Stokić Edita J.; Srdić Biljana; Peter Andrea; Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.
Obesity is characterized by excessive body fat accumulation which may lead to serious health problems and complications. Body mass index is the most optimal parameter to evaluate the level of nutritional status and diagnose obesity. However, modern techniques studying body composition can more accurately determine whether the gain of body weight was on the account of body fat, lean body mass or total body water. If one's body mass index is in the range of normal values but the amount of body ...
Objectives: To find out the effects of pregnancy weight gain in different body mass index (BMI) groups on maternal and neonatal outcomes in women delivering singletons at term. Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients attending antenatal clinics and delivering in hospital from January 1st 1992 to ...
Bhuva, Kalpesh; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Lehman, Erik B; Chuang, Cynthia H
Overweight and obese women may avoid contraceptive methods they believe are associated with weight gain. The objective of this study was to examine the role of weight and weight perception on contraceptive use. Using cross-sectional data from the MyNewOptions study, we analyzed contraceptive use among 987 privately insured, sexually active women aged 18-40 years. Contraception was categorized into three groups: (1) long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), (2) non-LARC prescription methods and (3) nonprescription methods/no method. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the effect of body mass index category and weight perception on contraceptive use while controlling for pregnancy intentions, sexual behavior and sociodemographic characteristics. Eighty-three (8.4%) women were using LARCs, 490 (49.6%) women were using non-LARC prescription methods and 414 (42.0%) were using nonprescription methods or no method. In the adjusted multinomial model, overweight [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-7.98) and obese women (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.18-6.72) were significantly more likely to use LARCs compared to normal-weight women. There were greater adjusted odds of overweight and obese women using nonprescription methods/no method compared with non-LARC prescription methods, but this finding did not reach statistical significance. Weight perception was not associated with contraceptive use. In this study sample, overweight and obese women were more likely to use LARCs than normal-weight women. It will be important to further understand how weight influences women and providers' views on contraception in order to better assist women with individualized, patient-centered contraceptive decision making. Overweight and obese women may be reluctant to use contraceptive methods they believe are associated with weight gain (i.e., pills, shot), but how that affects contraceptive use is unclear. Compared with normal-weight women, overweight
Teunissen, L.P.J.; Grabowski, A.; Kram, R.
The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In
Kondo, Tomoo; Kishi, Mikiya; Fushimi, Takashi; Ugajin, Shinobu; Kaga, Takayuki
Acetic acid (AcOH), a main component of vinegar, recently was found to suppress body fat accumulation in animal studies. Hence we investigated the effects of vinegar intake on the reduction of body fat mass in obese Japanese in a double-blind trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups of similar body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. During the 12-week treatment period, the subjects in each group ingested 500 ml daily of a beverage containing either 15 ml of vinegar (750 mg AcOH), 30 ml of vinegar (1,500 mg AcOH), or 0 ml of vinegar (0 mg AcOH, placebo). Body weight, BMI, visceral fat area, waist circumference, and serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in both vinegar intake groups than in the placebo group. In conclusion, daily intake of vinegar might be useful in the prevention of metabolic syndrome by reducing obesity.
Patients with psoriasis, in particular those requiring systemic treatment, tend to be above normal weight. Obesity is associated with psoriasis and contributes significantly to the increased cardiovascular risk in these patients. Most biologics used to treat psoriasis in the European Union are fixed dosed treatments: etanercept, adalimumab and ustekinumab. Apart from infliximab, dosing regimens do not account for weight, with the exception of ustekinumab, the dose of which should be doubled in patients weighing more than 100 kg. The aim of this study was to review the available evidence on the association of obesity and psoriasis, and the effect of body weight or obesity on the efficacy of biologics as well as their practical implications in daily practice. A review was performed of the literature relating to obesity and psoriasis and weight effect, including subgroup analyses, on the efficacy of the biologicals available for treatment of psoriasis in the European Union, namely adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab and ustekinumab. Optimal responses with fixed dose biological agents are less frequent in patients with increasing weight, especially above 100 kg, who account for approximately 25% to 30% of patients in clinical trials. Body weight effect on drug clearance might partly account for this fact. The data are limited to subgroup analyses, often with no statistical significance reported. Further studies, including weight-based subanalysis of clinical trials and pharmacoeconomic evaluations, are required to assess the issue of body weight and response to therapy of the biologics. Infliximab response appears to be independent of body mass index. Possible weight-based dose adjustments and the impact of treatment on body weight changes also require additional study. © 2011 The Author. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Du, Meng-Kai; Ge, Li-Ya; Zhou, Meng-Lin; Ying, Jun; Qu, Fan; Dong, Min-Yue; Chen, Dan-Qing
To evaluate the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pre-BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on neonatal birth weight (NBW) in the population of Chinese healthy pregnant women, attempting to guide weight control in pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study of 3772 Chinese women was conducted. The population was stratified by maternal pre-BMI categories as underweight (pre-BMI, GWG, and NBW were investigated by multivariate analysis. NBW increased significantly with the increase of maternal pre-BMI level (P0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that both pre-BMI and GWG were positively correlated with NBW (Ppre-BMI, underweight predicted an increased odds ratio of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and decreased odds ratio for macrosomia and large-for-gestational-age (LGA), and the results were opposite for overweight. With the increase of GWG, the risk of SGA decreased and the risks of macrosomia and LGA increased. In addition, in different pre-BMI categories, the effects of weight gain in the first trimester on NBW were different (Ppre-BMI and GWG, extreme pre-BMI and GWG are both associated with increased risks of abnormal birth weight, and maternal pre-BMI may modify the effect of weight gain in each trimester on NBW. A valid GWG guideline for Chinese women is an urgent requirement, whereas existing recommendations seem to be not very suitable for the Chinese.
Boström, G; Diderichsen, Finn
The purpose of this study was to analyse misclassification of height, weight and body mass index (BMI), derived from mail questionnaires, and its dependency on socioeconomic factors.......The purpose of this study was to analyse misclassification of height, weight and body mass index (BMI), derived from mail questionnaires, and its dependency on socioeconomic factors....
Rosell, Magdalena; Appleby, Paul; Key, Tim
We investigated whether life-long adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with adult height, age at menarche, adult body weight and body mass index (BMI), used as indicators of growth, development and obesity, in a large sample of adults. This was a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data and information on age, ethnicity, education, age at menarche and age at becoming a vegetarian were obtained through a questionnaire. Self-reported height and weight were calibrated using predictive equations derived from a previous validation study. United Kingdom. The study includes 45 962 British men and women aged > or = 20 years of whom 16,083 were vegetarians (not eating fish or meat). In men and women, there were no significant differences in height, weight or BMI between life-long vegetarians (n = 125 (men) and n = 265 (women)) and people who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years (n = 3122 (men) and n = 8137 (women)). Nor was there a significant difference in age at menarche between life-long vegetarian women and women who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years. This study suggests that, compared with people who become vegetarian when adult, life-long vegetarians do not differ in adult height, weight, BMI or age at menarche in women.
Background: Overweight/obesity is on the rise in developing countries, especially in urban areas. Although overweight/obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of death less is known about the prevalence of obesity and the perceptions about weight among patients attending healthcare facilities. Previous studies ...
Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S
We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.
Pop, V.J.M.; Biondi, B.; Wijnen, H.; Kuppens, S.M.; Vader, H.L.
Context Obesity and too much weight gain during gestation have a negative effect on obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Objective To determine the relationship between thyroid hormone parameters, body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during gestation. Design Prospective follow-up study of thyroid
Gesche, Joanna; Nilas, Lisbeth
OBJECTIVE: To assess birth weight in relation to gestational weight gain (GWG) among women who were and were not obese before pregnancy. METHODS: For a retrospective cohort study, data were obtained for women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by ......±410g) or at least 40 (3671±374g) than among non-obese women (3394±453g; P=0.0058). CONCLUSION: Birth weight is related to both maternal BMI and GWG. In obese women, adherence to GWG recommendations does not seem to prevent increased birth weights....
Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung
Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E L; Reinisch, J M
OBJECTIVE: To illuminate the possible associations between height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) during early adulthood and the development of schizophrenia. METHOD: This prospective study is based on an all-male sample of 3210 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, comprising...... status when the cohort members were 1 year old, birth weight, birth length, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. RESULTS: Forty-five cases of schizophrenia had a lower young adult mean body weight and BMI than controls. A significant inverse relationship between BMI and risk of later schizophrenia was found...
Newman, A.B.; Lee, J.S.; Visser, M.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Nevitt, M.C.; Harris, T.B.
BACKGROUND: Weight loss may contribute to the loss of lean mass with age. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the relation between weight loss or weight gain and changes in lean mass and fat mass in older adults. DESIGN: We observed changes in weight and body composition during a 4-y period in
Wang, Youfa; Liang, Huifang; Chen, Xiaoli
Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited...
Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G
The transition from high-school to university is a critical period of weight change. Popular media suggest that freshman students gain 15 lb (6.80 kg) of body weight during their first year at university (i.e., the freshman 15). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis calculated freshman weight gain to be 1.75 kg, with statistics suggesting that only a proportion of freshman students are prone to gain weight. Researchers are beginning to investigate how certain variables and interactions between such variables predict freshman weight status. The current study focused on body mass index (BMI) and psychological stress. In isolation, previous research has tested how these two variables predict freshman student's weight status. However, because BMI and stress interact to predict weight gain and weight loss in adult samples, the current study tested the interaction between student's baseline BMI and baseline stress levels to predict weight change in a New Zealand sample of freshman students (N=65). Participants completed two separate online surveys in March and October 2012 (i.e., New Zealand's academic year). Although only three students gained over 6.80 kg (i.e., the freshman 15), participants did gain a statistically significant 1.10 kg of body weight during the year. Consistent with previous research, students with a higher baseline BMI gained a higher amount of body weight. However, this main effect was qualified by an interaction between stress and BMI. Students who entered university with high levels of stress gained weight if they also had high BMIs; if they had lower BMIs then they lost weight. In order to reduce unhealthy levels of freshman weight change, vulnerable students need to be taught stress-reduction techniques and coping strategies early in the academic year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
C.J. Willer (Cristen); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); S. Li (Shengxu); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); I.M. Heid (Iris); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); A.L. Elliott (Amanda); A.U. Jackson (Anne); C. Lamina (Claudia); G. Lettre (Guillaume); N. Lim (Noha); H.N. Lyon (Helen); S.A. McCarroll (Steven); K. Papadakis (Konstantinos); L. Qi (Lu); J.C. Randall (Joshua); R.M. Roccasecca; S. Sanna (Serena); P. Scheet (Paul); M.N. Weedon (Michael); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); P. Almgren (Peter); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S. Bingham (Sheila); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); M.J. Brown (Morris); N.P. Burtt (Noël); P.S. Chines (Peter); L. Coin (Lachlan); F.S. Collins (Francis); J. Connell (John); C. Cooper (Charles); G.D. Smith; E.M. Dennison (Elaine); P. Deodhar (Parimal); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); D.M. Evans (David); L. Gianniny (Lauren); C. Gieger (Christian); C.J. Gillson (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); R. Hackett (Rachel); D. Hadley (David); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); J. Hebebrand (Johannes); A. Hofman (Albert); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Johnson (Toby); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); Z. Jovanovic (Zorica); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Kuokkanen (Mikko); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); E. Lakatta (Edward); J. Luan; R.N. Luben (Robert); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Narisu (Narisu); A.R. Ness (Andrew); K. Northstone (Kate); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); C. Purmann (Carolin); M.G. Rees (Matthew); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); S.M. Ring (Susan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); J. Saramies (Jouko); L.J. Scott (Laura); A. Scuteri (Angelo); K. Silander (Kaisa); M.A. Sims (Matthew); K. Song (Kijoung); J. Stephens (Jonathan); S. Stevens (Suzanne); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Y.C.L. Tung (Loraine); T.T. Valle (Timo); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); K.S. Vimaleswaran (Karani); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); C. Wallace (Chris); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); D. Waterworth (Dawn); N. Watkins (Nicholas); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); G. Zhai (Guangju); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); D. Altshuler (David); M. Caulfield (Mark); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I.S. Farooqi (Sadaf); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); M. Laakso (Markku); V. Mooser (Vincent); K.K. Ong (Ken); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.J. Wareham (Nick); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); R.B. Hayes (Richard); D. Hunter (David); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I. Barroso (Inês); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel)
textabstractCommon variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts
Dumas, O; Varraso, R; Gillman, M. W; Field, A. E; Camargo, C. A
... associations between a high maternal body mass index (BMI) before or during pregnancy, and risk of asthma during early childhood . The independent role of gestational weight gain (GWG) has received less attention , and the results of a recent meta‐analysis were not entirely consistent, although a positive association with childhood asthma or w...
E. Yusuf (Erlangga); R.G.H.H. Nelissen (Rob); A. Ioan-Facsinay (Andreea); V. Stojanovic-Susulic (Vedrana); J. de Groot (Jeroen); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); S. Middeldorp (Saskia); T.W.J. Huizinga (Tom); M. Kloppenburg (Margreet)
textabstractObjective: To investigate the association between weight or Body Mass Index (BMI) and the development of hand osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Systematic review of observational studies. Medical databases were searched up to April 2008. Articles which presented data on the association
Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V
This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taylor, Wendell C; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Evans-Hudnall, Gina; Haughton McNeill, Lorna; Barnes, Ann Smith
Relationships among sedentary behavior, weight gain, and weight loss and regain are understudied particularly for African Americans, a high risk group for obesity. The hypotheses were: sedentary behavior is positively associated with current body mass and % of weight loss maintained after initial weight loss; these associations differ by physical activity status. Cross-sectional. National survey. 1,110 African American women. Observational study. A cross-sectional survey was administered to African Americans who had intentionally lost 10% of their body weight. Those who lost weight and maintained at least a 10% weight loss for a year were classified as weight loss maintainers; all others were classified as weight loss re-gainers. Participants were classified into one of four categories based on low and high levels of sedentary behavior and physical activity. The high physical activity, low sedentary behavior category was the reference group. Sociodemographic characteristics and health conditions were covariates. Data were collected in 2009 and analyzed in 2013. Each additional daily hour of sedentary time was associated with an increase in BMI (Pweight loss maintenance (Pweight loss maintained for high but not low physically active participants. High levels of sedentary behavior were associated with poorer weight-loss maintenance among African American women even for those with high levels of physical activity. The implications of this study are that physical activity and sedentary behavior, independently and combined, are associated with BMI and weight-loss maintenance.
Li, Aihua; Teo, Koon K; Morrison, Katherine M; McDonald, Sarah D; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Anand, Sonia S; Meyre, David
The effects of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on maternal and offspring obesity traits, as well as the maternal and offspring genetic contribution to GWG and postpartum weight retention, were examined. Blood samples from mothers (n = 608) and offspring (n = 541) were genotyped for 83 BMI-associated SNPs and 47 waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)-associated SNPs. Linear regression and mixed-effects regression models were performed to examine clinical epidemiological and genetic associations with unweighted and weighted BMI and WHR genetic risk scores (GRS). Prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with offspring weight and BMI Z-score from birth to 5 years. GWG was positively associated with maternal postpartum weight retention at 1 and 5 years and with offspring weight Z-score from birth to 5 years old. The maternal unweighted BMI GRS was associated with prepregnancy BMI, postpartum weight retention at 5 years, and offspring weight Z-score from birth to 5 years old, but not associated with GWG. Both maternal and offspring unweighted WHR GRSs were negatively associated with GWG. Maternal BMI-associated SNPs may contribute to the genetic link between prepregnancy BMI variation, long-term postpartum weight retention, and offspring birth weight and longitudinal weight. Maternal and offspring WHR-associated SNPs may contribute to GWG variation. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Reljic, Dejan; Hässler, Eike; Jost, Joachim; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit
Dehydration is assumed to be a major adverse effect associated with rapid loss of body mass for competing in a lower weight class in combat sports. However, the effects of such weight cutting on body fluid balance in a real-life setting are unknown. To examine the effects of 5% or greater loss of body mass within a few days before competition on body water, blood volume, and plasma volume in elite amateur boxers. Case-control study. Sports medicine laboratory. Seventeen male boxers (age = 19.2 ± 2.9 years, height = 175.1 ± 7.0 cm, mass = 65.6 ± 9.2 kg) were assigned to the weight-loss group (WLG; n = 10) or the control group (CON; n = 7). The WLG reduced body mass by restricting fluid and food and inducing excessive sweat loss by adhering to individual methods. The CON participated in their usual precompetition training. During an ordinary training period (t-1), 2 days before competition (t-2), and 1 week after competition (t-3), we performed bioelectrical impedance measurements; calculated total body water, intracellular water, and extracellular water; and estimated total hemoglobin mass (tHbmass), blood volume, and plasma volume by the CO-rebreathing method. In the WLG, the loss of body mass (5.6% ± 1.7%) led to decreases in total body water (6.0% ± 0.9%), extracellular water (12.4% ± 7.6%), tHbmass (5.3% ± 3.8%), blood volume (7.6% ± 2.1%; P .05). At t-3, total body water, extracellular water, and plasma volume had returned to near baseline values, but tHbmass and blood volume still were less than baseline values (P .05). In a real-life setting, the loss of approximately 6% body mass within 5 days induced hypohydration, which became evident by the decreases in body water and plasma volume. The reduction in tHbmass was a surprising observation that needs further investigation.
Blond, Anna; Whitaker, Agnes H; Lorenz, John M; Feldman, Judith F; Nieto, Marlon; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Paneth, Nigel
To compare weight concerns and self-reported body mass index (BMI) of low birth weight (LBW) adolescent boys to those of a normative sample and examine relationships among BMI, weight concerns, self-esteem, and depression in the LBW cohort. LBW boys (n = 260; mean age, 16.0) belong to the Neonatal Brain Hemorrhage Study birth cohort. Normative boys (n = 305; mean age, 16.5) belong to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Both samples were assessed in 2001-2004 with self-report questionnaires. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Weight perception and weight dissatisfaction were assessed with the Eating Symptoms Inventory. In LBW boys, self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory. Based on self-reported height and weight, LBW boys were more likely to be healthy weight or underweight and less likely to be overweight than normative boys. Despite having healthier self-reported BMIs, LBW boys reported more weight concerns than the normative sample. A total of 46.9% of LBW boys perceived their weight as abnormal, and 76.5% desired weight change. Weight concerns in LBW boys mostly reflected a perception of being underweight (31.2% of the cohort) and a desire to gain weight (47.5% of the cohort), although only 6.5% were clinically underweight. Weight concerns, but not BMI, were related to clinical depression and lower self-esteem. LBW adolescent boys are at high risk of experiencing weight concerns. Weight concerns rather than BMI are associated with emotional problems in LBW boys.
Reinhardt, Martin; Dey, Soumyadeep; Tom Noguchi, Constance; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S
To investigate the concurrent relationships between human plasma erythropoietin concentrations and energy expenditure (EE), body composition, plasma leptin concentrations, and associations with weight change. Plasma to measure erythropoietin and leptin; data for body composition; 24-h EE measured in a whole-room calorimeter; and 75 g oral glucose tolerance testing were available from 109 full-heritage Pima Indians (55% male) from a larger study designed to understand the causes of obesity. Seventy-nine subjects had data for weight at a later visit (mean follow-up = 4.3 ± 1.9 years) to calculate percent weight change per year. Erythropoietin, adjusted for covariates, correlated with 24-h EE (r = 0.26, P = 0.007), sleeping EE (r = 0.29, P = 0.003), fat-free mass (r = 0.19, P = 0.05), and fat mass (r = 0.27, P = 0.005), but not insulin or glucose measures. The association of erythropoietin with 24-h EE was fully mediated by fat-free mass. Erythropoietin associated with leptin in women (ρ = 0.36, P = 0.01), but not in men (P = 0.9), independently from fat mass. The association of erythropoietin with percent weight change per year was in opposing directions (interaction: P = 0.002) in males (r = -0.35, P = 0.02) versus females (r = 0.37, P = 0.02). Non-hematopoietic endogenous erythropoietin action may be involved in body weight regulation in opposing directions in men and women, i.e., weight loss in men and weight gain in women. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Cheon, Sung-Youn; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol
Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation. Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI) and body mass index (BMI) categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI), women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42) were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI) were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI) also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42). Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI) was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59). Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.
Full Text Available Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES, an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI and body mass index (BMI categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Results: Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI, women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42 were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42. Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59. Conclusions: Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.
Ryan, Helen M
Sonographic estimation of fetal weight (EFW) is important in the management of high-risk pregnancies. The possibility that increased maternal body mass index (BMI) adversely affects EFW assessments in twin pregnancies is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal BMI on the accuracy of EFW assessments in twin gestations prospectively recruited for the ESPRiT (Evaluation of Sonographic Predictors of Restricted growth in Twins) study.
Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E L; Reinisch, J M
OBJECTIVE: To illuminate the possible associations between height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) during early adulthood and the development of schizophrenia. METHOD: This prospective study is based on an all-male sample of 3210 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, comprising...... status when the cohort members were 1 year old, birth weight, birth length, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. RESULTS: Forty-five cases of schizophrenia had a lower young adult mean body weight and BMI than controls. A significant inverse relationship between BMI and risk of later schizophrenia was found....... No significant differences between cases and controls were observed with respect to adult height. CONCLUSION: Independent of several possible confounders, an inverse relationship between young adult BMI and risk of later development of schizophrenia was demonstrated in this all-male sample....
Interpretation: Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective marker against obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities.
Andersen, Camilla Schou; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age.......We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age....
Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Haines, Jess; Blood, Emily A; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn
To examine how the associations among body mass index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern evolve from late childhood through late adolescence in boys and girls. We analyze data from subjects aged 9-18 years from the Growing Up Today Study, a national prospective cohort of U.S. youth (n = 16,882, yielding 59,750 repeated-measures observations during five waves of data collection). Generalized additive models produced curves of association for body dissatisfaction and weight concern across BMI percentiles. Generalized estimating equations (adjusting for correlated within-subject repeated measures, sibling clusters, pubertal maturation, and region of residence) tested main and interactive effects of BMI, age, and gender. Girls above the 50th BMI percentile reported greater body dissatisfaction than girls below the 50th percentile. By contrast, boys who reported the most body dissatisfaction were either above the 75th BMI percentile (approaching overweight) or below the 10th percentile (approaching underweight). Body dissatisfaction increased with age for both girls and boys, but the gender-specific patterns of BMI effects remained constant. Male and female participants in the overweight/obese BMI range reported the greatest weight concern, but among older adolescents (particularly girls), healthy weight became increasingly associated with greater weight and shape concern. Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern intensify across adolescence, but associations between the constructs and BMI remain gender specific. Findings have important implications for eating disorder risk assessment and prevention. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Han, Xuesong; Stevens, June; Bradshaw, Patrick T
Evidence is emerging that obesiy and weight gain may affect the prognosis of several types of cancer. We investigated the impact of body mass index (BMI) as well as pre-and postdiagnosis weight changes on non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) prognosis. A cohort of 573 female incident NHL cases diagnosed during 1996-2000 in Connecticut was followed for a median of 7.8 yr. Self-reported height and weight at 3 time points before and after diagnosis were collected. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazard models adjusting for factors believed to be associated with overall survival of NHL. Underweight (BMI weight (18.5 ≤ BMI weight loss (HR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.02-1.97) and posttreatment weight loss (HR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.14-3.45) and weight gain (HR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.04-3.32) were associated with poorer survival. NHL patients who were underweight, lost weight prediagnosis, or change weight after treatment were found to have a poorer survival.
Ramona C. Krauss
Full Text Available This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity.
Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen
Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…
Willer, Cristen J; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Loos, Ruth J F; Li, Shengxu; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Heid, Iris M; Berndt, Sonja I; Elliott, Amanda L; Jackson, Anne U; Lamina, Claudia; Lettre, Guillaume; Lim, Noha; Lyon, Helen N; McCarroll, Steven A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Roccasecca, Rosa Maria; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Weedon, Michael N; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Jacobs, Leonie C; Prokopenko, Inga; Soranzo, Nicole; Tanaka, Toshiko; Timpson, Nicholas J; Almgren, Peter; Bennett, Amanda; Bergman, Richard N; Bingham, Sheila A; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brown, Morris; Burtt, Noël P; Chines, Peter; Coin, Lachlan; Collins, Francis S; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Dennison, Elaine M; Deodhar, Parimal; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Evans, David M; Gianniny, Lauren; Gieger, Christian; Gillson, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hackett, Rachel; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Havulinna, Aki S; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hofman, Albert; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Kevin B; Johnson, Toby; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jovanovic, Zorica; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kraft, Peter; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana; Lakatta, Edward G; Luan, Jian'an; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L; Meitinger, Thomas; Mulas, Antonella; Munroe, Patricia B; Narisu, Narisu; Ness, Andrew R; Northstone, Kate; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Purmann, Carolin; Rees, Matthew G; Ridderstråle, Martin; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Saramies, Jouko; Scott, Laura J; Scuteri, Angelo; Silander, Kaisa; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevens, Suzanne; Stringham, Heather M; Tung, Y C Loraine; Valle, Timo T; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wallace, Chris; Watanabe, Richard M; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Nicholas; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhai, Guangju; Zillikens, M Carola; Altshuler, David; Caulfield, Mark J; Chanock, Stephen J; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hu, Frank B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laakso, Markku; Mooser, Vincent; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Spector, Timothy D; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hayes, Richard B; Hunter, David J; Mohlke, Karen L; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Wichmann, H-Erich; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Inês; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Hirschhorn, Joel N
Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)): TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2 and NEGR1 (where a 45-kb deletion polymorphism is a candidate causal variant). Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity.
Willer, Cristen J; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Loos, Ruth J F; Li, Shengxu; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Heid, Iris M; Berndt, Sonja I; Elliott, Amanda L; Jackson, Anne U; Lamina, Claudia; Lettre, Guillaume; Lim, Noha; Lyon, Helen N; McCarroll, Steven A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Roccasecca, Rosa Maria; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Weedon, Michael N; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Jacobs, Leonie C; Prokopenko, Inga; Soranzo, Nicole; Tanaka, Toshiko; Timpson, Nicholas J; Almgren, Peter; Bennett, Amanda; Bergman, Richard N; Bingham, Sheila A; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brown, Morris; Burtt, Noël P; Chines, Peter; Coin, Lachlan; Collins, Francis S; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Dennison, Elaine M; Deodhar, Parimal; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Evans, David M; Gianniny, Lauren; Gieger, Christian; Gillson, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hackett, Rachel; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Havulinna, Aki S; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hofman, Albert; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Kevin B; Johnson, Toby; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jovanovic, Zorica; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kraft, Peter; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana; Lakatta, Edward G; Luan, Jian'an; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L; Meitinger, Thomas; Mulas, Antonella; Munroe, Patricia B; Narisu, Narisu; Ness, Andrew R; Northstone, Kate; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Purmann, Carolin; Rees, Matthew G; Ridderstråle, Martin; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Saramies, Jouko; Scott, Laura J; Scuteri, Angelo; Silander, Kaisa; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevens, Suzanne; Stringham, Heather M; Tung, Y C Loraine; Valle, Timo T; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wallace, Chris; Watanabe, Richard M; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Nicholas; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhai, Guangju; Zillikens, M Carola; Altshuler, David; Caulfield, Mark J; Chanock, Stephen J; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hu, Frank B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laakso, Markku; Mooser, Vincent; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Spector, Timothy D; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hayes, Richard B; Hunter, David J; Mohlke, Karen L; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Wichmann, H-Erich; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Inês; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Hirschhorn, Joel N
Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci (P < 5 × 10−8): TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2 and NEGR1 (where a 45-kb deletion polymorphism is a candidate causal variant). Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity. PMID:19079261
Han, Xuesong; Stevens, June; Truesdale, Kimberly P; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Prizment, Anna E; Platz, Elizabeth A; Joshu, Corinne E
Obesity later in adulthood is associated with increased risks of many cancers. However, the effect of body fatness in early adulthood, and change in weight from early to later adulthood on cancer risk later in life is less clear. We used data from 13,901 people aged 45-64 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort who at baseline (1987-1989) self-reported their weight at the age of 25 and had weight and height measured. Incident cancers were identified through 2006 and cancer deaths were ascertained through 2009. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to relate body mass index (BMI) at age 25 and percent weight change from age 25 to baseline to cancer incidence and mortality. After adjusting for weight change from age 25 until baseline, a 5 kg/m(2) increment in BMI at age 25 was associated with a greater risk of incidence of all cancers in women [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.10 (1.02-1.20)], but not in men. Associations with incident endometrial cancer were strong [1.83 (1.47-2.26)]. After adjusting for BMI at age 25, a 5% increment in weight from age 25 to baseline was associated with a greater risk of incident postmenopausal breast cancer [1.05 (1.02-1.07)] and endometrial cancer [1.09 (1.04-1.14)] in women and incident colorectal cancer [1.05 (1.00-1.10)] in men. Excess weight during young adulthood and weight gain from young to older adulthood may be independently associated with subsequent cancer risk. Excess weight and weight gain in early adulthood should be avoided. © 2014 UICC.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies suggested potential priming effects of gestational weight gain (GWG on offspring's body composition in later life. However, consistency of these effects in normal weight, overweight and obese mothers is less clear. METHODS: We combined the individual data of three German cohorts and assessed associations of total and excessive GWG (as defined by criteria of the Institute of Medicine with offspring's mean body mass index (BMI standard deviation scores (SDS and overweight at the age of 5-6 years (total: n = 6,254. Quantile regression was used to examine potentially different effects on different parts of the BMI SDS distribution. All models were adjusted for birth weight, maternal age and maternal smoking during pregnancy and stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight status. RESULTS: In adjusted models, positive associations of total and excessive GWG with mean BMI SDS and overweight were observed only in children of non- overweight mothers. For example, excessive GWG was associated with a mean increase of 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.15 units of BMI SDS (0.13 (0.02, 0.24 kg/m(2 of 'real' BMI in children of normal-weight mothers. The effects of total and excessive GWG on BMI SDS increased for higher- BMI children of normal-weight mothers. DISCUSSION: Increased GWG is likely to be associated with overweight in offspring of non-overweight mothers.
Full Text Available To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW or presence of absence of macrosomia, and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China.From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample.For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationship for lean and normal weight women, but not for overweight and obese women. For macrosomia, considering the IOM's recommended weight gain as a reference, the OR magnitude for pregnancy weight gain above recommendations resulted in a positive correlation for all women. The OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a negative relationship for normal BMI and lean women, but not for overweight and obese women based on the IOM recommendations, significant based on the recommended pregnancy weight gain for Chinese women. Of normal weight children, 56.6% were above the GWG based on IOM recommendations, but 26.97% of normal weight children were above the GWG based on Chinese recommendations.A GWG above IOM recommendations might not be helpful for Chinese women. We need unified criteria to
Gabrielle L. Jenkin
Full Text Available Introduction: Neighbourhood contextual factors such as accessibility of food shops and green spaces are associated with adult bodyweight but not necessarily weight-related behaviours. Whether these associations are replicated amongst children is unknown.Aim: To understand which aspects of childrens' neighbourhoods are associated with unhealthy weight and weight-related behaviours.Methods: Individual-level data for children from the 2006/7 New Zealand Health Survey (of Body Mass Index (BMI, dietary indicators and socioeconomic variables were linked with geographic level data on neighbourhood deprivation, rural/urban status, percentage of community engaged in active travel, access to green space, food shops and sports/leisure facilities. Logistic regression models were fitted for measures of BMI and weight-related behaviours; sugar sweetened beverage (SSB consumption; fast-food consumption; and television viewing. Results:Increased Ccommunity engagement in active transport was, counterintuitively, the only neighbourhood contextual factor associated with unhealthy weight amongst children. After adjustment for socioeconomic and environmental variables, greater access to green space appeared to have a protective effect on SSB consumption and neighbourhood deprivation was associated with all three unhealthy weight-related behaviours (SSB and fast-food consumption and television viewing. Conclusions: Although further research is needed, evidence from the current study suggests that a repertoire of health promotion interventions and policies to change unhealthy weight- related behaviours in high deprivation neighbourhoods may be required to address childhood obesity.
Vila-Candel, Rafael; Soriano-Vidal, Francisco Javier; Navarro-Illana, Pedro; Murillo-Llorente, M Teresa; Martín-Moreno, José M
To ascertain the relationship between maternal weight gain and birth weight, in every pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) category. A two-stage sampling observational and descriptive study was carried out in the health department of La Ribera (Valencia, Spain). The sample was divided into four groups according to pre-gestational BMI. 140 pregnant women were studied. We observed rising pre-gestational weight gain (PWG) and trimestral gradients. There was a higher increase from the first to the second trimester than from the second to the third trimester in every pre-gestational BMI category. According to the international recommendations of Institute of Medicine, 16.4% of women had an inferior gestational weight gain (GWG), 38.6% were within the recommendations and 45% were above them. The pre-gestational BMI, categorized by the WHO, is related to the birth weight, showing a statistical significance (F=6.636 and and pweight gain than the recommended have newborns with higher birth weight (4,353 ± 821.924 g) and, underweight mothers with a lower weight gain than the recommended, have newborns with lower birth weights (2,900 ± 381.83 g) than the rest of the groups. The absolute gestational weight gain did not show a statistical significance compared to the birthweight in any of the pre-gestational BMI categories and, as an isolated indicator, is not an added value to the prenatal quality control. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Gaskins, Audrey J; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Colaci, Daniela S; Afeiche, Myriam C; Toth, Thomas L; Gillman, Matthew W; Missmer, Stacey A; Chavarro, Jorge E
To examine prospectively the relationships of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), BMI at age 18 years, and weight change since age 18 years with risk of fetal loss. Our prospective cohort study included 25,719 pregnancies reported by 17,027 women in the Nurses' Health Study II between 1990 and 2009. In 1989, height, current weight, and weight at age 18 years were self-reported. Current weight was updated every 2 years thereafter. Pregnancies were self-reported, with case pregnancies lost spontaneously and comparison pregnancies ending in ectopic pregnancy, induced abortion, or live birth. Incident fetal loss was reported in 4,494 (17.5%) pregnancies. Compared with those of normal BMI, the multivariate relative risks of fetal loss were 1.07 (95% CI [confidence interval] 1.00-1.15) for overweight women, 1.10 (95% CI 0.98-1.23) for class I obese women, and 1.27 (95% CI 1.11-1.45) for class II and class III obese women (P trend ≤ .001). Body mass index at age 18 years was not associated with fetal loss (P trend=.59). Compared with women who maintained a stable weight (± 4 kg) between age 18 years and before pregnancy, women who lost weight had a 20% (95% CI 9-29%) lower risk of fetal loss. This association was stronger among women who were overweight at age 18 years. Being overweight or obese before pregnancy was associated with higher risk of fetal loss. In women overweight or obese at age 18 years, losing 4 kg or more was associated with a lower risk of fetal loss. : II.
Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota has been shown to affect both fat storage and energy harvesting, suggesting that it plays a direct role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal colonization by particular species/groups of the intestinal microbiota is related to body weight values in Estonian preschool children born in different years during the entire 1990s. Methods: Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and quantitative composition of cultivable gut microbiota (staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, enterobacteria, lactobacilli, anaerobic gram-positive cocci, bifidobacteria, eubacteria, bacteroides, clostridia, and candida were studied in 51 healthy 5-year-old children (40 were born between 1993 and 94 and 11 were born between 1996 and 97. Results: At the age of 5 years, median weight was 19.5 kg and median BMI was 15.3 kg/m2. Significantly higher BMI (p=0.006 was found in 5-year-old children born in late versus early 1990s during the development of socioeconomic situation of Estonia (2% rise in gross domestic product. The counts of the different gut bacteria did not show any association with weight and BMI in the 5-year-old children. However, the BMI values were in positive correlation with a relative share of anaerobic gram-positive bacteria, for example, bifidobacteria when adjusted for sex and year of birth (adj R2=0.459, p=0.026 and eubacteria (adj R2=0.484, p=0.014 in the community of cultured intestinal microbiota. The relative share of bacteroides showed a negative correlation with the childrens’ weight (adj R2=− 0.481, p=0.015. Conclusion: The body weight indices of preschool children of the general population are associated with the proportion of anaerobic intestinal microbiota and can be predicted by sex and particular socioeconomic situation from birth to 5 years of age.
Shamansurova, Zulaykho; Tan, Paul; Ahmed, Basma; Pepin, Emilie; Seda, Ondrej; Lavoie, Julie L
We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females. Therefore, we challenged the female mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) to uncover certain phenotypes. Mice were maintained on either diet for 9 weeks. KO mice had lower body weights compared to wild-types (WT). Only hemizygous male KO mice presented with lower total fat mass, higher total lean mass as well as smaller adipocytes compared to WT mice. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, locomotor activity during the active period was increased in both male and female KO mice. Interestingly, only male KO mice had increased O2 consumption and CO2 production during the entire 24-hour period, suggesting an increased basal metabolic rate. Although glycemia during a glucose tolerance test was similar, KO males as well as HFD-fed females had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared to WT mice, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. Remarkably, all KO animals exhibited higher circulating adiponectin levels, suggesting that this phenotype can occur even in the absence of a significant reduction in adipose tissue weight, as observed in females and, thus, may be a specific effect related to the (P)RR. (P)RR may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications such as type 2 diabetes.
Wang, Xuewen; Miller, Gary D; Messier, Stephen P; Nicklas, Barbara J
The effects of weight loss on muscle function in older adults have not been well studied. This study determined the effects of a 6-month weight-loss intervention on muscle strength and quality in older obese adults with knee osteoarthritis. Participants were randomized to a weight loss (WL) (n = 44, 70 +/- 6 years) or weight stable (WS) (n = 43, 69 +/- 6 years) group. The WL intervention consisted of weekly educational meetings, a meal replacement diet, and a three-session-per-week structured exercise program to achieve 10%-12% weight loss. The WS intervention included bimonthly group meetings and newsletters. Body composition and knee extensor strength were measured at baseline and after intervention. The WL group decreased body weight, lean body mass, fat mass, and percent body fat (p .05), whereas eccentric extension decreased 6% in WS (p =.028). Concentric muscle quality (strength per kg body weight or lean body mass) increased in WL (p muscle quality decreased in WS (p fat mass were inversely associated with changes in most muscle strength and quality measures (p muscle strength/quality, despite loss of lean body mass in this sample of older men and women. Greater fat loss was associated with greater gains in muscle strength and quality. More studies are needed regarding the mechanisms by which loss of fat mass increases muscle strength and quality.
Camargo, M Constanza; Freedman, Neal D; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Abnet, Christian C; Rabkin, Charles S
Although excess body weight has been associated with cancers of the gastric cardia, relationships with gastric cancer at other anatomic subsites are not well defined. Furthermore, subsite-specific associations with attained height have not been fully assessed. In 1995-1996, 483,700 Whites enrolling in the multi-state NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study self-reported height and weight. Gastric cancers occurring through 31 December 2006 were ascertained from regional population-based registries. We used Cox regression models to estimate cancer hazard ratios (HRs) for sex-specific tertiles of height and weight and for body mass index (BMI) categories of the World Health Organization. One thousand incident cancers (48 % localized to the cardia, 4 % fundus, 6 % corpus, 3 % greater curvature, 6 % lesser curvature, 10 % antrum, 2 % pylorus, 5 % overlapping lesion, and 16 % unspecified) occurred an average of 5.4 years after enrollment. After controlling for effects of age, sex, education, and smoking, we found an inverse association between height and total noncardia cancers (i.e., fundus, corpus, greater and lesser curvatures, antrum, and pylorus), with HRs vs. tertile 1 of 0.65 and 0.71 for tertiles 2 and 3, respectively (p trend = 0.016). Trends were consistent for individual noncardia subsites. In contrast, although weight and BMI were each associated with risk of cardia cancer, neither was associated with total noncardia cancer nor individual subsites. Noncardia gastric cancer is associated with short stature but not with high body weight or obesity. The excess risk for shorter adults would be consistent with the known association of chronic H. pylori infection with growth retardation during childhood.
De La Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Arheart, Kristopher L; Miller, Tracie L; Lipshultz, Steven E; Messiah, Sarah E
Ethnic minority adolescents, Hispanics in particular, are disproportionately affected by extreme obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery is one of the few effective treatments for morbid obesity, yet little information about weight outcomes after surgery in this demographic are available. We determined the effectiveness of bariatric surgery in reducing weight and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents, a majority of whom were non-Mexican American Hispanic and originated from Central and/or South America and the Caribbean Basin region. Adolescents (16-to-19 years old) who had undergone gastric bypass or adjustable gastric band surgery between 2001 and 2010 and who had complete follow-up data available (91 %) were included in the analysis. Mean weight and BMI before and 1-year after surgery were compared. Among 71 adolescents (80 % Hispanic, 77 % female), mean BMI and weight, and z-scores and percentile transformations were all significantly lower after surgery for the entire sample (P < 0.001). Gastric bypass surgery showed significantly better weight loss outcomes for all anthropometric measures versus adjustable gastric band surgery (P < 0.05). Weight loss was similar among Hispanics and non-Hispanics. No peri-operative complications were reported. Three patients who stopped taking supplements as prescribed experienced iron deficiency anemia within the year following surgery. Our results show that bariatric surgery, gastric bypass procedure in particular, can markedly reduce weight among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent patient sample. These findings indicate that bariatric surgery has the potential to be safe and effective in substantially reducing weight in a group of adolescents who are at a particularly high risk for obesity-related health consequences.
Jessenia Hernández-Elizondo; José Moncada-Jiménez
This study was conducted to compare secular changes in height, weight, and body mass index and to survey children's daily nutrition, hydration preferences and preferred beverages while exercising...
Groth, Susan W; Holland, Margaret L; Kitzman, Harriet; Meng, Ying
To determine if gestational weight gain (GWG) in adolescents is associated with long-term weight increases 12 years and 18 years after delivery of a first child and the differential effects of weight gain during pregnancy that is inadequate, the appropriate amount, and excessive based on the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. Secondary data analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial. Memphis, Tennessee. Two hundred ninety-eight (298) primiparous low-income Black women who were adolescents at the time of their first pregnancies. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) at 12 and 18 years postdelivery and GWG, parity, prepregnancy BMI, and smoking. The total sample experienced a significant BMI increase from prepregnancy to 12 years and 18 years postdelivery. More than 50% of the women had a BMI increase greater than 10 kg/m(2) . By 18 years postdelivery, 85% were overweight or obese. Prepregnancy BMI and GWG had a positive significant effect on BMI 12 and 18 years later, whereas smoking had a negative effect. Those who gained excessive weight based on the IOM recommendations had a significantly higher BMI compared with those who gained appropriately. Gestational weight gain had long-term effects on BMI in a minority adolescent population. Excessive pregnancy weight gain is likely to contribute to long-term weight retention, especially if adolescents are overweight or obese when they become pregnant with their first children. Intervention during pregnancy to limit GWG has the potential of limiting long-term negative health consequences that result from overweight and obesity in minority women. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Nielsen, A M; Olsen, E M; Juul, A
To derive new reference values for height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of children aged 0-5 years in Denmark and to compare them with the national reference from the 1970s and the 2006 WHO standard.......To derive new reference values for height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of children aged 0-5 years in Denmark and to compare them with the national reference from the 1970s and the 2006 WHO standard....
Andersen, Lise Geisler; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Eriksson, Johan G
Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI) is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood.......Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI) is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood....
Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Allehdan, Sabika; Agraib, Lana; Ghazzawi, Hadeel A; Al-Mannai, Mariam A; Musaiger, AbdulRahman O
Body image in the mass media promotes an unrealistic picture of body shape that leads to body dissatisfaction among adolescentsQuery. Therefore, the study presented in this paper aimed to assess the association between mass media and adolescents' weight concerns and perceptions of body weight and shape. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on school adolescents aged between 15 and 18 years during the academic year 2013-2014. Multistage stratified sampling method was used. The number of participants in the study was 795 students: 400 boys and 395 girls. All participants have a common behavior in rarely reading magazines, but they spend more than 2 h in watching television or less than 3 h using the internet. However, most of obese/non-obese adolescents, boys or girls, have shown high influence (p mass media did not show the same results on weight concerns and body shape among Jordanian adolescents.
Stuebe, Alison M.; Forman, Michele R.; Michels, Karin B.
Objective Emerging evidence suggests that exposures during fetal life affect adult metabolism. We assessed the relation between recalled maternal pre-pregnancy body mass, gestational weight gain (GWG), and adiposity in the daughter. Design Retrospective cohort study among mother-nurse daughter dyads in the Nurses’ Health Study II and the Nurses’ Mothers’ Cohort. Mothers of participants completed questionnaires regarding their nurse-daughter in 2001. Participants 26,506 mother-nurse daughter dyads born between 1946 and 1964. Main outcome measures Body mass index of the nurse-daughter at age 18 and in 2001. Results At age 18, 561 (2.1%) daughters were obese (BMI greater than 30), and in 2001, 5,442 (22.0%) were obese. Adjusting for covariates, women whose mothers had a recalled pre-pregnancy BMI of 29 had a 6.1-fold increased risk of obesity at age 18 and a 3.4-fold risk of obesity in 2001, compared with women whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of 21. We found a U-shaped association between recalled GWG and offspring obesity. Compared with a maternal weight gain of 15–19 lb, GWG obesity risk at age 18 (odds ratio[OR] 1.54, 95% confidence interval[CI] 1.02–2.34) and in 2001 (OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.05–1.53). High weight gain (40+ lbs) was also associated with obesity risk at age 18 (OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.22–2.69) and in 2001 (OR 1.74, 95%CI 1.48–2.04). These associations were stronger among mothers who were overweight prior to pregnancy (p for interaction = 0.03), and they persisted with adjustment for birth weight. Conclusion A high recalled pre-pregnancy BMI and extremes of recalled GWG are associated with an increased risk of adolescent and adult obesity in offspring, particularly when the mother is overweight. Pre-pregnancy weight and GWG may be modifiable fetal origins of overweight and obesity in women. PMID:19528964
Full Text Available Studies on the relative impact of body mass index in women in childbearing age and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes are scarce in the Middle East.The primary objective of this research was to assess the impact of maternal body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG on neonatal outcomes. The effect of maternal age and folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy was also examined.This is a retrospective cross sectional observational study of 1000 full term deliveries of women enrolled thru the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network, in Lebanon. Maternal characteristics such as age, BMI and GWG and neonatal outcomes such as weight, height, head circumference and Apgar score were the primary studied variables in this study. Total maternal weight gain were compared to the guidelines depicted by the Institute of Medicine (IOM.The negative outcomes of newborns such as lean body weight and macrosomia were significantly present in women who gained respectively below or above the IOM's cut-off points. Pregestational body mass index influenced significantly the infants' birth weight, in both the underweight and obese categories. Birth height, head circumference and Apgar score were not influenced by pregestational body mass index or gestational weight gain. No significant associations were found between maternal age and pregestational body mass index and gestational weight gain.Studies evaluating the impact of weight before and during pregnancy on neonatal outcomes and anthropometrics measurements are lacking in the Middle East. Our results highlight the importance of nutritional counseling in order to shed the extra weights before conceiving and monitor weight gain to avoid the negative impact on feto-maternal health.
