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Sample records for weight control program

  1. Employers should disband employee weight control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alfred; Khanna, Vikram; Montrose, Shana

    2015-02-01

    American corporations continue to expand wellness programs, which now reach an estimated 90% of workers in large organizations, yet no study has demonstrated that the main focus of these programs-weight control-has any positive effect. There is no published evidence that large-scale corporate attempts to control employee body weight through financial incentives and penalties have generated savings from long-term weight loss, or a reduction in inpatient admissions associated with obesity or even long-term weight loss itself. Other evidence contradicts the hypothesis that population obesity rates meaningfully retard economic growth or manufacturing productivity. Quite the contrary, overscreening and crash dieting can impact employee morale and even harm employee health. Therefore, the authors believe that corporations should disband or significantly reconfigure weight-oriented wellness programs, and that the Affordable Care Act should be amended to require such programs to conform to accepted guidelines for harm avoidance.

  2. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [The effects of a weight control program with competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yeong-Mi; Suh, Sun-Lim

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a weight control program and compliancy in overweight women. This program was composed of strategies to modify diet and exercise and to change compliance and self determination over an 8 week period. The subjects were 19 overweight women who participated in our project voluntarily. Data was collected from May 4 to June 30 of 2007. The program consisted of regular rapid walking exercise, diet, mobile phone messages and e-mail. The data was analyzed by Repeated Measures ANOVA using the SPSS WIN program. According to 3 assessment periods, there were significant differences in body weight, body mass index, and compliance. There were no significant differences in self determination. These findings suggest that more intensive interventions may be needed to demonstrate a change in self determination.

  4. Cohort Study of the Success of Controlled Weight Loss Programs for Obese Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, A J; Titcomb, J M; Holden, S L; Queau, Y; Morris, P J; Biourge, V

    2015-01-01

    Most weight loss studies in obese dogs assess rate and percentage of weight loss in the first 2-3 months, rather than the likelihood of successfully reaching target weight. To determine outcome of controlled weight loss programs for obese dogs, and to determine the factors associated with successful completion. 143 obese dogs undergoing a controlled weight loss program. This was a cohort study of obese dogs attending a referral weight management clinic. Dogs were studied during their period of weight loss, and cases classified according to outcome as "completed" (reached target weight), "euthanized" (was euthanized before reaching target weight), or "stopped prematurely" (program stopped early for other reasons). Factors associated with successful completion were assessed using simple and multiple logistic regression. 87/143 dogs (61%) completed their weight loss program, 11 [8%] died or were euthanized, and the remaining 45 [32%] stopped prematurely. Reasons for dogs stopping prematurely included inability to contact owner, refusal to comply with weight management advice, or development of another illness. Successful weight loss was positively associated with a faster rate (P obese dogs on a controlled weight loss program reach their target weight. Future studies should better clarify reasons for success in individual cases, and also the role of factors such as activity and behavioral modification. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. A work-site weight control program using financial incentives collected through payroll deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, J L; Jeffery, R W; Sullivan, S; Snell, M K

    1985-11-01

    In a work-site weight control program using a self-motivational program of financial incentives implemented through payroll deduction, 131 university employees chose weight loss goals (0 to 60 lb) and incentives (+5 to +30) to be deducted from each paycheck for six months. Return of incentive money was contingent on progress toward weight goals. Participants were assigned randomly to one of four protocols, involving group educational sessions v self-instruction only and required v optional attendance at weigh-ins and sessions. Overall, dropout rates (21.4%) and mean weight loss (12.2 lb) were encouraging, especially compared with those of other work-site programs. Weight loss was positively associated with attendance at weigh-ins and educational sessions. However, requiring attendance did not increase program effectiveness and seemed also to discourage enrollment among men. The weight control program was equally effective when offered with professionally led educational sessions or when accompanied by self-instructional materials only.

  6. A smartphone-supported weight loss program: design of the ENGAGED randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Christine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health challenge, demanding cost-effective and scalable weight management programs. Delivering key treatment components via mobile technology offers a potential way to reduce expensive in-person contact, thereby lowering the cost and burden of intensive weight loss programs. The ENGAGED study is a theory-guided, randomized controlled trial designed to examine the feasibility and efficacy of an abbreviated smartphone-supported weight loss program. Methods/design Ninety-six obese adults (BMI 30–39.9 kg/m2 will be randomized to one of three treatment conditions: (1 standard behavioral weight loss (STND, (2 technology-supported behavioral weight loss (TECH; or (3 self-guided behavioral weight loss (SELF. All groups will aim to achieve a 7% weight loss goal by reducing calorie and fat intake and progressively increasing moderate intensity physical activity to 175 minutes/week. STND and TECH will attend 8 group sessions and receive regular coaching calls during the first 6 months of the intervention; SELF will receive the Group Lifestyle Balance Program DVD’s and will not receive coaching calls. During months 1–6, TECH will use a specially designed smartphone application to monitor dietary intake, body weight, and objectively measured physical activity (obtained from a Blue-tooth enabled accelerometer. STND and SELF will self-monitor on paper diaries. Linear mixed modeling will be used to examine group differences on weight loss at months 3, 6, and 12. Self-monitoring adherence and diet and activity goal attainment will be tested as mediators. Discussion ENGAGED is an innovative weight loss intervention that integrates theory with emerging mobile technologies. We hypothesize that TECH, as compared to STND and SELF, will result in greater weight loss by virtue of improved behavioral adherence and goal achievement. Trial registration NCT01051713

  7. Consumer preferences in format and type of community-based weight control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, N E; Morton, N; Jeffery, R W; French, S A; Neumark-Sztainer, D; Falkner, N H

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide further information about preferences for types and formats (e.g., correspondence vs. face to face) of eating and exercise programs, actual participation rates in a variety of offered programs, and characteristics of program participants vs. nonparticipants. Over a 3-year period, a large sample of community volunteers was given the opportunity to participate in various forms of diet and exercise programs as part of a weight gain prevention study. The study was conducted at a university and three local health department sites. Subjects in the study were 616 individuals participating in the Pound of Prevention study (POP), a 3-year randomized evaluation of an intervention for preventing weight gain. The primary outcomes assessed were participation rates for each program offering. Program participants were also compared to those who did not participate on demographic characteristics, smoking, diet behavior, exercise behavior, and weight concern. Survey results indicated that correspondence formats for delivery of health education programs were rated as more desirable than face-to-face formats. Participation for program offering ranged from 0 to 16% of the study population. Participation data were consistent with survey results and showed participants' preference for correspondence formats even more strongly. Program offering attracted health-conscious participants with higher education and income levels. These data suggest that some community members will get interested and take part in low-cost, minimal contact programs for exercise and weight control. Future research efforts should focus on investigating ways to increase participation in brief or minimal contact programs, particularly among groups that may be difficult to reach and at high risk for the development of obesity.

  8. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women

    OpenAIRE

    Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Kirtania, Usree; Lasater, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Met...

  9. Effects of a weight management program delivered by social media on weight and metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults: A randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Jane

    Full Text Available The aim of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of using social media to augment the delivery of, and provide support for, a weight management program delivered to overweight and obese individuals during a twenty four week intervention.Participants randomly divided into either one of two intervention groups or a control group. The two intervention groups were instructed to follow identical weight-management program. One group received the program within a Facebook group, along with a support network with the group, and the other intervention group received the same program in a booklet. The control group was given standard care. Participants' weight and other metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured at baseline and at weeks 6, 12, 18 and 24.The Facebook Group reported a 4.8% reduction in initial weight, significant compared to the CG only (p = 0.01, as well as numerically greater improvements in body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, lean mass, and energy intake compared to the Pamphlet Group and the Control Group.These results demonstrate the potential of social media to assist overweight and obese individuals with respect to dietary and physical activity modifications for weight management, and justify further research into the inclusion of social media in clinical weight management programs. It is anticipated that social media will provide an invaluable resource for health professionals, as a low maintenance vehicle for communicating with patients, as well as a source of social support and information sharing for individuals undergoing lifestyle modifications.

  10. The need of a weight management control program in judo: a proposal based on the successful case of wrestling.

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    Artioli, Guilherme G; Franchini, Emerson; Nicastro, Humberto; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Solis, Marina Y; Lancha, Antonio H

    2010-05-04

    Judo competitions are divided into weight classes. However, most athletes reduce their body weight in a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast weight reduction, athletes use a number of aggressive nutritional strategies so many of them place themselves at a high health-injury risk. In collegiate wrestling, a similar problem has been observed and three wrestlers died in 1997 due to rapid weight loss regimes. After these deaths, the National Collegiate Athletic Association had implemented a successful weight management program which was proven to improve weight management behavior. No similar program has ever been discussed by judo federations even though judo competitors present a comparable inappropriate pattern of weight control. In view of this, the basis for a weight control program is provided in this manuscript, as follows: competition should begin within 1 hour after weigh-in, at the latest; each athlete is allowed to be weighed-in only once; rapid weight loss as well as artificial rehydration (i.e., saline infusion) methods are prohibited during the entire competition day; athletes should pass the hydration test to get their weigh-in validated; an individual minimum competitive weight (male athletes competing at no less than 7% and females at no less than 12% of body fat) should be determined at the beginning of each season; athletes are not allowed to compete in any weight class that requires weight reductions greater than 1.5% of body weight per week. In parallel, educational programs should aim at increasing the athletes', coaches' and parents' awareness about the risks of aggressive nutritional strategies as well as healthier ways to properly manage body weight.

  11. Evaluation of 8-week body weight control program including sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) supplementation in Korean female college students

    OpenAIRE

    You, Jeong Soon; Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a body weight control program with supplementation of sea tangle (20 g/day) on 22 female college students. The contents of the program for 8 weeks contained diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification through nutrition education. Body composition, dietary habit scores, serum lipid profiles, daily nutrient intakes and the quality of life were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the program. Average age of subjects and height we...

  12. Applying economic incentives to increase effectiveness of an outpatient weight loss program (TRIO) - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Tham, Kwang-Wei; Haaland, Benjamin A; Sahasranaman, Aarti

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity has more than doubled in the past three decades, leading to rising rates of non-communicable diseases. This study tests whether adding a payment/rewards (term reward) program to an existing evidence-based weight loss program can increase weight loss and weight loss maintenance. We conducted a parallel-group randomized controlled trial from October 2012 to October 2015 with 161 overweight or obese individuals randomized to either control or reward arm in a 1:2 ratio. Control and reward arm participants received a four month weight loss program at the LIFE (Lifestyle Improvement and Fitness Enhancement) Centre at Singapore General Hospital. Those in the reward arm paid a fee of S$165.00 (1US$ = 1.35S$) to access a program that provided rewards of up to S$660 for meeting weight loss and physical activity goals. Participants could choose to receive rewards as guaranteed cash payments or a lottery ticket with a 1 in 10 chance of winning but with the same expected value. The primary outcome was weight loss at months 4, 8, and 12. 161 participants were randomized to control (n = 54) or reward (n = 107) arms. Average weight loss was more than twice as great in the reward arm compared to the control arm at month 4 when the program concluded (3.4 kg vs 1.4 kg, p rewards concluded (3.3 kg vs 1.8 kg, p rewards program can be used to improve weight loss and weight loss maintenance when combined with an evidence-based weight loss program. Future efforts should attempt to replicate this approach and identify how to cost effectively expand these programs to maximize their reach. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01533454). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Ripple Effect of a Nationally Available Weight Management Program on Untreated Spouses.

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    Gorin, Amy A; Lenz, Erin M; Cornelius, Talea; Huedo-Medina, Tania; Wojtanowski, Alexis C; Foster, Gary D

    2018-03-01

    For married couples, when one spouse participates in weight loss treatment, the untreated spouse can also experience weight loss. This study examined this ripple effect in a nationally available weight management program. One hundred thirty dyads were randomized to Weight Watchers (WW; n = 65) or to a self-guided control group (SG; n = 65) and assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 25 years, BMI 27 to 40 kg/m 2 (≥ 25 kg/m 2 for untreated spouses), and no weight loss contraindications. WW participants received 6 months of free access to in-person meetings and online tools. SG participants received a weight loss handout. Spouses did not receive treatment. Untreated spouses lost weight at 3 months (WW = -1.5 ± 2.9 kg; SG = -1.1 ± 3.3 kg) and 6 months (WW = -2.2 ± 4.2 kg; SG = -1.9 ± 3.6 kg), but weight losses did not differ by condition. Overall, 32.0% of untreated spouses lost ≥ 3% of initial body weight by 6 months. Baseline weight was significantly correlated within couples (r = 0.26; P ripple effect was found in untreated spouses in both formal and self-guided weight management approaches. These data suggest that weight loss can spread within couples, and that widely available lifestyle programs have weight loss effects beyond the treated individual. © 2018 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  14. The development of SisterTalk: a cable TV-delivered weight control program for black women.

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    Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Lovell, H Joan; Risica, Patricia M; Goldman, Roberta; Odoms-Young, Angela; Strolla, Leslie O; Decaille, Donna O; Caron, Colleen; Lasater, Thomas M

    2003-12-01

    Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with black women disproportionately affected. SisterTalk is a weight control program designed specifically for delivery to black women via cable TV. The theoretical and conceptual frameworks and formative research that guided the development and cultural tailoring of SisterTalk are described. Social Action Theory was applied in the development of SisterTalk along with a detailed behavioral analysis of the way that black women view weight and weight loss within the context of their cultural and social realities. The entire intervention development process was framed using this information, rather than by changing only superficial aspects of program delivery. Community networking and both qualitative and quantitative interview techniques from the fields of social marketing and cultural anthropology were used to involve black women from Boston in the design and implementation of a program that would be practical, appealing, and culturally sensitive. Also discussed are strategies for evaluating the program, and lessons learned that might have broader applicability are highlighted. The development of the SisterTalk program could provide a useful starting point for development of successful weight control programs for black women in other parts of the United States as well as for other ethnic and racial groups.

  15. Promoting weight control at the worksite: a pilot program of self-motivation using payroll-based incentives.

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    Jeffery, R W; Forster, J L; Snell, M K

    1985-03-01

    Thirty-six individuals participated in a worksite weight-loss program in which the central component was a self-motivation program of biweekly payroll deductions refunded contingent on meeting self-selected weight-loss goals. Half were assigned to early treatment and the remainder to a delayed treatment control group. Nine additional individuals also enrolled at the time of delayed treatment and were included in descriptive analyses of factors associated with weight loss. Results showed low program attrition over 6 months (6%) and mean weight losses (12.3 lb) that are competitive with those obtained in clinical settings. Although not different at baseline, participants in the delayed treatment group lost more than twice as much weight as those in the early treatment condition. This difference was interpreted as either a strong seasonal effect or a critical mass effect related to the proportion of employees at the worksite participating in the program. We conclude that self-motivation programs for health behavior change using the payroll system as an organization framework offer a promising new methodology for promoting healthful behaviors in work settings.

  16. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN THE CONTROL OF THE CORPORAL WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Matos de Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this bibliographical rising was analyzing the effectiveness of exercises in the control of the corporal weight. This revision study approached studies published among the years from 1991 to 2005, through systematic searches using electronic database: Medline, Science Direct and bibliographical collection of Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia. The weigh loss process depends on several factors as the number of fatty cells, hereditariness, normality of hormonal system and mainly to the energy expense. The analyzed studies demonstrated that the physical exercise is an mechanism efficiente that contributes in the reduction of corporal weight, allied the other health positive habits. However the intensity, duration and even the ideal modality of physical exercise is controversial in the half specialized, having a certain predominance of studies that they appear for exercises drop aerobics the moderate intensity due to minimizes risks the health. The studies addressed for the anaerobic exercises they demonstrated to be more efficient in the control of corporal weight, because besides contributing for loss of corporal fat it favors the maintenance and/our increase of thin corporal mass. Experimental studies are recommended with wider delineamento than it favors to investigate the relationship of different types of physical exercise in the control of corporal weight.

  17. Long-Term Weight Maintenance after a 17-Week Weight Loss Intervention with or without a One-Year Maintenance Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Tuula Pekkarinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Weight lost by obese patients is almost always regained over time. Extended treatment may improve maintenance, but solid evidence is lacking. Purpose. We determined effectiveness of maintenance therapy after a weight loss program. Methods. Together 201 patients (mean age 47 years and BMI 42 kg/m2, 71% women were randomly assigned to either a 17-week weight loss program followed by a one-year maintenance program or to a weight loss program without subsequent maintenance intervention. The weight loss program included behavior modification and a very-low-calorie diet, and maintenance program behavior modification. The primary outcome measure was percentage of patients with 5% or more weight loss at the end of maintenance (week 69 and one year later (week 121. Secondary outcomes were weight related changes in lifestyle and quality of life. Results. At week 69, 52% of the patients with and 44% of those without maintenance program had lost weight ≥5%, P=0.40, and, at week 121, 33% and 34%, P=0.77, respectively. At week 121 secondary outcomes did not differ between the groups among those successfully followed up. Conclusions. This one-year maintenance program was not effective in preventing weight regain in severely obese patients. Trial Registration. This trial is registered under clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00590655.

  18. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Kirtania, Usree; Lasater, Thomas M

    2013-12-27

    Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. A five group design included a comparison group and a 2 × 2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison groups. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison group. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention group, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial intervention period, but only dietary

  19. Evaluation of 8-week body weight control program including sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) supplementation in Korean female college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Sung, Min Jung

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a body weight control program with supplementation of sea tangle (20 g/day) on 22 female college students. The contents of the program for 8 weeks contained diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification through nutrition education. Body composition, dietary habit scores, serum lipid profiles, daily nutrient intakes and the quality of life were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the program. Average age of subjects and height were 20.8 years and 161.9 cm, respectively. After 8 weeks, there were significant reductions in body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, waist-hip ratio and BMI. The dietary habit score such as a balanced diet, regularity of mealtime, overeating, eating while watching TV or using the computer and eating salty food were increased significantly. Serum lipid levels such as total cholesterol level, LDL-cholesterol level and triglyceride level were decreased but not significantly. There were decreases in intake of energy, protein and fat and increases in intakes of dietary fiber, folic acid, calcium and potassium from the beginning to the end of the program. There were significant improvements on subcomponents of quality of life; physical functioning, general-health and vitality. The limitation of this study was the fact that there was no control group, but an overall evaluation suggests the 8-week body weight control program consisting of diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification with supplementation of sea tangle would be helpful to improve the body composition, dietary habits, daily nutrient intakes and quality of life in Korean female college students. PMID:20098584

  20. Effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on physical function in overweight, older women: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Anton, Stephen D; Manini, Todd M; Milsom, Vanessa A; Dubyak, Pamela; Cesari, Matteo; Cheng, Jing; Daniels, Michael J; Marsiske, Michael; Pahor, Marco; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Perri, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with physical impairments and biologic changes in older adults. Weight loss combined with exercise may reduce inflammation and improve physical functioning in overweight, sedentary, older adults. This study tested whether a weight loss program combined with moderate exercise could improve physical function in obese, older adult women. Participants (N = 34) were generally healthy, obese, older adult women (age range 55-79 years) with mild to moderate physical impairments (ie, functional limitations). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups for 24 weeks: (i) weight loss plus exercise (WL+E; n = 17; mean age = 63.7 years [4.5]) or (ii) educational control (n = 17; mean age = 63.7 [6.7]). In the WL+E group, participants attended a group-based weight management session plus three supervised exercise sessions within their community each week. During exercise sessions, participants engaged in brisk walking and lower-body resistance training of moderate intensity. Participants in the educational control group attended monthly health education lectures on topics relevant to older adults. Outcomes were: (i) body weight, (ii) walking speed (assessed by 400-meter walk test), (iii) the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and (iv) knee extension isokinetic strength. Participants randomized to the WL+E group lost significantly more weight than participants in the educational control group (5.95 [0.992] vs 0.23 [0.99] kg; P meter walk test = 44 seconds; P < 0.05). Scores on the SPPB improved in both the intervention and educational control groups from pre- to post-test (P < 0.05), with significant differences between groups (P = 0.02). Knee extension strength was maintained in both groups. Our findings suggest that a lifestyle-based weight loss program consisting of moderate caloric restriction plus moderate exercise can produce significant weight loss and improve physical function while maintaining muscle

  1. Effects of a 10-week weight control program on obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: a 12-month follow up.

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    Chen, Chih-Ken; Chen, Yi-Chih; Huang, Yu-Shu

    2009-02-01

    Weight gain secondary to antipsychotic medication is associated with many serious conditions, including type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary heart disease, and also with poor medication compliance. Weight control programs may be of benefit to outpatients with schizophrenia, but also raise an issue of cost-effectiveness. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a 10-week weight control program for outpatients taking atypical antipsychotics for treatment of schizophrenia, and to follow up the effects of this weight control program in controlling weight gain after termination of the program. A total of 33 patients with schizophrenia and antipsychotic-related obesity were enrolled in a 10-week multimodal weight control program. The patients' weights were recorded at baseline, week 4, week 8, week 10 (end of the intervention), week 12, week 24, and week 48. Secondary measures included blood sugar levels, cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, quality of life and mental health. For those who completed the weight control program, there was a mean weight loss of 2.1 kg by the end of the intervention, 3.7 kg over 6 months, and 2.7 kg over 12 months. The mean body mass index decreased by 0.8, 1.5 and 1.1 at week 10, week 24 and week 48, respectively, all with statistical significance. The 10-week weight control program was effective in terms of weight reduction among obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and the weight reduction effect lasted for up to 6 months, and up to 12 months in some cases.

  2. Does the incorporation of portion-control strategies in a behavioral program improve weight loss in a 1-year randomized controlled trial?

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    Rolls, B J; Roe, L S; James, B L; Sanchez, C E

    2017-03-01

    Controlling food portion sizes can help reduce energy intake, but the effect of different portion-control methods on weight management is not known. In a 1-year randomized trial, we tested whether the efficacy of a behavioral weight-loss program was improved by incorporating either of the two portion-control strategies instead of standard advice about eating less. The Portion-Control Strategies Trial included 186 women with obesity (81%) or overweight (19%). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three equally intensive behavioral programs, consisting of 19 individual sessions over 12 months. The Standard Advice Group was instructed to eat less food while making healthy choices, the Portion Selection Group was instructed to choose portions based on the energy density using tools such as food scales and the Pre-portioned Foods Group was instructed to structure meals around pre-portioned foods such as single-serving main dishes, for which some vouchers were provided. In an intention-to-treat analysis, a mixed-effects model compared weight loss trajectories across 23 measurements; at month 12, weight was measured for 151 participants (81%). The trajectories showed that the Pre-portioned Foods Group initially lost weight at a greater rate than the other two groups (P=0.021), but subsequently regained weight at a greater rate (P=0.0005). As a result, weight loss did not differ significantly across groups at month 6 (mean±s.e. 5.2±0.4 kg) or month 12 (4.5±0.5 kg). After 1 year, measured weight loss averaged 6% of baseline weight. The frequency of using portion-control strategies initially differed across groups, then declined over time and converged at months 6 and 12. Incorporating instruction on portion-control strategies within a 1-year behavioral program did not lead to a greater weight loss than standard advice. Using pre-portioned foods enhanced early weight loss, but this was not sustained over time. Long-term maintenance of behavioral strategies to

  3. Effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on physical function in overweight, older women: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton SD

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephen D Anton1,2, Todd M Manini1, Vanessa A Milsom2, Pamela Dubyak2, Matteo Cesari3, Jing Cheng4, Michael J Daniels5, Michael Marsiske2, Marco Pahor1, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh1, Michael G Perri21Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Area di Geriatria, Università Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy; 4Division of Oral Epidemiology and Dental Public Health, San Francisco, CA, USA; 5Department of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USABackground: Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with physical impairments and biologic changes in older adults. Weight loss combined with exercise may reduce inflammation and improve physical functioning in overweight, sedentary, older adults. This study tested whether a weight loss program combined with moderate exercise could improve physical function in obese, older adult women.Methods: Participants (n = 34 were generally healthy, obese, older adult women (age range 55–79 years with mild to moderate physical impairments (ie, functional limitations. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups for 24 weeks: (i weight loss plus exercise (WL+E; n = 17; mean age = 63.7 years [4.5] or (ii educational control (n = 17; mean age = 63.7 [6.7]. In the WL+E group, participants attended a group-based weight management session plus three supervised exercise sessions within their community each week. During exercise sessions, participants engaged in brisk walking and lower-body resistance training of moderate intensity. Participants in the educational control group attended monthly health education lectures on topics relevant to older adults. Outcomes were: (i body weight, (ii walking speed (assessed by 400-meter walk test, (iii the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, and (iv knee extension isokinetic strength.Results: Participants randomized

  4. Perinatal programming of body weight control by leptin: putative roles of AMP kinase and muscle thermogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pico, C.; Macek Jílková, Zuzana; Kůs, Vladimír; Palou, A.; Kopecký, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 94, 6 suppl. (2011), 1830S-1837S ISSN 0002-9165. [International Conference on The Power of Programming - Developmental Origins of Health and Disease. Munich, 06.05.2010-08.05.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : leptin * perinatal programming * AMPK * muscle thermogenesis Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 6.669, year: 2011

  5. Low energy density diet, weight loss maintenance, and risk of cardiovascular disease following a recent weight reduction program: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golgis Karimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the effects of a low energy dense diet on weight maintenance and cardiovascular risks following a recent weight reduction. Therefore, we assessed if weight maintenance, lipid profiles, and glycemic control differ between low energy density (LED diet and usual diet consumers following a recent weight reduction. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial study in a parallel design, we recruited 70 patients with the history of weight reduction in the recent 1 year. LED diet contained 30% fat, 15% protein, and 55% carbohydrate was administered to the test group, and a usual diet including 35% fat, 15% protein, and 50% carbohydrate was prescribed to the control group for 7 months. Dietary intake was assessed by using 3 days food records. Biochemical markers and anthropometric measures were done according to the standard protocol. Results: Weight reduced in LED diet consumers compared to usual diet consumers (−0.3 ± 0.2 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4%, P = 0.002. The results was the same regarding waist circumference (−0.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1%, P = 0.004. Fasting blood sugar also decreased in LED diet group (−9.5 ± 0.8 vs. 0.4 ± 1.0%, P = 0.0001. LED diet group had a drop in percent change of their total cholesterol (−0.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.05 ± 0.4%, P = 0.04 and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (4.8 ± 0.9 vs. −0.3 ± 0.9%, P = 0.002. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed beneficial effects of LED diet on attenuating weight regain in subjects with history of recent weight reduction. It might be derived from higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fiber among LED diet than usual diet consumers.

  6. A 12-week commercial web-based weight-loss program for overweight and obese adults: randomized controlled trial comparing basic versus enhanced features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Penelope; Fletcher, Kate; Martin, Julia; Aguiar, Elroy J; Lucas, Ashlee; Neve, Melinda J; Callister, Robin

    2012-04-25

    The development and use of Web-based programs for weight loss is increasing rapidly, yet they have rarely been evaluated using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Interestingly, most people who attempt weight loss use commercially available programs, yet it is very uncommon for commercial programs to be evaluated independently or rigorously. To compare the efficacy of a standard commercial Web-based weight-loss program (basic) versus an enhanced version of this Web program that provided additional personalized e-feedback and contact from the provider (enhanced) versus a wait-list control group (control) on weight outcomes in overweight and obese adults. This purely Web-based trial using a closed online user group was an assessor-blinded RCT with participants randomly allocated to the basic or enhanced 12-week Web-based program, based on social cognitive theory, or the control, with body mass index (BMI) as the primary outcome. We enrolled 309 adults (129/309, 41.8% male, BMI mean 32.3, SD 4 kg/m(2)) with 84.1% (260/309) retention at 12 weeks. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that both intervention groups reduced their BMI compared with the controls (basic: -0.72, SD 1.1 kg/m(2), enhanced: -1.0, SD 1.4, control: 0.15, SD 0.82; P 3.0, SD 4.1, control: 0.4, SD 2.3; P 3.0; P Web-based weight-loss program can be efficacious across a range of weight-related outcomes and lifestyle behaviors and achieve clinically important weight loss. Although the provision of additional personalized feedback did not facilitate greater weight loss after 12 weeks, the impact of superior participant retention on longer-term outcomes requires further study. Further research is required to determine the optimal mix of program features that lead to the biggest treatment impact over time. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): 12610000197033.

  7. Cigarette weight control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, G.F.W.; Bolt, R.C.; Simmons, A.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the weight of a continuous wrapped rod of tobacco formed by a cigarette-making machine. A scanner unit can be used which passes beta-rays from a primary radiation source through the rod. The absorption is measured by comparison of the intensity at a detector on the opposite side of the rod with that at a detector facing another smaller source, the balance unit. This is pre-set so that when the rod weight is correct the detected intensities from the two sources will be equal. It is essential that the scanning station is kept clean otherwise the dust is included in the weight reading and the cigarettes manufactured would be underweight. This can be checked using an artificial cigarette of known weight as a calibration check. In this device a test circuit can be connected to the scanner head and this opens the shutter over the radioactive source when the test is initiated. A warning device is initiated if the reading is beyond predetermined limits and can be made to prevent operation of the cigarette machine if a satisfactory test is not obtained. (U.K.)

  8. Pilot study to determine interest of adult civilian dependents of active duty military personnel in participation in a weight control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Asma; Roberts, Susan B; Young, Andrew J; McGraw, Susan; Dallal, Gerard E; Das, Sai Krupa

    2014-03-01

    Adult civilian dependents of active duty military personnel (ADMP) may play a central role in influencing the home food environment and the risk of overweight and obesity in American Warfighters and military families. However, there is no information on whether this group would be receptive to weight control programs. We conducted a survey to determine the level of interest of adult civilian dependents of ADMP in participating in a group weight control program. Subjects were a convenience sample of 191 adult civilian dependents of ADMP (94% women, 6% men) based in Massachusetts and aged 33.8 ± 8.4 years, body mass index 25.5 ± 5.5 kg/m(2). Overall, there was a significant effect of body mass index on interest in program participation (p = 0.004). Eighty five percent of overweight participants and 100% of obese participants reported being Moderately Likely or Very Likely to participate in a provided weight control program. In overweight and obese survey respondents there was no significant effect of ADMP rank on interest in program participation (p = 0.34). These findings suggest that overweight and obese adult civilian dependents of ADMP may be very receptive targets for programs to control overweight and obesity in military families. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Adipose tissue CIDEA is associated, independently of weight variation, to change in insulin resistance during a longitudinal weight control dietary program in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montastier, Emilie; Déjean, Sébastien; Le Gall, Caroline; Saris, Wim H M; Langin, Dominique; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss reduces risk factors associated with obesity. However, long-term metabolic improvement remains a challenge. We investigated quantitative gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals and its relationship with low calorie diet and long term weight maintenance induced changes in insulin resistance. Three hundred eleven overweight and obese individuals followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-week low calorie diet followed by a 6-month ad libitum weight-maintenance diet. Individuals were clustered according to insulin resistance trajectories assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Adipose tissue mRNA levels of 267 genes selected for regulation according to obesity, metabolic status and response to dieting was assessed using high throughput RT-qPCR. A combination of discriminant analyses was used to identify genes with regulation according to insulin resistance trajectories. Partial correlation was used to control for change in body mass index. Three different HOMA-IR profile groups were determined. HOMA-IR improved during low calorie diet in the 3 groups. At the end of the 6-month follow-up, groups A and B had reduced HOMA-IR by 50%. In group C, HOMA-IR had returned to baseline values. Genes were differentially expressed in the adipose tissue of individuals according to groups but a single gene, CIDEA, was common to all phases of the dietary intervention. Changes in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels paralleled variations in insulin sensitivity independently of change in body mass index. Overall, CIDEA was up-regulated in adipose tissue of individuals with successful long term insulin resistance relapse and not in adipose tissue of unsuccessful individuals. The concomitant change in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels and insulin sensitivity suggests a beneficial role of adipose tissue CIDEA in long term glucose homeostasis, independently of weight variation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  10. Benefits of weight control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallak, D. [P & H Mining Equipment (United States)

    2006-07-15

    With haul truck tyres and fuel taking a greater toll on operating costs, controlling haul truck payloads is more important than ever. The paper explains the technologies behind two new optional systems that let operators take control. P & H has introduced two new shovel-based payload measurement options that break new ground for accuracy in the Payload{trademark} and Payload{trademark} Plus Monitoring Systems. Both require P & M's Centurion supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The Payload system can be retrofitted on existing shovels. 4 figs.

  11. Genetic Predisposition to Weight Loss and Regain With Lifestyle Intervention: Analyses From the Diabetes Prevention Program and the Look AHEAD Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandonatos, George D; Pan, Qing; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Delahanty, Linda M; Peter, Inga; Erar, Bahar; Ahmad, Shafqat; Harden, Maegan; Chen, Ling; Fontanillas, Pierre; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Kahn, Steven E; Wing, Rena R; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Huggins, Gordon S; Knowler, William C; Florez, Jose C; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Franks, Paul W

    2015-12-01

    Clinically relevant weight loss is achievable through lifestyle modification, but unintentional weight regain is common. We investigated whether recently discovered genetic variants affect weight loss and/or weight regain during behavioral intervention. Participants at high-risk of type 2 diabetes (Diabetes Prevention Program [DPP]; N = 917/907 intervention/comparison) or with type 2 diabetes (Look AHEAD [Action for Health in Diabetes]; N = 2,014/1,892 intervention/comparison) were from two parallel arm (lifestyle vs. comparison) randomized controlled trials. The associations of 91 established obesity-predisposing loci with weight loss across 4 years and with weight regain across years 2-4 after a minimum of 3% weight loss were tested. Each copy of the minor G allele of MTIF3 rs1885988 was consistently associated with greater weight loss following lifestyle intervention over 4 years across the DPP and Look AHEAD. No such effect was observed across comparison arms, leading to a nominally significant single nucleotide polymorphism×treatment interaction (P = 4.3 × 10(-3)). However, this effect was not significant at a study-wise significance level (Bonferroni threshold P lifestyle. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  12. 'Fit Moms/Mamás Activas' internet-based weight control program with group support to reduce postpartum weight retention in low-income women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Brannen, Anna; Erickson, Karen; Diamond, Molly; Schaffner, Andrew; Muñoz-Christian, Karen; Stewart, Ana; Sanchez, Teresa; Rodriguez, Vanessa C; Ramos, Dalila I; McClure, Linda; Stinson, Caro; Tate, Deborah F

    2015-02-25

    High postpartum weight retention is a strong independent risk factor for lifetime obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes in women. Interventions to promote postpartum weight loss have met with some success but have been limited by high attrition. Internet-based treatment has the potential to overcome this barrier and reduce postpartum weight retention, but no study has evaluated the effects of an internet-based program to prevent high postpartum weight retention in women. Fit Moms/Mamás Activas targets recruitment of 12 Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Supplemental Nutrition Program clinics with a total of 408 adult (>18 years), postpartum (internet-based weight loss intervention. The intervention includes: monthly face-to-face group sessions; access to a website with weekly lessons, a web diary, instructional videos, and computer-tailored feedback; four weekly text messages; and brief reinforcement from WIC counselors. Participants are assessed at baseline, six months, and 12 months. The primary outcome is weight loss over six and 12 months; secondary outcomes include diet and physical activity behaviors, and psychosocial measures. Fit Moms/Mamás Activas is the first study to empirically examine the effects of an internet-based treatment program, coupled with monthly group contact at the WIC program, designed to prevent sustained postpartum weight retention in low-income women at high risk for weight gain, obesity, and related comorbidities. This trial was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT01408147 ) on 29 July 2011.

  13. Comparative effectiveness of a portion-controlled meal replacement program for weight loss in adults with and without diabetes/high blood sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, C D; Kiel, J R; Mitola, A H; Arterburn, L M

    2017-07-10

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes (DM2) may be less successful at achieving therapeutic weight loss than their counterparts without diabetes. This study compares weight loss in a cohort of adults with DM2 or high blood sugar (D/HBS) to a cohort of adults without D/HBS. All were overweight/obese and following a reduced or low-calorie commercial weight-loss program incorporating meal replacements (MRs) and one-on-one behavioral support. Demographic, weight, body composition, anthropometric, pulse and blood pressure data were collected as part of systematic retrospective chart review studies. Differences between cohorts by D/HBS status were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-tests and mixed model regression. A total of 816 charts were included (125 with self-reported D/HBS). The cohort with D/HBS had more males (40.8 vs 25.6%), higher BMI (39.0 vs 36.3 kg m - 2 ) and was older (56 vs 48 years). Among clients continuing on program, the cohorts with and without D/HBS lost, on average, 5.6 vs 5.8 kg (NS) (5.0 vs 5.6%; P=0.005) of baseline weight at 4 weeks, 11.0 vs 11.6 kg (NS) (9.9 vs 11.1%; P=0.027) at 12 weeks and 16.3 vs 17.1 kg (13.9 vs 15.7%; NS) at 24 weeks, respectively. In a mixed model regression controlling for baseline weight, gender and meal plan, and an intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in weight loss between the cohorts at any time point. Over 70% in both cohorts lost ⩾5% of their baseline weight by the final visit on their originally assigned meal plan. Both cohorts had significant reductions from baseline in body fat, blood pressure, pulse and abdominal circumference. Adults who were overweight/obese and with D/HBS following a commercial weight-loss program incorporating MRs and one-on-one behavioral support achieved therapeutic weight loss. The program was equally effective for weight loss and reductions in cardiometabolic risk factors among adults with and without D/HBS.

  14. The SHED-IT community trial study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of weight loss programs for overweight and obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Myles D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major cause of preventable death in Australia with prevalence increasing at an alarming rate. Of particular concern is that approximately 68% of men are overweight/obese, yet are notoriously difficult to engage in weight loss programs, despite being more susceptible than women to adverse weight-related outcomes. There is a need to develop and evaluate obesity treatment programs that target and appeal to men. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of two relatively low intensity weight loss programs developed specifically for men. Methods and Design The study design is an assessor blinded, parallel-group randomised controlled trial that recruited 159 overweight and obese men in Newcastle, Australia. Inclusion criteria included: BMI 25-40 (kg/m2; no participation in other weight loss programs during the study; pass a health-screening questionnaire and pre-exercise risk assessment; available for assessment sessions; access to a computer with e-mail and Internet facilities; and own a mobile phone. Men were recruited to the SHED-IT (Self-Help, Exercise and Diet using Internet Technology study via the media and emails sent to male dominated workplaces. Men were stratified by BMI category (overweight, obese class I, obese class II and randomised to one of three groups: (1 SHED-IT Resources - provision of materials (DVD, handbooks, pedometer, tape measure with embedded behaviour change strategies to support weight loss; (2 SHED-IT Online - same materials as SHED-IT Resources plus access to and instruction on how to use the study website; (3 Wait-list Control. The intervention programs are three months long with outcome measures taken by assessors blinded to group allocation at baseline, and 3- and 6-months post baseline. Outcome measures include: weight (primary outcome, % body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, objectively measured physical activity, self-reported dietary

  15. Project TEAMS (Talking about Eating, Activity, and Mutual Support: a randomized controlled trial of a theory-based weight loss program for couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy A. Gorin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity risk is shared between spouses, yet existing weight loss programs focus on individuals and not the marital dyad. Given the interdependence of weight in couples, weight management outcomes might be improved by targeting joint weight loss and the creation of an interpersonal milieu that supports long-term behavior change. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT, greater autonomous self-regulation of behaviors, and subsequently better treatment outcomes, are observed in needs supportive environments in which personally meaningful choice is supported and criticism and control are minimized. Correlational analyses confirm these pathways in weight management, with needs support from one’s spouse or partner emerging as a distinct predictor of weight loss success. Research is now needed to establish causal links and to develop and test weight loss interventions designed to facilitate the needs supportive behavior of spouses. Methods Project TEAMS (Talking about Eating, Activity, and Mutual Support is a randomized controlled trial testing a couples-based intervention, grounded in SDT, designed to change the social context of weight loss by training spouses to provide needs support for each other’s eating and physical activity behavior. Sixty-four couples will be randomized to either 6 months of behavioral weight loss treatment informed by SDT (SDT-WL or to 6 months of standard behavioral weight loss treatment (BWL. Couples will attend weekly sessions for 6 months and will be assessed at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months. By bolstering needs support, SDT-WL is predicted to increase autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence and produce greater weight loss and maintenance than standard behavioral treatment. Exploratory analyses will examine the SDT process model prediction that the influence of needs support on treatment outcomes will be mediated by autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence. Discussion This

  16. Project TEAMS (Talking about Eating, Activity, and Mutual Support): a randomized controlled trial of a theory-based weight loss program for couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Amy A; Powers, Theodore A; Gettens, Katelyn; Cornelius, Talea; Koestner, Richard; Mobley, Amy R; Pescatello, Linda; Medina, Tania Huedo

    2017-09-29

    Obesity risk is shared between spouses, yet existing weight loss programs focus on individuals and not the marital dyad. Given the interdependence of weight in couples, weight management outcomes might be improved by targeting joint weight loss and the creation of an interpersonal milieu that supports long-term behavior change. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), greater autonomous self-regulation of behaviors, and subsequently better treatment outcomes, are observed in needs supportive environments in which personally meaningful choice is supported and criticism and control are minimized. Correlational analyses confirm these pathways in weight management, with needs support from one's spouse or partner emerging as a distinct predictor of weight loss success. Research is now needed to establish causal links and to develop and test weight loss interventions designed to facilitate the needs supportive behavior of spouses. Project TEAMS (Talking about Eating, Activity, and Mutual Support) is a randomized controlled trial testing a couples-based intervention, grounded in SDT, designed to change the social context of weight loss by training spouses to provide needs support for each other's eating and physical activity behavior. Sixty-four couples will be randomized to either 6 months of behavioral weight loss treatment informed by SDT (SDT-WL) or to 6 months of standard behavioral weight loss treatment (BWL). Couples will attend weekly sessions for 6 months and will be assessed at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months. By bolstering needs support, SDT-WL is predicted to increase autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence and produce greater weight loss and maintenance than standard behavioral treatment. Exploratory analyses will examine the SDT process model prediction that the influence of needs support on treatment outcomes will be mediated by autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence. This study addresses the fundamental importance of interpersonal

  17. A three-component cognitive behavioural lifestyle program for preconceptional weight-loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskoot, G; Benneheij, S H; Beerthuizen, A; de Niet, J E; de Klerk, C; Timman, R; Busschbach, J J; Laven, J S E

    2017-03-06

    Obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) negatively affects all clinical features, and a 5 to 10% weight loss has shown promising results on reproductive, metabolic and psychological level. Incorporating a healthy diet, increasing physical activity and changing dysfunctional thought patterns in women with PCOS are key points in losing weight. The biggest challenge in weight management programs is to achieve a reasonable and sustainable weight loss. The aim of this study is to explore whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) by a mental health professional, working in a multidisciplinary team with a dietician and a physical therapist (a three-component intervention), is more effective for weight loss in the long term, within 12 months. We will also explore whether mobile phone applications are effective in supporting behavioural change and sustainable weight loss. The present study is a longitudinal randomized controlled trial (RCT) to study the effectiveness of a three-component 1-year cognitive-behavioural lifestyle intervention in overweight/obese women with PCOS. A total of 210 participants are randomly assigned to three groups: 1) CBT provided by the multidisciplinary team or; 2) CBT provided by the multidisciplinary team and Short Message Service (SMS) or; 3) usual care: encourage weight loss through publicly available services (control group). The primary aim of the 12-month intervention is to explore whether a three-component 1-year cognitive-behavioural lifestyle intervention is effective to decrease weight, when compared to usual care. Secondary outcomes include: the effect of the intervention on the PCOS phenotype, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, ovulation rates, total testosterone, SHBG, free androgen index (FAI), AMH, hirsutism, acne, fasting glucose, blood pressure and all psychological parameters. Additionally, we assessed time to pregnancy, ongoing pregnancies, clinical pregnancies, miscarriages and birth weight. All

  18. Body weight perception and body weight control behaviors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Robson; Claumann, Gaia S.; Felden, Érico P.G.; Silva, Diego A.S.; Pelegrini, Andreia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between the perception of body weight (as above or below the desired) and behaviors for body weight control in adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included 1051 adolescents (aged 15-19 years) who were high school students attending public schools. The authors collected information on the perception of body weight (dependent variable), weight control behaviors (initiative to change the weight, physical exercise, eatin...

  19. A Targeted and Tailored eHealth Weight Loss Program for Young Women: The Be Positive Be Healthe Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda J. Hutchesson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Young women are gaining weight rapidly. Evidence for effective weight loss interventions targeting young women is lacking. This randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy and acceptability of a six-month targeted and tailored eHealth weight loss program for young women (Be Positive Be Healthe (BPBH. Women aged 18–35 years were randomized to BPBH (n = 29 or control (n = 28. BPBH supported participants to modify diet and physical activity behaviours using evidenced-based strategies (e.g., self-monitoring tailored for young women and delivered using e-health (website, social media, smartphone application, email, text messages. The primary outcome was a change in weight (kg at six months. Acceptability was assessed via a process evaluation survey and usage of intervention components. No significant between-group differences were observed for weight, with significant mean differences favouring the intervention group observed for body fat (kg (−3.10 (−5.69, 0.52, p = 0.019 and intakes of alcohol (g (−0.69 (−1.33, 0.04, p = 0.037, vegetables (% energy/day (4.71 (−2.20, 7.22, p < 0.001 and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods (% energy/day (−9.23 (−16.94, 1.52, p = 0.018. Retention, intervention usage and satisfaction were moderate. BPBH facilitated positive improvements in body fat and dietary intake, but not weight. Intervention acceptability findings support the use of some intervention components (e.g., Facebook, Smartphone app with young women.

  20. Supported exercise improves controlled eating and weight through its effects on psychosocial factors: extending a systematic research program toward treatment development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral weight-loss treatments have been overwhelmingly unsuccessful. Many inadequately address both behavioral theory and extant research--especially in regard to the lack of viability of simply educating individuals on improved eating and exercise behaviors. The aim was to synthesize research on associations of changes in exercise behaviors, psychosocial factors, eating behaviors, and weight; and then conduct further direct testing to inform the development of an improved treatment approach. A systematic program of health behavior-change research based on social cognitive theory, and extensions of that theory applied to exercise and weight loss, was first reviewed. Then, to extend this research toward treatment development and application, a field-based study of obese adults was conducted. Treatments incorporated a consistent component of cognitive-behaviorally supported exercise during 26 weeks that was paired with either standard nutrition education (n = 183) or cognitive-behavioral methods for controlled eating that emphasized self-regulatory methods such as goal setting and caloric tracking, cognitive restructuring, and eating cue awareness (n = 247). Both treatment conditions were associated with improved self-efficacy, self-regulation, mood, exercise, fruit and vegetable consumption, weight, and waist circumference; with improvements in self-regulation for eating, fruit and vegetable consumption, weight, and waist circumference significantly greater in the cognitive-behavioral nutrition condition. Changes in exercise- and eating-related self-efficacy and self-regulation were associated with changes in exercise and eating (R(2) = 0.40 and 0.17, respectively), with mood change increasing the explanatory power to R(2) = 0.43 and 0.20. Improved self-efficacy and self-regulation for exercise carried over to self-efficacy and self-regulation for controlled eating (β= 0.53 and 0.68, respectively). Development and longitudinal testing of a new and different

  1. A three-component cognitive behavioural lifestyle program for preconceptional weight-loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jiskoot, Geranne; Benneheij, Sofie; Beerthuizen, Annemerle; Niet, J.E.; Klerk, Cora; Timman, Reinier; Busschbach, Jan; Laven, Joop

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) negatively affects all clinical features, and a 5 to 10% weight loss has shown promising results on reproductive, metabolic and psychological level. Incorporating a healthy diet, increasing physical activity and changing dysfunctional thought patterns in women with PCOS are key points in losing weight. The biggest challenge in weight management programs is to achieve a reasonable and sustainable weight loss. The ai...

  2. Weight-controlled capillary viscometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digilov, Rafael M.; Reiner, M.

    2005-11-01

    The draining of a water column through a vertical discharge capillary tube is examined with the aid of a force sensor. The change of the mass of the liquid in the column with time is found to be not purely exponential as implied by Poiseuille's law. Using observed residuals associated with a kinetic energy correction, an approximate formula for the mass as a function of time is derived and excellent agreement with experimental data is attained. These results are verified by a viscosity test of distilled water at room temperature. A simple and inexpensive weight-controlled capillary viscometer is proposed that is especially suitable for undergraduate physics and chemistry laboratories.

  3. Differences in home food availability of high- and low-fat foods after a behavioral weight control program are regional not racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Delia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, if any, have examined the impact of a weight control program on the home food environment in a diverse sample of adults. Understanding and changing the availability of certain foods in the home and food storage practices may be important for creating healthier home food environments and supporting effective weight management. Methods Overweight adults (n = 90; 27% African American enrolled in a 6-month behavioral weight loss program in Vermont and Arkansas. Participants were weighed and completed measures of household food availability and food storage practices at baseline and post-treatment. We examined baseline differences and changes in high-fat food availability, low-fat food availability and the storage of foods in easily visible locations, overall and by race (African American or white participants and region (Arkansas or Vermont. Results At post-treatment, the sample as a whole reported storing significantly fewer foods in visible locations around the house (-0.5 ± 2.3 foods, with no significant group differences. Both Arkansas African Americans (-1.8 ± 2.4 foods and Arkansas white participants (-1.8 ± 2.6 foods reported significantly greater reductions in the mean number of high-fat food items available in their homes post-treatment compared to Vermont white participants (-0.5 ± 1.3 foods, likely reflecting fewer high-fat foods reported in Vermont households at baseline. Arkansas African Americans lost significantly less weight (-3.6 ± 4.1 kg than Vermont white participants (-8.3 ± 6.8 kg, while Arkansas white participants did not differ significantly from either group in weight loss (-6.2 ± 6.0 kg. However, home food environment changes were not associated with weight changes in this study. Conclusions Understanding the home food environment and how best to measure it may be useful for both obesity treatment and understanding patterns of obesity prevalence and health disparity.

  4. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  5. Does participation in a weight control program also improve clinical and functional outcomes for Chinese patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery W

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available William Montgomery,1 Tamas Treuer,2 Wenyu Ye,3 Hai Bo Xue,4 Sheng Hu Wu,4 Li Liu,4 Zbigniew Kadziola,5 Michael D Stensland,6 Haya Ascher-Svanum7 1Global Health Outcomes Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 2Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly and Company, Budapest, Hungary; 3Global Statistical Sciences, Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 4Medical Department, Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 5Global Statistical Sciences, Eli Lilly GmbH, Vienna, Republic of Austria; 6Agile Outcomes Research, Inc., Rochester, MN, USA; 7Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Objectives: This study examined whether participation in a weight control program (WCP by patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine was also associated with improvements in clinical and functional outcomes. Methods: A post-hoc analysis was conducted using data from the Chinese subgroup (n=330 of a multi-country, 6-month, prospective, observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia who initiated or switched to oral olanzapine. At study entry and monthly visits, participants were assessed with the Clinical Global Impression of Severity, and measures of patient insight, social activities, and work impairment. The primary comparison was between the 153 patients who participated in a WCP at study entry (n=93 or during the study (n=60 and the 177 patients who did not participate in a weight control program (non-WCP. Mixed Models for Repeated Measures with baseline covariates were used to compare outcomes over time. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to assess time to response. Results: Participants had a mean age of 29.0 years and 29.3 years, and 51.0% and 57.6% were female for WCP and non-WCP groups, respectively. Average initiated daily dose for olanzapine was 9.5±5.4 mg. WCP participants gained less weight than non-participants (3.9 kg vs

  6. Weight control behaviors of highly successful weight loss maintainers: the Portuguese Weight Control Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês; Vieira, Paulo N; Silva, Marlene N; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2017-04-01

    To describe key behaviors reported by participants in the Portuguese Weight Control Registry and to determine associations between these behaviors and weight loss maintenance. A total of 388 adults participated in this cross-sectional study. Assessments included demographic information, weight history, weight loss and weight maintenance strategies, dietary intake, and physical activity. Participants lost on average 18 kg, which they had maintained for ~28 months. Their average dietary intake was 2199 kcal/day, with 33 % of energy coming from fat. About 78 % of participants engaged in levels of moderate-plus-vigorous physical activity exceeding 150 min/week (51 % above 250 min/week), with men accumulating 82 more minutes than women (p breakfast. Greater weight loss maintenance was associated with higher levels of physical activity, walking, weight self-monitoring, establishing specific goals, and with reduced portion size use, reduced consumption of carbohydrates, and increased consumption of protein, (p < 0.05). Results indicate that weight loss maintenance is possible through the adoption of a nutritionally-balanced diet and regular participation in physical activity, but also suggest that adopting different (and, to a degree, individualized) set of behavioral strategies is key for achieving success.

  7. Family Food Choices: A Guide to Weight and Diabetes Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indian Health Service (PHS/HSA), Rockville, MD.

    Written for American Indians who have diabetes, this folder explains diabetes and outlines a weight control program and diet. The folder discusses the five things diabetics can do to help control their disease: lose weight, watch the amount and kind of fat eaten, eat more food with fiber, avoid sugar, and avoid alcohol. Charts for foods containing…

  8. Weight-Control Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  9. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Pedro J; Silva, Marlene N; Mata, Jutta; Palmeira, António L; Markland, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theor...

