use of materials from conventional reprocessing: CANDU reactors can utilize the RU directly without reenrichment, the plutonium as conventional mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, and the actinide waste mixed with plutonium in an inert-matrix carrier. At the other end of the spectrum is the DUPIC cycle, employing only thermal-mechanical processes to convert spent LWR fuel into CANDU fuel, with no purposeful separation of isotopes from the fuel, and possessing a high degree of proliferation resistance. Between these two extremes are other advanced recycling options that offer particular advantages in exploiting the

  19. Proliferation resistance fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Ko, W. I

    1999-02-01

    The issues of dual use in nuclear technology are analysed for nuclear fuel cycle with special focus on uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing which are considered as the most sensitive components in terms of vulnerability to diversion. Technical alternatives to mitigrate the vulnerability, as has been analysed in depth during the NASAP and INFCE era in the late seventies, are reviewed to characterize the DUPIC fuel cycle alternative. On the other hand, the new realities in nuclear energy including the disposition of weapon materials as a legacy of cold war are recast in an angle of nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards with a discussion on the concept of spent fuel standard concept and its compliance with the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author)

  20. Measuring risky adolescent cycling behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schepers, Jan; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo

    2011-09-01

    Adolescents are at a greater risk of being involved in traffic accidents than most other age groups, even before they start driving cars. This article aims to determine the factor structure of a self-report questionnaire measuring adolescent risky cycling behaviour, the ACBQ (Adolescent Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire). The questionnaire's structure was based on the widely used Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). A sample of secondary school students (N = 1749; age range: 13-18 years) filled out the questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure underlying the questionnaire, which was confirmed on two equally large portions of the entire sample. These three underlying factors were identified as errors, common violations and exceptional violations. The ACBQ is a useful instrument for measuring adolescents' risky cycling behaviour.

  1. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels; Demina, Natalia; Gregoric, Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    -ing or exit stage. During transition the cycle reflects: privatization often with a high proportion of employee ownership like in Russia and in Slovenia; strong pressures for restructuring and owner-ship changes; limited possibility for external finance because of embryonic development of the fi......-nancial system. To provide simple hypothesis tests, we use Russian enterprise data for 1995-2003 and Slovenian data covering 1998-2003. In spite of differences in institutional development, con-cerning privatization and development of corporate governance institutions, we find that govern-ance cycles are broadly...... of ownership on managers, external domestic and foreign owners. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 - Keywords: corporate governance, life-cycle, privatization, ownership change, transition economies, Russia and Slovenia....

  2. Volatile earliest Triassic sulfur cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Algeo, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    model experiment. Exposure of evaporite deposits having a high δ 34S may account for the source change, with a possible role for the Siberian Traps volcanism by magmatic remobilization of Cambrian rock salt. A high sulfur cycle turnover rate would have left the ocean system vulnerable to development......Marine biodiversity decreases and ecosystem destruction during the end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) have been linked to widespread marine euxinic conditions. Changes in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR), and marine dissolved sulfate concentrations during...... fractionation and point to a more universal control, i.e., contemporaneous seawater sulfate concentration.The MSR-trend transfer function yielded estimates of seawater sulfate of 0.6-2.8mM for the latest Permian to earliest Triassic, suggesting a balanced oceanic S-cycle with equal S inputs and outputs...

  3. Gender Differences in Weight Loss: Evidence from a NHS Weight Management Service

    OpenAIRE

    BHOGAL, Manpal Singh; Langford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Provides evidence that men lose more weight than women when enrolled on a weight loss intervention.\\ud •\\ud Men lose more weight than women from their initial assessment up to 12-months.\\ud •\\ud Men maintain their weight and continue to lose more weight postintervention compared to women.