Nathanson, Brian H; Navab, Farhad
Obesity is a risk factor for developing Barrett's esophagus (BE), a precursor to esophageal cancer. Long BE lengths are associated with greater risk for malignancy. How weight gains from young adulthood (defined as ages 19 to 29 years) affect BE length is unknown. To examine current body mass index (BMI), weight gains from young adulthood, and evening snacking near bedtime during young adulthood in BE patients. Cross-sectional analysis of 71 patients from 2001 to 2008 from a 600-bed tertiary care center in the United States who were newly diagnosed with BE by endoscopy and mucosal biopsies. Barrett's esophagus length and age at presentation. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) measured the linear association between continuous variables. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare medians by segment length and the chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test for categorical data. Quantile regression was used for multivariable adjustment. Younger patients had higher BMIs at diagnosis (r=-0.32, P=0.007). Patients who gained more than 23 kg from young adulthood were diagnosed at an adjusted median age of 18.0 years younger 95% CI (6.1-29.9, P=0.004) than patients with no weight gains. BMI was not correlated with BE length (r=-0.12, P=0.33). Weight gains from young adulthood were not associated with BE length after multivariable adjustment (P=0.19). Patients whose late evening snack or bedtime was less than 4 hours from dinner had longer median BE lengths than those who went to bed later (5 vs 2 cm, P=0.02). Longer BE lengths were associated with shorter dinner-bedtime intervals during young adulthood but not with current BMI or weight gains from young adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with pregnancy outcomes in Tianjin, China. METHODS: Between June 2009 and May 2011, health care records of 33,973 pregnant women were collected and their children were measured for birth weight and birth length. The independent and joint associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines with the risks of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were examined by using Logistic Regression. RESULTS: After adjustment for all confounding factors, maternal prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, preterm delivery, large-for-gestational age infant (LGA, and macrosomia, and inversely associated with risks of small-for-gestational age infant (SGA and low birth weight. Maternal excessive GWG was associated with increased risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia, and decreased risks of preterm delivery, SGA, and low birth weight. Maternal inadequate GWG was associated with increased risks of preterm delivery and SGA, and decreased risks of LGA and macrosomia, compared with maternal adequate GWG. Women with both prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG had 2.2-5.9 folds higher risks of GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia compared with women with normal prepregnancy BMI and adequate GWG. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, and greater infant size at birth. Health care providers should inform women to start the pregnancy with a BMI in the normal weight category and limit their GWG to the range specified for their prepregnancy BMI.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. Methods Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile was 39.8%, but only 27.2% considered themselves as obese, although 43.4% reported trying to lose weight. Girls were more likely to express weight dissatisfaction than boys, especially those with BMI ≥ 95th percentile (62.9% vs. 25.9%. BMI ≥ 85th percentile girls were more likely to try to lose weight than boys (84.6% vs. 66.7%. Among all adolescents, 27.2% underestimated and 67.2% correctly judged their own weight status. Multinomial logistic models show that those with BMI ≥ 85th percentile, self-perceived as obese, or expressed body dissatisfaction were more likely to try to lose weight; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 4.52 (2.53–8.08, 18.04 (7.19–45.30, 4.12 (1.64–10.37, respectively. No significant differences were found in diet and physical activity between those trying to lose weight and those not trying, but boys who reported trying to lose weight still spent more television time (P Conclusion Gender differences in weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices exist among African American adolescents. One-third did not appropriately classify their weight status. Weight perception and body dissatisfaction are correlates of weight control practices. Adolescents attempting to lose weight need be empowered to make adequate desirable behavioral changes.
Gunnare, Nicole A; Silliman, Kathryn; Morris, Michelle Neyman
This study measured accuracy of self-reported body mass index (BMI), particularly weight, in a college population. The main purpose was to examine the role of gender, BMI, body weight satisfaction, weighing frequency and physical activity level in accuracy (weight difference, percent weight difference, and absolute weight difference). Students (N=405; 56% female) completed a questionnaire and 325 agreed to have their height and/or weight measured. Gender, BMI and activity level were significantly associated with weight difference and percent weight difference while BMI, activity level and weighing frequency were associated with absolute weight difference. However, interactions between BMI and physical activity were found. Our findings indicate that women and heavier individuals underestimate weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Youfa; Liang, Huifang; Chen, Xiaoli
Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI > or = 85th percentile) was 39.8%, but only 27.2% considered themselves as obese, although 43.4% reported trying to lose weight. Girls were more likely to express weight dissatisfaction than boys, especially those with BMI > or = 95th percentile (62.9% vs. 25.9%). BMI > or = 85th percentile girls were more likely to try to lose weight than boys (84.6% vs. 66.7%). Among all adolescents, 27.2% underestimated and 67.2% correctly judged their own weight status. Multinomial logistic models show that those with BMI > or = 85th percentile, self-perceived as obese, or expressed body dissatisfaction were more likely to try to lose weight; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 4.52 (2.53-8.08), 18.04 (7.19-45.30), 4.12 (1.64-10.37), respectively. No significant differences were found in diet and physical activity between those trying to lose weight and those not trying, but boys who reported trying to lose weight still spent more television time (P body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices exist among African American adolescents. One-third did not appropriately classify their weight status. Weight perception and body dissatisfaction are correlates of weight control practices. Adolescents attempting to lose weight need be empowered to make adequate desirable behavioral changes.
Dzakpasu, Susie; Fahey, John; Kirby, Russell S; Tough, Suzanne C; Chalmers, Beverley; Heaman, Maureen I; Bartholomew, Sharon; Biringer, Anne; Darling, Elizabeth K; Lee, Lily S; McDonald, Sarah D
Overweight and obese women are known to be at increased risk of caesarean birth. This study estimates the contribution of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) to caesarean births in Canada. We analyzed data from women in the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey who had a singleton term live birth in 2005-2006. Adjusted odds ratios for caesarean birth across BMI and GWG groups were derived, separately for nulliparous women and parous women with and without a prior caesarean. Population attributable fractions of caesarean births associated with above normal BMI and excess GWG were calculated. The overall caesarean birth rate was 25.7%. Among nulliparous and parous women without a previous caesarean birth, rates in obese women were 45.1% and 9.7% respectively, and rates in women who gained above their recommended GWG were 33.5% and 8.0% respectively. Caesarean birth was more strongly associated with BMI than with GWG. However, due to the high prevalence of excess GWG (48.8%), the proportion of caesareans associated with above normal BMI and excess GWG was similar [10.1% (95% CI: 9.9-10.2) and 10.9% (95% CI: 10.7-11.1) respectively]. Overall, one in five (20.2%, 95% CI: 20.0-20.4) caesarean births was associated with above normal BMI or excess GWG. Overweight and obese BMI and above recommended GWG are significantly associated with caesarean birth in singleton term pregnancies in Canada. Strategies to reduce caesarean births must include measures to prevent overweight and obese BMI prior to conception and promote recommended weight gain throughout pregnancy.
Harvey, Megan W; Braun, Barry; Ertel, Karen A; Pekow, Penelope S; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa
This study aimed to evaluate the association between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG), and cesarean delivery in Hispanics. We examined these associations among 1,215 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort of Hispanic women studied from 2006 to 2011. Prepregnancy BMI, GWG, and the mode of delivery were abstracted from medical records. A quarter of the participants entered pregnancy with obesity, 23% delivered via cesarean, and 52% exceeded the Institute of Medicine guidelines for GWG. After adjusting for age, women with obesity had 2.03 times the odds of cesarean delivery compared with women with normal BMI (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-2.82); findings remained significant after adjusting for GWG. Women with excessive total GWG had 1.49 times the odds of cesarean delivery (95% CI: 1.06-2.10) compared with women who gained within guidelines. An excessive rate of third trimester GWG (standard deviation [SD] change in GWG per week) increased the odds of cesarean delivery (odds ratio = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.05-2.62), while an excessive rate of first and third trimester GWG was not associated with increased odds. Obesity prior to pregnancy was associated with increased odds of cesarean delivery among Hispanics. Excessive GWG across pregnancy and an excessive rate of third trimester GWG were also associated with increased odds. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Suhr, J; Vuholm, Stine; Iversen, K N
BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest inverse associations between wholegrain intake and body weight gain. Only few controlled intervention studies have supported this association and few compare effects of different grain varieties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how wholegrain wheat (WGW) and rye...... compared with refined wheat (RW) affect body weight and composition and appetite sensation. DESIGN: Seventy overweight/obese adults participated in this 6-week randomized parallel study, in which they replaced their habitual cereal foods with RW, WGW or wholegrain rye (WGR). Further, a 4 h postprandial...... test meal challenge was completed with meals corresponding to diet allocation in the beginning and after the intervention. Body weight and composition, fasted blood samples, compliance and 4-day dietary intake were obtained before and after the intervention period. Appetite and breath hydrogen...
Benito, Pedro J; Cupeiro, Rocio; Peinado, Ana B; Rojo, Miguel A; Maffulli, Nicola
Men and women may lose weight in a different fashion. This study compares the changes in different anatomical regions after a well-controlled weight loss program by sex and initial BMI. A total of 180 subjects (48 overweight women, 36 overweight men, and 48 obese women and 48 obese men) were recruited to participate in a 22-week weight loss programme (diet + exercise). Regarding percentage body weight change from baseline, there was no triple interaction (BMI, sex and anatomical region), but there was interaction between BMI and anatomical region (F2,840 = 34.5; p weight in obese participants, but men lose the highest percentage of mass from the trunk. There were differences between men and women for the areas of left trunk mass (750g), right trunk mass (700g), total mass of the trunk (1400g), android mass (350g), and finally in the total mass in overweight participants (1300g), with higher values for men than for women. The region that loses more weight and fat is the trunk, followed by the legs, and then the arms, when the loss is observed in function of the total weight or fat lost. Both BMI and sex exert a definite influence fat loss, especially in some anatomical regions.
Dalgaard, L T; Sørensen, Thomas; Drivsholm, T
Variability of the uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) promoter has been associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and altered lipid profiles. Here we tested the hypothesis that variation of the UCP3 promoter is associated with either juvenile or maturity-onset obesity or body weight change over a 26...
Tuite, Paul J; Maxwell, Robert E; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Kotz, Catherine M; Kotzd, Catherine M; Billington, Charles J; Billingtond, Charles J; Laseski, Maggie A; Thielen, Scott D
A retrospective chart review characterizing changes in 17 male and 10 female Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery indicated that 6 mo before surgery, patients lost a mean of 5.1 lbs, whereas in the 6 mo after surgery, subjects gained a mean of 10.1 lbs; 22% gained more than 14 lbs. In 10 patients followed an additional 6 mo, weight gain continued. This weight gain may be associated with decreased energy expenditure due to subsidence of chronic tremor. The magnitude of gain underscores the need for proactive management of body weight in PD patients undergoing DBS.
Mumm, R; Scheffler, C; Hermanussen, M
Growth is both a matter of amplitude and tempo. We aimed to develop references for body height, body weight and body mass index (BMI) with respect to tempo of maturity. Data obtained from the German KiGGS study (2003-2006) on body height, body weight and presence or absence of the menarche were re-analysed in 3776 girls, aged 10-17 years. We developed smoothed centiles for BMI-, body-height- and body-weight-for-age using the LMS method for premenarcheal and postmenarcheal girls. Body height, body weight and BMI differed significantly between premenarcheal and postmenarcheal girls. On average, postmenarcheal girls aged 11-17 years were 5.3 cm taller and 9.7 kg heavier, and their BMI was 2.9 kg/m² higher than in premenarcheal girls of the same calendar age. Adolescent BMI rises with calendar age and biological age. New reference charts for adolescent girls aged 10-18 years were generated to be inserted into the currently used references to avoid misclassifying underweight and overweight pubertal girls. © 2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Krul, A.J.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Choi, H.
Background: Self-reported values of height and weight are used increasingly despite warnings that these data - and derived body mass index (BMI) values - might be biased. The present study investigates whether differences between self-reported and measured values are the same for populations from
Lee, Jiwoo; Kubik, Martha Y.
This study examined the response of parents of elementary school-aged children to a school-based body mass index (BMI) screening and parent notification program conducted in one Minnesota school district in 2010-2011 and whether parent's response was moderated by child's weight status. Randomly selected parents (N = 122) of second- and…
Larsen, Junilla K.; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Fisher, Jennifer O.; Hermans, Roel
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescents' body mass index (BMI) z-scores and their subsequent level of schooling, extending previous longitudinal research by using objectively measured weight and height data. Methods: A longitudinal study with 3 study waves (1-year intervals) involving 1248 Dutch…
Mehrotra, Chetna; Naimi, Timothy S; Serdula, Mary; Bolen, Julie; Pearson, Karl
Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in the United States. Obesity is a risk factor for arthritis, but the relationship between arthritis and weight has not been well characterized at the population level in the United States. Previous research shows that physicians often fail to advise their obese patients to lose weight. To describe the relationship between body weight and arthritis in the United States, and to assess predictors of efforts to lose weight among obese adults with arthritis, including the impact of professional advice to lose weight. Data from the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (a population-based survey of U.S. adults) from the 35 states that collected information on weight and height, arthritis, and efforts to lose weight. Arthritis was based on self-report of doctor diagnosis or chronic joint symptoms. Main outcome measures were arthritis and efforts to lose weight among adults with arthritis. Overall, 31.7% of respondents had self-reported arthritis. There was a strong relationship between body weight and arthritis. Specifically, the prevalence of arthritis was 25.9% among normal weight (18.5 to 24.9 body mass index [BMI]) adults; 32.1% among overweight (25 to 29.9 BMI) adults; and 43.5% among obese (>30 BMI) adults. This association persisted after adjusting for other factors (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for having arthritis among obese individuals compared with healthy weight individuals, 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]=3.2-3.8). Among obese adults with arthritis who had a routine checkup within the past 12 months, only 43% were advised to lose weight by a health professional. However, recipients of such advice were more likely to try to lose weight than nonrecipients, and professional advice was the strongest independent predictor of weight loss efforts (AOR=2.8; 95% CI=2.5-3.1). Body mass index (BMI) is an important independent risk factor for self-reported arthritis. Although physicians often fail to advise obese
Olmsted, Marion P; McFarlane, Traci
Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...
Kim, Koh-Woon; Song, Mi-Yeon; Chung, Seok-Hee; Chung, Won-Seok
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and safety of modified fasting therapy using fermented medicinal herbs and exercise on body weight, fat and muscle mass, and blood chemistry in obese subjects. Twenty-six patients participated in a 14-day fast, during which they ingested a supplement made from fermented medicinal herbs and carbohydrates (intake: 400-600 kcal/d). The schedule included 7 prefasting relief days and 14 days of stepwise reintroduction of food. The patients also took part in an exercise program that incorporated Qigong, weight training, and walking exercises. The efficacy of treatments was observed by assessing body fat mass and muscle mass, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, and triglycerides in each study period. Specific symptoms or side effects were reported. Body weight and body fat mass both decreased significantly by (5.16 ± 0.95) and (3.89 ± 0.79) kg (both P < 0.05), while muscle mass decreased by an average of (0.26 ± 0.22) kg, without statistical significance. ALT levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while AST levels decreased without statistical significance (P = 0.052). The levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were also significantly decreased (both P < 0.05). There were few adverse events except for mild dizziness, which did not affect everyday living. These results suggest that modified fasting therapy using fermented medicinal herbs and exercise could be effective and safe on obese patients.
Full Text Available Background Adolescents’ perception of their weight is a strong factor in shaping dietary habits and weight control and management. Among non-overweight and overweight adolescents, both overestimation and underestimation of weight status are associated with harmful effects. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived weight and attitude toward eating disorders among adolescent girls living in Karaj, Iran. Materials and Methods Involving a two-stage random sampling, this cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 537 high school girls 14-18 years of age living in Karaj. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was employed to screen for attitude toward eating disorders. Also, anthropometric measurements (weight and height, perceived and the ideal weights of the participants were assessed. Results The average age of girls participating in the study was 16.12±1.20. According to the results, 70% of girls had normal body mass index. It was found that the ideal weight of 55% of the girls in the normal body mass index group fell under the lower than normal boundary. Moreover, the prevalence of eating disorders was estimated to be 23.6%. The attitude toward eating disorder was significantly correlated with body mass index of participants and their self-concept (P
Ho Walter King Yan
Full Text Available There is evidence that rapid weight gain during the first year of life is associated with being overweight later in life. Therefore, overweight tendencies need to be detected at an appropriate age, and suitable strategies need to be implemented for weight management to achieve optimal long-term health. The objective of this study was to investigate comparisons in BMI status and associated categories in male and female students over ten years in two phases, including 2008-2013 and 2009-2014. Weight and height data were collected to obtain BMI (Body Mass Index over ten years in two phases. The first phase occurred from 2008 to 2013, and the second phase occurred from 2009 to 2014 in a population of 10846 school children (Males: 6970, 64.3%, and females: 3875, 35.7% in Macau. Their ages ranged from 6 years old in 2008 to 11 years old in 2013. The same age range was observed in the second phase, i.e., 2009-2014. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, such as the mean, standard deviation, t-tests to determine gender differences (year-wise and a Chi square test for independence to determine the relationship between BMI (Underweight, Standard, Overweight and Obese and age groups. In the first phase (2008-2013, the findings indicated a higher BMI level among the male students than the female students across all age groups (2008 t = 5.24, 2009 t = 88.25, 2010 t = 11.32, 2011 t = 17.45, 2012 t = 19.70 and 2013 t = 19.92. In the second phase (2009-2014, a higher BMI level was found among the male students than the female students across all age groups (2009 t = 2.68, 2010 t = 2.886, 2011 t = 3.076, 2013 t = 4.228, and 2014 t = 2.405. The results of the two phases combined (2008 to 2014 and 2009 to 2014 revealed that male students in 2008 had a higher BMI level than their counterparts in 2009 in the two age categories (8 years t = 3.025 and 11 years t = 3.377. Female students in the second phase (2009-2014 showed a higher BMI level than their
El Ghoch, Marwan; Pourhassan, Maryam; Milanese, Chiara; Müller, Manfred J; Calugi, Simona; Bazzani, Paola Vittoria; Dalle Grave, Riccardo
Data on the deficits in lean body mass (LBM) and total body skeletal muscle mass (SM) in anorexia nervosa (AN) is scarce and inconsistent. Furthermore, the usefulness of the reported body mass index (BMI) severity cut-off for AN has not been tested with respect to these important parameters. The study had two aims, namely to study LBM patterns and SM in adult females with AN before and after weight restoration, and to examine the clinical usefulness of the 16.5 kg/m 2 BMI cut-off for assessing the protein status in terms of LBM and SM in AN patients. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after weight gain in 90 adult female inpatients with AN, and 90 controls matched by post-treatment BMI and age. Patients were stratified into two groups using BMI 16.5 kg/m 2 as a cut-off. Before weight restoration, patients in the BMI≤16.5 kg/m 2 subgroup (n = 65) had lower LBM, SM and lean extremity mass percentage, but higher %LBM and lean trunk-to-extremity ratio on average than controls. However, those with BMI >16.5 kg/m 2 (n = 25) displayed lower lean extremity mass percentage and higher %LBM, but no significant differences in LBM and SM with respect to controls. Moreover the time × subgroup interaction was significant in terms of LBM and SM, meaning that, changes occur in different manner over time in the two AN subgroups. However no differences were found between the two AN subgroups in either demographic or other eating disorder characteristics. After weight gain, normalization of LBM, %LBM, lean extremity mass percentage and SM was achieved across the entire AN sample, and the BMI≤16.5 kg/m 2 subgroup. The fat mass was the major determinant of gain in LBM; the higher the FM at baseline, the greater the increase in LBM. Our results suggest a BMI cut-off ≤16.5 kg/m 2 as a clinical threshold for determining AN severity. As short-term weight restoration is associated with a normalization in LBM and SM, it
Paul A Baldock
Full Text Available Changes in whole body energy levels are closely linked to alterations in body weight and bone mass. Here, we show that hypothalamic signals contribute to the regulation of bone mass in a manner consistent with the central perception of energy status. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y (NPY, a well-known orexigenic factor whose hypothalamic expression is increased in fasting, have significantly increased bone mass in association with enhanced osteoblast activity and elevated expression of bone osteogenic transcription factors, Runx2 and Osterix. In contrast, wild type and NPY knockout (NPY (-/- mice in which NPY is specifically over expressed in the hypothalamus (AAV-NPY+ show a significant reduction in bone mass despite developing an obese phenotype. The AAV-NPY+ induced loss of bone mass is consistent with models known to mimic the central effects of fasting, which also show increased hypothalamic NPY levels. Thus these data indicate that, in addition to well characterized responses to body mass, skeletal tissue also responds to the perception of nutritional status by the hypothalamus independently of body weight. In addition, the reduction in bone mass by AAV NPY+ administration does not completely correct the high bone mass phenotype of NPY (-/- mice, indicating the possibility that peripheral NPY may also be an important regulator of bone mass. Indeed, we demonstrate the expression of NPY specifically in osteoblasts. In conclusion, these data identifies NPY as a critical integrator of bone homeostatic signals; increasing bone mass during times of obesity when hypothalamic NPY expression levels are low and reducing bone formation to conserve energy under 'starving' conditions, when hypothalamic NPY expression levels are high.
Suelter, C S; Schvey, N; Kelly, N R; Shanks, M; Thompson, K A; Mehari, R; Brady, S; Yanovski, S Z; Melby, C L; Tanofsky-Kraff, M; Yanovski, J A; Shomaker, L B
Sociocultural pressure to be thin is commonly reported by adolescents; yet, to what extent such pressure is associated with weight gain has not been evaluated longitudinally. Examine whether pressure to be thin was positively associated with weight and fat gain in adolescents. Participants were 196 healthy adolescent (age 15 ± 1 years old) girls (65%) and boys of varying weights (BMI 25 ± 7 kg/m2 ) studied at baseline and 1-year follow-up. At baseline, adolescents and their mothers reported pressure to be thin by questionnaire. At baseline and follow-up, BMI was calculated, and fat mass was assessed with air displacement plethysmography. Multiple regression was used to examine associations between baseline pressure to be thin and 1-year changes in BMI and fat mass. Accounting for multiple covariates, including baseline BMI or fat, adolescent-reported pressure from parents and peers and mother-reported pressure toward their teen were associated with greater gains in either adolescent BMI or fat (ps effects (ps peer pressure to be thin were associated with increases in BMI and fat mass during adolescence, particularly in heavier adolescents. Further research is necessary to clarify how this association operates reciprocally and to identify underlying explanatory mechanisms. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Olson, David P; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Cline, Gary W; Shulman, Gerald I; Lowell, Bradford B
Deletion of acetyl CoA carboxylase-2 (Acc2) reportedly causes leanness in the setting of hyperphagia. To determine the cellular basis for these effects, we generated a mouse model in which Acc2 can be selectively deleted by the action of Cre recombinase. Deletion of Acc2 from skeletal muscle, the predominant site of Acc2 expression, had no effect on body weight, food intake, or body composition. When Acc2 was inactivated in the germline, Acc2 knockout (Acc2KO) mice displayed no differences in body weight, food intake, body composition, or glucose homeostasis as compared to controls on chow or high fat diet. Total malonyl CoA content and fatty acid oxidation rates in skeletal muscle of Acc2KO mice were unchanged, suggesting metabolic compensation in response to the loss of Acc2. The limited impact of Acc2 deletion on energy balance raises the possibility that selective pharmacological inhibition of Acc2 for the treatment of obesity may be ineffective.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, H; Hamilton, H A; Willmore, J; Chaput, J-P
We examined the associations between perceptions and attitudes about body weight and adherence to the physical activity recommendation (PAR) for adolescents to achieve ≥60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and tested whether body mass index (BMI) was a moderator of these relationships. Cross-sectional survey. Self-reported data from Canadian adolescents (n = 4299) who participated in the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey were analysed. Dissatisfaction with body weight was associated with lower odds of adherence to the PAR (odds ratio [OR]: 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.99). More specifically, those who perceived themselves as overweight/obese had lower odds of adherence to the PAR (OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.42-0.81) compared with those who think they were about the right weight. Those who were trying to gain weight were more likely to adhere to the PAR (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.29-2.86) compared to those who were doing nothing about their body weight. BMI was a significant moderator of the association between dissatisfaction with body weight and adherence to the PAR. At low BMI, there were no differences in the adherence to the PAR between adolescents who were dissatisfied with their body weight or not. At high BMI, adolescents who were dissatisfied with their body weight were less likely to adhere to the PAR than those who were not dissatisfied with their weight. Results were not different between males and females. Results suggest that adolescents who are dissatisfied with their body weight have lower adherence to the PAR, particularly those who are overweight or obese. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The ATTEMPT cohort study is multi-national, longitudinal study of smokers intending to quit recruited in the U.S.A., Canada, U.K. and France. Data on demographics, medical history, body mass index (BMI, weight concerns and smoking status were collected at baseline and after six months. A total of 2,009 subjects provided data at baseline and 1,303 at six months. High baseline BMI was associated with recent quit attempts, high weight concerns and high cigarette consumption. Weight gain was associated with low income, being single and number of cigarette-free days, but not with baseline weight concerns and confidence in preventing weight gain. Quit attempts were more frequent in subjects with a high baseline BMI and low weight concerns.
Lee, Jiwoo; Kubik, Martha Y
This study examined the response of parents of elementary school-aged children to a school-based body mass index (BMI) screening and parent notification program conducted in one Minnesota school district in 2010-2011 and whether parent's response was moderated by child's weight status. Randomly selected parents (N = 122) of second- and fourth-grade students completed a mailed self-administered anonymous survey. Child's weight status was determined using measured height and weight. Most parents read the BMI notification letter and considered it helpful, independent of child's weight status. Parents of overweight children were significantly more likely than parents of normal weight children to report healthy lifestyle changes. This low-intensity intervention has the potential to support children, especially overweight children, and their parents to make healthy lifestyle changes. Future studies should investigate whether parent's response contributes to improved short- and long-term health outcomes for children. © The Author(s) 2014.
Flávia Cristina Drumond Andrade
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the association between body mass index and weight changes on disability transitions and mortality among Brazilian older adults. Longitudinal data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil (2000 and 2006, were used to examine the impact of obesity on disability and mortality and of weight changes on health transitions related to disability. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used in the analyses. Individuals who were obese were more likely than those of normal weight to have limitations on activities of daily living (ADL, instrumental activity of daily living (IADL, and Nagi's limitations. Obesity was associated with higher incidence of ADL and IADL limitations and with lower recovery from Nagi's limitations. Compared to those who maintained their weight, those who gained weight experienced higher incidence of ADL and Nagi's limitations, even after controlling for initial body mass index. Higher mortality among overweight individuals was only found when the reference category was “remaining free of Nagi limitations.” The findings of the study underline the importance of maintaining normal weight for preventing disability at older ages.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3 were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body
Akram Kooshki; Tahereh Tofighian; Roya Akbarzadeh
Obesity disrupts glucose homeostasis by metabolic disorders. Probiotics are nutritional and medicinal potential to control obesity and its related disorders. This study was aimed to investigate effects of synbiotic supplementation on weight, Body Mass Index (BMI) and blood sugar in type II diabetic patients. This clinical double-blind trial study was done on 43 (15 males and 28 females) type II diabetic patients who reffered to diabetes clinic in Sabzevar. The patients in the study were rando...
Dodgen, Leilani; Spence-Almaguer, Emily
African American women have higher prevalence (82%) of overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25?29) and obesity (BMI ?30) than white women (63.2%) or Hispanic women (77.2%), and weight-loss programs yield minimal results in this population. We examine the concept of BMI as a measure of health for African American women and suggests a more holistic, multifaceted approach to preventing chronic disease.
Richard, Aline; Rohrmann, Sabine; Lohse, Tina; Eichholzer, Monika
Little is known about the association of dissatisfaction with body weight - a component of body image - with depression in individuals of different sex, age, and with different body mass index (BMI). Hence, the aim of our study was to evaluate the association of body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) with depression in different sub-groups. We analyzed data of 15,975 individuals from the cross-sectional 2012 Swiss Health Survey. Participants were asked about their body weight satisfaction. The validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to ascertain depression. Age was stratified into three groups (18-29, 30-59, and ≥60 years). The body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported body height and weight and categorized into underweight (BMI body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) and depression was assessed with logistic regression analyses and odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were computed. BWD was associated with depression in the overall group (OR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.66-2.50) as well as in men (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.34-2.56) and women (OR 2.25, 95 % CI 1.71-2.96) independent of BMI. The stratification by age groups showed significant associations of BWD with depression in young (OR 1.78, 95 % CI 1.16-2.74), middle-aged (OR 2.10, 95 % CI 1.61-2.74) and old individuals (OR 2.34, 95 % CI 1.30-4.23) independent of BMI. Stratification by BMI categories resulted in statistically significant positive associations of BWD and depression in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese individuals. BWD was associated with depression independent of BMI, sex and age.
Saint Onge, Jarron M; Krueger, Patrick M; Rogers, Richard G
We employ a unique dataset of Major League Baseball (MLB) players - a select, healthy population - to examine trends in height, weight, and body mass in birth cohorts from 1869 to 1983. Over that 115-year time period, U.S. born MLB players have gained, on average, approximately 3 in. (7.6 cm) in height and 27.0 lb (12.2 kg) in weight, which has contributed a 1.6-unit increase in the body mass index. Where comparable data are available, U.S. born MLB players are about 2.0 in. (5.1cm) taller and 20.0 lb (9.1 kg) heavier but substantially less obese than males in the general U.S. population. But both groups exhibit similar height and weight trends; the majority of height and weight gains take place in cohorts that were born prior to World War II, followed by slower gains and occasional declines in height and weight for cohorts born in 1939 and later.
Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Krueger, Patrick M.; Rogers, Richard G.
We employ a unique dataset of Major League Baseball (MLB) players – a select, healthy population – to examine trends in height, weight, and body mass in birth cohorts from 1869 to 1983. Over that 115-year time period, U.S. born MLB players have gained, on average, approximately 3 in. (7.6 cm) in height and 27.0 lb (12.2 kg) in weight, which has contributed a 1.6-unit increase in the body mass index. Where comparable data are available, U.S. born MLB players are about 2.0 in. (5.1 cm) taller and 20.0 lb (9.1 kg) heavier but substantially less obese than males in the general U.S. population. But both groups exhibit similar height and weight trends; the majority of height and weight gains take place in cohorts that were born prior to World War II, followed by slower gains and occasional declines in height and weight for cohorts born in 1939 and later. PMID:18753017
Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Michaelsen, Kim F; Rasmussen, Kathleen M
later in life. OBJECTIVE: We examined how maternal prepregnant body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and infant feeding pattern are associated with infant weight gain. DESIGN: In this prospective, observational study, we used multiple regression analyses adjusted for potential confounding factors to examine...... these associations among 3768 mother-infant dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort. RESULTS: In multiple regression analyses, increasing maternal prepregnant BMI, decreasing durations of breastfeeding, and earlier complementary food introduction were associated with increased infant weight gain. An interaction......). In this sample, prepregnant obesity (BMI > or = 30.0), short durations of breastfeeding, and earlier introduction of complementary food were associated with 0.7 kg of additional weight gain during infancy. CONCLUSIONS: Infant weight gain is associated with maternal prepregnant BMI and with an interaction between...
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Fan, Yiou; Li, Yanping; Liu, Ailing; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng; Xu, Guifa
Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct...
Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie; Story, Mary; Standish, Amber R
Background Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors are common among adolescents and questions exist regarding their long-term effect on weight status. Objective To examine 10-year longitudinal associations between dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors and changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods and Procedures A diverse population-based sample of middle school and high school adolescents was followed for 10 years. Participants (N=1,902) completed surveys in 1998–99 (Project EAT-I), 2003–04 (Project EAT-II), and 2008–09 (Project EAT-III). Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors at Time 1 and Time 2 were used to predict 10-year changes in BMI at Time 3, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and Time 1 BMI. Results Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 predicted greater BMI increases at Time 3 in males and females, as compared to no use of these behaviors. For example, females using unhealthy weight control behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 increased their BMI by 4.63 units as compared to 2.29 units in females not using these behaviors (pdiet pill use (females). Conclusions Findings clearly indicate that dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors, as reported by adolescents, predict significant weight gain over time. PMID:22188838
Full Text Available Abstract Background While high protein diets have been shown to improve satiety and retention of lean body mass (LBM, this study was designed to determine effects of a protein-enriched meal replacement (MR on weight loss and LBM retention by comparison to an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched MR within customized diet plans utilizing MR to achieve high protein or standard protein intakes. Methods Single blind, placebo-controlled, randomized outpatient weight loss trial in 100 obese men and women comparing two isocaloric meal plans utilizing a standard MR to which was added supplementary protein or carbohydrate powder. MR was used twice daily (one meal, one snack. One additional meal was included in the meal plan designed to achieve individualized protein intakes of either 1 2.2 g protein/kg of LBM per day [high protein diet (HP] or 2 1.1 g protein/kg LBM/day standard protein diet (SP. LBM was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Body weight, body composition, and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Results Eighty-five subjects completed the study. Both HP and SP MR were well tolerated, with no adverse effects. There were no differences in weight loss at 12 weeks (-4.19 ± 0.5 kg for HP group and -3.72 ± 0.7 kg for SP group, p > 0.1. Subjects in the HP group lost significantly more fat weight than the SP group (HP = -1.65 ± 0.63 kg; SP = -0.64 ± 0.79 kg, P = 0.05 as estimated by BIA. There were no significant differences in lipids nor fasting blood glucose between groups, but within the HP group a significant decrease in cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was noted at 12 weeks. This was not seen in the SP group. Conclusion Higher protein MR within a higher protein diet resulted in similar overall weight loss as the standard protein MR plan over 12 weeks. However, there was significantly more fat loss in the HP group but no significant difference in lean body mass. In this trial, subject compliance with both the
Nugent, Stephen D; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G
A general assumption is that the body mass index (BMI) reflects changes in fat mass (FM). However, it fails to distinguish the type of weight that is lost or gained-fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM). The BMI treats both changes the same although they have opposite health consequences. The objective of this study was to propose a more precise measure, a body composition change index (BCCI), which distinguishes between changes in FM and FFM, and this study compares it with using the BMI as an outcome measure. Data were obtained from 3,870 subjects who had completed dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) total body scans at baseline and end-of-study when participating in a variety of weight-loss interventions. Since height remained constant in this adult cohort, changes in the BMI corresponded with scale weight changes (r = 0.994), allowing BMI changes to be converted to "lbs." to match the statistic used for calculation of the BCCI. The BCCI is calculated by scoring increases in FFM (lbs.) and decreases in FM (lbs.) as positive outcomes and scoring decreases in FFM and increases in FM as negative outcomes. The BCCI is the net sum of these calculations. Differences between scale weight changes and BCCI values were subsequently compared to obtain "discordance scores." Discordance scores ranged from 0.0 lbs. to >30.0 lbs. with a mean absolute value of between the two measures of 7.79 lbs. (99% confidence interval: 7.49-8.10, p <0.00001), SD = 7.4 lbs. Similar discordance scores were also found in subgroups of self-reported gender, ethnicity, and age. A significant difference of 7.79 lbs. was found between the BCCI and the BMI to evaluate the efficacy of weight loss interventions. If assessing changes in body composition is a treatment goal, use of the BMI could result in significantly erroneous conclusions.
Knapen, Marjo H J; Schurgers, Leon J; Shearer, Martin J; Newman, Paul; Theuwissen, Elke; Vermeer, Cees
Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent protein found in bone and in circulation. High serum γ-carboxylated OC reflects a high, and high uncarboxylated OC (ucOC) reflects a low vitamin K status. A revolutionary hypothesis is that ucOC acts as a hormone improving glucose handling and reducing fat mass. The objective was to test the logical extrapolation of the ucOC hormone hypothesis to humans that elevated ucOC is associated with higher body weight, BMI and fat mass. In a cross-sectional analysis, the associations of vitamin K status with circulating adiponectin and body composition were investigated in 244 postmenopausal women (study I). The effects of vitamin K treatment on adiponectin, body weight and BMI were investigated in archived samples from forty-two young men and women who received varying doses of menaquinone-7 during 12 weeks (study II) and from a cohort of 164 postmenopausal women who participated in a 3-year placebo-controlled trial on 45 mg menaquinone-4 (MK-4) (study III). No association was found between vitamin K status and circulating adiponectin before or after vitamin K supplementation. A higher carboxylation of OC was significantly correlated with lower body weight, BMI and fat mass of the trunk. Women taking MK-4 maintained their baseline body weight and BMI, whereas women taking placebo showed significant increases in both indices. These findings demonstrate that a high vitamin K status of bone has no effect on circulating adiponectin in healthy people and long-term vitamin K supplementation does not increase weight in healthy postmenopausal women.
Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Bent
Our aim was to investigate the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PWR) in pre-pregnancy underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese women, with emphasis on the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. We performed secondary analyses...... weight, 60% of overweight and 50% of obese women gained more than recommended during pregnancy. For normal weight and overweight women with GWG above recommendations the OR of gaining = 5 kg (11 lbs) 1-year postpartum was 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-4.0) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-6.2, respectively) compared to women...... with GWG within recommendations. GWG above IOM recommendations significantly increases normal weight, overweight and obese women's risk of retaining weight 1 year after delivery. Health personnel face a challenge in prenatal counseling as 40-60% of these women gain more weight than recommended...
Bjerkedal, T; Beckstrøm, J R; Brevik, J I; Skåden, K
Statistics Norway has published data on the average height of conscripts since 1910. Average height of men was 171.4 cm in 1920 and increased by 7.3 cm to 178.7 cm in 1970. Over the last 30 years, average height has increased only 1 cm, to 179.7 cm in 2000. The concern now is the fact that the average body weight of conscripts has been increasing. To monitor this development, statistics, based on BMI would be warranted. The basis for such a statistics is explored in a study including all men born 1967-1980 known to the Norwegian central population registry as of December 1997; a total of 475,076 men. Data from the medical examinations for military service were obtained from the National Service Administration for 413,051 (86.9%). Of these men 400,297 (96.9%) were born in Norway, 12,754 abroad. The proportion of men born in Norway who were not examined averaged 6.4%. This percentage was much the same for each cohort. The reasons for being exempted from examination were the same, this indicates that there was no difference in selection bias between cohorts. No data were available for the assessment of the reliability and validity of the measurements. Nevertheless, trends in average height, weight and BMI give a clear picture of changes that have occurred. Provided that validity of the measurements can be secured, it is concluded that examinations for military service can offer useful data for a health index on the growth and development of young men.
Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Grant, Breănna L
The goal of this study was to determine how many clinics providing in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the United States require a body mass index (BMI) or body weight cut-off point to determine treatment eligibility. US clinics listed as members on the Society of Assisted Reproduction website in late 2013 were contacted by phone between January and March 2014. Clinic personnel were asked if a BMI or body weight cut-off points was used to determine IVF treatment eligibility and what strategies they recommended for their patients to achieve a healthy body weight. Of the 379 clinics contacted, 347 responded (92% response rate) and 35% (n = 120) reported using a BMI or body weight cut-off points to determine eligibility for IVF treatment. Mean BMI (± SD) cut-off points was 38.4 ± 5.2 kg/m(2) and mean body weight (± SD) cut-off points was 130.2 ± 14.8 kg. Of the clinics using a set cut-off points, half (46%) provided no weight loss recommendations for patients. A sizable portion of US IVF clinics report a required or preferred BMI or body weight cut-off points for treatment. Despite this, most clinics did not provide a recommended program or approach for weight loss with very few clinics reporting an in-house program.
Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) later in childhood are in opposite directions, which raises questions about when during childhood the change in direction happens. We examined how maternal and paternal education and household income were associated...... with birthweight z-scores and with BMI z-scores at age 5 and 12 months and 7 years, and we examined the socioeconomic differences in the tracking of these z-scores across infancy and childhood. METHODS: The associations were studied in a cohort of children in the Danish National Birth Cohort, single born between...... 1997 and 2003, for whom information on body size from at least 1 of 4 time points (n=85 062) was recorded. We examined the associations using linear mixed-effects modelling. RESULTS: Children from families with a low maternal and paternal educational level changed their body size z-scores upwards...
Imai, Hisao; Kuwako, Tomohito; Kaira, Kyoichi; Masuda, Tomomi; Miura, Yosuke; Seki, Kaori; Sakurai, Reiko; Utsugi, Mitsuyoshi; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Sunaga, Noriaki; Tomizawa, Yoshio; Ishihara, Shinichi; Ishizuka, Takao; Mogi, Akira; Hisada, Takeshi; Minato, Koichi; Takise, Atsushi; Saito, Ryusei; Yamada, Masanobu
In patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated, advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), common gefitinib-sensitive EGFR mutations that predict a greater response to therapy include the exon 19 deletion and L858R point mutation. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether body surface area (BSA), body weight (BW), and body mass index (BMI) affect gefitinib efficacy in such patients. The medical charts of 138 consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC harboring sensitive EGFR mutations, who underwent gefitinib treatment, were reviewed. The median BSA and BW were used as cutoff values to evaluate their impact on gefitinib efficacy. BMI was categorized as underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-25 kg/m2), and overweight (≥25 kg/m2). The median BSA and BW were 1.48 m2 and 53 kg, respectively. The overall response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 65.2%, 12.2, and 24.2 months, respectively. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes according to BSA, BW, or BMI alone. Subgroup analysis based on the mutation type and BSA revealed no significant differences in PFS between the groups; however, the median OS in those with exon 19 deletion combined with low BSA was significantly favorable compared with the other groups. Gefitinib efficacy in patients with NSCLC harboring sensitive EGFR mutations did not differ according to BSA, BW, and BMI. However, OS was superior in patients with both the exon 19 deletion and low BSA.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the association of dissatisfaction with body weight - a component of body image - with depression in individuals of different sex, age, and with different body mass index (BMI. Hence, the aim of our study was to evaluate the association of body weight dissatisfaction (BWD with depression in different sub-groups. Methods We analyzed data of 15,975 individuals from the cross-sectional 2012 Swiss Health Survey. Participants were asked about their body weight satisfaction. The validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 was used to ascertain depression. Age was stratified into three groups (18–29, 30–59, and ≥60 years. The body mass index (BMI was calculated from self-reported body height and weight and categorized into underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2, normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2. The association between body weight dissatisfaction (BWD and depression was assessed with logistic regression analyses and odds ratios (OR with 95 % confidence intervals (CI were computed. Results BWD was associated with depression in the overall group (OR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.66–2.50 as well as in men (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.34–2.56 and women (OR 2.25, 95 % CI 1.71–2.96 independent of BMI. The stratification by age groups showed significant associations of BWD with depression in young (OR 1.78, 95 % CI 1.16–2.74, middle-aged (OR 2.10, 95 % CI 1.61–2.74 and old individuals (OR 2.34, 95 % CI 1.30–4.23 independent of BMI. Stratification by BMI categories resulted in statistically significant positive associations of BWD and depression in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese individuals. Conclusion BWD was associated with depression independent of BMI, sex and age.
Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Händel, Mina Nicole; Stougaard, Maria; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Trærup, Maria; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited. To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2-6 years. Data was obtained from the "Healthy Start" intervention study which included 271 children aged 2-6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders. No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P = 0.68) and little picky/non-picky (P = 0.68) children at 15 month follow-up. Picky children had a lower intake of protein (P = 0.01) than non-picky children despite no differences in total energy intake (P = 0.74), or in the other macronutrients, or the intake of fruit and vegetables, though children being a little picky had a lower intake of starch compared to non-picky children (P = 0.05). Results were essentially similar before and after adjustment for key covariates. Our study showed that BMI Z-score after 15 months follow-up was similar for picky and non-picky children. Picky children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition.
Jeanett Friis Rohde
Full Text Available Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited.To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2-6 years.Data was obtained from the "Healthy Start" intervention study which included 271 children aged 2-6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders.No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 and little picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 children at 15 month follow-up. Picky children had a lower intake of protein (P = 0.01 than non-picky children despite no differences in total energy intake (P = 0.74, or in the other macronutrients, or the intake of fruit and vegetables, though children being a little picky had a lower intake of starch compared to non-picky children (P = 0.05. Results were essentially similar before and after adjustment for key covariates.Our study showed that BMI Z-score after 15 months follow-up was similar for picky and non-picky children. Picky children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition.
Li, Yuanying; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Wakai, Kenji; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Iso, Hiroyasu
Background: We investigated the association of baseline body mass index (BMI) and weight change since age 20 years with liver cancer mortality among Japanese.Methods: The data were obtained from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study). A total of 31 018 Japanese men and 41 455 Japanese women aged 40 to 79 years who had no history of cancer were followed from 1988 through 2009.Results: During a median 19-year follow-up, 527 deaths from liver cancer (338 ...
Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) later in childhood are in opposite directions, which raises questions about when during childhood the change in direction happens. We examined how maternal and paternal education and household income were associated...... with birthweight z-scores and with BMI z-scores at age 5 and 12 months and 7 years, and we examined the socioeconomic differences in the tracking of these z-scores across infancy and childhood. METHODS: The associations were studied in a cohort of children in the Danish National Birth Cohort, single born between...
Mao, Leijing; Ge, Xing; Xu, Yeqing; Huang, Kun; Pan, Weijun; Zhou, Shanshan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao
To evaluate the associations between pregestational body mass index (BMI), weight gain during first half of pregnancy and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A prospective cohort study was conducted among 1,914 local pregnant women, receiving the first prenatal examination during the first 14 weeks of gestation, in Ma'anshan of Anhui province from May 2013 to September 2014. The body weight and height were measured for these pregnant women and questionnaire surveys were conducted among them at enrollment, middle gestation and late gestation, respectively. During 24-28 week of gestation, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was conducted for them. The independent and joint associations between pregestational BMI/weight gain and the risk of GDM were examined by using logistic regression model. The prevalence of GDM was 14.73%. There was significant negative correlation between pregestational BMI and weight gain during the first half of pregnancy (r=-0.085, Pweight gain of GDM women was significantly higher than that of women without GDM. The women with pregestational overweight or obesity had increased risks of GDM. The results from the logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors included age≥35 years (OR=3.06, 95% CI: 1.68-5.58), fasting plasma glucose level during early pregnancy (OR=2.17, 95% CI: 1.57-3.00), pregestational overweight (OR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.38-3.13), pregestational obesity (OR=3.73, 95% CI: 1.84-7.56). Pregestational overweight or obesity and body weight gain during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of GDM.
Thorogood, M; McPherson, K; Mann, J
Blood samples and self-reported heights and weights have been collected from 114 vegans, 1550 vegetarians, 415 fish eaters who did not eat meat, and 1198 meat eaters. We have previously reported that mean total and LDL cholesterol were lower in the vegetarians and fish eaters than in the meat eaters, while the mean levels in vegans were lower still. We have examined the possibility that this relationship could be explained by differences in the mean body mass index of the four groups. While there was a small positive relationship between body mass index and plasma lipid levels this did not explain the previously reported difference between diet groups. After adjusting for the effect of body mass index there remained a small negative association between height and plasma lipid levels, which has not previously been reported. Height is known to be influenced by childhood ill health and has also been shown to be related to social class, and it may be that the relationship between plasma lipid levels and height can be explained by these factors.
Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Bent; Damm, Peter; Hegaard, Hanne K
Our aim was to investigate the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PWR) in pre-pregnancy underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese women, with emphasis on the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. We performed secondary analyses on data based on questionnaires from 1,898 women from the "Smoke-free Newborn Study" conducted 1996-1999 at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark. Relationship between GWG and PWR was examined according to BMI as a continuous variable and in four groups. Association between PWR and GWG according to IOM recommendations was tested by linear regression analysis and the association between PWR ≥ 5 kg (11 lbs) and GWG by logistic regression analysis. Mean GWG and mean PWR were constant for all BMI units until 26-27 kg/m(2). After this cut-off mean GWG and mean PWR decreased with increasing BMI. Nearly 40% of normal weight, 60% of overweight and 50% of obese women gained more than recommended during pregnancy. For normal weight and overweight women with GWG above recommendations the OR of gaining ≥ 5 kg (11 lbs) 1-year postpartum was 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-4.0) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-6.2, respectively) compared to women with GWG within recommendations. GWG above IOM recommendations significantly increases normal weight, overweight and obese women's risk of retaining weight 1 year after delivery. Health personnel face a challenge in prenatal counseling as 40-60% of these women gain more weight than recommended for their BMI. As GWG is potentially modifiable, our study should be followed by intervention studies focusing on GW.
Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A
... munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer...
Yang, Ji-jun; Xing, Hai-jiao; Wang, Shao-jin; Xiao, Hong-ling; Li, Mei; Li, Qing
To observe the effect of acupuncture combined with dietary adjustments and aerobic exercise on the body weight, body mass index (BMI) and serum leptin content of patients with simple obesity, so as to evaluate the efficacy of the present therapy in the treatment of simple obesity. A total of 61 cases of out-patients were randomly divided into control (n=30) and treatment (n=31) groups. Patients in the control group were treated with dietary adjustments and aerobic exercise everyday (30 min/d), continuously for 51 days, and those of the treatment group were treated with acupuncture [Zhong-wan (CV 12), Tianshu (ST 25), Guanyuan (CV 4), etc.] plus dietary adjustment and aerobic exercise everyday, with 15 days being a course of treatment, 3 days' interval between every two courses, and 3 courses altogether. Serum leptin content was detected by using radioimmunoassay. Compared with pre-treatment, the body weight and BMI and serum leptin levels in the control and treatment groups were all decreased significantly (P body weight at the end of the 1st and 3rd course of treatment, the BMI at the end of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd course of treatment, and serum leptin level after the treatment in the treatment group were all significantly lower than those in the control group (P body weight and BMI between pre-treatment and post-treatment of the treatment group were obviously higher than those of the control group (P body weight, BMI and serum leptin level, which is better than dietary adjustments plus aerobic exercise.
Kim, Karen Hye-cheon; Bursac, Zoran; DiLillo, Vicki; White, Della Brown; West, Delia Smith
Stress has been identified as a significant factor in health and in racial/ethnic health disparities. A potential mediator in these relationships is body weight. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between stress, race, and body weight were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese women with Type 2 diabetes (n = 217) enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program. Stress (Perceived Stress Scale) was assessed at baseline only and body weight (body mass index) was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Stress was not related to baseline body weight. With every 1 unit lower scored on the baseline stress measure, women lost 0.10 kg +/- .04 more at 6 months (p women were divided into tertiles based on baseline stress scores, those in the lowest stress group had significantly greater weight loss (5.2 kg +/- 4.9) compared with those in the highest stress group (3.0 kg +/- 4.0) (p weight loss has implications for enhancing weight loss programs for women with Type 2 diabetes. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Jammallo, Lauren S.; Miller, Cynthia L.; Singer, Marybeth; Horick, Nora K.; Skolny, Melissa N.; Specht, Michelle C.; O'Toole, Jean; Taghian, Alphonse G.
Background Identifying risk factors for lymphedema in patients treated for breast cancer has become increasingly important given the current lack of standardization surrounding diagnosis and treatment. Reports on the association of body mass index (BMI) and weight change with lymphedema risk are conflicting. We sought to examine the impact of pre-operative BMI and post-treatment weight change on the incidence of lymphedema. Methods From 2005-2011, 787 newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients underwent prospective arm volume measurements with a Perometer pre- and post-operatively. BMI was calculated from same-day weight and height measurements. Lymphedema was defined as a relative volume change (RVC) of ≥10%. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between lymphedema risk and pre-operative BMI, weight change, and other demographic and treatment factors. Results By multivariate analysis, a pre-operative BMI ≥30 was significantly associated with an increased risk of lymphedema compared to a pre-operative BMI lymphedema compared to patients with a pre-operative BMIlymphedema (HR: 1.97, p = lymphedema, whereas a BMI of 25-lymphedema. Patients with a pre-operative BMI≥30 and those who experience large weight fluctuations during and after treatment for breast cancer should be considered at higher-risk for lymphedema. Close monitoring or early intervention to ensure optimal treatment of the condition may be appropriate for these patients. PMID:24122390
Dobranowski, Kristin; Lloyd, Meghann; Côté, Pierre; Balogh, Robert
Overweight and obesity are common in adults with intellectual disabilities, which complicates their health. To meet their health needs, individuals with intellectual disability frequently rely on proxies to answer questions on their behalf. In the general population, the use of proxy-reported height and weight to compute body mass index (BMI) has been validated, but not among adults with intellectual disability. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of proxy-reported height, weight and derived BMI among adults with intellectual disability. Proxies were asked to report height and weight on behalf of adults with intellectual disability who participate in Special Olympics Ontario; their answers were compared to measured height and weight. Proxies reported height and weight accurately; the sensitivity of proxy reports for classifying individuals with intellectual disability as overweight and/or obese was 84.6%. Proxy reports may be useful when direct measurements of individuals with intellectual disability are not available. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Gamborg, Michael Orland
Gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with childhood obesity. We analyzed whether this effect persists into adulthood and is mediated by effects in childhood.......Gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with childhood obesity. We analyzed whether this effect persists into adulthood and is mediated by effects in childhood....
Verhoef, S.P; Camps, S.G; Gonnissen, H.K; Westerterp, K.R; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S
An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss...
Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Maes, Michael
This study aimed to delineate the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction in pregnant women and parturients in relation to depression and anxiety symptoms. We assessed 126 pregnant women during the third trimester and 2-3days and 4-6weeks after delivery using the Body Image Scale (BIS). Many pregnant participants (34.1%) showed body image dissatisfaction (BIS score ≤3) which was associated with current antenatal depression, severity of depression, a lifetime history of mood disorders, trait anxiety, body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy. The BIS score improved after delivery but was still associated with depression, lifetime history of mood disorders, age, BMI and weight gain during pregnancy. These findings suggest that about a third of pregnant women have a body image disturbance which is strongly associated with current and a life history of clinical depression and anxiety symptoms. Medical personnel should be alert to detect body image dissatisfaction in pregnant women because it may indicate an underlying mood disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Yuanying; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Wakai, Kenji; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mori, Mitsuru; Sakauchi, Fumio; Motohashi, Yutaka; Tsuji, Ichiro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Mikami, Haruo; Kurosawa, Michiko; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Tanabe, Naohito; Tamakoshi, Koji; Tokudome, Shinkan; Suzuki, Koji; Hashimoto, Shuji; Kikuchi, Shogo; Wada, Yasuhiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Ozasa, Kotaro; Miki, Tsuneharu; Date, Chigusa; Sakata, Kiyomi; Kurozawa, Yoichi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Shibata, Akira; Okamoto, Naoyuki; Shio, Hideo
We investigated the association of baseline body mass index (BMI) and weight change since age 20 years with liver cancer mortality among Japanese. The data were obtained from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study). A total of 31 018 Japanese men and 41 455 Japanese women aged 40 to 79 years who had no history of cancer were followed from 1988 through 2009. During a median 19-year follow-up, 527 deaths from liver cancer (338 men, 189 women) were documented. There was no association between baseline BMI and liver cancer mortality among men or men with history of liver disease. Men without history of liver disease had multivariable hazard ratios (HR) of 1.95 (95%CI, 1.07-3.54) for BMI less than 18.5 kg/m(2) and 1.65 (1.05-2.60) for BMI of 25 kg/m(2) or higher, as compared with a BMI of 21.0 to 22.9 kg/m(2). BMI was positively associated with liver cancer mortality among women and women with history of liver disease. Weight change since age 20 years was positively associated with liver cancer mortality among women regardless of history of liver disease. Women with history of liver disease had a multivariable HRs of 1.96 (1.05-3.66) for weight gain of 5.0 to 9.9 kg and 2.31 (1.18-4.49) for weight gain of 10 kg or more, as compared with weight change of -4.9 to 4.9 kg. Both underweight (BMI history of liver disease, and weight gain after age 20 (weight change ≥5 kg) among women with history of liver disease, were associated with increased mortality from liver cancer.
Palao, J M; Gutiérrez, D; Frideres, J E
This study tried to find out the height, weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), and age of peak performance beach volleyball players with regard to their level of play and their role. The men's and women's pairs that classified in the World Tour and in the Olympic Games during seasons 2000-2006 were analyzed (625 males and 617 females). A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: height, weight, age, BMI, level (World Tour ranking), and player role (blocker, defense specialist, or no specialization). The data were obtained from the webpage of the International Federation of Volleyball. The average characteristics for males were 1.93 m, 88-89 kg, a BMI of 23.8-24.1, and an age range of 29-31 years, and for females, they were 1.77-1.79 m, 66-68 kg, a BMI of 19.2-21.1, and an age range of 27-29 years. Beach volleyball players are older and have smaller anthropometric characteristics when compared to indoor volleyball players. Male players present similar values for age and height across rankings. For both genders, with regard to weight and BMI, the higher the level, the larger the value. For women, the players at a higher level presented higher values of age, height, weight, and BMI. With regard to role, the blocking specialists were taller than the defense specialists. The pairs that share the blocking and defense responsibilities have intermediate values.
Full Text Available Obesity disrupts glucose homeostasis by metabolic disorders. Probiotics are nutritional and medicinal potential to control obesity and its related disorders. This study was aimed to investigate effects of synbiotic supplementation on weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and blood sugar in type II diabetic patients. This clinical double-blind trial study was done on 43 (15 males and 28 females type II diabetic patients who reffered to diabetes clinic in Sabzevar. The patients in the study were randomly divided into two groups Synbiotic and the control. The synbiotic group received 1 tablet synbiotic and placebo group received 1placebo for 8 weeks. At the beginning and end of the study, all of patients' weight and height and fasting plasma glucose levels were measured according to standard protocols. Before and after study, 24-hour dietry recall was taken and food intake and calorie consumption were calculated throughout day. Mean age and duration of disease was 54.88 ± 11.10 and 7.33 ± 5.4 years. Synbiotic supplementation leads to weight loss. BMI and blood sugar in intervention groups patients in comparison of control group. The results showed that Synbiotic supplementation reduced weight, BMI and blood glucose in type II diabetic patients and its intake can be usefull for diabetics.
Chavarro, Jorge E; Ehrlich, Shelley; Colaci, Daniela S; Wright, Diane L; Toth, Thomas L; Petrozza, John C; Hauser, Russ
To assess the relation between body mass index (BMI) and short-term weight change with assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. Prospective cohort study. Fertility center. A total of 170 women undergoing 233 ART cycles. Baseline BMI and short-term weight change were related to ART outcomes. Regression models accounting for repeated observations were used to adjust data for potential confounders. Peak E2 levels, oocyte yield, MII yield, fertilization rate, embryo quality, postive [beta]-hCH, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates. Overweight and obesity were associated with lower live birth rates. The adjusted live birth rate (95% confidence interval) was 42% (28%-58%) among women with a BMI between 20 and 22.4 kg/m(2) and 23% (14%-36%) among overweight or obese women. Short-term weight loss was associated with a higher proportion of metaphase II (MII) oocytes retrieved. The adjusted proportion of MII eggs was 91% (87%-94%) for women who lost 3 kg or more and 86% (81%-89%) for women whose weight remained stable. This association was stronger among women who were overweight or obese at baseline. Short-term weight loss was unrelated to positive β-hCG, clinical pregnancy, or live birth rates. Overweight and obesity were related to lower live birth rates in women undergoing ART. Short-term weight loss was related to higher MII yield, particularly among overweight and obese women, but unrelated to clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ahn, Young-mee; Sohn, Min; Choi, Sun-Ha
The study was conducted to describe body shapes of school age children using the degree of obesity index (DOI) and body mass index obesity index classified by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (M-BOI) and Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education (S-BOI). In this cross sectional descriptive study health screening data for school children collected in 2007 was used. Data were analyzed for 2,193 4th-6th grade boys (52%) and girls who attended 4 schools in rural areas. DOI determined that only 44.3% of students had average weight. This proportion was much lower than the results of other methods (74.3-77.6%). All three methods defined girls (51.3-61.8%) as skinnier than boys. Skinny and average body shaped children classified by DOI and obese children classified by S-BOI were heavier and taller and presented higher degrees of obesity (DO) and BMI scores than by other methods. M-BOI and S-BOI presented statistically significant positive correlations with weight, height, DO and BMI, while DOI was not correlated with height. BMI based body shape classifications provide a more rigorous classification of body shape which are favorable for school health professionals with limited resources and policy makers for internationally comparable references.
Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine
High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight...
Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Camal-Ríos, Nayla Y; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M
Descriptive correlational study. The objectives were the following: 1) evaluate maternal perception of her child's weight through two test, Word-perception (WVP) test and the Body mass index (BMI) of the child as perceived by the mother (Body weight index perception [BWIP]); 2)evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the tests, and 3) quantify BMI heritability (h2) in 173 mother-child dyads. WP was assessed by asking the question, How do you think your child is? For assessing BWIP, the mother referred the child's eight and height, and we calculated the child's BMI as perceived by the mother. The weight and height of the mothers and their children were measured. We found that 10.3% of mothers of children with Overweight (OW) and 1.8% of mothers of children with Obesity (OB) perceived their children adequately by means of WP; by means of the BWIP test, 38.5 and 67.3% of mothers of children with OW and OB, respectively, exhibited adequate perception. BWIP sensitivity was 55.3% and specificity was 54.4%. BWI h2 was 15%. We was concluded that mothers did not perceive the OW-OB of their children, and that asking the mother for the weight and height of the child (BMIP) will aids her to perceive the OW-OB of her child. The BWI h2 indicate that the lifestyle factors of this population contribute to OW-OB. Given the broad socioeconomic and cultural diversity, these results of the southeastern Mexican state of Campeche should be evaluated with similar study designs.
Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Xu, Haiyong; French, Michael T; Ettner, Susan L
We examine the impact of Axis II personality disorders (PDs) on body weight. PDs are psychiatric conditions that develop early in life from a mixture of genetics and environment, are persistent, and lead to substantial dysfunction for the affected individual. The defining characteristics of PDs conceptually link them with body weight, but the direction of the relationship likely varies across PD type. To investigate these links, we analyze data from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. We measure body weight with the body mass index (BMI) and a dichotomous indicator for obesity (BMI≥30). We find that women with PDs have significantly higher BMI and are more likely to be obese than otherwise similar women. We find few statistically significant or economically meaningful effects for men. Paranoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs demonstrate the strongest adverse impacts on women's body weight while dependent PD may be protective against elevated body weight among men. Findings from unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate a positive gradient between PDs and BMI in that the effects are greater for higher BMI respondents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kim, Sung Woo; Kim, Young Bae; Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Na Ri; Lee, Weon Kyung; Ku, Jae Kyun; Kim, Eun Jeong; Jung, Sun Hee; Chung, Woo Yeong
This study aimed to investigate the influence of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment on the weight and body mass index (BMI) of girls who were diagnosed with idiopathic central precocious puberty (CPP) or early puberty (EP). Patients who were younger than 8 years of age at diagnosis were classified as CPP and patients aged between 8 and 9 years at diagnosis were classified as EP. Of 129 patients, 34 were diagnosed with CPP and 95 were diagnosed with EP. The patients were divided according to pretreatment weight status into normal weight group, an overweight group, or an obese group. No significant changes were observed with respect to the weight standard deviation score (SDS) before and after 1 year, 2 years of treatment, respectively (P>0.05, P>0.05) in all patient groups. No significant changes were observed in relation to the BMI SDS before and after 1 year, 2 years of treatment, respectively (P>0.05, P>0.05) in all patient group. Depending on the degree of obesity, differences with respect to the weight SDS and BMI SDS were observed. BMI SDS increased in the GnRHa-treated patients as a whole group, but was not statistically significant. But BMI SDS increased significantly in the normal weight group after 2 years of GnRHa treatment. So, GnRHa treatment may affect the change of BMI SDS depending on degree of obesity.
Nohr, Ellen A; Vaeth, Michael; Baker, Jennifer Lyn
. Generally, low GWG was advantageous for the mother, but it increased the risk of having a small baby, particularly for underweight women. CONCLUSIONS: Heavier women may benefit from avoiding high and very high GWG, which brings only a slight increase in the risk of growth restriction for the infant. High...... weight gain in underweight women does not appear to have deleterious consequences for them or their infants, but they may want to avoid low GWG to prevent having a small baby....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Large population growth surveys of children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 y were undertaken in Hong Kong in 1963 and 1993. The global epidemic of obesity is a major public health concern. To monitor the impact of this epidemic in Hong Kong children and to identify secular changes in growth, a further growth survey was undertaken in 2005/6. Methods Cross-sectional height and weight measurements of 14,842 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 y from Hong Kong's 18 districts were obtained during the 2005/6 school year. Percentile curves were constructed using LMS method and sex-specific percentile values of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and BMI-for-age were compared with those data from 1963 and 1993. Results Secular changes in height, weight and BMI were noted between 1963 and 1993 and between 1993 and 2005/6. In the latter period, greater changes were observed at younger ages, and particularly in boys. On an annual basis, the 1993–2005/6 changes were less than those during 1963–1993. Using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs, 16.7% of children were overweight or obese in 2005/6, which was a 5.1% increase since 1993. Conclusion These data provide policy-makers with further evidence of the secular changes in child growth and the increasing obesity epidemic among Hong Kong children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women in Iran have a relatively high body mass index. To investigate whether the condition contributes to excess breast cancer cases, a case-control study was conducted to assess the relationships between anthropometric variables and breast cancer risk in Tehran, Iran. Methods All incident cases of breast cancer in the Iranian Centre for Breast Cancer (ICBC were identified through the case records. Eligible cases were all postmenopausal women with histological confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer during 1996 to year 2000. Controls were randomly selected postmenopausal women attending the ICBC for clinical breast examination during the same period. The body mass index (BMI was calculated based on weights and heights as measured by the ICBC nursing staff. Both tests for trend and logistic regression analysis were performed to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals as measures of relative risk. Results In all, 116 breast cancer cases and 116 controls were studied. There were no significant differences between cases and control with regard to most independent variables studied. However, a significant difference was observed between cases and controls indicating that the mean BMI was higher in cases as compared to controls (P = 0.004. Performing logistic regression analysis while controlling for age, age at menopause, family history of breast cancer and parity, the results showed that women with a BMI in the obese range had a three fold increased risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR = 3.21, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.15–8.47]. Conclusion The results suggest that obesity in postmenopausal women could increase risk of breast cancer and it merits further investigation in populations such as Iran where it seems that many women are short in height, and have a relatively high body mass index.
Nohr, E.A.; Vaeth, M.; Baker, J.L.
. Generally, low GWG was advantageous for the mother, but it increased the risk of having a small baby, particularly for underweight women. CONCLUSIONS: Heavier women may benefit from avoiding high and very high GWG, which brings only a slight increase in the risk of growth restriction for the infant. High...... weight gain in underweight women does not appear to have deleterious consequences for them or their infants, but they may want to avoid low GWG to prevent having a small baby Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6...
Henrard, S; Speybroeck, N; Hermans, C
The treatment of hemophilia A requires infusions of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates. The number of units to be given in order to obtain the target level is calculated using the formula: [body weight (BW) × desired FVIII increase]/2, which assumes that each unit infused per kg of BW increases the FVIII level by 2%. The present observational study evaluated the dependence of FVIII recovery on different morphometrical variables: BW, fat mass index (FMI), body mass index, and the difference between actual and ideal BW. FVIII recovery was measured in 46 non-actively bleeding hemophilia A patients, being treated with a recombinant FVIII concentrate. Regression trees were used to identify morphometrical predictors of recovery. The median recovery was 2.08 for all patients, 2.63 for those with a BW ≥ 81.0 kg and 1.87 for others (P recovery was significantly higher when FMI was ≥ 20% compared with FMI recovery: 2.35 vs. 1.74; P = 0.007). Using regression trees, three groups were created: BW recovery in these groups was 1.80, 2.16 and 2.63, respectively (P recovery after different FVIII concentrates should keep in mind morphometrical patient characteristics. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Kahyaoglu, I; Kınay, T; Kayıkcıoglu, F; Kahyaoglu, S; Mollamahmutoglu, L
The aim of the study was to evaluate gestational weight gain (GWG) and percentage change in body mass index (BMI) for prediction of foetal macrosomia. A total of 409 term pregnant women, of whom 86 delivered macrosomic infants (> 4000 g) and 323 delivered non-macrosomic infants were recruited for the study. GWG and body mass index at delivery were significantly higher in the macrosomic than non-macrosomic group (15.8 ± 5.6 vs 13.9 ± 5.6, and 31.4 ± 4.3 vs 29.5 ± 4.3, respectively) (p macrosomia showed an area under curve of 0.58 (p = 0.012, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.52-0.65), and significance of percentage change in BMI in prediction of macrosomia revealed an area under curve of 0.52 (p = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.46-0.59). BMI percentage changes both in obese (BMI ≥ 25) and non-obese (BMI 0.05). BMI percentage change does not seem to be a strong predictor of foetal macrosomia, and GWG was not found to be an independent risk factor after multivariate regression analysis was performed.
Full Text Available This study examined longitudinal changes in physical activity, sedentary behavior and body mass index in adolescents, specifically their migrations towards a different weight cluster. A cohort of 755 adolescents participated in a three-year study. A clustering Self-Organized Maps Analysis was performed to visualize changes in subjects' characteristics between the first and second assessment, and how adolescents were grouped. Also a classification tree was used to identify the behavioral characteristics of the groups that changed their weight cluster. Results indicated that boys were more active and less sedentary than girls. Boys were especially keen to technological-based activities while girls preferred social-based activities. A moderate competing effect between sedentary behaviors and physical activities was observed, especially in girls. Overweight and obesity were negatively associated with physical activity, although a small group of overweight/obese adolescents showed a positive relationship with vigorous physical activity. Cluster migrations indicated that 22.66% of adolescents changed their weight cluster to a lower category and none of them moved in the opposite direction. The behavioral characteristics of these adolescents did not support the hypothesis that the change to a lower weight cluster was a consequence of an increase in time devoted to physical activity or a decrease in time spent on sedentary behavior. Physical activity and sedentary behavior does not exert a substantial effect on overweight and obesity. Therefore, there are other ways of changing to a lower-weight status in adolescents apart from those in which physical activity and sedentary behavior are involved.
Dzakpasu, Susie; Fahey, John; Kirby, Russell S; Tough, Suzanne C; Chalmers, Beverley; Heaman, Maureen I; Bartholomew, Sharon; Biringer, Anne; Darling, Elizabeth K; Lee, Lily S; McDonald, Sarah D
Low or high prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and inadequate or excess gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. This study estimates the contribution of these risk factors to preterm births (PTBs), small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) births in Canada compared to the contribution of prenatal smoking, a recognized perinatal risk factor. We analyzed data from the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey. A sample of 5,930 women who had a singleton live birth in 2005-2006 was weighted to a nationally representative population of 71,200 women. From adjusted odds ratios, we calculated population attributable fractions to estimate the contribution of BMI, GWG and prenatal smoking to PTB, SGA and LGA infants overall and across four obstetric groups. Overall, 6% of women were underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)) and 34.4% were overweight or obese (≥25.0 kg/m(2)). More than half (59.4%) gained above the recommended weight for their BMI, 18.6% gained less than the recommended weight and 10.4% smoked prenatally. Excess GWG contributed more to adverse outcomes than BMI, contributing to 18.2% of PTB and 15.9% of LGA. Although the distribution of BMI and GWG was similar across obstetric groups, their impact was greater among primigravid women and multigravid women without a previous PTB or pregnancy loss. The contributions of BMI and GWG to PTB and SGA exceeded that of prenatal smoking. Maternal weight, and GWG in particular, contributes significantly to the occurrence of adverse neonatal outcomes in Canada. Indeed, this contribution exceeds that of prenatal smoking for PTB and SGA, highlighting its public health importance.
Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM complicates 3-7% of all pregnancies and feto-maternal outcomes are strongly related to early diagnosis of GDM. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of risk factors in the prediction of an abnormal glucose challenge test (GCT.Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study conducted during 2009-2010 in two prenatal clinics in Rey, Iran. A total of 711 pregnant women who were in their first trimester of pregnancy and met the inclusion criteria were selected. The women were observed once every other week until 24-28 weeks of gestation. All patients at 24-28 weeks of gestation were screened with 50 g oral glucose GCT. The effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, maternal age, and weight gain until the time of GCT, and parity on abnormal GCT were evaluated. All confident intervals were calculated at the 95% level. Data was analyzed using student’s t test and the logistic regression test.Results: Maternal age (p<0.001, pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.00, parity (p=0.05 and weight gain during pregnancy (p=0.05, were significantly higher in women with abnormal GCT compared to women who had normal GCT. Logistic regression analyses confirmed that pre-pregnancy BMI (OR=1.09, maternal age (OR=1.14, and weight gain during pregnancy (OR=1.13 were associated with abnormal GCT.Conclusion: Weight gain had a profound impact on the prevalence of abnormal GCT in our population. Therefore, we propose that pregnant women should only gain the recommended amount of weight during pregnancy.
Gallicchio, Lisa; Miller, Susan R.; Kiefer, Judith; Greene, Teresa; Zacur, Howard A.
Abstract Background: The goals of this study were to examine the associations between body mass index (BMI), as well as BMI change and weight change, with midlife hot flashes. Methods: Data were analyzed from an ongoing 5-year cohort study of 631 midlife women (ages 45–54 years) recruited from Baltimore, Maryland, and its surrounding counties. Height and weight were measured at clinic visits conducted annually. Questionnaires administered at each clinic visit collected detailed data on hot flashes, including the severity and frequency, and other covariates. Data were analyzed using logistic regression and generalized estimated equation models, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Among women enrolled in the study, 45.2% reported hot flashes and 32.0% were categorized as being obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) at baseline. At baseline, BMI was not significantly associated with ever experiencing hot flashes (BMI ≥30 versus hot flashes outcomes (recent, frequent, or severe). In addition, no statistically significant associations between BMI, BMI change, or weight change, and the hot flash outcomes were observed in the longitudinal models (for example, any hot flashes: BMI ≥30 versus hot flashes in this study. The data suggest that other factors, such as smoking habits, are more important in determining hot flashes risk during midlife. PMID:24341351
Full Text Available Obesity is known as an independent risk factor for various morbidities. The influence of an increased body mass index (BMI on morbidity and mortality in critically injured patients has been investigated with conflicting results. To verify the impact of weight disorders in multiple traumatized patients, 586 patients with an injury severity score >16 points treated at a level I trauma center between 2005 and 2011 were differentiated according to the BMI and analyzed regarding morbidity and outcome. Plasma levels of interleukin- (IL- 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were measured during clinical course to evaluate the inflammatory response to the “double hit” of weight disorders and multiple trauma. In brief, obesity was the highest risk factor for development of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS (OR 4.209, 95%-CI 1.515–11.692 besides injury severity (OR 1.054, 95%-CI 1.020–1.089 and APACHE II score (OR 1.059, 95%-CI 1.001–1.121. In obese patients as compared to those with overweight, normal weight, and underweight, the highest levels of CRP were continuously present while increased systemic IL-6 levels were found until day 4. In conclusion, an altered posttraumatic inflammatory response in obese patients seems to determine the risk for multiple organ failure after severe trauma.
Full Text Available A descriptive, analytical cross-sectional syudy was conducted in 1996 on 350 female students 11-14 years old in the center of Tehran, Iran. The general objective was determining energy and nutrient intakes and weight, height and BMI (Body Mass Index of the girls, using anthropometric measurements, interviews (24-hour dietary recall and food consumption frequency, and the NCHS standards. The results were as follows: 1 Based on weight for age and the Z-score, 20% of the girls suffered from mild past and present malnutrition. 2 Based on height for age and BMI, 16.6%, 12.5%, and 1.3% suffered from mild past malnutrition, severe present malnutrition and overweight, respectively. 3 The height curves were normal, as compared to the respective standards. 4 The BMI curves were quite different from the respective standards. 5 On the whole, 53.7%, 49.7%, 86.0%, 59.0%, 67.7%, 76.5% and 88.0% of the girls had low intakes of energy, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B12, folic acid, calcium, and iron, respectively. 6 A positive linear correlation was observed between energy intake and height, vitamin A intake and weight, zinc intake and height, and carbohydrate intake and height.
Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L
BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...
Mackay, Euan; Dalman, Christina; Karlsson, Håkan; Gardner, Renee M
Prenatal exposure to famine is associated with a 2-fold risk for nonaffective psychoses. Less is known about whether maternal nutrition states during pregnancy modify offspring risk for nonaffective psychoses in offspring in well-fed populations. To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy and maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy are associated with risk for nonaffective psychoses in offspring. This population-based cohort study used data from Swedish health and population registers to follow up 526 042 individuals born from January 1, 1982, through December 31, 1989, from 13 years of age until December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for socioeconomic status and potential risk factors were used to examine the risk for developing nonaffective psychoses. Family-based study designs were used to further test causality. Data were analyzed from February 1 to May 14, 2016. Gestational weight gain during pregnancy, maternal body mass index at the first antenatal visit, and paternal body mass index at the time of conscription into the Swedish military (at 18 years of age). Hazard ratios (HRs) for the diagnosis of nonaffective psychoses (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision [ICD-10] codes F20 to F29 and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] codes 295, 297 and 298, except 298A and 298B) and narrowly defined schizophrenia (ICD-9 code 295 and ICD-10 code F20). The 526 042 individuals in the cohort (48.52% female and 51.47% male; mean [SD] age, 26 [2.3] years) included 2910 persons with nonaffective psychoses at the end of follow-up, of whom 704 had narrowly defined schizophrenia. Among the persons with nonaffective psychosis, 184 (6.32%) had mothers with extremely inadequate GWG (early pregnancy was weakly associated with an increased risk for nonaffective psychosis in offspring (HR for BMI≥17.0 and <18.5, 1.21; 95% CI
Full Text Available Sagar Munjal,1 Anirudh Gautam,2 Alan M Rapoport,3 Dennis M Fisher4 1Department of Neurology Clinical Development and Medical Affairs, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd, Princeton, NJ, USA; 2Pharmacokinetics, Modeling and Simulation & Bioanalysis, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd, Hyderabad, India; 3Department of Neurology, The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, 4P Less Than, San Francisco, CA, USA Objective/background: Factors such as body size (weight and body mass index [BMI], age, sex, and race might influence the clinical response to sumatriptan. We evaluated the impact of these covariates on the plasma concentration (Cp profile of sumatriptan administered subcutaneously. Methods: We conducted three pharmacokinetic studies of subcutaneous sumatriptan in 98 healthy adults. Sumatriptan was administered subcutaneously (236 administrations as either DFN-11 3 mg, a novel 0.5 mL autoinjector being developed by Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories; Imitrex® (Sumatriptan injection 3 mg or 6 mg (6 mg/0.5 mL; or Imitrex STATdose 4 mg or 6 mg (0.5 mL. Blood was sampled for 12 hours to determine sumatriptan Cp. Maximum Cp (Cmax, area under the curve during the first 2 hours (AUC0–2, and total area under the curve (AUC0–∞ were determined using noncompartmental methods. Post hoc analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between these exposure metrics and each of body weight, BMI, age, sex, and race (categorized as white, black, or others. Results: Both weight and BMI correlated negatively with each exposure metric for each treatment group. Across all treatment groups, AUC0–2 for subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value was 1.03–1.12 times the value for subjects with BMI more than median value. For subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value receiving DFN-11, median AUC0–2 was slightly less than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex
Cox, Tiffany L; Ard, Jamy D; Beasley, T Mark; Fernandez, Jose R; Howard, Virginia J; Kolotkin, Ronnete L; Crosby, Ross D; Affuso, Olivia
Obesity not only increases risk for morbidity/mortality, but also impacts the quality of life of obese individuals. In the United States, black women have the highest prevalence of obesity of any other group with approximately 80% of black women over age 20 having a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m 2 . We aimed to examine the association between BMI and quality of life in this high risk population compared to this association in white women, using the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life (IWQOL)-Lite questionnaire. Data from 172 black women (mean BMI= 35.7; age=40.5) and 171 white women (mean BMI= 35.5; age=40.4) were collected between 2000 and 2010 analyzed in 2010. The mean IWQOL-Lite total score was 81.6 for black women compared to 66.9 for white women, a statistically significant difference. Hierarchical linear regression models revealed a significant BMI-by-race interaction indicating that the relationship between BMI and IWQOL-Lite score was moderated by race. Our findings suggest notable differences in weight-related quality of life in black and white women. At similar BMIs, black women consistently reported better quality of life than white women on all IWQOL-Lite subscales. The greatest difference in IWQOL-Lite scores between black and white women was seen in the self-esteem subscale. Additional research is needed to understand how to incorporate the weight perspectives of black women into weight management messages and interventions.
Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Rajaraman, Preetha
Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth...
Ekmay, R D; De Beer, M; Mei, S J; Manangi, M; Coon, C N
Two trials were conducted to determine the amino acid and protein requirements of broiler breeders at peak production. In trial 1, 32-wk-old Cobb 500 broiler breeders with similar BW were selected to determine the digestible amino acid requirement for daily product output (g of egg mass + g of BW gain/b/d) and feed conversion (g of feed/g of product) for Met, Phe, Arg, Ile, Lys, and CP in a 42-d production study. In trial 2, 30-wk-old Cobb 500 broiler breeders were selected to determine the digestible requirement for Met, Lys, Ile, Arg, Cys, Val, Trp, and Thr in a 70-d production study. Breeders were given a corn-soy basal diet plus crystalline amino acids with 8 graded levels of amino acids (10 birds per level), representing 40 to 130% of the highest suggested requirements reported in the literature. All other amino acids were maintained at 100% of their suggested requirement level. All breeders were inseminated weekly and fertility was determined. A third trial consisted of 41-wk-old colostomized hens randomly assigned to 1 of 2 diets differing only in the amount of Ile. Urine was collected after a 6-wk feeding period. The average digestible requirements per breeder per day for both product and feed/product ratio from trials 1 and 2 for Met, Cys, TSAA, Phe, Phe + Tyr, Trp, Arg, Ile, Lys, Val, Thr, and CP were 424, 477, 901, 689, 997, 252, 1,026, 830, 916, 799, 613 mg/d, and 20.0 g/d, respectively. The ideal profile for digestible Met, Cys, TSAA, Phe, Phe + Tyr, Trp, Arg, Ile, Lys, Val, and Thr was 46, 52, 98, 76, 108, 28, 112.0, 91, 100.0, 87, and 67%, respectively. A significant decrease in fertility was noted with increasing levels of Ile and Lys. Urine pH was significantly more alkaline in hens fed the higher level of Ile. It is suggested that adequate dietary Lys and Ile should be provided for maximum hatching egg production but an excess may affect fertility.
Hollander, Francis M; de Roos, Nicole M; Belle van Meerkerk, Gerdien; Teding van Berkhout, Ferdinand; Heijerman, Harry G M; van de Graaf, Ed A
Enteral tube feeding (ETF) is widely used in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and end-stage lung disease, but previous studies have been limited to investigating whether ETF improves outcomes in patients with moderately or mildly impaired pulmonary function. This study investigated body weight, body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m2), pulmonary function, and the presence of CF-related diabetes before and after the start of ETF. This was a retrospective observational study. Data from 26 adult patients in an outpatient setting who had end-stage CF (19 women) and had been using ETF for at least 6 months between 2000 and 2014 were analyzed. Body weight, BMI, pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second as percent of predicted) and incidence of CF-related diabetes from 6 months before to 6 months after starting ETF. Time effects were tested with one-way analysis of variance for data that were normally distributed and the Friedman test for non-parametric data. Correlations were tested with Pearson's r or Spearman's ρ, depending on the distribution of the data. Mean body weight increased by 3.5 kg (95% CI 2.2 to 4.8 kg) after patients started ETF. In women, mean BMI decreased by 0.7 in the 6 months before the start of ETF (P<0.05) and increased by 1.4 in the 6 months thereafter (P<0.05). In men, BMI changes were similar (-0.8 and +1.1), but not statistically significant. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second as percent of predicted significantly decreased in time from a median of 28% to 26% at the start of ETF to 25% after 6 months (P=0.0013), with similar trends in women and men. There was no correlation between changes in weight and lung function. CF-related diabetes was already present in 12 patients and developed in 1 more patient after the start of ETF. ETF improved body weight and BMI but not pulmonary function in 26 patients with end-stage CF. Clinical outcomes were similar in women and men, but the sample size of men was too small to determine
Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L
A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK......). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...
Full Text Available Background: Overweight is currently considered as the main risk factor for various chronic disorders, especially cardiovascular diseases. Unexpected hypertension is the first reaction of heart to overburden imposed by obesity or overweight. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between body mass index (BMI and echocardiographic findings in overweight patients compared with normal-weight population. methods: This historical cohort study was conducted on 60 patients divided into two group of 30 based on their measured weights, group 1 with BMI of 20-25 kg/m2 as control and group 2 with 25
Tsuzuku, S; Kajioka, T; Sakakibara, H; Shimaoka, K
To examine the effect of a 12-week slow movement resistance training using body weight as a load (SRT-BW) on muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution in healthy elderly people. Fifty-three men and 35 women aged 70 years old or older without experience in resistance training participated, and they were randomly assigned to a SRT-BW group or control group. The control group did not receive any intervention, but participants in this group underwent a repeat measurement 12 weeks later. The SRT-BW program consisted of 3 different exercises (squat, tabletop push-up, and sit-up), which were designed to stimulate anterior major muscles. Initially, these exercises were performed by 2 sets of 10 repetitions, and subsequently, the number of repetitions was increased progressively by 2 repetitions every 4 weeks. Participants were instructed to perform each eccentric and concentric phase of movement slowly (spending 4 seconds on each movement), covering the full range of motion. We evaluated muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Changes over 12 weeks were significantly greater in the SRT-BW group than in the control group, with a decrease in waist circumference, hip circumference, and abdominal preperitoneal and subcutaneous fat thickness, and an increase in thigh muscle thickness, knee extension strength, and hip flexion strength. In conclusion, relatively short-term SRT-BW was effective in improving muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution in healthy elderly people. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Musani, Solomon K.; Halbert, Natalie D.; Redden, David T.; Allison, David B.; Derr, James N.
Elucidating genetic influences on bison growth and body composition is of interest, not only because bison are important for historical, cultural, and agricultural reasons, but also because their unusual population history makes them valuable models for finding influential loci in both domestic cattle and humans. We tested for trait loci associated with body weight, height, and bison mass index (BMI) while controlling for estimated ancestry to reduce potential confounding effects due to population admixture in 1316 bison sampled from four U.S. herds. We used 60 microsatellite markers to model each phenotype as a function of herd, sex, age, marker genotypes, and individual ancestry estimates. Statistical significance for genotype and its interaction with ancestry was evaluated using the adaptive false discovery rate. Of the four herds, two appeared to be admixed and two were nonadmixed. Although none of the main effects of the loci were significant, estimated ancestry and its interaction with marker loci were significantly associated with the phenotypes, illustrating the importance of including ancestry in the models and the dependence of genotype–phenotype associations on background ancestry. Individual loci contributed ∼2.0% of variation in weight, height, and BMI, which confirms the utility and potential importance of adjusting for population stratification. PMID:16888339
The degree of assortative mating for psychological and physical traits in Asian societies in relatively unknown. The present study examined assortative mating for educational level, personality traits, religious affiliation, height, weight, and body mass index in a korean sample. Age-adjusted spouse correlations were high for educational level (r = .63) and religious affiliation (r = .67), modest for most personality traits (rs = -.01 to .26), and trivial for height (r = .04), weight (r = .05)m and body mass index (r = .11). These results were remarkably similar to those found from the western samples. Implications of the present findings in behavior genetic studies and human mating patterns were briefly discussed.
Miranda, Gabriela Serrano; Marques, Ilza Lazarini; de Barros, Suely Prietto; Arena, Eliane Petean; de Souza, Luiz
To study the growth of length-for-age (L/A), weight-for-age (W/A), and body mass index (BMI) of children with cleft lip and palate receiving a normal diet; to establish specific growth curves for children with cleft palate with or without cleft lip (CLP/ICP) who had not undergone palatoplasty and for children with isolated cleft lip (ICL); and to assess if CLP/ICP growth differed from ICL growth and if CLP/ICP and ICL growth differed from growth for typical children. Prospective and cross-sectional study. Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. Weight and length of 381 children with cleft lip and palate and who were younger than 2 years were recorded and used to calculate W/A, L/A, and BMI growth curves. The 2006 World Health Organization growth charts were used as a reference for typical children. All children received a normal diet for age. Children with CLP/ICP had median W/A and BMI growth curves below growth curves for typical children but showed spontaneous recovery starting at approximately 5 months of age, even with nonoperated cleft palate. Children with ICL had growth similar to that of typical children. Children with CLP/ICP, who initially had W/A and BMI values less than those of the ICL group, had W/A and BMI equal to or higher than the ICL group after 9 months of age. Children with CLP/ICP had impaired W/A and BMI growth with spontaneous recovery starting early in childhood. This study established specific W/A, BMI, and L/A growth curves for children with cleft lip and palate.
Larsen, Junilla K; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Hermans, Roel C J
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescents' body mass index (BMI) z-scores and their subsequent level of schooling, extending previous longitudinal research by using objectively measured weight and height data. A longitudinal study with 3 study waves (1-year intervals) involving 1248 Dutch adolescents (49% girls; mean age = 13.7 years) at schools providing different educational levels was used to determine adolescents who moved and did not move to a lower educational level in the first year, or in the second year, and to examine whether this movement could be predicted by BMI z-scores (zBMI), after controlling for a large range of potential confounding factors. A total of 1164 Dutch adolescents continued in the same level of education, whereas 84 adolescents moved to a lower educational level (43 moved in the first and 41 in the second year). A higher zBMI significantly increased the risk of a general transition to a lower educational level, and of a transition in the first year, but not in the second year, after controlling for potential demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounds. Findings suggest that a higher zBMI during adolescence immediately lowers educational achievement level during general secondary education. © 2014, American School Health Association.
Ana Carolina Godoy
Full Text Available Gestational weight gain (GWG may interfere in perinatal outcomes and also cause future problems throughout woman’s life. The aim of this population-based study is to evaluate the GWG in Campinas city, southeast of Brazil. A total of 1052 women, who delivered in the three major maternity hospitals in Campinas, were interviewed during postpartum period. The general average of GWG was 13.08±6.08. Of total women, 13.6% were obese and 24.6% were overweight and, in these groups, 55.9% and 53.7%, respectively, exceeded GWG according to the Institute of Medicine recommendations. 6.2% of total women had low body mass index (BMI and 35.5% in this group had insufficient GWG. Overweight and obese women had a higher risk of excessive GWG and delivery by c-section. The c-section rate was 58.9% and increased according to GWG. Prematurity was more prevalent first in obese and then in low BMI women. Considering the high BMI in women in reproductive age, it is necessary to take effective guidelines about lifestyle and nutritional orientation in order to help women reach adequate GWG. All of them could improve prenatal outcomes and women’s heath as a whole.