  10. A Commercially Available Portion-Controlled Diet Program Is More Effective for Weight Loss than a Self-Directed Diet: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M. Cook

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo examine changes in weight and related outcomes in response to a commercial weight loss program compared to a self-directed diet in adults with overweight or obesity.DesignParticipants were randomly assigned [stratified by body mass index (BMI and age] to a commercial weight loss program (n = 38 or to a self-directed Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet (n = 40 for a 16-week period. Daily energy intake goals were 1,500 kcal/d for men and 1,200 kcal/d for women, except for the first week of the commercial program (1,000 kcal/d. This study was registered at http://ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03017443.ParticipantsPrimarily Caucasian (71% women (n = 61 and men (n = 17 from the greater metropolitan area of the city of Chicago, IL, USA. with a mean baseline BMI of 34.4 kg/m2, body weight of 95.7 kg, and age of 50.4 years.ResultsData = mean (95% CI. At week 16, the commercial program group lost significantly more body weight [−5.9 (−7.5, −4.3 kg vs. −1.8 (−2.9, −0.8 kg; or −6.4 vs. −1.8% of initial body weight, respectively], fat mass [−4.4 (−5.7, −3.1 kg vs. −1.2 (−2.1, −0.4 kg] and total body circumference (chest + waist + hip + upper arm + thigh [−16.9 (−21.5, −12.3 cm vs. −5.8 (−9.0, −2.6 cm] (p < 0.01 for all. Additionally, more participants in the commercial program group lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight, defined as ≥5% of initial body weight, at week 16 (58% vs. 13%, p < 0.001.ConclusionThe commercial program resulted in greater weight loss and improvements in body composition/anthropometric parameters compared to a self-directed DASH diet over a 16-week period. Some important limitations were that no objective measurements of dietary intake or physical activity were collected to potentially ascertain the independent or combined effects of these components on weight loss (or lack thereof. Additionally, future

  11. A combination of various functional food ingredients as a weight management program: randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind human clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harunobu Amagase

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Background: Lycium barbarum increased the postprandial energy expenditure (PPEE. Negative energy balance caused by the systematic procedure (TAIslim® System, including increasing metabolic rate through physical activity, use of Lycium barbarum-containing TAIslim (Product A, and decreasing caloric intake by consuming a chewable confection (TAIslim SKINNY=Product B, and a meal replacement shake (TAIslim SHAKE=Product C, would be successful for weight loss.Methods: We examined TAIslim System on anthropometrics, appetite in Study 1 and PPEE in Study 2, both in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind manner. 1 A total of 67 participants were randomized into 2 groups (placebo or TAIslim System. Intake procedures were: Product A, 60 ml (20 kcal b.i.d. immediately before breakfast and lunch, Product B, 1 chew (20 kcal t.i.d. between meals and after dinner; Product C, 40.5 g (158 kcal as breakfast. A calorie-restricted diet with multi-vitamin supplementation and daily exercise was required. Anthropometric parameters were assessed at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 w. 2 Appetite was measured using a subjective visual analog scale during the initial 3-7 days of intake. 3 For PPEE evaluation, 12 participants consumed a single bout of TAIslim System products or placebo, and took part in 6 study sessions. EE was measured by an indirect calorimeter immediately before (baseline and at 1, 2, and 4 h post-intake of samples.Results: 1 Body weight was significantly reduced by 6.2±0.7%, compared to pre-intervention with TAIslim System (P<0.01. Waist circumference, total body fat, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced by TAIslim System, in a range of 3.8-9.9%. TAIslim System was significantly more effective than the placebo (P<0.05. The placebo group showed -0.1-3.9% reduction from pre-intervention with no significant difference. 2 TAIslim Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011, 1(12:555-573System also

  12. Ineffectiveness of commercial weight-loss programs for achieving modest but meaningful weight loss: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvedy, Samantha M; Sullivan-Mort, Gillian; McLean, Siân A; Pascoe, Michaela C; Paxton, Susan J

    2017-10-01

    This study collates existing evidence regarding weight loss among overweight but otherwise healthy adults who use commercial weight-loss programs. Systematic search of 3 databases identified 11 randomized controlled trials and 14 observational studies of commercial meal-replacement, calorie-counting, or pre-packaged meal programs which met inclusion criteria. In meta-analysis using intention-to-treat data, 57 percent of individuals who commenced a commercial weight program lost less than 5 percent of their initial body weight. One in two (49%) studies reported attrition ≥30 percent. A second meta-analysis found that 37 percent of program completers lost less than 5 percent of initial body weight. We conclude that commercial weight-loss programs frequently fail to produce modest but clinically meaningful weight loss with high rates of attrition suggesting that many consumers find dietary changes required by these programs unsustainable.

  13. Frequency-Weighted Balancing Related Controller Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Andras; Anderson, Brian D.O.

    2002-01-01

    The efficient solution of a class of controller approximation problems by using frequency-weighted balancing related model reduction approaches is considered. It is shown that for certain standard performance and stability enforcing frequency-weights, the computation of the frequency-weighted controllability and observability grammians can be done by solving reduced order Lyapunov equations regardless the controller itself is stable or unstable. The new approach can be used in conjunction wit...

  14. Efficacy of lifestyle modification for long-term weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, Thomas A; Butryn, Meghan L; Byrne, Kirstin J

    2004-12-01

    A comprehensive program of lifestyle modification induces loss of approximately 10% of initial weight in 16 to 26 weeks, as revealed by a review of recent randomized controlled trials, including the Diabetes Prevention Program. Long-term weight control is facilitated by continued patient-therapist contact, whether provided in person or by telephone, mail, or e-mail. High levels of physical activity and the consumption of low-calorie, portion-controlled meals, including liquid meal replacements, can also help maintain weight loss. Additional studies are needed of the effects of macronutrient content (e.g., low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diets) on long-term changes in weight and health. Research also is needed on effective methods of providing comprehensive weight loss control to the millions of Americans who need it.

  15. Weight Control: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss medications Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Body Weight Diets Eating Disorders Exercise and Physical Fitness Nutrition Obesity Weight Loss Surgery National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization for research on Weight Control is the National Institute of ...

  16. Common weights under dea control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrell, P.J.; Bogetoft, P.; Fristrup, P.

    2003-01-01

    DEA relies so far on endogenous local or exogenous general weights, limited to available information. We offer endogenous general prices based on a reformulation of DEA. The potential application could be to precipitate collective bargaining on cost efficiency. The models are exemplified with data from the Danish district heating plants, where the open evaluation of multiple non-priced outputs is relevant (au)

  17. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Pedro J; Silva, Marlene N; Mata, Jutta; Palmeira, António L; Markland, David

    2012-03-02

    This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation--not only considering the level but also type of motivation--in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change.

  18. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Pedro J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change.

  19. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change. PMID:22385818

  20. Prenatal centrifugation: A model for fetal programming of adult weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-08-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1-g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also cross- fostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P)12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  1. Predictors of Weight Loss Maintenance following an Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program

    OpenAIRE

    Christiaan G. Abildso; Olivier Schmid; Megan Byrd; Sam Zizzi; Alessandro Quartiroli; Sean J. Fitzpatrick

    2014-01-01

    Intentional weight loss among overweight and obese adults (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) is associated with numerous health benefits, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) following participation in weight management programming has proven to be elusive. Many individuals attempting to lose weight join formal programs, especially women, but these programs vary widely in focus, as do postprogram weight regain results. We surveyed 2,106 former participants in a community-based, insurance-sponsored wei...

  2. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associated with an increased risk of obesity in the later periods. It was reported that over-nutrition during fetal period could cause excessive food intake during postpartum period as a result of metabolic programming. By influencing the fetal metabolism and tissue development, maternal obesity and excessive weight gain change the amounts of nutrients and metabolites that pass to the fetus, thus causing excessive fetal weight gain which in turn increases the risk of obesity. Fetal over-nutrition and excessive weight gain cause permanent metabolic and physiologic changes in developing organs. While mechanisms that affect these organs are not fully understood, it is thought that the changes may occur as a result of the changes in fetal energy metabolism, appetite control, neuroendocrine functions, adipose tissue mass, epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. In this review article, the effects of maternal body weight and weight gain on fetal development, newborn birth weight and risk of obesity were evaluated, and additionally potential mechanisms that can explain the effects of fetal over-nutrition on the risk of obesity were investigated [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 427-434

  3. Simulation to coating weight control for galvanizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Yan, Zhang; Wu, Kunkui; Song, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Zinc coating weight control is one of the most critical issues for continuous galvanizing line. The process has the characteristic of variable-time large time delay, nonlinear, multivariable. It can result in seriously coating weight error and non-uniform coating. We develop a control system, which can automatically control the air knives pressure and its position to give a constant and uniform zinc coating, in accordance with customer-order specification through an auto-adaptive empirical model-based feed forward adaptive controller, and two model-free adaptive feedback controllers . The proposed models with controller were applied to continuous galvanizing line (CGL) at Angang Steel Works. By the production results, the precise and stability of the control model reduces over-coating weight and improves coating uniform. The product for this hot dip galvanizing line does not only satisfy the customers' quality requirement but also save the zinc consumption.

  4. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Sabine; Zittermann, Armin; Berthold, Heiner K; Götting, Christian; Kuhn, Joachim; Kleesiek, Knut; Stehle, Peter; Körtke, Heinrich

    2009-07-18

    We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and Bluetooth technology by mobile phone. Various fatness and fat distribution parameters, energy and macronutrient intake, and various biochemical risk markers were measured at baseline and after 6, and 12 months. In both groups, energy intake decreased by 400 kcal/d compared to baseline values within the first 6 months and slightly increased again within the second 6 months. Macronutrient composition differed significantly between the groups from the beginning to month 12. At study termination, weight loss was 5.8 kg (SD: 6.1 kg) in the low-carbohydrate group and 4.3 kg (SD: 5.1 kg) in the low-fat group (p = 0.065). In the low-carbohydrate group, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower at month 6 and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were lower at month 12 compared with the low-fat group (P = 0.005-0.037). Other risk markers improved to a similar extent in both groups. Despite favourable effects of both diets on weight loss, the carbohydrate-reduced diet was more beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk factors compared to the fat-reduced diet. Nevertheless, compliance with a weight loss program appears to be even a more important factor for success in prevention and treatment of obesity than the composition of the diet. Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00868387.

  5. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehle Peter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. Methods Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and ® technology by mobile phone. Various fatness and fat distribution parameters, energy and macronutrient intake, and various biochemical risk markers were measured at baseline and after 6, and 12 months. Results In both groups, energy intake decreased by 400 kcal/d compared to baseline values within the first 6 months and slightly increased again within the second 6 months. Macronutrient composition differed significantly between the groups from the beginning to month 12. At study termination, weight loss was 5.8 kg (SD: 6.1 kg in the low-carbohydrate group and 4.3 kg (SD: 5.1 kg in the low-fat group (p = 0.065. In the low-carbohydrate group, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower at month 6 and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were lower at month 12 compared with the low-fat group (P = 0.005–0.037. Other risk markers improved to a similar extent in both groups. Conclusion Despite favourable effects of both diets on weight loss, the carbohydrate-reduced diet was more beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk factors compared to the fat-reduced diet. Nevertheless, compliance with a weight loss program appears to be even a more important factor for success in prevention and treatment of obesity than the composition of the diet. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00868387

  6. Improved eating behaviours mediate weight gain prevention of young adults: moderation and mediation results of a randomised controlled trial of TXT2BFiT, mHealth program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Stephanie R; McGeechan, Kevin; Bauman, Adrian; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-04-02

    Explanatory evaluation of interventions for prevention of weight gain is required beyond changes in weight, to determine for whom the intervention works and the underlying mechanisms of change. It was hypothesised that participant characteristics moderate intervention effect on weight change and improved eating and physical activity behaviours during the 3-month program mediate the relationship between intervention and weight. In our randomised controlled trial, young adults at risk of weight gain (n = 250) were assigned either to an intervention group that received a 3-month mHealth (TXT2BFiT) program with 6-month maintenance or to a control group. Data were collected via online self-report surveys. Hypothesised moderators and mediators of the intervention effect on weight were independently assessed in PROCESS macro models for 3 and 9-month weight change. Males (P = 0.01), mid-20s age group (P = 0.04), and higher income earners (P = 0.02) moderated intervention effects on weight change at 3-months and males only at 9-months (P = 0.02). Weight change at 3 (-1.12 kg) and 9-months (-1.38 kg) remained significant when 3-month nutrition and physical activity behaviours were specified as mediators (P <0.01 and P = 0.01 respectively). Indirect paths explained 39% (0.72/1.85 kg) and 40 % (0.92/2.3 kg) of total effect on weight change at 3 and 9-months respectively. Increased vegetable intake by intervention group at 3-months accounted for 19 and 17% and decreased sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for 8 and 13% of indirect weight change effects at 3 and 9-months respectively. TXT2BFiT was effective for both young men and women. Small sustained behavioural changes, including increased vegetable intake and decreased sugar-sweetened beverages consumption significantly mediated the intervention's effects on weight change. Improved eating behaviours and increased physical activity accounted for approximately 40% of the weight change. The trial is

  7. Effect of psychological distress on weight concern and weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Kabir, Ali; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shokouh, Pedram; Aalaei-Andabili, Seyed Hossein; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic disorders like coronary artery diseases, metabolic syndrome, cancers, and psychiatric disorders. Stress may contribute to weight gain by disrupting weight concern, and lead to uncontrolled eating behavior. This study aimed to investigate the effects of stress on weight concern and control behaviors in normal weight and obese adults. A total of 9544 subjects were selected by multi-stage random sampling from three provinces in central Iran. Information related to weight concern and control behavior was registered in normal weight and obese participants. Psychological distress was measured by a 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and subjects were divided into high and low stress groups. Logistic regression was used for analysis. The mean age of participants was 38.7 ± 15.5 years and 50% (4772) of them were males. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for age, sex and education of high stress to low stress level for weight concern, weight control behavior and acceptable physical activity behavior was more than 1; but the OR was less than 1 for waist circumference, obesity and healthy diet behavior. Among obese participants, higher levels of stress were associated with lower weight concern with OR, 95%CI: 0.821, (0.682 - 0.988), lower acceptable physical activity with OR = 0.833, 95%CI: (0.624 - 0.912), but higher rates of healthy diet behavior with OR = 1.360, 95% CI: (1.040 - 1.780). Individuals with high stress level have lower weight concern and lower physical activity; therefore, they are prone to weight gain and obesity. It could be concluded that stress management should be considered as a crucial component of obesity prevention and control programs.

  8. Process control program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper details the development and implementation of a ''Process Control Program'' at Duke Power's three nuclear stations - Oconee, McGuire, and Catawba. Each station is required by Technical Specification to have a ''Process Control Program'' (PCP) to control all dewatering and/or solidification activities for radioactive wastes

  9. Control Chart on Semi Analytical Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, G. S.; Oliveira, C. C.; Silva, T. B. S. C.; Stellato, T. B.; Monteiro, L. R.; Marques, J. R.; Faustino, M. G.; Soares, S. M. V.; Ulrich, J. C.; Pires, M. A. F.; Cotrim, M. E. B.

    2018-03-01

    Semi-analytical balance verification intends to assess the balance performance using graphs that illustrate measurement dispersion, trough time, and to demonstrate measurements were performed in a reliable manner. This study presents internal quality control of a semi-analytical balance (GEHAKA BG400) using control charts. From 2013 to 2016, 2 weight standards were monitored before any balance operation. This work intended to evaluate if any significant difference or bias were presented on weighting procedure over time, to check the generated data reliability. This work also exemplifies how control intervals are established.

  10. The Impact of a School-Based Weight Management Program Involving Parents via mHealth for Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lai-Tong Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a scarcity of resources and studies that utilize targeted weight management interventions to engage parents via mHealth tools targeting obese children and adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities (MIDs extended from school to a home setting. To test the feasibility and acceptability of a school-based weight program (SBWMP involving parents via mHealth tools designed to reduce weight, enhance knowledge and adopt healthy lifestyles, and thereby achieve better psychosocial well-being among children and adolescents with MIDs. Four special schools were randomly assigned as intervention or control schools. Students from the intervention group (n = 63 were compared to those in the control group (n = 52, which comprised those with usual school planned activities and no parental involvement. Demographics were considered as covariates in a general linear model, an ordinal regression model and a binary logistic regression model analyzing the relationships between the SBWMP and the outcome variables at baseline (T0 and six months later (T1. Body weight, body mass index, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were lower in the intervention group compared to the control group, although the differences were not statistically significant. There was a positive and direct impact of the SBWMP on students’ health knowledge and psychological impacts in the intervention group. The SBWMP extended to the home involving parents via mHealth tools is a feasible and acceptable program for this group with MIDs and their parents.

  11. Using Positive Deviance for Determining Successful Weight-Control Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Heather L.; Boan, Jarol; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Miller-Day, Michelle; Lehman, Erik B.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Based on positive deviance (examining the practices of successful individuals), we identified five primary themes from 36 strategies that help to maintain long-term weight loss (weight control) in 61 people. We conducted in-depth interviews to determine what successful individuals did and/or thought about regularly to control their weight. The themes included weight-control practices related to (a) nutrition: increase water, fruit, and vegetable intake, and consistent meal timing and content; (b) physical activity: follow and track an exercise routine at least 3×/week; (c) restraint: practice restraint by limiting and/or avoiding unhealthy foods; (d) self-monitor: plan meals, and track calories/weight progress; and (e) motivation: participate in motivational programs and cognitive processes that affect weight-control behavior. Using the extensive data involving both the practices and practice implementation, we used positive deviance to create a comprehensive list of practices to develop interventions for individuals to control their weight. PMID:20956609

  12. Efficacy of a 3-month lifestyle intervention program using a Japanese-style healthy plate on body weight in overweight and obese diabetic Japanese subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Keiko; Katayama, Tomomi; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sakane, Naoki

    2014-11-24

    The portion size of food is a determinant of energy intake, linking with obese traits. A healthy plate for portion control has recently been made in a Japanese style. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention program using the Japanese-style healthy plate on weight reduction in overweight and obese diabetic Japanese subjects. We randomized overweight and obese diabetic subjects (n = 19, 10 women) into an intervention group including educational classes on lifestyle modification incorporating the healthy plate (n = 10) or a waiting-list control group (n = 9). The intervention period was three months, and the educational classes using the healthy plate were conducted monthly in a group session for the intervention group. The body weight, blood glycemic and metabolic measures, and psychosocial variables were measured at the baseline and after the 3-month intervention in both groups. The impression of the intervention was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. There was one drop-out in the control group. No adverse events were reported in the groups. Subjects in the intervention group had a greater weight change from baseline to the end of the 3-month intervention period (-3.7 +/- 2.5 [SD] kg in the intervention group vs. -0.1 +/- 1.4 kg in the control group, P = 0.002). Most subjects recorded that the use of a healthy plate could be recommended to other people. The lifestyle intervention program using the Japanese-style healthy plate, which was developed for portion control, may effectively reduce body weight in overweight and obese diabetic subjects in Japan. Further studies are needed to establish the efficacy of this methodology on weight management.

  13. The effect of almonds on anthropometric measurements and lipid profile in overweight and obese females in a weight reduction program: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Abazarfard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the wholesome benefits of nuts increased consumption of them has been recommended. However, because of nut′s high energy density, the role of them in the treatment of overweight and obesity is vague. This current clinical trial study aims to investigate the effects of a balanced hypocaloric almond-enriched diet (AED (almond group in comparison to a balanced hypocaloric nut-free diet (NFD (nut-free group on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in women with body mass index (BMI >25 for 3-month. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 overweight and obese women were assigned in our 3-month randomized controlled trial. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups regarding a balanced hypocaloric diet with or without almond. The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical except for the almond group who consumed 50 g of almonds daily. Anthropometric and laboratory measurements of the participants who completed the study were made prior to and at the end of the study. Results: A total of 100 subjects completed the study. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip circumference ratio, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, total: High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, fasting blood sugar and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the almond group compared to the nut-free group (P > 0.001. Greater reduction in low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P > 0.002 and systolic blood pressure (P > 0.001 and greater increase in HDL-C (P = 0.001 were found in the nut-free group. Conclusion: The balanced hypocaloric AED in comparison to the balanced hypocaloric NFD led to a greater weight-loss and overall better improvements in studied cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  14. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina R W; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D

    2016-01-01

    compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. DESIGN: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program...... that was tailored to metabolic changes of the menstrual cycle (Menstralean) or to undergo simple energy restriction (control). RESULTS: Thirty-one women (19 Menstralean and 12 control women) completed the study [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 32.0 ± 5.2]. Both groups lost weight during the study....... CONCLUSION: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...

  15. Weight loss and weight loss maintenance efficacy of a novel weight loss program: The retrospective RNPC® cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Fabre, Odile; Legrand, Rémy

    2018-01-01

    or obese patients treated in 54 RNPC® weight loss clinics in France. Results: A total of 10,809 (89%) patients completed the initial weight loss phase and 2996 (25%) completed the full program. Median weight loss percentage was 10.7% (Interquartile range [IQR]: 5.8; 16.5) after a median of 105 days (IQR...

  16. Toy Control Program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H A; Ormond, C; Seeger, B R

    1991-08-01

    The Toy Control Program for the Apple IIe microcomputer is a software and hardware package developed for the training of single-switch scanning skills. The specially designed scanning programs provide on screen visual feedback and activate a battery-powered toy to reinforce performance. This study examined whether the training of preschool subjects in single-switch scanning skills with the Toy Control Program would result in increased task completion scores and increased levels of attention to task, as compared with conditions of toy activation only and microcomputer programs with screen reinforcement only. The results showed that the subjects paid significantly more attention to the toys as reinforcers (p less than .01). No significant difference was found for the performance results of the three conditions. These findings support the use of a program like the Toy Control Program, which integrates the instructional capabilities of a computer with the reinforcement potential of a toy and the creativity of a therapist.

  17. Comprehensive entropy weight observability-controllability risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decision making for water resource planning is often related to social, economic and environmental factors. There are various methods for making decisions about water resource planning alternatives and measures with various shortcomings. A comprehensive entropy weight observability-controllability risk analysis ...

  18. Effect of personal activity trackers on weight loss in families enrolled in a comprehensive behavioral family-lifestyle intervention program in the federally qualified health center setting: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Espinoza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity continues to be a substantial problem despite major public health efforts, and disproportionately impacts children from low-income families. Digital health tools and consumer technology offer promising opportunities for interventions, but few studies have evaluated how they might be incorporated into existing interventions or used to create new types of interventions. It remains unclear which approaches would be most beneficial for underserved pediatric populations. Purpose: To describe the design and rationale of a single-center randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effects of personal activity tracker (PAT use by parents on weight-status improvement in both parents and overweight children enrolled in BodyWorks (BW, a comprehensive behavioral family-lifestyle intervention program (CBFLI, in a primary-care clinic serving a predominantly low-income Latino population. Methods: This study is being conducted in the AltaMed general pediatrics clinic at Children's Hospital Los Angeles. Eligible participants are families (child and adult caregiver in which the child is between 7 and 18 years of age, has a BMI ≥85th percentile for age and sex, and has been referred to BW by their AltaMed pediatrician. BW consists of one weekly, two-hour session for 7 weeks. In a given cycle, the program is offered on two separate nights: Monday (Spanish and Wednesday (English. Families self sort into one of two groups based on language preference. To ensure balanced allocation of language preference groups and prevent in-group cross contamination, block randomization is used to assign whole groups to either the intervention or control arms of the study. The control arm consists of usual care, while the intervention arm adds assigning a Fitbit PAT to the parents and training them in its proper use. Study personnel are blinded to group assignment during the analysis phase. Study outcomes include attendance rate, program completion

  19. Selecting a Weight-Loss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should teach you how to change permanently those eating habits and lifestyle factors, such as lack of physical ... skills and techniques to make permanent changes in eating habits and levels of physical activity to prevent weight ...

  20. Effectiveness of a physical activity program on weight, physical fitness, occupational stress, job satisfaction and quality of life of overweight employees in high-tech industries: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun-Ya; Huang, Chien-Yuan; Hsu, Mei-Chi

    2018-03-27

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a physical activity (PA) program on weight control, physical fitness, occupational stress, job satisfaction and quality of life of overweight and sedentary employees in high-tech industries. Participants in the intervention group (n = 37) were instructed to carry out a PA program at moderate intensity for 60 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 12 weeks. Those in the control group (n = 38) received no PA program and were asked to continue their routine lifestyle. Evaluations were performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Results of structured questionnaires and blood biochemistry tests and evaluations of physical fitness were analyzed. The PA program effectively reduced the number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome and body fat percentage, and improved physical fitness such as flexibility, muscular strength and endurance and cardiorespiratory endurance. The intervention also significantly decreased levels of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Significant positive effects on work control, interpersonal relationships at work, global job satisfaction and quality of life were also demonstrated. This study showed that a PA program can be helpful in improving physical, physiological and psychological outcomes for overweight and sedentary employees in high-tech industries.

  1. A pilot study of a weight management program with food provision in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Baptiste, Michel; Tek, Cenk; Liskov, Ellen; Chakunta, Umesh Rao; Nicholls, Sarah; Hassan, Akm Q; Brownell, Kelly D; Wexler, Bruce E

    2007-11-01

    Obesity is a serious medical problem that disproportionately affects people with severe mental illness. Behavioral strategies aimed at lifestyle modification have proven effective for weight loss in general population but have not been studied adequately among persons with schizophrenia. We have conducted a randomized controlled pilot trial of an established weight loss program, modified for this specific population, and supplemented with a novel food replacement program, as well as practical, community based teaching of shopping and preparing healthy food. The program not only arrested weight gain, and produced meaningful weight loss, but also weight loss continued 6 months after the intervention is completed. Cognitive impairment had no bearing to the extent a participant benefited from the program. As a conclusion, well designed simple behavioral programs can produce lasting weight loss for patients with schizophrenia and comorbid obesity, improve metabolic indices, and possibly decrease significant medical risks associated with obesity.

  2. Should providers encourage realistic weight expectations and satisfaction with lost weight in commercial weight loss programs? a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Gretchen E; Thomas, Colleen S; Patel, Roshni H; McMullen, Jillian S; Lutes, Lesley D

    2014-01-01

    Attrition is a problem among patients who participate in commercial weight loss programs. One possible explanation is that if patients are unable to reach a weight that they expect to achieve, they may be more likely to drop out of treatment. This study investigated variables associated with attrition among 30 obese patients who completed a liquid meal replacement program (LMR) and enrolled in a 52-week Small Changes Maintenance intervention (SCM). Patients lost a median 18% of body weight during LMR and completed assessments about weight expectations and weight satisfaction pre- and post-SCM. Of the 30 patients who started SCM, 8 (27%) were lost to attrition. Odds of SCM attrition were higher in patients who lost ≤ 18.2% of pre-LMR weight (OR: 12.25, P = 0.035), had lower satisfaction (≤7) pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040), and who expected further weight loss of 9.1 kg or more pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040). SCM completers significantly increased weight loss expectations by a median of 2.3 kg from pre-SCM to post-SCM (WSR P = 0.049) that paralleled weight regained post-SCM (2.7 kg). After completion of a medically-supervised commercial weight loss program, patients with the greatest expectations for further weight loss and the lowest weight satisfaction were more likely to drop out of SCM. Failure to participate in maintenance treatment may lead to regain of greater than half of lost weight over the next year. Among SCM completers, lower expectations for further weight loss and greater weight satisfaction appeared to be associated with continued engagement in maintenance treatment.

  3. Auditing measurement control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, F.P.; Brouns, R.J.

    1979-10-01

    Requirements and a general procedure for auditing measurement control programs used in special nuclear material accounting are discussed. The areas of measurement control that need to be examined are discussed and a suggested checklist is included to assist in the preparation and performance of the audit

  4. Measurement control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A measurement control program for the model plant is described. The discussion includes the technical basis for such a program, the application of measurement control principles to each measurement, and the use of special experiments to estimate measurement error parameters for difficult-to-measure materials. The discussion also describes the statistical aspects of the program, and the documentation procedures used to record, maintain, and process the basic data. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the criteria for this type of a measurement control program; (2) understand the kinds of physical standards required for the various measurement processes, e.g., weighing, analytical, NDA; (3) understand the need for and importance of a measurement control program; (4) understand the need for special experiments to provide an improved basis for the measurement of difficult-to-measure materials; (5) understand the general scope of the program's statistical aspects; and (6) understand the basis and scope of the documentation procedures

  5. Weight Control: Attitudes of Dieters and Change Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Ellen S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Survey explores attitudes toward weight loss/weight control among 2 groups of change agents--40 dietitians and 42 fitness instructors--and among 96 people trying to lose weight. Significant differences were found in terms of importance in weight control of diet, drugs, exercise, religion, and will power; in importance of being of normal weight;…

  6. A Multi-Component Day-Camp Weight-Loss Program Is Effective in Reducing BMI in Children after One Year: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Traberg Larsen

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year multi-component immersive day-camp weight-loss intervention for children with overweight and obesity. The study design was a parallel-group randomized controlled trial. One hundred fifteen 11-13-year-old children with overweight and obesity were randomized into either: A six-week day-camp intervention arm focusing on increased physical activity, and healthy diet followed by a subsequent one-year family-based intervention, or a standard intervention arm consisting of one weekly exercise session for six weeks. Body mass index (BMI was the primary outcome. BMI z-score, clustered cardiovascular risk z-score, and body composition were secondary outcomes. All outcomes were measured at baseline, six week-, and 52 week follow-up. After six weeks, children from the day-camp intervention arm had improved their BMI (-2.2 kg/m2 (95% CI -2.6 to -1.7, P<0.001 and all secondary outcomes when compared to the children from the standard intervention arm. After 52 weeks, the day-camp intervention arm had a lower BMI (-1.2 kg/m2 (95% CI -1.8 to -0.5, P = 0.001, and BMI z-score (-0.20 (95% CI -0.35 to -0.05, P = 0.008, and clustered cardiovascular risk z-score (-0.23 (95% CI -0.37 to -0.08, P = 0.002 compared to the standard intervention arm. No group differences were detected in body composition after 52 weeks. This study shows that the day-camp intervention arm is effective in reducing BMI and improving the metabolic health of children with overweight and obesity. However, the effects seem to be diminishing over time.

  7. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  8. Executive function in weight loss and weight loss maintenance: a conceptual review and novel neuropsychological model of weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettens, Katelyn M; Gorin, Amy A

    2017-10-01

    Weight loss maintenance is a complex, multifaceted process that presents a significant challenge for most individuals who lose weight. A growing body of literature indicates a strong relationship between cognitive dysfunction and excessive body weight, and suggests that a subset of high-order cognitive processes known as executive functions (EF) likely play an important role in weight management. Recent reviews cover neuropsychological correlates of weight status yet fail to address the role of executive function in the central dilemma of successful weight loss maintenance. In this paper, we provide an overview of the existing literature examining executive functions as they relate to weight status and initial weight loss. Further, we propose a novel conceptual model of the relationships between EF, initial weight loss, and weight loss maintenance, mapping specific executive functions onto strategies known to be associated with both phases of the weight control process. Implications for the development of more efficacious weight loss maintenance interventions are discussed.

  9. A Descriptive Survey of Weight Control Participants at a U.S. Army Community Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    participation in the survey was strictly voluntary; 3. only active duty Army personnel who were on the Army’s weight control program could volunteer ...A.R. 600-9 limit 2 I was singled out because I looked overweight 3 I volunteered for the program 4 Other, specify 18. Where was your initial weight...33. Wing, Rena R., and Epstein, Leonard H. "Prescribed Level of Caloric Restriction in Bahavioral Weight Loss Programs. Addictive Behaviors 6

  10. Controlled thermonuclear research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The Plasma Physics and Controlled-Fusion Research Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is divided into five projects: Plasma Production and Heating Experiments, Plasma Theory, Atomic Physics Studies, the Tormac Project, and Neutral-Beam Development and Technology listed in order of increasing magnitude, as regards manpower and budget. Some cross sections and yields are shown in atomic physics

  11. A three-component cognitive behavioural lifestyle program for preconceptional weight-loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Jiskoot (Geranne); S.H. Benneheij (Sofie); A. Beerthuizen (Annemerle); J.E. de Niet; C. de Klerk (Cora); R. Timman (Reinier); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); J.S.E. Laven (Joop)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) negatively affects all clinical features, and a 5 to 10% weight loss has shown promising results on reproductive, metabolic and psychological level. Incorporating a healthy diet, increasing physical activity and changing

  12. Choosing a Safe and Successful Weight-Loss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough sleep, changes in work schedules, lack of motivation, and injury or illness? Is the program in ... physical activity, behavior change, and weight loss? What type of certifications, education, experience, and training do staff members ...

  13. Effect of partial weight bearing program on functional ability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lilian A. Zaky

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... essence of the importance of partial weight bearing program in rehabilitation of lower limb condi ... and long term physical and psychosocial impairments [11,12]. .... gram for their functional walking using the 6-min walking test,.

  14. High Molecular Weight Polymers in the New Chemicals Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are three categories or types of High Molecular Weight (HMW, 10,000 daltons) polymers typically reviewed by the New Chemicals Program: Soluble, insoluble, and water absorbing. Each of the three types are treated differently.

  15. Associations of body weight perception and weight control behaviors with problematic internet use among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2017-05-01

    We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A Randomized Pilot Study of a Phone-Based Mindfulness and Weight Loss Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kelly M; Vickerman, Katrina A; Salmon, Erica E; Javitz, Harold S; Epel, Elissa S; Lovejoy, Jennifer C

    2017-10-06

    This study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of integrating mindfulness training into a phone-based weight loss program to improve outcomes in those with high levels of emotional eating. Participants were 75 enrollees into an employer-sponsored weight loss program who reported high levels of overeating in response to thoughts and feelings. Seventy-five overweight and obese participants (92% female, 65% Caucasian, aged 26 to 68 years) were randomized to the new mindfulness weight loss program (n = 50) or the standard behavioral weight loss program (n = 25). Both programs consisted of 11 coaching calls with health coaches and registered dietitians with supplemental online materials. Satisfaction, engagement, and percent weight lost did not significantly differ for intervention vs. control at six months. Intervention participants had significantly better scores at six-month follow-up on mindful eating, binge eating, experiential avoidance, and one mindfulness subscale. Exploratory analyses showed that improvements on several measures predicted more weight loss in the intervention group. This pilot study found that integrating mindfulness into a brief phone-based behavioral weight loss program was feasible and acceptable to participants, but did not produce greater weight loss on average, despite hypothesized changes in mindful eating. Only one third of intervention participants reported participating in mindfulness exercises regularly. Mechanisms of change observed within the intervention group suggest that for adults with high levels of emotional eating those who embrace mindful eating and meditation may lose more weight with a mindfulness intervention.

  17. Implementation and Effectiveness of a Psychosocial Weight Management Program for Individuals with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niv, Noosha; Cohen, Amy N.; Hamilton, Alison; Reist, Christopher; Young, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a weight loss program for individuals with schizophrenia in usual care. The study included 146 adults with schizophrenia from two mental health clinics of the Department of Veterans Affairs. The 109 individuals who were overweight or obese were offered a 16-week, psychosocial, weight management program. Weight and BMI were assessed at baseline, 1 year later and at each treatment session. Only 51% of those who were overweight or obese chose to enroll in the weight management program. Participants attended an average of 6.7 treatment sessions, lost an average of 2.4 pounds and had an average BMI decrease of 0.3. There was no significant change in weight or BMI compared to the control group. Intervention strategies that both improve utilization and yield greater weight loss need to be developed. PMID:22430566

  18. Effectiveness of a psychosocial weight management program for individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niv, Noosha; Cohen, Amy N; Hamilton, Alison; Reist, Christopher; Young, Alexander S

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a weight loss program for individuals with schizophrenia in usual care. The study included 146 adults with schizophrenia from two mental health clinics of the Department of Veterans Affairs. The 109 individuals who were overweight or obese were offered a 16-week, psychosocial, weight management program. Weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) were assessed at baseline, 1 year later, and at each treatment session. Only 51% of those who were overweight or obese chose to enroll in the weight management program. Participants attended an average of 6.7 treatment sessions, lost an average of 2.4 pounds, and had an average BMI decrease of 0.3. There was no significant change in weight or BMI compared to the control group. Intervention strategies that both improve utilization and yield greater weight loss need to be developed.

  19. EDIN0613P weight estimating program. [for launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, G. N.

    1976-01-01

    The weight estimating relationships and program developed for space power system simulation are described. The program was developed to size a two-stage launch vehicle for the space power system. The program is actually part of an overall simulation technique called EDIN (Engineering Design and Integration) system. The program sizes the overall vehicle, generates major component weights and derives a large amount of overall vehicle geometry. The program is written in FORTRAN V and is designed for use on the Univac Exec 8 (1110). By utilizing the flexibility of this program while remaining cognizant of the limits imposed upon output depth and accuracy by utilization of generalized input, this program concept can be a useful tool for estimating purposes at the conceptual design stage of a launch vehicle.

  20. How College Students Search the Internet for Weight Control and Weight Management Information: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkowski, Valerie; Branscum, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have attempted to examine how young adults search for health information on the Internet, especially information related to weight control and weight management. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine search strategies that college students used for finding information related to weight control and weight…

  1. Effectiveness of a structured diet program in antipsychotic-induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direk, Nese; Ucok, Alp

    2008-01-01

    Objective.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured diet program in weight loss in patients with schizophrenia. Methods. A total of 38 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV and who had complaints of weight gain during treatment with various antipsychotic drugs were invited to participate in a 3-month structured diet program. Thirty-two patients and another 40 patients were included as the control group. At the beginning of the diet program, the patients were given a form in order to evaluate their eating habits, and blood samples were taken to measure plasma lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose (FBG) level. Patients' baseline weight, body mass index (BMI), and basal metabolism rate (BMR) were recorded. Results. Thirty-two patients with schizophrenia, who attended a 3-month structured diet program had mean weight loss of 6.19 kg, whereas patients in the control group gained 1.6 kg. Conclusion. Our findings show that a diet program is effective in managing antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The degree of weight loss seems to be correlated with the duration in which the patient is on the diet program. However; younger patients had less benefit from the diet program.

  2. Determinants of Successful Weight Loss After Using a Commercial Web-Based Weight Reduction Program for Six Months: Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Postrach, Elisa; Aspalter, Rosa; Elbelt, Ulf; Koller, Michael; Longin, Rita; Schulzke, J?rg-Dieter; Valentini, Luzia

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet is widely available and commonly used for health information; therefore, Web-based weight loss programs could provide support to large parts of the population in self-guided weight loss. Previous studies showed that Web-based weight loss interventions can be effective, depending on the quality of the program. The most effective program tools are visual progress charts or tools for the self-monitoring of weight, diet, and exercises. KiloCoach, a commercial program curre...

  3. Obesity Prevention Interventions in US Public Schools: Are Schools Using Programs That Promote Weight Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Wintner, Suzanne; Lee, Rebekka M; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-12-28

    Despite substantial research on school-based obesity prevention programs, it is unclear how widely they are disseminated. It is also unknown whether schools use obesity programs that inadvertently promote weight stigma or disordered weight-control behaviors. In spring 2016, we distributed an online survey about school wellness programming to a simple random sample of US public school administrators (N = 247 respondents; 10.3% response rate). We analyzed survey responses and conducted immersion/crystallization analysis of written open-ended responses. Slightly less than half (n = 117, 47.4%) of schools offered any obesity prevention program. Only 17 (6.9%) reported using a predeveloped program, and 7 (2.8%) reported using a program with evidence for effectiveness. Thirty-seven schools (15.0%) reported developing intervention programs that focused primarily on individual students' or staff members' weight rather than nutrition or physical activity; 28 schools (11.3% of overall) used staff weight-loss competitions. School administrators who reported implementing a program were more likely to describe having a program champion and adequate buy-in from staff, families, and students. Lack of funding, training, and time were widely reported as barriers to implementation. Few administrators used educational (n = 12, 10.3%) or scientific (n = 6, 5.1%) literature for wellness program decision making. Evidence-based obesity prevention programs appear to be rarely implemented in US schools. Schools may be implementing programs lacking evidence and programs that may unintentionally exacerbate student weight stigma by focusing on student weight rather than healthy habits. Public health practitioners and researchers should focus on improving support for schools to implement evidence-based programs.

  4. A new chart for weight control in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, R D; Edwards, R H

    1988-01-01

    Weight control is desirable in the muscle wasting conditions. A new chart is presented to allow the prediction of an ideal weight, free of excess fat, specifically for boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  5. In control of weight: the relationship between facets of control and weight restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Caroline L; Penny, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the moderating effects of body dissatisfaction (BD) on the relationships between various constructs of control and weight restricting and control behaviours (WRCBs). Participants were 167 female undergraduates who completed self-report measures of control, BD and WRCBs. It was found that higher external locus of control (LOC) was related to less dieting and exercise and that LOC was unrelated to purging. In addition, higher levels of general self-control were found to be related to higher levels of purging when BD was high but not low, and higher general self-control was associated with greater dieting and exercise behaviour. Finally, higher 'self-control as self-esteem' was strongly associated with greater dieting and exercise behaviour at both high and low levels of BD, whilst 'self-control as self-esteem' was related to purging only when BD was high. The results of this research suggest that different constructs of control have differential effects on WRCBs. The clinical implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-Term Weight Loss Effects of a Behavioral Weight Management Program: Does the Community Food Environment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon N. Zenk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether community food environments altered the longer-term effects of a nationwide behavioral weight management program on body mass index (BMI. The sample was comprised of 98,871 male weight management program participants and 15,385 female participants, as well as 461,302 and 37,192 inverse propensity-score weighted matched male and female controls. We measured the community food environment by counting the number of supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food restaurants within a 1-mile radius around each person’s home address. We used difference-in-difference regression models with person and calendar time fixed effects to estimate MOVE! effects over time in sub-populations defined by community food environment attributes. Among men, after an initial decrease in BMI at 6 months, the effect of the program decreased over time, with BMI increasing incrementally at 12 months (0.098 kg/m2, p < 0.001, 18 months (0.069 kg/m2, p < 0.001, and 24 months (0.067 kg/m2, p < 0.001. Among women, the initial effects of the program decreased over time as well. Women had an incremental BMI change of 0.099 kg/m2 at 12 months (p < 0.05 with non-significant incremental changes at 18 months and 24 months. We found little evidence that these longer-term effects of the weight management program differed depending on the community food environment. Physiological adaptations may overwhelm environmental influences on adherence to behavioral regimens in affecting longer-term weight loss outcomes.

  7. Equivalent weight loss for weight management programs delivered by phone and clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Goetz, Jeannine; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra K.; Lee, Robert; Smith, Bryan K.; Lambourne, Kate; Mayo, Matthew S.; Hunt, Suzanne; Lee, Jae Hoon; Honas, Jeffrey J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Face-to-face weight management is costly and presents barriers for individuals seeking treatment; thus, alternate delivery systems are needed. The objective of this study was to compare weight management delivered by face-to-face (FTF) clinic or group conference calls (phone). Design and Methods Randomized equivalency trial in 295 overweight/obese men/women (BMI = 35.1±4.9, Age = 43.8±10.2, Minority = 39.8%). Weight loss (0–6 months) was achieved by reducing energy intake between 1,200– 1,500 kcal/day and progressing physical activity to 300 minutes/week. Weight maintenance (7–18 months) provided adequate energy to maintain weight and continued 300 minutes/week of physical activity. Behavioral weight management strategies were delivered weekly for 6 months and gradually reduced during months 7–18. A cost analysis provided a comparison of expenses between groups. Results Weight change from baseline to 6 months was −13.4 ± 6.7% and −12.3 ± 7.0% for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. Weight change from 6 months to 18 months was 6.4 ± 7.0% and 6.4 ± 5.2%, for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. The cost to FTF participants was $789.58 more person. Conclusions Phone delivery provided equivalent weight loss and maintenance and reduced program cost. Ubiquitous access to phones provides a vast reach for this approach. PMID:23408579

  8. Weight loss maintenance in relation to locus of control: The MedWeight study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Fappa, Evaggelia; Karfopoulou, Eleni; Gkza, Anastasia; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Locus of control, i.e. the degree of an individual's belief on the control of his/her life, has been related to many health outcomes, including weight loss in overweight/obese individuals. No information is available on the impact of locus of control in maintaining weight loss. We aimed to investigate the effect of locus of control in weight loss maintenance and explore potential associations with lifestyle factors. Study participants included 239 individuals (41% males) who had lost at least 10% of body weight in the past and either maintained the loss (maintainers: weight maintenance of at least 10% of initial weight) or regained it (regainers). Locus of control was defined by a relevant multi-dimensional scale; participants were categorised to internals and externals, based on "internal" and "others" sub-scales. A significant interaction was found between locus of control and weight loss maintenance status (p locus of control. Individualised treatment, according to locus of control, may increase weight loss maintenance rates in former overweight/obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Schizophrenia and weight management: a systematic review of interventions to control weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, G; Soundy, A A; Lloyd, K

    2003-11-01

    Weight gain is a frequent side effect of antipsychotic medication which has serious implications for a patient's health and well being. This study systematically reviews the literature on the effectiveness of interventions designed to control weight gain in schizophrenia. A systematic search strategy was conducted of major databases in addition to citation searches. Study quality was rated. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Five of eight pharmacological intervention studies reported small reductions in weight (weight). All behavioural (including diet and/or exercise) interventions reported small reductions in, or maintenance of, weight. Weight loss may be difficult but it is not impossible. Given the inconsistent results, the widespread use of pharmacological interventions cannot be recommended. Both dietary and exercise counselling set within a behavioural modification programme is necessary for sustained weight control.

  10. Fetal body weight and the development of the control of the cardiovascular system in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, M G; Müller, T; Wicher, C; Weiss, C; Löhle, M; Schwab, K; Schubert, H; Nathanielsz, P W; Witte, O W; Schwab, M

    2007-03-15

    Reduced birth weight predisposes to cardiovascular diseases in later life. We examined in fetal sheep at 0.76 (n = 18) and 0.87 (n = 17) gestation whether spontaneously occurring variations in fetal weight affect maturation of autonomic control of cardiovascular function. Fetal weights at both gestational ages were grouped statistically in low (LW) and normal weights (NW) (P fetal sheep not constituting a major malnutritive condition. Mean fetal blood pressure (FBP) of all fetuses was negatively correlated to fetal weight at 0.76 but not 0.87 gestation (P fetal heart rate depended on fetal weight (P fetal weight within the normal weight span is accompanied by a different trajectory of development of sympathetic blood pressure and vagal heart rate control. This may contribute to the development of elevated blood pressure in later life. Examination of the underlying mechanisms and consequences may contribute to the understanding of programming of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Endogenous Generalized Weights under DEA Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    Non-parametric efficiency analysis, such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) relies so far on endogenous local or exogenous general weights, based on revealed preferences or market prices. However, as DEA is gaining popularity in regulation and normative budgeting, the strategic interest...... of the evaluated industry calls for attention. We offer endogenous general prices based on a reformulation of DEA where the units collectively propose the set of weights that maximize their efficiency. Thus, the sector-wide efficiency is then a result of compromising the scores of more specialized smaller units...

  12. Gender and Socioeconomic Status in Relation to Weight Perception and Weight Control Behavior in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Kyung Joh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In Korea, obesity is more prevalent among men and lower socioeconomic groups. To explain this obesity disparity, we compared weight perception and weight control behavior across gender and socioeconomic status (SES. Methods: We analyzed data from 16,260 participants aged 20 years or older in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. SES indicators included education and income levels. Weight under-perception was defined when participants considered themselves lighter than their measured BMI status. Either no active or inappropriate weight control (i.e., trying to gain weight in obese individuals was considered to be unhealthy patterns. Multivariate prevalence ratios were calculated using log-binomial regressions. Results: Men had a higher prevalence of weight under-perception (24.5 vs. 11.9% and unhealthy patterns of weight control behavior (57 vs. 40% than women. Low education level was associated with weight under-perception (ptrend = 0.022 in men, ptrend trend trend = 0.047 in men, ptrend Conclusion: Weight perception and weight control behavior significantly varied by gender and SES. Public actions should be directed toward improving perception and behavior of high-risk populations.

  13. Weight self-regulation process in adolescence: the relationship between control weight attitudes, behaviors and body weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi ePich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  14. Investigating satiety for healthy weight : Appetite control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgering, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Modulating feelings of hunger and satiety could be a promising approach in weight management. TNO Food & Nutrition offers advanced assessment tools to support the development of food products that help address issues of overweight and underweight. This can reduce time, cost, and time-to-market.

  15. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes. © 2014 APJPH.

  16. Navy Nutrition and Weight Control Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-10

    Sugars Used in Foods: sugar sucrose lactose mannitol glucose honey corn syrup dextrose sorbitol fructose maltose maple syrup molasses high- fructose corn...such as glucose , fructose , and sucrose. Another sugar, lactose, is found in milk and milk products. Legumes and cereals contain small amounts of...weeks. Weighing and measuring more frequently will only reflect water weight gains and losses, not true progress. Perform measurements mid-week if

  17. Optimizing weight control in diabetes: antidiabetic drug selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kalra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available S Kalra1, B Kalra1, AG Unnikrishnan2, N Agrawal3, S Kumar41Bharti Hospital, Karnal; 2Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Kochi; 3Medical College, Gwalior; 4Excel Life Sciences, Noida, IndiaDate of preparation: 18th August 2010Conflict of interest: SK has received speaker fees from Novo Nordisk, sanofi-aventis, MSD, Eli Lilly, BMS, and AstraZeneca.Clinical question: Which antidiabetic drugs provide optimal weight control in patients with type 2 diabetes?Results: Metformin reduces weight gain, and may cause weight loss, when given alone or in combination with other drugs. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone use is associated with weight gain. Use of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogs, liraglutide and exenatide, is associated with weight loss. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors are considered weight-neutral. Results with insulin therapy are conflicting. Insulin detemir provides weight control along with glycemic control.Implementation: • Weight gain is considered an inevitable part of good glycemic control using conventional modalities of treatment such as sulfonylureas.• Use of metformin, weight-sparing insulin analogs such as insulin detemir, and liraglutide, should be encouraged as monotherapy, or in combination with other drugs.Keywords: weight control, diabetes

  18. Teasing and weight-control behaviors in adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Leme, Ana Carolina B.; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between weight teasing, body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on adaptation and validity research of a North American questionnaire for adolescent girls about physical activity, nutrition, body image, perceptions, and behaviors. The variables used to conduct the study were weight control behaviors, body satisfaction and presence of teasing by family members. Descriptive analyses were carried out by chi-s...

  19. On frequency-weighted coprime factorization based controller reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Andras

    2003-01-01

    We consider the efficient solution of a class of coprime factorization based controller approximation problems by using frequency-weighted balancing related model reduction approaches. It is shown that for some special stability enforcing frequency-weights, the computation of the frequency-weighted controllability and observability grammians can be done by solving reduced order Lyapunov equations. The new approach can be used in conjunction with accuracy enhancing square-root and balancing-fr...

  20. Weighing every day matters: daily weighing improves weight loss and adoption of weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Bennett, Gary G; Askew, Sandy; Tate, Deborah F

    2015-04-01

    Daily weighing is emerging as the recommended self-weighing frequency for weight loss. This is likely because it improves adoption of weight control behaviors. To examine whether weighing every day is associated with greater adoption of weight control behaviors compared with less frequent weighing. Longitudinal analysis of a previously conducted 6-month randomized controlled trial. Overweight men and women in Chapel Hill, NC, participated in the intervention arm (N=47). The intervention focused on daily weighing for weight loss using an e-scale that transmitted weights to a study website, along with weekly e-mailed lessons and tailored feedback on daily weighing adherence and weight loss progress. We gathered objective data on self-weighing frequency from the e-scales. At baseline and 6 months, weight change was measured in the clinic and weight control behaviors (total items=37), dietary strategies, and calorie expenditure from physical activity were assessed via questionnaires. Calorie intake was assessed using an online 24-hour recall tool. We used χ(2) tests to examine variation in discrete weight control behaviors and linear regression models to examine differences in weight, dietary strategies, and calorie intake and expenditure by self-weighing frequency. Fifty-one percent of participants weighed every day (n=24) over 6 months. The average self-weighing frequency among those weighing less than daily (n=23) was 5.4±1.2 days per week. Daily weighers lost significantly more weight compared with those weighing less than daily (mean difference=-6.1 kg; 95% CI -10.2 to -2.1; P=0.004). The total number of weight control behaviors adopted was greater among daily weighers (17.6±7.6 vs 11.2±6.4; P=0.004). There were no differences by self-weighing frequency in dietary strategies, calorie intake, or calorie expenditure. Weighing every day led to greater adoption of weight control behaviors and produced greater weight loss compared with weighing most days of the

  1. Dissonance and Healthy Weight Eating Disorder Prevention Programs: Long-Term Effects from a Randomized Efficacy Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Spoor, Sonja; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent girls with body dissatisfaction (N = 481, SD = 1.4) were randomized to a dissonance-based thin-ideal internalization reduction program, healthy weight control program, expressive writing control condition, or assessment-only control condition. Dissonance participants showed significantly greater decreases in thin-ideal internalization,…

  2. Agreement Between Actual and Perceived Body Weight in Adolescents and Their Weight Control Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mi Shin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : To investigate the agreements between actual and perceived body weight status among adolescents and to identify the associations of disagreements with their weight control behaviors. Methods : This study used the secondary data of a sample survey (n=13,871 of the Seoul Student Health Examination among middle and high schools in 2010. Agreements between actual (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese, according to 2007 Korean National Growth Charts and perceived body weight status (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese were examined using Chi-square and Cohen’s kappa agreement, and then multinomial logistic regression including gender, grade, and attempt of weight control or method of weight control was done. Results : Agreements between actual and perceived body weight status were only 45.2%, and disagreements were up to 54.8%, including mild over- (20.4%, severe over- (1.8%, mild under- (29.5%, and severe under-estimation (3.1%. The kappa coefficient of agreement was only 0.19. The odds ratios on severe over-estimated perception were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.22-2.07 in female subjects, 1.78 (95% CI, 1.36-2.34 in diet control behaviors, and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.18-2.00 in exercise. The odds ratios on severe under-estimated perception were only 0.40 (95% CI, 0.32–0.50 in female subjects but 5.77 (95% CI, 3.68-9.06 in taking medication. Conclusion : There were associations of body weight control behaviors with disagreements of actual and perceived weight status. Therefore, further study is needed to identify the weight disagreement-related factors and to promote the desired weight control behaviors for adolescents.