  4. Cell growth and division cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darzynkiewicz, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of the cell cycle in its present form was introduced more than three decades ago. Studying incorporation of DNA precursors by autoradiography, these authors observed that DNA synthesis in individual cells was discontinuous and occupied a discrete portion of the cell life (S phase). Mitotic division was seen to occur after a certain period of time following DNA replication. A distinct time interval between mitosis and DNA replication was also apparent. Thus, the cell cycle was subdivided into four consecutive phases, G/sub 1/, S, G/sub 2/, and M. The G/sub 1/ and G/sub 2/ phases represented the ''gaps'' between mitosis and the start of DNA replication, and between the end of DNA replication and the onset of mitosis, respectively. The cell cycle was defined as the interval between the midpoint of mitosis and the midpoint of the subsequent mitosis of the daughter cell(s). The authors' present knowledge on the cell cycle benefited mostly from the development of four different techniques: autoradiography, time-lapse cinematography, cell synchronization and flow cytometry. Of these, autoradiography has been the most extensively used, especially during the past two decades. By providing a means to analyse incorporation of precursors of DNA, RNA or proteins by individual cells and, in combination with various techniques of cell synchronization, autoradiography yielded most of the data fundamental to the current understanding of the cell cycle-related phenomena. Kinetics of cell progression through the cell cycle could be analysed in great detail after development of such sophisticated autoradiographic approaches as measurements of the fraction of labeled mitoses (''FLM curves'') or multiple sequential cell labelling with /sup 3/H- and /sup 14/C-TdR

  5. Partaking in cycling, at what cost? : determinants of cycling expenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thibaut, E.; Vos, S.B.; Lagae, W.; Van Puyenbroeck, T.; Scheerder, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the determinants of cycling expenditure by means of a Tobit regression analysis, based on a dataset of 5,157 cyclists. Using a heterodox economic framework, 23 different variables are combined into two commonly used variable groups (socio-demographics, sports intensity variables)

  6. Job Displacement and First Birth Over the Business Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Barbara; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Uhlendorff, Arne

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we investigate the impact of job displacement on women's first-birth rates as well as the variation in this effect over the business cycle. We use mass layoffs to estimate the causal effects of involuntary job loss on fertility in the short and medium term, up to five years after displacement. Our analysis is based on rich administrative data from Germany, with an observation period spanning more than 20 years. We apply inverse probability weighting (IPW) to flexibly control for the observed differences between women who were and were not displaced. To account for the differences in the composition of the women who were displaced in a downturn and the women who were displaced in an upswing, we use a double weighting estimator. Results show that the extent to which job displacement has adverse effects on fertility depends on the business cycle. The first-birth rates were much lower for women who were displaced in an economic downturn than for those who lost a job in an economic upturn. This result cannot be explained by changes in the observed characteristics of the displaced women over the business cycle.

  7. Weighted OFDM for wireless multipath channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Nikookar, H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the novel method of "weighted OFDM" is addressed. Different types of weighting factors (including Rectangular, Bartlett, Gaussian. Raised cosine, Half-sin and Shanon) are considered. The impact of weighting of OFDM on the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is investigated by means...... of simulation and is compared for the above mentioned weighting factors. Results show that by weighting of the OFDM signal the PAPR reduces. Bit error performance of weighted multicarrier transmission over a multipath channel is also investigated. Results indicate that there is a trade off between PAPR...

  8. Life Cycle Costing: An Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rödger, Jan-Markus; Kjær, Louise Laumann; Pagoropoulos, Aris

    2018-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to life cycle costing (LCC) and how it can be used to support decision-making. It can form the economic pillar in a full life cycle sustainability assessment, but often system delimitations differ depending on the goal and scope of the study. To provide a profound...... as well as guidance on how to collect data to overcome this hurdle. In an illustrative case study on window frames, the eLCC theory is applied and demonstrated with each step along the eLCC procedure described in detail. A final section about advanced LCC introduces how to monetarise externalities and how...

  9. Menstrual cycle and skin reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Damm, P; Skouby, S O

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that a cyclic variation exists in skin reactivity to irritant stimuli. Twenty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles were challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate as an irritant patch test at day 1 and at days 9 through 11 of the menstrual cycle. The skin response...... to the applied irritant stimulus was evaluated by visual scoring and also quantified by measurements of transepidermal water loss, edema formation, and blood flow in the skin. The skin response to challenge with sodium lauryl sulfate was found to be significantly stronger at day 1 than at days 9 through 11...