Kant, A K
This study examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and attempting to lose weight for reporting of: (1) macro- and micronutrient intake; (2) intake of low-nutrient-density foods; and (3) serum biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular disease risk. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical data were from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), n=13 095. Multiple regression methods were used to examine the independent associations of BMI, trying to lose weight, or the interaction of BMI-trying to lose weight with reported intakes of energy, nutrients, percentage energy from low-nutrient-density foods (sweeteners, baked and dairy desserts, visible fats and salty snacks), and serum concentrations of vitamins, carotenoids and lipids. BMI was an independent positive predictor (Plose weight was a negative predictor (Plose weight (Plose weight interaction effects were noted. There was little evidence of increased nutritional risk in those reportedly trying to lose weight irrespective of weight status.
Jensen, Elizabeth T; van der Burg, Jelske W; O'Shea, Thomas M; Joseph, Robert M; Allred, Elizabeth N; Heeren, Tim; Leviton, Alan; Kuban, Karl C K
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and adequacy of pregnancy weight gain in relation to neurocognitive function in school-aged children born extremely preterm. STUDY DESIGN: Study participants were 535 ten-year-old children enrolled previously in the
Danner, Fred W.; Toland, Michael D.
This study assessed how socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, and birth weight interacted to predict differential patterns of body mass index (BMI) growth among U.S. children born in the early 1990s. Three BMI growth trajectories emerged--one above the 50th percentile across the age range of 5 to 14, one in which children rapidly became…
Long-term effects of Kamp K'aana, a 2-week residential weight management camp, on body mass index (BMI) measures were evaluated on 71 of 108 (66%) obese youth 10 to 14 years of age. Measures were obtained at 11-month study follow-up (n=38) or extracted from medical record (n=33). Compared with basel...
All the students at this Bhagat Puran Singh Memorial School in Punjab, India were educated about the importance of caloric intake and physical activity. Body weight and height were recorded once a month for 12 consecutive months for 632 students, age 8-23 years (7584 observations). For US and Euro...
Hoffman, Daniel J; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Lee, Soo-Kyung
Students entering their first year of college are faced with many stresses and changes, including changes in eating and exercise behavior. A common but often undocumented myth among college students is that there is a high risk of gaining 15 pounds of weight during freshman year. The objective of this study was to measure changes in body weight and percentage of body fat among first-year college students. Using a digital scale with bio-electrical impedance, the authors measured height, weight, and percentage of body fat for a sample of students who volunteered to be weighed during a health assessment in the university dining halls. The authors sent e-mails inviting those same students to complete a second measurement in February of the academic year. Sixty-seven of the 217 students who volunteered for the health assessment agreed to undergo a second set of measurements in the spring. The mean change in body weight was 2.86 pounds (1.3 kg, SD = 4.0 kg), and the mean change in percentage of body fat was 0.7% (SD = 4.0%). For those students who gained weight only, the mean increase in body weight (as measured by body mass index, weight divided by height in kg/m2) was 6.82 pounds (3.1 +/- 2.4 kg) and percentage of body fat was 0.9 +/- 3.8%. The authors found that the first year of college is a period in which weight and fat gain may occur. The exact causes behind these changes are unclear and warrant further research to plan or improve intervention and prevention.
Bahreynian, Maryam; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Kelishadi, Roya
To identify risk-groups adhering to weight-changing plans for body dissatisfaction in a National sample of Iranian students. Cross-sectional. Primary, Middle and high-schools. 13486 students (mean age, 12.5 y). Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were collected via valid instruments. Body image and adherence to weight- changing diets were assessed by using validated questionnaires. 46.5% students were satisfied with their weight and12.5% declared that they had attempts for weight control, this was significantly higher among adolescent girls (13.8%, P=0.0005). Participants who perceived themselves as overweight and obese, were more likely (OR= 5.32) to follow weight-reduction diets than their peers with normal-weight perception. Actual overweight-BMI and obese-BMI individuals had greater odds for being on a diet (1.3 and 1.47, respectively) compared to their normal-BMI counterparts. Promoting strategies to improve body image concerns and prevent adverse outcomes of chronic dieting among adolescents are necessary.
Differences in gestational weight gain between pregnancies before and after maternal bariatric surgery correlate with differences in birth weight but not with scores on the body mass index in early childhood
Berglind, D; Willmer, M; Näslund, E
Large maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and increased risk of obesity in offspring, but these associations may be confounded by genetic and environmental factors. The aim was to investigate the effects of differences in GWG in all three trimesters on...... on differences in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) scores at 4 and 6 years of age, within siblings born before and after bariatric surgery....
Fuglestad, Paul T; Jeffery, Robert W; Sherwood, Nancy E
Research suggests that the interaction between biological susceptibility and environmental risk is complex and that further study of behavioral typologies related to obesity and associated behaviors is important to further elucidate the nature of obesity risk and how to approach it for intervention. The current investigation aims to identify phenotypical lifestyle patterns that might begin to unify our understanding of obesity and obesity related behaviors. Individuals who had recently lost substantial weight of their own initiative completed measures of intentional weight control behaviors and lifestyle behaviors associated with eating. These behaviors were factor analyzed and the resulting factors were examined in relation to BMI, recent weight loss, diet, and physical activity. Four meaningful lifestyle and weight control behavioral factors were identified- regularity of meals, TV related viewing and eating, intentional strategies for weight control, and eating away from home. Greater meal regularity was associated with greater recent weight loss and greater fruit and vegetable intake. Greater TV related viewing and eating was associated with greater BMI and greater fat and sugar intake. More eating away from home was related to greater fat and sugar intake, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less physical activity. Greater use of weight control strategies was most consistently related to better weight, diet, and physical activity outcomes. Compared to the individual behavior variables, the identified lifestyle patterns appeared to be more reliably related to diet, physical activity, and weight (both BMI and recent weight loss). These findings add to the growing body of literature identifying behavioral patterns related to obesity and the overall weight control strategy of eating less and exercising more. In future research it will be important to replicate these behavioral factors (over time and in other samples) and to examine how changes in these factors
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to compare two different biological similarity criteria, one was based on body mass (M as a theoretical reference system in accordance with the MLT-system of physics, while the other utilized the body weight (W for the same purpose. The mass-dependent allometry should be applied during space flights as well as during fetal and newborn conditions of life, whereas the weight-dependence should prevail in earth-bound physiology. The above mentioned distinctions are relevant not only for the specific metabolic rates but also for numerous biological time functions, as for instance for the heart and respiratory rates of all mammals, whose allometric exponent is b = - 0.09 during fetal life, and b = - 0.25 in all adult specimens.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la comparación de dos diferentes criterios de similitud, uno basado en la masa corporal (M como sistema teórico de referencia de acuerdo con el sistema MLT de la Física, en tanto que el otro utilizó el peso corporal (W con este mismo propósito. La alometría dependiente de la masa debería aplicarse durante los vuelos espaciales así como durante la vida fetal y la condición de recién nacido, en tanto que la dependencia del peso debe prevalecer en la fisiología terrestre. La distinción antes mencionada es relevante, no sólo para el metabolismo específico y también para numerosas funciones biológicas en relación con funciones de tiempo, como ser con las frecuencias cardiaca y respiratoria de todos los mamíferos cuyo exponente alométrico es b = - 0,09 durante la vida fetal, y b = - 0,25 en todos los especimenes adultos.
Wahyuni, H. I.; Suthama, N.; Mangisah, I.; Krismiyanto, L.
The research aimed to evaluate meat calcium and protein content of local chicken fed diet fortified with a combination of Lactobacillus sp and Dahlia Inulin. One hundred and twenty birds of 4 months old local chicken with average body weight of 1001 g were assigned in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments were the farmer formulated ration (FF) and the improved ration (IR), fortified with 1.2% inulin and 1.2 ml Lactobacillus sp. (FFIL and IRIL). Parameters were calcium retention, protein coefficient digestibility, meat calcium and protein mass, and cumulative body weight gain. The results showed that all parameters were significantly affected by dietary treatments. The improved ration resulted in higher calcium retention and protein coefficient digestibility than the farmer formulated ration when fed by both with and without fortification of dahlia inulin and Lactobacillus sp. Meat protein mass of chicken fed by both FR and IR fortified with dahlia inulin and Lactobacillus sp. showed higher value than chicken fed by unfortified FR and IR. Cumulative body weight gain of chicken fed by both FR and IR fortified with dahlia inulin and Lactobacillus sp. also showed higher value than chicken fed by without fortification. In conclusion, both FR and IR fortified with dahlia inulin and Lactobacillus sp. improved meat protein mass and cumulative body weight gain, especially the farmer formulated ration was pronouncedly improved by fortification of Lactobacillus sp. and dahlia inulin.
because of its high meat quality and acceptance by ... respectively. Thus, morphometric traits were recommended by Okon et al. (2010a, b) as good predictors of hatchling weights in. Department of Animal Science, University of Calabar, .... wt = body weight, w = hatchling body shell width, L = hatchling body shell length.
Osler, Merete; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit
This study examines the joint and separate influence of birth weight and body mass in young adulthood on subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. A cohort of 9,143 men born in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1953, for whom information on birth weight and body weight and height around age 19 years were...... retrieved from birth certificates and conscript records, respectively, were followed from 1978 until 2005 (between age 25 and 52 years) for incident fatal and non-fatal CHD. Data on CHD were obtained through record linkage to the Cause of Death Registry and the National Patient Registry. During follow......-up, a total of 475 men had a CHD diagnosis. Men with low birth weight, high body mass index (BMI) at age 19, a father from the working class, and low educational level at age 19 had an increased risk for CHD. Birth weight was inversely associated with CHD only in men with BMI of 25 kg/m(2) or above...
Osler, Merete; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit
This study examines the joint and separate influence of birth weight and body mass in young adulthood on subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. A cohort of 9,143 men born in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1953, for whom information on birth weight and body weight and height around age 19 years were...... retrieved from birth certificates and conscript records, respectively, were followed from 1978 until 2005 (between age 25 and 52 years) for incident fatal and non-fatal CHD. Data on CHD were obtained through record linkage to the Cause of Death Registry and the National Patient Registry. During follow......-up, a total of 475 men had a CHD diagnosis. Men with low birth weight, high body mass index (BMI) at age 19, a father from the working class, and low educational level at age 19 had an increased risk for CHD. Birth weight was inversely associated with CHD only in men with BMI of 25 kg/m2 or above. Adjustment...
Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Helene
of musculoskeletal conditions. Compared to women with no change in weight from preconception to 6 months after childbirth (±1 BMI unit), increasing postpartum weight increased the risk of musculoskeletal conditions in normal-weight and overweight women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that high pre-pregnancy BMI...... increases the risk of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions. Low and high GWG, higher postpartum weight retention, and especially higher parity are associated with an increased risk. Prevention of being overweight before, during, and after pregnancy may reduce the risk of development of degenerative......Objective To examine how pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, and pregnancy-related weight changes are associated with long-term risk of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions. Methods A total of 79,687 mothers with singleton births from the Danish National Birth Cohort were included...
Barberio, Amanda; McLaren, Lindsay
The behavioural and socio-cultural processes underlying the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and body mass index (BMI) remain unclear. Occupational physical activity (OPA) is one plausible explanatory variable that has not been previously considered. 1) To examine the association between OPA and BMI, and 2) to examine whether OPA mediates the SEP-BMI association, in a Canadian population-based sample. This cross-sectional study was based on secondary analysis of the 2008 Canadian Community Health Survey data, focusing on adults (age 25-64) working at a job or business (men, n = 1,036; women, n = 936). BMI was based on measured height and weight and we derived a novel indicator of OPA from the National Occupational Classification Career Handbook. Our analytic technique was ordinary least squares regression, adjusting for a range of socio-demographic, health and behavioural covariates. OPA was marginally associated with BMI in women, such that women with medium levels of OPA tended to be lighter than women with low levels of OPA, in adjusted models. No associations between OPA and BMI were detected for males. Baron and Kenny's (1986) three conditions for testing mediation were not satisfied, and thus we were unable to proceed with testing OPA as a mediator. Notwithstanding the small effects observed in women, overall the associations between OPA and BMI were neither clear nor strong, which could reflect conceptual and/or methodological reasons. Future research on this topic might incorporate other plausible explanatory variables (e.g., job-related psychosocial stress) and adopt a prospective design.
Farr, Joshua N; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B
Understanding the influence of total body fat mass (TBFM) on bone during the peri-pubertal years is critical for the development of future interventions aimed at improving bone strength and reducing fracture risk. Thus, we evaluated the relationship of TBFM to volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and strength at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia of young girls. Data from 396 girls aged 8-13 years from the "Jump-In: Building Better Bones" study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the 4% and 20% distal femur and 4% and 66% distal tibia of the non-dominant leg. Bone parameters at the 4% sites included trabecular vBMD, periosteal circumference, and bone strength index (BSI), while at the 20% femur and 66% tibia, parameters included cortical vBMD, periosteal circumference, and strength-strain index (SSI). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between bone parameters and TBFM, controlling for muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA). Regression analyses were then repeated with maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity as additional covariates. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare bone parameters among tertiles of TBFM. In regression models with TBFM and MCSA, associations between TBFM and bone parameters at all sites were not significant. TBFM explained very little variance in all bone parameters (0.2-2.3%). In contrast, MCSA was strongly related (pbone parameters, except cortical vBMD. The addition of maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity did not alter the relationship between TBFM and bone parameters. With bone parameters expressed relative to total body mass, ANCOVA showed that all outcomes were significantly (prelationship is significantly attenuated after adjustment for MCSA. Nevertheless, girls with higher TBFM relative to body mass have markedly diminished vBMD, geometry, and bone strength
Schummers, Laura; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Bodnar, Lisa M; Lieberman, Ellice; Himes, Katherine P
To estimate the absolute risks of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes based on small differences in prepregnancy body mass (eg, 10% of body mass or 10-20 pounds). This population-based cohort study (N=226,958) was drawn from all singleton pregnancies in British Columbia (Canada) from 2004 to 2012. The relationships between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) (as a continuous, nonlinear variable) and adverse pregnancy outcomes were examined using logistic regression models. Analyses were adjusted for maternal age, height, parity, and smoking in pregnancy. Adjusted absolute risks of each outcome are reported according to incremental differences in prepregnancy BMI and weight in pounds. A 10% difference in prepregnancy BMI was associated with at least a 10% lower risk of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, indicated preterm delivery, macrosomia, and stillbirth. In contrast, larger differences in prepregnancy BMI (20-30% differences in BMI) were necessary to meaningfully reduce risks of cesarean delivery, shoulder dystocia, neonatal intensive care unit stay 48 hours or longer, and in-hospital newborn mortality. Prepregnancy BMI was not associated with risk of postpartum hemorrhage requiring intervention, severe maternal morbidity or maternal mortality, or spontaneous preterm delivery before 32 weeks of gestation. These results can inform prepregnancy weight loss counseling by defining achievable weight loss goals for patients that may reduce their risk of poor perinatal outcomes. II.
Chen, Qi; Wei, J; Tong, M; Yu, L; Lee, A C; Gao, Y F; Zhao, M
Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for maternal and fetal complications including delivery of large for gestational age (LGA) infants. Maternal body mass index (BMI) and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with delivery of LGA infants. However, whether maternal BMI and weight gain are associated with LGA infants in women with GDM is unclear. Data on 1049 pregnant women who developed GDM were collected from a university teaching hospital in China and retrospectively analyzed. Data included maternal BMI, weight gain, incidence of LGA and gestational week at diagnosis. The incidence of LGA infants was significantly associated with maternal BMI (p=0.0002) in women with GDM. The odds of delivery of LGA for obese or overweight pregnant women are 3.8 or 2 times more than normal weight pregnant women. The incidence of LGA infants was also significantly associated with maternal weight gain in women with GDM. The odds ratio of delivery of LGA for pregnant women with excessive weight gain was 3.3 times more than pregnant women with normal weight gain. The effect of weight gain was not significantly different between different maternal BMI. The incidence of delivery of LGA infants in Chinese women with GDM who were overweight or obese is higher than Caucasians, Hispanic, and Asian-Americans. The effects of maternal BMI and weight gain on the delivery of LGA infants by women with GDM are additive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zong, Xinnan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yaqin; Wu, Huahong
It is important to update weight-for-length/height growth curves in China and re-examine their performance in screening malnutrition. To develop weight-for-length/height growth curves for Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 94 302 children aged 0-19 years with complete sex, age, weight and length/height data were obtained from two cross-sectional large-scaled national surveys in China. Weight-for-length/height growth curves were constructed using the LMS method before and after average spermarcheal/menarcheal ages, respectively. Screening performance in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity was compared between weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) criteria based on a test population of 21 416 children aged 3-18. The smoothed weight-for-length percentiles and Z-scores growth curves with length 46-110 cm for both sexes and weight-for-height with height 70-180 cm for boys and 70-170 cm for girls were established. The weight-for-height and BMI-for-age had strong correlation in screening wasting, overweight and obesity in each age-sex group. There was no striking difference in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity between two indicators except for obesity prevalence at ages 6-11. This set of smoothed weight-for-length/height growth curves may be useful in assessing nutritional status from infants to post-pubertal adolescents.
Arcan, Chrisa; Larson, Nicole; Bauer, Kate; Berge, Jerica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
The population of the United States is becoming increasingly ethnically and racially diverse, much of it due to immigration patterns. However, little is known about dietary intake and weight-related concerns and behaviors of youth from some ethnic-minority groups, especially Hispanic, Hmong, and Somali adolescents. Our aim was to describe dietary intake and weight-related concerns and behaviors among Hispanic, Hmong, and Somali adolescents and compare them with white adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from Eating and Activity in Teens 2010, a population-based study in the Minneapolis/St Paul metropolitan area. Current analysis includes 1,672 adolescents (Hispanic: n=562 [33.6%]; Hmong: n=477 [28.5%]; Somali: n=113 [6.8%]; white: n=520 [31.1%]; mean age=15.0 years). Adolescents completed classroom surveys and had their height/weight measured during the 2009-2010 academic year. Multivariable regression models, adjusted for socioeconomic status, age, and school as a random effect were used to examine racial/ethnic differences for each outcome variable for boys and girls. There were numerous differences in the behaviors of Hispanic, Hmong, and Somali adolescents as compared with whites. Hispanic and Somali youth consumed fruit and fast food more frequently. Hmong adolescents consumed sugar-sweetened beverages less frequently, and Somali boys consumed energy and sport drinks more frequently than whites. Compared with white boys, overweight/obesity was higher among Hispanic and Hmong. A higher percentage of Hmong and Somali adolescents engaged in unhealthy weight control behaviors. Body satisfaction was lower for all Hmong adolescents compared with whites. There were varying areas of concern in dietary intake, weight, and weight-related concerns and behaviors among adolescents in all ethnic groups. Future nutrition and physical activity interventions that include adolescents from these ethnic and cultural groups can benefit from, for example
Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L
A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...... the literature, which included equations specific for the degree of obesity in the study group, and the group specific equations developed for the present population predicted significant changes in FFM during weight loss (from 2.3 +/- 3.0 to 5.0 +/- 3.0 kg, p
Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L
A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK...... the literature, which included equations specific for the degree of obesity in the study group, and the group specific equations developed for the present population predicted significant changes in FFM during weight loss (from 2.3 +/- 3.0 to 5.0 +/- 3.0 kg, p obesity most predictive....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...
Paul, S K; Shaw, J E; Montvida, O; Klein, K
To evaluate, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) treated with insulin, the extent of weight gain over 2 years of insulin treatment, and the dynamics of weight gain in relation to glycaemic achievements over time according to adiposity levels at insulin initiation. Patients with T2DM (n = 155 917), who commenced insulin therapy and continued it for at least 6 months, were selected from a large database of electronic medical records in the USA. Longitudinal changes in body weight and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) according to body mass index (BMI) category were estimated. Patients had a mean age of 59 years, a mean HbA1c level of 9.5%, and a mean BMI of 35 kg/m(2) at insulin initiation. The HbA1c levels at insulin initiation were significantly lower (9.2-9.4%) in the obese patients than in patients with normal body weight (10.0%); however, the proportions of patients with HbA1c >7.5% or >8.0% were similar across the BMI categories. The adjusted weight gain fell progressively with increasing baseline BMI category over 6, 12 and 24 months (p 40 kg/m(2) . During 24 months of insulin treatment, obese patients gained significantly less body weight than normal-weight and overweight patients, while achieving clinically similar glycaemic benefits. These data provide reassurance with regard to the use of insulin in obese patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chamchod, Sasikarn; Fuller, Clifton D; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Grossberg, Aaron; Messer, Jay A; Heukelom, Jolien; Gunn, G Brandon; Kantor, Micheal E; Eichelberger, Hillary; Garden, Adam S; Rosenthal, David I
We undertook a challenge to determine if one or more height-weight formula(e) can be clinically used as a surrogate for direct CT-based imaging assessment of body composition before and after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, who are at risk for cancer- and therapy-associated cachexia/sarcopenia. This retrospective single-institution study included 215 HNC patients, treated with curative radiotherapy between 2003 and 2013. Height/weight measures were tabulated. Skeletal muscle mass was contoured on pre- and post-treatment CT at the L3 vertebral level. Three common lean body mass (LBM) formulae (Hume, Boer, and James) were calculated, and compared to CT assessment at each time point. 156 patients (73%) had tumors arising in the oropharynx and 130 (61%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Mean pretreatment body mass index (BMI) was 28.5±4.9kg/m(2) in men and 27.8±8kg/m(2) in women. Mean post-treatment BMI were 26.2±4.4kg/m(2) in men, 26±7.5kg/m(2) in women. Mean CT-derived LBM decreased from 55.2±11.8kg pre-therapy to 49.27±9.84kg post-radiation. Methods comparison revealed 95% limit of agreement of ±12.5-13.2kg between CT and height-weight formulae. Post-treatment LBM with the three formulae was significantly different from CT (p<0.0001). In all instances, no height-weight formula was practically equivalent to CT within±5kg. Formulae cannot accurately substitute for direct quantitative imaging LBM measurements. We therefore recommend CT-based LBM assessment as a routine practice of head and neck cancer patient body composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aydin, Zeynep D
The influence of body weight and weight change on age at natural menopause (ANM) is controversial. We aimed to explore these associations by overcoming two possible reasons for inconsistent findings: (1) a lack of information on weight change from a fixed time point up until menopause and (2) a possibility of capturing a spurious association between later ANM and greater weight gain because of a longer time span. Cross-sectionally, we evaluated static (body mass index [BMI] at age 25 y and height) and dynamic (history of premenopausal episodic weight loss and BMI gain rate) anthropometric indicators as predictors of ANM in Cox proportional hazards models. BMI gain rate was calculated based on weight change from age 25 y to menopause (or to current age in premenopausal women). Of 1,106 women, 46% were postmenopausal. Dynamic anthropometric indicators were stronger determinants of ANM compared with static indicators. Being in the higher quartile of BMI gain rate and having a history of episodic weight loss of more than 5 kg were independently associated with later ANM (hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.832 [0.765-0.905] and 0.433 [0.344-0.546], respectively). After controlling for history of episodic weight loss of more than 5 kg, smoking and premenopausal type 2 diabetes emerged as time-dependent predictors of ANM (hazard ratio [95% CI], 1.371 [1.093-1.720] and 1.640 [1.141-2.356], respectively). Premenopausal BMI gain rate and premenopausal history of episodic weight loss of more than 5 kg are independently associated with later ANM. Smoking predicts an earlier menopause after the age of initiation and type 2 diabetes predicts an earlier menopause after the age of diagnosis. The latter two associations are significant only after adjusting for a history of episodic weight loss of more than 5 kg.
Chang, Shu Fang; Yang, Rong Sen
To examine the cut-off point of the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, age, weight and body mass index for osteoporosis among young adult Taiwanese women, using a large-scale health examination database containing bone mineral density tests. The cut-off points of osteoporosis risk factors identified earlier focus on menopausal or senior Caucasian and Asian women. However, young adult Asian women have seldom been identified. A retrospective historical cohort study. Using the 2009-2011 health examination database of a large-scale medical centre in northern Taiwan, this study investigated young adult Asian women (i.e. range in age from 30-49 years) in Taiwan who had received dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry test. This study also explored the cut-off point, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of receiver operating characteristics of osteoporosis among young adult females in Taiwan. This study collected 2454 young adult Asian women in Taiwan. Cochran-Armitage analysis results indicated that the prevalence of osteoporosis increased with decreasing weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment method quartiles. According to the results of receiver operating characteristics, weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment tool approaches can generally be used as indicators to predict osteoporosis among young adult Asian women. Results of this study demonstrate that Taiwanese women contracting osteoporosis tend to be young and underweight, as well as having a low body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment scores. Those results further suggest that the assessment indicators for cut-off points are appropriately suitable for young adult women in Taiwan. Early detection is the only available means of preventing osteoporosis. Professional nurses should apply convenient and accurate assessment procedures to help young adult women to adopt preventive strategies against osteoporosis early, thus eliminating the probability of osteoporotic
Castillo, Helen; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia
This study aims to investigate the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring body composition. In this prospective cohort study, offspring body composition at 6 years of age was obtained through air displacement plethysmography. Linear regression was used to obtain crude and adjusted coefficients. Information regarding offspring body composition and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was available for 3156 children and on offspring body composition and GWG for 3129 children. There was a direct association of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with offspring's fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI) and body fat percent (BF%) in crude and adjusted analyses. After adjustment for co-variables, for each kg m(-2) of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI increase, there was a mean increment of 0.13 kg in the offspring FFM, 0.06 kg m(-2) in FFMI, 0.11 kg in FM, 0.07 kg m(-2) in FMI and 0.18% in BF%. For each kilogram of maternal GWG increase, there was a mean increment of 0.08 kg in offspring's FM, 0.05 kg m(-2) in FMI, 0.04 kg in FFM, 0.01 kg m(-2) in FFMI and 0.18 % in BF%. Mothers with a higher pre-pregnancy BMI or GWG tend to have children with greater adiposity at age 6 years. Fetal overnutrition is more likely among mothers with greater BMI during pregnancy; as a consequence, it can accelerate the childhood obesity epidemic. © 2015 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj
Although obesity is associated with excess mortality and morbidity, mortality is lower in obese than in normal weight stroke patients (the obesity paradox). Studies now indicate that obesity is not associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke in the years after first stroke. We studied...... the association between body mass index (BMI) and stroke patient's risk of having a history of previous stroke (recurrent stroke)....
Farr, Joshua N.; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.
Understanding the influence of total body fat mass (TBFM) on bone during the peri-pubertal years is critical for the development of future interventions aimed at improving bone strength and reducing fracture risk. Thus, we evaluated the relationship of TBFM to volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and strength at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia of young girls. Data from 396 girls aged 8–13 years from the “Jump-In: Building Better Bones” study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the 4% and 20% distal femur and 4% and 66% distal tibia of the non-dominant leg. Bone parameters at the 4% sites included trabecular vBMD, periosteal circumference, and bone strength index (BSI), while at the 20% femur and 66% tibia, parameters included cortical vBMD, periosteal circumference, and strength-strain index (SSI). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between bone parameters and TBFM, controlling for muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA). Regression analyses were then repeated with maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity as additional covariates. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare bone parameters among tertiles of TBFM. In regression models with TBFM and MCSA, associations between TBFM and bone parameters at all sites were not significant. TBFM explained very little variance in all bone parameters (0.2–2.3%). In contrast, MCSA was strongly related (p bone parameters, except cortical vBMD. The addition of maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity did not alter the relationship between TBFM and bone parameters. With bone parameters expressed relative to total body mass, ANCOVA showed that all outcomes were significantly (p bone strength at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia. PMID:20060079
Bolinder, Jan; Ljunggren, Östen; Kullberg, Joel; Johansson, Lars; Wilding, John; Langkilde, Anna Maria; Sugg, Jennifer; Parikh, Shamik
Dapagliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, reduces hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by increasing urinary glucose excretion, and weight loss is a consistent associated finding. Our objectives were to confirm weight loss with dapagliflozin and establish through body composition measurements whether weight loss is accounted for by changes in fat or fluid components. This was a 24-wk, international, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with ongoing 78-wk site- and patient-blinded extension period at 40 sites in five countries. Included were 182 patients with T2DM (mean values: women 63.3 and men 58.6 yr of age; hemoglobin A1c 7.17%, body mass index 31.9 kg/m2, and body weight 91.5 kg) inadequately controlled on metformin. Dapagliflozin 10 mg/d or placebo was added to open-label metformin for 24 wk. Primary endpoint was total body weight (TBW) change from baseline at wk 24. Key secondary endpoints were waist circumference and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry total-body fat mass (FM) changes from baseline at wk 24, and patient proportion achieving body weight reduction of at least 5% at wk 24. In a subset of patients, magnetic resonance assessment of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and sc adipose tissue (SAT) volume and hepatic lipid content were also evaluated. At wk 24, placebo-corrected changes with dapagliflozin were as follows: TBW, -2.08 kg [95% confidence interval (CI)=-2.84 to -1.31; Pweight reduction of at least 5%, +26.2% (95% CI=15.5 to 36.7; P<0.0001); VAT, -258.4 cm3 (95% CI=-448.1 to -68.6; nominal P=0.0084); SAT, -184.9 cm3 (95% CI=-359.7 to -10.1; nominal P=0.0385). In the dapagliflozin vs. placebo groups, respectively, serious adverse events were reported in 6.6 vs. 1.1%; events suggestive of vulvovaginitis, balanitis, and related genital infection in 3.3 vs. 0%; and lower urinary tract infections in 6.6 vs. 2.2%. Dapagliflozin reduces TBW
Full Text Available Genetic improvement of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus in Indonesia for increasing growth performance has been conducted by Research Institute for Fish Breeding at Sukamandi through mass selection. Collection and characterizations of the founder populations, building the synthetic base population, first generation and second generation through mass selection were conducted during 2010-2013. Later, in 2014 it was followed by building the third generation. The present study aimed to find out the genetic gain in the third generation in term of response to selection for body weight. Fifty-two pairs of the selected (fast growing individuals from the second generation were mated to produce the third generation. As a comparison, five pairs of average-sized individuals were mated to produce the control population, as a second generation representative. Larval rearing, nursery and grow-out phases were respectively held for 25 days in the aquaria, 30 days in the concrete ponds and 60 days in the concrete ponds. At the end of each phase, individual samplings of body weight were undertaken. The results showed that mean body weight of the third generation was higher than that of control population at the end of larval rearing phase (0.21 ± 0.26 g versus 0.20 ± 0.15 g, nursery phase (6.12 ± 2.93 g versus 5.80 ± 3.50 g and grow-out phase (198.67 ± 82.82 g versus 165.22 ± 71.09 g. Those results revealed that response to selection for body weight of the third generation was positive, i.e. about 20.24% (33.45 g.
Onyenekwe, C C; Arinola, O G; Meludu, S C; Salimonu, L S; Obisesan, A K; Adewale, I F
Considerations of both inter-pregnancy intervals and malaria parasitaemia may help in understanding some aspects of susceptibility and pregnancy outcomes in malaria endemic areas. Pregnant women with asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia were recruited and divided into groups based on their inter-pregnancy intervals and malaria specific-IgG, body mass index, and birth weights were studied in the groups. The results showed that the P. falciparum specific-IgG concentration (f=3.52, pmalaria parasites density (f=6.44, pmalaria parasites density vs birth weight' (r = -0.84, p malaria parasitaemia could be one of the factors affecting birth weights. Hence, observance of inter-pregnancy intervals has its own implications in malaria endemic areas.
Bolinder, J; Ljunggren, Ö; Johansson, L; Wilding, J; Langkilde, A M; Sjöström, C D; Sugg, J; Parikh, S
Dapagliflozin, a highly selective inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), reduces hyperglycaemia and weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by increasing urinary glucose excretion. Long-term glycaemic control, body composition and bone safety were evaluated in patients with T2DM after 102 weeks of dapagliflozin treatment. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (NCT00855166) enrolled patients with T2DM [mean: age 60.7 years; HbA1c 7.2%; body mass index (BMI) 31.9 kg/m(2) ; body weight 91.5 kg] inadequately controlled on metformin. Patients (N = 182) were randomly assigned 1 : 1 to receive dapagliflozin 10 mg/day or placebo added to open-label metformin for a 24-week double-blind treatment period followed by a 78-week site- and patient-blinded extension period. At week 102, changes from baseline in HbA1c, weight, waist circumference, total body fat mass as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), serum markers of bone turnover, bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by DXA, and adverse events were evaluated. A total of 140 patients (76.9%) completed the study. Over 102 weeks, dapagliflozin-treated patients showed reductions in HbA1c by -0.3%, weight by -4.54 kg, waist circumference by -5.0 cm and fat mass by -2.80 kg without increase in rate of hypoglycaemia. Compared with placebo, no meaningful changes from baseline in markers of bone turnover or BMD were identified over 102 weeks. One fracture occurred in each treatment group. The frequency of urinary tract infection (UTI) and genital infection was similar in both treatment groups. Over 102 weeks, dapagliflozin improved glycaemic control, and reduced weight and fat mass, without affecting markers of bone turnover or BMD in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled on metformin. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Haghighian Roudsari, Arezoo; Vedadhir, Abouali; Kalantari, Naser; Amiri, Parisa; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Pouri Hosseini, Seyed Fatemeh Abdollah
Obesity is investigated as a health concern due to high prevalence in the world. Nowadays, researchers are looking for an indirect method to measure weight and height. Self-reported Body Mass Index (BMI) is ever more served as an alternative method for direct weight and height measurement. Misreporting is a usual concern in self-reported BMI, thus, this study set explored the association and degree of agreement of self-reported BMI with weight perception, Self-Rated Health (SRH), and appearance satisfaction in people living in Tehran, Iran. 722 men and women (268 men and 454 women) aged 30-64 years were selected using Cluster Multi-stage Sampling with the Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) method from each area. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic variables and self-reported weight and height and questions related to weight and health perception, and appearance satisfaction. Independent samples T-test compared the mean of scales and differences in characteristics between BMI categories, analyzed using chi-square test. The Cohen's kappa coefficient examined the association between self-reported BMI and weight perception, SRH, and appearance satisfaction. The mean self-reported weight was 80.79 ± 12.87 in men and 68.33 ± 11.53 in women. The results of the agreement analysis for weight perception were Kappa = 0.38 with p appearance satisfaction were not significantly correlated with self-reported BMI. The measurements of height and weight can cause significant imprecisions in calculation of BMI, which is used as a guide for identifying persons at risk of disease. Direct measurement of height and weight should be performed whenever possible for optimal measurements in clinical practice and clinically oriented researches.
Wiedemann, Ashley A; Saules, Karen K
Weight problem perception (WPP) refers to the belief that one is overweight. Previous research suggests that WPP, even in the absence of actual overweight status, is associated with disordered eating, binge eating, and body image dissatisfaction. However, the relationship between emotional eating, BMI, and WPP has not yet been explored. This investigation recruited a total of 409 college students who completed a web-based survey. An additional 76 participants were recruited to complete an identical survey with the addition of a depression measure to evaluate the contribution of this potentially important covariate. As hypothesized, WPP was associated with emotional eating, while actual BMI was not. In the second sample, WPP remained significantly associated with emotional eating, even after depression was included as a covariate. Results suggest that non-overweight young adults who express the belief that they are overweight may be at risk for emotional eating, which, over the long term, could indeed adversely impact BMI. Cognitive approaches to address disordered eating may benefit from addressing WPP. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bhurtun, Darshini Devi; Jeewon, Rajesh
Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anth...
Merten, Michael J; Williams, Amanda L
Background Women's risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were examined in terms of adolescent and young adult weight status, self-esteem trajectories and weight contentment using two waves of a nationally representative dataset. Using Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem and weight contentment were examined during adolescence and young adulthood to assess the likelihood of STDs among 4000 young adult single women. Change in BMI, specifically weight loss between adolescence and young adulthood, significantly increased women's risk for STDs. Continuously low self-esteem during adolescence and young adulthood significantly increased women's risk for STDs. When women's contentment with their weight decreased from adolescence to young adulthood, women's risk for STDs was greater. Regardless of other variables, Black women were more likely to have an STD. RESULTS suggest that women's self-perception is important in reducing sexual risk; specifically, patterns of self-esteem, BMI and weight contentment across developmental periods should be a critical focus of research and practice related to adolescent and young adult sexual health. There are many known benefits to fostering self-esteem during adolescence and findings from this study add STD prevention among young women to this list. RESULTS emphasise the needed prevention during adolescence to address self-perspective and self-esteem for the long-term sexual well-being of young women.
Katanoda, Kota; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Goto, Atsushi; Mizunuma, Hideki; Lee, Jung Su; Hayashi, Kunihiko
Although birth weight is considered as a fetal determinant of the development of adult-onset diabetes mellitus (DM), its public health importance relative to adult body mass index (BMI) remains unclear. We aimed to examine the association between adult-onset DM and birth weight in relation to adult BMI. We conducted a self-administered questionnaire as a baseline survey of the Japanese Nurses' Health Study cohort between 2001 and 2007. Exclusion criteria were applied to the volunteer sample of 49,927 female nurses (age weight was analyzed using logistic regression. A linear inverse association was observed between birth weight and DM, after adjustment for age, BMI, and parental history of DM. The odds ratio for developing DM per 100 g increase in birth weight was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-0.96). The association was unchanged when birth weight was converted to percentile for gestational age. In the BMI-stratified analysis, the odds ratio for DM in the weight group reached 4.75 (95% CI, 1.22-18.44, compared to the reference 3000-3499 g group) among women with normal low BMI (18.5-20.9). Birth weight and its percentile for gestational age were associated with adult-onset DM. Attention should be paid to the risk of DM among women born with low weight, even when their current BMI is normal. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Although birth weight is considered as a fetal determinant of the development of adult-onset diabetes mellitus (DM, its public health importance relative to adult body mass index (BMI remains unclear. We aimed to examine the association between adult-onset DM and birth weight in relation to adult BMI. Methods: We conducted a self-administered questionnaire as a baseline survey of the Japanese Nurses' Health Study cohort between 2001 and 2007. Exclusion criteria were applied to the volunteer sample of 49,927 female nurses (age <30 years or unknown, current pregnancy, development of DM before the age of 30 years, unknown core variables, and data from 26,949 female nurses aged 30 years or older were used. The association between history of DM diagnosis and birth weight was analyzed using logistic regression. Results: A linear inverse association was observed between birth weight and DM, after adjustment for age, BMI, and parental history of DM. The odds ratio for developing DM per 100 g increase in birth weight was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90–0.96. The association was unchanged when birth weight was converted to percentile for gestational age. In the BMI-stratified analysis, the odds ratio for DM in the <2500 g birth weight group reached 4.75 (95% CI, 1.22–18.44, compared to the reference 3000–3499 g group among women with normal low BMI (18.5–20.9. Conclusions: Birth weight and its percentile for gestational age were associated with adult-onset DM. Attention should be paid to the risk of DM among women born with low weight, even when their current BMI is normal.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the documented links between body satisfaction, weight-related behaviors, and weight change in adolescents, we sought to examine the prevalence of poor body satisfaction in prepubescent girls and boys and its associations with body weight, socioeconomic factors, and rural residence. Methods We obtained data from 4254 girls and boys participating in a population-based survey of grade five students in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. We examined gender specific associations between the prevalence of poor body satisfaction and body mass index (BMI with generalized additive models and applied multilevel logistic regression methods to estimate associations of body satisfaction with BMI, rural residence, parental education and income, and neighborhood household income. Results We observed a linear increase in poor body satisfaction with increasing BMI in girls. Among boys, however, we found a U-shape association where boys with low BMI and those with high BMI reported higher levels of poor body satisfaction. We also found that poor body satisfaction was more prevalent among girls whose parents had lower educational attainment and among those who reside in rural areas. Conclusion Insight into the unique relationships between body satisfaction and BMI experienced by prepubescent children, males, and populations diverse in parental education and geographic location may help to inform public health initiatives designed to improve weight-related behaviors and reduce overweight in children.
Mohammad Reza Salamat
Full Text Available Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI and bone mineral density (BMD, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4 using a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scan and examination of body size. Participants were categorised in two BMI group: normal weight <25.0 kg/m2 and overweight and obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Results. Compared to men with BMI ≥ 25, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 2.2 (95% CI 0.85, 5.93 and for osteoporosis was 4.4 (1.51, 12.87 for men with BMI < 25. It was noted that BMI and weight was associated with a high BMD, compatible with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Conclusions. These data indicate that both BMI and weight are associated with BMD of hip and vertebrae and overweight and obesity decreased the risk for osteoporosis. The results of this study highlight the need for osteoporosis prevention strategies in elderly men as well as postmenopausal women.
Longhurst, J. C.; Gonyea, W. J.; Mitchell, J. H.; Kelly, A. R.
The relationships of different forms of exercise training to left ventricular mass and body mass are investigated by echocardiographic studies of weight lifters, long-distance runners, and comparatively sized untrained control subjects. Left ventricular mass determinations by the Penn convention reveal increased absolute left ventricular masses in long-distance runners and competitive weight lifters with respect to controls matched for age, body weight, and body surface area, and a significant correlation between ventricular mass and lean body mass. When normalized to lean body mass, the ventricular masses of distance runners are found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups, suggesting that dynamic training elevates left ventricular mass compared to static training and no training, while static training increases ventricular mass only to the extent that lean body mass is increased.
Ma, Yunsheng; Olendzki, Barbara; Chiriboga, David; Hebert, James R.; Li, Youfu; Li, Wenjun; Campbell, MaryJane; Gendreau, Katherine; Ockene, Ira S.
The role of dietary carbohydrates in weight loss has received considerable attention in light of the current obesity epidemic. The authors investigated the association of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) with dietary intake of carbohydrates and with measures of the induced glycemic response, using data from an observational study of 572 healthy adults in central Massachusetts. Anthropometric measurements, 7-day dietary recalls, and physical activity recalls were collected quarterly f...
Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G
.23 kg/m(2) (0.33; 0.13) lower body mass index, 0.32 cm (0.74; 0.003) lower waist circumference and 0.45 cm (0.66; 0.24) lower hip circumference. No association was found between tobacco consumption and waist-hip ratio in genetic analysis, or among CHRNA3 genotype and any of the outcome variables......BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...
Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.
Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…
Maier, Josefine Theresia; Schalinski, Elisabeth; Gauger, Ulrich; Hellmeyer, Lars
Overweight and obesity is a serious health risk in both developed and developing nations. It is a common finding among women in their reproductive age. Half of patients entering their pregnancy in the US have a BMI >25.0 and therefore qualify as overweight or obese. Moreover, there is a tendency towards increased weight gain during pregnancy. Studies have shown that gestational overweight is associated with complications in pregnancy and birthing as well as short-term and long-term impacts on neonatal outcome in childhood and adulthood. Five hundred and ninety-one women visiting our tertiary perinatal center in 2014 were analyzed for antenatal BMI, gestational weight gain, as well as pregnancy outcome and complication together with neonatal weight and outcome. Pregnancy weight gain was assessed based on the IOM guidelines (Institute of Medicine) issued in 2009. Twenty-nine percent of our population was overweight with a BMI of more than 25.0. The general weight gain was in every BMI group similar (median ranging from 12.0 to 14.0 kg). Approximately one third gained more than the appropriate amount (37%, Ppregnancy weight gain in excess of the guidelines gave birth to neonates with a higher birth weight (>75.centile, 28.3% vs. 21.3%, Ppregnancy. A higher gestational weight gain than the recommended amount was found in 37% of cases. We found an association with pregnancy and birthing complications as well as higher infant weight. This highlights the importance of preconceptive and prenatal advice, and if necessary, intervention on BMI and weight gain.
Zaccardi, Francesco; Pitocco, Dario; Willeit, Peter; Laukkanen, Jari A
The efficacy of antiplatelet drugs may differ in specific patient subgroups. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the P2Y12 inhibitors clopidogrel, ticlopidine, prasugrel, ticagrelor, and cangrelor according to diabetes status, age, gender, body mass index, and body weight. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of P2Y12 inhibitors reporting information on cardiovascular disease (defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death) and bleeding (defined as any bleeding) events among the subgroups diabetes and non-diabetes, age ≥65 and body mass index ≥30 and body weight ≥60 and diabetes (rRR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.13; p = 0.395), age (0.98; 0.88 to 1.09; p = 0.347), gender (0.97; 0.90 to 1.04; p = 0.382), or body mass index (1.11, 0.95 to 1.31; p = 0.191). Results for other inhibitors were comparable, although available data were sparse. Limited data on bleeding events were available. Data from RCTs did not show a different cardiovascular efficacy of clopidogrel in diabetes mellitus and other clinically relevant subgroups. Limited information was available on the efficacy and safety of other P2Y12 inhibitors in specific subgroups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alberico, Salvatore; Montico, Marcella; Barresi, Valentina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Businelli, Caterina; Soini, Valentina; Erenbourg, Anna; Ronfani, Luca; Maso, Gianpaolo
It is crucial to identify in large population samples the most important determinants of excessive fetal growth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the independent role of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain and gestational diabetes on the risk of macrosomia. A prospective study collected data on mode of delivery and maternal/neonatal outcomes in eleven Hospitals in Italy. Multiple pregnancies and preterm deliveries were excluded. The sample included 14109 women with complete records. Associations between exposure variables and newborn macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Multiple logistic regression models were built to assess the independent association between potential predictors and macrosomia. Maternal obesity (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.2), excessive gestational weight gain (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.2) and diabetes (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.0 for gestational; adjusted OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.6 for pre-gestational) resulted to be independent predictors of macrosomia, when adjusted for other recognized risk factors. Since no significant interaction was found between pre-gestational BMI and gestational weight gain, excessive weight gain should be considered an independent risk factor for macrosomia. In the sub-group of women affected by gestational or pre-gestational diabetes, pre-gestational BMI was not significantly associated to macrosomia, while excessive pregnancy weight gain, maternal height and gestational age at delivery were significantly associated. In this sub-population, pregnancy weight gain less than recommended was not significantly associated to a reduction in macrosomia. Our findings indicate that maternal obesity, gestational weight gain excess and diabetes should be considered as independent risk factors for newborn macrosomia. To adequately evaluate the clinical evolution of pregnancy all three variables need to be carefully assessed and monitored.