  3. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  4. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image.

  5. Prevention of Weight Gain Following a Worksite Nutrition and Exercise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Anne N.; Sonnenberg, Lillian; Healey, Erica; Myint-U, Khinlei; Kvedar, Joseph C.; Regan, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background Many employers are now providing wellness programs to help employees make changes in diet and exercise behaviors. Improving health outcomes and reducing costs will depend on whether employees sustain lifestyle changes and maintain a healthy weight over time. Purpose To determine if a 9-month maintenance intervention immediately following a 10-week worksite exercise and nutrition program would prevent regain of the weight lost during the program. Design RCT. Setting/participants In 2008, a total of 330 employees from 24 teams completed a 10-week exercise and nutrition program at a large hospital worksite and were randomized by team to maintenance or control (usual care) for 9 months. Intervention Internet support with a website for goal-setting and self-monitoring of weight and exercise plus minimal personal support. Main outcome measures Weight loss, percentage weight loss, time spent in physical activity, and frequency of consumption of fruits/vegetables, fatty foods, and sugary foods at 1 year compared to baseline. One-year follow-up was completed in 2010, and data were analyzed in 2011. Results At 1 year, 238 subjects (72%) completed follow-up assessments. Mean baseline BMI was 27.6 and did not differ between intervention and control. Compared to baseline, both groups lost weight during the 10-week program and maintained 65% of weight loss at 1 year (p<0.001). There was no difference in weight loss between groups at end of the 10-week program (4.8 lbs vs 4.3 lbs, p=0.53 for group×time interaction) or end of maintenance at 1 year (3.4 lbs vs 2.5 lbs, p=0.40 for group×time interaction). All subjects had improvements in physical activity and nutrition (increased fruits/vegetables and decreased fat and sugar intake) at 1 year but did not differ by group. Conclusions An intensive 10-week team-based worksite exercise and nutrition program resulted in moderate weight loss and improvements in diet and exercise behaviors at 1 year, but an Internet

  6. Perspective on BVDV control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, M Daniel; Newcomer, Benjamin W

    2015-06-01

    Programs for control and eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are often considered prudent when the expense of a control program within a specified time frame effectively prevents loss due to disease and the expense of control does not exceed the costs associated with infection. In some geographic areas, concerns about animal welfare or desires to reduce antibiotic usage may motivate BVDV control even when control programs are associated with a lack of financial return on investment. In other geographic areas, concerns about financial return on investment may be the key motivating factor in considering implementation of BVDV control programs. Past experiences indicate that systematic, well-coordinated control programs have a clear potential for success, while voluntary control programs in cultures of distributed decision-making often result in notable initial progress that ultimately ends in dissolution of efforts. Segmentation of the cattle industry into cow-calf producers, stocker/backgrounders, and feedlot operators amplifies the distribution of decision-making regarding control programs and may result in control measures for one industry segment that are associated with significant costs and limited rewards. Though the host range of BVDV extends well beyond cattle, multiple eradication programs that focus only on testing and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle have proven to be effective in various countries. While some individuals consider education of producers to be sufficient to stimulate eradication of BVDV, research surrounding the adoption of innovative health care procedures suggests that the process of adopting BVDV control programs has a social element. Collegial interactions and discussions may be crucial in facilitating the systematic implementation necessary to optimize the long-term success of control programs. Compulsory control programs may be considered efficient and effective in some regions; however, in a nation where

  7. Vaping to lose weight: Predictors of adult e-cigarette use for weight loss or control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Wedel, Amelia V

    2017-03-01

    Some traditional cigarette smokers are motivated to smoke to lose weight or control their weight. The current study evaluated whether a subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping to lose or control their weight and examined potential predictors of vaping for weight management. Adult e-cigarette users (n=459) who reported wanting to lose weight or maintain their weight completed an anonymous online survey. Participants reported on demographics, vaping frequency, e-cigarette nicotine content, cigarette smoking status, preferred e-cigarette/e-liquid flavors, current weight status (i.e., overweight, underweight), use of dieting strategies associated with anorexia and bulimia, lifetime history of binge eating, self-discipline, and impulse control. Binary logistic regression was used to examine whether vaping for weight loss/control was associated with the aforementioned variables. Participants who reported vaping for weight loss/control (13.5%) were more likely to vape frequently (adjOR=1.15; 95% CI [1.00, 1.31]); be overweight (adjOR=2.80; [1.33, 5.90]); restrict calories (adjOR=2.23; [1.13, 4.42]); have poor impulse control (adjOR=0.59; [0.41, 0.86]); and prefer coffee- (adjOR=2.92; [1.47, 5.80]) or vanilla-flavored e-liquid (adjOR=7.44; [1.56, 36.08]). A subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping for weight loss/control, raising concerns about expanded, scientifically unsubstantiated uses of e-cigarettes. Identifying where individuals obtain information about vaping for weight loss (e.g., e-cigarette ads, Internet) and whether weight-related motives promote e-cigarette initiation among e-cigarette naïve individuals is important to informing regulatory efforts. Further research also is needed to better understand the link between e-liquid flavors and weight loss motivations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Janet M; Saltzman, Jaclyn A; Musaad, Salma M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control strategies for young children. Parental low health literacy has been associated with poor child health outcomes, yet little is known about its relationship to child weight control and weight-related health information-seeking preferences. Data were drawn from the STRONG Kids Study, a Midwest panel survey among parents of preschool aged children (n = 497). Parents endorsed an average of 4.3 (SD =2.8) weight loss strategies, 53% endorsed all three recommended weight loss strategies for children, and fewer than 1% of parents endorsed any unsafe strategies. Parents were most likely to seek child weight loss information from healthcare professionals but those with low (vs. adequate) health literacy were significantly less likely to use the Internet or books and more likely to use minister/clergy as sources. Poisson and logistic regressions showed that higher health literacy was associated with endorsement of more strategies overall, more recommended strategies, and greater odds of endorsing each specific recommended strategy for child weight control, after adjusting for parent age, education, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, weight concern, and child BMI percentile. Findings suggest that health literacy impacts parental views about child weight loss strategies and health information-seeking preferences. Pediatric weight loss advice to parents should include assessment of parent attitudes and prior knowledge about child weight control and facilitate parent access to reliable sources of evidence-informed child weight control information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A; Taylor, Pennie; Freyne, Jill; Noakes, Manny

    2016-05-04

    Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old) were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p < 0.001) and 5.66 ± 0.70 kg for females (p < 0.001). Mixed models also revealed decreases for LDL Cholesterol (-0.13 ± 0.08 mmol/L, nonsignificant), triglycerides (-0.08 ± 0.05 mmol/L, nonsignificant) and an increase in HDL cholesterol (+0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L, ns) were not significant by week 24. Blood glucose (-0.23 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.040) and blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure -5.77 ± 1.21 Hg/mm, p < 0.001) were significantly lower at week 24 compared to baseline. Weight loss self-efficacy increased and remained significantly higher than baseline at week 24 (16.85 ± 2.93, p < 0.001). Overall, the program supported participants and was successful in achieving significant weight loss and improvements in health outcomes over 24 weeks.

  10. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama D Acharya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sushama D Acharya3, Okan U Elci3, Susan M Sereika1,2,3, Edvin Music3, Mindi A Styn3, Melanie Warziski Turk3, Lora E Burke2,31Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, 2Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, 3School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAObjectives: To describe participants’ adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases. Methods: A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial consisting of a SBT with either fat-restricted standard or lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. The 12-month intervention was delivered in 33 group sessions. The first six months reflected the intensive phase; the second six months, the less-intensive intervention phase. We conducted the analysis without regard to treatment assignment. Eligible participants included overweight/obese adults (N = 176; mean body mass index = 34.0 kg/m2. The sample was 86.9% female, 70.5% White, and 44.4 ± 8.6 years old. The outcome measures included weight and biomarkers. Results: There was a significant decline in adherence to each treatment component over time (P < 0.0001. In the first six months, adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and the energy goal were significantly associated with greater weight loss (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance and exercise remained significantly associated with weight loss in the second six months (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and exercise had indirect effects through weight loss on LDL, triglycerides, and insulin (P < 0.05.Conclusions: We observed a decline in adherence to each

  11. Sex differences in the relation of weight loss self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms to weight loss success in a residential obesity treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presnell, Katherine; Pells, Jennifer; Stout, Anna; Musante, Gerard

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether weight loss self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted weight loss during treatment, and whether gender moderates these associations with prospective data from 297 participants (223 women and 74 men) enrolled in a residential obesity treatment program. Men reported higher initial levels of self-efficacy than women, whereas women reported greater pre-treatment levels of binge eating and depressive symptoms. Higher pre-treatment levels of weight control self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted greater weight loss in men, but not in women. Results suggest that certain psychological and behavioral factors should be considered when implementing weight loss interventions, and indicate a need to consider gender differences in predictors of weight loss treatment. Future research should seek to identify predictors of weight loss among women.

  12. Personal digital assistants are comparable to traditional diaries for dietary self-monitoring during a weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Bethany A; Johnson, Rachel K; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Gold, Beth Casey; Howard, Alan B

    2007-04-01

    Dietary self-monitoring is considered the core of behavioral weight control programs. As software for personal digital assistants (PDA) has become more available, this study investigated whether the use of a PDA would improve dietary self-monitoring frequency and subsequent weight loss over the use of traditional paper diaries. One-hundred-seventy-six adults (BMI 25-39.9) participated in a 6-month behavioral weight control program. Treatment subjects (n = 61) were provided with a PalmZire 21 with Calorie King's Diet Diary software installed. Their self-monitoring habits and weight loss were compared with the results from a previous program (n = 115) which followed the same protocol using paper diaries for self-monitoring. No significant differences in weight loss or dietary self-monitoring were found. More frequent self-monitoring correlated with weight loss in both groups (pself-monitoring that is fitting to their lifestyle and skills.

  13. A qualitative study of successful adolescent and young adult weight losers: implications for weight control intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Duraccio, Kara M; Hunsaker, Sanita L; Rancourt, Diana; Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Jelalian, Elissa; Wing, Rena R

    2014-12-01

    Our study aims to provide an in-depth analysis of behavioral strategies, psychological factors, and social contributors to adolescent weight loss and weight loss maintenance among participants in the Adolescent Weight Control Registry (AWCR). Qualitative analyses were conducted using semi-structured interview data from 40 participants from the AWCR who successfully lost ≥10 lbs and maintained their weight loss for at least one year. In contrast to existing literature, our findings suggest that primary motivating factors for adolescent weight loss may be intrinsic (e.g., desire for better health, desire to improve self-worth) rather than extrinsic. In addition, life transitions (e.g., transition to high school) were identified as substantial motivators for weight-related behavior change. Peer and parental encouragement and instrumental support were widely endorsed as central to success. The most commonly endorsed weight loss maintenance strategies included attending to dietary intake and physical activity levels, and making self-corrections when necessary. Results from this study highlight considerations for future adolescent weight control treatment development.

  14. What distinguishes weight loss maintainers of the German Weight Control Registry from the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Silke; Müller, Astrid; Mayr, Andreas; Engeli, Stefan; Hilbert, Anja; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-05-01

    Differences between successful long-term weight loss maintainers and the general population with regard to eating and weighing habits, non-normative eating behaviors, and eating-related and general psychopathological parameters are unknown. Self-identified weight loss maintainers from the German Weight Control Registry (GWCR, n = 494) were compared with a representative sample of the general German population (n = 2,129). The samples did not differ in current BMI. Using the same assessment instruments in both cohorts, a variety of eating-related and psychological variables were determined. The GWCR participants reported more self-weighing and higher eating frequency but less hot meal consumption and more eating-out-of-home. Binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and concerns about shape and weight were reported more often by successful weight loss maintainers. Scores of depression and worrying about health were slightly higher whereas severity of somatic symptoms was less pronounced in the GWCR participants. Overall, our data suggest that successful weight loss maintainers are characterized by more concerns about shape and weight, greater binge eating frequency, and higher use of compensatory behaviors. The latter suggests that weight loss maintenance might not only be achieved by healthy strategies but also by non-normative behaviors which might increase the vulnerability for weight regain. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  15. Examination of weight control practices in a non-clinical sample of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, S; Napolitano, M A

    2012-09-01

    The current study examined healthy weight control practices among a sample of college women enrolled at an urban university (N=715; age=19.87±1.16; 77.2% Caucasian; 13.4% African American, 7.2% Asian, 2.2% other races). Participants completed measures as part of an on-line study about health habits, behaviors, and attitudes. Items from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire were selected and evaluated with exploratory factor analysis to create a healthy weight control practices scale. Results revealed that college women, regardless of weight status, used a comparable number (four of eight) of practices. Examination of racial differences between Caucasian and African American women revealed that normal weight African American women used significantly fewer strategies than Caucasian women. Of note, greater use of healthy weight control practices was associated with higher cognitive restraint, drive for thinness, minutes of physical activity, and more frequent use of compensatory strategies. Higher scores on measures of binge and disinhibited eating, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and depressive symptoms were associated with greater use of healthy weight control practices by underweight/normal weight but not by overweight/obese college women. Results suggest that among a sample of college females, a combination of healthy and potentially unhealthy weight control practices occurs. Implications of the findings suggest the need for effective weight management and eating disorder prevention programs for this critical developmental life stage. Such programs should be designed to help students learn how to appropriately use healthy weight control practices, as motivations for use may vary by weight status.

  16. Weight change in a commercial web-based weight loss program and its association with website use: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Melinda; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E

    2011-10-12

    There is a paucity of information in the scientific literature on the effectiveness of commercial weight loss programs, including Web-based programs. The potential of Web-based weight loss programs has been acknowledged, but their ability to achieve significant weight loss has not been proven. The objectives were to evaluate the weight change achieved within a large cohort of individuals enrolled in a commercial Web-based weight loss program for 12 or 52 weeks and to describe participants' program use in relation to weight change. Participants enrolled in an Australian commercial Web-based weight loss program from August 15, 2007, through May 31, 2008. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 12- and 52-week subscriptions. The primary analysis estimated weight change using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) for all participants who subscribed for 12 weeks and also for those who subscribed for 52 weeks. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using the last observation carried forward (LOCF) method. Website use (ie, the number of days participants logged on, made food or exercise entries to the Web-based diary, or posted to the discussion forum) was described from program enrollment to 12 and 52 weeks, and differences in website use by percentage weight change category were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test for equality of populations. Participants (n = 9599) had a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 35.7 (9.5) years and were predominantly female (86% or 8279/9599) and obese (61% or 5866/9599). Results from the primary GLMM analysis including all enrollees found the mean percentage weight change was -6.2% among 12-week subscribers (n = 6943) and -6.9% among 52-week subscribers (n = 2656). Sensitivity analysis using LOCF revealed an average weight change of -3.0% and -3.5% after 12 and 52 weeks respectively. The use of all website features increased significantly (P Web-based weight loss program is likely to be in the range of

  17. Cost-effectiveness of sibutramine in the LOSE Weight Study: evaluating the role of pharmacologic weight-loss therapy within a weight management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Daniel C; Raebel, Marsha A; Porter, Julie A; Lanty, Frances A; Conner, Douglas A; Gay, Elizabeth C; Merenich, John A; Vogel, Erin A

    2005-01-01

    the cost-effectiveness of drug therapy when used in conjunction with a weight management program (WMP) for treatment of obesity. The objective was to compare the cost-effectiveness of sibutramine (Meridia) plus a structured WMP versus only a structured WMP in both overweight and obese individuals. The core WMP was a physician-supervised, multidisciplinary program for which each enrollee paid $100 out of pocket. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed based upon the results of a previously published randomized controlled trial conducted within a managed care organization. The target population for this study was obese or overweight persons. The perspective of the study was that of a managed care organization. The intervention consisted of subjects receiving a WMP with or without sibutramine. The primary outcomes of this study were (a) absolute change in body weight and percentage change in body weight over 12 months, (b) change in obesity-related and total medical costs from 12 months prior to enrollment through 12 months after enrollment, and (c) cost-effectiveness in terms of cost per pound of weight loss. All costs were adjusted to 2004 dollars using the respective components of the consumer price index for each medical service or medication. A total of 501 evaluable subjects were enrolled in the study, with 281 receiving sibutramine plus a structured WMP and 220 receiving only the structured WMP. The meanSD weight loss was significantly greater in the sibutramine (13.715.5 pounds, 4.8%) group than in the nondrug group (513.2 pounds, 2.2%) (P cost was a median increase of $408 for the sibutramine group compared with $31 for the nondrug group (P cost was a median $1,279 increase in the sibutramine group compared with $271 for the nondrug group (P cost by $44 per additional pound of weight loss (95% confidence interval, 42-46). Sensitivity analyses found that the results were sensitive to the price of sibutramine, whereas varying the cost of clinic visits did

  18. Prenatal Centrifugation: A Mode1 for Fetal Programming of Body Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-01-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  19. Improving maintenance of lost weight following a commercial liquid meal replacement program: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Gretchen E; Patel, Roshni H; McMullen, Jillian S; Thomas, Colleen S; Crook, Julia E; Lynch, Scott A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2014-01-01

    Clinic-based liquid meal replacement (800kcals/day) programs produce substantial weight loss. Nevertheless, long-term maintenance remains a challenge. A limitation of maintenance programs is that they continue to promote large behavior changes that are initially required to induce weight loss which may be unsustainable long-term. The study aims were to conduct a preliminary assessment of the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a small changes maintenance intervention (SCM) for 30 patients who completed liquid meal replacement program (LMR). The 20-session SCM delivered over 52 weeks offered no preset goals for maintenance behaviors and all changes in behavior were self-selected. Participants had a median BMI of 40.9 kg/m(2) and weight of 111 kg at the start of LMR. At LMR completion, they lost 18% (21 kg) of body weight. The SCM was completed by 22 patients (73%); 19 completers (86%) attended ≥ 17 of 20 sessions with a median satisfaction rating of 9 (on a scale of 1 to 9). Completers were asked to record self-selected maintenance behaviors daily (median 351 days recorded). The most commonly reported daily behaviors were self-weighing, use of meal replacements and step counting. Median percent regain at week 52 was 14% (2.8 kg) of lost weight (range, -42 to 74%), significantly less than a median of 56% (11 kg) percent regain of lost weight (range, -78 to 110%) in a demographically similar historical control group with no maintenance intervention after LMR completion (P<0.001). Thus, SCM holds promise for improving weight maintenance. Future research should compare SCM to standard maintenance programs that promote large program-directed changes. © 2013.

  20. Development and Application of Coating Weight Control Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Hyoung [Dongbu Steel, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Precise coating weight control is very important issue on quality and minimizing operating costs on continuous galvanizing line. These days, many steel making companies are having a new understanding of cost importance by rise raw material prices and customers requirement for cost reduction. Dongbu steel also meets these situations and decided to develop the technologies. Dongbu Steel developed Integrated coating weight control system jointly with Objective Control Ltd. and installed 2CGL and 4CGL. Several technological functions were developed and realized to achieve true hands-off operation and maximum cost benefit by combining model-based preset and dynamic prediction models. We also installed it on 1 CGL on April, 2008. This paper will present the interface, functions and application result of the integrated coating weight control system including Zn saving and coating weight uniformity.

  1. WNetKAT: A Weighted SDN Programming and Verification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Schmid, Stefan; Xue, Bingtian

    2017-01-01

    Programmability and verifiability lie at the heart of the software-defined networking paradigm. While OpenFlow and its match-action concept provide primitive operations to manipulate hardware configurations, over the last years, several more expressive network programming languages have been...... developed. This paper presents WNetKAT, the first network programming language accounting for the fact that networks are inherently weighted, and communications subject to capacity constraints (e.g., in terms of bandwidth) and costs (e.g., latency or monetary costs). WNetKAT is based on a syntactic...... generalize to more complex (and stateful) network functions and service chains. For example, WNetKAT allows to model flows which need to traverse certain waypoint functions, which can change the traffic rate. This paper also shows the relationship between the equivalence problem of WNet...

  2. Control of body weight by eating behavior in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modjtaba eZandian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen.

  3. molecular weight control of a batch suspension polymerization reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrokhi, M.; Fanaei, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns molecular weight control of a batch polymerization reactor where suspension polymerization of methyl methylacrylate (MMA) takes place. For this purpose, a cascade control structure with two control loops has been selected. The slave loop is used for temperature control using on-line temperature measurements, and the master loop controls the average molecular weights based on its estimated values. Two different control algorithms namely proportional-integral (PI) controller and globally linearizing controller (GLC) have been used for temperature control. An estimator, which has the structure of an extended Kalman filter(EKF), is used for estimating monomer conversion and average molecular weights of polymer using reactor temperature measurements. The performance of proposed control algorithm is evaluated through simulation and experimental studies. The results indicate that a constant average molecular weight cannot be achieved in case of strong gel effect. However, the polydispersity of product will be lower in comparison to isothermal operation. It is also shown that in case of mo dek mismatch, the performance of cascade control is superior compared to the case where only reactor temperature is controlled based on desired temperature trajectory obtained through cascade strategy

  4. [A telemetrically-guided program for weight reduction in overweight subjects (the SMART study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körtke, H; Frisch, S; Zittermann, A; Berthold, H K; El-Arousy, M; Götting, C; Kleesiek, K; Stehle, P; Körfer, R

    2008-06-01

    Compliance with weight reducing programs can be improved by intensive care and control. We tested a telemetrically-guided weight reduction program in overweight and obese persons. 200 outpatients (62 males) with a mean body mass index of 34 kg/m (2) and a mean age of 47 years participated in a prospective study for one year. During the first six months, telemetrical support (weight-transmission via Bluetooth (short range)-technology, 20-minutes telephone consultation with a nutritionist) was given weekly. After six months, participants were randomly assigned either to a group with further telemonitoring support (telemetric group) or to a group without contact to our clinic (control group). At baseline, and after six and twelve months, body weight, body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), and parameters of the metabolic syndrome were assessed at our clinic. 16 participants terminated the study prematurely during the first 6 months and 19 participants (10 from the telemetric group and 9 from the control group) during the second 6 months. According to the intention-to-treat principle, mean weight loss was 6.7 kg (p < 0,001), mean loss of body fat was 5.1 kg (p < 0,001), and mean loss of fat-free mass was 1.6 kg (p < 0,001) within the first six months. Moreover, metabolic and cardiovascular risk markers such as waist circumference, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and blood glucose declined significantly (p < 0,001). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome fell from 49.5% to 42.0 % (p < 0,05). During the second six months body fat content, waist circumference, and blood glucose increased again in the control group but not in the telemetric group (p < 0,05-0,001). The telemetrically-guided weight loss program was a more efficacious measure than the less intensive support without telemonitoring.

  5. AEC controlled area safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, D.W.

    1969-01-01

    The detonation of underground nuclear explosives and the subsequent data recovery efforts require a comprehensive pre- and post-detonation safety program for workers within the controlled area. The general personnel monitoring and environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site are presented. Some of the more unusual health-physics aspects involved in the operation of this program are also discussed. The application of experience gained at the Nevada Test Site is illustrated by description of the on-site operational and safety programs established for Project Gasbuggy. (author)

  6. AEC controlled area safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, D W [Nevada Operations Office, Atomic Energy Commission, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The detonation of underground nuclear explosives and the subsequent data recovery efforts require a comprehensive pre- and post-detonation safety program for workers within the controlled area. The general personnel monitoring and environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site are presented. Some of the more unusual health-physics aspects involved in the operation of this program are also discussed. The application of experience gained at the Nevada Test Site is illustrated by description of the on-site operational and safety programs established for Project Gasbuggy. (author)

  7. Performance expectations of measurement control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The principal index for designing and assessing the effectiveness of safeguards is the sensitivity and reliability of gauging the true status of material balances involving material flows, transfers, inventories, and process holdup. The measurement system must not only be capable of characterizing the material for gradation or intensity of protection, but also be responsive to needs for detection and localization of losses, provide confirmation that no diversion has occurred, and help meet requirements for process control, health and safety. Consequently, the judicious application of a measurement control and quality assurance program is vital to a complete understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the measurement system including systematic and random components of error for weight, volume, sampling, chemical, isotopic, and nondestructive determinations of material quantities in each material balance area. This paper describes performance expectations or criteria for a measurement control program in terms of ''what'' is desired and ''why'', relative to safeguards and security objectives

  8. Integration of a physical training program in a weight loss plan for overweight pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitger, Anne D; Stallknecht, Bente M; Nielsen, Dorte H; Bjornvad, Charlotte R

    2016-01-15

    To investigate whether a controlled physical training plan for overweight dogs during a weight loss program would improve cardiorespiratory fitness and better preserve lean body mass, compared with results for dogs undergoing a weight loss program based on caloric restriction alone. Prospective, nonrandomized clinical study. 19 client-owned overweight or obese dogs. All dogs were fed the same calorie-restricted diet rationed to achieve a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk for 12 weeks. The fitness-and-diet (FD) group participated in a training program that included underwater and land-based treadmill exercise 3 times/wk. The diet-only (DO) group had no change in exercise routines. Daily activity before and during the intervention was recorded by accelerometry. Before and after intervention, heart rate during exercise was recorded to assess cardiovascular fitness, and body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Differences between groups were evaluated with t tests and multiple regression analysis. Mean weight loss was 13.9% and 12.9% for the FD and DO groups, respectively (n = 8 dogs/group that completed the study). Mean accelerometer counts during intervention were 13% higher than baseline counts for the FD group. Heart rate during exercise declined after intervention in both groups. Lean body mass was preserved in the FD group and lost in the DO group during intervention. The controlled exercise plan used with a dietary weight loss program prevented loss of lean body mass in dogs. This finding supports inclusion of controlled physical training for obesity management in dogs.

  9. Use of probabilistic weights to enhance linear regression myoelectric control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2015-12-01

    Clinically available prostheses for transradial amputees do not allow simultaneous myoelectric control of degrees of freedom (DOFs). Linear regression methods can provide simultaneous myoelectric control, but frequently also result in difficulty with isolating individual DOFs when desired. This study evaluated the potential of using probabilistic estimates of categories of gross prosthesis movement, which are commonly used in classification-based myoelectric control, to enhance linear regression myoelectric control. Gaussian models were fit to electromyogram (EMG) feature distributions for three movement classes at each DOF (no movement, or movement in either direction) and used to weight the output of linear regression models by the probability that the user intended the movement. Eight able-bodied and two transradial amputee subjects worked in a virtual Fitts' law task to evaluate differences in controllability between linear regression and probability-weighted regression for an intramuscular EMG-based three-DOF wrist and hand system. Real-time and offline analyses in able-bodied subjects demonstrated that probability weighting improved performance during single-DOF tasks (p linear regression control. Use of probability weights can improve the ability to isolate individual during linear regression myoelectric control, while maintaining the ability to simultaneously control multiple DOFs.

  10. Motivation for Participating in a Weight Loss Program and Financial Incentives: An Analysis from a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Melissa M.; Tate, Deborah F.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Linnan, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    This analysis investigated if changes in autonomous or controlled motivation for participation in a weight loss program differed between individuals offered a financial incentive for weight loss compared to individuals not offered an incentive. Additionally, the same relationships were tested among those who lost weight and either received or did not receive an incentive. This analysis used data from a year-long randomized worksite weight loss program that randomly assigned employees in each worksite to either a low-intensity weight loss program or the same program plus small financial incentives for weight loss ($5.00 per percentage of initial weight lost). There were no differences in changes between groups on motivation during the study, however, increases in autonomous motivation were consistently associated with greater weight losses. This suggests that the small incentives used in this program did not lead to increases in controlled motivation nor did they undermine autonomous motivation. Future studies are needed to evaluate the magnitude and timing of incentives to more fully understand the relationship between incentives and motivation. PMID:22577524

  11. A new inertia weight control strategy for particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianming; Wang, Hongbo

    2018-04-01

    Particle Swarm Optimization is a member of swarm intelligence algorithms, which is inspired by the behavior of bird flocks. The inertia weight, one of the most important parameters of PSO, is crucial for PSO, for it balances the performance of exploration and exploitation of the algorithm. This paper proposes a new inertia weight control strategy and PSO with this new strategy is tested by four benchmark functions. The results shows that the new strategy provides the PSO with better performance.

  12. Weight-related sport motive and girls’ body image, weight control behaviors and self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, A.P.; Woertman, L.; Bakker, F.C.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that exercise for weight control is associated with disordered eating indices in older adolescent or adult exercisers in fitness centers. This study examined whether these relationships could be replicated in a more general sample of 140 Dutch adolescent girls between 13 and 18

  13. Biomass energy production in agriculture: A weighted goal programming analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballarin, A.; Vecchiato, D.; Tempesta, T.; Marangon, F.; Troiano, S.

    2011-01-01

    Energy production from biomasses can be an important resource that, when combined with other green energies such as wind power and solar plants, can contribute to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. A multi-period Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied to identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production under three concurrent constraints: water, labour and soil availability. Alternative scenarios are considered that take into account the effect of climate change and social change. The MpWGP model was tested with data from the Rovigo county area (Italy) over a 15-year time period. Our findings show that trade-off exists between the two optimisation targets considered. Although the optimisation of the first target requires traditional agricultural crops, which are characterised by high revenue and a low production of biomass energy, the latter would be achievable with intensive wood production, namely, high-energy production and low income. Our results also show the importance of the constraints imposed, particularly water availability; water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production. - Research Highlights: → The aim of this study is to assess how agriculture could contribute to the production of bio-energy. → A multi-period (15-year) Weighted Goal Programming model (MpWGP) has been applied. → We identify the optimal land use combinations that simultaneously maximise farmers' income and biomass energy production. → Three concurrent constraints have been considered: water, labour and soil availability.→ Water scarcity has an overall negative effect and specifically affects the level of energy production.

  14. Effects of Weight Loss, Weight Cycling, and Weight Loss Maintenance on Diabetes Incidence and Change in Cardiometabolic Traits in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Aroda, Vanita R.; Watson, Karol E.; Bray, George A.; Kahn, Steven E.; Florez, Jose C.; Perreault, Leigh; Franks, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined specific measures of weight loss in relation to incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective, observational study analyzed nine weight measures, characterizing baseline weight, short- versus long-term weight loss, short- versus long-term weight regain, and weight cycling, within the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention arm (n = 1,000) for predictors of incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors over 2 years. RESULTS Although weight loss in the first 6 months was protective of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 0.94 per kg, 95% CI 0.90, 0.98; P weight loss from 0 to 2 years was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes incidence (HR 0.90 per kg, 95% CI 0.87, 0.93; P Weight cycling (defined as number of 5-lb [2.25-kg] weight cycles) ranged 0–6 times per participant and was positively associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.58; P weight, the effect of weight cycling remained statistically significant for diabetes risk (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02, 1.47; P = 0.03) but not for cardiometabolic traits. CONCLUSIONS Two-year weight loss was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes risk and improvements in cardiometabolic traits. PMID:25024396

  15. Effect of Motivational Interviewing on a Weight Loss Program Based on the Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkarimi, Kamal; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Eshghinia, Samira; Vakili, Mohammad Ali; Ozouni-Davaji, Rahman Berdi; Aryaie, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is on the increase the world over, which imposes an ever-increasing burden on societies and health care systems. This study sought to investigate the effect of motivational interviewing (MI) on a weight-loss program based on the protection motivation theory (PMT). This randomized clinical trial study, comprising pretest-posttest with a control group, was conducted on 150 overweight and obese women attending a private nutrition clinic for the first time. Samples were randomly selected using the clinic's records and then allocated to three groups (50 women in each group) receiving: 1) a standard weight-control program; 2) motivational interviewing; and 3) MI plus intention intervention. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire through in-person interviews and were analyzed using SPSS (version 11) and statistical tests, including the Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way analysis of variance, paired t-test, and linear regression model. In the two intervention groups, the PMT construct scores, namely susceptibility (P = 0.001), severity (P = 0.001), rewards (P =0.004), self-efficacy (P = 0.001), response efficacy (P = 0.001), and costs (P = 0.014), were significantly increased compared to those in the control group. The anthropometric status was statistically significant in the MI group (P = 0.001) and the MI plus intention-intervention group (P = 0.001) at 2 months' follow-up, while in the control group, weight was meaningfully different after the intervention (P = 0.027). Weight was different between the groups after the intervention, with the Tukey test demonstrating that the differences were statistically significant between the control group and the MI group. Our results demonstrated that MI, combined with the implementation of intention intervention, increased weight loss and PMT construct scores in our study population.

  16. Positive and negative dimensions of weight control motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, S; Larocque, M; Sadikaj, G

    2012-01-01

    This study examined weight control motivation among patients (N=5460 females and 547 males) who sought weight loss treatment with family physicians. An eight-item measure assessed the frequency of thoughts and feelings related to weight control "outcome" (e.g. expected physical and psychological benefits) and "process" (e.g. resentment and doubt). Factor analysis supported the existence of two factors, labeled Positive and Negative motivation. Positive motivation was high (average frequency of thoughts about benefits was 'every day') and stable throughout treatment, while Negative motivation declined rapidly and then stabilized. The determinants of changes in the Positive and Negative dimensions during treatment were examined within 3 time frames: first month, months 2-6, and 6-12. Maintenance of high scores on Positive motivation was associated with higher BMI and more disturbed eating habits. Early reductions in Negative motivation were greater for those starting treatment with higher weight and more disturbed eating habits, but less depression and stress, while later reductions in Negative motivation were predicted by improvements in eating habits, weight, stress and perfectionism. Clinicians treating obesity should be sensitive to fluctuations in both motivational dimensions, as they are likely to play a central role in determining long-term behavior and weight change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Body Weight and Breast Cancer: Nested Case-Control Study in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kops, Natália Luiza; Bessel, Marina; Caleffi, Maira; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Wendland, Eliana Marcia

    2018-04-28

    Current studies have shown that fast weight gain may be more important than body mass index on the incidence of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body weight and breast cancer. This was a case-control study nested in a cohort of a breast cancer mammography screening program in Southern Brazil. A trained investigator administered a standardized interview to collect sociodemographic and clinical data, and body weight history (weight at menarche, at marriage, at first and last pregnancy, and at menopause). Current anthropometric measurements were also made. Fifty-seven women with cancer (66.7% postmenopausal) and 159 controls were included. Current age (60.3 ± 10.4 vs. 55.8 ± 8.4 years, P weight at different stages of life. Women with social vulnerability recruited at a mammography screening program in Southern Brazil showed a large weight gain during life, but no significant differences were found in body weight between women with or without breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A "small-changes" workplace weight loss and maintenance program: examination of weight and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant M; Hopkins, Will G

    2012-10-01

    To compare the effect of "small-changes" and "usual care" workplace interventions on weight loss and to investigate the effect of small changes with or without maintenance on weight and health outcomes. Overweight/obese employees at two New Zealand worksites received a 12-month usual-care intervention (n = 53), followed by a 12-month small-changes intervention (n = 102). Small changes comprised a 12-week component, followed by 9 months of maintenance, implemented at only one worksite. Magnitudes of effects were assessed via a threshold of -5% (weight loss) and standardization (health outcomes). Small changes showed beneficial weight loss relative to usual care in both worksites. For small-changes interventions, worksites reduced weight (12 weeks) and maintained lost weight (12 months). One in every three participants lost 5% or more weight. Some improvements in health outcomes were shown. Regardless of maintenance, the small-changes intervention was successful in sustaining weight loss.

  19. The effect of a motivational intervention on weight loss is moderated by level of baseline controlled motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Kelly H; Gabriele, Jeanne M; Tate, Deborah F; Dignan, Mark B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous mot...

  20. Controllability of Weighted and Directed Networks with Nonidentical Node Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linying Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of controllability from control theory is applied to weighted and directed networks with heterogenous linear or linearized node dynamics subject to exogenous inputs, where the nodes are grouped into leaders and followers. Under this framework, the controllability of the controlled network can be decomposed into two independent problems: the controllability of the isolated leader subsystem and the controllability of the extended follower subsystem. Some necessary and/or sufficient conditions for the controllability of the leader-follower network are derived based on matrix theory and graph theory. In particular, it is shown that a single-leader network is controllable if it is a directed path or cycle, but it is uncontrollable for a complete digraph or a star digraph in general. Furthermore, some approaches to improving the controllability of a heterogenous network are presented. Some simulation examples are given for illustration and verification.

  1. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  2. Integration of a physical training program in a weight loss plan for overweight pet dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitger, Anne D.; Stallknecht, Bente M.; Nielsen, Dorte H.

    2016-01-01

    . DESIGN Prospective, nonrandomized clinical study. ANIMALS 19 client-owned overweight or obese dogs. PROCEDURES All dogs were fed the same calorie-restricted diet rationed to achieve a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk for 12 weeks. The fitness-and-diet (FD) group participated in a training program...... accelerometer counts during intervention were 13% higher than baseline counts for the FD group. Heart rate during exercise declined after intervention in both groups. Lean body mass was preserved in the FD group and lost in the DO group during intervention. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The controlled...... or minimized, if weight loss is obtained by use of a low-calorie, high-protein diet in combination with physical exercise. Preservation of lean body mass is preferable because it preserves energy requirements and physical strength, and thereby the achieved weight loss is easier to maintain than that achieved...

  3. Self-determination theory and weight loss in a Diabetes Prevention Program translation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trief, Paula M; Cibula, Donald; Delahanty, Linda M; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2017-06-01

    We examined self-determination theory (SDT) and weight loss, and hypothesized that the Diabetes Prevention Program's (DPP) intervention would result in an increase in autonomous regulation of motivation (AR) in participants. Further, that those with higher AR, and those who perceived educators as supporting SDT-defined needs, would lose more weight. Support, Health Information, Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) Study data (N = 257) were analyzed. SHINE was a randomized, controlled DPP translation trial (2-years, telephonic, primary care staff). Autonomous motivation in males increased significantly, while females showed no change. Males with high AR, but not females, lost more weight. However, the significance of these relationships varied over time. Participants who perceived educators as more supportive of psychological needs lost more weight (especially males). However, effect of support on weight loss was not mediated by AR change. Autonomous motivation and educator support are relevant to male weight loss. Future research might develop interventions to enhance autonomous motivation and educator support, and understand change pathways.

  4. Genetic test feedback with weight control advice: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisel Susanne F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic testing for risk of weight gain is already available over the internet despite uncertain benefits and concerns about adverse emotional or behavioral effects. Few studies have assessed the effect of adding genetic test feedback to weight control advice, even though one of the proposed applications of genetic testing is to stimulate preventive action. This study will investigate the motivational effect of adding genetic test feedback to simple weight control advice in a situation where weight gain is relatively common. Methods/design First-year university students (n = 800 will be randomized to receive either 1 their personal genetic test result for a gene (FTO related to weight gain susceptibility in addition to a leaflet with simple weight control advice (‘Feedback + Advice’ group, FA, or 2 only the leaflet containing simple weight control advice (‘Advice Only’ group, AO. Motivation to avoid weight gain and active use of weight control strategies will be assessed one month after receipt of the leaflet with or without genetic test feedback. Weight and body fat will be measured at baseline and eight months follow-up. We will also assess short-term psychological reactions to the genetic test result. In addition, we will explore interactions between feedback condition and gene test status. Discussion We hope to provide a first indication of the clinical utility of weight-related genetic test feedback in the prevention context. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN91178663

  5. What is the role of portion control in weight management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J

    2014-01-01

    Systematic studies have shown that providing individuals with larger portions of foods and beverages leads to substantial increases in energy intake. The effect is sustained over weeks, supporting the possibility that large portions have a role in the development of obesity. The challenge is to find strategies to effectively manage the effects of portion size. One approach involves teaching people to select appropriate portions and to use tools that facilitate portion control. Although tools such as portion-control plates have been shown in several randomized trials to improve weight loss, limited data are available on whether education and tools lead to long-term changes in eating behavior and body weight. Another approach is to use preportioned foods (PPFs) to add structure to meals and minimize decisions about the amount of food to eat. A number of randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of both liquid meal replacements and solid PPFs for weight loss and weight loss maintenance, but it is not known if they lead to better understanding of appropriate portions. Although portion control is important for weight management, urging people simply to ‘eat less' of all foods may not be the best approach as high-energy-dense foods disproportionately increase energy intake compared with those lower in energy density. A more effective strategy may be to encourage people to increase the proportion of foods low in energy density in their diets while limiting portions of high-energy-dense foods. If people lower the energy density of their diet, they can eat satisfying portions while managing their body weight. PMID:25033958

  6. Access Request Trustworthiness in Weighted Access Control Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lun-wei; LIAO Xiang-ke; WANG Huai-min

    2005-01-01

    Weighted factor is given to access control policies to express the importance of policy and its effect on access control decision. According to this weighted access control framework, a trustworthiness model for access request is also given. In this model, we give the measure of trustworthiness factor to access request, by using some idea of uncertainty reasoning of expert system, present and prove the parallel propagation formula of request trustworthiness factor among multiple policies, and get the final trustworthiness factor to decide whether authorizing. In this model, authorization decision is given according to the calculation of request trustworthiness factor, which is more understandable, more suitable for real requirement and more powerful for security enhancement than traditional methods. Meanwhile the finer access control granularity is another advantage.

  7. Bivariate copulas on the exponentially weighted moving average control chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasigarn Kuvattana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes four types of copulas on the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA control chart when observations are from an exponential distribution using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. The performance of the control chart is based on the Average Run Length (ARL which is compared for each copula. Copula functions for specifying dependence between random variables are used and measured by Kendall’s tau. The results show that the Normal copula can be used for almost all shifts.

  8. Use of probabilistic weights to enhance linear regression myoelectric control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H.; Kuiken, Todd A.; Hargrove, Levi J.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Clinically available prostheses for transradial amputees do not allow simultaneous myoelectric control of degrees of freedom (DOFs). Linear regression methods can provide simultaneous myoelectric control, but frequently also result in difficulty with isolating individual DOFs when desired. This study evaluated the potential of using probabilistic estimates of categories of gross prosthesis movement, which are commonly used in classification-based myoelectric control, to enhance linear regression myoelectric control. Approach. Gaussian models were fit to electromyogram (EMG) feature distributions for three movement classes at each DOF (no movement, or movement in either direction) and used to weight the output of linear regression models by the probability that the user intended the movement. Eight able-bodied and two transradial amputee subjects worked in a virtual Fitts’ law task to evaluate differences in controllability between linear regression and probability-weighted regression for an intramuscular EMG-based three-DOF wrist and hand system. Main results. Real-time and offline analyses in able-bodied subjects demonstrated that probability weighting improved performance during single-DOF tasks (p < 0.05) by preventing extraneous movement at additional DOFs. Similar results were seen in experiments with two transradial amputees. Though goodness-of-fit evaluations suggested that the EMG feature distributions showed some deviations from the Gaussian, equal-covariance assumptions used in this experiment, the assumptions were sufficiently met to provide improved performance compared to linear regression control. Significance. Use of probability weights can improve the ability to isolate individual during linear regression myoelectric control, while maintaining the ability to simultaneously control multiple DOFs.

  9. Weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors among overweight adolescents in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastav Radhika

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is emerging as a public health problem among adolescents in India. The aim of this study was to describe specific weight-related concerns among school-going youth in Delhi, India and to assess the prevalence of weight control behaviors, including healthy and unhealthy ones. Differences by weight status, gender, grade level, and school-type (a proxy for SES in this setting are considered. Methods This study is cross-sectional by design. A sample of eighth and tenth graders (n = 1818 enrolled in Private (middle-high SES and Government (low SES schools (n = 8 in Delhi, India participated. All students' height and weight were measured. Students participated in a survey of weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors, as well. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test for differences in weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors across key factors of interest (i.e., weight status, gender, grade level, and SES. Results The combined prevalence of obesity and overweight was 16.6%, overall. Controlling one's weight was important to overweight and non-overweight youth, alike (94.2% v. 84.8%, p p Conclusions Interventions to promote healthy weight control should be pertinent to and well-received by school-going youth in India. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly encouraged and unhealthy practices reduced. Future interventions should address issues specific to body image, too, as body dissatisfaction was not uncommon among youth.

  10. Frequency weighted model predictive control of wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauco, Martin; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Mirzaei, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    This work is focused on applying frequency weighted model predictive control (FMPC) on three blade horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). A wind turbine is a very complex, non-linear system influenced by a stochastic wind speed variation. The reduced dynamics considered in this work are the rotatio...... predictive controller are presented. Statistical comparison between frequency weighted MPC, standard MPC and baseline PI controller is shown as well.......This work is focused on applying frequency weighted model predictive control (FMPC) on three blade horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). A wind turbine is a very complex, non-linear system influenced by a stochastic wind speed variation. The reduced dynamics considered in this work...... are the rotational degree of freedom of the rotor and the tower for-aft movement. The MPC design is based on a receding horizon policy and a linearised model of the wind turbine. Due to the change of dynamics according to wind speed, several linearisation points must be considered and the control design adjusted...

  11. Effect of educational training on nutrition and weight control in under-18 Spanish wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Visiedo

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a formative program concerning nutrition, weight control, and its risks wrestlers under the age of 18 (under-18 at the Spanish national level. The sample comprised 36 under-18 wrestlers that were pre-selected for the Spanish national team. A quasi-experimental design with a pre-test and post-test was used. The dependent variableswere the knowledge of nutrition and weight control and its risks. The independent variable was the educational program. The program had three 30-minute sessions that combined talks, videos, and tasks to complete. Descriptive and inferential analyses were done (t-test, Wilcoxon test. Results indicate that the educational program was effective at increasing under-18 wrestlers’ knowledge about weight control and its risks,but was ineffective with regard to nutrition knowledge. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding the effect of the intervention program, the difficulties with including this type of knowledge and skill in the preparation of combat sport athletes, and the need for further research in this area.

  12. IADC's well control accreditation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropla, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    WellCAP is a well control accreditation program devised and implemented by the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC). It is a worldwide comprehensive system that defines a well control training curriculum, establishes minimum standards and recommends guidelines for course structure. The program began in mid-1993 and is viewed as a means for training institutions to demonstrate industry recognition to customers, contractors and local governments. Schools can apply to have their courses accredited. The accreditation system is administered by a review panel. The application process requires that the school perform a detailed review of its curriculum and operations and bring them in line with the WellCAP curriculum and accreditation criteria. Currently, more than 75 schools around the world have requested application materials for WellCAP. To date fifteen schools have been fully accredited

  13. Molecular biomarkers for weight control in obese individuals subjected to a multi-phase dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, Jennifer L; Montastier, Emilie; Carayol, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Context: While calorie restriction has proven beneficial for weight loss, long-term weight control is variable between individuals. Objective: To identify biomarkers of successful weight control during a dietary intervention (DI). Design, Setting, and Participants: Adipose tissue (AT) transcripto......-controllers. Interestingly, ASPN is a TGFβ1 inhibitor. Conclusions: We found circulating biomarkers associated with weight control, which could influence weight management strategies, and genes that may be prognostic for successful weight control....

  14. Program Baseline Change Control Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This procedure establishes the responsibilities and process for approving initial issues of and changes to the technical, cost, and schedule baselines, and selected management documents developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This procedure implements the OCRWM Baseline Management Plan and DOE Order 4700.1, Chg 1. It streamlines the change control process to enhance integration, accountability, and traceability of Level 0 and Level I decisions through standardized Baseline Change Proposal (BCP) forms to be used by the Level 0, 1, 2, and 3 Baseline Change Control Boards (BCCBs) and to be tracked in the OCRWM-wide Configuration Information System (CIS) Database.This procedure applies to all technical, cost, and schedule baselines controlled by the Energy System Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) BCCB (Level 0) and, OCRWM Program Baseline Control Board (PBCCB) (Level 1). All baseline BCPs initiated by Level 2 or lower BCCBs, which require approval from ESAAB or PBCCB, shall be processed in accordance with this procedure. This procedure also applies to all Program-level management documents controlled by the OCRWM PBCCB

  15. Sibutramine in weight control: a dose-ranging, efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, M; Rubio, A; Golik, A; Byrne, L; Scheinbaum, M L

    1991-09-01

    We tested the safety and efficacy of sibutramine, 5 and 20 mg, and placebo on weight loss. Medication was added to caloric restriction, behavior modification, and exercise in a parallel-group, double-blind clinical trial. Participants were 130% to 180% of ideal body weight and in good health. The study lasted 12 weeks over Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year's Day. Weight loss during 8 weeks of study medication was: placebo, 1.4 +/- 2.1 kg (n = 19); 5 mg sibutramine, 2.9 +/- 2.3 kg (n = 18); and 20 mg sibutramine, 5.0 +/- 2.7 kg (n = 18) (p less than 0.05 sibutramine, 5 and 20 mg, versus placebo; p less than 0.05 sibutramine, 20 mg versus 5 mg). There is a significant dose-effect relationship. Five participants left the study before completion, all because of adverse events; placebo (one patient), 5 mg sibutramine (one patient), and 20 mg sibutramine (three patients). Sleep difficulties were noted by eight participants (20 mg sibutramine, seven patients; 5 mg, one patient; and placebo, no patients). Six of 21 participants receiving 20 mg complained of irritability, unusual impatience, or "excitation." Sibutramine, 5 and 20 mg, added to a multimodal program assisted participants in losing weight.

  16. The steps to health employee weight management randomized control trial: rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, Truls; Stroo, Marissa; Brouwer, Rebecca J N; Peterson, Bercedis L; Eisenstein, Eric L; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Joyner, Julie; Gulley, Libby; Dement, John M

    2013-07-01

    The workplace can be an important setting for addressing obesity. An increasing number of employers offer weight management programs. Present the design, rationale and baseline characteristics of the Steps to Health study (STH), a randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two preexisting employee weight management programs offered at Duke University and Medical Center. 550 obese (BMI ≥30) employee volunteers were randomized 1:1 to two programs. Baseline data, collected between January 2011 and July 2012, included height/weight, accelerometry, workplace injuries, health care utilization, and questionnaires querying socio-cognitive factors, perceptions of health climate, physical activity, and dietary intake. In secondary analyses participants in the two programs will also be compared to a non-randomized observational control group of obese employees. At baseline, the mean age was 45 years, 83% were female, 41% white, and 53% black. Mean BMI was 37.2. Participants consumed a mean of 2.37 servings of fruits and vegetables per day (in the past week), participated in 11.5 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and spent 620 min being sedentary. STH addresses the need for evaluation of worksite interventions to promote healthy weight. In addition to having direct positive effects on workers' health, worksite programs have the potential to increase productivity and reduce health care costs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in Weight Loss, Health Behaviors, and Intentions among 400 Participants Who Dropped out from an Insurance-Sponsored, Community-Based Weight Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam J. Zizzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of weight management research is based on data from randomized controlled studies conducted in clinical settings. As these findings are translated into community-based settings, additional research is needed to understand patterns of lifestyle change and dropout. The purpose of this study was to examine reasons for and consequences associated with dropout (or removal from an insurance-funded weight management program. Using a mixed methods approach with objectively measured changes in body weight and attendance along with quantitative and qualitative survey data, patterns of intention and behavior change were explored. The results from a sample of 400 respondents support the idea that there are both positive and negative consequences of program participation. Overall, 1 in 5 respondents lost a clinically significant amount of weight during the program (>5% of baseline body weight and 1 in 3 experienced a positive consequence, while only 6% expressed a negative outcome of participation. Additionally, nearly 90% of all of the consequences that emerged from the data were positive. Attitude change was a major theme, including positive health intentions, perceived success, learning skills, and new appreciation of exercise.

  18. Using new technologies to promote weight management: a randomised controlled trial study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane, Monica; Foster, Jonathan; Hagger, Martin; Pal, Sebely

    2015-05-27

    Over the last three decades, overweight and obesity and the associated health consequences have become global public health priorities. Methods that have been tried to address this problem have not had the desired impact, suggesting that other approaches need to be considered. One of the lessons learned throughout these attempts is that permanent weight loss requires sustained dietary and lifestyle changes, yet adherence to weight management programs has often been noted as one of the biggest challenges. This trial aims to address this issue by examining whether social media, as a potential health promotion tool, will improve adherence to a weight management program. To test the effectiveness of this measure, the designated program will be delivered via the popular social networking site Facebook, and compared to a standard delivery method that provides exactly the same content but which is communicated through a pamphlet. The trial will be conducted over a period of twelve weeks, with a twelve week follow-up. Although weight loss is expected, this study will specifically investigate the effectiveness of social media as a program delivery method. The program utilised will be one that has already been proven to achieve weight loss, namely The CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet. This project will be conducted as a 3-arm randomised controlled trial. One hundred and twenty participants will be recruited from the Perth community, and will be randomly assigned to one of the following three groups: the Facebook group, the pamphlet group, or a control group. The Facebook Group will receive the weight management program delivered via a closed group in Facebook, the Pamphlet Group will be given the same weight management program presented in a booklet, and the Control Group will follow the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the National Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults as usual care. Change in weight, body composition and waist circumference will be initial indicators of

  19. Outcome based state budget allocation for diabetes prevention programs using multi-criteria optimization with robust weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Sanjay; Kim, Kibaek

    2011-12-01

    We consider the problem of outcomes based budget allocations to chronic disease prevention programs across the United States (US) to achieve greater geographical healthcare equity. We use Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs (DPCP) by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an example. We present a multi-criteria robust weighted sum model for such multi-criteria decision making in a group decision setting. The principal component analysis and an inverse linear programming techniques are presented and used to study the actual 2009 budget allocation by CDC. Our results show that the CDC budget allocation process for the DPCPs is not likely model based. In our empirical study, the relative weights for different prevalence and comorbidity factors and the corresponding budgets obtained under different weight regions are discussed. Parametric analysis suggests that money should be allocated to states to promote diabetes education and to increase patient-healthcare provider interactions to reduce disparity across the US.