  10. Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that developing countries differ considerably from their developed counterparts when focus is on the nature and characteristics of short run macroeconomic fluctuations. Cycles are generally shorter, and the stylized facts of business cycles across countries are more diverse...... than those of the rather uniform industrialized countries. Supply-side models are generally superior in explaining changes in output, but a “one-size fits all” approach in formulating policy is inappropriate. Our results also illustrate the critical importance of understanding business regularities...

  11. ITER fuel cycle systems layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-10-01

    The ITER fuel cycle building (FCB) will contain the following systems: fuel purification - permeator based; fuel purification - molecular sieves; impurity treatment; waste water storage and treatment; isotope separation; waste water tritium extraction; tritium extraction from solid breeder; tritium extraction from test modules; tritium storage, shipping and receiving; tritium laboratory; atmosphere detritiation systems; fuel cycle control centre; tritiated equipment maintenance space; control maintenance space; health physics laboratory; access, access control and facilities. The layout of the FCB and the requirements for these systems are described. (10 figs.)

  12. [Menstrual cycle disorders in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, María E; Pipman, Viviana; Arcari, Andrea; Boulgourdjian, Elisabeth; Keselman, Ana; Pasqualini, Titania; Alonso, Guillermo; Blanco, Miguel

    2010-08-01

    The high prevalence of menstrual disorders during the first years after menarche is well recognized. This is usually a cause of concern for parents and patients, and a common reason for visiting the pediatrician. The immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is the major cause of these disorders, but there are also some general organic or emotional conditions that may alter the menstrual cycle, which is a sensitive indicator of health. Physiology of the menstrual cycle, its alterations, etiology, assessment, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed in this article.

  13. Ramsey Results for Cycle Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, S.; Joos, F.; Muttel, J.

    2013-01-01

    Let C(G) denote the set of lengths of cycles of a graph G of order n and let (G) over bar denote the complement of G. We show that if n >= 6, then C(G) boolean OR C((G) over bar) contains all odd l with 3......Let C(G) denote the set of lengths of cycles of a graph G of order n and let (G) over bar denote the complement of G. We show that if n >= 6, then C(G) boolean OR C((G) over bar) contains all odd l with 3...

  14. Digital calculations of engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Starkman, E S; Taylor, C Fayette

    1964-01-01

    Digital Calculations of Engine Cycles is a collection of seven papers which were presented before technical meetings of the Society of Automotive Engineers during 1962 and 1963. The papers cover the spectrum of the subject of engine cycle events, ranging from an examination of composition and properties of the working fluid to simulation of the pressure-time events in the combustion chamber. The volume has been organized to present the material in a logical sequence. The first two chapters are concerned with the equilibrium states of the working fluid. These include the concentrations of var

  15. Fuel cycle math - part two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article is Part 2 of a two part series on simple mathematics associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. While not addressing any of the financial aspects of the fuel cycle, this article does discuss the following: conversion between English and metric systems; uranium content expressed in equivalent forms, such as U3O8, and the method of determining these equivalencies; the uranium conversion process, considering different input and output compounds; and the enrichment process, including feed, tails, and product assays, as well as SWU and feed requirements

  16. Optimal Weighting for Exam Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ganzfried

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A problem faced by many instructors is that of designing exams that accurately assess the abilities of the students. Typically, these exams are prepared several days in advance, and generic question scores are used based on rough approximation of the question difficulty and length. For example, for a recent class taught by the author, there were 30 multiple choice questions worth 3 points, 15 true/false with explanation questions worth 4 points, and 5 analytical exercises worth 10 points. We describe a novel framework where algorithms from machine learning are used to modify the exam question weights in order to optimize the exam scores, using the overall final score as a proxy for a student’s true ability. We show that significant error reduction can be obtained by our approach over standard weighting schemes, i.e., for the final and midterm exam, the mean absolute error for prediction decreases by 90.58% and 97.70% for linear regression approach respectively resulting in better estimation. We make several new observations regarding the properties of the “good” and “bad” exam questions that can have impact on the design of improved future evaluation methods.