Rita R. Ellithorpe
Full Text Available Background: Lipid Replacement Therapy using NT Factor® plus kidney bean alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb® was used in a two month weight loss clinical trial to reduce weight and improve fatigue without changing easting or exercise patterns and without use of drugs, stimulants or herbs. Objectives: To determine the effects of an all-natural functional food, NT Factor® plus alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb®, on weight loss, body girth, body mass and index, basal metabolic rate, appetite, carvings for sweets and fatigue as well as blood lipid profiles during a 2-month open label clinical trial without food restrictions or increases in physical activity.Methods: Thirty subjects (Mean Age = 56.8 ± 1.8; 24 females and 6 males used the functional food containing NT Factor® (500 mg and alpha-amylase inhibitor (500 mg 30 min before each meal in tablet form. Participants were told to eat and exercise normally. Weight, waist and hip measurements were taken weekly. Appetite and sweet cravings were assessed weekly by standard methods. Fatigue was determined using the Piper Fatigue Scale. Blood samples were taken prior to and at the end of the trial for lipid and chemical analyses. Results: Sixty-three percent of the participants lost an average of 6.11 ± 0.28 pounds (2.77 ± 0.12 Kg (p<0.001 along with average reductions of 2.51 ± 0.05 inches (6.4 ± 0.13 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.5 ± 0.04 inches (3.8 ± 0.10 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. The entire Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(1:11-24 group lost an average of 3.63 ± 0.13 pounds (1.65 ± 0.11 Kg (p<0.001 with average reductions of 1.59 ± 0.03 inches (4.04 ± 0.06 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.13 ± 0.02 inch (2.87 ± 0.05 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. Weight loss and body measurement decreases were gradual, consistent and significant, along with reductions in body mass index (BMI and basal metabolic rate (BMR measurements
Smith, R J; Jungers, W L
Data are presented on adult body mass for 230 of 249 primate species, based on a review of the literature and previously unpublished data. The issues involved in collecting data on adult body mass are discussed, including the definition of adults, the effects of habitat and pregnancy, the strategy for pooling data on single species from multiple studies, and use of an appropriate number of significant figures. An analysis of variability in body mass indicates that the coefficient of variation for body mass increases with increasing species mean mass. Evaluation of several previous body mass reviews reveals a number of shortcomings with data that have been used often in comparative studies.
Yang, Shaoping; Zhou, Aifen; Xiong, Chao; Yang, Rong; Bassig, Bryan A; Hu, Ronghua; Zhang, Yiming; Yao, Cong; Zhang, Yaqi; Qiu, Lin; Qian, Zhengmin; Trevathan, Edwin; Flick, Louise; Xu, Shunqing; Wang, Youjie; Xia, Wei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin
The prevalence of macrosomia has risen markedly worldwide, including in China, during the past two decades. Few epidemiological studies, however, have investigated the risk factors for macrosomia in China. This study was designed to investigate the associations between parental anthropometric characteristics, gestational weight gain (GWG), and risk of macrosomia in China. This population-based, case-control study in Wuhan, China, included a total of 6341 subjects (870 cases and 5471 controls). Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Mothers or fathers who were overweight or obese before pregnancy had an elevated risk of giving birth to a macrosomic infant compared with their normal weight counterparts. Women with GWG above the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendation had an adjusted OR of 6.09 [95% CI 5.04, 7.35] for delivering a macrosomic infant compared with women who had GWG within the IOM recommendation. When stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), women who were underweight or normal weight before pregnancy were observed to have a higher risk of macrosomia birth associated with greater GWG. Parental pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and excessive GWG during pregnancy were highly associated with macrosomia. The association with GWG was most pronounced in mothers who had a normal or underweight pre-pregnancy BMI. Weight control efforts before pregnancy for mothers and fathers as well as control of maternal gain during pregnancy may reduce the risk of macrosomia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
de Hoogd, Sjoerd; Overbeek, Wieske A; Heerdink, Eibert R; Correll, Christoph U; de Graeff, Elisabeth R; Staal, Wouter G
Weight gain and metabolic adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have become a major concern, particularly in youth. However, the specific contribution of SGAs versus other medications or the underlying illness is unclear. In a chart review study of psychiatric outpatients aged ≤ 18 years treated with SGAs and psychiatric controls without lifetime SGA, use body mass index (BMI) z-scores between patients and controls were compared in the entire sample, patients without co-medications, diagnostic subgroups, and age subgroups. In patients with follow-up data, weight z-score change was calculated. Altogether, 592 Caucasian patients aged 4-18 (mean: 10.0) years with a psychiatric diagnosis were included. BMI z-scores in 96 youth treated with SGAs for 9.0 ± 6.1 months were significantly higher than in 496 patients without lifetime SGA use (0.81 ± 1.1 vs. 0.05 ± 1.2; pweight z-score increased significantly from -0.17 ± 1.5 to 0.25 ± 1.4 (pweight and weight status in young pediatric Caucasian samples with and without use of SGAs independent of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) (American Psychiatric Association 2000 ) diagnosis and nonantipsychotic medications. Weight status and metabolic effects of SGAs require careful attention, especially in youth.
Cunha, Filipe M; Oliveira, Joana; Preto, John; Saavedra, Ana; Costa, Maria M; Magalhães, Daniela; Lau, Eva; Bettencourt-Silva, Rita; Freitas, Paula; Varela, Ana; Carvalho, Davide
Bariatric surgery improves lipid profile. A still unanswered question is whether this improvement is merely weight-dependent or also results from factors inherent to specificities of the bariatric procedure. We aimed to study lipid profile 1 year after bariatric surgery and compare its changes between the different procedures in patients matched for initial weight and weight loss. We retrospectively analysed patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) between 2010 and 2013. Patients were matched for age (±5 years), sex, pre-surgery body mass index (BMI) (±2 Kg/m(2)) and excess weight loss (EWL) (±5%). Baseline and 1-year lipid profile, its variation and percentage of variation was compared between surgeries. We analysed 229 patients: 72 pairs RYGB-AGB, 47 pairs RYGB-SG and 33 pairs AGB-SG. The median age was 41 (35-52) years and 11.8% were male. Pre-operative BMI was 44.0 ± 4.6 and 32.1 ± 4.4 Kg/m(2) at 1 year. EWL at 1 year was 64.2 ± 18.9%. There were no differences in baseline lipid profile between patients submitted to different types of bariatric surgery. At 1 year, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides (TG) improved similarly with all surgeries. Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) at 1 year decreased significantly more in patients submitted to RYGB than in weight-matched patients undergoing AGB or SG. RYGB is the only bariatric surgery that reduces TC and LDL in age-, sex-, BMI- and EWL-matched patients. All three procedures improved TG and HDL similarly when the confounding effect of weight loss is eliminated.
Barry, Adam E.; Whiteman, Shawn; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.; Jensen, Alexander C.
Objective: To explore gender differences regarding weight management behaviors of college drinkers. Participants: Nationally representative sample of college students from the fall 2008 American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment II ("N" = 26,062 students). Methods: Structural equation modeling was used…
O.P. van der Jagt (Olav); J.C. van der Linden (Jacqueline); J.H. Waarsing (Jan); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); H.H. Weinans (Harrie)
textabstractMechanical loading has stimulating effects on bone architecture, which can potentially be used as a therapy for osteoporosis. We investigated the skeletal changes in the tibia of ovariectomized rats during treatment with whole body vibration (WBV). Different low-magnitude WBV treatment
Pimpin, Laura; Jebb, Susan; Johnson, Laura; Wardle, Jane
Background: Few large epidemiologic studies have investigated the role of postweaning protein intake in excess weight and adiposity of young children, despite children in the United Kingdom consistently consuming protein in excess of their physiologic requirements. Objective: We investigated whether a higher proportion of protein intake from energy beyond weaning is associated with greater weight gain, higher body mass index (BMI), and risk of overweight or obesity in children up to 5 y of age. Design: Participants were 2154 twins from the Gemini cohort. Dietary intake was collected by using a 3-d diet diary when the children had a mean age of 21 mo. Weight and height were collected every 3 mo, from birth to 5 y. Longitudinal models investigated associations of protein intake with BMI, weight, and height, with adjustment for age at diet diary, sex, total energy intake, birth weight/length, and rate of prior growth and clustering within families. Logistic regression investigated protein intake in relation to the odds of overweight or obesity at 3 and 5 y of age. Results: A total of 2154 children had a mean ± SD of 5.7 ± 3.2 weight and height measurements up to 5 y. Total energy from protein was associated with higher BMI (β = 0.043; 95% CI: 0.011, 0.075) and weight (β = 0.052; 95% CI: 0.031, 0.074) but not height (β = 0.088; 95% CI: −0.038, 0.213) between 21 mo and 5 y. Substituting percentage energy from fat or carbohydrate for percentage energy from protein was associated with decreases in BMI and weight. Protein intake was associated with a trend in increased odds of overweight or obesity at 3 y (OR = 1.10; 95% CI 0.99, 1.22, P = 0.075), but the effect was not statistically significant at 5 y. Conclusion: A higher proportion of energy from protein during the complementary feeding stage is associated with greater increases in weight and BMI in early childhood in this large cohort of United Kingdom children. PMID:26718416
Reinders, Ilse; Visser, Marjolein; Schaap, Laura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aging is associated with various changes in body composition, including changes in weight, loss of muscle mass, and increase in fat mass. This article describes the role of body weight and body composition, and their changes, in the risk of frailty in old age. RECENT FINDINGS:
Krzyżanowska, Monika; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas
Using a sample of 2090 British father and son pairs the relationships between social and geographical intra- and inter-generational mobility were examined in relation to height, weight and body mass index (BMI). There was much more social mobility than geographical (regional) migration. Social mobility and geographical migration were not independent: socially non-mobile fathers and sons were more likely to be geographical non-migrants, and upwardly socially mobile fathers and sons were more likely to be regional migrants. Upwardly socially mobile fathers and sons were, on average, taller and had a lower BMI than non-mobile and downwardly mobile fathers and sons. In general, no significant associations were found between geographical migration and height or weight. Migrating fathers had a lower BMI than sedentes, as did their sons who migrated between 1965 and 1991. There was no significant interaction that indicated that social mobility and geographical migration were acting in a simple additive way on height, weight and BMI.
Buscemi, Joanna; Rybak, Tiffany M; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Murphy, James G; Raynor, Hollie A
The purpose of this study was to explore relations between food craving, caloric intake, and body mass index (BMI) changes over the course of an 18-month weight loss trial. Two-hundred two obese adults (mean BMI = 34.9 kg/m(2); mean age = 51.30 years, 92.2% White; 57.8% female) who participated in a behavioral weight loss trial completed measures of food craving, caloric intake, and BMI at baseline, 6 and 18 months. From baseline to 6 months, higher initial food cravings were associated with more gradual and less steep reductions in BMI. Additionally, the relation between changes in food craving and BMI changes varied by levels of change in caloric intake, such that BMI change and change in food cravings were positively associated at low levels of change in caloric intake, but were unrelated at average and high levels of change in caloric intake. Similarly, from baseline to 6 months and from 6 to 18 months, the relation between changes in food craving and BMI changes also varied by initial levels of caloric intake. Explicit clinical targeting of food craving management may be beneficial for individuals beginning weight loss programs, especially for those who report higher levels of food craving at baseline. Baseline caloric intake and change in calorie intake over time may serve as moderators of the relation between food cravings and BMI.
Tappy, L; Binnert, C; Schneiter, Ph
Regular physical exercise and endurance training are associated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The relationship between exercise and body-weight control is complex and incompletely understood. Regular exercise may decrease energy balance through an increase in energy expenditure or an increase in fat oxidation. It may also contribute to weight loss by modulating nutrient intake. An intriguing question that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body compositi...
... September 2015 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Overweight and Obesity Growth Charts What Is a Growth Disorder? Your Child's Weight What Is a BMI Report Card? Your Child's ... the Right Weight for Me? Be a Fit Kid Body Mass Index (BMI) I'm Not Fat. ...
Rush, D.; Lumey, L. H.; Ravelli, A. C.; Myers, B.
We aimed to estimate the relationship of prior breastfeeding to perimenopausal body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2). While most long-term studies of women's body weight after reproductive experience have found a negative relationship between lactation and body weight, most short-term studies found either
Farhat, Alicia Elena; Sharma, Shreela; Abrams, Stephanie H; Wong, William W; Barlow, Sarah E
Long-term effects of Kamp K'aana, a 2-week residential weight management camp, on body mass index (BMI) measures were evaluated on 71 of 108 (66%) obese youth 10 to 14 years of age. Measures were obtained at 11-month study follow-up (n = 38) or extracted from medical record (n = 33). Compared with baseline, BMI increased (P < 0.001), but both BMI percentile and BMI z score decreased (98.7 ± 1.0 to 97.3 ± 6.7 and 2.34 ± 0.30 to 2.23 ± 0.34, P < 0.001). A decrease in BMI z score of ≥0.2 units was seen in 27% of the participants (P < 0.001). The short program has sustained effect.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the strength and direction of the correlation between cognitive appraisal, emotional state, social functioning and the effectiveness of a weight-loss program undertaken by obese subjects. The out-patient weight-loss program encompassed 150 obese women. Assessments were carried out at four time points: at the start of the weight-loss program and then after a 5%, 10% and a 15% reduction of the initial body mass. The research tools used were: a survey, the Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ, the Emotional State Questionnaire (ESQ, and the Q-Sort Social Functioning Questionnaire. The cognitive appraisal, emotional state and social functioning of the study group changed significantly (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, as compared with individuals with no body mass reduction, had an early obesity onset, i.e. at the age of <10 years old (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a 15% reduction, had a later obesity onset, i.e. between the ages of 20 and 30 (P<0.001 and between 50 and 60 (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, compared with individuals with no mass reduction, had previously experienced the jojo effect (P<0.001 and had successfully lost weight (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a15% reduction, had a history of unsuccessful attempts at reducing body mass (P<0.001. We conclude that the attitude of obese patients towards a weight-loss program is not a deciding factor for its effectiveness. As body mass reduces, the attitude improves.
Gregson, C L; Hardcastle, S A; Murphy, A; Faber, B; Fraser, W D; Williams, M; Davey Smith, G; Tobias, J H
High Bone Mass (HBM) is associated with (a) radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA), partly mediated by increased BMI, and (b) pelvic enthesophytes and hip osteophytes, suggestive of a bone-forming phenotype. We aimed to establish whether HBM is associated with radiographic features of OA in non-weight-bearing (hand) joints, and whether such OA demonstrates a bone-forming phenotype. HBM cases (BMD Z-scores≥+3.2) were compared with family controls. A blinded assessor graded all PA hand radiographs for: osteophytes (0-3), joint space narrowing (JSN) (0-3), subchondral sclerosis (0-1), at the index Distal Interphalangeal Joint (DIPJ) and 1st Carpometacarpal Joint (CMCJ), using an established atlas. Analyses used a random effects logistic regression model, adjusting a priori for age and gender. Mediating roles of BMI and bone turnover markers (BTMs) were explored by further adjustment. 314 HBM cases (mean age 61.1years, 74% female) and 183 controls (54.3years, 46% female) were included. Osteophytes (grade≥1) were more common in HBM (DIPJ: 67% vs. 45%, CMCJ: 69% vs. 50%), with adjusted OR [95% CI] 1.82 [1.11, 2.97], p=0.017 and 1.89 [1.19, 3.01], p=0.007 respectively; no differences were seen in JSN. Further adjustment for BMI failed to attenuate ORs for osteophytes in HBM cases vs. controls; DIPJ 1.72 [1.05, 2.83], p=0.032, CMCJ 1.76 [1.00, 3.06], p=0.049. Adjustment for BTMs (concentrations lower amongst HBM cases) did not attenuate ORs. HBM is positively associated with OA in non-weight-bearing joints, independent of BMI. HBM-associated OA is characterised by osteophytes, consistent with a bone-forming phenotype, rather than JSN reflecting cartilage loss. Systemic factors (e.g. genetic architecture) which govern HBM may also increase bone-forming OA risk. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Compston, Juliet E; Flahive, Julie; Hosmer, David W; Watts, Nelson B; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Saag, Kenneth G; Roux, Christian; Rossini, Maurizio; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Nieves, Jeri W; Netelenbos, J Coen; March, Lyn; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Hooven, Frederick H; Greenspan, Susan L; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Cooper, Cyrus; Chapurlat, Roland D; Boonen, Steven; Anderson, Frederick A; Adami, Silvano; Adachi, Jonathan D
Low body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for fracture in postmenopausal women. Height and obesity have also been associated with increased fracture risk at some sites. We investigated the relationships of weight, BMI, and height with incident clinical fracture in a practice-based cohort of postmenopausal women participating in the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Data were collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 years. For hip, spine, wrist, pelvis, rib, upper arm/shoulder, clavicle, ankle, lower leg, and upper leg fractures, we modeled the time to incident self-reported fracture over a 3-year period using the Cox proportional hazards model and fitted the best linear or nonlinear models containing height, weight, and BMI. Of 52,939 women, 3628 (6.9%) reported an incident clinical fracture during the 3-year follow-up period. Linear BMI showed a significant inverse association with hip, clinical spine, and wrist fractures: adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) per increase of 5 kg/m(2) were 0.80 (0.71-0.90), 0.83 (0.76-0.92), and 0.88 (0.83-0.94), respectively (all p fractures, linear weight showed a significant positive association: adjusted HR per 5-kg increase 1.05 (1.02-1.07) (p fractures, only linear height was significantly associated: adjusted HRs per 10-cm increase were 0.85 (0.75-0.97) (p = 0.02) and 0.73 (0.57-0.92) (p = 0.009), respectively. For pelvic and rib fractures, the best models were for nonlinear BMI or weight (p = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively), with inverse associations at low BMI/body weight and positive associations at high values. These data demonstrate that the relationships between fracture and weight, BMI, and height are site-specific. The different associations may be mediated, at least in part, by effects on bone mineral density, bone structure and geometry, and patterns of falling. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Vaeth, Michael; Baker, Jennifer L
). Population-based registers provided information about birth outcomes. GWG-specific absolute adjusted risks for emergency cesarean delivery, birth of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) or large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infant, and postpartum (6 mo) weight retention (PPWR) were compared across different types...... of women. RESULTS: The risk of SGA decreased with increasing GWG in both parity groups, but SGA risk ... irrespective of BMI and parity. Young primiparae had better outcomes than other primiparae. Short women had a higher risk of emergency cesarean delivery that varied minimally with GWG. Smokers had a higher SGA risk and had a PPWR risk similar to that of nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS: The tradeoff in risk between...
Johansen, Jørgen; Bertelsen, Anders; Hansen, Christian Rønn
(H&N) and 20 lung cancer patients were investigated. Patients were positioned using customized immobilization devices consisting of vacuum cushions and thermoplastic shells. Treatment was given on an Elekta Synergy accelerator. Cone-beam acquisitions were obtained according to a standardized Action......-axis). The equivalent data for lung cancer patients were 1.1 mm (LR), 1.1mm (AP), 1.5 mm (CC) and 0.5 degrees (LR-axis), 0.6 degrees (AP-axis), and 0.4 degrees (CC-axis). The median BMI for H&N and lung was 25.8 (17.6-39.7) and 23.7 (17.4-38.8), respectively. The median weekly weight change for H&N was -0.3% (-2.0 to 1...
Hosseini, Mostafa; Navidi, Iman; Hesamifard, Bahare; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Jafari, Nasim; Poorchaloo, Sakine Ranji; Ataei, Neamatollah
Assessing growth is a useful tool for defining health and nutritional status of children. The objective of this study was to construct growth reference curves of Iranian infants and children (0-6 years old) and compare them with previous and international references. Weight, height or length of 2107 Iranian infants and children aged 0-6 years old were measured using a cross-sectional survey in Tehran in 2010. Standard smooth reference curves for Iranian population were constructed and compared to multinational World Health Organization 2006 reference standards as well as a previous study from two decades ago. Growth index references for Iranian girls are increased in compare to data from two decades ago and are approximately close to the international references. In boys; however, the increment was considerably large as it passed the international references. Not only the values for indexes was changed during two decades, but also the age at adiposity rebound came near the age of 3, which is an important risk factor for later obesity. During two decades, growth indexes of Iranian children raised noticeable. Risk factors for later obesity are now apparent and demand immediate policy formulations. In addition, reference curves presented in this paper can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring growth of Iranian children.
Full Text Available Background: Assessing growth is a useful tool for defining health and nutritional status of children. The objective of this study was to construct growth reference curves of Iranian infants and children (0-6 years old and compare them with previous and international references. Methods: Weight, height or length of 2107 Iranian infants and children aged 0-6 years old were measured using a cross-sectional survey in Tehran in 2010. Standard smooth reference curves for Iranian population were constructed and compared to multinational World Health Organization 2006 reference standards as well as a previous study from two decades ago. Results: Growth index references for Iranian girls are increased in compare to data from two decades ago and are approximately close to the international references. In boys; however, the increment was considerably large as it passed the international references. Not only the values for indexes was changed during two decades, but also the age at adiposity rebound came near the age of 3, which is an important risk factor for later obesity. Conclusions: During two decades, growth indexes of Iranian children raised noticeable. Risk factors for later obesity are now apparent and demand immediate policy formulations. In addition, reference curves presented in this paper can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring growth of Iranian children.
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Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S
An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to sleep duration, whereas sleep duration in long sleepers (≥9 h) did not change significantly during weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.
Njor, Sisse H.; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Tjønneland, Anne
Aim: Obese women tend to participate less in breast cancer screening than normal weight women. However, obese women have fattier breast than normal weight women, and screening mammography works better in fatty than in dense breasts. One might, therefore, hypothesise that obese women would actually...... benefit more from screening than other women. Methods: We combined data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study and the organised population-based screening mammography programme in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women were categorised according to body mass index (BMI) (
Utter, Jennifer; Scragg, Robert; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Schaaf, David
Little research has given consideration to how people's weight control behaviors may moderate the relationships between nutrition and body mass index (BMI) in large cross-sectional studies. The objective of the current study is to determine how attempts to lose weight confound the relationships between nutrition behaviors and BMI among a population of predominately overweight adolescents. Data were drawn from the baseline measurements of the Pacific OPIC (Obesity Prevention In Communities). Participants included approximately 3500 high school students in New Zealand. Students in the sample primarily identified as a Pacific Island ethnicity (57%) and the mean age for participants was 14.8 years. Participants completed a questionnaire about nutrition and physical activity patterns and were weighed and measured for height. In our sample, 57% of students were overweight/obese, with the highest prevalence among Pacific Island students (71%). Approximately 50% of students were currently trying to lose weight, and this was more common among females, Pacific Island students and overweight/obese students. Examination of the nutritional correlates of BMI in the total population found inverse relationships between BMI and consumption of high-fat/high-sugar foods and positive relationships between BMI and eating 5 or more fruits and vegetables a day (all significant after controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity). For example, students who drank the most soft drinks or ate fruit and vegetables infrequently had the lowest mean BMI. Students' attempts to change their weight significantly moderated the relationships between most nutritional behaviors and BMI. In most cases, among students not trying to change their weight, expected relationships were observed; among students trying to lose weight, unexpected or no relationships were observed. Our findings suggest that among this population of predominately overweight students, solely relying on cross-sectional findings between
Ip, Flora; Bradford, Jennifer; Hng, Tien-Ming; Hendon, Susan; McLean, Mark
Background Obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represent a high-risk group in pregnancy, although the effects of increasing degrees of obesity and weight gain in pregnancy in this group is poorly defined. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 375 singleton pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity and GDM. Women with a body mass index (BMI) of 30–35 kg/m2 were compared with those with a BMI of ≥ 35 kg/m2. Additionally, women were categorized according to weight gain in pregnancy: Group A (0.27 kg/week). Results Obstetric outcomes did not differ between the groups; however, postpartum dysglycaemia was more likely in women with a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 (odds ratio [OR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–8.9). Group B and Group C had higher odds of LGA (OR 3.8, 95% CI: 1.3–11.3; OR 5.0, 95% CI: 2.0–12.1, respectively) compared with Group A. Group C also had a lower risk of SGA (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–1.0) and a higher risk of postpartum dysglycaemia (OR 6.8, 95% CI: 1.7–26.9) compared with Group A. Conclusion Greater degrees of obesity are associated with higher risk of abnormal metabolic outcomes after pregnancy. Excessive weight gain in pregnancy in obese women increases adverse obstetric and glycaemic outcomes. Our findings suggest that targets for weight gain in pregnancy for obese women should be reduced from current recommendations. PMID:27579138
Andersen, Zorana J; Baker, Jennifer L; Bihrmann, Kristine; Vejborg, Ilse; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Lynge, Elsebeth
High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight, childhood body mass index (BMI), and height with the risk of breast cancer. 13,572 women (50 to 69 years) in the Copenhagen mammography screening program (1991 through 2001) with childhood anthropometric measurements in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register were followed for breast cancer until 2010. With logistic and Cox regression models, we investigated associations among birth weight, height, and BMI at ages 7 to 13 years with MD (mixed/dense or fatty) and breast cancer, respectively. 8,194 (60.4%) women had mixed/dense breasts, and 716 (5.3%) developed breast cancer. Childhood BMI was significantly inversely related to having mixed/dense breasts at all ages, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 0.69 (0.66 to 0.72) at age 7 to 0.56 (0.53 to 0.58) at age 13, per one-unit increase in z-score. No statistically significant associations were detected between birth weight and MD, height and MD, or birth weight and breast cancer risk. BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer, with hazard ratios of 0.91 (0.83 to 0.99) at age 7 and 0.92 (0.84 to 1.00) at age 13, whereas height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (age 7, 1.06 (0.98 to 1.14) and age 13, 1.08 (1.00 to 1.16)). After additional adjustment for MD, associations of BMI with breast cancer diminished (age 7, 0.97 (0.88 to 1.06) and age 13, 1.01 (0.93 to 1.11)), but remained with height (age 7, 1.06 (0.99 to 1.15) and age 13, 1.09 (1.01 to 1.17)). Among women 50 years and older, childhood body fatness was inversely associated with the breast cancer risk, possibly via a mechanism mediated by MD, at least partially. Childhood tallness was positively associated with breast cancer
An optimal contrast dose indicator for the determination of hepatic enhancement in abdominal multidetector computed tomography: comparison of patient attenuation indicator with total body weight and body mass index.
Li, Jianhai; Udayasankar, Unni K; Tang, Xiangyang; Carew, John; Toth, Thomas L; Small, William C
To evaluate a patient attenuation indicator (PAI) as compared with traditional patient-related factors of total body weight and body mass index (BMI) as a predictor of hepatic enhancement in contrast-enhanced abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Institutional review board approval was obtained, and the study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant. A total of 77 patients (mean age, 53 years; male-female ratio, 32:45) underwent routine contrast-enhanced abdominal CT on a 16-slice multidetector CT (LightSpeed 16; GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, Wis). Contrast enhancement was achieved by administering a 120-mL iodine contrast medium (350-mg iodine per milliliter) at an injection rate of 3 mL/s followed by an injection of 40-mL saline at 3 mL/s. Computed tomographic attenuation values (Hounsfield units [HU]) of liver parenchyma, main portal vein, and abdominal aorta were measured in each patient. Statistical analysis was performed with linear regression to determine the correlation of PAI, total body weight, and BMI with abdominal organ enhancement. The mean of PAI, total body weight, and BMI were 28.0 (range, 22.1-34.2), 79.0 kg (range, 49.6-112.2 kg), and 27.5 kg/m (range, 16.8-43 kg/m), respectively. Mean hepatic enhancement was 128.2 HU (range, 73.6-175 HU), mean main portal vein enhancement was 214.2 HU (range, 118-327 HU), and mean abdominal aorta enhancement was 208.9 HU (range, 116-395 HU). Patient attenuation indicator, total body weight, and BMI showed a negative correlation with liver enhancement (r = -0.55, r = -0.4, and r = -0.3, respectively). Patient attenuation indicator exhibited a significantly higher correlation with hepatic enhancement than total body weight and BMI (P attenuation indicator exhibits a moderately inverse correlation with liver enhancement that is greater than those of total body weight and BMI. Patient attenuation indicator may be reliable in predicting the hepatic enhancement degree for a
Whigham, L D; Schoeller, D A; Johnson, L K; Atkinson, R L
In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight of adults with weather, season and gender. Fifty adults (35 women) were weighed four times during a 12-month period with and without clothing. Clothing weights were determined and regressed against minimum, maximum and average daily outdoor temperature. The average clothing weight (±s.d.) throughout the year was significantly greater in men than in women (1.2±0.3 vs 0.8±0.3 kg, Pclothing weights across the year were 0.9±0.2 and 1.5±0.4 kg for men, and 0.5±0.2 and 1.1±0.4 kg for women, respectively. The within-person s.d. in clothing weight was 0.3 kg for both men and women. Over the 55 °C range in the lowest to the highest outdoor temperatures, the regressions predicted a maximal change in clothing weight of only 0.4 kg in women and 0.6 kg in men. The clothing weight of men is significantly greater than that of women, but there is little variability throughout the year. Therefore, a clothing adjustment of approximately 0.8 kg for women and 1.2 kg for men is appropriate regardless of outdoor temperature.
Liu, Shan; Fu, Mei R; Hu, Sophia H; Wang, Vincent Y; Crupi, Robert; Qiu, Jeanna M; Cleland, Chuck; D'Eramo Melkus, Gail
Accuracy of body weight perception is an individual's perception of their body weight in comparison with actual body weight and is associated with weight-related behaviors. Chinese Americans have increased risk for obesity but no studies have examined accuracy of body weight perception. This study was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, which was conducted in a community health center in New York. Study subjects were all Chinese-American adults. Demographic information, accuracy of perception of body weight, anthropometric measures (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], hip circumference [HC], weight to height ratio, weight to hip ratio), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and obesity-related diseases (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke) were assessed. A total of 162 Chinese Americans were recruited. 52 subjects (32%) did not perceive body weight correctly: 32 subjects had underestimation and 20 subjects had overestimation of body weight. Significant differences were found among subjects in the three groups of different accuracy of body weight perception in terms of gender (p=0.003), age (p=0.003), education years (p=0.047), WC (pbody weight significantly predicted WC (pbody weight correctly. Intervention studies for obesity management in Chinese Americans should address gender difference, target on older subjects, and focus on educating the normal values and significances of WC, HC and HbA1C among Chinese Americans. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anthropometric measurements, weight perception and weight control practices from a sample of 180 male and female students (90 boys and 90 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years old. Results. Based on BMI, 11.7% of students were overweight. Overall, 43.3% of respondents reported trying to lose weight (61.1% girls and 25.6% boys). Weight-loss behaviours were more prevalent among girls. Among the weight-loss teens, 88.5% students perceived themselves as overweight even though only 19.2% were overweight. Reducing fat intake (84.6%), exercising (80.8%), and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables (73.1%) and decreasing intake of sugar (66.7%) were the most commonly reported methods to lose weight. Conclusion. Body weight perception was poorly associated with actual weight status. Gender difference was observed in body weight perception. PMID:24967256
Vaman V Khadilkar
Full Text Available Growth chart committee of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP has revised growth charts for 5-18-year-old Indian children in Jan 2015. The last IAP growth charts (2007 were based on data collected in 1989-92 which is now >2 decades old. India is in an economic and nutrition transition and hence growth pattern of Indian children has changed over last few years. Thus, it was necessary to produce contemporary, updated growth references for Indian children. The new IAP charts were prepared by collating data from nine groups who had published studies in indexed journals on growth from India in the last decade. Growth charts were constructed from a total of 87022 middle and upper socioeconomic class children (m 54086, f 32936 from all five zones of India. Data from middle and upper socioeconomic class children are likely to have higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and hence growth charts produced on such populations are likely to "normalize" obesity. To remove such unhealthy weights form the data, method suggested by World Health Organization was used to produce weight charts. Thus, the new IAP weight charts are much lower than the recently published studies on affluent Indian children. Since Indian′s are at a higher risk of obesity-related cardiometabolic complications at lower body mass index (BMI, BMI charts adjusted for 23, and 27 adult equivalent cut-offs as per International obesity task force guidelines were constructed. IAP now recommends use of these new charts to replace the 2007 IAP charts.
Rockhill, Karilynn; Dorfman, Haley; Srinath, Meghna; Hogue, Carol
The American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population is a high-risk group across many health indicators, including fetal macrosomia. We aimed to investigate the effects of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on macrosomia and explore possible racial and geographical variations among AI/AN women. This retrospective cohort study was conducted from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System in eight states (2004-2011) among live, singleton, term births to AI/AN women 20 years or older. Prevalence of macrosomia (birth weight ≥ 4000 g) by select characteristics were estimated; differences were assessed with Chi-squares. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for effects on macrosomia of BMI and GWG (enumerating the pounds women deviated from the Institute of Medicine guidelines for GWG) controlling for other factors in the total sample and stratified by race and state of residence. The prevalence of macrosomia was 14 %, ranging from 8 to 21 % (Utah-Alaska). Among AI/AN women, 30 % were obese prepregnancy and 50 % had excess GWG. Significant independent effects were found for macrosomia of prepregnancy overweight (aOR 1.27; 95 % Confidence Interval 1.01-1.59), obesity (aOR 1.63; 1.29-2.07), and excess GWG (aOR 1.16; 1.13-1.20 per five pounds gained beyond appropriate). Adjusted estimates varied between race and state. Prepregnancy BMI and GWG are independent factors for macrosomia among AI/AN women. Future research should prioritize development, testing, and implementation of weight management programs, which account for variations among AI/AN women, both before and during pregnancy for BMI regulation and GWG control.
Kumru, Hatice; Santamaria, Joan; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Marti, Maria J; Tolosa, Eduardo
Body weight changes occur during the clinical course of Parkinson's disease (PD) and with surgical treatment, but the effect of dopaminergic treatment on weight is unknown. Body mass index (BMI), Hamilton depression scale score (HDS), and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III (UPRS-III) were measured before and 3 months after starting pramipexole in 28 PD patients. Pramipexole produced a significant weight increase, as well as motor and mood improvement (P weight gain in PD.
Li, Chunming; Liu, Yajun; Zhang, Weiyuan
To explore the joint and independent effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) on pregnancy outcomes in a population of Chinese Han women and to evaluate pregnant women's adherence to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) gestational weight gain guidelines. This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of 48,867 primiparous women from mainland China who had a full-term singleton birth between January 1, 2011 and December 30, 2011. The independent associations of pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG and categories of combined pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with outcomes of interest were examined using an adjusted multivariate regression model. In addition, women with pre-pregnancy hypertension were excluded from the analysis of the relationship between GWG and delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, and women with gestational diabetes (GDM) were excluded from the analysis of the relationship between GWG and delivery of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. Only 36.8% of the women had a weight gain that was within the recommended range; 25% and 38.2% had weight gains that were below and above the recommended range, respectively. The contribution of GWG to the risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes was modest. Women with excessive GWG had an increased likelihood of gestational hypertension (adjusted OR 2.55; 95% CI = 1.92-2.80), postpartum hemorrhage (adjusted OR 1.30; 95% CI = 1.17-1.45), cesarean section (adjusted OR 1.31; 95% CI = 1.18-1.36) and delivery of an LGA infant (adjusted OR 2.1; 95% CI = 1.76-2.26) compared with women with normal weight gain. Conversely, the incidence of GDM (adjusted OR 1.64; 95% CI = 1.20-1.85) and SGA infants (adjusted OR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32-1.72) was increased in the group of women with inadequate GWG. Moreover, in the obese women, excessive GWG was associated with an apparent increased risk of delivering an LGA infant. In the women who were underweight, poor weight gain was associated with
Wijnhoven, T M A
What is already known about this subject Overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among children based on International Obesity Task Force definitions are substantially lower than estimates based on World Health Organization definitions. Presence of a north-south gradient with the highest level of overweight found in southern European countries. Intercountry comparisons of overweight and obesity in primary-school children in Europe based on measured data lack a similar data collection protocol. What this study adds Unique dataset on overweight and obesity based on measured weights and heights in 6-9-year-old children from 12 European countries using a harmonized surveillance methodology. Because of the use of a consistent data collection protocol, it is possible to perform valid multiple comparisons between countries. It demonstrates wide variations in overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among primary-school children between European countries and regions. BACKGROUND: Nutritional surveillance in school-age children, using measured weight and height, is not common in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO Regional Office for Europe has therefore initiated the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. OBJECTIVE: To present the anthropometric results of data collected in 2007\\/2008 and to investigate whether there exist differences across countries and between the sexes. METHODS: Weight and height were measured in 6-9-year-old children in 12 countries. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, stunting, thinness and underweight as well as mean Z-scores of anthropometric indices of height, weight and body mass index were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 168 832 children were included in the analyses and a school participation rate of more than 95% was obtained in 8 out of 12 countries. Stunting, underweight and thinness were rarely prevalent. However, 19.3-49.0% of boys and 18.4-42.5% of girls were overweight (including
Stevens, Serena D; Herbozo, Sylvia; Morrell, Holly Er; Schaefer, Lauren M; Thompson, J Kevin
The goal of this study was to examine lifetime weight stigmatization as a mediator of the relationships among current body mass index, childhood overweight, depression, and body dissatisfaction. Participants were 299 female undergraduates (mean age = 20.52, standard deviation = 2.57; mean body mass index = 23.29, standard deviation = 4.51). Weight stigmatization significantly mediated the relationships between body mass index and body dissatisfaction, body mass index and depressive symptoms, and childhood overweight and depressive symptoms. The model accounted for 44.7 percent of the variance in depressive symptoms and 28.2 percent of the variance in body image dissatisfaction. Findings indicated that a decrease in weight stigmatization may predict better mental health.
Full Text Available Short stature, a marker for undernutrition early in life, has been associated with obesity in Brazilian women, but not in men. We tested the hypothesis that weight gain during the reproductive years could explain this gender difference. A national two-stage household survey of mothers with one or more children under five years of age was conducted in Brazil in 1996. The subjects were women aged 20 to 45 years (N = 2297, with last delivery seven months or more prior to the interview. The regions of the country were divided into rural, North/Northeast (urban underdeveloped and South/Southeast/Midwest (urban developed. The dependent variables were current body mass index (BMI measured, BMI prior to childbearing (reported, and BMI change. Socioeconomic variables included mother's years of education and family purchasing power score. A secondary analysis was restricted to primiparous women. The prevalence of current overweight and overweight prior to childbearing (BMI > or = 25 kg/m² was higher among shorter women (<1.50 m compared to normal stature women only in the urban developed region (P < 0.05. After adjustment for socioeconomic variables, age, parity, BMI prior to childbearing, and age at first birth, current BMI was 2.39 units higher (P = 0.008 for short stature women living in the urban developed area compared with short stature women living in the urban underdeveloped area. For both multiparous and primiparous women, BMI gain compared to the value prior to childbearing was significantly higher among short stature women living in the urban developed region (P <= 0.04. These results provide clear evidence that short stature was associated with a higher BMI and with an increased risk of weight gain/retention with pregnancy in the developed areas of Brazil, but not in the underdeveloped ones.
Schrempf, Andreas; Schossleitner, Gerold; Blaha, Armin; Leipold, Stefan
A bed was equipped with four force transducers so that the location of the Center Of Mass (COM) can be computed, when the bed contains a person. The computation of the COM and its alterations in combination with the sum of all measured forces allows to compute the person's position in bed, an activity level, the resulting body weight and the corresponding weight change rate over time (overnight and long-term) as well as simply to determine whether the person is in the bed or not. The results of several overnight measurement experiments show, that the person's position in the bed (central, left, right) can be correctly detected, the proposed activity level is a promising indicator for the sleep-activity and furthermore the initial body weight as well as the nightly weight change rate can be determined.
Context: High-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin contributes to insulin resistance (IR), which is closely associated with the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abnormalities in adipocyte function have been identified in PCOS and potentially contribute to lower adiponectin concentrations. Objective: Our objective was to determine which variables in plasma and adipose tissue influence HMW adiponectin in a well characterized cohort of women with PCOS. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Settings and Participants: A teaching hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 98) and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 103) (including 68 age-, BMI-, and IR-matched pairs). Interventions: A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed for each participant. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were taken by needle biopsy for a subset of PCOS women (n = 9) and controls (n = 8). Main Outcome Measures: Serum levels of HMW adiponectin and their relation to indices of insulin sensitivity, body composition, and circulating androgens as well as adipose tissue expression levels of ADIPOQ, TNFalpha, PPARgamma, and AR were assessed. Results: HMW adiponectin was significantly lower in women with PCOS compared with both BMI- and BMI- and IR-matched controls (P = 0.009 and P = 0.027, respectively). Although BMI and IR were the main predictors of HMW adiponectin, an interaction between waist to hip ratio and plasma testosterone contributed to its variance (P = 0.026). Adipose tissue gene expression analysis demonstrated that AR and TNFalpha (P = 0.008 and P = 0.035, respectively) but not ADIPOQ mRNA levels were increased in PCOS compared with controls. Conclusions: HMW adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with PCOS, independent of BMI and IR. Gene expression analysis suggests that posttranscriptional\\/translational modification contributes to reduced HMW adiponectin in PCOS.
O'Connor, A; Phelan, N; Tun, T Kyaw; Boran, G; Gibney, J; Roche, H M
High-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin contributes to insulin resistance (IR), which is closely associated with the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abnormalities in adipocyte function have been identified in PCOS and potentially contribute to lower adiponectin concentrations. Our objective was to determine which variables in plasma and adipose tissue influence HMW adiponectin in a well characterized cohort of women with PCOS. This was a cross-sectional study. A teaching hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 98) and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 103) (including 68 age-, BMI-, and IR-matched pairs). A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed for each participant. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were taken by needle biopsy for a subset of PCOS women (n = 9) and controls (n = 8). Serum levels of HMW adiponectin and their relation to indices of insulin sensitivity, body composition, and circulating androgens as well as adipose tissue expression levels of ADIPOQ, TNFalpha, PPARgamma, and AR were assessed. HMW adiponectin was significantly lower in women with PCOS compared with both BMI- and BMI- and IR-matched controls (P = 0.009 and P = 0.027, respectively). Although BMI and IR were the main predictors of HMW adiponectin, an interaction between waist to hip ratio and plasma testosterone contributed to its variance (P = 0.026). Adipose tissue gene expression analysis demonstrated that AR and TNFalpha (P = 0.008 and P = 0.035, respectively) but not ADIPOQ mRNA levels were increased in PCOS compared with controls. HMW adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with PCOS, independent of BMI and IR. Gene expression analysis suggests that posttranscriptional/translational modification contributes to reduced HMW adiponectin in PCOS.
Coratella, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Milanese, Chiara; Longo, Stefano; Limonta, Eloisa; Rampichini, Susanna; Cè, Emiliano; Bisconti, Angela Valentina; Schena, F; Esposito, F
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of weighted jump squat (WJST) vs body mass squat jump training (BMSJT) on quadriceps muscle architecture, lower-limb lean-mass (LM) and muscle strength, performance in change of direction (COD), sprint and jump in recreational soccer-players. Forty-eight healthy soccer-players participated in an off-season randomized controlled-trial. Before and after an eight-week training intervention, vastus lateralis pennation angle, fascicle length, muscle thickness, LM, squat 1-RM, quadriceps and hamstrings isokinetic peak-torque, agility T-test, 10 and 30m sprint and squat-jump (SJ) were measured. Although similar increases in muscle thickness, fascicle length increased more in WJST (ES=1.18, 0.82-1.54) than in BMSJT (ES=0.54, 0.40-0.68) and pennation angle only increased in BMSJT (ES=1.03, 0.78-1.29). Greater increases in LM were observed in WJST (ES=0.44, 0.29-0.59) than in BMSJT (ES=0.21, 0.07-0.37). Agility T-test (ES=2.95, 2.72-3.18), 10m (ES=0.52, 0.22-0.82) and 30m-sprint (ES=0.52, 0.23-0.81) improved only in WJST, while SJ improved in BMSJT (ES=0.89, 0.43-1.35) more than in WJST (ES=0.30, 0.03-0.58). Similar increases in squat 1-RM and peak-torque occurred in both groups. The greater inertia accumulated within the landing-phase in WJST vs BMSJT has increased the eccentric workload, leading to specific eccentric-like adaptations in muscle architecture. The selective improvements in COD in WJST may be related to the increased braking ability generated by the enhanced eccentric workload.
Beavers, Kristen M; Lyles, Mary F; Davis, Cralen C; Wang, Xuewen; Beavers, Daniel P; Nicklas, Barbara J
Despite the well-known recidivism of obesity, surprisingly little is known about the composition of body weight during weight regain. The objective of this study was to determine whether the composition of body weight regained after intentional weight loss is similar to the composition of body weight lost. The design was a follow-up to a randomized controlled trial of weight loss in which body composition was analyzed and compared in 78 postmenopausal women before the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and 6 and 12 mo after the intervention. All body mass and composition variables were lower immediately after weight loss than at baseline (all P lost with weight loss, which resulted in body-composition changes favoring a lower percentage of body fat and a higher lean-to-fat mass ratio (P weight regain was noted (CV = 1.07). In women who regained ≥2 kg body weight, a decreasing trend in the lean-to-fat mass ratio was observed, which indicated greater fat mass accretion than lean mass accretion (P lost during the weight-loss intervention, 0.26 kg lean tissue was lost; for every 1 kg fat regained over the following year, only 0.12 kg lean tissue was regained. Although not all postmenopausal women who intentionally lose weight will regain it within 1 y, the data suggest that fat mass is regained to a greater degree than is lean mass in those who do experience some weight regain. The health ramifications of our findings remain to be seen.