  20. Effects of a Gestational Weight Gain Restriction Program for Obese Pregnant Women: Children's Weight Development during the First Five Years of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Ing-Marie; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Olhager, Elisabeth; Oldin, Carin; Josefsson, Ann

    2016-06-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) have shown a strong positive association with a higher BMI and risk of obesity in the offspring. The aim of this study is to estimate the effect of a GWG restriction program for obese pregnant women on the children's BMI at 5 years of age and weight-for-length/height (WL/H) development from 2 months of age until 5 years of age. This was a follow-up study of 302 children (137 children in an intervention group and 165 children in a control group) whose mothers participated in a weight gain restriction program during pregnancy. BMI at five years of age did not differ between girls and boys in the intervention and control group. The degree of maternal GWG, women containing individual weekly visits and opportunity to participate in aqua aerobic classes, there were no differences between BMI or weight development among the offspring at 5 years of age in the intervention and control group.

  1. Using Facebook and text messaging to deliver a weight loss program to college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Melissa A; Hayes, Sharon; Bennett, Gary G; Ives, Allison K; Foster, Gary D

    2013-01-01

    Between 31 and 35% of the college-aged population is overweight or obese, yet few weight loss trials for this population have been conducted. This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a technology-based 8-week weight loss intervention among college students. Students (N = 52) were randomly assigned to one of the three arms: Facebook (n = 17); Facebook Plus text messaging and personalized feedback (n = 18); Waiting List control (n = 17), with assessments at 4 weeks and 8 weeks (post-treatment). Participants were 20.47 ± 2.19 years old, 86.45 ± 17.11 kg, with a body mass index of 31.36 ± 5.3 kg/m(2) . Participants were primarily female (86.5%), and the sample was racially diverse (57.7% Caucasian, 30.8% African American, 5.8% Hispanic, and 5.7% other races). The primary outcome was weight loss after 8 weeks (post-treatment); 96.0% of the participants completed this assessment. At 8 weeks, the Facebook Plus group had significantly greater weight loss (-2.4 ± 2.5 kg) than the Facebook (-0.63 ± 2.4 kg) and Waiting List (-0.24 ± 2.6 kg) (both Ps Facebook and Waiting List groups. Results show preliminary efficacy and acceptability of the two active intervention arms (97.0% found the program helpful, 81.3% found the videos/handouts helpful, and 100% would recommend the program to others). Results indicate the potential for an innovative weight loss intervention that uses technology platforms (Facebook and text messaging) that are frequently used and already integrated into the cultural life of college students. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  2. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  3. The Long-term Outcomes of Sibutramine Effectiveness on Weight (LOSE Weight) study: evaluating the role of drug therapy within a weight management program in a group-model health maintenance organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Julie A; Raebel, Marsha A; Conner, Douglas A; Lanty, Frances A; Vogel, Erin A; Gay, Elizabeth C; Merenich, John A

    2004-06-01

    To assess the benefit of sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate within a weight management program. Prospective randomized controlled trial in a health maintenance organization. Obese patients (n = 588) starting a weight management program were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to participate in the program alone or to participate in the program and receive sibutramine for 12 months. Outcome measures were change in weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, serum lipids, serum glucose, and blood pressure. At baseline, there was a younger age and higher weight, BMI, and waist circumference in the drug group. There was more degenerative joint disease in the nondrug group. The mean weight loss at 6 months was 6.8 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], -7.4 to -6.1 kg) in the drug group vs 3.1 kg (95% CI, -3.8 to -2.4 kg) (P managed care setting, the effectiveness and safety of sibutramine were similar to those observed in randomized, double-blind clinical efficacy trials.

  4. Perceived Barriers to Weight loss Programs for Overweight or Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sharifi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to develop appropriate obesity control and treat¬ment strategies, the key point is to understand the barriers perceived by overweight or obese people in trying to follow weight-loss programs. This study examined perceived barriers to weight-loss programs among over¬weight or obese women.Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 204 overweight or obese women aged 31.97± 10.62 yr, were selected randomly from the nutritional counseling centers in 2008 in Tabriz, Iran. The mean BMI was 33.83 ±5.75 kg/ m2. A structured questionnaire including questions on barriers to weight-loss diet and physical activity was filled out for each participant by face-to-face interview. Height and weight measured objectively and demo¬graphic details were obtained. Data analysis carried out using mul¬tiple re¬gression and factor analysis.Results: The most important perceived barriers to weight-loss diets were 'situational barriers', stress, depression, and food craving. High educational level was independent determinant of situational barriers (β=0.329, P=0.048. Employee women had a higher mean score on stress and de¬pres¬sion than students and housewives. Lack of time and exercising lonely were the most important items of "External barriers" and Lack of motiva¬tion was the most important item of "internal barriers" to physical activity. Employ¬ment and being student were highly associated with external bar¬riers (β=1.018, P<0.001 and β=0.541, P= 0.002. Moreover, older women who had low educational level, perceived more internal barriers. Conclusion: Weight reducing strategies should take into account the spe¬cific perceived barriers to weight-loss diets faced by overweight or obese women, particularly situational barriers, stress and depression and food craving; and lack of time and lack of motivation as barriers to physical ac¬tivity.

  5. Effects of a combined dietary, exercise and behavioral intervention and sympathetic system on body weight maintenance after intended weight loss: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Knut; Brachs, Maria; Leupelt, Verena; Schwartzenberg, Reiner Jumpertz-von; Maurer, Lukas; Grüters-Kieslich, Annette; Ernert, Andrea; Bobbert, Thomas; Krude, Heiko; Spranger, Joachim

    2018-01-19

    Lifestyle based weight loss interventions are hampered by long-term inefficacy. Prediction of individuals successfully reducing body weight would be highly desirable. Although sympathetic activity is known to contribute to energy homeostasis, its predictive role in body weight maintenance has not yet been addressed. We investigated, whether weight regain could be modified by a weight maintenance intervention and analyzed the predictive role of weight loss-induced changes of the sympathetic system on long-term weight regain. 156 subjects (age > 18; BMI ≥ 27 kg/m 2 ) participated in a 12-week weight reduction program. After weight loss (T0), 143 subjects (weight loss >8%) were randomized to a 12-month lifestyle intervention or a control group. After 12 months (T12) no further intervention was performed until month 18 (T18). Weight regain at T18 (regain BMI ) was the primary outcome. Evaluation of systemic and tissue specific estimates of sympathetic system was a pre-defined secondary outcome. BMI was reduced by 4.67 ± 1.47 kg/m 2 during the initial weight loss period. BMI maintained low in subjects of the intervention group until T12 (+0.07 ± 2.98 kg/m 2 ; p = 0.58 compared to T0), while control subjects regained +0.98 ± 1.93 kg/m 2 (p predicted regain BMI (R 2  = 0.138; p Predictive sympathetic activity was not persistently modified by the intervention, which may partially explain the lack of long-term success of such interventions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Undergrad and Overweight: An Online Behavioral Weight Management Program for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Berino, Jean; Pope, Lizzy; Gold, Beth Casey; Leonard, Heather; Belliveau, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Explore the feasibility of an online behavioral weight management program for college students. Methods: The program focused on behavioral strategies to modify eating and exercise behaviors of students interested in losing weight and/or developing a healthy lifestyle. Specific tools included weekly chat meetings with a facilitator,…

  7. Older members perform better in an internet-based behavioral weight loss program compared to younger members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Marianne; Jonasson, Josefine; Svensson, Madeleine; Linné, Yvonne; Rossner, Stephan; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2009-01-01

    New technology offers increased opportunities for weight control. However, it is not clear whether older people with less computer training can make use of this tool. Our objective was to examine how members above the age of 65 years performed in an internet-based behavioral weight loss program, compared to younger members. Data from members (n = 23,233) of an internet-based behavioral weight loss program were analyzed. We restricted our study to active participants accessing the weight club, during a 6-month period (n = 4,440). The number of logins, food intake, and weight records were examined. Participants were divided into age tertiles separately for men and women. The oldest tertile was further subdivided into two groups: above and below the age of 65 years. Participants aged 65 or older were more likely to remain active in the weight club for at least 6 months compared to younger age groups. They had the highest frequency of recordings of food intake and current weight. Among women, those older than 65 years had on average the highest percentage of weight loss (5.6 kg, 6.8%). Men above 65 years of age had the highest number of logins, on average 161 times during the 6-month period. Older participants are performing equally well or even better in an internet-based behavioral weight loss program than younger participants. Internet-based programs could be a promising and attractive option for older adults requiring assistance in losing weight. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Effectiveness of a psychosocial weight management program for individuals with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Niv, N; Cohen, AN; Hamilton, A; Reist, C; Young, AS

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a weight loss program for individuals with schizophrenia in usual care. The study included 146 adults with schizophrenia from two mental health clinics of the Department of Veterans Affairs. The 109 individuals who were overweight or obese were offered a 16-week, psychosocial, weight management program. Weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) were assessed at baseline, 1 year later, and at each treatment session. Only 51% of those who w...

  9. Implementation and Effectiveness of a Psychosocial Weight Management Program for Individuals with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Niv, Noosha; Cohen, Amy N.; Hamilton, Alison; Reist, Christopher; Young, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a weight loss program for individuals with schizophrenia in usual care. The study included 146 adults with schizophrenia from two mental health clinics of the Department of Veterans Affairs. The 109 individuals who were overweight or obese were offered a 16-week, psychosocial, weight management program. Weight and BMI were assessed at baseline, 1 year later and at each treatment session. Only 51% of those who were overweight or o...

  10. Weight-loss intervention using implementation intentions and mental imagery: a randomised control trial study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hattar, Anne; Hagger, Martin S; Pal, Sebely

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are major health problems worldwide. This protocol describes the HEALTHI (Healthy Eating and Active LifesTyle Health Intervention) Program, a 12-week randomised-controlled weight-loss intervention that adopts two theory-based intervention techniques, mental imagery and implementation intentions, a behaviour-change technique based on planning that have been shown to be effective in promoting health-behaviour change in previous research. The effectiveness of go...

  11. Determining the amount of physical activity needed for long-term weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Jackson, A. S.; Rossum, A. C.; Poston, W. S.; Foreyt, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the influence of habitual physical activity on body weight of men and women and to develop a model that defines the role of physical activity on longitudinal weight change. DESIGN AND SETTING: Occupational cohort study conducted for a mean of 5.5 y. SUBJECTS: A total of 496 (341 male and 155 female) NASA/Johnson Space Center employees who completed the 3 month education component of the employee health-related fitness program and remained involved for a minimum of 2 y. MEASUREMENTS: Body weights were measured at baseline (T1) and follow-up (T2), and habitual physical activity was obtained from the mean of multiple ratings of the 11-point (0-10) NASA Activity Scale (NAS) recorded quarterly between T1 and T2. Other measures included age, gender, VO(2 max) obtained from maximal treadmill testing, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage. RESULTS: Multiple regression demonstrated that mean NAS, T1 weight, aging and gender all influence long-term T2 weight. T1 age was significant for the men only. Independently, each increase in mean NAS significantly (Pmen (b=-0.91 kg; 95% CI:-1.4 to-0.42 kg) and women (b=-2.14 kg; 95% CI:-2.93 to-1.35 kg). Mean NAS had a greater effect on T2 weight as T1 weight increased, and the relationship was dose-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Habitual physical activity is a significant source of long-term weight change. The use of self-reported activity level is helpful in predicting long-term weight changes and may be used by health care professionals when counseling patients about the value of physical activity for weight control.

  12. Radiological control technician: Training program management manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This manual defines and describes the DOE Radiological Control Technician Core Training Program qualification and training process, material development requirements, standards and policies, and administration. The manual applies to Radiological Control Technician Training Programs at all DOE contractor sites

  13. A multidisciplinary weight-loss program: the importance of psychological group therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Duarte Ferrari

    Full Text Available Abstract In addition to dietary factors and sedentary habits, there is a relationship between obesity and psychological variables, even without a clear distinction between cause, effect, and correlation. Despite this relationship, weight-loss programs are limited to a combination of nutrition and physical education, leaving psychological intervention out of the treatment plan. Self-esteem issues, depression, and anxiety are just some of the emotional conditions related to obesity. However, there is no information in the literature about the importance of psychological counseling in a multidisciplinary program for weight-loss in adults. In this context, the main objective of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy in groups (CBTG combined with nutrition and physical education within a multidisciplinary approach to treat obesity. 46 individuals (7 men and 39 women were divided into two groups: control (GC and psychology (GP. Baseline and intervention measures were obtained prior to intervention and before the final meeting, including physical capacity tests and the administering the International Physical Activities Questionnaire (IPAQ. Both groups attended weekly lectures given by a nutritionist and two physical education professionals for 12 weeks. In addition, the GP participated in weekly sessions of CBTG for the same period. After the program, there were significant changes in body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage, and strength of the lower limbs in both groups. In addition to these changes, the GP also showed improvements in diastolic blood pressure and IPAQ scores, being the only one that increased its time of weekly physical activity. Thus, it was concluded that the psychological treatment might play an important role in a multidisciplinary weight-loss program.

  14. Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchisen Tammy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. It is implicated in the development of a variety of chronic disease states and is associated with increased levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of Medifast's meal replacement program (MD on body weight, body composition, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among obese individuals following a period of weight loss and weight maintenance compared to a an isocaloric, food-based diet (FB. Methods This 40-week randomized, controlled clinical trial included 90 obese adults with a body mass index (BMI between 30 and 50 kg/m2, randomly assigned to one of two weight loss programs for 16 weeks and then followed for a 24-week period of weight maintenance. The dietary interventions consisted of Medifast's meal replacement program for weight loss and weight maintenance, or a self-selected, isocaloric, food-based meal plan. Results Weight loss at 16 weeks was significantly better in the Medifast group (MD versus the food-based group (FB (12.3% vs. 6.9%, and while significantly more weight was regained during weight maintenance on MD versus FB, overall greater weight loss was achieved on MD versus FB. Significantly more of the MD participants lost ≥ 5% of their initial weight at week 16 (93% vs. 55% and week 40 (62% vs. 30%. There was no difference in satiety observed between the two groups during the weight loss phase. Significant improvements in body composition were also observed in MD participants compared to FB at week 16 and week 40. At week 40, both groups experienced improvements in biochemical outcomes and other clinical indicators. Conclusions Our data suggest that the meal replacement diet plan evaluated was an effective strategy for producing robust initial weight loss and for achieving improvements in a number of health-related parameters during weight maintenance, including inflammation

  15. Infant behavioral assessment and intervention program in very low birth weight infants improves independency in mobility at preschool age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Koldewijn, Karen; van Wassenaer, Aleid; Houtzager, Bregje; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program(©) (IBAIP) in very low birth weight infants on sensory processing and daily activities at preschool age. Follow-up of children included in a randomized controlled trial. Eighty-six infants were enrolled in

  16. School-based obesity policy, social capital, and gender differences in weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Thomas, Breanca

    2013-06-01

    We examined the associations among school-based obesity policies, social capital, and adolescents' self-reported weight control behaviors, focusing on how the collective roles of community and adopted policies affect gender groups differently. We estimated state-level ecologic models using 1-way random effects seemingly unrelated regressions derived from panel data for 43 states from 1991 to 2009, which we obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. We used multiplicative interaction terms to assess how social capital moderates the effects of school-based obesity policies. School-based obesity policies in active communities were mixed in improving weight control behaviors. They increased both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors among boys but did not increase healthy weight control behaviors among girls. Social capital is an important contextual factor that conditions policy effectiveness in large contexts. Heterogeneous behavioral responses are associated with both school-based obesity policies and social capital. Building social capital and developing policy programs to balance outcomes for both gender groups may be challenging in managing childhood obesity.

  17. Serial album validation for promotion of infant body weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Costa Gonzaga Saraiva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to validate the content and appearance of a serial album for children aged from 7 to 10 years addressing the topic of prevention and control of body weight. Method: methodological study with descriptive nature. The validation process was attended by 33 specialists in educational technologies and/or in excess of infantile weight. The agreement index of 80% was the minimum considered to guarantee the validation of the material. Results: most of the specialists had a doctoral degree and a graduate degree in nursing. Regarding content, illustrations, layout and relevance, all items were validated and 69.7% of the experts considered the album as great. The overall agreement validation index for the educational technology was 0.88. Only the script-sheet 3 did not reach the cutoff point of the content validation index. Changes were made to the material, such as title change, inclusion of the school context and insertion of nutritionist and physical educator in the story narrated in the album. Conclusion: the proposed serial album was considered valid by experts regarding content and appearance, suggesting that this technology has the potential to contribute in health education by promoting healthy weight in the age group of 7 to 10 years.

  18. The Weight Management Dietetics Practice Group collecting outcomes mentoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The is a newsletter article for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND), Weight Management Dietetics Practice Group (WM DPG). The article presents the ‘Collecting Outcomes Mentoring Program’ for 2017 that is managed by the Research Section of the WM DPG. Dietitians in the WM DGP are provided wi...

  19. The effect of a motivational intervention on weight loss is moderated by level of baseline controlled motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tate Deborah F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous motivation improve the likelihood of behavior modification. Methods This study assessed the outcomes of two internet behavioral weight loss interventions and assessed the effect of baseline motivation levels on program success. Eighty females (M (SD age 48.7 (10.6 years; BMI 32.0 (3.7 kg/m2; 91% Caucasian were randomized to one of two groups, a standard group or a motivation-enhanced group. Both received a 16-week internet behavioral weight loss program and attended an initial and a four-week group session. Weight and motivation were measured at baseline, four and 16 weeks. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test for moderation. Results There was significant weight loss at 16-weeks in both groups (p p = 0.57 (standard group 3.4 (3.6 kg; motivation-enhanced group 3.9 (3.4 kg. Further analysis was conducted to examine predictors of weight loss. Baseline controlled motivation level was negatively correlated with weight loss in the entire sample (r = -0.30; p = 0.01. Statistical analysis revealed an interaction between study group assignment and baseline level of controlled motivation. Weight loss was not predicted by baseline level of controlled motivation in the motivation-enhanced group, but was significantly predicted by controlled motivation in the standard group. Baseline autonomous motivation did not predict weight change in either group. Conclusions This research found that, in participants with high levels of baseline controlled motivation

  20. Weight gain prevention among black women in the rural community health center setting: The Shape Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley Perry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 60% of black women are obese. Despite their increased risk of obesity and associated chronic diseases, black women have been underrepresented in clinical trials of weight loss interventions, particularly those conducted in the primary care setting. Further, existing obesity treatments are less effective for this population. The promotion of weight maintenance can be achieved at lower treatment intensity than can weight loss and holds promise in reducing obesity-associated chronic disease risk. Weight gain prevention may also be more consistent with the obesity-related sociocultural perspectives of black women than are traditional weight loss approaches. Methods/Design We conducted an 18-month randomized controlled trial (the Shape Program of a weight gain prevention intervention for overweight black female patients in the primary care setting. Participants include 194 premenopausal black women aged 25 to 44 years with a BMI of 25–34.9 kg/m2. Participants were randomized either to usual care or to a 12-month intervention that consisted of: tailored obesogenic behavior change goals, self-monitoring via interactive voice response phone calls, tailored skills training materials, 12 counseling calls with a registered dietitian and a 12-month YMCA membership. Participants are followed over 18 months, with study visits at baseline, 6-, 12- and 18-months. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, and self-administered surveys are collected at each visit. Accelerometer data is collected at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, participants were an average of 35.4 years old with a mean body mass index of 30.2 kg/m2. Participants were mostly employed and low-income. Almost half of the sample reported a diagnosis of hypertension or prehypertension and 12% reported a diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes. Almost one-third of participants smoked and over 20% scored above the clinical threshold

  1. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Lauren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  2. Adolescent exergame play for weight loss and psychosocial improvement: a controlled physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E; Abraham, Anisha A; Calvert, Sandra L

    2013-03-01

    Overweight and obese youth, who face increased risk of medical complications including heart disease and type II diabetes, can benefit from sustainable physical activity interventions that result in weight loss. This study examined whether a 20-week exergame (i.e., videogame that requires gross motor activity) intervention can produce weight loss and improve psychosocial outcomes for 54 overweight and obese African-American adolescents. Participants were recruited from a public high school and randomly assigned to competitive exergame, cooperative exergame, or control conditions. All exergame participants were encouraged to play the Nintendo Wii Active game for 30-60 min per school day in a lunch-time or after-school program. Cooperative exergame participants worked with a peer to expend calories and earn points together, whereas competitive exergame participants competed against a peer. Control participants continued regular daily activities. Outcome measures included changes in weight, peer support, self-efficacy, and self-esteem, measured at baseline, and at ∼10 and 20 weeks. Growth curve analysis revealed that cooperative exergame players lost significantly more weight (mean = 1.65 kg; s.d. = 4.52) than the control group, which did not lose weight. The competitive exergame players did not differ significantly from the other conditions. Cooperative exergame players also significantly increased in self-efficacy compared to the control group, and both exergame conditions significantly increased in peer support more than the control group. Exergames, especially played cooperatively, can be an effective technological tool for weight loss among youth. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  3. Long-Term Weight-Loss Maintenance by a Meal Replacement Based Weight Management Program in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruschitz, Renate; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Lothaller, Harald; Luger, Maria; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Structured obesity treatment programs at primary care level are becoming increasingly important. However, evidence from current treatment approaches in the long term is lacking. In view of this fact we evaluated a standardized, meal replacement-based weight loss program (myLINE®; AENGUS, Graz, Austria) according to the currently applicable guidelines. Data of overweight and obese individuals (n = 70) who participated at least 36 months in the program were analyzed. Data were collected at baseline (T0) as well as after 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 (T1-T36) months. Body composition was measured by conventional anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Compared to T0, a maximum weight, BMI, fat mass, absolute body cell mass (BCM) reduction and an increase of relative BCM could be seen at T6. Subsequently, the findings reveal a significant reduction of body weight and body fat and a satisfying development of body cell mass during the observation period of 36 months. The evaluated program complies with national and international guidelines for the therapy of obesity in adults and is efficient and meaningful for a long-term therapeutic use in primary care.. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  4. Long-Term Weight-Loss Maintenance by a Meal Replacement Based Weight Management Program in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Kruschitz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Structured obesity treatment programs at primary care level are becoming increasingly important. However, evidence from current treatment approaches in the long term is lacking. In view of this fact we evaluated a standardized, meal replacement-based weight loss program (myLINE®; AENGUS, Graz, Austria according to the currently applicable guidelines. Methods: Data of overweight and obese individuals (n = 70 who participated at least 36 months in the program were analyzed. Data were collected at baseline (T0 as well as after 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 (T1-T36 months. Body composition was measured by conventional anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results: Compared to T0, a maximum weight, BMI, fat mass, absolute body cell mass (BCM reduction and an increase of relative BCM could be seen at T6. Subsequently, the findings reveal a significant reduction of body weight and body fat and a satisfying development of body cell mass during the observation period of 36 months. Conclusion: The evaluated program complies with national and international guidelines for the therapy of obesity in adults and is efficient and meaningful for a long-term therapeutic use in primary care..

  5. Effectiveness of a Low-Calorie Weight Loss Program in Moderately and Severely Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K. Winkler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare effectiveness of a 1-year weight loss program in moderately and severely obese patients. Methods: The study sample included 311 obese patients participating in a weight loss program, which comprised a 12-week weight reduction phase (low-calorie formula diet and a 40-week weight maintenance phase. Body weight and glucose and lipid values were determined at the beginning of the program as well as after the weight reduction and the weight maintenance phase. Participants were analyzed according to their BMI class at baseline (30-34.9 kg/m2; 35-39.9 kg/m2; 40-44.9 kg/m2; 45-49.9 kg/m2; ≥50 kg/m2. Furthermore, moderately obese patients (BMI 2 were compared to severely obese participants (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2. Results: Out of 311 participants, 217 individuals completed the program. Their mean baseline BMI was 41.8 ± 0.5 kg/m2. Average weight loss was 17.9 ± 0.6%, resulting in a BMI of 34.3 ± 0.4 kg/m2 after 1 year (p Conclusion: 1-year weight loss intervention improves body weight as well as lipid and glucose metabolism not only in moderately, but also in severely obese individuals.

  6. An Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart for Bernoulli Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    of the transformation is given and its limit for small values of p is derived. Control of high yield processes is discussed and the chart is shown to perform very well in comparison with both the most common alternative EWMA chart and the CUSUM chart. The construction and the use of the proposed EWMA chart......We consider a production process in which units are produced in a sequential manner. The units can, for example, be manufactured items or services, provided to clients. Each unit produced can be a failure with probability p or a success (non-failure) with probability (1-p). A novel exponentially...... weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart intended for surveillance of the probability of failure, p, is described. The chart is based on counting the number of non-failures produced between failures in combination with a variance-stabilizing transformation. The distribution function...

  7. Relationship between Personalities Attributes (Neuroticism, Psychoticsism and Self-efficacy in Weight Control with People’s Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zakiei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Today, overweight is a damaging agent that threats general health and mental states. So, the current research was done with the aim of specifying the relationship between personality attributes (neuroticism, psychoticism, self-efficacy in weight control with people’s weight. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive - correlational study. The sample concluded of all of students in Razi university of Kermanshah in year 2015-2016; of them 459 people were selected with stochastic random sampling method. The research tools were self-efficacy of lifestyle that effects on weight and Eisenck personality questionnaires. Results: The results showed that there is a negative significant relationship between weight with neuroticism and psychotics (p<0.001, but there was no significant relationship between neuroticism and weight. Also, the results showed that the components of self-efficacy in weight control can predict weight of people. Based on this, overeating with impact factor equal to 0.001, diet with 0.28 and oral inhibition with -0.13 of impact factor can predict weight of people. Conclusion: Due to the results, psycho personality and self-efficacy have roles in weight control of people.

  8. [Experiences of a nation-wide integrated program for healthy body weight among students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Mei-Yen; Chiang, Li-Chi; Chien, Li-Yin; Chang, Po-Lun; Hung, Yung-Tai

    2007-10-01

    Taiwan has good support systems for obesity prevention and management. The percentage of elementary school students with normal body weight, however, has undergone a sustained decrease to 55%. Many factors are associated with this trend, such as lack of physical activity, dissatisfaction with body image, unbalanced dietary pattern, and unsupportive environment. Even though the rate of overweight and obesity is under control, the rate of underweight among girls has undergone a sustained increase, to 28%. Nurses therefore organized the "Aid students to fit" project, which emphasizes the bipolar issue of overweight and underweight. This national project is sponsored by the Ministry of Education and is expected to establish a beneficial environment, in which students can easily adopt healthy lifestyles and increase self-esteem. The program incorporates the AID triangle concept (Active, Image, Diet) and five strategies for achieving the goals. These strategies are: 1. Develop a persuasive statement to fit in with the philosophies of parents, students and teachers. 2. Set up measurable behavior indices and slogans. (Active life: 210 minutes per week. Image: confident and elegant. Diet: balanced and wise choice of low fat and high fiber foods.) 3. Establish a nation-wide interactive surveillance system for body weight control. 4. Develop an internet system that emphasizes tailored case management for overweight students. 5. Develop a supportive teaching plan, material, and aids to promote a healthy school environment. Five modeling schools, moreover, can be used to demonstrate the program. Educators can also download a free teaching plan, material, and aids at the website for healthy weight management (www.ym.edu.tw/active/aid). The authors brought together scholars from eight universities to accomplish the program. In support of the program, the Taiwan Ministry of Education addressed the new recommendation for physical activity which is to engage in moderate intensity

  9. Program Baseline Change Control Board charter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this Charter is to establish the Program Baseline Change Control Board (PBCCB) for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program, and to describe its organization, responsibilities, and basic methods of operation. Guidance for implementing this Charter is provided by the OCRWM Baseline Management Plan (BMP) and OCRWM Program Baseline Change Control Procedure

  10. The Use of Biosimulation in the Design of a Novel Multi-level Weight Loss Maintenance Program for Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfley, Denise E.; Van Buren, Dorothy J.; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Ezzet, Farkad; Russian, Angela C.; Perri, Michael G.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Weight loss outcomes achieved through conventional behavior change interventions are prone to deterioration over time. Basic learning laboratory studies in the area of behavioral extinction and renewal and multi-level models of weight control offer clues as to why newly acquired weight loss skills are prone to relapse. According to these models, current clinic-based interventions may not be of sufficient duration or scope to allow for the practice of new skills across the multiple community contexts necessary to promote sustainable weight loss. Although longer, more intensive interventions with greater reach may hold the key to improving weight loss outcomes, it is difficult to test these assumptions in a time efficient and cost-effective manner. A research design tool that has been increasingly utilized in other fields (e.g., pharmaceuticals) is the use of biosimulation analyses. The present paper describes our research team's use of computer simulation models to assist in designing a study to test a novel, comprehensive socio-environmental treatment approach to weight loss maintenance in children ages 7 to 12 years. Methods Weight outcome data from the weight loss, weight maintenance, and follow-up phases of a recently completed randomized controlled trial (RCT) were used to describe the time course of a proposed, extended multi-level treatment program. Simulations were then conducted to project the expected changes in child percent overweight trajectories in the proposed study. Results A 12.9% decrease in percent overweight at 30 months was estimated based upon the midway point between models of “best-case” and “worst-case” weight maintenance scenarios. Conclusions Preliminary data and further analyses, including biosimulation projections, suggest that our socio-environmental approach to weight loss maintenance treatment is promising and warrants evaluation in a large-scale RCT. Biosimulation techniques may have utility in the design of future

  11. Overestimation of own body weights in female university students: associations with lifestyles, weight control behaviors and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie

    2010-12-01

    The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestimated and underestimated their body weight status. Six overweight subjects were excluded from overestimation group for the purpose of this study, resulting in overestimation group consisting of only underweight and normal weight subjects. Compared to those from the normal perception group, significantly more subjects from the overestimation group were currently smoking (P = 0.017) and drank more often than once a week (P = 0.015), without any significant differences in dietary habits. Despite similar BMIs, subjects who overestimated their own weight statuses had significantly higher weight dissatisfaction (P = 0.000), obesity stress (P = 0.000), obsession to lose weight (P = 0.007) and depression (P = 0.018). Also, more of them wanted to lose weight (P = 0.000), checked their body weights more often than once a week (P = 0.025) and had dieting experiences using 'reducing meal size' (P = 0.012), 'reducing snacks' (P = 0.042) and 'taking prescribed pills' (P = 0.032), and presented 'for a wider range of clothes selection' as the reason for weight loss (P = 0.039), although none was actually overweight or obese. Unlike the case with overestimating one's own weight, being overweight was associated with less drinking (P = 0.035) and exercising more often (P = 0.001) and for longer (P = 0.001) and healthier reasons for weight control (P = 0.002), despite no differences in frequency of weighing and depression. The results showed that weight overestimation, independent of weight status

  12. Preventing Weight Gain in Women in Rural Communities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lombard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information.We conducted a 1-yr pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 41 Australian towns (clusters randomised using a computer-generated randomisation list for intervention (n = 21 or control (n = 20. Women aged 18 to 50 yr were recruited from the general population to receive a 1-yr self-management lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her consisting of one group session, monthly SMS text messages, one phone coaching session, and a program manual, or to a control group receiving one general women's health education session. From October 2012 to April 2014 we studied 649 women, mean age 39.6 yr (+/- SD 6.7 and BMI of 28.8 kg/m(2 (+/- SD 6.9 with the primary outcome weight change between groups at 1 yr. The mean change in the control was +0.44 kg (95% CI -0.09 to 0.97 and in the intervention group -0.48 kg (95% CI -0.99 to 0.03 with an unadjusted between group difference of -0.92 kg (95% CI -1.67 to -0.16 or -0.87 kg (95% CI -1.62 to -0.13 adjusted for baseline values and clustering. Secondary outcomes included improved diet quality and greater self-management behaviours. The intervention appeared to be equally efficacious across all age, BMI, income, and education subgroups. Loss to follow-up included 23.8% in the intervention group and 21.8% in the control group and was within the anticipated range. Limitations include lack of sensitive tools to measure the small changes to energy intake and physical activity. Those who gained weight may have been less inclined to return for 1 yr weight measures.A low intensity lifestyle program can prevent the persistent weight gain observed in women. Key features included

  13. Barriers to Engagement in a Workplace Weight Management Program: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Shayna M; Stroo, Marissa; Schoenfisch, Ashley; Dabrera, Thushani; Østbye, Truls

    2018-03-01

    To investigate (1) why some participants in a workplace weight management program were more engaged in the program, (2) specific barriers and facilitators for engagement and weight loss, and (3) suggest how workplaces may better engage employees in these programs to improve their effectiveness. Qualitative study (8 focus groups). A large academic university and medical system. Twenty-six (5%) of the 550 employees who participated in a weight management program as part of the Steps to Health study. A trained moderator guided the audio-recorded focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed using the directed content analysis approach. Participants faced numerous barriers to engagement in workplace weight management programs, both within and outside the workplace. Participants viewed the coaches positively and reported that the coaches had a strong influence on their engagement in the program. Participants suggested increased frequency and variety of contact by coaches, on-site group exercise classes, and tailored educational materials. Workplace weight management programs may be improved by being more flexible around participants' schedules and changing needs, by increasing access to affordable, convenient exercise facilities, and by implementing institutional changes that encourage healthy eating and physical activity during the workday. Employers should measure program engagement and solicit participant feedback to ensure that the programs are appropriate and delivered in an optimal manner.

  14. Bright Light for Weight Loss: Results of a Controlled Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Danilenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether bright light treatment can reduce body mass in overweight subjects irrespective of their seasonal (= light dependence. Methods: A crossover, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was performed between November and April in Novosibirsk, Russia (55° N. The trial comprised a 3-week in-home session of morning bright light treatment using a device of light-emitting diodes and a 3-week placebo session by means of a deactivated ion generator, separated by an off-protocol period of at least 23 days. The number of placebo and light sessions was matched with respect to season. Data were obtained from 34 overweight women, aged 20-54 years, 10 were seasonal-dependent according to the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire. Weekly measures included body weight, percentage body fat by bioimpedancemetry, and subjective scores (appetite, mood, energy levels. Results: Motivation and expectation towards weight loss were similar for the two intervention sessions. With light, compared to the placebo session, weight did not reduce significantly, but percentage fat, fat mass, and appetite were significantly lower (average fat reduction 0.35 kg. The latter two results remained significant after excluding seasonal-dependent subjects from the analysis. Irrespective of the type of intervention, seasonal-dependent subjects had greater weight and fat mass changes during treatment (decline p 0.036 or between sessions (regain p 0.003. Photoperiod (p = 0.0041, air temperature to a lesser extent (p = 0.012, but not sunshine (p = 0.29 was associated with the weight change (greater weight reduction if the second session was in spring. Conclusion: Morning bright light treatment reduces body fat and appetite in overweight women and may be included in weight control programs.

  15. Demographic, Psychological, and Weight-Related Correlates of Weight Control Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    model of bulimia nervosa: Evidence for restrained-eating and affect-regulation mechanisms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology , 15, 340-363...DATE MAR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Demographic, Psychological , and Weight-Related...weigh-in/physical fitness testing. Both weight-related factors and psychological factors were associated with increased odds of engaging in weight

  16. Effects of a pediatric weight management program with and without active video games a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G; Sundal, Deborah; Foster, Gary D; Lent, Michelle R; Vojta, Deneen

    2014-05-01

    Active video games may offer an effective strategy to increase physical activity in overweight and obese children. However, the specific effects of active gaming when delivered within the context of a pediatric weight management program are unknown. To evaluate the effects of active video gaming on physical activity and weight loss in children participating in an evidence-based weight management program delivered in the community. Group-randomized clinical trial conducted during a 16-week period in YMCAs and schools located in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Texas. Seventy-five overweight or obese children (41 girls [55%], 34 whites [45%], 20 Hispanics [27%], and 17 blacks [23%]) enrolled in a community-based pediatric weight management program. Mean (SD) age of the participants was 10.0 (1.7) years; body mass index (BMI) z score, 2.15 (0.40); and percentage overweight from the median BMI for age and sex, 64.3% (19.9%). All participants received a comprehensive family-based pediatric weight management program (JOIN for ME). Participants in the program and active gaming group received hardware consisting of a game console and motion capture device and 1 active game at their second treatment session and a second game in week 9 of the program. Participants in the program-only group were given the hardware and 2 games at the completion of the 16-week program. Objectively measured daily moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous physical activity, percentage overweight, and BMI z score. Participants in the program and active gaming group exhibited significant increases in moderate-to-vigorous (mean [SD], 7.4 [2.7] min/d) and vigorous (2.8 [0.9] min/d) physical activity at week 16 (P video gaming into an evidence-based pediatric weight management program has positive effects on physical activity and relative weight. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01757925.

  17. Economical weight loss program for PCB-contaminated ballasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, B.

    1995-01-01

    A PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) reduction process for PCB-contaminated ballasts was described. The process was developed by such organizations and programs as PCB Containment Technology Inc, and the Contech Ballast Reduction Program, and was claimed to include waste reduction of lighting ballasts down to their smallest PCB contaminated components. Particular attention was paid to the two most contaminated main components, i.e. the capacitor and the tar potting material. Development of the process and the government's role and participation therein was explained. The process of ballast reduction was said to utilize the old 'Reduce, Reuse and Recycle' theory; it was considered to be a cost effective waste reduction, recycling, and auditing alternative to incineration of PCBs

  18. Repeated exposure to the thin ideal and implications for the self : Two weight loss program studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klesse, A.K.; Goukens, C.; Geyskens, K.; de Ruyter, K.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to thin models results in self-esteem shifts that influence people's motivation to diet. This research study applies a goal perspective to explain the effect of exposure to thin models on dieters' motivation to lose weight. Two (one-week) weight loss program studies that included treatment

  19. Innovation in weight loss programs: a 3-dimensional virtual-world approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jeanne D; Massey, Anne P; Devaneaux, Celeste A

    2012-09-20

    The rising trend in obesity calls for innovative weight loss programs. While behavioral-based face-to-face programs have proven to be the most effective, they are expensive and often inaccessible. Internet or Web-based weight loss programs have expanded reach but may lack qualities critical to weight loss and maintenance such as human interaction, social support, and engagement. In contrast to Web technologies, virtual reality technologies offer unique affordances as a behavioral intervention by directly supporting engagement and active learning. To explore the effectiveness of a virtual-world weight loss program relative to weight loss and behavior change. We collected data from overweight people (N = 54) participating in a face-to-face or a virtual-world weight loss program. Weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage weight change, and health behaviors (ie, weight loss self-efficacy, physical activity self-efficacy, self-reported physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption) were assessed before and after the 12-week program. Repeated measures analysis was used to detect differences between groups and across time. A total of 54 participants with a BMI of 32 (SD 6.05) kg/m(2)enrolled in the study, with a 13% dropout rate for each group (virtual world group: 5/38; face-to-face group: 3/24). Both groups lost a significant amount of weight (virtual world: 3.9 kg, P virtual-world group lost an average of 4.2%, with 33% (11/33) of the participants losing a clinically significant (≥5%) amount of baseline weight. The face-to-face group lost an average of 3.0% of their baseline weight, with 29% (6/21) losing a clinically significant amount. We detected a significant group × time interaction for moderate (P = .006) and vigorous physical activity (P = .008), physical activity self-efficacy (P = .04), fruit and vegetable consumption (P = .007), and weight loss self-efficacy (P virtual-world group. Overall, these results offer positive early evidence that a

  20. Effect of a weight reduction program on baseline and stress-induced heart rate variability in children with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurak, Nazar; Sauer, Helene; Weimer, Katja; Dammann, Dirk; Zipfel, Stephan; Horing, Björn; Muth, Eric R; Teufel, Martin; Enck, Paul; Mack, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Autonomic dysregulation is a well-established feature in adults with obesity but not in children. Since this dysregulation could contribute to weight dynamics, this study aimed to compare autonomic regulation in children with obesity and normal-weight peers and to track autonomic status during weight reduction. Sixty children with obesity and 27 age- and sex-matched normal-weight healthy participants were included. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed at baseline and during a mental stress test and a subsequent recovery period. Children with obesity were investigated both upon admission and discharge. Upon admission, no significant differences in HRV parameters were found for normal-weight participants and those with obesity. Inpatient treatment led to significant changes in HRV with increase in general variability (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval (SDNN), P Children with obesity had sympathetic activation similar to normal-weight controls during mental stress with subsequent return to baseline values, and weight loss did not affect this profile. A weight reduction program induced a change in autonomic activity in children with obesity toward parasympathetic dominance but had no influence on autonomic nervous system reactivity during stress conditions. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. Long-Term Body Weight Maintenance among StrongWomen–Healthy Hearts Program Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The repeated loss and regain of body weight, referred to as weight cycling, may be associated with negative health complications. Given today’s obesity epidemic and related interventions to address obesity, it is increasingly important to understand contexts and factors associated with weight loss maintenance. This study examined BMI among individuals who had previously participated in a 12-week, evidence-based, nationally disseminated nutrition and physical activity program designed for overweight and obese middle-aged and older women. Methods. Data were collected using follow-up surveys. Complete height and weight data were available for baseline, 12-week program completion (post-program and follow-up (approximately 3 years later for 154 women (response rate = 27.5%; BMI characteristics did not differ between responders and nonresponders. Results. Mean BMI decreased significantly from baseline to post-program (−0.5, P<0.001 and post-program to follow-up (−0.7, P<0.001. Seventy-five percent of survey respondents maintained or decreased BMI post-program to follow-up. Self-efficacy and social support for healthy eating behaviors (but not physical activity were associated with BMI maintenance or additional weight loss. Conclusions. These findings support the durability of weight loss following participation in a relatively short-term intervention.

  2. Nutritional intervention with hypocaloric diet for weight control in children and adolescents with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vivian Penner de; Emerich, Deisy Ribas; Mesquita, Maria Luiza Guedes de; Paternez, Ana Carolina Almada Colucci; Carreiro, Luiz Renato Rodrigues; Pina Neto, João Monteiro de; Teixeira, Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz

    2016-04-01

    Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by the lack of expression of paternal alleles in the proximal region of the long arm of chromosome 15. Low inhibitory control and hyperphagia are two of the most severe neurobehavioral symptoms of the syndrome. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of nutritional training program with the use hypocaloric diet for weight control in a group of five children and adolescents with PWS. The intervention program consisted of 10 sessions for parents' orientation during 8months. Patients had their anthropometric measures assessed (weight, height and body mass index - BMI). The main results indicate weight maintenance, height increase, and BMI decrease after intervention. These results were considered indicators of the program's efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intelligent Flight Control Simulation Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stolarik, Brian

    2007-01-01

    ...). Under the program, entitled "Intelligent Flight Control Simulation Research Laboratory," a variety of technologies were investigated or developed during the course of the research for AFRL/VAC...

  4. Angra nuclear plant - environmental control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, E.; Cruz, E.S. da

    1989-01-01

    The pre-operational studies, that were elaborated before the beginning of Angra I Power Plant operation, are described in particular the environmental radiological safety area till the fuel loading in the core reactor. Several aspects are included, as socio-economic survey, seismological analysis, Meteorological Program, marine biology, water cooling system, exposure measures of natural radiation, marine sediments characterization in the effluent dispersion area and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. The main environmental programs developed for the operational phase of the Angra I Plant are also presented, citing some considerations about the Meteorological Program, Marine Biology Control Program, Temperature and Chlorine Control in Piraquara de Fora Bay, Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program, Sanitary Effluent Control Program and Radiological Emergency Program. (C.G.C.). 2 refs

  5. Hedonic and incentive signals for body weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egecioglu, Emil; Skibicka, Karolina P; Hansson, Caroline; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Friberg, P Anders; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Engel, Jörgen A; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2011-09-01

    Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain's reward system in the regulation of body weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable/rewarding foods, reflecting an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular 'incentive salience theory' of food reward recognises not only a hedonic/pleasure component ('liking') but also an incentive motivation component ('wanting' or 'reward-seeking'). Central to the neurobiology of the reward mechanism is the mesoaccumbal dopamine system that confers incentive motivation not only for natural rewards such as food but also by artificial rewards (eg. addictive drugs). Indeed, this mesoaccumbal dopamine system receives and integrates information about the incentive (rewarding) value of foods with information about metabolic status. Problematic over-eating likely reflects a changing balance in the control exerted by hypothalamic versus reward circuits and/or it could reflect an allostatic shift in the hedonic set point for food reward. Certainly, for obesity to prevail, metabolic satiety signals such as leptin and insulin fail to regain control of appetitive brain networks, including those involved in food reward. On the other hand, metabolic control could reflect increased signalling by the stomach-derived orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. We have shown that ghrelin activates the mesoaccumbal dopamine system and that central ghrelin signalling is required for reward from both chemical drugs (eg alcohol) and also from palatable food. Future therapies for problematic over-eating and obesity may include drugs that interfere with incentive motivation, such as ghrelin antagonists.

  6. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (a subsidiary of Babcock ampersand Wilcox) is conducting the Advanced Emissions Control Development Project (AECDP) which is aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for such controls may arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proceeds with implementation of requirements set forth in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA's) of 1990. Promulgation of air toxics emissions regulations for electric utility plants could dramatically impact utilities burning coal, their industrial and residential customers, and the coal industry. AECDP project work will supply the information needed by utilities to respond to potential HAPs regulations in a timely, cost-effective, enviromnentally-sound manner which supports the continued use of the Nation's abundant reserves of coal, such as those in the State of Ohio. The development work is being carried out using the 10 MW Clean Environment Development Facility wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions. The specific objectives of the project are to (1) measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems, (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. This project is supported by the Department of Energy, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development and Babcock ampersand Wilcox. A comprehensive assessment of HAP emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute concluded that with the exception of

  7. Environmental Restoration Program Control Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental Restoration managers need to demonstrate that their programs are under control. Unlike most industrial programs, the public is heavily involved in Environmental Restoration activities. The public is demanding that the country prove that real progress is being made towards cleaning up the environment. A Program Control Management System can fill this need. It provides a structure for planning, work authorization, data accumulation, data analysis and change control. But it takes time to implement a control system and the public is losing its patience. This paper describes critical items essential to the quick development and implementation of a successful control system

  8. Are U.S. Schools Filling the Gap With Programs that Promote Weight Stigma?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this edition of PCD Sound Bites, author Erica Kenney, ScD, answers questions about her study, which looked at how frequently U.S. schools used evidence-based obesity prevention programs and how often schools implement programs that may unintentionally worsen weight stigma among students.

  9. Association between weight control failure and suicidal ideation in overweight and obese adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Jun Ju

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Korea has the highest suicide rate in the OECD and is one of the few OECD countries whose suicide rates have not decreased in recent years. To address these issues, we investigated the effects of weight control failure on suicidal ideation in the overweight and obese populations. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2012 consisting of 6621 individuals 40 years of age or older. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the relationship between weight control failure and suicidal ideation in the overweight and obese populations. Results A total of 6621 participants were analyzed in this study (overweight group: 2439; obese group: 4182. Among them, weight control failure (weight gain with weight loss efforts was experienced in 962 obese (males 16.3 %, females 29.6 % and 412 overweight individuals (males 9.1 %, females 23.4 %. Weight control failure was significantly associated with suicidal ideation in obese females (OR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.21–2.39, but this association was not significant in obese males or in either sex of the overweight group. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that weight control failure is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation among obese women. Furthermore, intervention programs that aim to address the prevalence of suicide, especially for obese women, are needed.

  10. Optimization of the Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) weight loss and healthy lifestyle program for male hockey fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, Wendy; Gill, Dawn P; Sibbald, Shannon L; Riggin, Brendan; Pulford, Roseanne W; Scott, Ryan; Danylchuk, Karen; Gray, Cindy M; Wyke, Sally; Bunn, Christopher; Petrella, Robert J

    2017-11-28

    The health outcomes of men continue to be poorer than women globally. Challenges in addressing this problem include difficulties engaging men in weight loss programs as they tend to view these programs as contrary to the masculine narrative of independence and self-reliance. Researchers have been turning towards sports fans to engage men in health promotion programs as sports fans are typically male, and tend to have poor health habits. Developed from the highly successful gender-sensitized Football Fans in Training program, Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) recruited 80 male hockey fans of the London Knights and Sarnia Sting who were overweight or obese into a weekly, 90-minute classroom education and group exercise program held over 12 weeks; a 40-week minimally-supported phase followed. A process evaluation of the Hockey FIT program was completed alongside a pragmatic randomized controlled trial and outcome evaluation in order to fully explore the acceptability of the Hockey FIT program from the perspectives of coaches delivering and participants engaged in the program. Data sources included attendance records, participant focus groups, coach interviews, assessment of fidelity (program observations and post-session coach reflections), and 12-month participant interviews. Coaches enjoyed delivering the program and found it simple to deliver. Men valued being among others of similar body shape and similar weight loss goals, and found the knowledge they gained through the program helped them to make and maintain health behaviour changes. Suggested improvements include having more hockey-related information and activities, greater flexibility with timing of program delivery, and greater promotion of technology support tools. We confirmed Hockey FIT was an acceptable "gender-sensitized" health promotion program for male hockey fans who were overweight or obese. Minor changes were required for optimization, which will be evaluated in a future definitive trial

  11. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics of participants and dropout in Web-based weight reduction program in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Brdaric

    2015-10-01

    The findings show that the majority of participants of web-based weight loss program Health on menu were adult women who are highly educated. The average BMI of the respondents fall into the category of overweight. The findings demonstrate very high prevalence of attrition among participants. Given that this is the first time that this kind of web based program is introduced to Serbian participants, these results emphasize the importance of further continuation of such research. Also, those preliminary results highlight the need for evidence-based strategies in order to improve use of web based weight loss programs.

  12. Overestimation of own body weights in female university students: associations with lifestyles, weight control behaviors and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestima...

  13. EOSCOR: a light weight, microprocessor controlled solar neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, R.; Albats, P.; Frye, G.M. Jr.; Schindler, S.M.; Denehy, B.V.; Hopper, V.D.; Mace, O.B.

    1979-01-01

    A light weight high energy neutron detector with vertical detection efficiency of 0.005 at 40 MeV and 1.4 m 2 sensitive area has been developed for long duration super-pressure balloon flight observations of solar neutrons and gamma rays. It consists of two sets of four plastic scintillator hodoscopes separated by a 1 m time-of-flight path to observe n-p, C(n,p), and C(n,d) interactions. The neutron interactions are separated from gamma ray events through TOF measurements. For a large flare, the signal from solar neutrons is expected to be an order of magnitude greater than that of the atmospheric background. The microprocessor controls the data acquisition, accumulation of histograms, and the encoding of data for the telemetry systems. A test flight of the detector was made with a zero-pressure balloon. The expected many-week duration of a super-pressure balloon flight would significantly increase the probability of observing 20-150 MeV neutrons from a medium or large flare. (Auth.)

  14. Guided Synthesis of Control Programs Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hune, T.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Pettersson, P.

    2000-01-01

    the transitions with extra guards. Applying this technique have made synthesis of control programs feasible for a plant producing as many as 60 batches. In comparison, we could only handle plants producing two batches without using guides. The synthesized control programs have been executed in a physical plant...

  15. Motivational interviewing: a part of the weight loss program for overweight and obese women prior to fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Ravn, Pernille

    2013-09-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg versus 7.3 kg, difference p = 0.01, 3.3 kg/m(2) versus 2.6 kg/m(2), difference p = 0.02). The mean period of intervention was comparable in the two groups, 7.9 month and 7.3 month, respectively, (difference non significant: NS). The study indicates that motivational interviewing may be a valuable tool in weight loss programs for obese and overweight women prior to fertility treatment.

  16. A content analysis of weight stigmatization in popular television programming for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Carlson-McGuire, Ashley; Gollust, Sarah E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-09-01

    This study provides updated information regarding the prevalence and characteristics of weight stigma in popular adolescent television programming, using a sample of favorite shows named by diverse adolescents. Participants in a large, population-based study of Minnesota adolescents (N = 2,793, mean age = 14.4) listed their top three favorite television shows. A coding instrument was developed to analyze randomly selected episodes from the most popular 10 programs. Weight-stigmatizing incidents were compared across television show characteristics and characters' gender and weight status. Half (50%) of the 30 episodes analyzed contained at least one weight-stigmatizing incident. Both youth- and adult-targeted shows contained weight-stigmatizing comments, but the percent of these comments was much higher for youth-targeted (55.6%) than general audience-targeted shows (8.3%). Male characters were more likely than females to engage in (72.7% vs. 27.3%), and be the targets of, weight stigma (63.6% vs. 36.4%), and there was no difference in the amount of weight stigmatizing directed at average weight females compared to overweight females. Targets of these instances showed a negative response in only about one-third of cases, but audience laughter followed 40.9% of cases. The portrayal of weight stigmatization on popular television shows-including targeting women of average weight-sends signals to adolescents about the wide acceptability of this behavior and the expected response, which may be harmful. Prevention of weight stigmatization should take a multi-faceted approach and include the media. Future research should explore the impact that weight-related stigma in television content has on viewers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Overweight Adolescents’ Self-Perceived Weight and Weight Control Behaviour: HBSC Study in Finland 1994–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Ojala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Overweight and perception of being overweight, may lead adolescent to lose weight. The aim of the present study was to investigate overweight adolescents’ self-perceived weight, body dissatisfaction, and weight control behaviour during 1994–2010 in Finland. Methods. The country-representative, cross-sectional data of 15-year olds were obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study, conducted in 1994 (=1194; males: 48%, 1998 (=1545; 49%, 2002 (=1745; 50%, 2006 (=1670; 47%, and 2010 (=2082; 48%. Results. The majority of overweight boys (62–69% and girls (89–100% assessed themselves as too fat, and their body image was lower than in nonoverweight adolescents. The highest prevalence of current weight controlling was found in 2006 in males (18% and in 2010 in females (39%. Conclusion. The phenomena were current and gender differences notable, but there was no statistically significant difference in overweight adolescents’ self-perceived weight, body dissatisfaction, or weight control behaviour between survey years.