  17. Cost analysis and economic comparison for alternative fuel cycles in the heavy water cooled canadian reactor (CANDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, S.

    2000-01-01

    Three main options in a CANDU fuel cycle involve use of: (1) natural uranium (0.711 weight percent U-235) fuel, (2) slightly enriched uranium (1.2 weight percent U-235) fuel, and (3) recovered uranium (0.83 weight percent U-235) fuel from light water reactor spent fuel. ORIGEN-2 computer code was used to identify composition of the spent fuel for each option, including the standard LWR fuel (3.3 weight percent U-235). Uranium and plutonium credit calculations were performed using ORIGEN-2 output. WIMSD-5 computer code was used to determine maximum discharge burnup values for each case. For the 3 cycles selected (natural uranium, slightly enriched uranium, recovered uranium), levelized fuel cycle cost calculations are performed over the reactor lifetime of 40 years, using unit process costs obtained from literature. Components of the fuel cycle costs are U purchase, conversion, enrichment, fabrication, SF storage, SF disposal, and reprocessing where applicable. Cost parameters whose effects on the fuel cycle cost are to be investigated are escalation ratio, discount rate and SF storage time. Cost estimations were carried out using specially developed computer programs. Share of each cost component on the total cost was determined and sensitivity analysis was performed in order to show how a change in a main cost component affects the fuel cycle cost. The main objective of this study has been to find out the most economical option for CANDU fuel cycle by changing unit prices and cost parameters

  18. Weight loss and weight loss maintenance efficacy of a novel weight loss program: The retrospective RNPC® cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Fabre, Odile; Legrand, Rémy

    2018-01-01

    or obese patients treated in 54 RNPC® weight loss clinics in France. Results: A total of 10,809 (89%) patients completed the initial weight loss phase and 2996 (25%) completed the full program. Median weight loss percentage was 10.7% (Interquartile range [IQR]: 5.8; 16.5) after a median of 105 days (IQR...

  19. The role of information in a lifetime process - a model of weight maintenance by women over long time periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Bar-Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper proposes a model of information behaviour of women during their life-long struggle to maintain normal weight. Method. The model is integrative and contextual, built on existing models in information science and several other disciplines, and the life stories of about fifty Israeli women aged 25-55 and interviews with professionals. Analysis. The life stories of the participating women were analyzed qualitatively, major themes and phases were identified. Results. Weight loss and/or maintenance behaviour is a lifetime process in which distinctive stages were identified. In most cases the weight gain - weight loss - maintenance cycle is a recurring cycle. Information is a major resource during the process: several roles of information were defined: enabling, motivating, reinforcing, providing background information related to weight problems and creating the internal cognitive schema related to food and weight. Information behaviour and the roles of information vary with the different stages. Information needs are also influenced by the specific stage of the process. Information gathered at previous cycles is reused, and information gained through previous experience effects behaviour in the current cycle. Conclusion. The model has both theoretical and practical implications.

  20. Mediation of Weight Loss and Weight Loss Maintenance through Dietary Disinhibition and Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JaKa, Meghan M; Sherwood, Nancy E; Flatt, Shirley W; Pacanowski, Carly R; Pakiz, Bilgé; Thomson, Cynthia A; Rock, Cheryl L

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the degree to which eating behaviors, such as disinhibition and restraint, are associated with weight loss and weight loss maintenance could contribute to further refinement of effective weight management intervention strategies. The purpose of this analysis was to examine if these factors mediate weight loss or weight loss maintenance using data from a randomized controlled trial testing a commercial weight loss program that delivered behavioral counseling and structured meal plans including prepackaged foods. Mediation analyses were used to examine whether changes in disinhibition and restraint mediated the relationship between intervention and weight change during initial weight loss (0-6 months), continued weight loss (6-12 months), or weight loss maintenance (12-24 months) phases. Only decreases in disinhibition between baseline and 6 months mediated the intervention effect on initial weight loss. Our results suggest the mediation effects of these eating behaviors are modest and other factors contribute to a larger, more complex long-term weight loss prognosis.