Lyles, Mary F; Davis, Cralen C; Wang, Xuewen; Beavers, Daniel P; Nicklas, Barbara J
Background: Despite the well-known recidivism of obesity, surprisingly little is known about the composition of body weight during weight regain. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether the composition of body weight regained after intentional weight loss is similar to the composition of body weight lost. Design: The design was a follow-up to a randomized controlled trial of weight loss in which body composition was analyzed and compared in 78 postmenopausal women before the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and 6 and 12 mo after the intervention. Results: All body mass and composition variables were lower immediately after weight loss than at baseline (all P lost with weight loss, which resulted in body-composition changes favoring a lower percentage of body fat and a higher lean-to-fat mass ratio (P weight regain was noted (CV = 1.07). In women who regained ≥2 kg body weight, a decreasing trend in the lean-to-fat mass ratio was observed, which indicated greater fat mass accretion than lean mass accretion (P lost during the weight-loss intervention, 0.26 kg lean tissue was lost; for every 1 kg fat regained over the following year, only 0.12 kg lean tissue was regained. Conclusions: Although not all postmenopausal women who intentionally lose weight will regain it within 1 y, the data suggest that fat mass is regained to a greater degree than is lean mass in those who do experience some weight regain. The health ramifications of our findings remain to be seen. PMID:21795437
The prediction of body weight from body girth, keel length and thigh length was studied using one hundred Ross and one hundred Anak Titan broilers. Data were collected on the birds from day-old to 9 weeks of age. Body measurement was regressed against body weight at 9 weeks of age using simple linear and ...
Data on 126 Sigmond strain of Japanese quail chicks consisting of 42 each of heavy, medium and low body weight lines were used to estimate phenotypic correlations (rp ) among body weight (BWT) and linear body traits at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age. The linear body traits considered were breast girth (BG), shank length (SL), ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overweight/obesity in women of childbearing age is a serious public-health problem. In China, the incidence of maternal overweight/obesity has been increasing. However, there is not a meta-analysis to determine if pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI is related to infant birth weight (BW and offspring overweight/obesity. METHODS: Three electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched systematically from January 1970 to November 2012. The dichotomous data on pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and BW or offspring overweight/obesity were extracted. Summary statistics (odds ratios, ORs were used by Review Manager, version 5.1.7. RESULTS: After screening 665 citations from three electronic databases, we included 45 studies (most of high or medium quality. Compared with normal-weight mothers, pre-pregnancy underweight increased the risk of small for gestational age (SGA (odds ratios [OR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76-1.87; low BW (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27-1.71. Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increased the risk of being large for gestational age (LGA (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44-1.63; and OR, 2.08; 95% CI; 1.95-2.23, high BW (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44-1.63; and OR, 2.00; 95% CI; 1.84-2.18, macrosomia (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.42-1.97; and OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.39-4.37, and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.77-2.13; and OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 2.68-3.49, respectively. Sensitivity analyses revealed that sample size, study method, quality grade of study, source of pre-pregnancy BMI or BW had a strong impact on the association between pre-pregnancy obesity and LGA. No significant evidence of publication bias was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pregnancy underweight increases the risk of SGA and LBW; pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increases the risk of LGA, HBW, macrosomia, and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity. A potential effect modification by maternal age, ethnicity, gestational weight gain, as
Marshall, Teresa A; Van Buren, John M; Warren, John J; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Levy, Steven M
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with obesity in children and adults; however, associations between beverage patterns and obesity are not understood. Our aim was to describe beverage patterns during adolescence and associations between adolescent beverage patterns and anthropometric measures at age 17 years. We conducted a cross-sectional analyses of longitudinally collected data. Data from participants in the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study having at least one beverage questionnaire completed between ages 13.0 and 14.0 years, having a second questionnaire completed between 16.0 and 17.0 years, and attending clinic examination for weight and height measurements at age 17 years (n=369) were included. Beverages were collapsed into four categories (ie, 100% juice, milk, water and other sugar-free beverages, and SSBs) for the purpose of clustering. Five beverage clusters were identified from standardized age 13 to 17 years mean daily beverage intakes and named by the authors for the dominant beverage: juice, milk, water/sugar-free beverages, neutral, and SSB. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) at age 17 years were analyzed. We used Ward's method for clustering of beverage variables, one-way analysis of variance and χ(2) tests for bivariable associations, and γ-regression for associations of weight or BMI (outcomes) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Linear regression was used for associations of height (outcome) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Participants with family incomes beverage cluster membership. For example, on average, male and female members of the neutral cluster were 4.5 cm (P=0.010) and 4.2 cm (P=0.034) shorter, respectively, than members of the milk cluster. For members of the juice cluster, mean BMI was lower than for members of the milk cluster (by 2.4 units), water/sugar-free beverage cluster (3.5 units), neutral cluster (2.2 units), and SSB cluster (3.2 units) (all
Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook
Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…
Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A
Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI Body Dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and the Body Image Assessment for Obesity silhouette charts were used to assess body dissatisfaction. WLEs were categorised according to personal (ideal, happiness, satisfaction, weight history), lifestyle (fitness) and social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P body weight, whereas the proportion was significantly higher in the obese group (17 subjects; 74%). Subjects derived the greatest WLEs from mass media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to very low calorie diets (VLCDs) and reduction in body weight (ID 1410), reduction in the sense of hunger (ID 1411), reduction in body fat mass while maintaining lean
claims in relation to very low calorie diets (VLCDs) and reduction in body weight, reduction in the sense of hunger, reduction in body fat mass while maintaining lean body mass, reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses, and maintenance of normal blood lipid profile. The scientific substantiation...... is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The diet that is the subject of the claims is "very low calorie diet (VLCD) program". The Panel considers...... that whereas the diet that is the subject of the claim, very low calorie diet, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the following claimed effects: reduction in body weight (ID 1410), reduction in the sense of hunger (ID 1411), and reduction in body fat mass while maintaining lean body mass (ID 1412...
Deshmukh, Vaishali R; Kulkarni, Aditi A
To evaluate association of body mass index with perception and attitude towards bodyweight, shape and body image among adolescents. This cross-sectional study was done on 1811 adolescents. Attitude towards body image was assessed by using a self-administered Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Perceived body shape was measured using the Stunkard scale. Adolescents showed significant difference (P<0.005) in perceptions and behaviors related to appearance, fitness, health, body areas and weight across various body mass index and socioeconomic categories. Girls articulated significantly higher (P<0.005) body dissatisfaction than boys. Attitudes and perceptions towards body image differ with sex, body mass index and socioeconomic class.
Barsalani, R; Riesco, É; Perreault, K; Imbeault, P; Brochu, M; Dionne, I J
We showed that obese insulin resistant postmenopausal women are characterized by higher lean body mass and elevated C-reactive protein. Although counterintuitive, we hypothesized that losses in muscle mass following caloric restriction and increase in muscle quality will be associated with improvements in glucose homeostasis through decreases in C-reactive protein. To determine 1) if improvements in C-reactive protein concentrations occurs through losses in lean body mass; and 2) if decreases in C-reactive protein levels contribute to improvements in insulin sensitivity. 50 postmenopausal women (body mass index>26 kg/m(²)) with impaired glucose disposal (fat distribution (VAT and SAT by CT scan) and plasma high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (Il-6). Significant correlations were observed between Δ hsCRP levels with Δ Il-6 (r=0.33, p≤0.05), Δ total LBM index (r=0.44, p≤0.01), Δ trunk LBM (r=0.38, p≤0.01) Δ SAT (r=0.35, p≤0.05) and ∆ glucose disposal rate (r=- 0.44, p≤0.01). After including all the correlated variables in Stepwise linear regression model, Δ LBM index was the only independent predictor of the reduction in hsCRP levels (R(2)=0.20, p≤0.01). Losses in total lean body mass are independently associated with improvements in inflammatory state (CRP levels) in obese postmenopausal women with impaired glucose disposal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
The aim of this study was to compare testosterone concentration, body weight, scrotal circumference and age to penis detachment from days 30 to 240 in young Boer goat males (n = 22) born during the dry (n = 11) and the rainy (n = 11) seasons. In the dry season the parameters varied as follows: body weight from 3.7 ± 1.1 ...
The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.
Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo
Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…
Leibel, R L; Rosenbaum, M; Hirsch, J
No current treatment for obesity reliably sustains weight loss, perhaps because compensatory metabolic processes resist the maintenance of the altered body weight. We examined the effects of experimental perturbations of body weight on energy expenditure to determine whether they lead to metabolic changes and whether obese subjects and those who have never been obese respond similarly. We repeatedly measured 24-hour total energy expenditure, resting and nonresting energy expenditure, and the thermic effect of feeding in 18 obese subjects and 23 subjects who had never been obese. The subjects were studied at their usual body weight and after losing 10 to 20 percent of their body weight by underfeeding or gaining 10 percent by overfeeding. Maintenance of a body weight at a level 10 percent or more below the initial weight was associated with a mean (+/- SD) reduction in total energy expenditure of 6 +/- 3 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day in the subjects who had never been obese (P weight at a level 10 percent above the usual weight was associated with an increase in total energy expenditure of 9 +/- 7 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day in the subjects who had never been obese (P weight gain. These changes in energy expenditure were not related to the degree of adiposity or the sex of the subjects. Maintenance of a reduced or elevated body weight is associated with compensatory changes in energy expenditure, which oppose the maintenance of a body weight that is different from the usual weight. These compensatory changes may account for the poor long-term efficacy of treatments for obesity.
Barbieri, Paolo Nicola
This paper presents a theoretical investigation into why losing weight is so difficult even in the absence of rational addiction, time-inconsistent preferences or bounded rationality. We add to the existing literature by focusing on the role that individual metabolism has on weight loss. The results from the theoretical model provide multiple steady states and a threshold revealing a situation of "obesity traps" that the individual must surpass in order to successfully lose weight. Any weight-loss efforts that the individual undertakes have to surpass such threshold in order to result in permanent weight loss, otherwise the individual will gradually regain weight and converge to his or her previous body weight.
Cosson, E; Cussac-Pillegand, C; Benbara, A; Pharisien, I; Nguyen, M T; Chiheb, S; Valensi, P; Carbillon, L
This study retrospectively evaluated the complications associated with prepregnancy overweight (OW) or obesity (OB) and gestational weight gain (GWG) in women with or without universally screened and treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A total of 15,551 non-Asian women without pregravid diabetes or hypertension who delivered singleton babies (2002-2010) were classified according to GDM (13.5%), pregestational body mass index (BMI; normal range: 18.5-24.9kg/m(2)), OW (26.2%), OB (13.9%; BMI≥30kg/m(2)) and GWG (16kg: 8%). Main outcome measures were large/small for gestational age (LGA/SGA), caesarean section, preeclampsia, preterm delivery and shoulder dystocia. GDM was associated with more LGA babies [Odds Ratio (OR): 2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.85-2.43], caesarean section (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.34-1.65) and preeclampsia (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.21-2.09). OW/OB and GWG were associated with LGA infants whatever the GDM status, and with SGA babies only in women without GDM. LGA status was independently associated with GWG in women with GDM (11.6-16kg: OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.49-2.03 and>16kg OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 2.83-4.13 vs 7-11.5kg) and in women without GDM (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.54-2.97 or OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.68-4.17, respectively), and with BMI only in women without GDM (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00-1.24, per 10kg/m(2)). SGA status was independently associated with OW (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.77-0.98), OB (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.72-0.98) and GWG<7kg (1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.29) only in women without GDM. In our European cohort and considering the triumvirate of GDM, BMI and GWG, GDM was the main contributor to caesarean section and preeclampsia. OW/OB and GWG contributed to LGA and SGA infants mainly in women without GDM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
C.C. Onyenekwe, O.G. Arinola, S.C. Meludu, L.S. Salimonu, I.F. Adewale & A.K. Obisesan
Background & objectives : Considerations of both inter-pregnancy intervals and malaria parasitaemiamay help in understanding some aspects of susceptibility and pregnancy outcomes in malaria endemicareas.Methods : Pregnant women with asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia were recruited and divided intogroups based on their inter-pregnancy intervals and malaria specific-IgG, body mass index, and birthweights were studied in the groups.Results : The results showed that the P. falciparum specific-IgG...
www.ajol.info and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Rats Fed with Diets Based on Treated ... nutritional quality. Some processing methods including dry heat and wet heat treatment, soaking, dehulling, fermentation, sprouting etc. have been used in the past.
Streeter, Veronica M; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C
Associations were examined between body image and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body composition in healthy weight, overweight, and obese young adults. Weight and height were determined, and the percentage of fat mass (%FM) and percentage of fat-free mass (%FFM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 75 male and 87 female young adults (21.1 ± 1.9 years; 25.2 ± 4.4 kg/m² [mean ± standard deviation]). Body image was measured using the three subscales Weight Esteem, Appearance Esteem, and External Attribution of the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA). Body mass index and %FM were highly correlated (r for males = 0.74, r for females = 0.82; both pFM (and %FFM, although in the opposite direction) were associated with each BESAA subscale: %FM, %FFM, and BMI explained 12% to 14% of the variance in Appearance Esteem for both sexes, 33% to 41% in Weight Esteem in women and 16% to 18% in men, and 8% to 10% in External Attribution in women (all pFM increase, body image decreases, particularly in women.
Purcell, Sarah A; Elliott, Sarah A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Sawyer, Michael B; Prado, Carla M
Measures of body weight and anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) are commonly used to assess nutritional status in clinical conditions including cancer. Extensive research has evaluated associations between body weight and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients, yet little is known about the potential impact of body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)) in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this publication was to review the literature (using PubMed and EMBASE) evaluating the impact of body weight and particularly body composition on surgical complications, morbidity, chemotherapy dosing and toxicity (as predictors of prognosis), and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Body weight is rarely associated with intra-operative complications, but obesity predicts higher rates of venous thromboembolism and wound complications post-operatively in ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of FM and FFM are superior predictors of length of hospital stay compared to measures of body weight alone, but the role of body composition on other surgical morbidities is unknown. Obesity complicates chemotherapy dosing due to altered pharmacokinetics, imprecise dosing strategies, and wide variability in FM and FFM. Measurement of body composition has the potential to reduce toxicity if the results are incorporated into chemotherapy dosing calculations. Some findings suggest that excess body weight adversely affects survival, while others find no such association. Limited studies indicate that FM is a better predictor of survival than body weight in ovarian cancer patients, but the direction of this relationship has not been determined. In conclusion, body composition as an indicator of nutritional status is a better prognostic tool than body weight or BMI alone in ovarian cancer patients.
Yang, Won Jun; Ko, Keun Hyeok; Lee, Kon Hee; Hwang, Il Tae
Purpose The effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment on body mass index (BMI) are controversial in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). We therefore evaluated auxological parameters during GnRHa therapy in patients with CPP, specifically focusing on changes in BMI. Methods Seventy-seven girls with idiopathic CPP who underwent GnRHa therapy were retrospectively recruited. We investigated BMI changes during the treatment period after stratifying them according to baseline BMI status as follows: normal (BMI percentile of puberty induced by GnRHa treatment may have different effects on linear growth according to baseline body composition. This study underscores the importance of individualized lifestyle intervention in CPP children. PMID:28443259
... Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based on height ...
Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essent...
Nogueira, Leticia; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Gamborg, Michael
Background: Excess weight in adulthood is one of the few modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and height has associations as well. This leads to question whether body weight and height in childhood are associated with adult pancreatic cancer. Objective: To examine if childhood body mass...
Beyer, P L; Palarino, M Y; Michalek, D; Busenbark, K; Koller, W C
To compare reports of weight loss and actual measures of body composition to predict nutritional risk in patients with Parkinson's disease and matched control subjects. Patients and control subjects were asked to record prior changes in weight and activity. Body composition was then compared in both groups using percentage ideal body weight (IBW), body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness, midarm muscle circumference, and percentage body fat (BF) as determined by bioelectrical impedance. Fifty-one free-living patients with Parkinson's disease and 49 matched control subjects were recruited from the neurology clinic and the surrounding area. We anticipated that reported weight loss would be greater and actual measures of body composition would show greater nutritional risk in the patients with Parkinson's disease. chi 2 Analysis was used to determine differences in the ratio of patients and control subjects who lost weight. Paired t tests were used to compare amount of weight change and measures of body composition. Correlations were performed among measures of weight change, body composition, and associated disease factors. Patients with Parkinson's disease were four times more likely to report weight loss greater than 10 lb than the matched control subjects (odds ratio > 4.2). Patients reported a mean (+/- standard deviation) weight loss of 7.2 +/- 2.9 lb and control subjects reported a mean weight gain of 2.1 +/- 1.6 lb (P weight change and percentage IBW, BMI, TSF, percentage BF, and stage of the disease. CONCLUSIONS/APPLICATION: Patients with Parkinson's disease appear to be at greater nutritional risk than a matched population. Simple screening and assessment tools can be used to detect nutritional risk.
Puhl, R M; Himmelstein, M S; Armstrong, S C; Kingsford, E
Over 30% of youth and adolescents have overweight or obesity, and health care providers are increasingly discussing weight-based health with these patients. Stigmatizing language in provider-patient communication about obesity is well documented and could be particularly detrimental to youth and adolescents. Although some research has examined preferences for weight-based terminology among adults, no studies have addressed these issues in youth populations. This study represents a preliminary and systematic investigation of weight-based language preferences among adolescents with overweight and obesity enrolled in a summer weight loss camp. Participants (N=50) indicated preferences for weight-based language and emotional responses to words that their family members used in reference to their body weight. Weight neutral terminology ('weight', 'body mass index') were most preferred, although some differences in word preferences emerged by the participants' gender. Boys preferred having their weight described as 'overweight' and 'heavy', while girls preferred the word 'curvy'. A large proportion of participants, particularly girls, reported experiencing sadness, shame, and embarrassment if parents used certain words to describe their body weight, which highlights the importance of considering the emotional impact of weight-based terminology. Providers may consider asking youth and adolescents for their preferences when discussing weight-based health.
Denning, W Matt; Winward, Jason G; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J Ty; Seeley, Matthew K
Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key pointsWalking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration.Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in
Objective: To determine the relationship between glycated hemoglobin and body mass index in an apparently healthy population in Egor local government area, Benin City. Methods: This is a cross sectional study involving healthy adults. Blood pressure, Height, Weight were all measured and body mass index (BMI) ...
Greve, Jane; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann
The prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased in almost all Western countries in the past twenty to thirty years, with social disparities in many of these countries. This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between education and body weight by studying the effect of higher...... education on body weight according to subgroups of parental income background. To uncover the causal relationship between higher education and body weight, we use a reform of the Danish student grant scheme, which involved a grant increase of approximately 60% in 1988. When using this reform as instrumental...... variable, we find no effect among men of higher education on the probability of being either overweight or healthy-weighted. However, we find suggestive evidence that the effect differs by income background. Amongst men who grew up in low-income households, enrolling in higher education increases...
Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun
We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
The relationships between body weight (BW) and heart girth, body length and height at withers of 116 Indigenous, 72 Friesian, 95 Brahman, 88 Red Dane and 123 Crossbred cattle from 42 smallholder herds in Nharira-Lancashire, Zimbabwe, were investigated. The principal objective was to develop simple models that ...
S) kids at weaning were used to compare body weight (BWT), body measurements (BM) and testicular measurements ™ of the two breeds. Efforts were also made to relate BWT with BM and TM in order to identify those that best predict BWT.
Lowe, Michael R; Feig, Emily H; Winter, Samantha R; Stice, Eric
Background: Body weight in lower animals and humans is highly stable despite a very large flux in energy intake and expenditure over time. Conversely, the existence of higher-than-average variability in weight may indicate a disruption in the mechanisms responsible for homeostatic weight regulation. Objective: In a sample chosen for weight-gain proneness, we evaluated whether weight variability over a 6-mo period predicted subsequent weight change from 6 to 24 mo. Design: A total of 171 nonobese women were recruited to participate in this longitudinal study in which weight was measured 4 times over 24 mo. The initial 3 weights were used to calculate weight variability with the use of a root mean square error approach to assess fluctuations in weight independent of trajectory. Linear regression analysis was used to examine whether weight variability in the initial 6 mo predicted weight change 18 mo later. Results: Greater weight variability significantly predicted amount of weight gained. This result was unchanged after control for baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI change from baseline to 6 mo and for measures of disinhibition, restrained eating, and dieting. Conclusions: Elevated weight variability in young women may signal the degradation of body weight regulatory systems. In an obesogenic environment this may eventuate in accelerated weight gain, particularly in those with a genetic susceptibility toward overweight. Future research is needed to evaluate the reliability of weight variability as a predictor of future weight gain and the sources of its predictive effect. The trial on which this study is based is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00456131. PMID:26354535
Revicki, D A; Israel, R G
We examined the relationship between various body mass indices (BMIs), skinfold measures, and laboratory measures of body fat in 474 males aged 20-70 years. Evaluations included height, weight, skinfold thickness, and hydrostatic measurements of adiposity. The weight-height ratio (W/H), Quetelet index (W/H2), Khosla-Lowe index (W/H3), and Benn index (W/HP) were calculated. The correlations among the various BMIs were high, ranging from 0.91 to 0.99, and all were strongly correlated with weight (rs = 0.81 - 0.98), while only W/H2 (r = -.03) and W/HP (r = -.01) were not correlated with height. The W/H2 and W/HP had the strongest correlation with hydrostatic and skinfold measurements, although all the BMIs were significantly correlated with these measurements. Results suggest that the Benn index and the Quetelet index are equally valid estimates of body fat in respect to their relationship with hydrostatic measures. PMID:3728773
Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Samuel, Renata Oliveira; Prieto, Annelise Katrine Carrara; Sumida, Dóris Hissako; Dezan-Júnior, Eloi; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo
The effects of apical periodontitis (AP) and periodontal disease (PD) on organ weights in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM) were evaluated. Eighty male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) were divided into eight groups of ten: normoglycemic (N), AP, PD, AP+PD, DM, DM+AP, DM+PD, and DM+AP+PD. DM was induced by streptozotocin; AP, by dental exposure to the oral environment; and PD, by periodontal ligature. Blood glucose concentration was measured at 0, 6, 15, and 35days; body weight, measured daily; and animals were sacrificed after 30days after induction of oral infections. Liver, kidney, pancreas, brain, heart, lungs, and gonads were each weighed. Glycemia, feed intake, organ weight, and body weight were subjected to statistical analyses (pdiabetic groups after day 6, but were consistently similar in normoglycemic groups. Blood glucose was higher in DM+PD and DM+AP+PD groups than in the DM group at days 15 and 35. The feed intake was similar among all groups. Brain, heart, and gonad weights were significantly increased in DM+AP+PD. Kidney and lung weights were increased in DM, regardless of the presence of oral infections. Liver weight was reduced in AP and/or PD. Pancreas weight was reduced in DM, independent of AP or PD. Among the normoglycemic groups, there were no significant differences among organ weights. Apical periodontitis and periodontal disease may potentiate the adverse effects of diabetes. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wynne, Ciara; Comiskey, Catherine; McGilloway, Sinéad
This study was undertaken to ascertain whether or not the body mass index (BMI) of urban disadvantaged children indirectly affects their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) through weight change desires and depressive symptoms and whether such mediation is conditional upon age and gender. A total of 255 children aged 7-12 years (50% male) were recruited from 7 schools in urban disadvantaged districts in Ireland using consecutive sampling. A prospective longitudinal design was employed whereby children completed, at two time points, the Kidscreen-27, the Children's Depression Inventory, and the Health Related Behaviour Questionnaire, and had their BMI measured. The analyses involved multiple-, half-longitudinal- and moderated-mediation. Results showed that the depressive symptoms of children wanting to change their weight may have lead, in large part, to poorer HRQoL (specifically psychological well-being when considering longitudinal data) rather than weight status per se. The mediation effect of weight change desires occurred regardless of age or gender. Childhood obesity programmes that traditionally focus on the negatives of obesity and the need to control weight may need to take a more positive approach to health and well-being by, for example promoting intuitive eating, an active lifestyle, body acceptance and good mental health.
Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, E; Almdal, Thomas Peter
RATIONALE: Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)). OBJECTIVES: We explored...... 10th percentile of the general population. BMI and FFMI were significant predictors of mortality, independent of relevant covariates. Being in the lowest 10th percentile of the general population for FFMI was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.8) for overall...
Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim
Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic.
Adámková, V; Hubácek, J A; Lánská, V; Vrablík, M; Králová Lesná, I; Suchánek, P; Zimmelová, P; Veleminský, M
Some studies have suggested that there could be an association between the duration of sleep in humans and development of the obesity. We have analyzed the group of the probands (n = 3970, 2038 males and 1932 females, aged 18-65 years), with permanent address in the Central or South Bohemia. We ascertained the relationship between the duration of their sleep (obtained per questionnaire) and body mass index, weight, height, the value of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, waist and hip circumference, the values of total-, high density- and low density- cholesterol, thyroid hormone and body exercise performed. The optimal values of the body mass index (and optimal body weight) were associated with the duration of sleep 7 hours per night (P sleep duration.
Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen
Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter...... lipolysis. Based on the current evidence of the involvement of histamine in the regulation of body weight, the histaminergic system is an obvious target for the development of pharmacological agents to control obesity. At present, H(3) receptor antagonists that stimulate the histaminergic system may...
There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.
Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Petersen, Hans Gregers
Background: Obesity is an established cardiovascular risk factor. We studied the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality after stroke. Methods: A registry started in 2001 with the aim to register all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark now includes 21,884 patients....... Survival was followed up to 5 years after stroke (median 1.5 years). Independent predictors of death were identified by means of a survival model based on 13,242 individuals with a complete data set. Results: Compared to normal- weight patients, mortality was lower in overweight [hazard rate (HR) 0.73, 95...
Bosomworth, N John
To explore the reasons why long-term weight loss is seldom achieved and to evaluate the consequences of various weight trajectories, including stability, loss, and gain. Studies evaluating population weight metrics were mainly observational. Level I evidence was available to evaluate the influence of weight interventions on mortality and quality of life. Sustained weight loss is achieved by a small percentage of those intending to lose weight. Mortality is lowest in the high-normal and overweight range. The safest body-size trajectory is stable weight with optimization of physical and metabolic fitness. With weight loss there is evidence for lower mortality in those with obesity-related comorbidities. There is also evidence for improved health-related quality of life in obese individuals who lose weight. Weight loss in the healthy obese, however, is associated with increased mortality. Weight loss is advisable only for those with obesity-related comorbidities. Healthy obese people wishing to lose weight should be informed that there might be associated risks. A strategy that leads to a stable body mass index with optimized physical and metabolic fitness at any size is the safest weight intervention option.
Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J
We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.
Mahanta, Lipi B.; Manisha Choudhury; Arundhuti Devi; Arunima Bhattacharya
Women, particularly pregnant women, are the most vulnerable population of the society and their health status is one of the major indicators of development. There were enough studies on pre pregnancy body mass index (IPBMI) and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy (IWGP) of women in other part of the world and India, but none in Assam. In Assam a large number of population are in the category of low socio-economic group, a group most vulnerable to under nutrition. Thus this study was frame...
Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery
Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than
Anthropometric parameters: weight height, body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern; Parametros antropmetricos: peso, talla, indice de masa corporal y volumen mamario, en relacion con el patron mamografico
Perez-Candela, V.; Busto, C.; Avila, R.; Marrero, M. G.; Liminana, J. M.; Orengo, J. C. [Hospital Universitario Maternoinfantil de Canarias. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)
A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height, weight, body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1.000 women who underwent a mammography in cranial-caudal and medial lateral oblique projection of both breasts, independently of whether they were screened or diagnosed. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. With the weight, the body mass index of Quetelet was calculated (weight [kg]/height''2 (ml)). After reading the mammography, the patient was assigned to one of the four mammographic patterns considered in the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) established by the ACR (American College of Radiology): type I (fat). type II (disperse fibroglandular densities), type III (fibroglandular densities distributed heterogeneously), type 4 (dense). The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8.0 statistical program was applied, using the statistical model of multivariant logistic regression. In women under 40 years, with normal weight, the dense breast pattern accounted for 67.8% and as the body mass index (BMI) increased, this pattern decreased to 25.1%. The fat pattern is 20% and as the BMI increases, this increased to 80%. In 40-60 year old women with normal weight, the dense pattern accounts for 44% and decreases to 20.9% in the grades II, III and IV obese. The fat pattern is 11.1% and increases to 53.7% in the grade II, III and IV obese. In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for 19.3% and and decreases to 13% in the grade III obese. The fat pattern is 5.3% and increases to 20.2% in the grade iii of obesity. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat
L. P. Shelestova
Full Text Available Deficiency of a woman's body weight is in direct proportion to the mass of adipose tissue in the body and leads to a significant restructuring of the reproductive function endocrine mechanisms regulation. Aim. To evaluate the effectiveness of the elaborated complex pregravid preparation of women with body weight deficiency. Materials and Methods. We observed 130 women with body weight deficiency, who have visited the antenatal clinic for the purpose of planning pregnancy, 65 of them were treated with the proposed complex of therapeutic and preventive measures, 65 - traditional measures and 35 women with normal body weight. All women were determined by pituitary and ovarian hormones serum content and bone and mineral metabolism indices. The peculiarities of the proposed pregravid preparation are health food (mainly a protein-carbohydrate, daily calorie diet no less then 35 kcal/kg and metabolic correction (prescription of combined cholecalciferol and calcium carbonate drug, which reduces in bone resorption and increases in bone density. Results. It has been noted that hormonal therapy prescription for women with deficiency of body weight, could improve ovarian hormones and prolactin indices, which influenced on menstrual cycle normalization, ovulation induction, and accordingly contributed the pregnancy. The total content of calcium, parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin and vitamin D in women treated with the proposed measures, with the inclusion of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol, did not differ from women with normal body weight, and whereas women who received traditional therapy, they were reduced significantly. Using the elaborated system promoted a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of spontaneous abortions from 16.3% to 2.0% (P=0.015. Conclusions. Applying elaborated complex of therapeutic and preventive measures for women with low body weight, which additionally to the hormonal status normalization includes health food
Peterson, M E; Castellano, C A; Rishniw, M
The contribution of fat loss versus muscle wasting to the loss of body weight seen in hyperthyroid cats is unknown. To investigate body weight, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) in hyperthyroid cats. Four hundred sixty-two cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 117 of which were reevaluated after treatment. Prospective cross-sectional and before-after studies. Untreated hyperthyroid cats had body composition evaluated (body weight, BCS, and MCS). A subset of these cats were reevaluated 3-12 months after treatment when euthyroid. Pretreatment body weight (median, 4.36 kg; IQR, 3.5 to 5.2 kg) was lower than premorbid weight (5.45 kg; IQR, 4.6 to 6.4 kg, P loss of muscle mass. Cats showed increases in body weight (median, 4.1 kg to 5.0 kg), BCS (median, 3/5 to 3.5/5), and MCS (2/3 to 3/3) after treatment (P muscle wasting persisted in 45% of treated cats. Most hyperthyroid cats lose body weight but maintain an ideal or overweight BCS, with only a third being underweight. As in human hyperthyroid patients, this weight loss is associated with muscle wasting, which affects >75% of hyperthyroid cats. Successful treatment leads to weight gain and increase of BCS in most cats, but almost half fail to regain normal muscle mass. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
The Effect of a Muscle Weight-Bearing and Aerobic Exercise Program on the Body Composition, Muscular Strength, Biochemical Markers, and Bone Mass of Obese Patients Who Have Undergone Gastric Bypass Surgery.
Campanha-Versiani, Luciana; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Ribeiro-Samora, Giane Amorim; Ramos, Adauto Versiani; de Sander Diniz, Maria Fatima H; De Marco, Luiz Armando; Soares, Maria Marta Sarquis
The effect of an exercise program on the body composition, muscular strength (MS), biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) of individuals undergoing gastric bypass is unclear. We assessed lean mass (LM), MS, bone remodeling markers, and BMD before and after supervised weight-bearing and aerobic exercise training in obese patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This study included 37 obese patients (81.1% women, mean age 38.2 years, mean body mass index 42.4 ± 0.5 kg/m2). Whole body densitometry was used to evaluate pre- and postoperative BMD, total body fat, and LM. Serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and bone remodeling markers were measured. MS was determined through the concentric 10 repetition maximum test. Postoperatively, participants were divided into two groups: the training group, who followed an exercise program (TG, n = 18), and the control group, who did not (CG, n = 19). After 1 year, the TG showed a lower decrease in total BMD and at the lumbar spine and right hip compared with the CG (p loss and improved LM in the arms and overall MS but did not affect bone remodeling.
Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Adam, Tanja C; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S
The increase in obesity, including childhood obesity, has developed over the same time period as the progressive decrease in self-reported sleep duration. Since epidemiological studies showed an inverse relationship between short or disturbed sleep and obesity, the question arose, how sleep duration and sleep quality are associated with the development of obesity. In this review, the current literature on these topics has been evaluated. During puberty, changes in body mass index (BMI) are inversely correlated to changes in sleep duration. During adulthood, this relationship remains and at the same time unfavorable metabolic and neuro-endocrinological changes develop, that promote a positive energy balance, coinciding with sleep disturbance. Furthermore, during excessive weight loss BMI and fat mass decrease, in parallel, and related with an increase in sleep duration. In order to shed light on the association between sleep duration, sleep quality and obesity, until now it only has been shown that diet-induced body-weight loss and successive body-weight maintenance contribute to sleep improvement. It remains to be demonstrated whether body-weight management and body composition improve during an intervention concomitantly with spontaneous sleep improvement compared with the same intervention without spontaneous sleep improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vander Wal, Jillon S
Adolescents classified as overweight or obese are more likely to use unhealthy weight control behaviors such as skipping meals or fasting than their healthy weight peers. Adolescents with low perceived social support may be at particular risk. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between adolescent overweight and obesity, indices of perceived peer and family social support, and their interaction in the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors among adolescents. The present study used data from the 2001-2002 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children collaborative survey. Participants included 4598 adolescent girls and boys in the ninth and tenth grades. Results of binary logistic regression analyses showed that obese boys and girls were more likely to use unhealthy weight control behaviors than their healthy weight peers. Boys and girls who endorsed difficult communication with their parents, low levels of parent school support, or frequent bullying were more likely to engage in unhealthy weight control behaviors than relevant comparison groups. Among girls, poor classmate relationships were associated with increased use of unhealthy weight control behaviors whereas fewer friendships were associated with decreased use. Results suggest that adolescents are at high risk for use of unhealthy weight control behaviors and would benefit from interventions to increase knowledge and social support for achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
MRS FOLA AJAYI
October 11th – 14th, 2004, University of Agriculture. Abeokuta 88 – 91. Campbell, J. R., Kenealy, M. D. and Campbell, K. L., 1994. Animal Science: The biology, care and production of domestic animals. McGraw-Hill Companies. Fourth. Edition New York. 510pp. ESTIMATION OF BODY WEIGHT FROM LINEAR BODY ...
Jayawardene, Wasantha; Lohrmann, David; YoussefAgha, Ahmed
The accuracy and reliability of self-reported height and weight among adolescents in the process of calculating BMI is usually subject to bias. The aim of this study was to determine whether over- and under-reporting of self-reported height and weight existed among US high school students by weight category; if so, to examine anthropometric, behavioral, and demographic factors associated with over- and under-reporting. Data were retrieved from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, 2010, a nationally representative sample (7160 students, grades 9-12). Analysis of variance was performed to determine any significant difference between weight categories in misreporting. Discriminant function analysis and sequential logistic regression were executed to detect behavioral and demographic predictors of reporting accuracy, respectively. The mean over-reporting of height and under-reporting of weight were 1.1 cm and 1.020 kg, respectively, which underestimated BMI and BMI percentile by 0.671 and 2.734, respectively. Use of self-reported height and weight for BMI calculation overestimated prevalence of healthy weight by 3.8% and underestimated prevalence of obesity by 4.1%. Underweight students under-reported height and over-reported weight, whereas overweight and obese students over-reported height and under-reported weight. Reporting accuracy of females was significantly higher. Weight loss behaviors, both healthy and unhealthy, were associated with BMI underestimation, whereas fast foods and screen time were associated with overestimation. Whenever possible, measuring height and weight is essential. However, because many studies must rely on self-reported values alone, additional research should examine the relationships between misreport of anthropometric data and lifestyle features in diverse adolescent samples to better interpret self-reported anthropometric data.
Howe, Laurence J; Trela-Larsen, Lea; Taylor, Michelle; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus R; Taylor, Amy E
Smoking influences body weight, but there is little evidence as to whether body mass index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction increase smoking initiation in adolescents. We evaluated the association between measured BMI, body dissatisfaction and latent classes of smoking initiation (never smokers, experimenters, late onset regular smokers, early onset regular smokers) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. In observational analyses we used BMI (N=3754) and body dissatisfaction at age 10.5 years (N=3349). In Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis, we used a BMI genetic risk score of 76 single nucleotide polymorphisms (N=4017). In females, higher BMI was associated with increased odds of early onset regular smoking (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.18) compared to being a never smoker, but not clearly associated with experimenting with smoking (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.10) or late onset regular smoking (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.09). No clear evidence was found for associations between BMI and smoking initiation classes in males (p-value for sex interaction≤0.001). Body dissatisfaction was associated with increased odds of late-onset regular smoking (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.99) in males and females combined (P-value for sex interaction=0.32). There was no clear evidence for an association between the BMI genetic risk score and smoking latent classes in males or females but estimates were imprecise. BMI in females and body dissatisfaction in males and females are associated with increased odds of smoking initiation, highlighting these as potentially important factors for consideration in smoking prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
O'Reilly, Eilis J.; Wang, Hao; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; Falcone, Guido; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Thun, Michael; Park, Yikyung; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ascherio, Alberto
Our objective was to determine if amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk varies according to body mass index (BMI) captured up to three decades earlier. At baseline 537,968 females and 562,942 males in five ongoing cohorts reported height, current weight and weight at age 18/21 years. During 14-28
whether body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy is associated with changes in the methylation ... excessive weight newborns exposed to maternal obesity ... weeks of gestation, and weight, considering an energy intake .... differences in relation to the first trimester (cholesterol in the ..... Exercise prevents maternal high‑fat.
Past research has shown that personality traits relate to body weight, but this relationship may be confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics such as genetic endowments. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between personality traits, as measured by the Big Five taxonomy, and body weight among young adults is spurious owing to shared family background. Participants were drawn from the full (n = 14,366) and family (n = 2813) samples of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The study employed family-fixed effects to eliminate shared family background factors that might affect personality traits and body weight simultaneously. Among the Big Five personality traits, only conscientiousness showed a robust association with body weight, including body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. These results were robust to adjustments for family-fixed effects, which indicates that the association between conscientiousness and body weight is generally not confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics shared by siblings. A one-standard-deviation increase in conscientiousness was associated with a decrease in BMI by 0.89 (equivalent to a 2.5 kg decrease in weight for an individual with an average height of the sample) and a 12% reduction in the probability of being obese. This study also found some suggestive evidence of gender and racial/ethnic differences. The association between conscientiousness and obesity was larger and statistically significant only for women, and conscientiousness was most strongly associated with obesity among Hispanic people. Conscientiousness is associated with decreased body weight net of unobserved background characteristics that are shared by siblings. The results suggest that interventions that develop personality traits may have "spillover effects"; in other words, they may also help reduce obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rationale Past research has shown that personality traits relate to body weight, but this relationship may be confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics such as genetic endowments. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between personality traits, as measured by the Big Five taxonomy, and body weight among young adults is spurious owing to shared family background. Methods Participants were drawn from the full (n = 14,366) and family (n = 2,813) samples of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The study employed family-fixed effects to eliminate shared family background factors that might affect personality traits and body weight simultaneously. Results Among the Big Five personality traits, only conscientiousness showed a robust association with body weight, including body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. These results were robust to adjustments for family-fixed effects, which indicates that the association between conscientiousness and body weight is generally not confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics shared by siblings. A one-standard-deviation increase in conscientiousness was associated with a decrease in BMI by 0.89 (equivalent to a 2.5 kg decrease in weight for an individual with an average height of the sample) and a 12% reduction in the probability of being obese. This study also found some suggestive evidence of gender and racial/ethnic differences. The association between conscientiousness and obesity was larger and statistically significant only for women, and conscientiousness was most strongly associated with obesity among Hispanic people. Conclusion Conscientiousness is associated with decreased body weight net of unobserved background characteristics that are shared by siblings. The results suggest that interventions that develop personality traits may have “spillover effects”; in other words, they may also help reduce obesity. PMID
Full Text Available The existing data about the role of dairy foods in body weight management, as a physiological explanation are shown in this paper. There is accumulating evidence about inverse association between body weight and dairy intake. Research showed that obese individuals consume fewer dairies than normal weight people. Also three servings of dairy foods per day in a reduced calorie diet may help accelerate body fat loss when compared to a calorie-restricted diet low in dairy foods. Calcium plays the main role and is present in great amounts in dairy foods. Its anti-obesity effect is attributed to its impact on lypogenesis and lipolysis in adipocytes. Calcium supplements do not have such effect as dairy calcium, possibly due to the effects of other bioactive components in dairy foods such as conjugated linoleic acid, whey peptides, branched aminoacids and lactose which amplify anti-obesity effect. Cross-sectional epidemiological studies confirmed the hypothesis that high dairy food intake can act in a weight management, but prospective studies and randomized controlled intervention trials have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore there is a need of conducting more large population-based clinical trials and meta-analysis.
Turner, Michael J
OBJECTIVE: We compared the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage in women categorised as obese, based on a Body Mass Index (BMI) >29.9 kg\\/m(2), with women in other BMI categories. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective observational study conducted in a university teaching hospital, women were enrolled at their convenience in the first trimester after a sonogram confirmed an ongoing singleton pregnancy with fetal heart activity present. Maternal height and weight were measured digitally and BMI calculated. Maternal body composition was measured by advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. RESULTS: In 1200 women, the overall miscarriage rate was 2.8% (n=33). The mean gestational age at enrolment was 9.9 weeks. In the obese category (n=217), the miscarriage rate was 2.3% compared with 3.3% in the overweight category (n=329), and 2.3% in the normal BMI group (n=621). There was no difference in the mean body composition parameters, particularly fat mass parameters, between those women who miscarried and those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: In women with sonographic evidence of fetal heart activity in the first trimester, the rate of spontaneous miscarriage is low and is not increased in women with BMI>29.9 kg\\/m(2) compared to women in the normal BMI category.
Jayawardena, Ranil; Byrne, Nuala M; Soares, Mario J; Katulanda, Prasad; Hills, Andrew P
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between self-perception of body weight, weight loss approaches and measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among Sri Lankan adults. A nationally representative sample of 600 adults aged ≥18 years was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. An interviewer-administrated questionnaire was used to assess demographic characteristics, body weight perception, abdominal obesity perception and details of weight losing practices. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured and Asian anthropometric cut-offs for BMI and WC were applied. Body weight mis-perception was common among Sri Lankan adults. Two-thirds of overweight males and 44.7% females considered themselves as ‘about right weight’, moreover, 4.1% and 7.6% overweight men and women reported themselves as being ‘underweight’. Over one third of both male and female obese subjects perceived themselves as ‘about right weight’ or ‘underweight’. Nearly 32% of centrally obese men and women perceived that their WC is about right. People who perceived themselves as overweight or very overweight (n = 154) only 63.6% tried to lose weight (n = 98), and one quarter of adults sought advice from professionals (n = 39). Body weight misperception was common among underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults in Sri Lanka. Over 2/3 of overweight and 1/3 of obese Sri Lankan adults believe they are in right weight category or are under weight. Â© 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . All rights reserved.
Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Wang, Lin; Iversen, Edwin S; Maguire, Rachel; Murphy, Susan K; Hoyo, Cathrine
The first 1000 days of life is a critical period of infant growth that has been linked to future adult health. Understanding prenatal factors that contribute to variation in growth during this period could inform successful prevention strategies. Prenatal and maternal characteristics, including prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain were evaluated in relation to weight growth trajectories during the first 24 months of life using the SuperImposition by Translation and Rotation (SITAR) method, which provides estimates of infant size, timing to peak velocity, and growth velocity. The study sample included 704 mother-infant dyads from a multiethnic prebirth cohort from the Southeastern United States. The total number of weight measures was 8670 (median number per child = 14). Several prenatal and maternal characteristics were linked with infant growth parameters. The primary findings show that compared to women with a prepregnancy BMI between 18 and 24.9, women with a prepregnancy BMI ≥40 had infants that were 8% larger during the first 24 months, a delayed tempo of around 9 days, and a slower velocity. Mothers who had greater than adequate gestational weight gain had infants that were 5% larger even after controlling for prepregnancy BMI and several other covariates. The findings contribute new data on the associations between gestational weight gain and aspects of early growth using the SITAR method, and support a growing consensus in the literature that both prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain relate independently to risk for greater postnatal weight growth.
Tomchesson, Joshua L
.... Responses to environmental enrichment included: body weight (BW), Body Mass Index score (BMI), Lee Index score (LI), consumption of standard rat chow, Oreo cookies, and Lays potato chips, and physical activity...
Summers, Rachael H; Moore, Michael; Byrne, James; Byrne, Christopher; Mullee, Mark; Welbourn, Richard; Elsey, Helen; Roderick, Paul
Evidence from high-quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is needed to establish the long-term benefit of bariatric surgery in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and body mass index (BMI) 30-39.9 kg/m(2). However, willingness amongst this group to be randomised and undergo surgery is uncertain. This study assessed UK patients' perceptions of their weight and diabetes, and associations with willingness to participate in RCTs involving bariatric surgery, amongst this population. Postal survey of 1820 patients from four regions in England. Eligible patients were as follows: BMI 30-39.9 kg/m(2), 18-74 years, diagnosis of T2DM ≥2 years. A reminder survey was sent after 4 weeks. Independent predictors influencing patients' willingness to consider RCT participation were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. Thirty-four per cent (614/1820) of patients responded. Weight was considered to be harder to control than diabetes [468/584 (80 %) vs. 107/600 (17 %)]. More people reported a negative impact on life for weight rather than diabetes [379/579 (63 %) vs. 180/574 (31 %)]. Feeling unsatisfied/very unsatisfied with weight loss ability was common 261/578 (45 %). Sixty-four per cent (379/594, CI = 60-68) were willing to consider participating in an RCT. In multivariate analysis, negative impact of weight on life (OR = 2.55, 95 % CI = 1.68-3.89, P weight loss ability (OR = 2.47, 95 % CI = 1.55-3.95, P weight loss were common and influenced attitudes to potential participation in bariatric surgery RCTs.