  18. Measurement control program at model facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement control program for the model plant is described. The discussion includes the technical basis for such a program, the application of measurement control principles to each measurement, and the use of special experiments to estimate measurement error parameters for difficult-to-measure materials. The discussion also describes the statistical aspects of the program, and the documentation procedures used to record, maintain, and process the basic data

  19. Environmental Restoration Program Management Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This Management Control Plan has been prepared to define the Energy Systems approach to managing its participation in the US DOE's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program in a manner consistent with DOE/ORO 931: Management Plan for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge, Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; and the Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Contract Management Plan (CMP). This plan discusses the systems, procedures, methodology, and controls to be used by the program management team to attain these objectives

  20. Developing and testing evidence-based weight management in Australian pharmacies: A Healthier Life Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Irene S; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol; Gill, Timothy; Chaar, Betty B

    2015-10-01

    Pharmacies represent a valuable opportunity to deliver weight management services, rather than just the routine supply of weight-loss products. In order to provide optimal services and translation of evidence-based weight management in community pharmacy, a best practice model program was designed and pilot tested to facilitate implementation of such services in pharmacies in Australia. To develop and pilot a pharmacist-delivered, evidence-based, non-product-centred weight management service for community pharmacy in Australia. Setting Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. A pharmacy-based weight management service called the A Healthier Life Program (AHLP), for overweight and obese individuals, was developed based on current Australian weight management guidelines and recommendations made by key stakeholders. The pharmacist undertook training to acquire specific competencies to deliver the program. The AHLP involved six individual face-to-face sessions with the pharmacist over 3 months. The intervention targeted three areas: diet, physical activity and behavioural change. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, dietary intake, and physical activity levels at 3 months were compared with values at baseline. Qualitative feedback on participants' satisfaction and willingness to pay were also analysed. Eight pharmacies provided the AHLP between February and December 2013. Thirty-four participants were enrolled in the AHLP; mean age 50.7 years (SD 15.7) and mean BMI 34.3 kg/m(2) (SD 5.3). Of the 22 (65%) participants who completed the program, six had achieved the target weight loss of ≥5%. The mean change in weight was -3.5 kg (95% CI -4.8, -2.2) and waist circumference -2.0 cm (95% CI -2.8, -1.3) for program completers at 3 months. Furthermore, participants reported overall positive experiences of the program, and identified accessibility of the pharmacy and high comfort level with the pharmacist, as the major advantages. The AHLP was well received and

  1. Binge Eating and Weight Control: The Role of Experiential Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Two thirds of the adults in the United States are overweight or obese. Binge eating is a barrier to treatment adherence and sustained weight loss, and can be seen as a form of experiential avoidance. The current study analyzed the impact of binge eating on weight reduction in a previously published study of a 1-day acceptance and commitment…

  2. The Effect of Cost Sharing on an Employee Weight Loss Program: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Leslie K; Troxel, Andrea B; Yancy, William S; Friedman, Joelle; Zhu, Jingsan; Yang, Lin; Galvin, Robert; Miller-Kovach, Karen; Halpern, Scott D; Loewenstein, George; Volpp, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    To test the effects of employer subsidies on employee enrollment, attendance, and weight loss in a nationally available weight management program. A randomized trial tested the impact of employer subsidy: 100%; 80%, 50%, and a hybrid 50% subsidy that could become a 100% subsidy by attaining attendance targets. NCT01756066. Twenty three thousand twenty-three employees of 2 US companies. The primary outcome was the percentage of employees who enrolled in the weight management program. We also tested whether the subsidies were associated with differential attendance and weight loss over 12 months, as might be predicted by the expectation that they attract employees with differing degrees of motivation. Analysis and Results: Enrollment differed significantly by subsidy level ( P < .0001). The 100% subsidy produced the highest enrollment (7.7%), significantly higher than each of the lower subsidies (vs 80% subsidy: 6.2%, P = .002; vs 50% subsidy: 3.9%, P < .0001; vs hybrid: 3.7%, P < .0001). Enrollment in the 80% subsidy group was significantly higher than both lower subsidy groups (vs 50% subsidy: 3.9%, P < .0001; vs hybrid: 3.7%, P < .0001). Among enrollees, there were no differences among the 4 groups in attendance or weight loss. This pragmatic trial, conducted in a real-world workplace setting, suggests that higher rates of employer subsidization help individuals to enroll in weight loss programs, without a decrement in program effectiveness. Future research could explore the cost-effectiveness of such subsidies or alternative designs.

  3. Predictors of initiation and persistence of unhealthy weight control behaviours in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haines Jess

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy weight control behaviours (UWCB among adolescents have significant health and weight consequences. The current longitudinal study aimed to identify personal and socio-environmental predictors of initiation or persistence of adolescent UWCB, in order to inform development of programs aimed at both preventing and stopping UWCB. Methods A diverse sample included 1106 boys and 1362 girls from 31 middle schools and high schools in the United States who were enrolled in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens. Project EAT explored personal, behavioural, and socio-environmental factors associated with dietary intake and body weight in adolescence. Participants completed questionnaires to assess demographics, UWCB (including several methods of food restriction, purging by vomiting or medications, smoking to control weight, or food substitutions and personal and socio-environmental variables at two time points, five years apart, between 1998 and 2004. Logistic regression models examined personal and socio-environmental predictors of initiation and persistence of UWCB among Project EAT participants. Results Results indicate that 15.5% of boys and 19.7% of girls initiated UWCB by Time 2, and 15.9% of boys and 43.3% of girls persisted with these behaviours from Time 1 to Time 2. After controlling for race/ethnicity and weight status changes between assessments, logistic regression models indicated that similar factors and patterns of factors were associated significantly with initiation and persistence of UWCB. For both boys and girls, personal factors had more predictive value than socio-environmental factors (Initiation models: for boys: R2 = 0.35 for personal vs. 0.27 for socio-environmental factors; for girls, R2 = 0.46 for personal vs. 0.26 for socio-environmental factors. Persistence models: for boys: R2 = 0.53 for personal vs. 0.33 for socio-environmental factors; for girls, R2 = 0.41 for personal vs. 0.19 for socio

  4. Referral to a Commercial Weight Management Program in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease: A PILOT STUDY IN THE NETHERLANDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneboo, Madelon; Peters, Ron J G; Miller-Kovach, Karen; Lemmens, Jeanine; Bucx, Jeroen J J

    2015-01-01

    To quantify the impact of a commercial weight management program on weight change in obese patients with coronary heart disease. An observational, single-center pilot study in the Netherlands. Forty-five patients diagnosed with a recent acute coronary syndrome and a body mass index of >30 kg/m2 were recruited. The commercial weight management intervention (Weight Watchers) promotes a hypoenergetic and balanced diet, increased physical activity, and group support. The program included weekly 30-minute in-hospital meetings with an experienced coach. The program was offered in parallel with a cardiac rehabilitation program. Thirty-five patients completed the program. Of these patients, 32 patients (91%) decreased body weight. Mean weight change was -5.8 kg (range: +0.6 kg to -15.4 kg), and 20 patients (57%) achieved the target of 5% weight loss of their initial weight. Twenty-seven patients continued the commercial weight loss program after 14 weeks, the mean followup of these patients was 34 weeks and their mean weight change was -9.1 kg (range: 0.0-23.0 kg). Obese patients, discharged after an acute coronary syndrome, who were referred to a commercial weight management program, achieved significant weight loss. Although this is a nonrandomized pilot study with patients who were selected by motivation and by the ability to participate in the program, the proportion of weight loss is significant and promising.

  5. Symbol generators with program control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznov, V.M.; Tomik, J.

    1974-01-01

    Methods of constructing symbol generators are described which ensure a program variation of symbol shape and setup. The symbols are formed on the basis of a point microraster. A symbol description code contains information on a symbol shape, with one digit corresponding to each microraster element. For a microraster discrete by-pass the description code is transformed into succession of illuminating pulses by means of a shift register

  6. The Effectiveness of a Nondiet Multidisciplinary Weight Reduction Program for Severe Overweight Patients with Psychological Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Bannert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. For successful sustainable weight reduction, a multimodal program including behaviour therapy is needed. Lifestyle modification is mostly used for obesity BMI 40 kg/m2 with psychological comorbidity. Research Methods and Procedere. A retrospective data analysis of 99 participants who passed the program based on moderate activity, healthy and regular food intake over metabolic rate and behaviour therapy was conducted. Results. 64 had a BMI >40 kg/m2 (mean value 49.99±8.74. The relative weight reduction was −6.9 ± 3.9%; (Friedman test P40 kg/m2 may achieve significant changes of weight reduction and psychological symptoms. However, the primary outcome should not be weight reduction. It is necessary to identify the benefits of lifestyle modification on changing risk profiles and emotional regulation of food intake.

  7. Unhealthy weight control behaviors mediate the association between weight status and weight-specific health-related quality of life in treatment-seeking youth who are obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Crystal S; Gowey, Marissa A; Cohen, Megan J; Silverstein, Janet; Janicke, David M

    2017-03-01

    Examine whether unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors (WCBs) mediate the relationship between youth weight status and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in treatment-seeking youth who are overweight and obese (OV/OB). 82 youth 10-17 years of age who were OV/OB and attending an outpatient obesity-related medical appointment completed measures assessing unhealthy and extreme WCBs and disease-specific HRQOL. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire and medical staff measured youth height and weight. Regression analyses revealed that unhealthy WCBs mediated the associations between youth weight status and emotional and social avoidance disease-specific HRQOL, such that higher body mass index (BMI) predicted unhealthy WCBs, which were ultimately associated with poorer emotional and social HRQOL. Mediation analyses were not significant for total, physical, teasing/marginalization, and positive attributes disease-specific HRQOL. In addition, extreme WCBs did not mediate the association between youth weight status and any subscales of the disease-specific HRQOL measure. Weight status is an important predictor of disease-specific HRQOL in OV/OB youth; however, the association with emotional and social HRQOL is partially accounted for by youth engagement in unhealthy WCBs. Clinicians and researchers should assess WCBs and further research should explore and evaluate appropriate intervention strategies to address unhealthy WCBs in pediatric weight management prevention and treatment efforts.

  8. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    considerably weaker than when weight control behaviors were not included. Conclusions Weight control concerns and behaviors may be mediators of the association between BMI and eating disorder symptoms. Interpretation of these weight control problems is crucial to develop culturally appropriate educational and intervention programs for adolescents. PMID:20525394

  9. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqi

    2010-06-01

    dissatisfaction and bulimia was considerably weaker than when weight control behaviors were not included. Conclusions Weight control concerns and behaviors may be mediators of the association between BMI and eating disorder symptoms. Interpretation of these weight control problems is crucial to develop culturally appropriate educational and intervention programs for adolescents.

  10. Maryland controlled fusion research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, H.R.; Liu, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the technical progress in four major areas of tokamak research: (a) L/H transition and edge turbulence and transport; (b) active control of microturbulence and transport; (c) major disruptions; and (d) the sawtooth crash

  11. The impact of a workplace-based weight loss program on work-related outcomes in overweight male shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Cook, Alyce T; Berthon, Bronwyn; Mitchell, Simon; Callister, Robin

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a workplace-based weight loss program (Workplace POWER [Preventing Obesity Without Eating like a Rabbit]) for male shift workers on a number of work-related outcomes. A total of 110 overweight/obese (body mass index = 25-40) (mean [SD] age = 44.3 [8.6] years; body mass index = 30.5 [3.6]) male employees at Tomago Aluminium (New South Wales, Australia) were randomized to either (i) Workplace POWER program (n = 65) or (ii) a 14-week wait-list control group (n = 45). Men were assessed at baseline and 14-week follow-up for weight, quality of life, sleepiness, productivity at work (presenteeism), absenteeism, and workplace injuries. Retention was 81%. Intention-to-treat analysis using linear mixed models revealed a significant intervention effect for weight, quality of life (mental), presenteeism, absenteeism, and injuries. The Workplace POWER weight loss program improved a number of important work-related outcomes in male shift workers.

  12. A quality control program for radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, C.E. de; Sibata, C.H.; Cecatti, E.R.; Kawakami, N.S.; Alexandre, A.C.; Chiavegatti Junior, M.

    1982-01-01

    An extensive quality control program was established covering the following areas: physical parameters of the therapeutical machines, dosimetric standards, preventive maintenance of radiation sources and measuring instruments. A critical evaluation of this program was done after two years (1977-1979) of routine application and the results will be presented. The fluctuation on physical parameters strongly supports the efforts and cost of a quality control program. This program has certainly improved the accuracy required on the delivery of the prescribed dose for radiotherapy treatment. (Author) [pt

  13. Measurement control program for nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Merrill, J.A.; Brown, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurments of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities, equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality

  14. Considering Weight Loss Programs and Public Health Partnerships in American Evangelical Protestant Churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D Gibbes

    2018-06-01

    The obesity epidemic is a critical public health threat facing the USA. With the advent of American Evangelical Protestant (AEP) weight loss guides and narratives, AEP churches could potentially aid public health agencies in combatting obesity, and some scholars have called for investment in partnerships between public health agencies and religious institutions. This paper examines the theological and social underpinnings of AEP weight loss programs and considers the potential benefits and risks of public health partnerships with AEP churches to combat obesity. While AEP churches may be successful at empowering people to lose weight, AEP weight loss also carries several risks. These risks include reinforcing gendered bodily norms, stigmatizing both overweight bodies and unhealthy behaviors deemed to be sinful (for example, overeating), and failing to acknowledge social factors that promote obesity. These risks must be assessed and minimized to create appropriate public health weight loss partnerships with AEP communities.

  15. One-Year Weight Loss with a Telephone-Based Lifestyle Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Holzapfel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Telephone-based weight loss programs are offered as an alternative to face-to-face obesity treatments, but data on the effectiveness regarding weight loss are limited. Therefore, we evaluated a telephone-based lifestyle program in a real-world setting. Methods: The telephone-based intervention consists of regular phone calls providing individualized lifestyle recommendations, and delivery of printed materials. Anthropometric and metabolic data are collected by general practitioners or are self-reported. Results: Baseline data were available from 398 participants (61% men; weight 103.12 ± 14.21 kg; BMI 33.38 ± 2.83 kg/m2 and 1-year data from 258 (65% participants. In the completers, mean weight change was -4.25 ± 5.18 kg (p Conclusions: The telephone-based lifestyle program results in a moderate weight loss after 12 months, which may be comparable to face-to-face interventions. Telephone-based weight loss support is independent of time and location and represents a tool which is also accepted by men.

  16. Weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile Diabetes Prevention Program delivery platform with human coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Andreas; Raby, Christine; Wood, Meghan; Farr, Kit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile platform delivering the Diabetes Prevention Program. Research Design and Methods 43 overweight or obese adult participants with a diagnosis of prediabetes signed-up to receive a 24-week virtual Diabetes Prevention Program with human coaching, through a mobile platform. Weight loss and engagement were the main outcomes, evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance, backward regression, and mediation regression. Results Weight loss at 16 and 24 weeks was significant, with 56% of starters and 64% of completers losing over 5% body weight. Mean weight loss at 24 weeks was 6.58% in starters and 7.5% in completers. Participants were highly engaged, with 84% of the sample completing 9 lessons or more. In-app actions related to self-monitoring significantly predicted weight loss. Conclusions Our findings support the effectiveness of a uniquely mobile prediabetes intervention, producing weight loss comparable to studies with high engagement, with potential for scalable population health management. PMID:27651911

  17. Weight maintenance through behaviour modification with a cooking course or neurolinguistic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Greve, Tine; Kreutzer, Martin; Pedersen, Ulla; Nielsen, Claus Meyer; Toubro, Søren; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effect on weight regain of behaviour modification consisting of either a gourmet cooking course or neurolinguistic programming (NLP) therapy. Fifty-six overweight and obese subjects participated. The first step was a 12-week weight loss program. Participants achieving at least 8% weight loss were randomized to five months of either NLP therapy or a course in gourmet cooking. Follow-up occurred after two and three years. Forty-nine participants lost at least 8% of their initial body weight and were randomized to the next step. The NLP group lost an additional 1.8 kg and the cooking group lost 0.2 kg during the five months of weight maintenance (NS). The dropout rate in the cooking group was 4%, compared with 26% in the NLP group (p=0.04). There was no difference in weight maintenance after two and three years of follow-up. In conclusion, weight loss in overweight and obese participants was maintained equally efficiently with a healthy cooking course or NLP therapy, but the dropout rate was lower during the active cooking treatment.

  18. Lifestyle Intervention for Weight Loss: a group-based program for Emiratis in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiya A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amena Sadiya,1,* Sarah Abdi,1,* Salah Abusnana2 1Lifestyle Clinic, 2Research and Education Department, Rashid Center for Diabetes and Research, Ajman, United Arab Emirates *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Lifestyle Intervention for Weight Loss (LIFE-8 is developed as a structured, group-based weight management program for Emiratis with obesity and type 2 diabetes. It is a 3-month program followed by a 1-year follow-up. The results from the first 2 years are presented here to indicate the possibility of its further adaptation and implementation in this region. Methodology: We recruited 45 participants with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The LIFE-8 program was executed by incorporating dietary modification, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, aiming to achieve up to 5% weight loss. The outcomes included body weight, fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and nutritional knowledge at 3 months and 12 months. Results: We observed a reduction of 5.0% in body weight (4.8±2.8 kg; 95% CI 3.7–5.8, fat mass (–7.8%, P<0.01, and waist circumference (Δ=4±4 cm, P<0.01 in the completed participants (n=28. An improvement (P<0.05 in HbA1c (7.1%±1.0% vs 6.6%±0.7% and FBG (8.2±2.0 mmol/L vs 6.8±0.8 mmol/L was observed in participants with obesity and type 2 diabetes after the program. Increase in nutritional knowledge (<0.01 and overall evaluation of the program (9/10 was favorable. On 1-year follow-up, we found that the participants could sustain weight loss (–4.0%, while obese, type 2 diabetic participants sustained HbA1c (6.6%±0.7% vs 6.4%±0.7% and further improved (P<0.05 the level of FBG (6.8±0.8 mmol/L vs 6.7±0.4 mmol/L. Conclusion: LIFE-8 could be an effective, affordable, acceptable, and adaptable lifestyle intervention program for the prevention and management of diabetes in Emiratis. It was successful not

  19. Traffic Control Device Evaluation Program : FY 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    This report presents findings on the activities conducted in the Traffic Control Device Evaluation Program during the 2017 fiscal year. The research on sponsored changeable message signs (continued from the previous year) was terminated by the Federa...

  20. Efficacy of a randomized trial examining commercial weight loss programs and exercise on metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetge, Claire; Earnest, Conrad P; Lockard, Brittanie; Coletta, Adriana M; Galvan, Elfego; Rasmussen, Christopher; Levers, Kyle; Simbo, Sunday Y; Jung, Y Peter; Koozehchian, Majid; Oliver, Jonathan; Dalton, Ryan; Sanchez, Brittany; Byrd, Michael J; Khanna, Deepesh; Jagim, Andrew; Kresta, Julie; Greenwood, Mike; Kreider, Richard B

    2017-02-01

    While commercial dietary weight-loss programs typically advise exercise, few provide actual programing. The goal of this study was to compare the Curves Complete 90-day Challenge (CC, n = 29), which incorporates exercising and diet, to programs advocating exercise (Weight Watchers Points Plus (WW, n = 29), Jenny Craig At Home (JC, n = 27), and Nutrisystem Advance Select (NS, n = 28)) or control (n = 20) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and weight loss. We randomized 133 sedentary, overweight women (age, 47 ± 11 years; body mass, 86 ± 14 kg; body mass index, 35 ± 6 kg/m 2 ) into respective treatment groups for 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using chi square and general linear models adjusted for age and respective baseline measures. Data are means ± SD or mean change ± 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We observed a significant trend for a reduction in energy intake for all treatment groups and significant weight loss for all groups except control: CC (-4.32 kg; 95% CI, -5.75, -2.88), WW (-4.31 kg; 95% CI, -5.82, -2.96), JC (-5.34 kg; 95% CI, -6.86, -3.90), NS (-5.03 kg; 95% CI, -6.49, -3.56), and control (0.16 kg, 95% CI, -1.56, 1.89). Reduced MetS prevalence was observed at follow-up for CC (35% vs. 14%, adjusted standardized residuals (adjres.) = 3.1), but not WW (31% vs. 28% adjres. = 0.5), JC (37% vs. 42%, adjres. = -0.7), NS (39% vs. 50% adjres. = -1.5), or control (45% vs. 55% adjres. = -1.7). While all groups improved relative fitness (mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) because of weight loss, only the CC group improved absolute fitness (L/min). In conclusion, commercial programs offering concurrent diet and exercise programming appear to offer greater improvements in MetS prevalence and cardiovascular function after 12 weeks of intervention.

  1. Outcomes of three universal eating disorder risk reduction programs by participants with higher and lower baseline shape and weight concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilksch, Simon M; Paxton, Susan J; Byrne, Susan M; Austin, S Bryn; O'Shea, Anne; Wade, Tracey D

    2017-01-01

    To investigate if baseline shape and weight concern (SWC) moderated outcomes in Prevention Across the Spectrum, a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) of 3 school-based programs aimed at reducing eating disorder and obesity risk factors. N = 1,316 Grade 7 and 8 girls and boys (M age = 13.21 years) across three Australian states were randomly allocated to: Media Smart; Life Smart; Helping, Encouraging, Listening and Protecting Peers Initiative (HELPP) or control (usual school class). Moderation was explored by testing interaction effects for group (Media Smart; Life Smart; HELPP; Control) × moderator (SWC: higher-SWC; lower-SWC) × time (post-program; 6-month follow-up; 12-month follow-up), with baseline risk factor scores entered as covariates. Moderation effects were found for shape concern, weight concern, eating concern, regular eating (i.e., meal skipping), physical activity, body dissatisfaction, dieting, and perfectionism. Post-hoc testing found eating concern at post-program was the only variable where higher-SWC Media Smart participants experienced a reduction in risk relative to controls. Both higher-SWC Life Smart and HELPP participants reported an increase in eating concern relative to controls and both groups were skipping more meals than controls at 12-month follow-up. Amongst lower-SWC participants, Media Smart was the only group to experience a benefit relative to controls (physical activity). This study highlights the need for moderator analyses to become more routinely conducted in universal trials, to ensure that participants across baseline risk levels are benefiting and not harmed from program participation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:66-75). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Weighted curve-fitting program for the HP 67/97 calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    The HP 67/97 calculator provides in its standard equipment a curve-fit program for linear, logarithmic, exponential and power functions that is quite useful and popular. However, in more sophisticated applications, proper weights for data are often essential. For this purpose a program package was created which is very similar to the standard curve-fit program but which includes the weights of the data for proper statistical analysis. This allows accurate calculation of the uncertainties of the fitted curve parameters as well as the uncertainties of interpolations or extrapolations, or optionally the uncertainties can be normalized with chi-square. The program is very versatile and allows one to perform quite difficult data analysis in a convenient way with the pocket calculator HP 67/97

  3. Automatic control of commercial computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvov, B.A.; Artem'ev, A.N.; Maevskij, A.G.; Demkiv, A.A.; Kirillov, B.F.; Belyaev, A.D.; Artem'ev, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    The way of automatic control of commercial computer programs is presented. The developed connection of the EXAFS spectrometer automatic system (which is managed by PC for DOS) is taken with the commercial program for the CCD detector control (which is managed by PC for Windows). The described complex system is used for the automation of intermediate amplitude spectra processing in EXAFS spectrum measurements at Kurchatov SR source

  4. Barriers to Enrollment in a Pharmacist-Led Fitness, Nutrition, and Weight Management Coaching Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Lengel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate barriers to utilization of a pharmacist-led fitness, nutrition, and weight management coaching program, as well as describe patient reported expectations and explore the patient characteristics potentially associated with a higher willingness to participate in the future. Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study using an anonymous, electronic survey. Setting: A large, national, grocery store chain. Participants: Employee benefit plan members, eligible for a pharmacist-led fitness, nutrition, and weight management (FNWM coaching program, who were not currently or previously enrolled in the program, and met coaching program qualifications. Intervention: Peer-reviewed, electronic survey administered and collected using an Internet survey analysis software. Main Outcome Measures: Barriers to enrollment in the pharmacist-led fitness, nutrition, and weight management coaching program. Results: Of 1,130 emailed employees, 352 responded and 133 met study inclusion criteria and completed the whole survey. Of those who fit inclusion criteria, the majority (53.4% of the respondents were aware of the coaching program (75.2% and expressed interest in future participation (53.4%. “I am already taking steps to improve my health” and “I do not have time to participate in the program” were the highest rated barriers for both those interested and not interested in participating in the coaching program. The majority of participants believed pharmacists were qualified to provide the coaching service (78.2% and preferred one-on-one coaching with the pharmacist (67.7%. Key topics respondents wanted the pharmacist to cover included general diet and nutrition, weight management strategies, and vitamins and supplements. Conclusion: The two major barriers reported in the study were lack of time and the use of other health improvement methods; however, a large number of respondents indicated future interest in participating. Future

  5. Are U.S. Schools Filling the Gap With Programs that Promote Weight Stigma?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-12-21

    In this edition of PCD Sound Bites, author Erica Kenney, ScD, answers questions about her study, which looked at how frequently U.S. schools used evidence-based obesity prevention programs and how often schools implement programs that may unintentionally worsen weight stigma among students.  Created: 12/21/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/21/2017.

  6. Weight-Loss: Gain Control of Emotional Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy weight: Key to wellness. In: American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 4th ed. Hoboken, N.J.: ... relaxation training reduce emotional eating in women with obesity? An exploratory ... Dietetic Association. 2009;10:1427. Macht M. How emotions affect ...

  7. Measurement control program for new special recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Campbell, K.; Barlich, G.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes the design of the measurement control (MC) program for the New Special Recovery facility. The MC program is divided into two levels. Level 1 MC checks are performed at the individual instrument computer and will always be functional even when the instrument-control computer is down. The level 1 MCs are divided into statistical checks for both bias and precision, and diagnostic checks. All the instruments are connected on line to an instrument-control computer to which the measurement results can be communicated. Level 2 MC analyses are performed at this computer. The analyses consist of control charts for bias and precision and statistical tests used as analytic supplements to the control charts. They provide the desired detection sensitivity and yet can be interpreted quickly and easily. Recommendations are also made in terms of the frequency of the tests, the standard used, and other operational aspects of the MC program. 16 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  8. The Breathe Easier through Weight Loss Lifestyle (BE WELL Intervention: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buist A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and asthma have reached epidemic proportions in the US. Their concurrent rise over the last 30 years suggests that they may be connected. Numerous observational studies support a temporally-correct, dose-response relationship between body mass index (BMI and incident asthma. Weight loss, either induced by surgery or caloric restriction, has been reported to improve asthma symptoms and lung function. Due to methodological shortcomings of previous studies, however, well-controlled trials are needed to investigate the efficacy of weight loss strategies to improve asthma control in obese individuals. Methods/Design BE WELL is a 2-arm parallel randomized clinical trial (RCT of the efficacy of an evidence-based, comprehensive, behavioral weight loss intervention, focusing on diet, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, as adjunct therapy to usual care in the management of asthma in obese adults. Trial participants (n = 324 are patients aged 18 to 70 years who have suboptimally controlled, persistent asthma, BMI between 30.0 and 44.9 kg/m2, and who do not have serious comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, heart disease, stroke. The 12-month weight loss intervention to be studied is based on the principles of the highly successful Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention. Intervention participants will attend 13 weekly group sessions over a four-month period, followed by two monthly individual sessions, and will then receive individualized counseling primarily by phone, at least bi-monthly, for the remainder of the intervention. Follow-up assessment will occur at six and 12 months. The primary outcome variable is the overall score on the Juniper Asthma Control Questionnaire measured at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include lung function, asthma-specific and general quality of life, asthma medication use, asthma-related and total health care utilization. Potential mediators (e.g., weight loss and change in physical

  9. Self-control program in the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L W

    1981-06-01

    In a pilot study utilizing self-control techniques for the purpose of modifying the cue-reactive eating habits of obese patients, three subjects maintained a continuous weight loss throughout the first year of treatment. Techniques included goal setting, self-monitoring, brief delay and self-confrontation prior to eating unauthorized food and direct observation of oneself in a mirror when eating unauthorized food. All patients are expected to remain in treatment for the foreseeable future with no termination of the program despite apparent success with regard to control of their feeding disturbance. The rationale for this approach is discussed.

  10. Environmental Scan of Weight Bias Exposure in Primary Health Care Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Nutter, Sarah; Alberga, Angela; Jelinski, Susan; Ball, Geoff D. C.; Edwards, Alun; Oddie, Scott; Sharma, Arya M.; Pickering, Barbara; Forhan, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes and beliefs about individuals with obesity (also known as weight bias) have negative consequences for physical and mental health for individuals with obesity and impact the quality of care provided by health professionals. A preliminary environmental scan of college and university training programs was conducted consisting of 67…

  11. The Efficacy of a Multifaceted Weight Management Program for Children and Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, Holly Spencer

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of overweight and obesity among children and young adolescents remains unacceptably high and places our youth at risk for several negative outcomes. Recognizing the need for a youth-focused weight management program in our community, the researcher developed, implemented, and evaluated a small pilot study, FitKids. The aims of…

  12. Parent Interest in a School-Based, School Nurse-Led Weight Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lee, Jiwoo

    2014-01-01

    Because one in three children is already overweight or obese, school-based interventions targeting secondary obesity prevention merit consideration. This study assessed parent interest in participating in a school-based, school nurse-led weight management program for young school-aged children. A random sample of parents ("n" = 122) of…

  13. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  14. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above

  15. Treating childhood obesity: family background variables and the child's success in a weight-control intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Wilfried; Albayrak, Ozgür; Hebebrand, Johannes; Pauli-Pott, Ursula

    2009-04-01

    To analyze whether caregiver and family characteristics predict success in a family-based lifestyle intervention program for children and adolescents. Participants were 111 overweight and obese children (7-15 years) who attended a family-based weight-reduction program. Body mass index (BMI) and BMI standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) of index child, and BMI of family members, family adversity characteristics, depression, and attachment attitudes of the primary caregiver were assessed. Risk of nonresponse (children, cases with obese sibling(s), maternal depression, and avoidant attachment attitude. In a logistic regression analysis, maternal depression, attachment attitude, and age of index child explained common variance whereas the presence of obese siblings explained unique variance in nonresponding. To meet the specific needs of all participating families and to prevent the discouraging experience of failure in weight-control interventions, our data suggest that special support should be provided to adolescents with obese siblings, and cases of maternal depression, and avoidant attachment attitude. (c) 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Perceived helpfulness of the individual components of a behavioural weight loss program: results from the Hopkins POWER Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dalcin, A. T.; Jerome, G. J.; Fitzpatrick, S. L.; Louis, T. A.; Wang, N?Y.; Bennett, W. L.; Durkin, N.; Clark, J. M.; Daumit, G. L.; Appel, L. J.; Coughlin, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Behavioural weight loss programs are effective first?line treatments for obesity and are recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force. Gaining an understanding of intervention components that are found helpful by different demographic groups can improve tailoring of weight loss programs. This paper examined the perceived helpfulness of different weight loss program components. Methods Participants (n?=?236) from the active intervention conditions of the Practice?bas...

  17. Physical activity intensity and weight control status among U.S. Adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Pariser, Gina

    2014-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the objectively determined physical activity levels by weight control status (i.e., trying to lose weight, trying to maintain weight, and neither trying to lose or maintain weight) among U.S. adults with diabetes. Therefore, this study assessed the association between physical activity and weight control status among U.S. adults with diabetes. Cross-sectional survey. The 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used, which is representative of the U.S. population. Subjects were 733 adults (≥20 years) with diabetes. Participants wore an accelerometer to assess physical activity, and questionnaires were used to assess weight control status and covariates. Multivariate negative binomial regressions were used. After adjustments, and compared to those not trying to lose or maintain their weight, women trying to lose weight engaged in 74% more physical activity (rate ratio = 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 2.65). Although findings were not significant for men, men were more likely than women to meet physical activity recommendations. Diabetic women trying to lose weight engaged in more physical activity than did their female counterparts not trying to lose or maintain their weight. Although men were more active than women, no differences in activity estimates occurred across weight control status for men.

  18. Controlled thermonuclear reactions and Tora Supra program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The research programs for the nuclear energy production by means of thermonuclear fusion are shown. TORA SUPRA, Joint European Torus, Next European Torus and those developed at the Atomic Energy Center are described. The controlled fusion necessary conditions, the energy and confinement balance, and the research of a better tokamak configuration are discussed. A description of TORA SUPRA, the ways of achieving the project and the expected delays are shown. The Controlled Fusion Research Department functions, concerning these programs, are described. The importance of international cooperation and the perspectives about the use of controlled fusion are underlined [fr

  19. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences.

  20. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences

  1. Accuracy of body image perception and preferred weight loss strategies in schizophrenia: a controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, C; Meyer, J M; Leckband, S G

    2008-02-01

    Obesity in severely mentally ill (SMI) populations is an increasing problem, but there is no controlled data regarding the relationship between SMI and weight perception. Fifty patients with schizophrenia and 50 demographically matched control participants were recruited. Weight, height, and body image accuracy were assessed for all participants, and assessments of mood, psychotic symptom severity and anxiety, and preferred modes of weight loss were assessed for the schizophrenia sample. Patients with schizophrenia were significantly more likely to be obese than controls (46% vs. 18%, P < 0.005), and most patients expressed an interest in losing weight. Obese participants with schizophrenia underestimated their body size (11.0%) more than controls (4.9%) (P < 0.05). Patients with schizophrenia are more likely to underestimate their body size, independent of the effects of obesity. However, they also express concern about weight issues and willingness to participate in psychoeducational groups targeted at weight loss.

  2. Functional brain response to food images in successful adolescent weight losers compared with normal-weight and overweight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Kirwan, C Brock

    2015-03-01

    Research conducted with adults suggests that successful weight losers demonstrate greater activation in brain regions associated with executive control in response to viewing high-energy foods. No previous studies have examined these associations in adolescents. Functional neuroimaging was used to assess brain response to food images among groups of overweight (OW), normal-weight (NW), and successful weight-losing (SWL) adolescents. Eleven SWL, 12 NW, and 11 OW participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing images of high- and low-energy foods. When viewing high-energy food images, SWLs demonstrated greater activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared with OW and NW controls. Compared with NW and SWL groups, OW individuals demonstrated greater activation in the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate in response to food images. Adolescent SWLs demonstrated greater neural activation in the DLPFC compared with OW/NW controls when viewing high-energy food stimuli, which may indicate enhanced executive control. OW individuals' brain responses to food stimuli may indicate greater reward incentive processes than either SWL or NW groups. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  3. Gestational weight gain in overweight and obese women enrolled in a healthy lifestyle and eating habits program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, E; Malavolti, M; Bertarini, V; Pignatti, L; Neri, I; Battistini, N C; Facchinetti, F

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether changes in lifestyle in women with BMI > 25 could decrease gestational weight gain and unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. Women with BMI > 25 were randomized at 1st trimester to no intervention or a Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Program including diet (overweight: 1700 kcal/day, obese: 1800 kcal/day) and mild physical activity (30 min/day, 3 times/week). At baseline and at the 36th week women filled-in a Food Frequency Questionnaire. gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preterm delivery. Data stratified by BMI categories. Socio-demographic features were similar between groups (TLC: 33 cases, 28 cases). At term, gestational weight gain in obese women randomized to TLC group was lower (6.7 ± 4.3 kg) versus controls (10.1 ± 5.6 kg, p = 0.047). Gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension and preterm delivery were also significantly lower. TLC was an independent factor in preventing gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension. Significant changes in eating habits occurred in the TLC group, which increased the number of snacks, the intake of fruits-vegetables and decreased the consumption of sugar. A caloric restriction associated to changes in eating behavior and constant physical activity, is able to reduce gestational weight gain and related pregnancy complications in obese women.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Different Macronutrient Profiles on Weight, Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Adolescents Seeking Weight Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Truby

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is difficult to treat and the optimal dietary pattern, particularly in relation to macronutrient composition, remains controversial. This study tested the effect of two structured diets with differing macronutrient composition versus control, on weight, body composition and metabolic parameters in obese adolescents.A randomized controlled trial conducted in a children's hospital.Eighty seven obese youth (means: age 13.6 years, BMI z-score 2.2, waist: height ratio 0.65, 69% female completed a psychological preparedness program and were then randomized to a short term 'structured modified carbohydrate' (SMC, 35% carbohydrate; 30% protein; 35% fat, n = 37 or a 'structured low fat' (SLF, 55% carbohydrate; 20% protein; 25% fat, n = 36 or a wait listed control group (n = 14. Anthropometric, body composition and biochemical parameters were measured at randomization and after 12 weeks, and analyzed under the intention to treat principle using analysis of variance models.After 12 weeks, data was collected from 79 (91% participants. BMI z-scores were significantly lower in both intervention groups compared to control after adjusting for baseline values, SLF vs. control, mean difference = -0.13 (95%CI = -0.18, -0.07, P<0.001; SMC vs. control, -0.14 (-0.19, -0.09, P<0.001, but there was no difference between the two intervention diet groups: SLF vs. SMC, 0.00 (-0.05, 0.04, P = 0.83.Both dietary patterns resulted in similar changes in weight, body composition and metabolic improvements compared to control. The use of a structured eating system which allows flexibility but limited choices can assist in weight change and the rigid application of a low fat eating pattern is not exclusive in its efficacy.International Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN49438757.

  5. Fuzzy Logic Based Set-Point Weighting Controller Tuning for an Internal Model Control Based PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruthai Suresh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Controller tuning is the process of adjusting the parameters of the selected controller to achieve optimum response for the controlled process. For many of the control problems, a satisfactory performance is obtained by using PID controllers. One of the main problems with mathematical models of physical systems is that the parameters used in the models cannot be determined with absolute accuracy. The values of the parameters may change with time or various effects. In these cases, conventional controller tuning methods suffer when trying a lot to produce optimum response. In order to overcome these difficulties a fuzzy logic based Set- Point weighting controller tuning method is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is analyzed through computer simulation using SIMULINK software and the results are presented. The fuzzy logic based simulation results are compared with Cohen-Coon (CC, Ziegler- Nichols (ZN, Ziegler – Nichols with Set- Point weighting (ZN-SPW, Internal Model Control (IMC and Internal model based PID controller responses (IMC-PID. The effects of process modeling errors and the importance of controller tuning have been brought out using the proposed control scheme.

  6. Daily text messaging for weight control among racial and ethnic minority women: randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Levine, Erica L; Askew, Sandy; Foley, Perry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-11-18

    Daily self-monitoring of diet and physical activity behaviors is a strong predictor of weight loss success. Text messaging holds promise as a viable self-monitoring modality, particularly among racial/ethnic minority populations. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of a text messaging intervention for weight loss among predominantly black women. Fifty obese women were randomized to either a 6-month intervention using a fully automated system that included daily text messages for self-monitoring tailored behavioral goals (eg, 10,000 steps per day, no sugary drinks) along with brief feedback and tips (n=26) or to an education control arm (n=24). Weight was objectively measured at baseline and at 6 months. Adherence was defined as the proportion of text messages received in response to self-monitoring prompts. The average daily text messaging adherence rate was 49% (SD 27.9) with 85% (22/26) texting self-monitored behavioral goals 2 or more days per week. Approximately 70% (16/23) strongly agreed that daily texting was easy and helpful and 76% (16/21) felt the frequency of texting was appropriate. At 6 months, the intervention arm lost a mean of 1.27 kg (SD 6.51), and the control arm gained a mean of 1.14 kg (SD 2.53; mean difference -2.41 kg, 95% CI -5.22 to 0.39; P=.09). There was a trend toward greater text messaging adherence being associated with greater percent weight loss (r=-.36; P=.08), but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant association between goal attainment and text messaging adherence and no significant predictors of adherence. Given the increasing penetration of mobile devices, text messaging may be a useful self-monitoring tool for weight control, particularly among populations most in need of intervention. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00939081; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00939081 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6KiIIcnk1).

  7. Overeating with and without loss of control: Associations with weight status, weight-related characteristics, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Loth, Katie A; MacLehose, Richard F; Pisetsky, Emily M; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-12-01

    The relative importance of loss of control and overeating in the relationship between binge eating and eating-related and general psychopathology has been debated in the literature. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of overeating with and without loss of control within a diverse, population-based sample of adolescents. A highly diverse (81.1% non-White) sample of adolescents (n = 2,793) from EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) completed self-report questionnaires assessing eating-related psychopathology, substance use, nonsuicidal self-injury, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem. Overeating without loss of control was reported by 6.9% of girls and 5.0% of boys, while 9.6% of girls and 6.3% of boys reported overeating with loss of control (binge eating). Overall, overeating (with or without loss of control) was positively associated with unhealthy or extreme weight control behaviors, dieting, nonsuicidal self-injury, lower body satisfaction, and self-esteem, and higher depressive symptoms relative to no overeating. Among girls, binge eating was associated with unhealthy or extreme weight control behaviors, lower self-esteem, and higher depressive symptoms relative to overeating without loss of control, while in boys, binge eating was associated with greater cigarette usage, lower body satisfaction, and greater depressive symptoms than overeating without loss of control (although cigarette usage was comparable in boys reporting binge eating and no overeating). Any overeating, with or without loss of control, was associated with multiple adverse correlates among adolescents. Loss of control was uniquely associated with multiple health indicators, further highlighting its importance as a marker of severity of overeating. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Gender comparisons of unhealthy weight-control behaviors among sixth-Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragun, Deborah; Ata, Rheanna N; Debate, Rita D; Thompson, J Kevin

    2013-01-01

    To examine gender differences in unhealthy weight-control behaviors (UWCB) and identify key psychosocial and demographic correlates of UWCB among sixth-graders. A cross-sectional survey was completed by 146 boys and 153 girls at a middle school. Secondary data analyses included bivariate tests and multivariable logistic regression. Forty-seven percent of participants reported 1 or more UWCB, with no differences by gender (P = .75). Factors common to boys and girls included: lower global self-esteem; lower body-esteem; and greater negative parental modeling among participants who engaged in UWCB compared to those who did not. However, multivariable models revealed gender differences. Among boys, body mass index, negative parental modeling, and global self-esteem retained statistically significant associations with UWCB after controlling for other variables in the model, whereas race and weight-related body-esteem remained significant for girls. This research highlights the need for gender-specific UWCB prevention programs implemented in late childhood and early adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Preadolescents' and Parents' Dietary Coping Efficacy during Behavioral Family-Based Weight Control Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Thekkedam, Sucheta C.; Welch, R. Robinson; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally relevant high-risk dietary situations (e.g., parties where tempting foods are available) may influence overweight youth's weight control, as they increase risk for overeating. Better self-efficacy for coping with these situations--which preadolescents may learn from their parents--could foster successful weight control. Overweight…

  10. Effects of a popular exercise and weight loss program on weight loss, body composition, energy expenditure and health in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magrans-Courtney Teresa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of altering the ratio of carbohydrate and protein in low-energy diets in conjunction with a popular exercise program in obese women. Design Matched, prospective clinical intervention study to assess efficacy of varying ratios of carbohydrate and protein intake in conjunction with a regular exercise program. Participants One-hundred sixty one sedentary, obese, pre-menopausal women (38.5 ± 8.5 yrs, 164.2 ± 6.7 cm, 94.2 ± 18.8 kg, 34.9 ± 6.4 kg·m-2, 43.8 ± 4.2% participated in this study. Participants were weight stable and not participating in additional weight loss programs. Methods Participants were assigned to either a no exercise + no diet control (CON, a no diet + exercise group (ND, or one of four diet + exercise groups (presented as kcals; % carbohydrate: protein: fat: 1 a high energy, high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HED [2,600; 55:15:30%], 2 a very low carbohydrate, high protein diet (VLCHP [1,200 kcals; 63:7:30%], 3 a low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet (LCMP [1,200 kcals; 50:20:30%] and 4 a high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HCLP [1,200 kcals; 55:15:30%]. Participants in exercise groups (all but CON performed a pneumatic resistance-based, circuit training program under supervision three times per week. Measurements Anthropometric, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE, fasting blood samples and muscular fitness assessments were examined at baseline and weeks 2, 10 and 14. Results All groups except CON experienced significant reductions (P P P P P Conclusion Exercise alone (ND appears to have minimal impact on measured outcomes with positive outcomes apparent when exercise is combined with a hypoenergetic diet. Greater improvements in waist circumference and body composition occurred when carbohydrate is replaced in the diet with protein. Weight loss in all diet groups (VLCHP, LCMP and HCLP was primarily fat and stimulated improvements in markers of

  11. Implementation of a financially incentivized weight loss competition into an already established employee wellness program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Schramm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess improvement in clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction of a financially incentivized weight loss competition adjunct to a currently established pharmacist-directed employee wellness program. Design: Retrospective, cohort, pilot study Setting: 6 independent community pharmacy chain locations, two long-term care pharmacies, and a pharmacy corporate office in northwest and central Missouri, from January 2013 to April 2013. Participants: 24 benefit-eligible patients employed by the self- insured pharmacy chain. Intervention: A financially incentivized weight loss competition focusing on healthy lifestyle practices was implemented at nine pharmacy locations over an eight week period. Main outcome measure(s: Change from baseline in mean total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, weight, and body mass index (BMI. Patient satisfaction was also assessed after completion. Results:24 patients completed the competition. The average weight loss among all participants was 10 ± 7.3 pounds. A mean decrease in serum triglycerides was significant at 36.9 mg/dL per participant (p Conclusion: The implementation of a financially incentivized weight loss competition provided significant short-term weight loss to a patient population that was already enrolled in an established pharmacist-directed employee wellness program and had not shown clinical improvement prior to the intervention. Overall the patients were satisfied, felt healthier, and agreed to continue following the recommendations of the program.   Type: Original Research

  12. RECOMANDATION FOR A BETTER CONTROL OF THE BODY WEIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Manescu

    2012-01-01

    From fitness magazines to tv commercials it’s an every day information bombing about diets. The latest always say that "this popular diet doesn't work, but ours will" or it’s showed a photoshoped before and after picture. And although the term diet automatically gets us thinking of people who need to lose weight, it’s definition says: "the food or drink prescribed to a person for a special reason". So for those who play sports or have goals in fitness, having the proper diet is important as w...

  13. Approximate Dynamic Programming in Tracking Control of a Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szuster

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the implementation of an approximate dynamic programming algorithm in the discrete tracking control system of the three-degrees of freedom Scorbot-ER 4pc robotic manipulator. The controlled system is included in an articulated robots group which uses rotary joints to access their work space. The main part of the control system is a dual heuristic dynamic programming algorithm that consists of two structures designed in the form of neural networks: an actor and a critic. The actor generates the suboptimal control law while the critic approximates the difference of the value function from Bellman's equation with respect to the state. The residual elements of the control system are the PD controller, the supervisory term and an additional control signal. The structure of the supervisory term derives from the stability analysis performed using the Lyapunov stability theorem. The control system works online, the neural networks' weights-adaptation procedure is performed in every iteration step, and the neural networks' preliminary learning process is not required. The performance of the control system was verified by a series of computer simulations and experiments performed using the Scorbot-ER 4pc robotic manipulator.

  14. Leisure-time physical activity patterns by weight control status: 1999-2002 NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Yore, Michelle M; Kohl, Harold W

    2007-05-01

    Regular physical activity reduces the risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, and some cancers. Physical activity is associated inversely with overweight and obesity prevalence, thus potentially assisting in weight control efforts. The purpose of this paper is to examine the variability of physical activity levels and their patterns by self-reported weight control status in a nationally representative sample. Four years of data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to examine leisure-time physical activity patterns (regular, irregular, inactive) and the prevalence of weight control practices (trying to lose, trying to maintain, not trying to lose or maintain) among U.S. adults (N = 9496). The prevalence of regular physical activity was 32.6% among people trying to lose weight, 37.9% among people trying to maintain weight, and 21.8% among those not trying to lose or maintain weight. Those trying to lose weight were almost three times as likely to be regularly active (vs inactive), and those trying to maintain weight were over three times more likely to be regularly active (vs inactive) than those not trying to lose or maintain weight. The most commonly reported activities among those trying to lose weight were walking (38.3%), yard work (14.5%), biking (12.5%), and running (11.6%). Despite the importance of physical activity, fewer than half the people trying to lose or maintain weight were regularly active during leisure-time. People trying to lose or maintain weight had a higher likelihood of being regularly active than those not trying to lose or maintain weight. Walking was the most common type of physical activity among all weight control groups. Health promotion efforts should promote increased levels of physical activity among all adults.

  15. Stochastic control theory dynamic programming principle

    CERN Document Server

    Nisio, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a systematic introduction to the optimal stochastic control theory via the dynamic programming principle, which is a powerful tool to analyze control problems. First we consider completely observable control problems with finite horizons. Using a time discretization we construct a nonlinear semigroup related to the dynamic programming principle (DPP), whose generator provides the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation, and we characterize the value function via the nonlinear semigroup, besides the viscosity solution theory. When we control not only the dynamics of a system but also the terminal time of its evolution, control-stopping problems arise. This problem is treated in the same frameworks, via the nonlinear semigroup. Its results are applicable to the American option price problem. Zero-sum two-player time-homogeneous stochastic differential games and viscosity solutions of the Isaacs equations arising from such games are studied via a nonlinear semigroup related to DPP (the min-ma...

  16. Controlling silk fibroin microspheres via molecular weight distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Dong-Mei; Pan, Jue-Jing; Wang, Qun; Liu, Xin-Fang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) microspheres were produced by salting out SF solution via the addition of potassium phosphate buffer solution (K 2 HPO 4 –KH 2 PO 4 ). The morphology, size and polydispersity of SF microspheres were adjusted by changing the molecular weight (MW) distribution and concentration of SF, as well as the ionic strength and pH of the buffer solution. Changing the conditions under which the SF fiber dissolved in the Lithium Boride (LiBr) solution resulted in altering the MW distribution of SF solution. Under optimal salting-out conditions (ionic strength > 0.7 M and pH > 7) and using a smaller and narrower SF MW distribution, SF microspheres with smoother shapes and more uniform sizes were produced. Meanwhile, the size and polydispersity of the microspheres increased when the SF concentration was increased from 0.25 mg/mL to 20 mg/mL. The improved SF microspheres, obtained by altering the distribution of molecular weight, have potential in drug and gene delivery applications. - Highlights: • MW distribution was changed by applying different dissolving methods of SF fiber. • Smaller and narrower MW distribution improves the quality of SF microspheres. • Size and polydispersity of microspheres increase as SF concentration increases. • Improved SF microspheres have potential in drug and gene delivery applications

  17. Controlling silk fibroin microspheres via molecular weight distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Dong-Mei; Pan, Jue-Jing; Wang, Qun; Liu, Xin-Fang; Wang, Hui [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College for Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Zhang, Ke-Qin, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College for Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Research Center of Cooperative Innovation for Functional Organic/Polymer Material Micro/Nanofabrication, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) microspheres were produced by salting out SF solution via the addition of potassium phosphate buffer solution (K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}–KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}). The morphology, size and polydispersity of SF microspheres were adjusted by changing the molecular weight (MW) distribution and concentration of SF, as well as the ionic strength and pH of the buffer solution. Changing the conditions under which the SF fiber dissolved in the Lithium Boride (LiBr) solution resulted in altering the MW distribution of SF solution. Under optimal salting-out conditions (ionic strength > 0.7 M and pH > 7) and using a smaller and narrower SF MW distribution, SF microspheres with smoother shapes and more uniform sizes were produced. Meanwhile, the size and polydispersity of the microspheres increased when the SF concentration was increased from 0.25 mg/mL to 20 mg/mL. The improved SF microspheres, obtained by altering the distribution of molecular weight, have potential in drug and gene delivery applications. - Highlights: • MW distribution was changed by applying different dissolving methods of SF fiber. • Smaller and narrower MW distribution improves the quality of SF microspheres. • Size and polydispersity of microspheres increase as SF concentration increases. • Improved SF microspheres have potential in drug and gene delivery applications.

  18. Eating disorders and disordered weight and shape control behaviors in sexual minority populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Blashill, Aaron J.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Argenal, Russell L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarized trends and key findings from empirical studies conducted between 2011–2017 regarding eating disorders and disordered weight and shape control behaviors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and other sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) populations. Recent findings Recent research has examined disparities through sociocultural and minority stress approaches. Sexual minorities continue to demonstrate higher rates of disordered eating; disparities are more pronounced among males. Emerging data indicates elevated risk for disordered eating pathology among sexual minorities who are transgender or ethnic minorities. Dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs may hold promise for sexual minority males. Summary Continued research must examine the intersections of sexual orientation, gender, and ethnic identities, given emergent data that eating disorder risk may be most prominent among specific subgroups. More research is needed within sexual minorities across the lifespan. There are still a lack of eating disorder treatment and prevention studies for sexual minorities. PMID:28660475

  19. Understanding Dieting and Previous Weight Loss Attempts among Overweight and Obese Participants: Insights into My Body Is Fit and Fabulous at Work Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku; Jalil, Rohana Abdul; Wan Ishak, Wan Rosli; Hamid, Noor Fadzlina; Wan Nik, Wan Suriati; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan; Mohd, Nor Haslina; Arifin, Wan Nor; Mohamed, Wan Mohd Izani Wan; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Ismail, Rohaida; Hassim, Tengku Fatimatul Tengku; Aris, Tahir; Wan Muda, Wan Manan

    2018-01-01

    A qualitative study providing an in-depth exploration of people's view and the increasing burden of overweight and obesity is required. This study aimed to explore the understanding of dieting and previous experiences on weight loss attempts among overweight and obese government employees in Kelantan, Malaysia, prior to recruitment into the intervention program. Thirteen focus group discussions involving 129 participants from a weight-loss intervention program were conducted within the first 1 month of recruitment. These discussions were moderated by two trained researchers in the Malay language and assisted by an interview guide. They were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis was performed, and codes and themes from each discussion were constructed. The participants understood dieting with various meanings, including skipping meals and removing rice from daily diets. They applied numerous methods to lose weight and achieved various outcomes. Health and appearance, social support, and compliance with current trends were the factors motivating these participants to lose weight. Their determination to lose weight was limited by lack of self-control and motivation, experiences of unpleasant effects, influence on weight, and environmental and health factors. Real-life weight loss experiences and perceptions provided relevant insights into current weight loss management strategies. Some of these issues and misunderstandings should be emphasized in weight loss strategies during health promotion.

  20. DOE Radiological Control Manual Core Training Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, H.L.; Maisler, J.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past year, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health (EH-40) has taken a leading role in the development of new standardized radiological control training programs for use throughout the DOE complex. The Department promulgated its Radiological Control (RadCon) Manual in June 1992. To ensure consistent application of the criteria presented in the RadCon Manual, standardized radiological control core training courses and training materials have been developed for implementation at all DOE facilities. In producing local training programs, standardized core courses are to be supplemented with site-specific lesson plans, viewgraphs, student handbooks, qualification standards, question banks, and wallet-sized training certificates. Training programs for General Employee Radiological Training, Radiological Worker I and II Training, and Radiological Control Technician Training have been disseminated. Also, training committees under the direction of the Office of Health (EH-40) have been established for the development of additional core training courses, development of examination banks, and the update of the existing core training courses. This paper discusses the current activities and future direction of the DOE radiological control core training program

  1. A Mixed Methods Evaluation of a 12-Week Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program Incorporating Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildso, Christiaan; Zizzi, Sam; Gilleland, Diana; Thomas, James; Bonner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is critical in healthy weight loss, yet there is still much to be learned about psychosocial mechanisms of physical activity behavior change in weight loss. A sequential mixed methods approach was used to assess the physical and psychosocial impact of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral weight management program and explore factors…

  2. Duke Power Company's control rod wear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culp, D.C.; Kitlan, M.S. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Recent examinations performed at several foreign and domestic pressurized water reactors have identified significant control rod cladding wear, leading to the conclusion that previously believed control rod lifetimes are not attainable. To monitor control rod performance and reduce safety concerns associated with wear, Duke Power Company has developed a comprehensive control rod wear program for Ag-In-Cd and boron carbide (B 4 C) rods at the McGuire and Catawba nuclear stations. Duke Power currently uses the Westinghouse 17 x 17 Ag-In-Cd control rod design at McGuire Unit 1 and the Westinghouse 17 x 17 hybrid B 4 C control rod design with a Ag-In-Cd tip at McGuire Unit 2 and Catawba Units 1 and 2. The designs are similar, with the exception of the absorber material and clad thickness. There are 53 control rods per unit

  3. Preoperative weight loss program targeting women with overweight and hypertrophy of the breast - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Horn, J; Astrup, Arne

    2017-01-01

    with overweight for breast reduction surgery. Six women, all overweight [BMI 30.9 {28.5; 35.8} kg m (-2) ] with symptomatic hypertrophy of the breast, were included a 12-week weight loss program. All women desired reduction mammaplasty and were motivated for preoperational weight loss. The first 8 weeks consisted...... of a formula-based diet supplying 800 kcal daily, in the subsequent 4 weeks regular foods were reintroduced increasing the intake to 1200 kcal daily. Five women completed the trial, and achieved a median (range) weight loss of 10.2 (6.5; 19) kg. Initial breast volume was 1100-2500 mL per breast...

  4. Weight misperception and disordered weight control behaviors among U.S. high school students with overweight and obesity: Associations and trends, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Vivienne M; Hahn, Samantha L; Sonneville, Kendrin R

    2017-08-01

    To examine prevalence of weight misperception (incongruence between one's perceived weight status and one's actual weight status) and disordered weight control behaviors (DWCBs; unhealthy behaviors aiming to control or modify weight), associations between weight misperception and DWCBs, and temporal trends in prevalence and associations among adolescents with overweight and obesity from 1999 to 2013. Self-reported data from eight biennial cycles (1999-2013) of the cross-sectional national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used in analyses restricted to respondents with overweight/obesity. Data on weight status perception, use of fasting, purging, and diet pills to control weight, sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school were used in multivariate logistic regression models. Among U.S. high school students with overweight and obesity, no linear temporal trends were detected for prevalence of weight misperception, fasting, or purging between 1999 and 2013, while a significant linear decrease was observed for prevalence of diet pill use between 1999 and 2013 (b=-0.81, pfasting to control weight among males. No significant changes over time in associations of weight misperception with fasting or purging were observed, though the association between weight misperception and diet pill use weakened somewhat across 1999-2013. In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight misperception appears to be a robust protective factor for DWCBs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A Review of Weight Control Strategies and Their Effects on the Regulation of Hormonal Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A. Schwarz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimated prevalence of obesity in the USA is 72.5 million adults with costs attributed to obesity more than 147 billion dollars per year. Though caloric restriction has been used extensively in weight control studies, short-term success has been difficult to achieve, with long-term success of weight control being even more elusive. Therefore, novel approaches are needed to control the rates of obesity that are occurring globally. The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of how exercise, sleep, psychological stress, and meal frequency and composition affect levels of ghrelin, cortisol, insulin GLP-1, and leptin and weight control. We will provide information regarding how hormones respond to various lifestyle factors which may affect appetite control, hunger, satiety, and weight control.

  6. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  7. Effects of an intensive weight loss program on knee joint loading in obese adults with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, J; Bliddal, H; Messier, S P

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of an intensive weight loss program on knee joint loads during walking in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA).......To determine the effect of an intensive weight loss program on knee joint loads during walking in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA)....

  8. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization’s Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization’s Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity. PMID:25842385

  9. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A; Hill, Jennie L; Linnan, Laura A; Allen, Kacie C; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  10. HEALS Hypertension Control Program: Training Church Members as Program Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodani, Sunita; Beayler, Irmatine; Lewis, Jennifer; Sowders, Lindsey A

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities related to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including stroke have remained higher in the African-Americans (AAs) than in other populations. HEALS is a faith-based hypertension (HTN) control program modified according to AA community needs, and delivered by the church-lay members called church health advisors (CHAs). This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of training CHAs as HEALS program leaders. Four CHAs completed a 10-hour HEALS program training workshop at the Church, conducted by the nutrition experts. Workshop was evaluated by CHAs on their level of satisfaction, clarity of contents covered and comfort in delivery the program to the church congregation. The overall six main HEALS curriculum components were completed. Workshop was highly evaluated by CHAs on length of training, balance between content and skills development, and level of satisfaction with program delivery. Church-based culturally modified health promotion interventions conducted by the community lay members may be a way to reduce health disparities in ethnic minorities.

  11. Water quality control program in experimental circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cegalla, Miriam A.

    1996-01-01

    The Water Quality Control Program of the Experimental Circuits visualizes studying the water chemistry of the cooling in the primary and secondary circuits, monitoring the corrosion of the systems and studying the mechanism of the corrosion products transport in the systems. (author)

  12. Programming the control of magnetic field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives a short review concerning the new NMR probe measurement control system. Then it presents the new program 'CYCLOCHAMP' attached to the magnetic field measurement which also allows to cycle the magnetic field inside the cyclotrons and to equilibrate it among the SSC sectors. (authors)

  13. Comparison of a low carbohydrate and low fat diet for weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults enrolled in a clinical weight management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curry Chelsea

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that a low carbohydrate (LC diet may be equally or more effective for short-term weight loss than a traditional low fat (LF diet; however, less is known about how they compare for weight maintenance. The purpose of this study was to compare body weight (BW for participants in a clinical weight management program, consuming a LC or LF weight maintenance diet for 6 months following weight loss. Methods Fifty-five (29 low carbohydrate diet; 26 low fat diet overweight/obese middle-aged adults completed a 9 month weight management program that included instruction for behavior, physical activity (PA, and nutrition. For 3 months all participants consumed an identical liquid diet (2177 kJ/day followed by 1 month of re-feeding with solid foods either low in carbohydrate or low in fat. For the remaining 5 months, participants were prescribed a meal plan low in dietary carbohydrate (~20% or fat (~30%. BW and carbohydrate or fat grams were collected at each group meeting. Energy and macronutrient intake were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results The LC group increased BW from 89.2 ± 14.4 kg at 3 months to 89.3 ± 16.1 kg at 9 months (P = 0.84. The LF group decreased BW from 86.3 ± 12.0 kg at 3 months to 86.0 ± 14.0 kg at 9 months (P = 0.96. BW was not different between groups during weight maintenance (P = 0.87. Fifty-five percent (16/29 and 50% (13/26 of participants for the LC and LF groups, respectively, continued to decrease their body weight during weight maintenance. Conclusion Following a 3 month liquid diet, the LC and LF diet groups were equally effective for BW maintenance over 6 months; however, there was significant variation in weight change within each group.

  14. Let's get technical! Gaming and technology for weight control and health promotion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Frankel, Leslie

    2012-02-01

    Most children, including lower socioeconomic status and ethnic minority children, play video games, use computers, and have cell phones, and growing numbers have smart phones and electronic tablets. They are comfortable with, even prefer, electronic media. Many expect to be entertained and have a low tolerance for didactic methods. Thus, health promotion with children needs to incorporate more interactive media. Interactive media for weight control and health promotion among children can be broadly classified into web-based educational/therapeutic programs, tailored motivational messaging systems, data monitoring and feedback systems, active video games, and diverse forms of interactive multimedia experiences involving games. This article describes the primary characteristics of these different technological methods; presents the strengths and weaknesses of each in meeting the needs of children of different ages; emphasizes that we are in the earliest stages of knowing how best to design these systems, including selecting the optimal requisite behavioral change theories; and identifies high-priority research issues. Gaming and technology offer many exciting, innovative opportunities for engaging children and promoting diet and physical activity changes that can contribute to obesity prevention and weight loss maintenance. Research needs to clarify optimal procedures for effectively promoting change with each change procedure.

  15. A randomised controlled trial comparing weight adjusted dose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prophylactic phenylephrine infusion combined with a fluid co-load is proven to be an effective and safe method of maintaining maternal hemodynamic stability. ... for non-urgent caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia were randomized into 2 groups; control group and intervention group using a computer generated ...

  16. Developing a consumer evaluation tool of weight control strategy advertisements on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevorasirikul, Kanokrat; Gray, Nicola J; Anderson, Claire W

    2008-06-01

    To develop two evaluation tools for weight loss and weight gain advertisements on the Internet in order to help consumers to evaluate the quality of information within these advertisements. One hundred websites identified by Internet search engines for weight loss and weight gain strategies (50 websites each) were evaluated using two specific scoring instruments, developed by adapting questions from the 'DISCERN' tool and reviewing all related weight control guidelines and advertising regulations. The validity and reliability of the adapted tools were tested. Our evaluation tools rated the information from most websites as poor quality (70%). In the case of weight loss strategies, statements about rapid (18%) and permanent (28%) weight loss caused concern as well as lack of sensible advice about dieting and a lack of product warnings (84%). Safety concerns relating to weight gain products were the lack of warnings about side effects in products containing steroids and creatine (92%). The adapted tools exhibited acceptable validity and reliability. Quality of information within weight control advertisements on the Internet was generally poor. Problems of false claims, little advice on healthy ways to modify weight and few warnings on side effects have been highlighted in this study.

  17. Weight-Control Methods, 3-Year Weight Change, and Eating Behaviors: A Prospective Nationwide Study of Middle-Aged New Zealand Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sook Ling; Gray, Andrew; Haszard, Jillian; Horwath, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    The effectiveness of women's weight-control methods and the influences of dieting on eating behaviors remain unclear. Our aim was to determine the association of various weight-control methods at baseline with weight change to 3 years, and examine the association between baseline weight-control status (trying to lose weight, trying to prevent weight gain or no weight-control attempts) and changes in intuitive eating and binge eating at 3 years. A nationally representative sample of 1,601 New Zealand women (40 to 50 years) was recruited and completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline regarding use of variety of weight-control methods. Information on demographic characteristics, weight, height, food habits, binge eating, and intuitive eating were collected at baseline and 3 years. Linear and logistic regression models examined associations between both weight status and weight-control methods at baseline and weight change to 3 years; and baseline weight-control status and change in intuitive eating from baseline to 3 years and binge eating at 3 years. χ(2) tests were used to cross-sectionally compare food habits across the weight status categories at both baseline and 3 years. Trying to lose weight and the use of weight-control methods at baseline were not associated with change in body weight to 3 years. There were a few differences in the frequency of consumption of high-energy-density foods between those trying to lose or maintain weight and those not attempting weight control. Trying to lose weight at baseline was associated with a 2.0-unit (95% CI 0.7 to 3.4, P=0.003) reduction in intuitive eating scores by 3 years (potential range=21 to 105), and 224% (odds ratio=3.24; 95% CI 1.69 to 6.20; Pfoods. Dieting may reduce women's ability to recognize hunger and satiety cues and place women at increased risk of binge eating. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Overview of Japanese control rods development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Japanese control rods development program was established based on the fast breeder reactor program. Therefore, PNC's efforts have been made mainly for the development of analysis, design and fabrication technologies for ''JOYO'' and ''MONJU'' control rods. Laboratory studies were performed to obtain the information for absorber materials. The design and fabrication of the sealed and vented type control rod pins were completed, and water loop tests and in-sodium tests were carried out. Irradiation behavior of enriched B 4 C pellets with low and high density in DFR was examined. Japan's experimental fast reactor, JOYO, has been operated at the rated power of 50MWt and 75MWt since April 1977 when the MK-I core (breeder core) attained initial criticality. Post irradiation examinations on control rod, removed from the reactor, were carried out and their performance behavior were evaluated. In the MK-II core, a control rods monitoring program has been in investigation. Absorber Materials Irradiation Rigs (AMIR) are scheduled to be loaded and irradiated in the JOYO MK-II core from 1984. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Behavioral Theory and Integrated Internet/telephone Technologies to Support Military Obesity and Weight Management Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Obesity - Cushing’s Syndrome (97%) - Hypothyroidism - Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (10-80%) - Growth Hormone Deficiency - Drug-Induced Weight Gain...interventions and two methods of follow up counseling on weight loss in overweight active duty military service members after 3 months. Participants...different weight control behaviors (dietary fat, fruits and vegetables, portion control, beverage choices, exercise) and weight loss after 3 months

  20. Object oriented programming interfaces for accelerator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, L.T.

    1997-01-01

    Several years ago, the AGS controls group was given the task of developing software for the RHIC accelerator. Like the AGS, the RHIC control system needs to control and monitor equipment distributed around a relatively large geographic area. A local area network connects this equipment to a collection of UNIX workstations in a central control room. Similar software had been developed for the AGS about a decade earlier, but isn't well suited for RHIC use for a number of reasons. Rather than adapt the AGS software for RHIC use, the controls group opted to start with a clean slate. To develop software that would address the shortcomings of the AGS software, while preserving the useful features that evolved through years of use. A current trend in control system design is to provide an object oriented programming interface for application developers. This talk will discuss important aspects and features of object oriented application programming interfaces (APIs) for accelerator control systems, and explore why such interfaces are becoming the norm

  1. Application of cool wan flow control weight scale design on belt conveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djokorayono, Rony; Junus; Rivai, A; Gunarwan; Indarzah

    2003-01-01

    Control of the coal mass flow on the belt conveyor at coal handling unit PLTU Suralaya has been designed by using weight scale of gamma absorption technique where accuracy for the measurement of weight scale system is 0,5% to 0,1%. The absorption gamma radiation will be measured by scintillation or ion chamber detector

  2. Motivational "spill-over" during weight control: increased self-determination and exercise intrinsic motivation predict eating self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jutta; Silva, Marlene N; Vieira, Paulo N; Carraça, Eliana V; Andrade, Ana M; Coutinho, Sílvia R; Sardinha, Luis B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2009-11-01

    Successful weight management relies on at least two health behaviors, eating and exercise. However, little is known about their interaction on a motivational and behavioral level. Based on the Hierarchical Model of Motivation the authors examined whether exercise-specific motivation can transfer to eating regulation during a lifestyle weight control program. The authors further investigated whether general, treatment-related, and exercise motivation underlie the relation between increased exercise and improved eating regulation. Overweight/obese women participated in a 1-year randomized controlled trial (N = 239). The intervention focused on promoting physical activity and internal motivation for exercise and weight loss, following Self-Determination Theory. The control group received general health education. General and exercise specific self-determination, eating self-regulation variables, and physical activity behavior. General self-determination and more autonomous exercise motivation predicted eating self-regulation over 12 months. Additionally, general and exercise self-determination fully mediated the relation between physical activity and eating self-regulation. Increased general self-determination and exercise motivation seem to facilitate improvements in eating self-regulation during weight control in women. These motivational mechanisms also underlie the relationship between improvements in exercise behavior and eating regulation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of a Medifast meal replacement program on weight, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese adults: a multicenter systematic retrospective chart review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Christopher D; Kiel, Jessica R; Mitola, Andrea H; Langford, Janice S; Davis, Kevin N; Arterburn, Linda M

    2015-08-06

    Recent medical guidelines emphasize the importance of actively treating overweight and obesity with diet and lifestyle intervention to achieve ≥ 5% weight loss in a 6-month period. Commercial programs offer one approach provided there is evidence of their efficacy and safety. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Medifast® 4 & 2 & 1 Plan™ on weight loss, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese adults. A systematic retrospective chart review of 310 overweight and obese clients following the Medifast 4 & 2 & 1 Plan at one of 21 Medifast Weight Control Centers® was conducted. Data were recorded electronically and key data points were independently verified. The primary endpoint was change from baseline body weight at 12 weeks. Within group paired t-tests were used to examine changes from baseline in a completers population. Differences between gender and age subgroups were examined using bivariate t-tests and mixed model regression analyses. For the primary endpoint at 12 weeks, body weight among completers (n = 185) was reduced by a mean of 10.9 ± 5.6 kg (-10.1%, p meal plan was well tolerated, and program adherence was >85%. The 4 & 2 & 1 Plan used at Medifast Weight Control Centers was effective for weight loss, preservation of lean mass and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors. The plan was generally well tolerated in a broad population of overweight and obese adults. #NCT02150837.

  4. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, William E.

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above.

  5. Effect on 12-week Intensive Dietary and Exercise Program on Weight Reduction and Maintenance in Obese Women with Weight Cycling History

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Ha Nui; Nam, Sang-Seok; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of 12-week intensive dietary and exercise intervention program on body composition and stress-related hormones in obese women and to examine the residual effect after the intervention. The participants of this study were 30 obese women who had a body mass index of over 25 kg/m2 and over 30% in body fat. They were classified into 2 groups depending on the history of weight cycling (WC); the WC group (? ?5% of the original body weight) and the non-weight cycling (...

  6. Lipidomic profiling of di- and tri-acylglycerol species in weight-controlled mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenee S King

    Full Text Available Weight control by dietary calorie restriction (DCR or exercise has been shown to prevent cancer in various models. However, the mechanisms as to how weight control is beneficial are not well understood. While previous reports have investigated the effects of weight control on total lipid levels or lipid composition within cellular membranes, there has been little work surrounding changes to individual lipids following weight control interventions. In this study, using a model of skin carcinogenesis centered on the tumor promotion stage, CD-1 mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups: ad libitum and sedentary (control, ad libitum with exercise (AL+Exe, exercise with pair feeding of a diet isocaloric with control (PF+Exe, and sedentary with 20% DCR compared to control. After ten weeks, body weight and body fat percentages significantly decreased in the PF+Exe and DCR groups but not AL+Exe when compared with sedentary controls. Murine skin and plasma samples were obtained for analysis. Lipidomics using electrospray ionization MS/MS was employed to profile triacylglycerol (TG and diacylglycerol (DG species. Both plasma and tissue TG species containing fatty acid chains with length 18:1 were significantly decreased following DCR when compared to sedentary control animals. In regards to DG, the most significant changes occurred in the plasma. DG species containing fatty acids with lengths 16:1 or 18:1 were significantly decreased in PF+Exe and DCR groups when compared to sedentary controls. Due to the significant role of TG in energy storage and DG in cellular signaling, our findings of the effects of weight control on individual TG and DG species in plasma and skin tissue following exposure to a tumor promoter, may provide insight into the mechanism of weight control on cancer prevention.

  7. Gender orientation and alcohol-related weight control behavior among male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L; Barr, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    We examine weight control behavior used to (a) compensate for caloric content of heavy alcohol use; and (b) enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol among college students. We evaluate the role of gender orientation and sex. Participants completed an online survey (N = 651; 59.9% women; 40.1% men). Weight control behavior was assessed via the Compensatory-Eating-and-Behaviors-in Response-to-Alcohol-Consumption-Scale. Control variables included sex, race/ethnicity, age, and depressive symptoms. Gender orientation was measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory. The prevalence and probability of alcohol-related weight control behavior using ordinal logistic regression are reported. Men and women do not significantly differ in compensatory-weight-control-behavior. However, regression models suggest that recent binge drinking, other substance use, and masculine orientation are positively associated with alcohol-related weight control behavior. Sex was not a robust predictor of weight control behavior. Masculine orientation should be considered a possible risk factor for these behaviors and considered when designing prevention and intervention strategies.

  8. User's Guide to the Weighted-Multiple-Linear Regression Program (WREG version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Ken; Chen, Yin-Yu; Kiang, Julie.E.

    2009-01-01

    Streamflow is not measured at every location in a stream network. Yet hydrologists, State and local agencies, and the general public still seek to know streamflow characteristics, such as mean annual flow or flood flows with different exceedance probabilities, at ungaged basins. The goals of this guide are to introduce and familiarize the user with the weighted multiple-linear regression (WREG) program, and to also provide the theoretical background for program features. The program is intended to be used to develop a regional estimation equation for streamflow characteristics that can be applied at an ungaged basin, or to improve the corresponding estimate at continuous-record streamflow gages with short records. The regional estimation equation results from a multiple-linear regression that relates the observable basin characteristics, such as drainage area, to streamflow characteristics.

  9. Common endocrine control of body weight, reproduction, and bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Bone mass is maintained constant between puberty and menopause by the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The existence of a hormonal control of osteoblast activity has been speculated for years by analogy to osteoclast biology. Through the search for such humoral signal(s) regulating bone formation, leptin has been identified as a strong inhibitor of bone formation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin has shown that the effect of this adipocyte-derived hormone on bone is mediated via a brain relay. Subsequent studies have led to the identification of hypothalamic groups of neurons involved in leptin's antiosteogenic function. In addition, those neurons or neuronal pathways are distinct from neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism. Finally, the peripheral mediator of leptin's antiosteogenic function has been identified as the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetics administered to mice decreased bone formation and bone mass. Conversely, beta-blockers increased bone formation and bone mass and blunted the bone loss induced by ovariectomy.

  10. DTIPrep: Quality Control of Diffusion-Weighted Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek eOguz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, diffusion MRI (dMRI studies of the human and animal brain have been used to investigate a multitude of pathologies and drug-related effects in neuroscience research. Study after study identifies white matter (WM degeneration as a crucial biomarker for all these diseases. The tool of choice for studying WM is dMRI. However, dMRI has inherently low signal-to-noise ratio and its acquisition requires a relatively long scan time; in fact, the high loads required occasionally stress scanner hardware past the point of physical failure. As a result, many types of artifacts implicate the quality of diffusion imagery. Using these complex scans containing artifacts without quality control (QC can result in considerable error and bias in the subsequent analysis, negatively affecting the results of research studies using them. However, dMRI QC remains an under-recognized issue in the dMRI community as there are no user-friendly tools commonly available to comprehensively address the issue of dMRI QC. As a result, current dMRI studies often perform a poor job at dMRI QC.Thorough QC of diffusion MRI will reduce measurement noise and improve reproducibility, and sensitivity in neuroimaging studies; this will allow researchers to more fully exploit the power of the dMRI technique and will ultimately advance neuroscience. Therefore, in this manuscript, we present our open-source software, DTIPrep, as a unified, user friendly platform for thorough quality control of dMRI data. These include artifacts caused by eddy-currents, head motion, bed vibration and pulsation, venetian blind artifacts, as well as slice-wise and gradient-wise intensity inconsistencies. This paper summarizes a basic set of features of DTIPrep described earlier and focuses on newly added capabilities related to directional artifacts and bias analysis.

  11. Improved Birth Weight for Black Infants: Outcomes of a Healthy Start Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ruth; James, Arthur; Charoth, Remitha M.; del Carmen Sweezy, Luz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined whether participation in Healthy Babies Healthy Start (HBHS), a maternal health program emphasizing racial equity and delivering services through case management home visitation, was associated with improved birth outcomes for Black women relative to White women. Methods. We used a matched-comparison posttest-only design in which we selected the comparison group using propensity score matching. Study data were generated through secondary analysis of Michigan state- and Kalamazoo County–level birth certificate records for 2008 to 2010. We completed statistical analyses, stratified by race, using a repeated-measures generalized linear model. Results. Despite their smoking rate being double that of their matched counterparts, Black HBHS participants delivered higher birth-weight infants than did Black nonparticipants (P = .05). White HBHS participants had significantly more prenatal care than did White nonparticipants, but they had similar birth outcomes (P = .7 for birth weight; P = .55 for gestation). Conclusions. HBHS participation is associated with increased birth weights among Black women but not among White women, suggesting differential program gains for Black women. PMID:24354844

  12. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: cultural adaptations and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M; Stevens, Victor J; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia L; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62 and 50 % respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 and 5.5 kg/m(2) from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women.

  13. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sibutramine for clozapine-associated weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D C; Fan, X; Copeland, P M; Borba, C P; Daley, T B; Nguyen, D D; Zhang, H; Hayden, D; Freudenreich, O; Cather, C; Evins, A E; Goff, D C

    2007-02-01

    This study sought to examine the effectiveness of sibutramine, a weight loss agent, on clozapine-associated weight gain. This was a 12-week double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial of sibutramine for weight loss in obese clozapine-treated schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder subjects. Ten patients were enrolled into the placebo group and 11 patients into the sibutramine group. There were no significant baseline differences between the two groups on age, gender, education, ethnicity, diagnosis, weight, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure. At week 12, there were no significant differences in changes in weight, BMI, abdominal and waist circumferences, Hba1c, fasting glucose, or cholesterol levels. Sibutramine treatment did not show significant weight loss compared with placebo in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Further research with a larger sample size and longer follow-up duration is warranted.

  14. Effect of preweaning nutritional management on yearling weight response in an open-herd selection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, J D; Benyshek, L L

    1988-10-01

    Records on 276 progeny were collected in the final 2 yr (1984 and 1985) of an 8-yr Hereford cattle selection project. Selection was practiced using the top sires from the American Hereford Association's National Cattle Evaluation based on yearling weight expected progeny difference. An unselected control line was maintained to monitor environmental change. One-half of each line was creep-fed during the preweaning period for the last 2 yr to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Direct response to yearling weight selection averaged 28 +/- 8 kg. Correlated response to selection amounted to .057 +/- .028 kg/d in preweaning ADG, 14 +/- 6 kg in weaning weight, .085 +/- .033 kg/d in postweaning ADG, 4.6 +/- 1.5 cm in yearling hip height and 11.2 +/- 3.0 cm2 in yearling pelvic area. Yearling fat thickness and scrotal circumference were not significantly affected by selection. Significant effects of creep feeding were observed for yearling weight (15 +/- 3 kg), preweaning ADG (.067 +/- .012 kg/d), weaning weight (13 +/- 2 kg), yearling hip height (1.2 +/- .5 cm) and yearling fat thickness (.07 +/- .03 cm). Postweaning ADG, yearling pelvic area and yearling scrotal circumference were not affected by creep feeding. No significant genetic group x creep feeding effects were found for any of the traits analyzed, indicating calves genetically superior for growth did not gain any additional advantage from creep feeding.

  15. Systematic control of large computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedbloed, J.P.; Klieb, L.

    1986-07-01

    A package of CCL, UPDATE, and FORTRAN procedures is described which facilitates the systematic control and development of large scientific computer programs. The package provides a general tool box for this purpose which contains many conveniences for the systematic administration of files, editing, reformating of line printer output files, etc. In addition, a small number of procedures is devoted to the problem of structured development of a large computer program which is used by a group of scientists. The essence of the method is contained in three procedures N, R, and X for the creation of a new UPDATE program library, its revision, and execution, resp., and a procedure REVISE which provides a joint editor - UPDATE session which combines the advantages of the two systems, viz. speed and rigor. (Auth.)

  16. North Fork Feather River Erosion Control Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, L.

    1991-01-01

    PG and E, an investor owned gas and electric utility serving northern and central California, has been engaged since 1984 in the development and implementation of a regional erosion control program for the 954 square mile northern Sierra Nevada watersheed of the East Branch of the North Fork Feather River in Plumas County, California. PG and E entered into an agreement with 13 governmental agencies and a number of private landowners using Coordinated Resource Management and Planning: to cooperatively develop, fund and implement the program. The group has completed several field projects and has a number of additional projects in various stages of development. This paper reports that the program provides multiple environmental and economic benefits including reduction of soil erosion and sedimentation, improved fisheries, enhancement of riparian habitat, increased land values, improved recreation opportunities, and preservation of watershed resources

  17. Training Veterans to Provide Peer Support in a Weight-Management Program: MOVE!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Carr, Carol; Orr, Melinda; Kahwati, Leila C.; Weiner, Bryan J.; Kinsinger, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has implemented MOVE!, a weight-management program for veterans designed to address the increasing proportion of overweight and obese veterans. The objective of our study was to determine whether peer support employing motivational interviewing (MI) could positively influence lifestyle changes, thus expanding the reach of the MOVE! program. We describe the initial evaluation of the peer training program. Methods We developed an MI peer counselor training program for volunteer veterans, the “Buddies” program, to provide one-on-one telephone support for veterans enrolled in MOVE!. Buddies were recruited at 5 VHA sites and trained to provide peer support for the 6-month MOVE! intervention. We used a DVD to teach MI skills and followed with 2 to 3 booster sessions. We observed training, conducted pre- and posttraining surveys, and debriefed focus groups to assess training feasibility. Results Fifty-six Buddies were trained. Results indicate positive receipt of the program (89% reported learning about peer counseling and 87% reported learning communication skills). Buddies showed a small improvement in MI self-efficacy on posttraining surveys. We also identified key challenges to learning MI and training implementation. Conclusions MI training is feasible to implement and acceptable to volunteer Buddies. Trainers must assess how effectively volunteers learn MI skills in order to enhance its effective use in health promotion. PMID:24199738

  18. Body image and weight control in South Africans 15 years or older: SANHANES-1

    OpenAIRE

    Mchiza, Zandile J.; Parker, Whadi-ah; Makoae, Mokhantso; Sewpaul, Ronel; Kupamupindi, Takura; Labadarios, Demetre

    2015-01-01

    Background South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of...

  19. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body ima...

  20. Status of selected air pollution control programs, February 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The collection of status reports has been prepared in order to provide a timely summary of selected EPA air pollution control activities to those individuals who are involved with the implementation of these programs. The report contains ozone/carbon monoxide (CO) programs; mobile sources programs; particulate matter nominally 10M and less (PM-10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and lead programs; New Source Review (NSR); economics programs; emission standards programs; Indian activity programs; mobile sources programs; air toxics programs; acid rain programs; permits programs; chlorofluorocarbons programs; enforcement programs; and other programs

  1. Weight loss and frequency of body-weight self-monitoring in an online commercial weight management program with and without a cellular-connected 'smart' scale: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J G; Raynor, H A; Bond, D S; Luke, A K; Cardoso, C C; Wojtanowski, A C; Vander Veur, S; Tate, D; Wing, R R; Foster, G D

    2017-12-01

    Evaluate the effects of an online commercial weight management program, with and without provision of a 'smart' scale with instructions to weigh daily and weekly tailored feedback, on weight loss and the frequency of body-weight self-monitoring. Participants (N = 92; body mass index 27-40 kg/m 2 ) were randomized to 6 months of no-cost access to the Weight Watchers Online (WWO) platform alone, or enhanced with a cellular-connected 'smart' scale, instructions to weigh daily and weekly pre-scripted email feedback (Weight Watchers Online Enhanced [WWO-E]). The number of days that weight was self-monitored (via 'smart' scale in WWO-E and manually in WWO) was recorded automatically across the 6-month trial. Objective weight was measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months. While both groups achieved statistically significant weight loss, mean ± standard error weight loss did not differ between WWO-E and WWO at 3 months (5.1 ± 0.6 kg vs. 4.0 ± 0.7 kg, respectively; p = 0.257) or 6 months (5.3 ± 0.6 kg vs. 3.9 ± 0.7 kg, respectively; p = 0.116). However, a greater proportion of WWO-E lost ≥5% of initial body weight at 3 months (52.2% vs. 28.3%; p = 0.033), but not 6 months (43.5% vs. 30.4%; p = 0.280), compared with WWO. Mean ± standard deviation days with self-monitored weight was higher in WWO-E (80.5 ± 5.6; 44.7% of days) than WWO (12.0 ± 1.0; 6.7% of days; p weight loss (52% vs. 28%) in an online commercial weight management program. Both WWO and WWO-E produced significant weight loss over 6 months. While mean weight losses were slightly greater in the enhanced group, the difference was not statistically significant in this small sample. This study provides support for the clinical utility of online commercial weight management programs and the potential for supporting technology such as 'smart' scales to improve adherence to body-weight self-monitoring and clinical outcomes.

  2. Robust Control Design via Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, L. H.; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of synthesizing or designing a feedback controller of fixed dynamic order. The closed loop specifications considered here are given in terms of a target performance vector representing a desired set of closed loop transfer functions connecting various signals. In general these point targets are unattainable with a fixed order controller. By enlarging the target from a fixed point set to an interval set the solvability conditions with a fixed order controller are relaxed and a solution is more easily enabled. Results from the parametric robust control literature can be used to design the interval target family so that the performance deterioration is acceptable, even when plant uncertainty is present. It is shown that it is possible to devise a computationally simple linear programming approach that attempts to meet the desired closed loop specifications.

  3. Modifications to the control program HASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, M.; Dall'Olio, L.; Mareso, T.; Ricci, F.

    1973-01-01

    Modification to HASP version 3, level 0, a control program for an electronic computer, was described with the purpose of solving some operative and managing problems not solved by the standard version for the IBM 360/75 computer. The application and utilization of these facilities require a deep knowledge of the HASP II design, version 3, level 0, 360D-05.1.014

  4. DTIPrep: quality control of diffusion-weighted images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ipek; Farzinfar, Mahshid; Matsui, Joy; Budin, Francois; Liu, Zhexing; Gerig, Guido; Johnson, Hans J; Styner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, diffusion MRI (dMRI) studies of the human and animal brain have been used to investigate a multitude of pathologies and drug-related effects in neuroscience research. Study after study identifies white matter (WM) degeneration as a crucial biomarker for all these diseases. The tool of choice for studying WM is dMRI. However, dMRI has inherently low signal-to-noise ratio and its acquisition requires a relatively long scan time; in fact, the high loads required occasionally stress scanner hardware past the point of physical failure. As a result, many types of artifacts implicate the quality of diffusion imagery. Using these complex scans containing artifacts without quality control (QC) can result in considerable error and bias in the subsequent analysis, negatively affecting the results of research studies using them. However, dMRI QC remains an under-recognized issue in the dMRI community as there are no user-friendly tools commonly available to comprehensively address the issue of dMRI QC. As a result, current dMRI studies often perform a poor job at dMRI QC. Thorough QC of dMRI will reduce measurement noise and improve reproducibility, and sensitivity in neuroimaging studies; this will allow researchers to more fully exploit the power of the dMRI technique and will ultimately advance neuroscience. Therefore, in this manuscript, we present our open-source software, DTIPrep, as a unified, user friendly platform for thorough QC of dMRI data. These include artifacts caused by eddy-currents, head motion, bed vibration and pulsation, venetian blind artifacts, as well as slice-wise and gradient-wise intensity inconsistencies. This paper summarizes a basic set of features of DTIPrep described earlier and focuses on newly added capabilities related to directional artifacts and bias analysis.

  5. Effect of an Internet-Based Program on Weight Loss for Low-Income Postpartum Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Hagobian, Todd; Brannen, Anna; Hatley, Karen E; Schaffner, Andrew; Muñoz-Christian, Karen; Tate, Deborah F

    2017-06-20

    Postpartum weight retention increases lifetime risk of obesity and related morbidity. Few effective interventions exist for multicultural, low-income women. To test whether an internet-based weight loss program in addition to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC program) for low-income postpartum women could produce greater weight loss than the WIC program alone over 12 months. A 12-month, cluster randomized, assessor-blind, clinical trial enrolling 371 adult postpartum women at 12 clinics in WIC programs from the California central coast between July 2011 and May 2015 with data collection completed in May 2016. Clinics were randomized to the WIC program (standard care group) or the WIC program plus a 12-month primarily internet-based weight loss program (intervention group), including a website with weekly lessons, web diary, instructional videos, computerized feedback, text messages, and monthly face-to-face groups at the WIC clinics. The primary outcome was weight change over 12 months, based on measurements at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Secondary outcomes included proportion returning to preconception weight and changes in physical activity and diet. Participants included 371 women (mean age, 28.1 years; Hispanic, 81.6%; mean weight above prepregnancy weight, 7.8 kg; mean months post partum, 5.2 months) randomized to the intervention group (n = 174) or standard care group (n = 197); 89.2% of participants completed the study. The intervention group produced greater mean 12-month weight loss compared with the standard care group (3.2 kg in the intervention group vs 0.9 kg in standard care group, P income postpartum women, an internet-based weight loss program in addition to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC program) compared with the WIC program alone resulted in a statistically significant greater weight loss over 12 months. Further research is needed to

  6. Cost Effectiveness of a Weight Management Program Implemented in the Worksite: Translation of Fuel Your Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Phaedra S; Ingels, Justin B; Padilla, Heather M; Zuercher, Heather; DeJoy, David M; Vandenberg, Robert J; Wilson, Mark G

    2018-04-18

    Conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the Fuel Your Life (FYL) program dissemination. Employees were recruited from three workplaces randomly assigned to one of the conditions: telephone coaching, small group coaching, and self-study. Costs were collected prospectively during the efficacy trial. The main outcome measures of interest were weight loss and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The phone condition was most costly ($601-$589/employee) and the self-study condition was least costly ($145-$143/employee). For weight loss, delivering FYL through the small group condition was no more effective, yet more expensive, than the self-study delivery. For QALYs, the group delivery of FYL was in an acceptable cost-effectiveness range ($22,400/QALY) relative to self-study (95% CI: $10,600/QALY - dominated). Prevention programs require adaptation at the local level and significantly affect the cost, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of the program.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  7. Effects of Greenselect Phytosome? on weight maintenance after weight loss in obese women: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Gilardini, Luisa; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Di Pierro, Francesco; Risso, Paolo; Invitti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Background Most subjects regain weight after weight loss due to compensatory adaptations finalized to maintain stable body energy stores. Green tea (GT) preparations, which help maintain energy expenditure while dieting could be a useful strategy to facilitate weight maintenance. The usefulness of GT preparations in weight maintenance has been poorly studied so far with conflicting results. This study evaluated if a supplement of GSP and piperine helps obese women to maintain the weight loss ...

  8. Plastic surgery improves long-term weight control after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagué, Nicolas; Combescure, Christophe; Huber, Olivier; Pittet-Cuénod, Brigitte; Modarressi, Ali

    2013-10-01

    The positive impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on weight, comorbidities, and health-related quality of life is well documented. However, 50 percent of patients regain some of the lost weight after 2 years with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and present a mean weight regain of 10 to 15 percent after several years, partially losing the previously obtained benefits. The authors hypothesize that body contouring could decrease weight regain, leading to better long-term weight control after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In a matched control study, variations in weight for 98 patients with body contouring after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were compared with those of 102 matched control patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass alone. Data were collected prospectively at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and then yearly until 7 years. After a massive mean weight loss of 45.2 kg during the first 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass alone presented a higher continuous mean weight regain than those with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and body contouring (1.78 kg/year versus 0.51 kg/year of weight regain, respectively; p = 0.001). After 7 years, patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass presented significantly higher mean weight regain than patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and body contouring (i.e., 10.8 percent versus 3.6 percent mean weight gain, respectively; p weight of 2.04 kg by body contouring, the weight regain was 22.9 kg for patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass alone and only 6.2 kg for those with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and body contouring. The authors demonstrated that patients with body contouring present better long-term weight control after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Therefore, body contouring must be considered as a reconstructive operation in the treatment of morbid obesity. Therapeutic, III.

  9. Evaluation on the Effect of Load Follow Controller's Weighting Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Keuk Jong; Lee, Jae Gon [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    there are several important physical effects that limit the possibilities of power variations in NPPs. Some major effects are moderator and xenon effect. Moderator effect is relation with moderator density change and xenon effect is relation with the concentration change of Xe-135 which could affect axial power shape. These effects are more significant with large magnitudes of power variations and they are considered as major disturbances at the aspect of control method. Due to the above physical effects, it is necessary to carefully change nuclear power considering power distribution change in the core. So, when nuclear plants are required to operate on load variation mode, we could control not only reactor power but also power distribution. Generally, power distribution is controlled by reactor operators who have enough experience, whereas reactor power is automatically controlled by automatic controllers. So, it is necessary to design an automatic controller that controls both reactor power and power distribution for frequent load following operation. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD (KHNP) has been developing automatic load follow controller as a part of Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+) development. The developing controller is composed of three algorithms which could control reactor power and axial power shape. This paper aimed to evaluate the effect of the controller’s weighting factors. So, in this paper, we identify the meaning of the weighting factors and the controlled output weighting factors are selected among them. In this study, the effect of output weighting factors is analyzed. According to the simulation results, it is recommended that the weighting factor of power be between 200 and 400 and that of ASI be between 200 and 600. In the near future, based on the study, optimization of power and ASI weighting factors will be performed at the same time.

  10. A naturalistic multicenter trial of a 12-week weight management program for overweight and obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Eun Ju; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2008-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and feasibility of a weight control program for overweight and obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder using a large sample across various clinical settings. Psychiatric patients taking antipsychotics participated in a 12-week weight management program at 33 clinical centers across South Korea, and the data for 232 subjects who had a body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m(2) or above and were diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were used in the final analysis. The primary measures of efficacy were changes in body weight and BMI. The study was conducted from December 2005 to July 2006. These patients showed significant mean +/- SD reductions in BMI (0.98 +/- 1.01 kg/m(2), p weight loss. Although significant differences in BMI reduction occurred between groups classified by clinical setting and compliance, all sex, age, clinical setting, compliance, and initial BMI groups showed significant BMI reductions, which fell between 0.4 and 1.5 kg/m(2). Overall results suggest that a weight management program may be disseminated and adopted by practitioners across settings, resulting in short-term weight loss in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

  11. Effects of a tailored lifestyle self-management intervention (TALENT) study on weight reduction: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchart, Dieter; Löw, Peter; Wühr, Erich; Kehl, Victoria; Weidenhammer, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are globally increasing risk factors for diseases in the context of metabolic syndrome. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate whether there are any existing differences between two lifestyle intervention strategies with respect to weight reduction after 1 year. A total of 166 subjects with a body mass index of 28-35 kg/m 2 were enrolled in this trial at seven study centers; 109 were randomly allocated to the intervention group (comprehensive lifestyle modification program: web-based Individual Health Management [IHM]) with 3-month reduction phase plus 9-month maintenance phase, and 57 were allocated to the control group (written information with advice for healthy food habits: usual care [UC]). Body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, laboratory findings, and bioimpedance analysis used to determine body composition were measured at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The primary outcome parameter was body weight at month 12 compared to baseline. With respect to baseline status there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. Based on the intent-to-treat population, body weight showed a mean decrease of 8.7 kg (SD 6.1) in the intervention group (IHM) and 4.2 kg (SD 5) in the control group (UC) at month 12. This statistically significant difference ( P <0.001) was confirmed by various sensitivity analyses. Body mass index, waist circumference, high-density lipid cholesterol, body fat, and the ratio of fat and body cell mass improved to a significantly higher degree in the IHM group. IHM proved to be superior to UC in weight reduction after 1 year. With a mean loss of about 10% of the baseline weight, a clinically high relevant risk reduction for cardio-metabolic diseases is achievable.

  12. School-Based Obesity-Prevention Policies and Practices and Weight-Control Behaviors among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Caspi, Caitlin E; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-02-01

    The promotion of healthy eating and physical activity within school settings is an important component of population-based strategies to prevent obesity; however, adolescents may be vulnerable to weight-related messages, as rapid development during this life stage often leads to preoccupation with body size and shape. This study examines secular trends in secondary school curricula topics relevant to the prevention of unhealthy weight-control behaviors; describes cross-sectional associations between weight-related curricula content and students' use of weight-control behaviors; and assesses whether implementation of school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices is longitudinally related to students' weight-control behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey (grades 9 and 12) data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to examine secular trends, cross-sectional associations (n=141 schools), and longitudinal associations (n=42 schools). Students self-reported their height and weight along with past-year use of healthy (eg, exercise), unhealthy (eg, fasting), and extreme (eg, use laxatives) weight-control behaviors. Descriptive statistics, generalized estimating equations, and generalized linear regression models accounting for school-level demographics. There was no observable pattern during the years 2008 to 2014 in the mean number of curricula topics addressing unhealthy weight-control behaviors, despite an increase in the prevalence of curricula addressing acceptance of body-size differences. Including three vs fewer weight-control topics and specifically including the topic of eating disorders in the curricula was related to a lower school-level percent of students using any extreme weight-control behaviors. In contrast, an overall measure of implementing school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices (eg, prohibited advertising) was unrelated to use of unhealthy or extreme behaviors

  13. The effect of weight controllability beliefs on prejudice and self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Natasha M.; Breadsell, Dana

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test for the presence of prejudice towards obesity and whether weight controllability beliefs information reduces this prejudice and impacts on a person’s own healthy eating self-efficacy. The experiment randomly allocated 346 participants (49 males) into one of three conditions: controllable contributors toward obesity condition (e.g., information about personal control about diet and exercise); uncontrollable contributors toward obesity condition (e.g., information about genes, factors in society); and a control condition with no information given. Prejudice was present in 81% of the sample. High prejudice was predicted by low self-efficacy for exercise and weight. Weight controllability beliefs information had no significant effect on prejudice levels or exercise or healthy eating self-efficacy levels. Future research directions are discussed. PMID:26966679

  14. An overview of the Families Improving Together (FIT) for weight loss randomized controlled trial in African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Resnicow, Ken; Van Horn, M Lee; St George, Sara M; Siceloff, E Rebekah; Alia, Kassandra A; McDaniel, Tyler; Heatley, VaShawn; Huffman, Lauren; Coulon, Sandra; Prinz, Ron

    2015-05-01

    The Families Improving Together (FIT) randomized controlled trial tests the efficacy of integrating cultural tailoring, positive parenting, and motivational strategies into a comprehensive curriculum for weight loss in African American adolescents. The overall goal of the FIT trial is to test the effects of an integrated intervention curriculum and the added effects of a tailored web-based intervention on reducing z-BMI in overweight African American adolescents. The FIT trial is a randomized group cohort design the will involve 520 African American families with an overweight adolescent between the ages of 11-16 years. The trial tests the efficacy of an 8-week face-to-face group randomized program comparing M + FWL (Motivational Plus Family Weight Loss) to a comprehensive health education program (CHE) and re-randomizes participants to either an 8-week on-line tailored intervention or control on-line program resulting in a 2 (M + FWL vs. CHE group) × 2 (on-line intervention vs. control on-line program) factorial design to test the effects of the intervention on reducing z-BMI at post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up. The interventions for this trial are based on a theoretical framework that is novel and integrates elements from cultural tailoring, Family Systems Theory, Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory. The intervention targets positive parenting skills (parenting style, monitoring, communication); cultural values; teaching parents to increase youth motivation by encouraging youth to have input and choice (autonomy-support); and provides a framework for building skills and self-efficacy through developing weight loss action plans that target goal setting, monitoring, and positive feedback. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Weight control behaviors in overweight/obese U.S. adults with diagnosed hypertension and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chaoyang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major risk factor for development and progression of hypertension and diabetes, which often coexist in obese patients. Losing weight by means of energy restriction and physical activity has been effective in preventing and managing these diseases. However, weight control behaviors among overweight/obese adults with these conditions are poorly understood. Methods Using self-reported data from 143,386 overweight/obese participants (aged ≥ 18 years in the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examined the proportion of overweight/obese adults who tried to lose weight and their weight control strategies by hypertension and/or diabetes status. Results Among all participants, 58% of those with hypertension, 60% of those with diabetes, and 72% of those with both diseases tried to lose weight, significantly higher than the 50% of those with neither condition (Bonferroni corrected P Conclusion The proportion of overweight/obese patients with diagnosed hypertension and/or diabetes who attempted to lose weight remains suboptimal and the weight control strategies varied significantly among these patients.

  16. Controller design approach based on linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryo; Shibasaki, Hiroki; Ogawa, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Takahiro; Ishida, Yoshihisa

    2013-11-01

    This study explains and demonstrates the design method for a control system with a load disturbance observer. Observer gains are determined by linear programming (LP) in terms of the Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion and the final-value theorem. In addition, the control model has a feedback structure, and feedback gains are determined to be the linear quadratic regulator. The simulation results confirmed that compared with the conventional method, the output estimated by our proposed method converges to a reference input faster when a load disturbance is added to a control system. In addition, we also confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method by performing an experiment with a DC motor. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  17. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Krohn Garnæs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition.This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46 or control (standard maternity care (n = 45. Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18 and in late pregnancy (week 34-37, as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group. Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19 compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43. Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1% compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%, with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  18. Moderator Roles of Optimism and Weight Control on the Impact of Playing Exergames on Happiness: The Perspective of Social Cognitive Theory Using A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huynh Van; Huang, Han-Chung; Wong, May-Kuen; Yang, Ya-Hui; Huang, Tzu-Ling; Teng, Ching-I

    2018-04-30

    The literature on exergames has examined their impact on user-perceived psychological health (i.e., user-perceived happiness), but little is known about whether such an impact depends on user characteristics. Therefore, this study used the perspective of social cognitive theory (SCT) to identify potential moderators (i.e., whether the user is optimistic or attempting to control his or her weight) of the impact of playing exergames on user-perceived happiness. This large-scale randomized controlled trial recruited 337 college students (of whom 57.3% were female and all were aged 20-40 years) as participants. The participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group or the control group. Participants in the intervention group were asked to use an Xbox 360 to play 1 of 10 exergame programs for 30 minutes once a week for 2 weeks. Participants in the control group were not required to do so. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used for the analyses. The analytical results indicate that playing exergames helped to maintain happiness levels and prevented them from decreasing. The maintained happiness was more prominent among participants who were trying to control their weight, but did not differ between participants who were highly optimistic and those who were less optimistic. This study is the first using SCT to explain the contingent effect of playing exergames on user happiness. Exergames can maintain happiness among users, and such maintenance can be the strongest among users who are trying to control their weight.

  19. Asthma and obesity: does weight loss improve asthma control? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juel CTB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Trunk-Black Juel,1 Zarqa Ali,1 Lisbeth Nilas,2 Charlotte Suppli Ulrik11Respiratory Section, Internal Medicine Unit, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre, DenmarkAim and methods: Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma.Results: Weight loss in obese individuals with doctor-diagnosed asthma is associated with a 48%–100% remission of asthma symptoms and use of asthma medication. Published studies, furthermore, reveal that weight loss in obese asthmatics improves asthma control, and that especially surgically induced weight loss results in significant improvements in asthma severity, use of asthma medication, dyspnoea, exercise tolerance, and acute exacerbations, including hospitalizations due to asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in obese asthmatics is associated with improvements in level of lung function and airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, whereas no significant improvements have been observed in exhaled nitric oxide or other markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation.Conclusion: Overweight and obese adults with asthma experience a high symptomatic remission rate and significant improvements in asthma control, including objective measures of disease activity, after weight loss. Although these positive effects of weight loss on asthma-related health outcomes seem not to be accompanied by remission or improvements in markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation, it has potentially important implications for the future burden of asthma.Keywords: asthma, weight loss, diet, bariatric surgery, asthma control

  20. Mediating effect of perceived overweight on the association between actual obesity and intention for weight control; role of race, ethnicity, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although obesity is expected to be associated with intention to reduce weight, this effect may be through perceived overweight. This study tested if perceived overweight mediates the association between actual obesity and intention to control weight in groups based on the intersection of race and gender. For this purpose, we compared Non-Hispanic White men, Non-Hispanic White women, African American men, African American women, Caribbean Black men, and Caribbean Black women. Methods: National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003 included 5,810 American adults (3516 African Americans, 1415 Caribbean Blacks, and 879 Non-Hispanic Whites. Weight control intention was entered as the main outcome. In the first step, we fitted race/gender specific logistic regression models with the intention for weight control as outcome, body mass index as predictor and sociodemographics as covariates. In the next step, to test mediation, we added perceived weight to the model. Results: Obesity was positively associated with intention for weight control among all race × gender groups. Perceived overweight fully mediated the association between actual obesity and intention for weight control among Non-Hispanic White women, African American men, and Caribbean Black men. The mediation was only partial for Non-Hispanic White men, African American women, and Caribbean Black women. Conclusions: The complex relation between actual weight, perceived weight, and weight control intentions depends on the intersection of race and gender. Perceived overweight plays a more salient role for Non-Hispanic White women and Black men than White men and Black women. Weight loss programs may benefit from being tailored based on race and gender. This finding also sheds more light to the disproportionately high rate of obesity among Black women in US.