... Institutes of Health Contact Us Get Email Alerts Font Size Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use ... Be Physically Active Healthy Weight Tools BMI Calculator Menu Plans Portion Distortion Key Recommendations Healthy Weight Resources ...
Puche, Rodolfo C
This article traces the story of the Body Mass Index, also called Quetelet's Index or the ratio between weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters) squared. The Index is used extensively in clinical practice to characterize overweight. Based on literature reports, probable answers are furnished for the following questions: Which were Quetelet's objectives at associating weight with height? Why did he choose to select Weight/(Height)2? When did the index begin to be applied in modern clinical medicine? Which were the experimental studies which associated the ratio Weight/ (Height)2 with the body fat content? Which are the limitations of the ratio?
Xu, Yong; O'Malley, Bert W; Elmquist, Joel K
Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essential roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Understanding the role and the underlying mechanisms of NRs in the context of energy balance control may facilitate the identification of novel targets to treat obesity. Notably, NRs are abundantly expressed in the brain, and emerging evidence indicates that a number of these brain NRs regulate multiple aspects of energy balance, including feeding, energy expenditure and physical activity. In this Review we summarize some of the recent literature regarding effects of brain NRs on body weight regulation and discuss mechanisms underlying these effects.
Claudia Iris Bazán
Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed.
Ingram, D D; Mussolino, M E
The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationship between weight loss from maximum body weight, body mass index (BMI), and mortality in a nationally representative sample of men and women. Longitudinal cohort study. In all, 6117 whites, blacks, and Mexican-Americans 50 years and over at baseline who survived at least 3 years of follow-up, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality Files (1988-1994 with passive mortality follow-up through 2000), were included. Measured body weight and self-reported maximum body weight obtained at baseline. Weight loss (maximum body weight minus baseline weight) was categorized as or=15%. Maximum BMI (reported maximum weight (kg)/measured baseline height (m)(2)) was categorized as healthy weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (>or=30.0). In all, 1602 deaths were identified. After adjusting for age, race, smoking, health status, and preexisting illness, overweight men with weight loss of 15% or more, overweight women with weight loss of 5-women in all BMI categories with weight loss of 15% or more were at increased risk of death from all causes compared with those in the same BMI category who lost Weight loss of 5-Weight loss of 15% or more from maximum body weight is associated with increased risk of death from all causes among overweight men and among women regardless of maximum BMI.
Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.
Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…
Hui, Amy Leung; Back, Lisa; Ludwig, Sora; Gardiner, Phillip; Sevenhuysen, Gustaaf; Dean, Heather J; Sellers, Elisabeth; McGavock, Jonathan; Morris, Margaret; Jiang, Depeng; Shen, Garry X
The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain in pregnant women with normal and above normal body mass index (BMI) in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 116 pregnant women (pregnancy) without diabetes were enrolled and 113 pregnant women completed the program. Participants were randomized into intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group received weekly trainer-led group exercise sessions, instructed home exercise for 3-5-times/week during 20-36 weeks of gestation, and dietary counseling twice during pregnancy. Participants in the control group did not receive the intervention. All participants completed a physical activity questionnaire and a 3-day food record at enrolment and 2 months after enrolment. The participants in the intervention group with normal pre-pregnancy BMI (≤24.9 kg/M2, n = 30) had lower gestational weight gain (GWG), offspring birth weight and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) on pregnancy weight gain compared to the control group (n = 27, p pregnancy BMI participants. Intervention reduced total calorie, total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol intake were detected in women with normal or above normal pre-pregnancy BMI compared to the control group (p pregnancy BMI at 2 months after the onset of the intervention compared to the control group. The results of the present study demonstrated that the lifestyle intervention program decreased EGWG, GWG, offspring birth weight in pregnant women with normal, but not above normal, pre-pregnancy BMI, which was associated with increased physical activity and decreased carbohydrate intake. NCT00486629.
In previous studies, it has been found that on average, children consistently gained weight during the summer months at an increased rate compared with the 9-month school year. This contributed to an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children. Several obesity-related interventions ha...
de Hoogd, S.; Overbeek, W.A.; Heerdink, E.R.; Correll, C.U.; de Graeff, E.R.; Staal, W.G.
OBJECTIVE: Weight gain and metabolic adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have become a major concern, particularly in youth. However, the specific contribution of SGAs versus other medications or the underlying illness is unclear. METHODS: In a chart review study of
Chiriboga, David E; Ma, Yunsheng; Li, Wenjun; Olendzki, Barbara C; Pagoto, Sherry L; Merriam, Philip A; Matthews, Charles E; Hebert, James R; Ockene, Ira S
Overweight and obesity are important predictors of a wide variety of health problems. Analysis of naturally occurring changes in body weight can provide valuable insights in improving our understanding of the influence of demographic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on weight gain in middle-age adults. To identify gender-specific predictors of body weight using cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Anthropometric, lifestyle and psychosocial factors were measured at baseline and then quarterly for 1 year in 572 healthy adult volunteers from Central Massachusetts who were recruited between 1994 and 1998. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the relationship between body weight and potential predictors, including demographic (e.g., age, educational level), lifestyle (e.g., diet, physical activity, smoking), and psychosocial (e.g., anxiety, depression) factors. Over the 1-year study period, on average, men gained 0.3 kg and women lost 0.2 kg. Predictors of lower body weight at baseline in both men and women included current cigarette smoking, greater leisure-time physical activity, and lower depression and anxiety scores. Lower body weights were associated with a lower percentage of caloric intake from protein and greater occupational physical activity levels only among men; and with higher education level only among women. Longitudinal predictors of 1-year weight gain among women included increased total caloric intake and decreased leisure-time physical activity, and among men, greater anxiety scores. Demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors are independently related to naturally occurring changes in body weight and have marked differential gender effects. These effects should be taken into consideration when designing interventions for weight-loss and maintenance at the individual and population levels.
Reinders, Ilse; Visser, Marjolein; Schaap, Laura
Aging is associated with various changes in body composition, including changes in weight, loss of muscle mass, and increase in fat mass. This article describes the role of body weight and body composition, and their changes, in the risk of frailty in old age. Based on current literature, observational studies on obesity and high waist circumference show most convincing results for an association with frailty. The independent role of muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration remains unclear, mainly due to a lack of studies and a lack of accurate measurement of body composition by computed tomography or MRI. Weight loss and exercise training intervention studies can be of benefit to frail older adults. Obesity and high waist circumference may be important determinants of frailty in old age, whereas the role of muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration is still unclear. More prospective studies that will specifically focus on frailty as an outcome measure are needed to identify specific body composition components as potential targets for the prevention of frailty in old age.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated positive effects of short-term, intensive weight-loss programs in obese children. Objectives We evaluated the long-term effects of a non-intensive weight management program on the BMI, glycemic measures and lipid profiles of obese youth. Methods Retrospective chart review of 61 obese children followed at our Weight Management Center. During visits, dietary changes and regular physical activity were recommended. Anthropometric and laboratory parameters were evaluated. Results At the initial visit, the mean age was 11.1 ± 2.6 years. The follow-up period was 47.3 ± 11.1 months; the number of outpatient visits per year (OV/yr was 2.9 ± 0.9. At the end of the follow-up, the whole group exhibited decreased BMI z-score and LDL-cholesterol when compared to the initial visit. In the subset of subjects in whom OGTT was performed, 2-hour glucose and peak insulin were decreased. Compared to children with ≤ 2 OV/year, those with > 2 OV/year (3.19 ± 0.7 exhibited a significant decrease in their BMI z-score, LDL-cholesterol, 2-hour glucose, and peak insulin. Conclusions Our study suggests that a periodical (~ 3 OV/yr evaluation in a non-intensive, long-term weight management program may significantly improve the degree of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in childhood.
Mchiza, Zandile J.; Parker, Whadi-ah; Makoae, Mokhantso; Sewpaul, Ronel; Kupamupindi, Takura; Labadarios, Demetre
Background South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of...
Petri, Cristian; Mascherini, Gabriele; Bini, Vittorio; Anania, Giuseppe; CALà, Piergiuseppe; Toncelli, Loira; Galanti, Giorgio
The aim of this study is to assess if the evaluation of Body Mass Index is sufficient to define an overweight index in young athletes, or if a more effective evaluation is preferable in order to examine body fat mass, free-fat mass and hydration status in young athletes. 299 young athletes between the ages of 8 to 18 have been analyzed in this study. Data from evaluation in body composition of young athletes were studied and subdivided by age, sex and method used. In order to measure body composition in young people, the participants who attend our Department for sport eligibility examination, were evaluated through anthropometric measurements as far as, fat mass, fat-free mass and hydration status are concerned. The statistical differences showed with Body Mass Index and body fat assessment reflect that more accurate evaluation is preferable: the normal-weight with Body Mass Index are 78.0 %, overweight 18.7% and obese 3.3 % respect to a 75.0%, 14.0% and 11.0% detected with a body fat evaluation (pathletes. The results obtained show clearly that the analysis of the Body Mass Index is not sufficient in young athletes. Therefore for young athletes a full assessment of body composition would be appropriate to reduce classification errors.
WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: Impact of Type of Clothing Worn during Anthropometric Measurements and Timing of the Survey on Weight and Body Mass Index Outcome Measures in 6–9-Year-Old Children
Trudy M. A. Wijnhoven
Full Text Available Background. The World Health Organization European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI conducted examinations in 6–9-year-old children from 16 countries in the first two rounds of data collection. Allowing participating countries to adhere to their local legal requirements or adapt to other circumstances required developing a flexible protocol for anthropometric procedures. Objectives. (1 Review intercountry variation in types of clothing worn by children during weight and height measurements, clothes weight adjustments applied, timing of the survey, and duration of data collection; (2 assess the impact of the observed variation in these practices on the children’s weight or body mass index (BMI outcome measures. Results. The relative difference between countries’ unadjusted and clothes-adjusted prevalence estimates for overweight was 0.3–11.5%; this figure was 1.4–33.3% for BMI-for-age Z-score values. Monthly fluctuations in mean BMI-for-age Z-score values did not show a systematic seasonal effect. The majority of the monthly BMI-for-age Z-score values did not differ statistically within a country; only 1–3 monthly values were statistically different within some countries. Conclusions. The findings of the present study suggest that the built-in flexibility in the COSI protocol concerning the data collection practices addressed in the paper can be kept and thus do not necessitate a revision of the COSI protocol.
Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in previously sedentary adults. Abstract. Objectives. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) training for promoting health- related physical fitness in sedentary adults. Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was ...
Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela
Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…
Body Mass Index and Sexual Maturation inAdolescent. Patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrim- 2003;30:39. Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with delayed sexual maturation. The. Body Mass Index (BMI) or Quetelets Index is closely linked to events of puberty in normal children ...
Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C; Powell, Lisa M
Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the effect of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect effect of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is directly associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a direct nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total effect of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The analysis of variance revealed significant effect of body weight on production traits investigated (P0.05). The correlation analysis showed that the body weight was positively and non-significantly (P>0.05) correlated with egg length, egg breadth, shell weight, yolk weight, albumen weight, shell ...
Richard E. Tracy
Full Text Available Cardiac myocytes are presumed to enlarge with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. This study correlates histologically measured myocytes with lean and fat body mass. Cases of LVH without coronary heart disease and normal controls came from forensic autopsies. The cross-sectional widths of myocytes in H&E-stained paraffin sections followed log normal distributions almost to perfection in all 104 specimens, with constant coefficient of variation across the full range of ventricular weight, as expected if myocytes of all sizes contribute proportionately to hypertrophy. Myocyte sizes increased with height. By regression analysis, height2.7 as a proxy for lean body mass and body mass index (BMI as a proxy for fat body mass, exerted equal effects in the multiple correlation with myocyte volume, and the equation rejected race and sex. In summary, myocyte sizes, as indexes of LVH, suggest that lean and fat body mass may contribute equally.
Thais Costa Machado
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.
Machado, Thais Costa; Nascimento, Viviane G; Silva, Janaína P C da; Bertoli, Ciro João; Leone, Claudio
to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW). probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59) composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI) ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity). The arm muscle area (AMA) and the arm fat area (AFA) were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110) and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44). The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa) (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107). The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047). among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.
Cleather, Daniel John
It has been established that, in the sports of Olympic weightlifting (OL) and powerlifting (PL), the relationship between lifting performance and body mass is not linear. This relationship has been frequently studied in OL, but the literature on PL is less extensive. In this study, PL performance and body mass, for both men and women, was examined by using data from the International Powerlifting Federation World Championships during 1995-2004. Nonlinear regression was used to apply 7 models (including allometric, polynomial, and power models) to the data. The results of this study indicate that the relationship between PL performance and body mass can be best modeled by the equation y = a - bx(-c), where y is the weight lifted (in kg) in the squat, bench press, or deadlift, x is the body mass of the lifter (in kg), and a, b, and c are constants. The constants a, b, and c are determined by the type of lift (squat, bench press, or deadlift) and the gender of the lifter and were obtained from the regression analysis. Inspection of the plots of raw residuals (actual performance minus predicted performance) vs. body mass revealed no body mass bias to this formula in contrast to research into other handicapping formulas. This study supports previous research that found a bias toward lifters in the intermediate weight categories in allometric fits to PL data.
Martínez-Ruiz, Nina Del Rocío; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge Alfonso; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia
The PROP phenotype (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been proposed as indicator of body mass index, adiposity and food intake. This relationship among variables is contradictory. No correlation has been found among the PROP phenotype, body indicators and energy consumption in some studies. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among PROP taster status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total body fat (TBF) and food intake. The PROP taster status was established using two scales: the nine-point scale and the general labeled magnitude scale. Dietary habits of participants were recorded online during 35 days. The classification by PROP phenotype varied according to the scale. No significant differences were observed between PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters, with both scales, in body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and energy and macronutrient intake. The PROP phenotype was not an indicator factor of body weight, adiposity and energy and macronutrients consumption in young adults.
McCloskey, K; Ponsonby, A-L; Collier, F; Allen, K; Tang, M L K; Carlin, J B; Saffery, R; Skilton, M R; Cheung, M; Ranganathan, S; Dwyer, T; Burgner, D; Vuillermin, P
Excess adiposity and adiposity-related inflammation are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults; however, little is known regarding the determinants of adiposity-related inflammation at birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and newborn adiposity and inflammation. Paired maternal (28-week gestation) and infant (umbilical cord) blood samples were collected from a population-derived birth cohort (Barwon Infant Study, n = 1074). Data on maternal comorbidities and infant birth anthropomorphic measures were compiled, and infant aortic intima-media thickness was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound. In a selected subgroup of term infants (n = 161), matched maternal and cord lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and maternal soluble CD14 were measured. Analysis was completed by using pairwise correlation and linear regression. Because of their non-normal distribution, pathology blood measures were log transformed prior to analysis. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with increased birth weight (mean difference 17.8 g per kg m -2 , 95% CI 6.6 to 28.9; p = 0.002), newborn mean skin-fold thickness (mean difference 0.1 mm per kg m -2 , 95% CI 0.0 to 0.1; p pregnancy BMI, 95% CI 0.6 to 7.7%, p = 0.02), but not cord blood soluble CD14. Inclusion of maternal hsCRP as a covariate attenuated the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and both newborn skin-fold thickness and cord blood hsCRP. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is associated with increased newborn adiposity and inflammation. These associations may be partially mediated by maternal inflammation during pregnancy. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is emerging as a major public health problem in developed and developing countries worldwide. The aim of this survey was to establish baseline data on the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI). METHODS: The heights and weights of 19,617 school-going children and adolescents aged between 4 and 16 years in NI and RoI were measured using standardised and calibrated scales and measures. The participants were a representative cross-sectional sample of children randomly selected on the basis of age, gender and geographical location of the school attended. Overweight and obesity were classified according to standard IOTF criteria. RESULTS: Males were taller than females, children in RoI were taller than those in NI and the more affluent were taller than the less well off. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among females than males in both jurisdictions. Overall, almost one in four boys (23% RoI and NI) and over one in four girls (28% RoI, 25% NI) were either overweight or obese. In RoI, the highest prevalence of overweight was among 13 year old girls (32%) and obesity among 7 year old girls (11%). In NI the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity were found among 11 and 8 year old girls respectively (33% and 13%). CONCLUSION: These figures confirm the emergence of the obesity epidemic among children in Ireland, a wealthy country with the European Union. The results serve to underpin the urgency of implementing broad intersectoral measures to reduce calorie intake and increase levels of physical activity, particularly among children.
Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Bales, Connie W.
Synopsis Despite its growing pervasiveness, the health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and under-studied. A defined treatment for geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related co-morbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This restrospective article highlights our current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. As the findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions continue to accumulate, we are moving closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults. PMID:26195092
Valls-Matarín, J; del Cotillo-Fuente, M; Grané-Mascarell, N; Quintana, S
Quantify the muscle mass and body weight variation in critically ill patients and to identify associated factors. A descriptive follow-up study. Data for demographic variables, body weight, fluid balance, daily kilocalories, the amount of sedation and muscle relaxants received and motor physiotherapy applied were collected. Three consecutive measurements were performed in the brachial biceps and quadriceps rectus by using ultrasound, upon admission and every 5 days until discharge. 68 patients were included. Average age was of 73.5 [57-78,5] years. The median length of stay was 9.5 [5.5 -15] days. The median 16 (SD=5.7) daily kilocalories per kg/weight, 91.2% received sedation, 44.1% received muscle relaxants and 20% received physiotherapy. The patients presented a muscle wasting of 4.9 (SD=3.9)mm, p <.001 in the brachial biceps and 5.6 (SD=4.8)mm, p <.001 in the quadriceps rectus. Regression analysis selected the length of stay and the muscle relaxants are the most influential variables in the brachial biceps muscle wasting (R2=0.4), and length of stay as the most influential in the quadriceps rectus muscle wasting (R2=0.3). Patient's mean body weight on admission was of 81.1 (SD=15)kg and 81.2 (SD=14.2)kg on discharge, p=.95. The critically ill patient presents a significant muscle waste related with the length of stay and the treatment received with muscle relaxants. Patients are being discharged with a similar body weight to which they were admitted but with a significant reduction of muscle mass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.
This study was carried out to determine the body weight perception of Igbo people in University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) community. The study evaluated the body weight perception among age groups and sex categories of UNN staff and students. It examined the relationship between perception of body weight among the ...
Mass and weight: two rather commonplace phenomena on the surface of it, but would you be able to explain the difference between them? And do you know how gravity works? If you let go of a paperclip and an apple at the same time, which of the two will hit the floor first? At the next Discovery Monday scientists will introduce you to these concepts that are often rather difficult to get to grips with. Find out what kind of particles are thought to be responsible for mass and gravity. Get to know the graviton, a particle that has yet to be observed, has no mass or charge but is thought to be a messenger particle for gravity. You will also encounter the famous Higgs boson, which scientists believe could elucidate the mystery of mass and hope to discover with the LHC. An evening for tackling some very weighty questions... The event will be conducted in French. Join us at Microcosm (Reception, Building 33, Meyrin site), on Monday 6 March from 7.30 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Entrance Free http://www.cern.ch/LundisDeco...
Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo
Background Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. Objective We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity–body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). Design This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n = 411; organs = 76) and the other a larger DXA database (n = 1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Results Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of ≈2 (all P 2 (2.31–2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with height in women. AT scaled weakly to height with powers of ≈2, and adiposity was independent of height. Brain mass scaled to height with a power of 0.83 (P = 0.04) in men and nonsignificantly in women; the fraction of weight as brain was inversely related to height in women (P = 0.002). Conclusions These observations suggest that short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies. PMID:17616766
Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo
Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity-body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n=411; organs=76) and the other a larger DXA database (n=1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of approximately 2 (all P2 (2.31-2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with height in women. AT scaled weakly to height with powers of approximately 2, and adiposity was independent of height. Brain mass scaled to height with a power of 0.83 (P=0.04) in men and nonsignificantly in women; the fraction of weight as brain was inversely related to height in women (P=0.002). These observations suggest that short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies.
maturation. It also provides indicators of nutritional status and health risk and may be diagnostic of obesity (WHO, 1976). Adolescent anthropometry varies significantly worldwide (Eveleth and Tanner,. 1990). Body mass index (BMI) is a numerical index which is calculated by dividing weight (Kg) by the square of height (m).
Rzehak, Peter; Wijga, Alet H; Keil, Thomas
The causal link between body mass index (BMI) or obesity and asthma in children is still being debated. Analyses of large longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of incident cases and in which the time-dependent processes of both excess weight and asthma development can be validly analyzed ...
Morrissey, Taryn W.; Dunifon, Rachel E.; Kalil, Ariel
Previous work has shown that mothers' employment is associated with increases in children's body mass index (BMI), a measure of weight for height. Nonstandard work (working evenings or nights, weekends, or an irregular shift) may also be associated with children's BMI. This article examines the association between maternal work and children's BMI…
Larsen, Anne-Mette; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit
To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships....
Noha Abdel Kader Abdel Kader Hasan
Feb 1, 2016 ... time to fatigue to evaluate endurance time. The results: A significant distinction in muscle strength and endurance time among the obese, overweight groups comparing to the normal weight groups was identified. Additionally there was a positive correlation between muscle strength and body mass index ...
Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Body mass index (BMI is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform method of screening for weight status, which may have detrimental health consequences. The aim of our study was to assess the pattern of BMI among Nigerian adolescent secondary school girls and determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among them.
Índice de massa corporal e ganho de peso gestacional como fatores preditores de complicações e do desfecho da gravidez Body mass index and gestational weight gain as factors predicting complications and pregnancy outcome
Carla Vitola Gonçalves
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto do índice de massa corporal (IMC no início da gestação e do ganho de peso no desfecho gestacional, para que esta medida possa ser implantada e valorizada pelos serviços de saúde de pré-natal. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base populacional. Na pesquisa, foram incluídos todos os nascimentos ocorridos nas duas únicas maternidades do município do Rio Grande (RS, em 2007. Dentre as 2.557 puérperas entrevistadas, o cálculo do IMC só pôde ser realizado em 1.117 puérperas. A análise foi realizada no programa Stata 11. Nos desfechos hipertensão, diabetes mellitus, trabalho de parto prematuro e cesárea foi realizada regressão logística. No caso do peso ao nascer, o ajuste ocorreu pela regressão logística multinomial, tendo como categoria base o grupo de 2.500 a 4.000 g. Em todas as análises foi adotado valor pPURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI at the beginning of pregnancy and weight gain on pregnancy outcome so that this measure can be implemented and valued by prenatal care health services. METHOD: Cross-sectional population-based study of all births in the only two hospitals in Rio Grande city (Brazil, in 2007. Among the 2,557 mothers interviewed, it was possible to calculate BMI in only 1,117. The Stata 11 software was used for data analysis. Logist regression was applied to the outomes involving diabetes mellitus, premature labor and cesarean section. Regarding birth weight, data were adjusted by multinomial logistic regression using as base category the group of 2,500 to 4,000 g. The level of significance was set at p-value <0.05 in a two-tailed test. RESULTS: There was no increased risk of hypertension or diabetes in patients in the different groups of BMI and weight gain. The risk of preterm delivery was evident in the group with a weight gain ≤8 kg (p<0.05. Regarding the route of delivery, it was observed that the higher the BMI in early pregnancy (p=0.001 and the greater
326. Associations between body mass index and serum levels of. C-reactive protein. Tung-Wei Kao, I-Shu Lu, Kuo-Chen Liao, Hsiu-Yun Lai, Ching-Hui Loh, Hsu-Ko .... Weight was measured with a Toledo digital scale and recorded to the nearest 0.01 kg. BMI was calculated as mass in kilograms divided by the square of ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age at castration, type of birth and sex on body weight, body linear measurements and correlation between body weight and body length, chest length, height-at-withers, facial length and fore and hind leg lengths of semi-intensively managed Savanna Brown goats.
Bjerregaard, Lise G; Rasmussen, K M; Michaelsen, Kim F.
Background:Weight and weight gain throughout infancy are related to later obesity, but whether the strength of the associations varies during the infancy period is uncertain.Aims:Our aims were to identify the period of infancy when change in body weight has the strongest association with adult body...... mass index (BMI) and also the extent to which these associations during infancy are mediated through childhood BMI.Methods:The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, in which participants were followed from birth through 42 years of age, provided information on weight at 12 months and BMI at 42 years for 1633...... individuals. Information on weight at birth, 2 weeks, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 months was retrieved from health visitors' records and information on BMI at ages 7 and 13 years from school health records. The associations of infant weight and weight gain standard deviation scores (SDS) with adult BMI-SDS were analyzed...
Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD between boys and girls (P < 0.05. There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children.
Full Text Available The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS to estimate African body weight perception.Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI, overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype. To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS, desired body size (DBS and provide a "body self-satisfaction index." This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians.The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the "body self-satisfaction index." The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews.The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its reliability for estimating body weight
Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick
Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its
Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang
Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28(th) days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28(th) day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. By the 28(th) day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting in healthy individuals.
Brouwer, Cornelia A J; Gietema, Jourik A; Vonk, Judith M; Tissing, W J E; Boezen, Hendrika M; Zwart, Nynke; Postma, Aleida
PURPOSE: Evaluation of body mass index (BMI) at final height (FH) and annual BMI increase in adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) after treatment with anthracyclines, platinum, and/or radiotherapy. METHODS: BMI (weight/height²) was calculated retrospectively from diagnosis until FH. The prevalence
Pereira, Elza; Lacerda, Fernanda; Valador, Natacha; Ferro-Lebres, Vera; Arroyo, Marta
Objective: To evaluate body image perception and compare with real measures of body composition between overweight/obese and normal weight women college students. Subjects: The reported sample included 600 students from Portugal and Spain. Material and Methods: The anthropometry variables: weight, height, skinfolds, circumferences and body mass index, waist-hip ratio, percentage of body fat and fat-free mass- FFM were compared with reference values. The body image perception an...
The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on weight gain in pregnancy suggested that maternal weight on average increased by 0.5-2.0 kg in the first trimester of pregnancy. This study examined whether mean maternal weight or body composition changes in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. POPULATION: We studied 1,000 Caucasian women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. SETTING: Large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Maternal height and weight were measured digitally in a standardized way and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Maternal body composition was measured using segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). Sonographic examination confirmed the gestational age and a normal ongoing singleton pregnancy in all subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal weight, maternal body composition. RESULTS: The mean BMI was 25.7 kg\\/m(2) and 19.0% of the women were in the obese category (> or =30.0 kg\\/m(2)). Cross-sectional analysis by gestational age showed that there was no change in mean maternal weight, BMI, total body water, fat mass, fat-free mass or bone mass before 14 weeks gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, mean maternal weight and mean body composition values remain unchanged in the first trimester of pregnancy. This has implications for guidelines on maternal weight gain during pregnancy. We also recommend that calculation of BMI in pregnancy and gestational weight gain should be based on accurate early pregnancy measurements, and not on self-reported or prepregnancy measurements.
Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.
Quintero, P; Milagro, F I; Campión, J; Martínez, J A
Obesity is nowadays a major public health problem. The World Health Organization reported that globally 400 million adults are obese, and the situation seems to raise in the future. Furthermore, obesity is a major risk factor for a number of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, several studies have reported that appetite suppression and body weight loss are frequently observed at high altitude. This observation has opened some possibilities for losing weight under hypoxia or living in altitude. Nevertheless, the triggering mechanisms for the decrease in energy intake in hypoxic conditions still remain unclear as well as the impact on body mass components. On the other hand, obese subjects often present a chronic inflammatory state on the adipose tissue that might have a strong relationship with onset and development of obesity-related diseases. Thus, it has been consistently reported that adipose tissue of obese subjects is poorly oxygenated and that this hypoxia state is a new potential risk factor for the chronic inflammation in obesity. In this sense, oxygen therapy is a common technique used in current medicine for the treatment of several diseases, while animal studies have demonstrated that treatment with hyperoxia produces some beneficial effects in different diseases related with lack of oxygen in several organs. In this article, we review the role of oxygen availability in body weight homeostasis and hypothesize the possible applicability of hypoxia and hyperoxia for the treatment of obesity and related disorders.
Nguyen, Mary M N; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Melhorn, Susan J; Ma, Li Y; Gardner, Stacy R; Sakai, Randall R
The visible burrow system (VBS) is a model used to study chronic social stress in colony-housed rats. A hierarchy develops among the males resulting in dominant (DOM) and subordinate (SUB) animals. Hierarchy-associated changes in body weight, body composition, behavior, and neuroendocrine measures have been observed. After 14 d of VBS housing, SUB animals have decreased body weight, elevated corticosterone, and decreased testosterone (T), compared with DOM animals and controls, placing SUB animals in an ideal endocrine state to regain lost body weight as adipose tissue. It is hypothesized that maintaining constant androgen concentrations in SUB males during stress will prevent body weight loss by maintaining more lean body mass. To test this, animals were gonadectomized and implanted with SILASTIC implants containing T, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or cholesterol. Implants maintained constant physiological levels of T. Standard intact, T, and DHT implant colonies formed hierarchies, whereas cholesterol colonies did not. Androgen manipulations significantly altered offensive and defensive behaviors only on the first day of VBS housing. After VBS stress, intact, T, and DHT SUB animals weighed less and lost more adipose and lean tissue than DOM and control males, whereas DOM animals primarily lost adipose tissue. However, on recovery, DHT SUB animals maintained more lean tissue than intact SUB animals. Oral glucose tolerance tests revealed that glucose clears faster in stressed T-implanted males that have increased adipose tissue. Overall, these data suggest that constant androgen concentrations in SUB animals do not prevent weight loss and changes in body composition during stress but do so during recovery.
Crovesy, L; Ostrowski, M; Ferreira, D M T P; Rosado, E L; Soares-Mota, M
Gut microbiota is important for maintaining body weight. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics may result in weight loss and thus help in obesity treatment. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus on weight loss and/or fat mass in overweight adults. A search was performed on the Medline (PubMed) and Scopus electronic databases using the search terms: 'probiotics', 'Lactobacillus, 'obesity', 'body weight changes', 'weight loss', 'overweight', 'abdominal obesity', 'body composition', 'body weight', 'body fat' and 'fat mass'. In the total were found 1567 articles, but only 14 were included in this systematic review. Of these nine showed decreased body weight and/or body fat, three did not find effect and two showed weight gain. Results suggest that the beneficial effects are strain dependent. It can highlight that Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus when combined with a hypocaloric diet, L. plantarum with Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei with phenolic compounds, and multiple species of Lactobacillus.
Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy
Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.
Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy
Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007
Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas
Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)).......Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....
McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.
A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…
Fang, Hai; Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A
An inverse relationship between smoking and body weight has been documented in the medical literature, but the effect of cigarette smoking on obesity remains inconclusive. In addition, the evidence is mixed on whether rising obesity rates are an unintended consequence of successful anti-smoking policies. This study re-examines these relationships using data from China, the largest consumer and manufacturer of tobacco in the world that is also experiencing a steady rise in obesity rates. We focus on the impact of the total number of cigarettes smoked per day on individuals' body mass index (BMI) and on the likelihood of being overweight and obese. Instrumental variables estimation is used to correct for the endogeneity of cigarette smoking. We find a moderate negative and significant relationship between cigarette smoking and BMI. Smoking is also negatively related to being overweight and obese, but the marginal effects are small and statistically insignificant for being obese. Quantile regression analyses reveal that the association between smoking and BMI is quite weak among subjects whose BMIs are at the high end of the distribution but are considerably stronger among subjects in the healthy weight range. Ordered probit regression analyses also confirm these findings. Our results thus reconcile an inverse average effect of smoking on body weight with the absence of any significant effect on obesity. From a policy perspective these findings suggest that, while smoking cessation may lead to moderate weight gain among subjects of healthy weight, the effects on obese subjects are modest and should not be expected to lead to a large increase in obesity prevalence rates.
Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM
This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing
Holecki, Michał; Wiecek, Andrzej
The protective effect of obesity on bone tissue has not been unequivocally demonstrated. On one hand, it is known that obese people have a lower risk of osteoporotic fractures compared with normal-weight individuals. On the other hand, obese patients are characterized by disorders of calcium-phosphate homeostasis and bone metabolism. Moreover, it is not known whether it is fat or lean body mass that determines the development of bone mass. It can be assumed that adipose tissue exerts independent effects on bone remodeling by releasing a number of biologically active substances. Moreover, it seems that the main mechanism of action of these substances is closely related to the type and location of adipose tissue in the body. The present article describes the relationship between fat and bones, including the effect of body weight on bone tissue, the local mechanisms of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation, and the hormonal activity of adipose tissue.
Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.
Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…
Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa
Examines the hypothesis that early adolescent girls (N=175) with more negative weight-related body images would report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that the more subjective and personal measures of weight-related body image discontent (weight dissatisfaction and weight concerns) were associated with increased depressive…
The rats fed raw kudzu and negative control diet showed negative mean weight changes(- 6.50g and -10.0g )while those fed with positive control and treated kudzu diet showed positive mean weight changes with Diets 2(cooked kudzu) and Diet 8(positive control) having the highest values(55.10g and 90.0g).
Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Peinado, Ana B; Zapico, Augusto G; Calderón, Franciso J
The main concern of the people who follow a weight loss program is the body weight loss, independently of the body composition. The aim of this study was to create a mathematical model able to discriminate the body weight change based on initial body composition variables. The study included 239 overweight and obese participants (18-50 years; Body Mass Index (BMI)>25 and weight loss, during twenty-four weeks while having 25-30% caloric restriction. Two multivariate discriminant models were performed taking into account the groups below and above the mean body weight change. The discriminant models obtained could discriminate the body weight change with a 65-70% of correct classification. BW, fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM) were shown to be the most discriminant variables for the discriminant models. People having higher FM and FFM at the beginning of an intervention will lose a greater amount of weight until the end of it.
Jung, Eun Young; Cho, Mi Kyoung; Hong, Yang-Hee; Kim, Jae Hwan; Park, Yooheon; Chang, Un Jae; Suh, Hyung Joo
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of yeast hydrolysate on the abdominal fat in obese humans. We observed the effects of yeast hydrolysate that had a molecular weight below 10 kDa on the anti-abdominal fat accumulation in obese men and women ages 20 to 50 y for 10 wk. The abdominal fat mass was assessed by computed tomographic scans. By the sixth week, the reductions in energy intake in the yeast group (yeast hydrolysate 1 g/d) were significantly greater than those in the control group (placebo 1 g/d) (P weight and body mass index (BMI) were significantly reduced by week 10 compared with baseline in the yeast group, and these differences were significantly greater than those in the control group: body weight 0.83 kg versus -2.60 k g (P loss of body weight in the yeast group, lean body mass did not significantly differ between the two groups. Body fat mass in the control group did not significantly change between baseline and week 10. However, the yeast group lost a significant amount of body fat mass after 10 wk of treatment (P weight and the accumulation of abdominal fat without an adverse effect on lean body mass in obese adults, regardless of sex, via the reduction of energy intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mahanta, Lipi B; Choudhury, Manisha; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharya, Arunima
Women, particularly pregnant women, are the most vulnerable population of the society and their health status is one of the major indicators of development. There were enough studies on pre pregnancy body mass index (IPBMI) and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy (IWGP) of women in other part of the world and India, but none in Assam. In Assam a large number of population are in the category of low socio-economic group, a group most vulnerable to under nutrition. Thus this study was framed with the said indicators to throw light on the factors affecting the health status of pregnant women to accordingly address the situation. A cross sectional study using multistage sampling design with probability proportional to size was made comprising of 461 pregnant women belonging to low socio-economic status. Responses regarding their socio-economic, socio-cultural, health, diet and environmental background were collected and coded. The study revealed that although IPBMI (34.06%) was slightly lower than the reported state, national and global percentage the revealed IWGP (82%) was an astounding figure. The blood samples analyzed showed a high degree of inadequacy in almost all micronutrients (iron 63.1%, calcium 49.5% and copper 39.9%) studied in our survey.
The circulating concentration and ratio of total and high molecular weight adiponectin in post-menopausal women with and without osteoporosis and its association with body mass index and biochemical markers of bone metabolism.
Sodi, R; Hazell, M J; Durham, B H; Rees, C; Ranganath, L R; Fraser, W D
There is increasing evidence suggesting that adiponectin plays a role in the regulation of bone metabolism. This was a cross-sectional study of 34 post-menopausal women with and 37 without osteoporosis. All subjects had body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), total-, high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin and their ratio, osteoprotegerin (OPG), a marker of bone resorption (betaCTX) and formation (P1NP) measured. We observed a positive correlation between BMI and BMD (r=0.44, p<0.001). When normalised for BMI, total-, HMW-adiponectin concentrations and HMW/total-adiponectin ratio were significantly lower in obese compared to lean subjects but there was no difference between those with or without osteoporosis. There were significant negative correlations between HMW/total-adiponectin ratio and BMI (r=-0.27, p=0.030) and with OPG (r=-0.44, p<0.001). Our data suggests that there is no significant difference in the circulating concentration of fasting early morning total- or HMW-adiponectin in post-menopausal women with or without osteoporosis. The correlation between HMW/total-adiponectin ratio and OPG may indicate that adiponectin could influence bone metabolism by altering osteoblast production of OPG thereby affecting osteoclasts mediated bone resorption.
Mchiza, Zandile J; Parker, Whadi-Ah; Makoae, Mokhantso; Sewpaul, Ronel; Kupamupindi, Takura; Labadarios, Demetre
South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of data were undertaken for 6 411 South Africans (15+ years) participating in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body image was investigated in relation to weight status and attempts to lose or gain weight. Data were analysed using STATA version 11.0. Descriptive statistics are presented as counts (numbers), percentages, means, standard error of means, and 95 % confidence intervals. Any differences in values were considered to be significantly different if the confidence intervals did not overlap. Overall, 84.5 % participants had a largely distorted body image and 45.3 % were highly dissatisfied about their body size. Overweight and obese participants under estimated their body size and desired to be thinner. On the other hand, normal- and under-weight participants over estimated their body size and desired to be fatter. Only 12.1 and 10.1 % of participants attempted to lose or gain weight, respectively, mainly by adjusting dietary intake and physical activity. Body mass index appears to influence body image and weight adjustment in South Africa. South Africans at the extreme ends of the body mass index range have a largely distorted body image and are highly dissatisfied by it. This suggests a need for health education and beneficial weight control strategies to halt the obesity epidemic in the country.
Mosca, Luciana Nunes; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; da Silva, Valéria Nóbrega; da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Bisi Rizzo, Anapaula C; Corrente, José Eduardo
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of excess body fat on bone mass in overweight, obese, and extremely obese adolescents. This study included 377 adolescents of both sexes, ages 10 to 19 y. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), bone age, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were obtained by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The results were adjusted for chronological age and bone age. Comparisons according to nutritional classification were performed by analysis of variance, followed by Tukey test. Linear regression models were used to explain the variation in BMD and BMC in the L1-L4 lumbar spinal region, proximal femur, and whole body in relation to BMI, lean mass, fat mass (FM), and body fat percentage (BF%), considering P bone age was higher than chronological age. In both sexes, weight and BMI values increased from eutrophic to extremely obese groups, except for BMD and BMC, which did not differ among male adolescents, and were smaller in extremely obese than in obese female adolescents (P bone sites analyzed in males and between BF% and spine and femur BMD, in females. The results reveal a negative effect of BF% on bone mass in males and indicate that the higher the BF% among overweight adolescents, the lower the BMD and BMC values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dumesnil, C; Dauchet, L; Ruidavets, J B; Bingham, A; Arveiler, D; Ferrières, J; Ducimetière, P; Haas, B; Bongard, V; Wagner, A; Amouyel, P; Dallongeville, J
The impact of alcohol on health depends on both the total amount ingested per week and the drinking pattern. Our goal was to assess the relationship between drinking occasions and anthropometric indicators of adiposity. For this cross-sectional study, 7,855 men aged 50-59 years were recruited between 1991 and 1993 in France. Clinical and anthropometric data were obtained in a standardized clinical examination by trained staff. Alcohol intake was assessed by a questionnaire recording daily consumption of each type of alcohol during a typical week. 75% of the participants drank alcohol daily (264.7 ml per week). For a given total alcohol intake and after adjustment of confounders, the number of drinking episodes was inversely correlated with body mass index (p 280 ml/week), the intake was almost always daily. The results were similar for wine and beer consumption. Our findings suggest that drinking occasion is a risk indicator of obesity independent of total alcohol intake. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q
The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Pweight. Comparing extreme tertiles, the multivariate-adjusted weight loss±s.e. was -3.87±0.9 vs -5.39±0.9 kg for free T3 (Ptrend=0.02) and -4.09±0.9 vs -5.88±0.9 kg for free T4 (Ptrend=0.004). The thyroid hormones did not predict weight regain in 6-24 months. A similar pattern of associations was also observed between baseline thyroid hormones and changes in RMR. In addition, changes in free T3 and total T3 levels were positively associated with changes in body weight, RMR, body fat mass, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all Pweight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4
You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja
Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.
Paxton, S J; Damiano, S R
Negative body image attitudes are related to the onset of disordered eating, poor self-esteem, general mental health problems, and obesity. In this chapter, we will review the nature of body image attitudes in girls and boys in early (approximately 3-7 years old) and later childhood (approximately 8-11 years old). The body image attitudes explored in this chapter include body image attitudes related to the self, with a focus on body dissatisfaction, and body image attitudes related to others, with a focus on weight bias. Issues of measurement of body image and weight bias will first be explored. In light of measurement considerations, the prevalence and predictors of body dissatisfaction and related concerns, and weight bias will be examined. The chapter will conclude with a review of promising directions in the prevention of body dissatisfaction and weight bias in children. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frost, Lars; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Pedersen, Asger; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim
Objective It is recognized that higher height and weight are associated with higher risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF) but it is unclear whether risk of AF is related to body fat, body fat location, or lean body mass. Design and Methods We studied the Danish population-based prospective cohort Diet, Cancer and Health conducted among 55 273 men and women 50-64 years of age at recruitment. We investigated the associations between bioelectrical impedance derived measures of body composition and combinations of anthropometric measures of body fat distribution and risk of an incident record of AF in the Danish Registry of Patients. Results During follow-up (median 13.5 years) AF developed in 1 669 men and 912 women. Higher body fat at any measured location was associated with higher risk of AF. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per 1 sex-specific standard deviation (SD) increment in body fat mass was 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.33). Higher lean body mass was also associated with a higher risk of AF. The adjusted HR for 1 sex-specific SD increment was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.35-1.45). Conclusion Higher body fat and higher lean body mass were both associated with higher risk of AF. PMID:24436019
Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A
Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice.
Ablove, Tova; Binkley, Neil; Leadley, Sarah; Shelton, James; Ablove, Robert
Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to predict obesity in clinical practice because it is suggested to closely correlate with percent body fat (%BF). With aging, women lose both lean mass and height. Because of this, many clinicians question whether BMI is an accurate predictor of obesity in aging women. In evaluating the equation for BMI (weight/height(2)), it is clear that both variables can have a dramatic effect on BMI calculation. We evaluated the relationship between BMI and %BF, as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, in the setting of age-related changes in height loss and body composition in women. Our objective is to determine whether BMI continues to correlate with %BF as women age. Study participants were identified using data from five osteoporosis clinical trials, where healthy participants had full-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. Deidentified data from 274 women aged between 35 and 95 years were evaluated. %BF, weight, age, tallest height, actual height, and appendicular lean mass were collected from all participants. BMI was calculated using the actual height and the tallest height of each study participant. %BF was compared with BMI and stratified for age. BMI calculated using the tallest height and BMI calculated using actual height both had strong correlations with %BF. Surprisingly, the effects of changes in height and lean body mass balance each other out in BMI calculation. There continues to be a strong correlation between BMI and %BF in adult women as they age.
Full Text Available Introduction: Excess body weight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25.00 kg/m2 is an established risk factor for diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but its relationship to cancer is lesser-known. This study used population attributable fractions (PAFs to estimate the cancer burden attributable to excess body weight in Canadian adults (aged 25+ years in 2010. Methods: We estimated PAFs using relative risk (RR estimates from the World Cancer Research Fund International Continuous Update Project, BMI-based estimates of overweight (25.00 kg/m2–29.99 kg/m2 and obesity (30.00+ kg/m2 from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey, and cancer case counts from the Canadian Cancer Registry. PAFs were based on BMI corrected for the bias in self-reported height and weight. Results: In Canada in 2010, an estimated 9645 cancer cases were attributable to excess body weight, representing 5.7% of all cancer cases (males 4.9%, females 6.5%. When limiting the analysis to types of cancer associated with high BMI, the PAF increased to 14.9% (males 17.5%, females 13.3%. Types of cancer with the highest PAFs were esophageal adenocarcinoma (42.2%, kidney (25.4%, gastric cardia (20.7%, liver (20.5%, colon (20.5% and gallbladder (20.2% for males, and esophageal adenocarcinoma (36.1%, uterus (35.2%, gallbladder (23.7% and kidney (23.0% for females. Types of cancer with the greatest number of attributable cases were colon (1445, kidney (780 and advanced prostate (515 for males, and uterus (1825, postmenopausal breast (1765 and colon (675 for females. Irrespective of sex or type of cancer, PAFs were highest in the Prairies (except Alberta and the Atlantic region and lowest in British Columbia and Quebec. Conclusion: The cancer burden attributable to excess body weight is substantial and will continue to rise in the near future because of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canada.