  1. How strongly does appetite counter weight loss? Quantification of the feedback control of human energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, David; Sanghvi, Arjun; Seeley, Randy; Hall, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the feedback control of energy intake in response to long-term covert manipulation of energy balance in free-living humans. Methods We used a validated mathematical method to calculate energy intake changes during a 52 week placebo-controlled trial in 153 patients treated with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitor that increases urinary glucose excretion thereby resulting in weight loss without patients being directly aware of the energy deficit. We analyzed the relationship between the body weight time course and the calculated energy intake changes using principles from engineering control theory. Results We discovered that weight loss leads to a proportional increase in appetite resulting in eating above baseline by ~100 kcal/day per kg of lost weight – an amount more than 3-fold larger than the corresponding energy expenditure adaptations. Conclusions While energy expenditure adaptations are often thought to be the main reason for slowing of weight loss and subsequent regain, feedback control of energy intake plays an even larger role and helps explain why long-term maintenance of a reduced body weight is so difficult. PMID:27804272

  2. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health…

  3. Controlling for the use of extreme weights in bank efficiency assessments during the financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Zhu, Minyan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for bank efficiency assessment, based on weight restricted DEA, that limits banks’ abilities to use extreme weights, corresponding to extreme judgements of the risk adjusted prices on funding sources and assets. Based on a data set comprising the largest European banks during...... the financial crisis, we illustrate the impact of the proposed weight restrictions in two different efficiency models; one related to banks’ funding mix and one related to their asset mix. The results show that using a more balanced set of weights tend to reduce the estimated efficiency scores more for those...... banks which were bailed out during the crisis, which confirms the potential bias within standard DEA that does not control for extreme weights applied by highly risky banks. We discuss the use of the proposed method as a regulatory tool to constrain discretion when complying with regulatory capital...

  4. An improved instrument setpoint control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, J.S. Jr.; George, R.T.; Kincaid, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Instrument setpoints have a definite and often significant impact on plant safety, reliability, and availability. Although typically overshadowed by plant design, modification, and physical change activities, instrument setpoints can alter plant status and system operating characteristics just as significantly. Recognizing the need for a formal program that provides configuration control of instrument setpoints, provides a readily accessible and clearly documented basis for instrument setpoints, and integrates and coordinates operations, engineering, and maintenance activities that influence the basis for instrument setpoints, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) is developing an Improved Instrument Setpoint Control Program (IISCP) that incorporates current industry guidance and practices and state-of-the-art information systems technology. The IISCP was designed around PECo's then existing business processes for setpoint control, determination, and maintenance. A task force representing the various constituencies from both plants and the engineering and services organizations were formed to identify objectives and design features for the IISCP. Utilizing industry standards and guidance, regulatory documents, the experiences and good practices obtained from other utilities, and PECo's nuclear group strategies, objectives, and goals, specific objectives were identified to enhance the business processes

  5. Referral to a Commercial Weight Management Program in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease: A PILOT STUDY IN THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minneboo, Madelon; Peters, Ron J. G.; Miller-Kovach, Karen; Lemmens, Jeanine; Bucx, Jeroen J. J.

    2015-01-01

    To quantify the impact of a commercial weight management program on weight change in obese patients with coronary heart disease. An observational, single-center pilot study in the Netherlands. Forty-five patients diagnosed with a recent acute coronary syndrome and a body mass index of >30 kg/m2 were

  6. History of weight control attempts among adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Anna; Shomaker, Lauren B; Field, Sara E; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2014-05-01

    Loss of control (LOC) eating and a weight control attempt (WCA) history during adolescence are important behavioral risk factors for eating disorders and obesity. The current study investigated the significance of the presence of a WCA history among adolescent girls with LOC eating. Participants were 114 obesity-prevention-seeking 12-17-year-old (M = 14.5, SD = 1.7 years) girls who were between the 75th and 97th body mass index (BMI) percentile (BMI-z: M = 1.5, SD = 0.3) and reported LOC eating episodes during the previous month (M = 4.0, SD = 4.9 episodes; Median = 2.0). Measures included the Eating Disorder Examination to assess LOC eating, eating pathology, and WCA history, and self-report questionnaires for symptoms of general psychopathology. Eating behavior was observed during a laboratory meal designed to capture a LOC eating episode. 67.5% reported a WCA history. As compared to girls without a WCA history (no-WCA), those with a WCA history (WCA) had greater disordered eating attitudes and depressive symptoms (ps frequency (ps > .10). During the laboratory meal, WCA consumed less energy from snack-type foods than no-WCA (M = 245.0, SD = 156.1 vs. M = 341.6, SD = 192.3 kcal; p = .01). Reported WCAs are highly prevalent and are associated with greater psychopathology symptoms among adolescent girls with LOC eating. Prospective data are needed to determine whether these overlapping risk behaviors confer differential vulnerability for developing eating disorders and obesity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Frequency-Weighted Model Predictive Control of Trailing Edge Flaps on a Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaignet, Damien; Couchman, Ian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    flapwise blade root moment and trailing edge flap deflection. Frequency-weighted MPC is chosen for its ability to handle constraints on the trailing edge flaps deflection, and to target at loads with given frequencies only. The controller is first tested in servo-aeroelastic simulations, before being......This paper presents the load reduction achieved with trailing edge flaps during a full-scale test on a Vestas V27 wind turbine. The trailing edge flap controller is a frequency-weighted linear model predictive control (MPC) where the quadratic cost consists of costs on the zero-phase filtered...

  8. Model ZD-I paper base weight measuring and controlling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nianzu; Song Debin; Wu Guoliang; Hou Yaoxin; Li Dazhen

    1988-01-01

    Model ZD-I Base Weight Measuring and Controlling System has been developed for the automation process in paper-making industry. A single-board microprocessor is installed in the system. The mass thickness can be controlled within 1 g/m 2 if the changing range of concentration and water content is less than 10%

  9. [Challenges in nutrition-based treatment for weight control in adolescents suffering from schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Michal; Levi, Mazal; Zalsman, Gil

    2008-11-01

    The rate of overweight people amongst schizophrenia sufferers is higher than it is in the general population and this is true even prior to starting drug treatment. It is well known that anti-psychotic medications increase the severity of weight control problems. It seems that weight gain is even more significant in adolescents than in adults. The mechanisms in those medications which cause weight gain are not well understood. Hormones like Leptin, Ghrelin and others are being investigated in relation to this issue. Various interventions, like weight loss medications, were investigated in adults suffering from schizophrenia but not in adolescents. Other weight loss interventions, for example behavior therapy, were also investigated in adults, both as preventive measures and as treatment for already present excessive weight. Even caloric limitation was attempted in closed adult wards. The majority of studies show that there is only a small loss of weight and the patients maintain their high Body Mass Index (BMI). Among adolescents suffering from schizophrenia it was found that weight gain results mostly from increase in caloric intake. The easy availability of processed foods and their relatively low cost, result in the positive caloric balance. During adolescence there is increased sensitivity to outer appearance, however, those youngsters have great difficulty following professionals' advice for a balanced diet. This is particularly hard for those adolescents who are treated with antipsychotics and suffer from increased appetite. In a comparative study of various weight loss treatments for children it was found that the most efficient one is group weight loss clinics intended strictly for parents. The efficacy of such group weight loss clinics for parents of schizophrenia suffering adolescents should also be investigated.

  10. Low/No Calorie Sweetened Beverage Consumption in the National Weight Control Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, Victoria A.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Thomas, J. Graham; Ogden, Lorraine G.; Roberts, Susan A.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Wing, Rena R.; Hill, James O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate prevalence of and strategies behind low/no calorie sweetened beverage (LNCSB) consumption in successful weight loss maintainers. Methods An online survey was administered to 434 members of the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR, individuals who have lost ≥13.6 kg and maintained weight loss for > 1 year). Results While few participants (10%) consume sugar-sweetened beverages on a regular basis, 53% regularly consume LNCSB. The top five reasons for choosing LNCSB were for taste (54%), to satisfy thirst (40%), part of routine (27%), to reduce calories (22%) and to go with meals (21%). The majority who consume LNCSB (78%) felt they helped control total calorie intake. Many participants considered changing patterns of beverage consumption to be very important in weight loss (42%) and maintenance (40%). Increasing water was by far the most common strategy, followed by reducing regular calorie beverages. Conclusions Regular consumption of LNCSB is common in successful weight loss maintainers for various reasons including helping individuals to limit total energy intake. Changing beverage consumption patterns was felt to be very important for weight loss and maintenance by a substantial percentage of successful weight loss maintainers in the NWCR. PMID:25044563

  11. Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of a Worksite-Based Weight Gain Prevention Program: The NHF-NRG In Balance-Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, L.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Baak, van M.A.; Brug, J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Examine the effectiveness of the worksite-based weight gain prevention program Netherlands Heart Foundation-Netherlands Research program weight Gain prevention In Balance, with regard to behavioral changes and corresponding cognitive determinants. METHODS:: A nonrandomized

  12. Monitoring control program as a tool for regulatory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Peres, Sueli da; Lauria, Dejanaira C.; Martins, Nadia S.F.; Rio, Monica A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for developing, establishing and carrying out an independent assessment to verify the adequacy, effectiveness and accuracy of environmental radiological control carried out by licensed and controlled facilities. This independent assessment is performed by Environmental Monitoring Control Program (MCP). The MCP is a regulatory control and its main goal is to provide public and environment with an appropriate protection level against harmful effects of ionising radiation. The main purpose of the MCP is to verify whether applicable requirements prescribed by legislation are met, the environmental radiological control of the facilities are adequate and effective and the facilities are able to generate valid measuring results. The MCP is carried out in order to evaluate the quality of environmental radiation monitoring programs (EMP) and the effectiveness of their implementation, sampling conditions in the field, changes of environmental aspects in the impact area, adequacy of and adherence to procedures established and other applicable documents, technical competence of the staff and the necessary resources to ensure the required quality of the EMP. The MCP has been performed by activities should include inspecting and auditing of several types of nuclear and radioactive facilities. The inspection programme include the joint sampling program (CCP). The aim of the CCP is to check data of environmental monitoring of operator. The MCP was implemented in 1994. Ever since several problems related to the environmental control performed by operator was identified. The most important of them include problems related to the preparation and analysis of environmental samples, training of personnel, necessary resources, adherence of procedures to the purpose of the monitoring, fulfillment of procedures established, adequacy of the EMP and EMP

  13. Body image and weight control in youth: 9-year international trends from 24 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quick, V.; Nansel, T.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    for weight loss were assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey conducted in 24 countries cross-sectionally at three time points (2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010). Logistic regression models examined change over time in overestimation of body size in non-overweight adolescents......-perceived overweight with increased odds of dieting diminished over time. CONCLUSIONS: Body size perceptions among adolescents may have changed over time concurrent with shifts in country-level body weight. However, controlling for country-level overweight prevalence did not impact trends in dieting for weight loss...

  14. Effects of a Family-Based Childhood Obesity Treatment Program on Parental Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Cæcilie; Dahl, Maria; Stjernholm, Theresa; Nielsen, Tenna R H; Bøjsøe, Christine; Fonvig, Cilius E; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment and to evaluate changes in the parents' weight statuses during their child's treatment. The study included parents of 1,125 children and adolescents aged 3-22 years, who were enrolled in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. At baseline, weight and height of the parents were obtained by self-reported information and parental body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Weight and height of the children were measured in the clinic and BMI standard deviation scores were calculated. Furthermore, anthropometric data from parents of 664 children were obtained by telephone interview after a mean of 2.5 years of treatment (ranging 16 days to 7 years), and changes in parental BMI were analyzed. Data on changes in BMI were available in 606 mothers and 479 fathers. At baseline, the median BMI of the mothers was 28.1 kg/m2 (range: 16.9-66.6), and the median BMI of the fathers was 28.9 kg/m2 (range: 17.2-48.1). Seventy percent of the mothers and 80% of the fathers were overweight or obese at the time of their child's treatment initiation. Both the mothers and fathers lost weight during their child's treatment with a mean decrease in BMI in the mothers of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2-0.8, p = 0.0006) and in the fathers of 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2-0.6, p = 0.0007). Of the overweight/obese parents, 60% of the mothers and 58% of the fathers lost weight during their child's treatment. There is a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment. Family-based childhood obesity treatment with a focus on the child has a positive effect on parental BMI with both mothers and fathers losing weight. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00928473.

  15. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (Pfat oxidation when compared with a low-GI diet (Pfat oxidation was associated with regain in fat mass (r=0.43, Pcarbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  16. Effects of a Worksite Weight-Control Programme in Obese Male Workers: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Yae; Murayama, Nobuko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled crossover trial to evaluate the effects of a new worksite weight-control programme designed for men with or at risk of obesity using a combination of nutrition education and nutrition environmental interventions. Subjects and methods: Male workers with or at risk of obesity were recruited for this…

  17. Effect on 12-week Intensive Dietary and Exercise Program on Weight Reduction and Maintenance in Obese Women with Weight Cycling History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ha Nui; Nam, Sang-Seok; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the effect of 12-week intensive dietary and exercise intervention program on body composition and stress-related hormones in obese women and to examine the residual effect after the intervention. The participants of this study were 30 obese women who had a body mass index of over 25 kg/m 2 and over 30% in body fat. They were classified into 2 groups depending on the history of weight cycling (WC); the WC group (≥ ±5% of the original body weight) and the non-weight cycling (NWC) group. Both groups were subject to a nutritional intervention program every 2 weeks with a mandatory exercise intervention for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the nutrition/exercise interventions were ceased for 12 weeks, after which the participants' levels of the hormones relating to energy metabolism and stress, meal intakes, dietary habits, level of knowledge on sodium intake, frequency of sodium intake, and quality of life (QOL) were checked. The changes of body weight were 71.3 ± 5.5 kg (week 0) vs. 65.0 ± 6.6 kg (week 12) vs. 65.6 ± 7.1 kg (week 24) in WC group and 71.6 ± 8.6 kg (week 0) vs. 68.8 ± 9.7 kg (week 12) vs. 70.3 ± 9.4 kg (week 24) in the NWC group. The levels of hormones, meal intakes, and QOL scores were better in the WC group, as adherence to the nutritional intervention was higher. We suggest that that adherence to dietary habits heavily influences weight loss and maintenance in individuals who frequently attempt to lose weight and consequently go through a vicious cycle of weight recycling.

  18. Exercise program affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  19. Elearning approaches to prevent weight gain in young adults: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Charoula Konstantia; Hankey, Catherine Ruth; Lean, Michael Ernest John

    2015-12-01

    Preventing obesity among young adults should be a preferred public health approach given the limited efficacy of treatment interventions. This study examined whether weight gain can be prevented by online approaches using two different behavioral models, one overtly directed at obesity and the other covertly. A three-group parallel randomized controlled intervention was conducted in 2012-2013; 20,975 young adults were allocated a priori to one control and two "treatment" groups. Two treatment groups were offered online courses over 19 weeks on (1) personal weight control ("Not the Ice Cream Van," NTICV) and, (2) political, environmental, and social issues around food ("Goddess Demetra," "GD"). Control group received no contact. The primary outcome was weight change over 40 weeks. Within-group 40-week weight changes were different between groups (P < 0.001): Control (n = 2,134): +2.0 kg (95% CI = 1.5, 2.3 kg); NTICV (n = 1,810): -1.0 kg (95% CI = -1.3, -0.5); and GD (n = 2,057): -1.35 kg (95% CI = -1.4 to -0.7). Relative risks for weight gain vs. NTICV = 0.13 kg (95% CI = 0.10, 0.15), P < 0.0001; GD = 0.07 kg (95% CI = 0.05, 0.10), P < 0.0001. Both interventions were associated with prevention of the weight gain observed among control subjects. This low-cost intervention could be widely transferable as one tool against the obesity epidemic. Outside the randomized controlled trial setting, it could be enhanced using supporting advertising and social media. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  20. Exploring parent attitudes around using incentives to promote engagement in family-based weight management programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Jacob-Files

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Incentives can promote adult wellness. We sought to examine whether incentives might help overcome barriers to engagement in child weight management programs and the ideal value, type and recipient of incentives. In 2017, we conducted semi-structured phone interviews with parents of children ≤17 years old, formerly or currently affected by obesity, who had (n = 11 or had never (n = 12 participated in family-based behavioral treatment (FBT for obesity. Interviews explored the range and type of incentives families would be willing to accept. Interview transcripts were coded and data were analyzed using a thematic analysis. We found that some parents were skeptical about receiving cash incentives. However, once treatment-related costs were identified, some became more interested in reimbursement for out of pocket expenditures. Most parents felt up to $100/month would be adequate and that incentives should be tied to changing behaviors, not BMI. Some interviewees expressed preferences for non-cash incentives (e.g. a gift card over cash incentives. Parents were willing to share incentives with adolescents, up to $50/month, but there was concern about incentives affecting a child's intrinsic motivation for behavior change. All parents acknowledged that moderate incentives alone couldn't overcome the realities of structural and familial barriers to engaging in weight management programs. In summary, we identified aspects of an incentive program to promote engagement in FBT that would be desirable and feasible to implement. Future quantitative work can reveal the value and structure of incentives that are effective for improving obesogenic health behaviors and outcomes. Keywords: Behavioral economics, Family-based treatment, Financial incentives, Health incentives, Childhood obesity

  1. Postoperative outcomes in bariatric surgical patients participating in an insurance-mandated preoperative weight management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrew; Hutcheon, Deborah A; Hale, Allyson; Ewing, Joseph A; Miller, Megan; Scott, John D

    2018-02-02

    Many insurance companies require patient participation in a medically supervised weight management program (WMP) before offering approval for bariatric surgery. Clinical data surrounding benefits of participation are limited. To evaluate the relationship between preoperative insurance-mandated WMP participation and postoperative outcomes in bariatric surgery patients. Regional referral center and teaching hospital. A retrospective review of patients who underwent vertical sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass between January 2014 and January 2016 was performed. Patients (N = 354) were divided into 2 cohorts and analyzed according to presence (n = 266) or absence (n = 88) of an insurance-mandated WMP requirement. Primary endpoints included rate of follow-up and percent of excess weight loss (%EWL) at postoperative months 1, 3, 6, and 12. All patients, regardless of the insurance-mandated WMP requirement, followed a program-directed preoperative diet. The majority of patients with an insurance-mandated WMP requirement had private insurance (63.9%). Both patient groups experienced a similar proportion of readmissions and reoperations, rate of follow-up, and %EWL at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months (P = NS). Median operative duration and hospital length of stay were also similar between groups. Linear regression analysis revealed no significant improvement in %EWL at 12 months in the yes-WMP group. These data show that patients who participate in an insurance-mandated WMP in addition to completing a program-directed preoperative diet experience no significant benefit to rate of readmission, reoperation, follow-up, or %EWL up to 12 months postoperation. Our findings suggest that undergoing bariatric surgery without completing an insurance-mandated WMP is safe and effective. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The correlation between preoperative volumetry and real graft weight: comparison of two volumetry programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussin, Nadiar; Sumo, Marco; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Choi, YoungRok; Choi, Jin Yong; Ahn, Sung-Woo; Yoon, Kyung Chul; Kim, Hyo-Sin; Hong, Suk Kyun; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2017-04-01

    Liver volumetry is a vital component in living donor liver transplantation to determine an adequate graft volume that meets the metabolic demands of the recipient and at the same time ensures donor safety. Most institutions use preoperative contrast-enhanced CT image-based software programs to estimate graft volume. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of 2 liver volumetry programs (Rapidia vs . Dr. Liver) in preoperative right liver graft estimation compared with real graft weight. Data from 215 consecutive right lobe living donors between October 2013 and August 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. One hundred seven patients were enrolled in Rapidia group and 108 patients were included in the Dr. Liver group. Estimated graft volumes generated by both software programs were compared with real graft weight measured during surgery, and further classified into minimal difference (≤15%) and big difference (>15%). Correlation coefficients and degree of difference were determined. Linear regressions were calculated and results depicted as scatterplots. Minimal difference was observed in 69.4% of cases from Dr. Liver group and big difference was seen in 44.9% of cases from Rapidia group (P = 0.035). Linear regression analysis showed positive correlation in both groups (P < 0.01). However, the correlation coefficient was better for the Dr. Liver group (R 2 = 0.719), than for the Rapidia group (R 2 = 0.688). Dr. Liver can accurately predict right liver graft size better and faster than Rapidia, and can facilitate preoperative planning in living donor liver transplantation.

  3. Environmental Scan of Weight Bias Exposure in Primary Health Care Training Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Russell-Mayhew

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative attitudes and beliefs about individuals with obesity (also known as weight bias have negative consequences for physical and mental health for individuals with obesity and impact the quality of care provided by health professionals. A preliminary environmental scan of college and university training programs was conducted consisting of 67 degree and diploma granting programs from 22 institutions in Alberta, targeting programs training future health professionals. Publicly available online course descriptions were examined for weight-related keywords. Keyword frequency was used to determine the extent that coursework addressed weight-related issues. The results suggested that courses are structured to include learning about general health promotion as well as lifestyle factors that may contribute to obesity but may not systematically include learning about weight bias or its potential impact. Our findings highlight the need for further in-depth investigations as well as the need to enhance current curricula in higher education by including information related to weight, obesity and weight bias. Les attitudes et les croyances négatives concernant les personnes obèses (également connues comme partialité contre les obèses ont des conséquences négatives sur la santé physique et mentale des personnes obèses et affectent la qualité des soins qui leur sont prodigués par les professionnels de la santé. Nous avons mené une étude environnementale préliminaire des programmes de formation universitaires et collégiaux qui a porté sur 67 programmes menant à un certificat ou à un diplôme dans 22 établissements d’Alberta, et nous avons principalement visé les programmes de formation de futurs professionnels de la santé. Les descriptions de cours en ligne accessibles au grand public ont été examinées et les mots clés faisant référence aux problèmes de poids ont été identifiés. Les résultats suggèrent que les cours sont

  4. A Lifestyle Program of Exercise and Weight Loss is Effective in Preventing and Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Why Are Programs Not More Available?

    OpenAIRE

    Ades, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (< 1 year) can go into remission after weight loss and exercise in a majority of motivated individuals, obviating a need for glucose lowering medications. Yet, lifestyle programs to support such behavior change are not widely available. Moreover, health care ins...

  5. Weight control in schizophrenic patients through Sakata's Charting of Daily Weight Pattern and its associations with temperament and character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Ryoei; Matsuo, Hisae; Naono-Nagatomo, Keiko; Ozono, Kazuhiko; Araki, Ryuji; Ishikawa, Michiko; Abe, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yasushi

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether daily self-monitoring of weight and monthly interviews with a doctor improved eating habits and led to weight loss, and whether temperament and character traits affect weight change in persons with schizophrenia. Participants used Sakata's Charting of Daily Weight Pattern to monitor their weight daily. In addition, Sakata's Eating Behavior Questionnaire was administered to evaluate eating-behavior awareness. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used to assess participants' temperament and character. Fifty patients were divided into two groups: the intervention group (n = 25) filled in Sakata's Charting of Daily Weight Pattern every day; was interviewed monthly by a doctor about weight management; was weighed monthly. The non-intervention group (n = 25) was only weighed monthly. The body mass index (mean ± standard error: 0.59 ± 0.10 kg/m(2), p Weight change and TCI scores were not correlated for the intervention group, but scores for "self-directedness" and weight gain in the non-intervention group had a marginally significant negative correlation (r = -0.33, p weight daily on Sakata's Charting of Daily Weight Pattern led to improvements in eating behavior and a decrease in BMI of patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Body image and weight control in South Africans 15 years or older: SANHANES-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Parker, Whadi-Ah; Makoae, Mokhantso; Sewpaul, Ronel; Kupamupindi, Takura; Labadarios, Demetre

    2015-09-30

    South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of data were undertaken for 6 411 South Africans (15+ years) participating in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body image was investigated in relation to weight status and attempts to lose or gain weight. Data were analysed using STATA version 11.0. Descriptive statistics are presented as counts (numbers), percentages, means, standard error of means, and 95 % confidence intervals. Any differences in values were considered to be significantly different if the confidence intervals did not overlap. Overall, 84.5 % participants had a largely distorted body image and 45.3 % were highly dissatisfied about their body size. Overweight and obese participants under estimated their body size and desired to be thinner. On the other hand, normal- and under-weight participants over estimated their body size and desired to be fatter. Only 12.1 and 10.1 % of participants attempted to lose or gain weight, respectively, mainly by adjusting dietary intake and physical activity. Body mass index appears to influence body image and weight adjustment in South Africa. South Africans at the extreme ends of the body mass index range have a largely distorted body image and are highly dissatisfied by it. This suggests a need for health education and beneficial weight control strategies to halt the obesity epidemic in the country.

  7. Framing obesity a disease: Indirect effects of affect and controllability beliefs on weight bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Sarah; Alberga, Angela S; MacInnis, Cara; Ellard, John H; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2018-05-24

    Obesity has been declared a disease by the American and Canadian Medical Associations. Although these declarations sparked much debate as to the impact of framing obesity as a disease on weight bias, strong empirical research is needed to examine this impact. The current study examined the impact of framing obesity a disease on weight bias, focusing on moderating and mediating processes. A sample of 309 participants living in the United States or Canada was recruited from Crowdflower. Participants completed measures of demographics, ideology, general attitudes, and previous contact quality and quantity with people living with obesity. Participants then read one of three articles as part of an experimental manipulation framing obesity as a disease, obesity not as a disease, and a control article unrelated to obesity. Post-manipulation included measures of affect, disgust, empathy, blame, and weight bias. Orthogonal contrasts were used to compare the obesity-disease condition to the obesity-not-disease condition and control condition. The manipulation had a direct effect on affect (emotions), such that affect toward individuals with obesity was more positive in the obesity-disease condition than the obesity-not-disease and control condition combined. Exploration of moderating effects revealed that both the belief in a just world and weight satisfaction moderated the relationship between the obesity-disease manipulation and blame for obesity. Two models of indirect effects on weight bias were also examined, which demonstrated that the obesity-disease manipulation predicted less weight bias through more positive affect (model 1) as well as less weight bias through decreased blame among individuals high in belief in a just world (model 2). This study further highlights the complex effects of declaring obesity a disease, uncovering a new direction for future research into the role of affect as well as indirect effects of characterising obesity a disease on weight bias.

  8. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cettour-Rose Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  9. Unhealthy weight control behaviours in adolescent girls: a process model based on self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2010-06-01

    This study used self-determination theory (Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2000). The 'what' and 'why' of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.) to examine predictors of body image concerns and unhealthy weight control behaviours in a sample of 350 Greek adolescent girls. A process model was tested which proposed that perceptions of parental autonomy support and two life goals (health and image) would predict adolescents' degree of satisfaction of their basic psychological needs. In turn, psychological need satisfaction was hypothesised to negatively predict body image concerns (i.e. drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction) and, indirectly, unhealthy weight control behaviours. The predictions of the model were largely supported indicating that parental autonomy support and adaptive life goals can indirectly impact upon the extent to which female adolescents engage in unhealthy weight control behaviours via facilitating the latter's psychological need satisfaction.

  10. The Association between Inappropriate Weight Control Behaviors and Suicide Ideation and Attempt among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Jang, Suk Yong; Shin, Jaeyong; Ju, Yeong Jun; Nam, Jin Young; Park, Eun Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents globally, and body weight is also a recognized reason for adolescent suicide. Therefore, we investigated the association between weight control behaviors (WCB) and suicide ideation and attempt, focusing on inappropriate weight control measures. We used data from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, representing a total of 35,224 boys and 34,361 girls aged 12 to 18 years. Adolescents were classified into groups based on WCB: appropriate WCB, inappropriate WCB, and no WCB. We performed logistic regression models to examine associations between WCB and suicide ideation and attempt, controlling for covariates. Both boys and girls with inappropriate WCB were more likely to report suicide ideation and attempt. Underweight and normal weight boys with inappropriate WCB were more likely to think or attempt suicide, and underweight girls with inappropriate WCB were also more likely to attempt suicide. Among five common WCB combinations, the combination of "regular exercise, fasting, eating less" was highly associated with suicide ideation and attempt. We confirmed that inappropriate WCB is associated with suicide ideation and attempt among Korean adolescents. Given the high incidence rate of suicide among adolescents and the adverse effect of inappropriate WCB, encouraging adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is imperative.

  11. Psychological control by parents is associated with a higher child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P J; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike

    2011-10-01

    In this examination of the association between parenting style and child weight, the neglected concept of 'psychological control' has been added to the generally accepted parenting dimensions 'support' and 'behavioural control'. Also explored is whether the potential association between parenting and child weight is moderated by socio-demographic variables (child's age/ethnicity, and parent's education level). A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,665 parent-child dyads. The children's mean age was 8 years. Their height and weight were measured to calculate their body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure the three parenting dimensions. Based on these dimensions, five parenting styles were defined: the authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, neglecting and rejecting parenting style. Child BMI z-scores were regressed on parenting style, adjusting for parental BMI, child ethnicity, and parent's education level. Rejecting parenting, characterized by high psychological control, low support and low behavioural control, is the only parenting style significantly related to child BMI z-scores (β = 0.074, p parenting, this study has further elucidated the mechanisms whereby parenting may affect child weight. Demonstrating that 'rejecting parenting' is associated with a higher child weight, emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies in which parenting style is measured three-dimensionally. Potential mediating effects of parental feeding style and children's eating style, as well as age moderation, should be included in these studies.

  12. Effluent controls and environmental monitoring programs for uranium milling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maixner, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Controls will reduce gaseous, particulate, and liquid discharges. Monitoring programs are used to determine effectiveness. The controls and programs discussed are used at Cotter Corporation's Canon City Mill in Colorado. 3 refs

  13. Quantifying feedforward control: a linear scaling model for fingertip forces and object weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Bilaloglu, Seda; Aluru, Viswanath; Raghavan, Preeti

    2015-07-01

    The ability to predict the optimal fingertip forces according to object properties before the object is lifted is known as feedforward control, and it is thought to occur due to the formation of internal representations of the object's properties. The control of fingertip forces to objects of different weights has been studied extensively by using a custom-made grip device instrumented with force sensors. Feedforward control is measured by the rate of change of the vertical (load) force before the object is lifted. However, the precise relationship between the rate of change of load force and object weight and how it varies across healthy individuals in a population is not clearly understood. Using sets of 10 different weights, we have shown that there is a log-linear relationship between the fingertip load force rates and weight among neurologically intact individuals. We found that after one practice lift, as the weight increased, the peak load force rate (PLFR) increased by a fixed percentage, and this proportionality was common among the healthy subjects. However, at any given weight, the level of PLFR varied across individuals and was related to the efficiency of the muscles involved in lifting the object, in this case the wrist and finger extensor muscles. These results quantify feedforward control during grasp and lift among healthy individuals and provide new benchmarks to interpret data from neurologically impaired populations as well as a means to assess the effect of interventions on restoration of feedforward control and its relationship to muscular control. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Differences in Weight Loss Between Persons on Standard Balanced vs Nutrigenetic Diets in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankwich, Karen A; Egnatios, Jeremy; Kenyon, Mandy L; Rutledge, Thomas R; Liao, Patricia S; Gupta, Samir; Herbst, Karen L; Zarrinpar, Amir

    2015-09-01

    Many companies provide genetic tests for obesity-related polymorphisms (nutrigenetics) and make dietary recommendations for weight loss that are based on the results. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether more participants who followed a nutrigenetic-guided diet lost ≥5% of their body weight than participants on a standard balanced diet for 8 and 24 weeks. We performed a prospective study of 51 obese or overweight U.S. veterans on an established weight management program at the Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System (the MOVE! program). Participants were randomly assigned to groups placed on a nutrigenetic-guided diet (balanced, low-carbohydrate, low-fat, or Mediterranean; n = 30) or a standard balanced diet (n = 21). Nutrigenetic diets were selected on the basis of results from the Pathway FIT test. There was no significant difference in the percentage of participants on the balanced diet vs the nutrigenetic-guided diet who lost 5% of their body weight at 8 weeks (35.0% ± 20.9% vs 26.9% ± 17.1%, respectively; P = .28) or at 24 weeks. Both groups had difficulty adhering to the diets. However, adherence to the nutrigenetic-guided diet correlated with weight loss (r = 0.74; P = 4.0 × 10(-5)), but not adherence to standard therapy (r = 0.34; P = .23). Participants who had low-risk polymorphisms for obesity lost more weight than all other participants at 8 weeks (5.0% vs 2.9%, respectively; P = .02) and had significantly greater reductions in body mass index (6.4% vs 3.6%, respectively; P = .03) and waist circumference (6.5% vs 2.6%, respectively; P = .02) at 24 weeks. In a prospective study, a nutrigenetic-based diet did not increase weight loss compared with a standard balanced diet. However, genetic features can identify individuals most likely to benefit from a balanced diet weight loss strategy; these findings require further investigation. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01859403. Copyright © 2015 AGA

  15. Differences in Weight Loss Between Persons on Standard Balanced vs Nutrigenetic Diets in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Mandy L.; Rutledge, Thomas R.; Liao, Patricia S.; Gupta, Samir; Herbst, Karen L.; Zarrinpar, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Many companies provide genetic tests for obesity-related polymorphisms (nutrigenetics) and make dietary recommendations for weight loss based on the results. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether more participants who followed a nutrigenetic-guided diet lost ≥5% of their body weight than participants on a standard balanced diet, for 8 and 24 weeks. Methods We performed a prospective study of 51 obese or overweight US veterans on an established weight management program at the Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System (the MOVE! Program). Participants were randomly assigned to groups placed on a nutrigenetic-guided diet (balanced, low-carbohydrate, low-fat, or Mediterranean; n=30) or a standard balanced diet (n=21). Nutrigenetic diets were selected based on results from the Pathway FIT test (Pathway Genomics; San Diego, CA). Results There was no significant difference in the percentage of participants on the balanced diet vs the nutrigenetic-guided diet who lost 5% of their body weight at 8 weeks (35.0%±20.9% vs 26.9%±17.1%, respectively; P=.28) or at 24 weeks. Both groups had difficulty adhering to the diets. However, adherence to the nutrigenetic-guided diet correlated with weight loss (r=0.74; P= 4.0 × 10−5), but not adherence to standard therapy (r=0.34; P=.23). Participants who had low-risk polymorphisms for obesity lost more weight than all other participants at 8 weeks (5.0% vs 2.9%, respectively; P=.02), and had significantly greater reductions in body mass index (6.4% vs 3.6% respectively; P=.03) and waist circumference (6.5% vs 2.6% respectively; P=.02) at 24 weeks. Conclusions In a prospective study, a nutrigenetic-based diet did not increase weight loss compared with a standard balanced diet. However, genetic features can identify individuals most likely to benefit from a balanced diet weight loss strategy; these findings require further investigation. ClincialTrials.gov number: NCT01859403

  16. Who responds to financial incentives for weight loss? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloyo, Alfredo R; Reichert, Arndt R; Reuss-Borst, Monika; Tauchmann, Harald

    2015-11-01

    There is a paucity of evidence on the heterogeneous impacts of financial incentives on weight loss. Between March 2010 and January 2012, in a randomized controlled trial, we assigned 700 obese persons to three experimental arms. We test whether particular subgroups react differently to financial incentives for weight loss. Two treatment groups obtained a cash reward (€150 and €300 with 237 and 229 participants, respectively) for achieving an individually-assigned target weight within four months; the control group (234 participants) was not incentivized. Participants and administrators were not blinded to the intervention. We find that monetary rewards effectively induced obese individuals to reduce weight across all subgroups. However, there is no evidence for treatment-effect heterogeneity for those groups that were incentivized. Among those who were in the €300 group, statistically significant and large weight losses were observed for women, singles, and those who are not working (all above 4 kg in four months). In addition, the magnitude of the reward matters only for women and migrants. The effectiveness of financial incentives to reduce weight nevertheless raises sensitive ethical issues that should be taken into consideration by policymakers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Smartphone Technology and Text Messaging for Weight Loss in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Janna D; Yager, Allison M; Allen, Jerilyn

    Using smartphone technology and text messaging for health is a growing field. This type of technology is well integrated into the lives of young adults. However, few studies have tested the effect of this type of technology to promote weight loss in young adults OBJECTIVE:: The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of a behaviorally based smartphone application for weight loss combined with text messaging from a health coach on weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference in young adults as compared with a control condition. Sixty-two young adults, aged 18 to 25 years, were randomized to receive (1) a smartphone application + health coach intervention and counseling sessions or (2) control condition with a counseling session. All outcome measures were tested at baseline and 3 months. These included weight, BMI, waist circumference, dietary habits, physical activity habits, and self-efficacy for healthy eating and physical activity. The sample was 71% female and 39% white, with an average age of 20 years and average BMI of 28.5 kg/m. Participants in the smartphone + health coach group lost significantly more weight (P = .026) and had a significant reduction in both BMI (P = .024) and waist circumference (P technology and feedback from a health coach on improving weight in a group of diverse young adults.

  18. Effect of Comprehensive Health Promotion Program on Quality of Life, Weight, and Physical Activity among Iranian Overweight School-age Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Jafarzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and its trend in recent years has taken a worrying figure. Overweight in childhood is the most important cause of adulthood obesity. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect ofcomprehensive health program on quality of life, weight and physical activity in Iranian overweight school-age girls. Materials and Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 80 overweight girls participated in a comprehensive health program for 12 weeks in 2014. The participants were randomly selected and were assigned to intervention (n=40, and control (n=40 groups. Quality of life, weight, and physical activity scores were measured in both groups before and after the program. The data were collected by using the general quality of life questionnaire Pediatric Health-Related Quality of Life (Ped- sQL4.0 in two forms (child and parent self-report, physical activity checklist, and a Digital Stadiometer. Then in the intervention group, comprehensive health program including three stages assessment, supportive planning and evaluation was administered for three months. Data were analyzed by the SPSS version 22.0 software. Results Theresults showed no significant differences between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics, weight, physical activity, and quality of life, before intervention (P>0.05. However, statistically significant difference was found between the two groups regarding changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI, physical activity scores, and quality of life, before and after intervention (P

  19. Obesity and weight control measures: Findings from female college students of Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H K Thakkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Obesity has negative health impacts. Obese people have higher risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Overweight and obesity during young adulthood can track into later adulthood along with its higher risk for NCDs. Aims: To identify the weight control intention and dietary practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females and to know the reasons for discontinuation among ever tried subjects. Settings and Design : A cross-sectional study conducted in urban and rural colleges of Agra. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among 400 female college students. Height and weight were measured to assess body composition according to BMI (Body Mass Index criteria (WHO 2002. Study included a semi-structured and semi-open-ended instrument to assess practices related to weight control. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted. Statistical analysis used: Frequency. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be 18.5% and 4.5%, respectively, according to BMI (WHO 2002. One third of the subjects were recording their weight monthly. Slightly less than half of the subjects (46% were trying to maintain optimum weight. Almost one third of these subjects (33.5% were presently trying to lose weight. About one fifth of total 400 subjects (20.5% were not concerned about their weight status. Majority of the subjects (85% irrespective of their obesity status did not take any professional advice. More than half (52.7% were resorting to physical activity to lose weight. Taking more fruits/vegetables (44.7% was found to be the most common healthy dieting practices and most unhealthy was fasting (15.3%. More than one fourth (28.8% of the subjects abandoned weight control practices because of shortage of time followed by 22.4% due to physical weakness. Conclusions: Collectively, results indicate female college students, regardless of weight status, would benefit from open discussions

  20. Effects of manipulating eating frequency during a behavioral weight loss intervention: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Jessica L; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-05-01

    Eating frequency has been inversely related to BMI but the impact of eating frequency on weight loss is unclear. This randomized controlled trial pilot study examined the effect of eating frequency on hunger, energy intake, and weight loss during a 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants (age: 51.0 ± 9.9 years, BMI: 35.5 ± 4.8 kg/m(2), 57.8% female, 94.1% white) were randomized to one of two eating frequency prescriptions: Three meal (n = 25): three eating bouts/day; or grazing (n = 26): eat at least 100 kcals every 2-3 h. Both groups attended 20 sessions and had identical dietary (1,200-1,500 kcals/day, frequency than three meal at 6 months (5.8 ± 1.1 eating bouts/day vs. 3.2 ± 0.6 eating bouts/day, P weight loss intervention.

  1. 15 CFR 752.11 - Internal Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal Control Programs. 752.11... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.11 Internal Control Programs. (a) Scope—(1) Introduction. It is through Internal Control Programs (ICPs) that the SCL holder and the consignee assure that exports and reexports are not...

  2. Autonomy support and control in weight management: what important others do and say matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Johan Y Y; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2014-09-01

    Drawing from self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002, Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic-dialectical perspective. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 3-33). Rochester, NY: The University of Rochester Press.), we examined how individuals' psychological needs, motivation, and behaviours (i.e., physical activity and eating) associated with weight management could be predicted by perceptions of their important others' supportive and controlling behaviours. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 235 participants (mean age = 27.39 years, SD = 8.96 years) completed an online questionnaire. Statistical analyses showed that when important others were perceived to be more supportive, participants reported higher levels of more optimal forms of motivation for weight management, which in turn predicted more physical activity and healthy eating behaviours. In contrast, when important others were perceived to be controlling, participants reported higher levels of less optimal forms of motivation, which in turn predicted less physical activity and healthy eating behaviours, as well as more unhealthy eating behaviours. Significant indirect effects were also found from perceived support and control from important others to physical activity and eating behaviours, all in the expected directions. The findings support the importance of important others providing support and refraining from controlling behaviours in order to facilitate motivation and behaviours conducive to successful weight management. What is already known on this subject? Autonomy support is related to basic need satisfaction and autonomous motivation in the context of weight management. In turn, these variables are related to adaptive outcomes for weight management. What does this study add? Measurement of perceived controlling behaviours by important others. Measurement of perceived need thwarting. Structural model on how important others affect

  3. Applying Monte Carlo Concept and Linear Programming in Modern Portfolio Theory to Obtain Best Weighting Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpal Sihombing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The world is entering the era of recession when the trend is bearish and market is not so favorable. The capital markets in every major country were experiencing great amount of loss and people suffered in their investment. The Jakarta Composite Index (JCI has shown a great downturn for the past one year but the trend bearish year of the JCI. Therefore, rational investors should consider restructuring their portfolio to set bigger proportion in bonds and cash instead of stocks. Investors can apply modern portfolio theory by Harry Markowitz to find the optimum asset allocation for their portfolio. Higher return is always associated with higher risk. This study shows investors how to find out the lowest risk of a portfolio investment by providing them with several structures of portfolio weighting. By this way, investor can compare and make the decision based on risk-return consideration and opportunity cost as well. Keywords: Modern portfolio theory, Monte Carlo, linear programming

  4. The relationship between maternal periodontitis and preterm low birth weight: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheesh Mannem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between periodontal diseases in pregnancy and children born prematurely or with low birth weight has been increasingly investigated, showing positive and negative results, respectively. Objective: To evaluate the association between Maternal Periodontitis and Preterm delivery or Low Birth Weight. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 104 pregnant women without systemic disease or other risk factors for preterm labor were chosen. The control group (n = 52 had term labor (infants ≥37 weeks and the case group (n = 52 had preterm labor (infants <37 weeks. Plaque index, bleeding index, and birth weight were measured. Results: The data of plaque index (cases 1.21±0.56; controls 0.63±0.31, bleeding index (cases, 2.08±0.62; controls, 1.52±0.61, birth weight (cases, 2.01±0.36; controls 2.87±0.32, and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD ≥4mm and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL ≥3mm in at least 4 teeth (odds ratio 137.50, P value < 0.0001 revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups P< 0.05. Conclusions: A noticeable relationship between periodontal health and duration of pregnancy; periodontal disease could be a risk factor for preterm labor. Oral hygiene maintenance should be a part of prenatal care protocol.

  5. Smoking for weight control: effect of priming for body image in female restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sherry A; Nhean, Siphannay; Hinson, Riley E; Mase, Tricia

    2006-12-01

    Women are more likely than men to believe that smoking helps to control their weight, and this relationship may be more pronounced in those with eating disturbances, such as eating restraint. Restrained eaters have been shown to be more susceptible to media portrayals of idealized body image, like those used in tobacco advertising. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of an implicit prime for body image on expectations that smoking can control weight in restrained and non-restrained eaters. Participants were 40 females, who smoked an average of 7.65 (S.D.=4.38) cigarettes per day. Participants were presented with a bogus task of rating slides; either participants viewed 30 slides of nature scenes (neutral prime); or viewed 30 slides depicting fashion models (body image prime). Participants then completed questionnaires that assessed smoking expectancies, smoking history, and eating restraint. As hypothesized, restrained eaters who viewed the slides depicting models had greater likelihood ratings that smoking helps to control appetite and manage weight, in comparison to restrained eaters who viewed the control slides and non-restrained eaters who viewed either type of slides. There were no other group differences across the remaining smoking expectancy factors. Images similar to those used in tobacco advertising targeting women had the ability to elicit stronger beliefs that smoking is beneficial for weight control in a group of women who are at heightened risk for such beliefs.

  6. Improvement of Zinc Coating Weight Control for Transition of Target Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chien Ming; Lin, Jeong Hwa; Hsu, Tse Wei; Lin, Rui Rong [China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung (China)

    2010-06-15

    The product specification of the Continuous Hot Dip Galvanizing Line (CGL) changes and varies constantly with different customers' requirements, especially in the zinc coating weight which is from 30 to 150 g/m{sup 2} on each side. Since the coating weight of zinc changes often, it is very important to reduce time spent in the transfer of target values changed for low production cost and yield loss. The No.2 CGL in China Steel Corporation (CSC) has improved the control of the air knife which is designed by Siemens VAI. CSC proposed an experiment design which is an L{sub 9}(3{sup 4}) orthogonal array to find the relations between zinc coating weight and the process parameters, such as the line speed, air pressure, gap of air knife and air knife position. A non-linear regression formula was derived from the experimental results and applied in the mathematical model. A new air knife feedforward control system, which is coupled with the regression formula, the air knife control system and the process computer, is implemented into the line. The practical plant operation results have been presented to show the transfer time is obviously shortened while zinc coating weight target changing and the product rejected ratio caused by zinc coating weight out of specification is significantly reduced from 0.5% to 0.15%.

  7. Programming for controlling of pulse radiolysis setup. Program RADIO96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkowski, J.; Grodkowski, J.

    1998-01-01

    Program RADIO96 was written in Pascal using DELPHI 1.0 (Borland) programming platform. It can operate on IBM PC compatible computers in WINDOWS 3x or WINDOWS'95 environment. The program is dedicated to the pulse radiolysis setup based on the linear electron accelerator LAE 13/9 of the Department of Radiation Chemistry and Technology of the INCT. This work was based on apparatus and results described before and also on programming manuals of used equipment and technical data of programming platform. (author)

  8. Design and implementation of a randomized controlled social and mobile weight loss trial for young adults (project SMART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, K; Marshall, S J; Davila, E P; Kolodziejczyk, J K; Fowler, J H; Calfas, K J; Huang, J S; Rock, C L; Griswold, W G; Gupta, A; Merchant, G; Norman, G J; Raab, F; Donohue, M C; Fogg, B J; Robinson, T N

    2014-01-01

    To describe the theoretical rationale, intervention design, and clinical trial of a two-year weight control intervention for young adults deployed via social and mobile media. A total of 404 overweight or obese college students from three Southern California universities (M(age) = 22( ± 4) years; M(BMI) = 29( ± 2.8); 70% female) were randomized to participate in the intervention or to receive an informational web-based weight loss program. The intervention is based on behavioral theory and integrates intervention elements across multiple touch points, including Facebook, text messaging, smartphone applications, blogs, and e-mail. Participants are encouraged to seek social support among their friends, self-monitor their weight weekly, post their health behaviors on Facebook, and e-mail their weight loss questions/concerns to a health coach. The intervention is adaptive because new theory-driven and iteratively tailored intervention elements are developed and released over the course of the two-year intervention in response to patterns of use and user feedback. Measures of body mass index, waist circumference, diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior, weight management practices, smoking, alcohol, sleep, body image, self-esteem, and depression occur at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Currently, all participants have been recruited, and all are in the final year of the trial. Theory-driven, evidence-based strategies for physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary intake can be embedded in an intervention using social and mobile technologies to promote healthy weight-related behaviors in young adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Steps to Health employee weight management randomized control trial: short-term follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, Truls; Stroo, Marissa; Brouwer, Rebecca J N; Peterson, Bercedis L; Eisenstein, Eric L; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Joyner, Julie; Gulley, Libby; Dement, John M

    2015-02-01

    To present the short-term follow-up findings of the Steps to Health study, a randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two employee weight management programs offered within Duke University and the Health System. A total of 550 obese (body mass index, ≥30 kg/m2) employees were randomized 1:1 between January 2011 and June 2012 to the education-based Weight Management (WM) or the WM+ arm, which focused on behavior modification. Employees were contacted to complete a follow-up visit approximately 14 months after baseline. There were no clinically, or statistically, meaningful differences between arms, but there were modest reductions in body mass index, and positive, meaningful changes in diet and physical activity for both arms. The modest positive effects observed in this study may suggest that to achieve weight loss through the workplace more intensive interventions may be required.

  10. The weight and angle of depression detection and control system of a large portal crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lian-Wen; Xie, Hongxia; Wang, Meijing; Guan, Yankui; Leng, Gengxin

    2008-12-01

    In order to prevent overturning accidents, the lifted weight and the angle of depression should be detected when a large portal crane is working in a shipyard. However, the locations of the weight sensor and the angle of depression detection part are far away from the central control room. The long signal transmitting distance is so long that it results in a lot of interferences, even the breaking down of the system. In order to solve the above mentioned problems, a high precision analog signal amplifier and a voltage / current (V / I) transforming circuit is set at the place of the sensor to detect the weight. After the sensor signals have been amplified, they will be transformed into 4 to 20 mA current signals for transmission. Thus the interferences in the long transmitting process can be overcome. A WXJ-3 potentiometer is applied to detect the angle of depression. This device has the advantages of a high accuracy of repeated positions, a good stability and a strong anti-fatigue property. After processed by the current-strengthened circuit, the transmitted signals representing voltage value can have the characteristics of transmitting currents because of the large current value. Then the anti-jamming capability is stronger. Send the weight and the angle of depression detection signals to A/D converter, then the signals turn into digital representation and are sent to the control system composed of a PLC. The PLC calculates the current rated lifting weight depending on the different angles of depression, and when the weight is greater than the rated one, the PLC sends control signals to stop the lifting; hence the crane can only put down the weights. So the safety of the large portal crane is effectively guaranteed. At present ,the system has been applied to the 70-ton large portal cranes of the Tianjin Xingang Shipyard with a safe operation of 10 years.

  11. Nutrition Facts Use in Relation to Eating Behaviors and Healthy and Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Mary J; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Haynos, Ann F; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-03-01

    Investigate the relationship between use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods and weight-related behaviors. Cross-sectional survey in 2015-2016. Young adult respondents (n = 1,817; 57% women; average age 31.0 ± 1.6 years) to the Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults-IV survey, the fourth wave of a longitudinal cohort study. Use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods; healthy, unhealthy, and extreme weight control behaviors; intuitive eating; binge eating. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, ethnicity/race, education, income, and weight status. In women, greater Nutrition Facts use was associated with a 23% and 10% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a 17% greater chance of engaging in binge eating. In men, greater label use was associated with a 27% and 17% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a lower level of intuitive eating. Professionals advising patients and clients on weight management may consider possible gender differences in response to weight loss and management guidance. Since label use was related to engagement in some unhealthy behaviors in addition to healthy behaviors, it is important to consider how individuals may use labels, particularly those at risk for, or engaging in, disordered eating behaviors. Future research investigating potential relationships between Nutrition Facts use, intuitive eating, and binge eating is needed. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Healthy habits: efficacy of simple advice on weight control based on a habit-formation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, P; Chipperfield, A; Wardle, J

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a simple weight loss intervention, based on principles of habit formation. An exploratory trial in which overweight and obese adults were randomized either to a habit-based intervention condition (with two subgroups given weekly vs monthly weighing; n=33, n=36) or to a waiting-list control condition (n=35) over 8 weeks. Intervention participants were followed up for 8 months. A total of 104 adults (35 men, 69 women) with an average BMI of 30.9 kg m(-2). Intervention participants were given a leaflet containing advice on habit formation and simple recommendations for eating and activity behaviours promoting negative energy balance, together with a self-monitoring checklist. Weight change over 8 weeks in the intervention condition compared with the control condition and weight loss maintenance over 32 weeks in the intervention condition. At 8 weeks, people in the intervention condition had lost significantly more weight (mean=2.0 kg) than those in the control condition (0.4 kg), with no difference between weekly and monthly weighing subgroups. At 32 weeks, those who remained in the study had lost an average of 3.8 kg, with 54% losing 5% or more of their body weight. An intention-to-treat analysis (based on last-observation-carried-forward) reduced this to 2.6 kg, with 26% achieving a 5% weight loss. This easily disseminable, low-cost, simple intervention produced clinically significant weight loss. In limited resource settings it has potential as a tool for obesity management.

  13. DCS-Neural-Network Program for Aircraft Control and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program implements a dynamic-cell-structure (DCS) artificial neural network that can perform such tasks as learning selected aerodynamic characteristics of an airplane from wind-tunnel test data and computing real-time stability and control derivatives of the airplane for use in feedback linearized control. A DCS neural network is one of several types of neural networks that can incorporate additional nodes in order to rapidly learn increasingly complex relationships between inputs and outputs. In the DCS neural network implemented by the present program, the insertion of nodes is based on accumulated error. A competitive Hebbian learning rule (a supervised-learning rule in which connection weights are adjusted to minimize differences between actual and desired outputs for training examples) is used. A Kohonen-style learning rule (derived from a relatively simple training algorithm, implements a Delaunay triangulation layout of neurons) is used to adjust node positions during training. Neighborhood topology determines which nodes are used to estimate new values. The network learns, starting with two nodes, and adds new nodes sequentially in locations chosen to maximize reductions in global error. At any given time during learning, the error becomes homogeneously distributed over all nodes.

  14. A Test of Social Cognitive Theory to Explain Men's Physical Activity During a Gender-Tailored Weight Loss Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Myles D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading contributor to the burden of disease in men. Social-cognitive theories may improve physical activity (PA) interventions by identifying which variables to target to maximize intervention impact. This study tested the utility of Bandura's social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain men's PA during a 3-month weight loss program. Participants were 204 overweight/obese men (M [SD] age = 46.6 [11.3] years; body mass index = 33.1 [3.5] kg/m 2 ). A longitudinal, latent variable structural equation model tested the associations between SCT constructs (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, intention, and social support) and self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and examined the total PA variance explained by SCT. After controlling for Time 1 cognitions and behavior, the model fit the data well (χ 2 = 73.9, degrees of freedom = 39, p social support. This study provides some evidence supporting the tenets of SCT when examining PA behavior in overweight and obese men. Future PA and weight loss interventions for men may benefit by targeting self-efficacy and intention, but the utility of targeting social support and outcome expectations requires further examination. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Beneficial effect of high energy intake at lunch rather than dinner on weight loss in healthy obese women in a weight-loss program: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjd, Ameneh; Taylor, Moira A; Delavari, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Macdonald, Ian A; Farshchi, Hamid R

    2016-10-01

    The association between the time of nutrient intake and health has been described in a few studies. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the relation between high energy intakes at lunch compared with at dinner on weight loss in overweight and obese subjects. We compared the effect of high energy intake at lunch with that at dinner on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in women during a weight-loss program. Overweight and obese women [n = 80; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 27-35; age: 18-45 y] were asked to eat either a main meal at lunch (LM) or a main meal at dinner (DM) for 12 wk while in a weight-loss program. A total of 80 participants were randomly assigned to one of 2 intervention groups. Sixty-nine subjects (86%) completed the trial (34 subjects in the DM group, and 35 subjects in the LM group). Baseline variables were not significantly different between groups. A significant reduction in anthropometric measurements and significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk characteristics were observed over 12 wk in both groups. Compared with the DM group, the LM group had greater mean ± SD reductions in weight (LM: -5.85 ± 1.96 kg; DM: -4.35 ± 1.98 kg; P = 0.003), BMI (LM: 2.27± 0.76; DM: 1.68 ± 0.76; P = 0.003), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (LM: -0.66 ± 0.33; DM: -0.46 ± 0.24; P = 0.001), and fasting insulin (LM: -2.01 ± 1.10 mIU/mL; DM: -1.16 ± 0.72 mIU/mL; P dinner may result in favorable changes in weight loss in overweight and obese women after a weight-loss program of 12 wk. The consumption may also offer clinical benefits to improve insulin resistance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02399280. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Why do mothers encourage their children to control their weight? A cross-sectional study of possible contributing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Anja C; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Wirt, Tamara; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kobel, Susanne; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2014-01-01

    Background Mothers encouraging their children to control their weight is problematic as it is associated with children’s body dissatisfaction and weight concerns as well as further weight gain. The aim of this study was to identify factors in children and mothers associated with mothers encouraging their children to control their weight and possible gender differences therein. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire data was available from 1658 mothers of primary school children (mean age 7.1 ±...

  17. The effects of a 12-week program of static upper extremity weight bearing exercises on weight bearing in children with hemiplegic type of cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jayaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The  major  objective  of  this  study  was  to  quantify  the  effects  of a  12-week  program  of  weight  bearing  exercises  on  weight  borne  through  the hand and grip pressures in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. This study also sought to monitor the change in spasticity immediately following weight-bearing  exercises.  A  quasi-experimental,  one  group  pre-test,  post-test  study  was used. Eleven children with hemiplegic type of cerebral palsy from a special school in KwaZulu Natal participated after fully informed written consent. The intervention consisted of a 12-week program of weight bearing. The Tekscan Grip system was used to quantify weight borne through the hand during extended arm prone and quadruped positions and whilst holding a pencil and a tumbler. The modified Ashworth grading of spasticity was used to monitor spasticity. The data was analysed using the random effects GLS model Wald Chi Square test. Significant increases in contact pressure in extended arms prone (p=0,012 and quadruped (p=0,002 and when holding a pencil (p=0,045 was noted post-test compared to pre-test. Significant increases in contact area of the hand was also noted in prone (p=0,000, quadruped (p=0, 03 at assessment 7 and when holding a pencil (p=0,035.  A significant decrease in spasticity during elbow extension (p=0,004, and wrist flexion (p=0,026 and extension (p=0,004 was noted. An overall significant effect of static weight bearing exercises on weight borne through the hands, grip strength and spasticity justifies the use of static weight-bearing in therapy.

  18. Weight loss with a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austel, A; Ranke, C; Wagner, N; Görge, J; Ellrott, T

    2015-08-01

    There is evidence that Mediterranean diets with a high proportion of olive oil and nuts can be effective for weight management and prevention of cardiovascular disease. It might be difficult for populations with other eating habits to follow such diets. Therefore, a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification through neutral and butter-flavored canola oil, walnuts and walnut oil with two portion-controlled sweet daily snacks was tested in Germany. Randomized waiting-list control study with overweight/grade 1 obese subjects: 12-week self-help modified Mediterranean-type diet, 6 weeks of diet plans and 6 weeks of weight loss maintenance training. Trial duration was 12 months. Intervention group (IG) included 100 participants (average age of 52.4 years, weight 85.1 kg and body mass index (BMI) 30.1 kg/m(2)), waiting-list control group (CG) included 112 participants (52.6 years, 84.1 kg and 30.1 kg/m(2)). Per-protocol weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.2 kg in IG vs 0.4 kg in CG (P ⩽ 0.0001), BMI -1.8 vs -0.1 kg/m(2) (P ⩽ 0.0001), waist circumference -4.7 vs -0.9 cm (P ⩽ 0.0001). Triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol improved significantly in IG but not in CG. One-year dropouts: 44% in IG and 53% in CG. Weight loss after 12 months: 4.2 kg (pooled data). A five-meal modified Mediterranean-type diet with two daily portion-controlled sweet snacks was effective for weight management in a self-help setting for overweight and grade 1 obese subjects. Fat modification through canola oil, walnuts and walnut oil improved blood lipids even at 12 months.

  19. Mindfulness Approaches and Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy

    2018-03-01

    There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.

  20. Psychosocial and behavioural factors in the regulation of weight: Self-regulation, self-efficacy and locus control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-González, Lara; Orts-Cortés, María Isabel

    To identify the relationship and behaviour of the variables of self-control, self-efficacy and locus control in weight regulation of obese, overweight and normal weight adults. Transversal study undertaken in the Health Centre of El Coto (Gijón) from 1st April to 30th July 2015. Subjects between 18-65 years of age with a body mass index recording within the last two years. serious medical illness, eating disorders or pregnant women. Behavioural variables: self-regulation of body weight (Inventory of self-control of body weight), perceived self-efficacy in weight regulation (Inventory of perceived self-efficacy in weight regulation) and locus control in weight regulation (Inventory of locus control in weight regulation). Anthropometric variables: weight (kg) and height (m), body mass index. One hundred and six participants were included: 32 were obese, 28 overweight and 46 normal weight. Significant differences were found between the 3 study groups for total scale of self-efficacy (F=61.77; pcontrol (F=13.92; p=.019), other weighty influences of locus control (F=9.21; pcontrol (F=3.50; p=.011). The relationship between body mass index and behavioural variables of self-efficacy, self-regulation and locus control, suggests the need for healthcare professionals to include psychological factors of behaviour in any preventive action and intervention directed at weight control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Methanol-induced chain termination in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers: molecular weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A systematic study was performed to demonstrate the impact of methanol (MeOH) on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis and molecular weight (MW) control. Glycerine (init. conc. = 1.0%; w/v), was used as the primary carbon source in batch-culture fermentations with varying concentrations (0 to 0.85...

  2. Density and dry weight of pigweed by various weed control methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates effects of various weeds control methods and nitrogen fertilizer resources on density and dry weight of pigweed and the performance of corn forage as factorial in full random block design with 3 repetitions in research farm of Ferdowsi Mashhad University in 2014. The test treatments include weed ...

  3. Gender Orientation and Alcohol-Related Weight Control Behavior among Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L.; Barr, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We examine weight control behavior used to (a) compensate for caloric content of heavy alcohol use; and (b) enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol among college students. We evaluate the role of gender orientation and sex. Participants: Participants completed an online survey (N = 651; 59.9% women; 40.1% men). Method: Weight…

  4. Knowledge of nutrition and weight control of civil sevants in Osun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the knowledge of nutrition and body weight control among civil servants in Osun State of Nigeria. The study is informed by the increase in the number of men and women the world over with overweight and obesity problems. A total of 400 randomly selected civil servants (250 men and 150 women) in ...

  5. Scientific Opinion on the essential composition of total diet replacements for weight control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    or authoritative bodies. Derived from the minimum content of macronutrients, the Panel proposed a minimum energy content of total diet replacements for weight control of 2 510 kJ/day (600 kcal/day). The Panel also advised on potential conditions and restrictions of use for these products....

  6. Intrahospital Weight and Aerobic Training in Children with Cystic Fibrosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosa, Elena Santana; Groeneveld, Iris F.; Gonzalez-Saiz, Laura; López-Mojares, Luis M.; Villa-Asensi, José R.; Gonzalez, María I. Barrio; Fleck, Steven J.; Pérez, Margarita; Lucia, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    SOSA, E. S., I. F. GROENEVELD, L. GONZALEZ-SAIZ, L. M. LOPEZ-MOJARES, J. R. VILLA-ASENSI, M. I. BARRIO GONZALEZ, S. J. FLECK, M. PEREZ, and A. LUCIA. Intrahospital Weight and Aerobic Training in Children with Cystic Fibrosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 44, No. 1,

  7. Using social media to deliver weight loss programming to young adults: Design and rationale for the Healthy Body Healthy U (HBHU) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Melissa A; Whiteley, Jessica A; Mavredes, Meghan N; Faro, Jamie; DiPietro, Loretta; Hayman, Laura L; Neighbors, Charles J; Simmens, Samuel

    2017-09-01

    The transitional period from late adolescence to early adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain, with a twofold increase in overweight/obesity during this life transition. In the United States, approximately one-third of young adults have obesity and are at a high risk for weight gain. To describe the design and rationale of a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) sponsored randomized, controlled clinical trial, the Healthy Body Healthy U (HBHU) study, which compares the differential efficacy of three interventions on weight loss among young adults aged 18-35years. The intervention is delivered via Facebook and SMS Text Messaging (text messaging) and includes: 1) targeted content (Targeted); 2) tailored or personalized feedback (Tailored); or 3) contact control (Control). Recruitment is on-going at two campus sites, with the intervention delivery conducted by the parent site. A total of 450 students will be randomly-assigned to receive one of three programs for 18months. We hypothesize that: a) the Tailored group will lose significantly more weight at the 6, 12, 18month follow-ups compared with the Targeted group; and that b) both the Tailored and Targeted groups will have greater weight loss at the 6, 12, 18month follow-ups than the Control group. We also hypothesize that participants who achieve a 5% weight loss at 6 and 18months will have greater improvements in their cardiometabolic risk factors than those who do not achieve this target. We will examine intervention costs to inform implementation and sustainability other universities. Expected study completion date is 2019. This project has significant public health impact, as the successful translation could reach as many as 20 million university students each year, and change the current standard of practice for promoting weight management within university campus communities. ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02342912. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. A Behavioral Weight Loss Program and Nonurinary Incontinence Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Overweight and Obese Women with Urinary Incontinence: A Secondary Data Analysis of PRIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Benjamin N; Creasman, Jennifer M; Richter, Holly E; Myers, Deborah; Burgio, Kathryn L; Wing, Rena R; West, Delia Smith; Kusek, John W; Subak, Leslee L

    2018-01-01

    We sought to determine whether a behavioral weight reduction intervention would improve nonurinary incontinence lower urinary tract storage symptoms at 6 months, including urinary frequency, nocturia and urgency, compared to a structured education program serving as the control group among overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. PRIDE (Program to Reduce Incontinence by Diet and Exercise) was a randomized clinical trial performed in 338 overweight or obese women with urinary incontinence. Participants were randomized, including 226 to 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention and 112 to the control group. All participants received a self-help behavioral treatment booklet to improve bladder control. On this secondary data analysis we examined changes in nonurinary incontinence lower urinary tract storage symptoms from baseline to 6 months and the impact of treatment allocation (intervention vs control), weight loss and physical activity. Nonurinary incontinence lower urinary tract storage symptoms were common at baseline, varying from 48% to 62%. In the 2 groups combined women experienced significant improvement in nocturia, urgency and International Prostate Symptom Score at 6 months (all p urinary tract storage symptom outcomes at 6 months did not differ between the intervention and control groups. Similarly no difference was observed in the amount of weight lost (5% or greater vs less than 5%) or physical activity (1,500 kcal or greater expenditure per week compared to less than 1,500 kcal). Lower urinary tract storage symptoms were common among overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. The prevalence decreased significantly after 6 months independent of treatment group assignment, amount of weight lost or physical activity. These improvements may have been due to self-help behavioral educational materials, trial participation or repeat assessment of symptoms. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  9. Behavioral self-regulation for weight loss in young adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Rena R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining young adults in a brief behavioral weight loss intervention tailored for this age group, and to assess the preliminary efficacy of an intervention that emphasizes daily self-weighing within the context of a self-regulation model. Methods Forty young adults (29.1 ± 3.9 years, range 21–35, average BMI of 33.36 ± 3.4 were randomized to one of two brief behavioral weight loss interventions: behavioral self-regulation (BSR or adapted standard behavioral treatment (SBT. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment (10 weeks, and follow-up (20 weeks. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using general linear modeling in SPSS version 14.0. Results Participants in both groups attended an average of 8.7 out of 10 group meetings, and retention rates were 93% and 88% for post-treatment and follow-up assessments, respectively. Both groups achieved significant weight losses at post-treatment (BSR = -6.4 kg (4.0; SBT = -6.2 kg (4.5 and follow-up (BSR = -6.6 kg (5.5; SBT = -5.8 kg (5.2, p p = .84. Across groups, there was a positive association between frequency of weighing at follow-up and overall weight change at follow-up (p = .01. Daily weighing was not associated with any adverse changes in psychological symptoms. Conclusion Young adults can be recruited and retained in a behavioral weight loss program tailored to their needs, and significant weight losses can be achieved and maintained through this brief intervention. Future research on the longer-term efficacy of a self-regulation approach using daily self-weighing for weight loss in this age group is warranted. Clinical Trials Registration # NCT00488228

  10. The effects of media, self-esteem, and BMI on youth's unhealthy weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Brown, Sarah; Lawless, Casey; Fedele, David; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn; Janicke, David M

    2016-04-01

    Youth engage in a variety of methods to manage their weight, including unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs). The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with youth's engagement in UWCBs, including media influence, youth's BMI z-score and self-esteem. Participants were 179 youth, aged 10-17, attending a primary care clinic appointment. Youth completed questionnaires assessing frequency of UWCBs, global self-worth, and perception of media influence to lose weight. BMI z-score was calculated based on height and weight measurements obtained from medical charts. The SPSS macro, PROCESS, was used to conduct moderation analyses. Over 40% of youth endorsed using at least one UWCB in the past year. Girls reported using more UWCBs and engaging in UWCBs more frequently than boys. For boys, media influence to lose weight was only related to UWCB frequency for those with a BMI z-score of 1.23 and above. For girls, media influence was only related to UWCB frequency for those with low to average levels of global self-worth. Girls' and boys' use of UWCBs is impacted by different factors. Prevention efforts should consider targeting factors, such as weight status and self-esteem, which are uniquely associated with gender. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Transient Stability Promotion by FACTS Controller Based on Adaptive Inertia Weight Particle Swarm Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazanfar Shahgholian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC on the oscillation damping control in the network. The performance of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS controller highly depends upon its parameters and appropriate location in the network. A new Adaptive Inertia Weight Particle Swarm Optimization (AIWPSO method is employed to design the parameters of the SSSC-base controller. In the proposed controller, the proper signal of the power system such as rotor angle is used as the feedback. AIWPSO technique has high flexibility and balanced mechanism for the local and global research. The proposed controller is compared with a Genetic Algorithm (GA based controller that confirms the operation of the controller. To show the integrity of the proposed controller method, the achievement of the simulations is done out in a single-machine infinite-bus and multi-machine grid under multi turmoil.

  12. Using a technology-based intervention to promote weight loss in sedentary overweight or obese adults: a randomized controlled trial study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn W Barry

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaughn W Barry1, Amanda C McClain1, Sara Shuger1, Xuemei Sui1, James W Hardin2, Gregory A Hand1, Sara Wilcox1, Steven N Blair1,21Department of Exercise Science; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USAPurpose: The SenseWear™ Armband is an activity monitor developed to improve lifestyle self-monitoring. Currently, few studies assess electronic self-monitoring and weight loss with a lifestyle intervention program. To our knowledge, only one study has used the SenseWear Armband in combination with a lifestyle intervention to improve weight loss, and no studies have evaluated whether a self-monitoring intervention based solely on the armband can promote weight loss. Consequently, the aims of the study were to assess weight loss from electronic self-monitoring, to compare these values to the lifestyle intervention and standard care groups, and to compare weight loss with lifestyle intervention with and without the armband.Patients and methods: We recruited 197 sedentary overweight or obese adults (age, 46.8 ± 10.8 years; BMI, 33.3 ± 5.2 kg/m2 to participate in the 9-month study. Participants were randomized into one of four weight loss groups: 1 the standard care group received a self-directed weight loss program, complete with an evidence-based weight loss manual (standard care, n = 50; 2 a 14-week group-based behavioral weight loss program followed by weekly, biweekly, and monthly telephone counseling calls (GWL, n = 49; 3 the use of the armband to help improve lifestyle self-monitoring (SWA alone, n = 49; or (4 the group-based behavioral weight loss program and follow-up telephone counseling calls plus the armband (GWL + SWA, n = 49. All participants received the evidence-based weight loss manual at baseline. All measures were performed at baseline and months 4 and 9. The primary outcomes were weight loss and waist circumference reduction.Results: This study is a well-designed randomized

  13. Intelligent Control System Taking Account of Cooperativeness Using Weighting Information on System Objective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Takahashi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study considers an intelligent control system to integrate flexibly its components by using weighted information where the system evaluation is reflected. Such system evaluates the information flowing through the components and converts them by weighting depending on the degree of importance. Integration of components based on the system evaluation enables a system consisting of them to realize various, flexible and adaptive control. In this study, the intelligent control method is applied to a swing up and stabilization control problem of a number of cart and pendulum systems on a restricted straight guide. To stabilize the pendulum in a restricted environment, each system should realize not only a swing-up and stabilization control of the pendulum, but also a position control of the cart to avoid collision or deadlock. The experiment using a real apparatus demonstrated that the controller learning light interaction acquires egoistic character, the controller learning heavy interaction behaves altruistically, and the controller equally considering self cart and another cart becomes cooperative. In other words, these autonomous decentralized controllers can acquire various characters and flexibility for cooperation.

  14. Synthetic RNA Controllers for Programming Mammalian Cell Fate and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-04

    Final report for “Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function” Principal Investigator: Christina D. Smolke...SUBTITLE Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18   2 Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function Task 1

  15. Social support for healthy behaviors: Scale psychometrics and prediction of weight loss among women in a behavioral program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Michaela; Moore, Susan D.; Schoffman, Danielle E.; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C.; Taylor, C. Barr; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen; Perri, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N=267; mean BMI 32.1±3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, and weight loss was assessed at 6 months. Internal consistency, discriminant validity, and content validity were excellent for support subscales and adequate for sabotage subscales; qualitative responses revealed novel deliberate instances not reflected in current sabotage items. Most women (>75%) “never” or “rarely” experienced support from friends or family. Using non-parametric classification methods, we identified two subscales—support from friends for healthy eating and support from family for physical activity—that predicted three clinically meaningful subgroups who ranged in likelihood of losing ≥5% of initial weight at 6 months. Women who “never” experienced family support were least likely to lose weight (45.7% lost weight) whereas women who experienced both frequent friend and family support were more likely to lose weight (71.6% lost weight). Paradoxically, women who “never” experienced friend support were most likely to lose weight (80.0% lost weight), perhaps because the group-based programs provided support lacking from friendships. Psychometrics for support subscales were excellent; initial support was rare; and the differential roles of friend versus family support could inform future targeted weight-loss interventions to subgroups at risk. PMID:21996661

  16. Randomized Controlled Trial for Behavioral Smoking and Weight Control Treatment: Effect of Concurrent Versus Sequential Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bonnie; Pagoto, Sherry; Pingitore, Regina; Doran, Neal; Schneider, Kristin; Hedeker, Don

    2004-01-01

    The authors compared simultaneous versus sequential approaches to multiple health behavior change in diet, exercise, and cigarette smoking. Female regular smokers (N = 315) randomized to 3 conditions received 16 weeks of behavioral smoking treatment, quit smoking at Week 5, and were followed for 9 months after quit date. Weight management was…

  17. A randomized controlled trial testing an Internet delivered cost-benefit approach to weight loss maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M; Fava, Joseph L; Seiden, Andrew; Fernandes, Denise; Doyle, Caroline; Kent, Kimberly; La Rue, Molly; Mitchell, Marc; Wing, Rena R

    2016-11-01

    Weight loss maintenance is a significant challenge in obesity treatment. During maintenance the "costs" of adhering to weight management behaviors may outweigh the "benefits." This study examined the efficacy of a novel approach to weight loss maintenance based on modifying the cost-benefit ratio. Individuals who achieved a 5% weight loss (N=75) were randomized to one of three, 10-month maintenance interventions. All interventions were delivered primarily via the Internet. The Standard arm received traditional weight maintenance strategies. To increase benefits, or rewards, for maintenance behaviors, the two cost-benefit intervention conditions received weekly monetary rewards for self-monitoring and social reinforcement via e-coaching. To decrease behavioral costs (boredom) and increase novelty, participants in the cost-benefit conditions also monitored different evidence-based behaviors every two weeks (e.g., Weeks 1 & 2: steps; Week 3 & 4: red foods). The primary difference between the cost-benefit interventions was type of e-coach providing social reinforcement: Professional (CB Pro) or Peer (CB Peer). Study procedures took place in Providence, RI from 2013 to 2014. Retention was 99%. There were significant group differences in weight regain (p=.01). The Standard arm gained 3.5±5.7kg. In contrast, participants in CB Pro and CB Peer lost an additional 1.8±7.0kg and 0.5±6.4kg, respectively. These results suggest that an Internet delivered cost-benefit approach to weight loss maintenance may be effective for long-term weight control. In addition, using peer coaches to provide reinforcement may be a particularly economic alternative to professionals. These data are promising and provide support for a larger, longer trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Control of molecular weight distribution in synthesis of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) using ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Masaki; Kondo, Takayuki; Matsui, Hideki; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2018-01-01

    Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) was synthesized using ultrasonic irradiation without any chemical initiator. The effect of the ultrasonic power intensity on the time course of the conversion to polymer, the number average molecular weight, and the polydispersity were investigated in order to synthesize a polymer with a low molecular weight distribution (i.e., low polydispersity). The conversion to polymer increased with time. A higher ultrasonic power intensity resulted in a faster reaction rate. The number average molecular weight increased during the early stage of the reaction and then gradually decreased with time. A higher ultrasonic intensity resulted in a faster degradation rate of the polymer. The polydispersity decreased with time. This was because the degradation rate of a polymer with a higher molecular weight was faster than that of a polymer with a lower molecular weight. A polydispersity below 1.3 was obtained under ultrasonic irradiation. By changing the ultrasonic power intensity during the reaction, the number average molecular weight can be controlled while maintaining low polydispersity. When the ultrasonic irradiation was halted, the reactions stopped and the number average molecular weight and polydispersity did not change. On the basis of the experimental results, a kinetic model for synthesis of PHEMA under ultrasonic irradiation was constructed considering both polymerization and polymer degradation. The kinetic model was in good agreement with the experimental results for the time courses of the conversion to polymer, the number average molecular weight, and the polydispersity for various ultrasonic power intensities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Let's face it: patient and parent perspectives on incorporating a Facebook group into a multidisciplinary weight management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Susan J; Esperanza Menchaca, Alicia D M; Sami, Areej; Blake, Natalie

    2013-08-01

    Social media may have the potential to enhance weight management efforts. However, the acceptability of incorporating this entity into pediatrics is unknown. The objective of this project was to explore patients' and parents' perspectives about developing a Facebook group as a component of a pediatric weight management program. Semistructured interviews were performed between September, 2011, and February, 2012, with patients and parents in a multidisciplinary weight management program. Interviews explored participants' perceptions of potential benefits, concerns, and preferences related to a program-specific Facebook group. Transcripts were reviewed and themes identified. The study concluded when thematic saturation was achieved. Participants (n=32) were largely enthusiastic about the idea of a program-specific Facebook group for adolescents. Most preferred a secret group, where only participants would know of the group's existence or group members' identity. No parents expressed concern about security or privacy related to a program-specific Facebook group; one parent expressed concern about undesirable advertisements. Participants endorsed a variety of ideas for inclusion on the page, including weight loss tips, live chats with providers, quizzes, and an incentive system where participants could gain points for making healthy choices. Many parents requested a separate parent-focused page, an idea that was supported by the adolescents. This study suggests that participants perceive potential benefits from incorporating social media interventions into pediatric weight management efforts. Privacy and security issues do not appear to be major parental concerns. Future work should explore the impact of program-specific social media interventions on outcomes for patients in weight management programs.

  20. [The efficacy of e-health management on weight control in adolescents: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei-Chen; Lin, Chia-Ling; Tsao, Lee-Ing

    2014-02-01

    Advances during the past decade have made it feasible to apply e-health methods to chronic disease management. Researchers have recently begun applying these methods to weight control. The application of e-health management methods to weight control in adolescents has yet to be investigated empirically. This study conducted a systematic review of reports discussing the weight-control effects of e-health management in adolescents. Researchers searched 6 electronic databases for relevant articles published between 1995 and April 2013. Data were collected using inclusion and exclusion criteria. A modified Jadad Scale was used to evaluate the quality of the identified articles. Seven studies met the inclusion criterion of targeting adolescent subject populations. A total of 3728 adolescents and 1394 parents participated in these studies. The majority of participants were overweight girls and median participant ages ranged from 12.52 (SD = 3.15) to 15.31 (SD = 0.69). All studies reported that e-health management reduced body mass index and body fat percentage. Four studies indicate that e-health management may improve physical activity knowledge and skills. However, diet control outcomes among the seven studies varied. Empirical results demonstrate that e-health management significantly affects weight control. However, the effectiveness of log-in versus primary outcome indicators was inconclusive. Future studies should consider the use of incentives, reminder systems, and other strategies to enhance website usage. The development of an Internet-based, computer-tailored weight-management intervention for overweight adolescents and the development of an appropriate care model are recommended.

  1. Effects on Diabetes Medications, Weight and Glycated Hemoglobin Among Adult Patients With Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: 6-Month Observations From a Full Meal Replacement, Low-Calorie Diet Weight Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Judy Y; So, Derek Y F; Dent, Robert R

    2018-02-01

    A 6-month weight-management program with full meal replacement, low-calorie diet (full MR-LCD) (900 kcal/day for 6 to 12 weeks) follows a protocol for patients with diabetes for decreasing or discontinuing weight-gaining diabetes medications first (Group WG) and then titrating weight-neutral medications (Group WN). This is a retrospective cohort study (1992 to 2009) of weight, glycemic control and diabetes medications changes in 317 patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes who were taking medications. Group WG and Group WN were similar at baseline, except that glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels were significantly lower in Group WN (7.5% vs. 6.6%; p<0.001). At 6 months, both groups had lost 16% of their weight, and the decreases or discontinuations of medications were 92.1% sulfonureas, 86.5% insulins, 78.8% thiazolidinediones, 77.8% alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, 50% meglitinides, 33.3% dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and 32.8% metformin. At 6 months, compared with baseline, A1C levels improved in Group WG and Group WN (6-month A1C levels 6.7% and 5.8%, respectively; p<0.0001), and Group WN had significantly better A1C levels than Group WG. At 6 months, 30% of patients were no longer taking diabetes medications and had significantly better percentages of weight loss compared with those taking medications (18.6% vs. 16%; p=0.002); both groups had improved glycemic control at 6 months (A1C 6.0% vs. A1C 6.6%; NS). In patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes taking medications, a full MR-LCD program appears to be safe and includes improvement in A1C levels. At 6 months, the percentage of weight loss can be significantly better in patients who no longer require diabetes medications, and A1C levels are best controlled in patients who are on WN medications. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Statement on the conditions of use for health claims related to meal replacements for weight control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2015-01-01

    ) and maintenance of body weight after weight loss (ID1418) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. Taking into account that the mechanisms by which meal replacements could exert the claimed effects were mostly related to their controlled energy content and the relatively high protein/low fat...... content, the Panel concludes that the differences in the micronutrient composition of meal replacements which would derive from changing the conditions of use from Directive 96/8/EC to Regulation (EU) 1169/2011 do not affect the scientific substantiation of health claims related to meal replacements...

  3. Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) pilot study protocol: a gender-sensitized weight loss and healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese male hockey fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dawn P; Blunt, Wendy; De Cruz, Ashleigh; Riggin, Brendan; Hunt, Kate; Zou, Guangyong; Sibbald, Shannon; Danylchuk, Karen; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Gray, Cindy M; Wyke, Sally; Bunn, Christopher; Petrella, Robert J

    2016-10-19

    Effective approaches that engage men in weight loss and lifestyle change are important because of worldwide increases, including in Canada, in obesity and chronic diseases. Football Fans in Training (FFIT), developed in Scotland, successfully tackled these problems by engaging overweight/obese male football fans in sustained weight loss and positive health behaviours, through program deliveries at professional football stadia. Aims: 1) Adapt FFIT to hockey within the Canadian context and integrate with HealtheSteps™ (evidence-based lifestyle program) to develop Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT); 2) Explore potential for Hockey FIT to help overweight/obese men lose weight and improve other outcomes by 12 weeks, and retain these improvements to 12 months; 3) Evaluate feasibility of recruiting and retaining overweight/obese men; 4) Evaluate acceptability of Hockey FIT; and 5) Conduct program optimization via a process evaluation. We conducted a two-arm pilot pragmatic randomized controlled trial (pRCT) whereby 80 overweight/obese male hockey fans (35-65 years; body-mass index ≥28 kg/m 2 ) were recruited through their connection to two junior A hockey teams (London and Sarnia, ON) and randomized to Intervention (Hockey FIT) or Comparator (Wait-List Control). Hockey FIT includes a 12-week Active Phase (classroom instruction and exercise sessions delivered weekly by trained coaches) and a 40-week Maintenance Phase. Data collected at baseline and 12 weeks (both groups), and 12 months (Intervention only), will inform evaluation of the potential of Hockey FIT to help men lose weight and improve other health outcomes. Feasibility and acceptability will be assessed using data from self-reports at screening and baseline, program fidelity (program observations and coach reflections), participant focus group discussions, coach interviews, as well as program questionnaires and interviews with participants. This information will be analyzed to inform program

  4. Coastal nonpoint pollution control program: Program development and approval guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The document, developed by NOAA and EPA, contains guidance for states in developing and implementing their coastal nonpoint pollutant source programs. It describes the requirements that must be met, including: the geographic scope of the program; the pollutant sources to be addressed; the types of management measures used; the establishment of critical areas; technical assistance, public participation, and administrative coordination; and, the process for program submission and Federal approval. The document also contains the criteria by which NOAA and EPA will review the states' submissions

  5. Effect of self-efficacy on weight loss: a psychosocial analysis of a community-based adaptation of the diabetes prevention program lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Laura M; Finch, Emily A; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2014-11-01

    Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2), ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110-199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss.

  6. Effect of Self-Efficacy on Weight Loss: A Psychosocial Analysis of a Community-Based Adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Emily A.; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2, ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110–199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss. PMID:25647049

  7. 7 CFR 58.141 - Alternate quality control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate quality control program. 58.141 Section 58... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.141 Alternate quality control program. When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality program, at the producer level, which is approved by the...

  8. Adherence to self-monitoring via interactive voice response technology in an eHealth intervention targeting weight gain prevention among Black women: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Levine, Erica L; Lane, Ilana; Askew, Sandy; Foley, Perry B; Puleo, Elaine; Bennett, Gary G

    2014-04-29

    eHealth interventions are effective for weight control and have the potential for broad reach. Little is known about the use of interactive voice response (IVR) technology for self-monitoring in weight control interventions, particularly among populations disproportionately affected by obesity. This analysis sought to examine patterns and predictors of IVR self-monitoring adherence and the association between adherence and weight change among low-income black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. The Shape Program was a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-month eHealth behavioral weight gain prevention intervention to usual care among overweight and obese black women in the primary care setting. Intervention participants (n=91) used IVR technology to self-monitor behavior change goals (eg, no sugary drinks, 10,000 steps per day) via weekly IVR calls. Weight data were collected in clinic at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Self-monitoring data was stored in a study database and adherence was operationalized as the percent of weeks with a successful IVR call. Over 12 months, the average IVR completion rate was 71.6% (SD 28.1) and 52% (47/91) had an IVR completion rate ≥80%. At 12 months, IVR call completion was significantly correlated with weight loss (r =-.22; P=.04) and participants with an IVR completion rate ≥80% had significantly greater weight loss compared to those with an IVR completion rate self-monitoring. Adherence to IVR self-monitoring was high among socioeconomically disadvantaged black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. Higher adherence to IVR self-monitoring was also associated with greater weight change. IVR is an effective and useful tool to promote self-monitoring and has the potential for widespread use and long-term sustainability. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00938535; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00938535.

  9. A randomized controlled trial of behavioral weight loss treatment versus combined weight loss/depression treatment among women with comorbid obesity and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A; Simon, Gregory E; Ludman, Evette J; Ichikawa, Laura E; Operskalski, Belinda H; Arterburn, David; Rohde, Paul; Finch, Emily A; Jeffery, Robert W

    2011-02-01

    Obesity is associated with clinical depression among women. However, depressed women are often excluded from weight loss trials. This study examined treatment outcomes among women with comorbid obesity and depression. Two hundred three (203) women were randomized to behavioral weight loss (n = 102) or behavioral weight loss combined with cognitive-behavioral depression management (n = 101). Average participant age was 52 years; mean baseline body mass index was 39 kg/m(2). Mean Patient Health Questionnaire and Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-20) scores indicated moderate to severe baseline depression. Weight loss and SCL-20 changes did not differ between groups at 6 or 12 months in intent-to-treat analyses (p = 0.26 and 0.55 for weight, p = 0.70 and 0.25 for depressive symptoms). Depressed obese women lost weight and demonstrated improved mood in both treatment programs. Future weight loss trials are encouraged to enroll depressed women.

  10. Portion controlled ready-to-eat meal replacement is associated with short term weight loss: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Lokesh, Deepa P; D'Souza, Ninoshka; Priscilla, Divya J; Peris, Chandni Halcyon; Selvam, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V

    2017-01-01

    Strategies to prevent and treat overweight/obesity are urgently needed. This study assessed the effect of a short-term intake of ready-to-eat cereal on body weight and waist circumference of overweight/obese individuals in comparison to a control group. A randomized, controlled 2-arm trial was carried out on 101 overweight/obese (Body Mass Index - 29.2±2.4 kg/m2) females aged 18 to 44 years, at St. John's Medical College Hospital. The intervention group received a low fat, ready to eat cereal, replacing two meals/day for two weeks. The control group was provided with standard dietary guidelines for weight loss and energy requirements for both groups were calculated similarly. Anthropometric, dietary, appetite and health status assessments were carried out at baseline and at the end of two weeks. At the end of two weeks, the mean reductions in body weight and waist circumference were significantly greater in the intervention group, -0.53 kg; 95% CI (-0.86 to -0.19) for body weight and -1.39 cm; 95% CI (-1.78, -0.99) for waist circumference. The intervention group had a significantly higher increase in dietary intakes of certain vitamins, fiber and sugar, and significantly higher reductions in total and polyunsaturated fats and sodium intakes, as compared to the control group (peat cereal could be effective for short-term weight loss, with some improvements in the nutrient intake profile. However, studies of longer duration are needed.

  11. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of 3.0 mg of Liraglutide in Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Astrup, Arne; Fujioka, Ken; Greenway, Frank; Halpern, Alfredo; Krempf, Michel; Lau, David C W; le Roux, Carel W; Violante Ortiz, Rafael; Jensen, Christine Bjørn; Wilding, John P H

    2015-07-02

    Obesity is a chronic disease with serious health consequences, but weight loss is difficult to maintain through lifestyle intervention alone. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, has been shown to have potential benefit for weight management at a once-daily dose of 3.0 mg, injected subcutaneously. We conducted a 56-week, double-blind trial involving 3731 patients who did not have type 2 diabetes and who had a body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of at least 30 or a BMI of at least 27 if they had treated or untreated dyslipidemia or hypertension. We randomly assigned patients in a 2:1 ratio to receive once-daily subcutaneous injections of liraglutide at a dose of 3.0 mg (2487 patients) or placebo (1244 patients); both groups received counseling on lifestyle modification. The coprimary end points were the change in body weight and the proportions of patients losing at least 5% and more than 10% of their initial body weight. At baseline, the mean (±SD) age of the patients was 45.1±12.0 years, the mean weight was 106.2±21.4 kg, and the mean BMI was 38.3±6.4; a total of 78.5% of the patients were women and 61.2% had prediabetes. At week 56, patients in the liraglutide group had lost a mean of 8.4±7.3 kg of body weight, and those in the placebo group had lost a mean of 2.8±6.5 kg (a difference of -5.6 kg; 95% confidence interval, -6.0 to -5.1; Pweight (Pweight (Pweight and improved metabolic control. (Funded by Novo Nordisk; SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes NN8022-1839 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01272219.).

  12. Web-based interventions for weight loss and weight maintenance among rural midlife and older women: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeckner Linda S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss is challenging and maintenance of weight loss is problematic among midlife and older rural women. Finding effective interventions using innovative delivery methods that can reach underserved and vulnerable populations of overweight and obese rural women is a public health challenge. Methods/Design This Women Weigh-In for Wellness (The WWW study randomized-controlled trial is designed to compare the effectiveness of theory-based behavior-change interventions using (1 website only, (2 website with peer-led support, or (3 website with professional email-counseling to facilitate initial weight loss (baseline to 6 months, guided continuing weight loss and maintenance (7-18 months and self-directed weight maintenance (19-30 months among rural women ages 45-69 with a BMI of 28-45. Recruitment efforts using local media will target 306 rural women who live within driving distance of a community college site where assessments will be conducted at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months by research nurses blinded to group assignments. Primary outcomes include changes in body weight, % weight loss, and eating and activity behavioral and biomarkers from baseline to each subsequent assessment. Secondary outcomes will be percentage of women achieving at least 5% and 10% weight loss without regain from baseline to 6, 18, and 30 months and achieving healthy eating and activity targets. Data analysis will use generalized estimating equations to analyze average change across groups and group differences in proportion of participants achieving target weight loss levels. Discussion The Women Weigh-In for Wellness study compares innovative web-based alternatives for providing lifestyle behavior-change interventions for promoting weight loss and weight maintenance among rural women. If effective, such interventions would offer potential for reducing overweight and obesity among a vulnerable, hard-to-reach, population of rural women

  13. Does This Make Me Look Fat? Peer Crowd and Peer Contributions to Adolescent Girls' Weight Control Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor Race; La Greca, Annette M.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, this study evaluated a "socialization" model linking girls' peer crowd affiliations (e.g., Jocks, Populars) with their own weight concern, perceived peer weight norms, and weight control behaviors. An alternative "selection" model was also evaluated. Girls (N = 236; M age = 15.95 years) from diverse ethnic…

  14. Effectiveness of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais: A randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvichayapat, Paradee; Prapochanung, Montira; Tunkamnerdthai, Oratai; Sripanidkulchai, Bung-orn; Auvichayapat, Narong; Thinkhamrop, Bandit; Kunhasura, Soontorn; Wongpratoom, Srisuda; Sinawat, Supat; Hongprapas, Pranithi

    2008-02-27

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais. A randomized, controlled trial involving 60 obese subjects (body mass index, BMI > 25 kg/m2) was conducted. All subjects consumed a Thai diet containing 3 meals (8373.6 kJ/day) for 12 weeks, prepared by the Nutritional Unit at Srinagarind Hospital. The diet contained 65% carbohydrates, 15% protein, and 20% fat. Body weight, BMI, body composition, resting energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation were measured at baseline, and during weeks 4, 8, and 12 of the study. Serum levels of leptin and urine VMA were measured at baseline and during the 12th week. Differences over time and between the treatments (green tea or placebo) over time were determined using two-factor ANOVA with repeated measures. In comparing the two groups, differences in weight loss were 2.70, 5.10, and 3.3 kg during the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks of the study, respectively. At the 8th and 12th weeks of the study, body weight loss was significantly different (P tea can reduce body weight in obese Thai subjects by increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation.

  15. Parenchymal texture measures weighted by breast anatomy: preliminary optimization in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Keller, Brad M.; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that quantitative descriptors of the parenchymal texture patterns hold a valuable role in assessing an individual woman's risk for breast cancer. In this work, we assess the hypothesis that breast cancer risk factors are not uniformly expressed in the breast parenchymal tissue and, therefore, breast-anatomy-weighted parenchymal texture descriptors, where different breasts ROIs have non uniform contributions, may enhance breast cancer risk assessment. To this end, we introduce an automated breast-anatomy-driven methodology which generates a breast atlas, which is then used to produce a weight map that reinforces the contributions of the central and upper-outer breast areas. We incorporate this methodology to our previously validated lattice-based strategy for parenchymal texture analysis. In the framework of a pilot case-control study, including digital mammograms from 424 women, our proposed breast-anatomy-weighted texture descriptors are optimized and evaluated against non weighted texture features, using regression analysis with leave-one-out cross validation. The classification performance is assessed in terms of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. The collective discriminatory capacity of the weighted texture features was maximized (AUC=0.87) when the central breast area was considered more important than the upperouter area, with significant performance improvement (DeLong's test, p-valuewomen's cancer risk evaluation.

  16. Impact of sugars and sugar taxation on body weight control: A comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    To conduct a comprehensive literature review in the field of added-sugar consumption on weight gain including the effect of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners and sugar taxation. A search of three databases was conducted in the time period from the inception of the databases to August 2015. Sensitive search strategies were used in order to retrieve systematic reviews (SR) of fructose, sucrose, or sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on weight gain and metabolic adverse effects, conducted on humans and written in English, Spanish, or French. In addition, a review about SSB taxation and weight outcomes was conducted. The search yielded 24 SRs about SSBs and obesity, 23 SRs on fructose or SSBs and metabolic adverse effects, and 24 studies about SSB taxation and weight control. The majority of SRs, especially the most recent ones, with the highest quality and without any disclosed conflict of interest, suggested that the consumption of SSBs is a risk factor for obesity. The effect of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners, on weight gain is mediated by overconsumption of beverages with these sweeteners, leading to an extra provision of energy intake. The tax tool alone on added sugars appears insufficient to curb the obesity epidemic, but it needs to be included in a multicomponent structural strategy. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  17. Body weight variation and control of cardiovascular risk factors in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Jose Maria; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, Jose Antonio; Perez-Lahiguera, Francisco; Gonzalez, Carmen; Lurbe, Empar; Redón, Josep

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to assess the impact of weight changes on blood pressure (BP), lipids and glucose goals in a cohort of hypertensive subjects. Prospective follow-up. Hypertension clinic. 326 hypertensive non-diabetic subjects, 46% with metabolic syndrome (MS). Usual care treatment, which included diet, physical exercise and drugs prescribed when indicated. All patients were observed for up to 1 year. BP and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) goal were those in ESH/ESC and ATP III recommendations, respectively. The glucose goal was to delay progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus, or to achieve blood glucose <100 mg/dl for non-diabetics. According to body weight changes, patients were categorized using adjusted ROC curves models. Overall, there was a significant weight increment of 0.5 kg (95% CI 0.1-0.9 kg); 28 patients (8.6%) lost more than 5 kg, and only four (1.2%) lost more than 10 kg. BP, LDL-C and glucose goals were achieved in 56%, 78% and 61% of patients, respectively. To lose or not gain weight was an independent prognostic factor to achieve the BP goal in all the patients and the LDL goal in the presence of MS. For glucose control, being treated with beta-blockers and/or diuretics was a negative factor. In hypertensive subjects, even small changes in weight may have an important impact on achieving cardiovascular goals, mainly in those with MS.

  18. Camp NERF: methods of a theory-based nutrition education recreation and fitness program aimed at preventing unhealthy weight gain in underserved elementary children during summer months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Laura C; Fristad, Mary; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Eneli, Ihuoma; Holloman, Chris; Kennel, Julie A; Melnyk, Bernadette; Gunther, Carolyn

    2016-10-26

    The number of obese children in the US remains high, which is problematic due to the mental, physical, and academic effects of obesity on child health. Data indicate that school-age children, particularly underserved children, experience unhealthy gains in BMI at a rate nearly twice as fast during the summer months. Few efforts have been directed at implementing evidence-based programming to prevent excess weight gain during the summer recess. Camp NERF is an 8-week, multi-component (nutrition, physical activity, and mental health), theory-based program for underserved school-age children in grades Kindergarten - 5th coupled with the USDA Summer Food Service Program. Twelve eligible elementary school sites will be randomized to one of the three programming groups: 1) Active Control (non-nutrition, physical activity, or mental health); 2) Standard Care (nutrition and physical activity); or 3) Enhanced Care (nutrition, physical activity, and mental health) programming. Anthropometric, behavioral, and psychosocial data will be collected from child-caregiver dyads pre- and post-intervention. Site-specific characteristics and process evaluation measures will also be collected. This is the first, evidence-based intervention to address the issue of weight gain during the summer months among underserved, school-aged children. Results from this study will provide researchers, practitioners, and public health professionals with insight on evidence-based programming to aid in childhood obesity prevention during this particular window of risk. NCT02908230/09-19-2016.

  19. Control of radio degradation of natural polymers by measurement of viscosity and molecular weight determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabinger Machado, Patricia; Cerchietti, Maria Luciana; Mondino, Angel V.; Smolko, Eduardo E.

    2009-01-01

    Applications are now being made in various fields of oligosaccharides obtained by the depolymerization of large molecules such as natural alginates, carrageenan, pectin and chitosan. Find use in various disciplines such as crop production, sanitation, pharmacy, cosmetics, etc. Given the diversity of origins of these materials, almost all of marine origin, was the need for universal methods for recognition and composition, then the possible ways to get processed. A centralized program by the IAEA is promoting the use of ionizing radiation for these changes. This paper resents the calculations used to obtain the molecular weight of polysaccharides from determinations of viscosity. It has been found the molecular weight of sodium alginate and kappa-carrageenan irradiated with cobalt-60 gamma rays at doses between 2 and 35 kGy in solid state. We used a capillary Cannon Viscometer Ubbelohde-type and a protocol for standardized calculation procedure for this purpose. Were obtained reading times for passage through the capillary Viscometer, with various concentrations of polymer solutions of virgin material and the irradiated and from there calculated the relative viscosities, specific, inherent, reduced and intrinsic and then using the ratio of Mark-Houwink-SAKURADA calculate the viscosity average molecular weight of the different polymers. The changes found in the molecular weights by radio-depolymerization reach two orders of magnitude in some cases giving oligosaccharides of 8-12 monomer units. It is considered that this depolymerization method is effective and inexpensive compared to enzymatic or chemical methods. (author)

  20. Online Self-Organizing Network Control with Time Averaged Weighted Throughput Objective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study an online multisource multisink queueing network control problem characterized with self-organizing network structure and self-organizing job routing. We decompose the self-organizing queueing network control problem into a series of interrelated Markov Decision Processes and construct a control decision model for them based on the coupled reinforcement learning (RL architecture. To maximize the mean time averaged weighted throughput of the jobs through the network, we propose a reinforcement learning algorithm with time averaged reward to deal with the control decision model and obtain a control policy integrating the jobs routing selection strategy and the jobs sequencing strategy. Computational experiments verify the learning ability and the effectiveness of the proposed reinforcement learning algorithm applied in the investigated self-organizing network control problem.

  1. Transcriptional Programs Controlling Perinatal Lung Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yanhua; Besnard, Valérie; Ikegami, Machiko; Wert, Susan E.; Heffner, Caleb; Murray, Stephen A.; Donahue, Leah Rae; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The timing of lung maturation is controlled precisely by complex genetic and cellular programs. Lung immaturity following preterm birth frequently results in Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) and Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia (BPD), which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Mechanisms synchronizing gestational length and lung maturation remain to be elucidated. In this study, we designed a genome-wide mRNA expression time-course study from E15.5 to Postnatal Day 0 (PN0) using lung RNAs from C57BL/6J (B6) and A/J mice that differ in gestational length by ∼30 hr (B6controlling lung maturation. We identified both temporal and strain dependent gene expression patterns during lung maturation. For time dependent changes, cell adhesion, vasculature development, and lipid metabolism/transport were major bioprocesses induced during the saccular stage of lung development at E16.5–E17.5. CEBPA, PPARG, VEGFA, CAV1 and CDH1 were found to be key signaling and transcriptional regulators of these processes. Innate defense/immune responses were induced at later gestational ages (E18.5–20.5), STAT1, AP1, and EGFR being important regulators of these responses. Expression of RNAs associated with the cell cycle and chromatin assembly was repressed during prenatal lung maturation and was regulated by FOXM1, PLK1, chromobox, and high mobility group families of transcription factors. Strain dependent lung mRNA expression differences peaked at E18.5. At this time, mRNAs regulating surfactant and innate immunity were more abundantly expressed in lungs of B6 (short gestation) than in A/J (long gestation) mice, while expression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and histone modification were expressed at lower levels in B6 than in A/J mice. The present study systemically mapped key regulators, bioprocesses, and transcriptional networks controlling lung maturation, providing the basis for new therapeutic strategies to enhance lung function in preterm

  2. Social/Electronic Media Use of Children and Adolescents Who Attend the Pediatric Weight Management Programs of the COMPASS Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Robert; Fals, Angela; Mirza, Nazrat; Datto, George; Stratbucker, William; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Christison, Amy; Wang, Yu; Woolford, Susan J

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a major healthcare problem in youth and their social/electronic media (SEM) use has been described as a risk factor. Though much is known about the newer technologies youth use to communicate, little is known about what is used by those in weight management programs. The aim of this study was to determine what types of SEM, including sedentary and active video games, youth in weight management programs use and which they prefer for communicating with healthcare providers. This was a multisite study using a 24-question online SurveyMonkey® questionnaire. Youth, 12-17 years old, attending pediatric weight management programs at seven participating centers in the Childhood Obesity Multi Program Analysis and Study System network were eligible. There were 292 responders with a mean age of 14.2 years. Fifty-four percent were female, 36% Caucasian, 35% African American, and 33% were Hispanic. Ninety-four percent had access to a computer, 71% had Internet access, and 63% had smartphones. Whereas 87% had at least one gaming system at home, 50% reported they never played sedentary video games (71% of females vs. 25% males; p social media (6%). Face-to-face communication with healthcare providers is the preferred method for youth in pediatric weight management programs. They self-reported video game use less than previously described.

  3. Early weight bearing versus delayed weight bearing in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdaal, Joris Radboud; Mouton, Tanguy; Wascher, Daniel Charles; Demey, Guillaume; Lustig, Sebastien; Neyret, Philippe; Servien, Elvire

    2017-12-01

    The need for a period of non-weight bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy remains controversial. It is hypothesized that immediate weight bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy would have no difference in functional scores at one year compared to delayed weight bearing. Fifty patients, median age 54 years (range 40-65), with medial compartment osteoarthritis, underwent a medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy utilizing a locking plate without bone grafting. Patients were randomized into an Immediate or a Delayed (2 months) weight bearing group. All patients were assessed at one-year follow-up and the two groups compared. The primary outcome measure was the IKS score. Secondary outcome measures included the IKDC score, the VAS pain score and rate of complications. The functional scores significantly improved in both groups. The IKS score increased from 142 ± 31 to 171 ± 26 in the Immediate group (p bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy had no effect on functional scores at 1 year follow-up and did not significantly increase the complication rate. Immediate weight bearing after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy appears to be safe and can allow some patients a quicker return to activities of daily living and a decreased convalescence period. II.

  4. Food Security and Weight Status in Children: Interactions With Food Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Binh T; Ford, Christopher N; Yaroch, Amy L; Shuval, Kerem; Drope, Jeffrey

    2017-02-01

    It is unclear whether Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) or National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participation modifies the relationship between food insecurity and obesity in children. Data were included for 4,719 children aged 9-17 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between household food security (full, marginal, low, and very low) and BMI percentile. Adjusted models were also stratified by SNAP and NSLP participation. There was no significant overall relationship between household food security and BMI percentile. In SNAP non-participants, there was no apparent overall relationship between BMI percentile and household food security. However, BMI percentile in children from households with low food security was significantly higher than that of children from fully food-secure households (risk difference [RD]=5.95, 95% CI=1.11, 10.80). Among SNAP participants, there was no significant relationship between household food security and BMI percentile. By NSLP participation category, there was a non-significant trend toward increasing BMI percentile with decreasing household food security in those reporting two or fewer (RD=1.75, 95% CI= -0.79, 4.29) and two to three (RD=1.07; 95% CI= -1.74, 3.89) lunches/week. There was no apparent relationship between household food security and BMI percentile in those reporting four or more lunches/week. Although the overall relationship between household food security and weight status in school-aged children was not statistically significant, there was some evidence that the relationship may differ by SNAP or NSLP participation, suggesting the need for more research. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A. Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC:HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01. Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively. Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively. Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08, BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01. Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients.

  6. Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Suriani; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Latiff, Khalib A.; Saad, Hazizi A.; Majid, Latifah A.; Othman, Fadlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B) and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A). Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC):HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01). Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively). Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08), BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01). Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group.