Vanderburgh, P M; Dooman, C
Allometric modeling (AM) has been used to determine the world's strongest body mass-adjusted man. Recently, however, AM was shown to demonstrate body mass bias in elite Olympic weightlifting performance. A second order polynomial (2OP) provided a better fit than AM with no body mass bias for men and women. The purpose of this study was to apply both AM and 2OP models to women's world powerlifting records (more a function of pure strength and less power than Olympic lifts) to determine the optimal model approach as well as the strongest body mass-adjusted woman in each event. Subjects were the 36 (9 per event) current women world record holders (as of Nov., 1997) for bench press (BP), deadlift (DL), squat (SQ), and total (TOT) lift (BP + DL + SQ) according to the International Powerlifting Federation (IPF). The 2OP model demonstrated the superior fit and no body mass bias as indicated by the coefficient of variation and residuals scatterplot inspection, respectively, for DL, SQ, and TOT. The AM for these three lifts, however, showed favorable bias toward the middle weight classes. The 2OP and AM yielded an essentially identical fit for BP. Although body mass-adjusted world records were dependent on the model used, Carrie Boudreau (U.S., 56-kg weight class), who received top scores in TOT and DL with both models, is arguably the world's strongest woman overall. Furthermore, although the 2OP model provides a better fit than AM for this elite population, a case can still be made for AM use, particularly in light of theoretical superiority.
Irwin, Melinda L; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; Cadmus, Lisa; Mierzejewski, Eileen; Mayne, Susan T.; Yu, Herbert; Chung, Gina G.; Jones, Beth; Knobf, M. Tish; DiPietro, Loretta
Given the negative effects of a breast cancer diagnosis and its treatments on body weight and bone mass, we investigated the effects of a 6-month randomized controlled aerobic exercise intervention vs. usual care on body composition in breast cancer survivors. Secondary aims were to examine the effects stratified by important prognostic and physiologic variables. Seventy-five physically inactive postmenopausal breast cancer survivors were recruited through the Yale-New Haven Hospital Tumor Re...
Sareen S. Gropper
Full Text Available Differences in weight, body mass index (BMI, percent and absolute body fat, fat-free mass, and waist circumference were investigated in a group of males and females during the first three years (from 2007 to 2010 of college. Significant three-year gains were observed for weight 2.1±4.7 kg, BMI 0.7±1.6 kg/m2, percent body fat 2.7±3.3%, and fat mass 2.3±3.5 kg. A significant loss of fat-free mass, −0.5 kg, was observed among females. Absolute gains in weight, BMI, and percent and absolute body fat were highest during the freshman year, followed by the junior year, and lowest during the sophomore year. Among the 70% of students gaining weight over the three years, weight gain averaged 4.3 kg. The numbers of females with over 30% body fat doubled, and the number of males with over 20% body fat increased fivefold. Initially 15% of students were classified as obese/overweight and 79% normal weight; by the end of the junior year, 24% were obese/overweight and 70% were normal weight. Efforts on college campuses to promote healthy lifestyles among its student population are needed throughout the college years.
Santos, Carla Fernandez Dos; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Tavares, Letícia Ferreira
The aim of the study was to examine the correlation among different indicators of body image; between each one of these and nutritional status; and the association of these indicators with the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adolescents. A random sample of 152 students from public and private schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied. On four occasions, two silhouette scales and two questions regarding the opinion of the student about his/her body and weight were applied and weight and height were measured. The BMI was examined both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. The agreement between the variables was analyzed using the quadratic weighted Kappa statistics. The association between body image variables and BMI was examined by the comparison among median, mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of BMI for each category of the body image variables. In general, the correlation among the body image variables ranged from reasonable to good; between these and the variable nutritional status, correlation ranged from regular to reasonable. Best results were observed among boys and students from private schools. All body image variables showed good discriminatory power for BMI, when it was analyzed as a continuous variable, even when controlling for potential confounders. The question about body seems to be better than that about weight to compose the questionnaire of a surveillance system for risk and protective factors for adolescent health.
Carla Fernandez dos Santos
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the correlation among different indicators of body image; between each one of these and nutritional status; and the association of these indicators with the Body Mass Index (BMI of adolescents. A random sample of 152 students from public and private schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied. On four occasions, two silhouette scales and two questions regarding the opinion of the student about his/her body and weight were applied and weight and height were measured. The BMI was examined both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. The agreement between the variables was analyzed using the quadratic weighted Kappa statistics. The association between body image variables and BMI was examined by the comparison among median, mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of BMI for each category of the body image variables. In general, the correlation among the body image variables ranged from reasonable to good; between these and the variable nutritional status, correlation ranged from regular to reasonable. Best results were observed among boys and students from private schools. All body image variables showed good discriminatory power for BMI, when it was analyzed as a continuous variable, even when controlling for potential confounders. The question about body seems to be better than that about weight to compose the questionnaire of a surveillance system for risk and protective factors for adolescent health.
Full Text Available Lesley M Arnold,1 Robert H Palmer,2 Michael R Hufford,3 Wei Chen21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, 2Medical Affairs, Forest Research Institute Inc, Jersey City, NJ, 3Clinical Development, Cypress Bioscience Inc, San Diego, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia.Methods: Analyses were conducted in the following groups: patients from three double-blind, placebo-controlled milnacipran trials (3 months, n = 2096; 6 months, n = 1008; 354 patients receiving milnacipran in placebo-controlled trials and double-blind extension studies (total ≥ 12 months of treatment; and 1227 patients in a long-term (up to 3.25 years open-label milnacipran study.Results: In placebo-controlled trials, 77% of patients were overweight or obese at baseline (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Mean weight loss was found with milnacipran at 3 months (100 mg/day, —1.14 kg; 200 mg/day, —0.97 kg; placebo, —0.06 kg; P > 0.001 and 6 months (100 mg/day, -1.01 kg; 200 mg/day, -0.71 kg; placebo, —0.04 kg; P > 0.05. Approximately twice as many milnacipran-treated patients had ≥5% weight loss from baseline compared with placebo (3 and 6 months, P > 0.01. In extension studies, mean weight loss in patients receiving ≥12 months of milnacipran was —1.06 kg. In patients receiving ≥3 years of treatment in the open-label study, mean changes at 12, 24, 30, and 36–38 months were —1.16, —0.76, —0.19, and +0.11 kg, respectively. Among milnacipran-treated patients, rates of nausea (the most common adverse event were lower among patients who lost weight than among those who did not (3 months, P = 0.02.Conclusion: The majority of patients with fibromyalgia in the milnacipran studies were overweight or obese. Milnacipran was associated with mean weight loss at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05 versus placebo and at
To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Thinness can have substantial consequences for child development and health. Adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, play a significant role in the regulation of important metabolic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between body composition and serum leptin and adiponectin levels in thin and normal-weight children. Methods: The authors examined 100 healthy prepubertal children, who were divided into two subgroups: thin (n = 50 and normal-weight children (n = 50. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. Results: Thin children had a similar body height but significantly lower (p < 0.0001 body weight, body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content compared with normal-weight children. Serum concentrations of leptin were about 2-fold lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of total adiponectin, adiponectin multimers, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R were similar in both groups. The leptin/soluble leptin receptor ratio and leptin/adiponectin ratios were lower (p < 0.0001 in thin vs. normal-weight children. In both groups of children, it was found that body composition parameters were positively related with leptin but not with adiponectin levels. Additionally, bone mineral content was positively related with body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and leptin level in thin and normal-weight children. Conclusions: Prepubertal thin children have disturbances in body composition and adipokine profile. Early recognition of thinness and determination of body composition parameters and adipokine levels can be useful in medical and nutritional care of thin children for the optimization of bone mineral accrual.
Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.
Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)
Peterson, M.E.; Castellano, C.A.; Rishniw, M.
Background The contribution of fat loss versus muscle wasting to the loss of body weight seen in hyperthyroid cats is unknown. Objectives To investigate body weight, body condition score (BCS), and muscle condition score (MCS) in hyperthyroid cats. Animals Four hundred sixty?two cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 117 of which were reevaluated after treatment. Methods Prospective cross?sectional and before?after studies. Untreated hyperthyroid cats had body composition evaluated (body weight...
Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P
By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul
Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD. PMID:24917848
Full Text Available Typical body weight changes are known to occur in PD. Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake and expenditure in PD.
Christensen, Heidi M.; Schou, Morten; Goetze, Jens P
Low body mass index (BMI) is associated with a poor outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF). An inverse association between BMI and adiponectin and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether novel markers...
Shirley, Shelby; Davis, Leslie L; Carlson, Barbara Waag
The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature on the relationship between obesity and survival in persons with heart failure (HF). In particular, the article examines the ways in which studies define body size/composition (body mass index [BMI], body composition, weight, cachexia, fluid retention, or albumin) and the relationship of BMI and survival after controlling for factors such as HF severity, etiology of the HF, gender, race, age, and/or time since HF diagnosis. The keywords heart failure and body mass index, heart failure and obesity, and heart failure and body composition were indexed in PubMed. Articles published from 1999 to 2006 that used multivariate analyses to examine the relationship between obesity and survival in persons with HF were included in the review. BMI is the standard most often used for measuring body weight in patients with HF. Yet, BMI does not address other major components of body weight (fat, lean body mass, and fluid) that may factor into the mortality of patients with HF. Four of the six studies reviewed reported a positive relationship between obesity and improved survival. However, the studies are limited by design, with the majority being cross-sectional. Furthermore, most of the data were collected through secondary data analysis from patient records in the 1990s, before contemporary HF treatment was used. Until further research solidifies a clear association between higher BMIs and improved survival in patients with HF, nurse practitioners and others should continue to counsel their patients with HF who are overweight to lose weight. Assessing BMI alone as a predictor of survival for patients with HF may be misleading and should be performed in the context of other factors. Moreover, care should be taken in managing patients with HF who are cachexic because these patients have a worrisome prognosis.
Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James
Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…
Hamdy, Rana F; Turner, Zahava; Pyzik, Paula L; Kossoff, Eric H
The ketogenic diet is carefully calculated by dietitians in an effort to achieve the child's ideal body weight, theoretically to improve seizure control. This study researched whether achieving a stable body mass index or ideal body mass index-for-age correlates with efficacy with the traditional ketogenic diet. The outcomes of 123 children started on the ketogenic diet were analyzed at clinic visits 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after diet onset. Children who were at 40% to 59% body mass index-for-age did not have higher efficacy than those at a higher or lower body mass index-for-age, except at the 12-month clinic visit (81% versus 48%; P = .02). No clear link was demonstrated between either an ideal body mass index or changes in the body mass index and seizure control in the management of children receiving a ketogenic diet. Attributing changes in seizure control to a rapid weight gain or loss may be unjustified.
Mak, Kwok-Kei; Pang, Joyce S; Lai, Ching-Man; Ho, Roger C
This study examined the associations of body esteem with gender, age, and Body Mass Index (BMI) among 905 Hong Kong adolescents using the Body-Esteem Scale (BES). Older age, male gender and lower BMI were associated with better body esteem. Multiple regression analyses indicated significant main effects of gender, age and weight on BES-Total. Significant interaction effects of gender × BMI and gender × age × BMI were also found on BES-Weight (beta = -0.149, p = .028) and BES-Total (beta = -0.139, p = .044). Improvement of body esteem with age may be associated with age-related BMI differences.
Lee, J.S.; Visser, M.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Schwartz, A.; Sahyoun, N.; Harris, T.B.; Newman, A.B.
BackgroundOlder adults are less able to conserve lean mass relative to fat mass with weight change. A cycle of weight loss and regain in an older individual could accelerate sarcopenia. We examined whether older adults experiencing weight loss and regain would show a greater loss of lean mass during
Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío
The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles.
Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Meiner, Vardiella; Sagy, Yael; Avgil-Tsadok, Meytal; Burger, Ayala; Savitsky, Bella; Siscovick, David S.; Manor, Orly
Background Accumulating evidence demonstrates that both maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (mppBMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with adult offspring adiposity. However, whether these maternal attributes are related to other cardio-metabolic risk factors in adulthood has not been comprehensively studied. Methods and Results We used a birth cohort of 1400 young adults born in Jerusalem, with extensive archival data as well as clinical information at age 32, to prospectively examine the associations of mppBMI and GWG with adiposity and related cardio-metabolic outcomes. Greater mppBMI, independent of GWG and confounders, was significantly associated with higher offspring BMI, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic BP, insulin and triglycerides and with lower HDL-C. For example, the effect sizes were translated to nearly 5kg/m2 higher mean BMI, 8.4cm higher WC, 0.13mmol/L (11.4mg/dL) higher triglycerides and 0.10mmol/L (3.8mg/dL) lower HDL-C among offspring of mothers within the upper mppBMI quartile (BMI>26.4kg/m2) compared to the lower (BMI14kg) and lower (GWG<9kg) quartiles of GWG were compared. Further adjustment for offspring adiposity attenuated to null the observed associations. Conclusions Maternal size both before and during pregnancy are associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adult offspring. The associations appear to be driven mainly by offspring adiposity. Future studies that explore mechanisms underlying the intergenerational cycle of obesity are warranted to identify potentially novel targets for cardio-metabolic risk-reduction interventions. PMID:22344037
Nissen, Mary Jo; Shapiro, Alice; Swenson, Karen K
This study aimed to identify predictors of changes in weight and body composition among women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Data were from 49 women age 40-54 receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Weight, height, and body composition measurements from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning were completed at baseline (within 1 month of beginning chemotherapy) and 12 months. Caloric intake was assessed from food diaries at baseline, 6 and 12 months, and physical activity was measured by questionnaire at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Baseline body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with gains in weight (P = .01) and fat mass in torso (P = .006). Women of normal weight gained an average of 4.3 pounds and increased fat mass in torso and arms. Overweight women lost 3.0 pounds, and obese women lost 4.1 pounds, and neither group increased body fat. Decreased physical activity was associated with weight gain (P = .047). Additional predictors of increased fat mass in torso were younger age (P = .023) and treatment with tamoxifen (P = .015). Predictors of loss of bone mineral content included older age (P = .004) and treatment with aromatase inhibitor (P = .024), whereas treatment with bisphosphonate prevented bone loss (P Women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer who are of normal weight at the time of breast cancer diagnosis are more likely to gain weight and body fat during the following year than overweight or obese women.
Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity
Mommsen, Søren; Foldspang, Anders
The aim of the present investigation was to study the possible role of obesity in the etiology of adult female urinary incontinence (UI). A random population sample of 3,114 women aged 30–59 years were mailed a questionnaire concerning UI and, among other things, body weight and height. The overall...... rate of response was 85%, and the present analysis comprises 2,589 women who supplied information about their body weight and height. The period prevalence of all UI, stress UI, urge UI, and mixed stress and urge UI was 17%, 15%, 9%, and 7%, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.7 kg/m2....... Irrespective of other risk indicators, BMI was positively associated with UI prevalence (OR, 1.07/BMI unit; Pstress UI prevalence, with cystitis in predicting urge UI, and with both in predicting mixed UI. Stress UI proved to be the UI type most closely...
Magee, C A; Caputi, P; Iverson, D C
Recent studies have identified distinct trajectories of obesity development in children, but more research is required to further explore these trajectories. Several socio-demographic variables such as parental education and obesity are associated with these trajectories. This study further demonstrates that there are distinct trajectories of body mass index in children. The use of raw body mass index values is more sensitive to changes in body composition compared with body mass index categories (e.g. lean vs. overweight). Hence the present results provide a more detailed insight into development patterns of obesity. The socio-demographic predictors of the trajectories offer potential avenues for future obesity interventions. A limited number of studies have demonstrated that there may be distinct developmental trajectories of obesity during childhood. To identify distinct trajectories of body mass index (BMI) in a large sample of Australian children. Participants included 4601 children aged 4-5 years at baseline, who were followed up at ages 6-7 years, 8-9 years and 10-11 years. Height and weight were measured at each of these time points, and used to calculate BMI. Growth Mixture Modelling was used to identify the presence of distinct BMI trajectories. Four distinct trajectories were identified (i) High Risk Overweight; (ii) Early Onset Overweight; (iii) Later Onset Overweight and (iv) Healthy Weight. Further analyses indicated that factors such as parental overweight, parent education, parent smoking and child birth weight were significant predictors of these trajectories. These findings indicate that different patterns of BMI development exist in children, which may require tailored interventions. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Smith, Debbie M.; Ward, Christine; Forbes, Shareen; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Denison, Fiona C.
Objective: Maternal obesity (Body Mass Index [BMI] greater than or equal to 30kg/m([superscript 2]) is associated with numerous maternal and fetal complications. Recent guidelines have called for advice to be given to women as pregnancy is a good time for intervention as due to women's motivations for change being high and changes may impact on…
Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte
The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus...
Knoops, K.T.B.; Slump, E.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Brouwer, M.L.; Staveren, van W.A.
Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics,
Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon Kim; Sobal, Jeffery; Wethington, Elaine
Increasing interest in relationships between religion and health has encouraged research about religion and body weight, which has produced mixed findings. We systematically searched 11 bibliographic databases for quantitative studies of religion and weight, locating and coding 85 studies. We conducted a systematic review, analysing descriptive characteristics of the studies as well as relevant religion-body weight associations related to study characteristics. We summarized findings for two categories of religion variables: religious affiliation and religiosity. For religious affiliation, we found evidence for significant associations with body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, Seventh-Day Adventists had lower body weight than other denominations in cross-sectional analyses. For religiosity, significant associations occurred between greater religiosity and higher body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, greater religiosity was significantly associated with higher body weight in bivariate analyses but less so in multivariate analyses. A greater proportion of studies that used a representative sample, longitudinal analyses, and samples with only men reported significant associations between religiosity and weight. Evidence in seven studies suggested that health behaviours and psychosocial factors mediate religion-weight relationships. More longitudinal studies and analyses of mediators are needed to provide stronger evidence and further elucidate religion-weight relationships. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
BROWN, RUTH E; CANNING, KARISSA L; FUNG, MICHAEL; JIANDANI, DISHAY; RIDDELL, MICHAEL C; MACPHERSON, ALISON K; KUK, JENNIFER L
... meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status...
Full Text Available Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen.
Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut
Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (pboric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear.
Particularly, the relationship between parity, body weight, and some micronutrients has received minimal attention in Nigeria. Aim: To ... KEY WORDS: Africa, body mass index, copper, parity, pregnancy, zinc. Access this article online ..... The Official representation of Social Classes in Britain, the. United States and France: ...
Woods, Stephen C; D'Alessio, David A
.... Evidence Acquisition: A relatively novel insight is that satiation signals that control meal size and adiposity signals that signify the amount of body fat are distinct and interact in the hypothalamus and elsewhere...
Rieu, Isabelle; Derost, Philippe; Ulla, Miguel; Marques, Ana; Debilly, Bérangère; De Chazeron, Ingrid; Chéreau, Isabelle; Lemaire, Jean Jacques; Boirie, Yves; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Durif, Franck
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical technique that has now been available for some 25 years. It is used in the treatment of various motor disorders, e.g. Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and dystonia, and neuropsychiatric illnesses, e.g. obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome. The surgical targets of DBS include the thalamic ventralis intermedius nucleus (Vim), the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and more recently the subthalamic nucleus (STN), currently considered as the reference target in the treatment of PD. In the last ten years, most studies in PD patients have described a rapid and marked weight gain in the months following DBS of the STN. This weight gain sometimes induces obesity and can have metabolic repercussions. The physiopathological mechanisms responsible for the weight gain are multifactorial (changes in energy metabolism and eating behaviour, reduction of motor complications, etc.). This review reports current knowledge concerning weight changes in patients treated by DBS with different surgical targets. It also describes the mechanisms responsible for weight gain and the health outcome for the patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Han Jennifer L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Years spent in college represents a critical time for obesity development though little information is known regarding how body weight and composition changes beyond the first year of college. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in body weight and composition and the factors influencing those changes among sophomore females. Methods Body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was obtained in participants beginning during their freshman year and continued through their sophomore year. Results No difference was observed between sophomore year fall and spring visits for body weight (60.4 versus 60.6 kg or fat mass (19.3 versus 18.7 kg. However, a significant (P ≤ 0.05 decrease was observed for body fat (31.9 versus 30.9 %fat and a significant increase was observed for fat-free mass (37.7 versus 38.4 kg. Participants living off campus significantly (P ≤ 0.05 declined in body fat (33.0 versus 31.0 %fat and fat mass (19.4 versus 18.2 kg and increased in fat-free mass (36.1 versus 37.2 kg with no differences in those living on campus. Conclusion No change in body weight was observed in females during their sophomore year. However, an increase in fat-free mass accompanied with a decrease in fat mass resulted in a decrease in body fat. Participants living off campus had favorable changes in their body composition by means of decreasing %fat and fat mass while increasing fat-free mass. Participants living on campus did not demonstrate these favorable changes.
Kang, K-T; Lee, P-L; Weng, W-C; Hsu, W-C
The relationship between weight status, adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children has not yet been well studied. As the sleep parameters may show a disparity in different weight statuses, this study examined the relationship between the data of over-night polysomnography and different weight statuses, as well as the impact of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on children with OSA. Children with sleep disturbances were recruited from our clinics. Standard physical examinations, history taking, lateral neck roentgenography, and full-night polysomnography were obtained. Children were divided into four groups based on the age- and gender-corrected body mass index (BMI): underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. An adenoidal/nasopharyngeal ratio of more than 0.67 was considered adenoidal hypertrophy. Tonsillar hypertrophy was defined as having Grade III tonsils or above. From July 2006 to January 2009, 197 children were included in this study. Obese children had a significantly higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), obstructive apnea index and lower minimum oxygen saturation (MinSaO(2)) than those of the other groups. Underweight children had the second highest AHI. A negative correlation was also found between BMI z scores and MinSaO(2) (r = -0.194; P = 0.007). Children with tonsillar hypertrophy (P = 0.001) were associated with a higher risk of having OSA. The risk of having OSA was significantly higher in obese children (P = 0.001) and underweight children (P = 0.043) than in those with a normal weight. Obesity, underweight status and tonsillar hypertrophy are associated with children having OSA, and obese children have a significantly higher risk than children with underweight status.
Gottdiener, John S; Kop, W.J.
The metabolic and hemodynamic consequences of obesity, and even overweight, adversely affect the health of millions of individuals across the world and have become a global epidemic.1 Body weight comprises both fat (FM) and fat free (lean) mass (FFM). In older adults, while lean tissue mass is
Sayer, R D; Speaker, K J; Pan, Z; Peters, J C; Wyatt, H R; Hill, J O
The objective of this randomized equivalence trial was to determine the impact of consuming lean beef as part of a high protein (HP) weight-reducing diet on changes in body weight, body composition and cardiometabolic health. A total of 120 adults (99 female) with overweight or obesity (BMI: 35.7 ± 7.0 kg m-2) were randomly assigned to consume either a HP diet with ≥4 weekly servings of lean beef (B; n = 60) or a HP diet restricted in all red meats (NB; n = 60) during a 16-week weight loss intervention. Body weight was reduced by 7.8 ± 5.9% in B and 7.7 ± 5.5% in NB (p equivalent between B and NB (mean difference: 0.06%, 90% confidence interval: (-1.7, 1.8)). Fat mass was reduced in both groups (p mass was not reduced in either group. Improvements in markers of cardiometabolic health (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure) were not different between B and NB. Results of this study demonstrate that HP diets - either rich or restricted in red meat intakes - are effective for decreasing body weight and improving body composition and cardiometabolic health.
Jung, Dahee; Kim, Dami; Park, Joonhee; Lee, Joo Young
Insensible body mass loss (IBL) from the human body continuously occurs, which is an important component in body heat exchange. The purpose of this study was to examine the relevance of IBL to anthropometric characteristics and self-identified thermal tolerance. A total of 289 healthy young Korean males were chosen and sorted into the following three groups: heat tolerable only (HTO, N = 79), cold tolerable only (CTO, N = 104), neither heat nor cold tolerable (NHC, N = 106). They weighed before and after a 30-min rest under lightly clothed condition at an air temperature of 23 ± 1 °C with a relative humidity 55 ± 5 %RH. (1) The IBL of 289 males had a mean of 90 ± 75 g h(-1) (48 ± 40 g h(-1) m(-2)); (2) No significant difference in IBL among the three groups were found; (3) Significant differences in body weight and body mass index (BMI) among three groups were found (P body surface area (P = 0.059); (4) CTO was approximately 4.1 kg heavier in body weight (P body surface area. For healthy young males within normal anthropometric ranges in Korea, IBL was positively related to BMI, and individuals with greater BMI showed greater self-identified cold tolerance, but no direct relationship was found between IBL and self-identified cold tolerance. This suggests that body physique (e.g., BMI) could be an explanatory factor between insensible body heat loss and subjective cognition on cold tolerance.
This paper offers a study of possible favoritism of normal-weight individuals when firms make decisions on hiring, firing and promoting. Most existing studies use a wage equation to document dispersion in wages between normal- and overweight, however little is known about the reason for dispersion...... is used to examine the occupation and industry distribution. Most importantly, we find that wage differences between normal-weight and overweight or obese workers are explained by differential firm behavior, both with respect to the job offer arrival rate and to the probability of being promoted. Further...
Full Text Available The majority of laboratory animals were transported from commercial breeders to a research facility by ground transportation. During the transportation, many biological functions and systems can be affected by stress. In this experiment, the change of body weight during the transportation was measured and the recovery periods from the transportation stress established based on the body weight changes. Total 676 laboratory animals which were aged between 3 to 9 wk old were studied. The transportation time taken from container packing to unpacking the container was approximately 24 h. The temperature of animal container was constantly maintained by air-conditioning and heating equipment. Rats were found to be more sensitive than mice. The body weight of rats was significantly decreased 3.71% (p<0.05 compared to the body weight of mice which decreased 0.9% There was no significant difference between the strains in the same species. When the changes of body weights were compared between delivery days, C57BL/6 mice showed the most variable changes compared to other species and strains. Consequently, C57BL/6 was more sensitive to stress than the other strains and the transportation process needs to be standardized to reduce between day variability. To establish the recovery periods from transportation stress, the body weight changes were measured during the acclimation period. Although the body weight of animals decreased during transportation, animals recovered their weight loss after the next day.
Gjærde, Line K.; Gamborg, Michael; Ängquist, Lars
IMPORTANCE: The incidence of ischemic stroke among young adults is rising and is potentially due to an increase in stroke risk factors occurring at younger ages, such as obesity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether childhood body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI are associated with adult ischemic...... of 0.5 from ages 7 to 13 years was positively associated with early ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.23) and in men (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18). Adjusting for birth weight minimally affected the associations. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Independent of birth weight, above...
Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Santos, Frédéric; Villa, Chiara
-at-death estimation from the skeleton. Several methods are regularly used by both archaeologists and forensic practitioners to estimate individual BM. The most commonly used methods are based on femoral head breadth, or stature and bi-iliac breadth. However, those methods have been created from mean population BMs......Estimating an individual body mass (BM) from the skeleton is a challenge for forensic anthropology. However, identifying someone's BMI (Body Mass Index) category, i.e. underweight, normal, overweight or obese, could contribute to identification. Individual BM is also known to influence the age...... and are therefore meant to estimate the average BM of a population. Being that they are based on individual BM data and estimated femoral cortical areas, the newest published methods are supposed to be more accurate. We evaluated the accuracy and reliability of the most commonly used and most recent BM estimation...
Doaa K. Hussin
Children;. Obesity;. Body image. Abstract Background: Young people's perception of their weight status attracted much interest. With a better understanding of childhood body image problems, investigating prevention programs within schools is an important next step. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate body ...
Scheid, Jennifer L; De Souza, Mary Jane; Leidy, Heather J; Williams, Nancy I
The aim of this study was to examine changes in fasting total peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin in nonobese premenopausal women after an exercise and diet program with and without weight loss. Body composition, energy balance parameters, ghrelin, and PYY were measured before and after a 3-month intervention in nonexercising controls (n = 7) and exercising women who either remained weight stable (n = 5) or lost weight (n = 10). At baseline, subjects were 20.6 ± 2.2 yr, weighed 58.0 ± 4.8 kg, and had 27.2% ± 4.9% body fat. Supervised exercise training occurred five times a week for up to 90 min at 70%-80% of maximum HR. Subjects were fed a controlled diet. Body weight (-3.2 ± 0.8 kg) and fat mass (-2.6 ± 0.7 kg) decreased significantly in the weight-loss exercise group. Neither fasting ghrelin nor PYY changed in response to exercise training in the absence of weight loss, and PYY did not change with exercise and weight loss. Fasting ghrelin did reveal a significant time × experimental group interaction (P = 0.025). The change in ghrelin was inversely correlated with the change in body weight, body mass index, fat-free mass, and energy availability. Neither fasting ghrelin nor fasting PYY seem to play a role in the adaptive changes associated with exercise training when exercise occurs in the absence of weight loss. Fasting ghrelin concentrations increase when body weight is lost and may respond to even smaller changes in energy availability. However, fasting PYY does not seem to play a key role in the regulation of energy balance during diet- and exercise-associated weight loss.
Andrea eKistner; Eugénie eLhommée; Paul eKrack
Typical body weight changes are known to occur in PD. Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Compr...
Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul
Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopami...
Floerchinger, Amanda M; Jackson, Matthew I; Jewell, Dennis E; MacLeay, Jennifer M; Hahn, Kevin A; Paetau-Robinson, Inke
To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in cats. Prospective clinical study. 50 overweight cats. The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 cats were allocated to 3 groups (10 cats/group) to be fed a dry maintenance cat food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 cats was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each cat was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Cats were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase. During trial 1, cats in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, cats lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body weight and fat mass but gained lean body mass during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism was improved from baseline for cats fed the test food. Results suggested that feeding overweight cats the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.
Seimon, R V; Espinoza, D; Finer, N
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined...... rate and changes in pulse rate may not be an important modifier nor a clinically useful predictor of outcome in an individual elderly cardiovascular obese subject exposed to weight management....... infarction, nonfatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death. Time-to-event analyses of the POE were performed using Cox regression models. RESULTS: During the initial 6-week sibutramine treatment period, the induced pulse rate increase was related to weight change (1.9±7.7 beats per...
Zhao, L C; Zhou, L; Li, Y; Guo, M; Wu, Y F
To explore the relationship between early adulthood weight status and body weight changes from early adulthood to middle age and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Data were obtained from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology Study, which was conducted in 1998, 15 participants population samples aged from 35-59 years old from 12 provinces were selected by random cluster sampling. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample population were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, body weight at age 25 from all participants were also obtained. Body mass index (BMI) at the age of 25 years was calculated with the weight at 25 years and the height measured during the survey, participants were divided into underweight (BMIage of 25 and at the survey and was grouped into12.5 kg (n=3 064). The association of body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change from early adulthood to middle age with HDL-C level was examined by logistic regression model. The prevalence of low HDL-C in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity groups at age of 25 years were 10.7%(143/1 331), 15.5%(1 612/10 400), 16.3%(330/2 019) and 24.8%(33/133), respectively(P for trend 12.5 kg, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that overweight and obesity at age of 25 years and subsequent weight gain till middle age were positively correlated with low HDL-C after adjusted other risk factors(all P for trend early adulthood and significant adult weight gain from early adulthood to middle age were both independently associated with marked increases in the risk of low HDL-C in middle-aged Chinese men and women. Thus, body weight control at early adulthood could be a key strategy to reduce the incidence of low HDL-C at middle-aged population.
Duncan, Michael J; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan M
This study sought to compare the utility of either inverted body mass index or body mass index to optimise the relationship with body esteem in young adolescents Design: The study was cross sectional in design and assessed body esteem and weight status in 756 young adolescents (394 boys, 362 girls, mean age ± S.D. 11.4 ± 1.6 years). Body esteem was determined using the body esteem scale for children. Height and body mass were measured directly. Body mass index was determined as kg/m2 and iBMI as cm2/kg. Results indicated that the association between iBMI and body esteem was curvilinear in nature and iBMI was the better predictor of body esteem (P=.001) predicting 21.3% of the variance in body esteem scores compared to 20.5% using BMI (P=.001). When split by gender, the curvilinear relationship was still evident but significantly different between boys and girls although iBMI remained a better predictor of body esteem compared to BMI in both boys and girls. The peak differed between gender groups with the association between iBMI and body esteem peaking at 642 cm2/kg for boys and 800.64 cm2/kg for girls. This study suggests that iBMI is a better predictor of body esteem in young adolescents, and that the association between body esteem and iBMI is curvilinear in nature. However, the peak of body esteem scores occured at a lower degree of leanness for boys compared to girls and indicated that the point at which body esteem scores are highest for girls is at a point of extreme leanness whereas the peak for boys was within the values considered as 'normal' on the leanness to obesity continuum. iBMI may therefore be a useful measure of leanness for future studies examining the association between overweight/obesity and body esteem in young adolescents.
Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width......, and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes...
Blonde, Lawrence; Stenlöf, Kaj; Fung, Albert; Xie, John; Canovatchel, William; Meininger, Gary
Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been associated with weight loss in a broad range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This analysis further evaluated changes in body weight and composition with canagliflozin in two 104-week, Phase 3 studies. In Study 1, patients aged 18-80 years (N = 1,450) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or glimepiride as add-on to metformin for a 52-week core treatment period, followed by a 52-week extension period. In Study 2, patients aged 55-80 years (N = 714) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo added to stable background antihyperglycemic agents for a 26-week core treatment period, followed by a 78-week extension period. Percent change from baseline in body weight; proportion of patients with any weight loss, ≥5% weight loss, and ≥10% weight loss; change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference; change in body weight across weight-loss quartiles; and changes in body composition were evaluated in both studies. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained weight loss versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks. More patients experienced any weight loss and ≥5% weight loss with canagliflozin versus comparator. Across the 3 highest weight-loss quartiles, canagliflozin provided greater weight loss versus glimepiride or placebo. BMI and waist circumference reductions were observed with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks; more patients had BMI or waist circumference reductions with canagliflozin versus comparator. Body composition analysis indicated that the majority of weight loss was due to loss of fat mass. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with increased incidence of adverse events related to the SGLT2 inhibition mechanism. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained reductions in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference in a greater proportion of patients with T2DM versus
Flatt, J P
Energy is a concept of universal importance. In applying it to body weight regulation, the focus has been on energy balance and how this balance is affected by intakes and expenditures. However, energy is an abstract concept without biological equivalent and applying it to explain body weight regulation has led to various misconceptions and created intellectual obstacles in understanding the obesity problem. When nutrient and substrate interactions are considered, instead, a number of important issues pertaining to body weight regulation and to the obesity epidemic can be much more pertinently addressed.
Hester Casey N
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid increase in obesity rates, determining critical periods for weight gain and the effects of changes in fat mass is imperative. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body weight and composition over the holiday season (Thanksgiving through New Year's in male and female college students. Methods Subjects completed three visits: the first occurred within 2 weeks prior to Thanksgiving, the second occurred within 5 to 7 days following Thanksgiving, and the third occurred within 10 days following New Year's Day. A total of 82 healthy male and female college age subjects participated. Body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was assessed at visits 1 and 3 while body weight was assessed at all three visits. Results Average body weight remained relatively unchanged from pre-Thanksgiving to post-New Year's (71.3 ± 14 kg vs. 71.2 ± 15 kg; P = 0.71 and, in fact, a subset of normal weight subjects lost a significant amount of body weight. However, percent body fat (25.9 ± 9 %fat vs. 27.0 ± 9 %fat; P P P = 0.08 was not significantly different than the post-New Year's. A significant positive relationship (P P Conclusion Despite the fact that body weight remained unchanged over the course of the holiday season, a significant increase in %body fat and fat mass was observed. With recent evidence showing marked morbidity and mortality to be associated with increased body fat (particularly abdominal adiposity, results from this study suggest body weight alone may underestimate the potentially deleterious effects of the holiday season.
Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm
Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post-bariatric....... The purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....
Rosenbaum, M; Hirsch, J; Murphy, E; Leibel, R L
Weight gain and loss increases and decreases energy expenditure, respectively, out of proportion to changes in metabolic mass. We hypothesized that changes in energy expenditure associated with weight gain or loss were due in part to changes in catecholamine release, thyroid hormones, carbohydrate utilization, or a combination thereof. Urinary catecholamine excretion, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, and results of 3-h oral-glucose-tolerance tests were examined in obese and never-obese subjects at their usual weights, during weight loss or gain, and at stable weights 10-20% below or 10% above usual. Urinary norepinephrine excretion decreased significantly during and after weight loss and increased during and after weight gain. Serum concentrations of reverse triiodothyronine increased significantly during and after weight loss, whereas serum concentrations of triiodothyronine increased significantly (by approximately 0%) during and after weight gain. Serum insulin and glucose concentrations during the oral-glucose-tolerance test increased significantly after weight gain in obese subjects. The percentage change in urinary norepinephrine excretion and in serum concentrations of triiodothyronine were significantly correlated with percentage changes in energy expenditure and with each other. Changes in body weight were associated with changes in catecholamine excretion and thyroid hormones, which might-by virtue of the effects on energy expenditure-have favored a return to usual body weight. Weight gain induced more apparent insulin resistance in the obese than the never-obese subjects, suggesting a threshold effect of total body fat on this phenomenon.
Befort, Christie A; Thomas, Janet L; Daley, Christine M; Rhode, Paula C; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and beliefs about body size, weight, and weight loss among obese African American women in order to form a design of weight loss intervention with this target population. Six focus groups were conducted at a community health clinic. Participants were predominantly middle-aged with a mean Body Mass Index of 40.3 +/- 9.2 kg/m(2). Findings suggest that participants (a) believe that people can be attractive and healthy at larger sizes; (b) still feel dissatisfied with their weight and self-conscious about their bodies; (c) emphasize eating behavior as the primary cause for weight gain; (d) view pregnancy, motherhood, and caregiving as major precursors to weight gain; (e) view health as the most important reason to lose weight; (f) have mixed experiences and expectations for social support for weight loss; and (g) prefer treatments that incorporate long-term lifestyle modification rather than fad diets or medication.
Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A
Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P = 0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Smith Jean L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Of concern to health educators is the suggestion that college females practice diet and health behaviors that contradict the 2005 dietary guidelines for Americans. In this regard, there remain gaps in the research related to dieting among college females. Namely, do normal weight individuals diet differently from those who are overweight or obese, and are there dieting practices used by females that can be adapted to promote a healthy body weight? Since it is well recognized that females diet, this study seeks to determine the dieting practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females (do they diet differently and identify dieting practices that could be pursued to help these females more appropriately achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Methods A total of 185 female college students aged 18 to 24 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured to assess body composition. Surveys included a dieting practices questionnaire and a 30-day physical activity recall. Participants were classified according to body mass index (BMI as normal weight (n = 113, overweight (n = 35, or obese (n = 21. Data were analyzed using JMP IN® software. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and frequency. Subsequent data analysis involved Pearson X2 and one-way analysis of variance with comparison for all pairs that were significantly different using Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference test. Results Outcomes of this study indicate the majority of participants (83% used dieting for weight loss and believed they would be 2% to 6% greater than current weight if they did not diet; normal weight, overweight, and obese groups perceived attractive weight to be 94%, 85%, and 74%, respectively, of current weight; 80% of participants reported using physical activity to control weight, although only 19% exercised at a level that would
Full Text Available Introduction: Toddler may have poor appetite and picky eater stage. It will influence the children food intake and thereby they loss weight. As a result they may get a growth and developmental disorder. Curcuma honey can increase appetite and influence body weight. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of giving curcuma honey in increasing body weight in toddler. Method: Quasy experimental design was used in this study. Sample was 10 toddlers and divided into two groups. Independent variable was the giving of curcuma honey and dependent variable was the increase of body weight in toddler (1–3 years. Data were collected by appetite and bodyweight observation and analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test with significance level ofα ≤ 0.05. Result: Result showed that the giving of curcuma honey had a significant effect to increase toddler’s body weight (p = 0.001. Discussion: It can be concluded that curcuma honey could increase body weight of toddler by increasing the toddler’s appetite. Honey contains high level of glucose and fructose that can help digestion proccess and curcuma contains curcuminoid and asiri oil that help the work of the bile and pancreas, that made the increasing in apetite and fi nally the increasing in body weight.
Paliy, Oleg; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Celep, Gulcin; Marotta, Francesco; Rastmanesh, Reza
The rates of child and adult obesity have increased in most developed countries over the past several decades. The health consequences of obesity affect both physical and mental health, and the excess body weight can be linked to an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and depression. Among the factors that can influence the development of obesity are higher infant weights and increased weight gain, which are associated with higher risk for excess body weight later in life. In turn, mother's excess body weight during and after pregnancy can be linked to the risk for offspring overweight and obesity through dietary habits, mode of delivery and feeding, breast milk composition, and through the influence on infant gut microbiota. This review considers current knowledge of these potential mechanisms that threaten to create an intergenerational cycle of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Stewart, Tiffany M; Harsha, David W
Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight/obese children lose body weight and nonoverweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose body weight/fat and nonoverweight children gain body weight/fat using a longitudinal research design that did not include an obesity prevention program. The participants were 451 children in 4th to 6th grades at baseline. Height, weight, and body fat were measured at month 0 and month 28. Each child's BMI percentile score was calculated specific for their age, gender and height. Higher BMI percentile scores and percent body fat at baseline were associated with larger decreases in BMI and percent body fat after 28 months. The BMI percentile mean for African-American girls increased whereas BMI percentile means for white boys and girls and African-American boys were stable over the 28-month study period. Estimates of obesity and overweight prevalence were stable because incidence and remission were similar. These findings support the hypothesis that overweight children tend to lose body weight and nonoverweight children tend to gain body weight.
Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature and discover which antidepressants are responsible for weight gain and then to discuss the areas with lack of adequate knowledge. Method: An electronic search was conducted through Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ScienceDirect. Forty nine empirical researches were identified and reviewed. Results: Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mirtazapine have been associated with more weight gain induction in clinical studies, but not in animal-based studies. All TCAs have been reported to cause weight gain except protriptyline. MAOIs have been associated with weight gain. In SSRI group, citalopram and ecitalopram induce weight, yet mixed results exist for paroxetine and fluoxetine. Researches unanimously reported weight loss effect for bupropion. Some studies suggest contributing factors in the relationship of antidepressants with body weight changes including age, gender, base-line weights and treatment duration. Various results of different treatment durations have been reported in some cases but there are not continuous time-dependent studies for the influences of antidepressants on body weight changes. Conclusion: More studies are required to discover underlying mechanisms and the time-dependent effects of antidepressants on body weight changes.
This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI), plasma lipid profile and gait assessment score (GAS) in dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty client-owned dogs of both sexes to determine the BMI. In addition, body condition score (BCS) and GAS were ...
This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty-three Boerboels to determine the BMI while, body condition score (BCS) was determined subjectively. Also 5mls of blood was obtained ...
Durá Travé, T; Gallinas Victoriano, F
To analyze the chronological evolution of excess body weight (overweight and obesity) in order to raise public awareness within the different areas of intervention (family, school, business environment, health services) and to take effective actions. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of 604 healthy subjects (307 males and 297 females) have been recorded at birth and at the age of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 years. The excess body weight has been calculated according to national references from Ferrández et al. Prevalence of excess body weight at age 14 years was significantly higher (Pbody weight at age 14, with respect to patients with normal nutritional status of the same age. Those groups with excess body weight at age 14 showed a BMI (Z-score) reaching overweight or obesity levels at age 4, and progressively increasing. Excess body weight probably starts at early stages in life, when dietary habits of the child depends almost exclusively on family habits, and may be aggravated during school attendance. Finally, a disproportionate weight increase occurs in adolescence that is probably related to unhealthy dietary habits and way of life. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Pon, Lai Wan; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib
Body image plays an important role in the management of body weight, especially among female adolescents. This study examined the differences in body image perception, weight management knowledge, eating behaviour and physical activity between overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents. Body mass index screening was done on 588 secondary school students to identify overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) subjects. A BMI-for-age of => 85th percentile and between => 5th and age and ethnicity with 50 NW students. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographics, eating behaviour and physical activity, a weight management knowledge inventory (WMKI) and the Body Silhouette Chart. The study sample comprised Malays (40%), Chinese (30%) and Indians (30%) with a mean age of 14.76 ± 1.15 years. The majority of them were from families with a monthly household income of less than RM1,000. Significantly more NW subjects (χ2=6.112, p=0.013) than OW subjects had incorrect perception of their current body weight status. The WMKI revealed that more OW subjects (64%) than NW subjects (52%) had a low level of weight management knowledge. Eating behaviour patterns were not significantly different between OW and NW subjects, but more OW subjects skipped one or more daily meals as compared to their NW counterparts (χ2=0.174, p=0.010). Physical activity patterns were similar in both groups. Healthy eating and physical activity promotion programmes in schools should include sound weight management practices.
Body weight of does before mating ranged from 13.0 kg to 59.6 kg (average = 34.6 kg) among animals, while body weight at scanning ranged from 18.0 kg to 67.0 kg (average = 38.6 kg). All reproductive parameters recorded had a typical inverted U-shaped relationship with age of dam, where the 2- and 3-year-old does ...
Field, A E; Cheung, L; Wolf, A M; Herzog, D B; Gortmaker, S L; Colditz, G A
To assess the influence of the media on girls' weight concerns, weight control/loss behaviors, and perceptions of body weight and shape. Cross-sectional survey completed in school. The questionnaire assessed body weight, dissatisfaction with body weight and shape, exposure to fashion magazines, the impact of media on feelings about weight and shape, attributes of and preferences for body types, and whether subjects had gone on a diet to lose weight or initiated exercise because of an article in a magazine. Mandatory physical education class in public elementary, junior high, and high schools. Subjects included 548 5th- through 12th-grade girls in a working-class suburb in the northeastern United States. Perceived influence of fashion magazines on body dissatisfaction, idea of the perfect body shape, dieting to lose weight, and initiating an exercise program. Pictures in magazines had a strong impact on girls' perceptions of their weight and shape. Of the girls, 69% reported that magazine pictures influence their idea of the perfect body shape, and 47% reported wanting to lose weight because of magazine pictures. There was a positive linear association between the frequency of reading women's magazines and the prevalence of having dieted to lose weight because of a magazine article, initiating an exercise program because of a magazine article, wanting to lose weight because of pictures in magazines, and feeling that pictures in magazines influence their idea of the perfect body shape. In multivariate logistic regression models controlling for weight status (overweight vs not overweight), school level (elementary vs junio