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Sample records for weight bearing gait

  1. A hippotherapy simulator is effective to shift weight bearing toward the affected side during gait in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju; Yu, Byong-Kyu; Kim, Kyeong-Mi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether a hippotherapy simulator has influence on symmetric body weight bearing during gait in patients with stroke. Stroke patients were divided into a control group (n = 10) that received conventional rehabilitation for 60 min/day, 5 times/week for 4 weeks and an experimental group (n = 10) that used a hippotherapy simulator for 15 min/day, 5 times/week for 4 weeks after conventional rehabilitation for 45 min/day. Temporospatial gait assessed using OptoGait and trunk muscles (abdominis and erector spinae on affected side) activity evaluated using surface electromyography during sit-to-stand and gait. Prior to starting the experiment, pre-testing was performed. At the end of the 4-week intervention, we performed post-testing. Activation of the erector spinae in the experimental group was significantly increased compared to that in the control group (p hippotherapy simulator compared to control group (p hippotherapy simulator to patients with stroke can improve asymmetric weight bearing by influencing trunk muscles.

  2. Effects of ankle joint mobilization with movement and weight-bearing exercise on knee strength, ankle range of motion, and gait velocity in patients with stroke: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    An, Chang-Man; Won, Jong-Im

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ankle joint mobilization with movement on knee strength, ankle range of motion, and gait velocity, compared with weight-bearing exercise in stroke patients...

  3. The effects of dynamic ankle-foot orthoses on functional ambulation activities, weight bearing and spatio-temporal characteristics of hemiparetic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suat, Erel; Fatma, Uygur; Nilgün, Bek

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of dynamic ankle-foot orthoses (DAFOs) on functional ambulation activities, weight bearing and spatio-temporal characteristics of hemiparetic gait and to inquire whether wearing a DAFO for 3 months has a carryover effect. Fourteen chronic hemiparetic patients who could walk independently with or without a cane were the subjects of the study. Patients were assessed initially with tennis shoes and were given custom fabricated DAFOs which they wore for three months and were retested under two conditions: with tennis shoes only and with DAFOs worn in these shoes. All patients were assessed for weight bearing percentage of the affected side, cadence, step length of the involved and uninvolved sides, step width, functional reach, timed up and go, timed down stairs, timed up stairs, physiologic cost index and velocity. Comparison of initial and third month assessments with shoes only condition showed that there was no significant improvement for the measured parameters. When comparison was made at the third month while patients were wearing tennis shoes only and when they were wearing DAFO's in their shoes there was a significant difference in favour of the condition where patients were wearing DAFOs. The benefits of using DAFOs in chronic hemiparetic patients are lost when the patients are not wearing their orthoses.

  4. Effects of ankle joint mobilization with movement and weight-bearing exercise on knee strength, ankle range of motion, and gait velocity in patients with stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chang-Man; Won, Jong-Im

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ankle joint mobilization with movement on knee strength, ankle range of motion, and gait velocity, compared with weight-bearing exercise in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects with chronic stroke were divided into three groups: MWM (n = 12), WBE (n = 8), and control (n = 10). All groups attended physical therapy sessions 3 times a week for 5 weeks. Subjects in the MWM group performed mobilization with movement exercises, whilst participants in the WBE group performed weight-bearing exercises. Knee peak torque, ankle range of motion, and spatiotemporal gait parameters were evaluated before and after the interventions. [Results] Knee extensor peak torque increased significantly in both MWM and WBE groups. However, only the MWM group showed significant improvement in passive and active ankle range of motion and gait velocity, among the three groups. [Conclusion] Ankle joint mobilization with movement intervention is more effective than simple weight-bearing intervention in improving gait speed in stroke patients with limited ankle motion.

  5. Weight-bearing recommendations after operative fracture treatment-fact or fiction? Gait results with and feasibility of a dynamic, continuous pedobarography insole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Benedikt J; Veith, Nils T; Rollmann, Mika; Orth, Marcel; Fritz, Tobias; Herath, Steven C; Holstein, Jörg H; Pohlemann, Tim

    2017-08-01

    Rehabilitation after lower-extremity fractures is based on the physicians' recommendation for non-, partial-, or full weight-bearing. Clinical studies rely on this assumption, but continuous compliance or objective loading rates are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the compliance to weight-bearing recommendations by introducing a novel, pedobarography system continuously registering postoperative ground forces into ankle, tibial shaft and proximal femur fracture aftercare and test its feasibility for this purpose. In this prospective, observational study, a continuously measuring pedobarography insole was placed in the patients shoe during the immediate post-operative aftercare after ankle, tibial shaft and intertrochanteric femur fractures. Weight-bearing was ordered as per the institutional standard and controlled by physical therapy. The insole was retrieved after a maximum of six weeks (28 days [range 5-42 days]). Non-compliance was defined as a failure to maintain, or reach the ordered weight-bearing within 30%. Overall 30 patients were included in the study. Fourteen (47%) of the patients were compliant to the weight-bearing recommendations. Within two weeks after surgery patients deviated from the recommendation by over 50%. Sex, age and weight did not influence the performance (p > 0.05). Ankle fracture patients (partial weight-bearing) showed a significantly increased deviation from the recommendation (p = 0.01). Our study results show that, despite physical therapy training, weight-bearing compliance to recommended limits was low. Adherence to the partial weight-bearing task was further decreased over time. Uncontrolled weight-bearing recommendations should thus be viewed with caution and carefully considered as fiction. The presented insole is feasible to determine weight bearing continuously, could immediately help define real-time patient behaviour and establish realistic, individual weight-bearing recommendations.

  6. The link between weight shift asymmetry and gait disturbances in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szopa A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Andrzej Szopa,1 Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa,2 Anetta Lasek-Bal,3 Amadeusz Żak3 1Department of Physiotherapy, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences in Katowice, 3Department of Neurology, Professor Leszek Giec Upper Silesian Medical Centre, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland Introduction: While the asymmetry of body posture and the asymmetrical nature of hemiparetic gait in poststroke (PS patients are well documented, the role of weight shift asymmetry in gait disorders after stroke remains unclear. Objective: We examined the association of weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA between paretic and nonparetic lower limbs during quiet standing with the degree of deviation of hemiplegic gait from normal gait evaluated by the Gillette Gait Index (GGI incorporating 16 distinct clinically important kinematic and temporal parameters in chronic PS patients.Participants and methods: Twenty-two ambulatory patients with chronic stroke aged between 50 and 75 years were included in this study. Fourteen patients had hemiparesis on the nondominant side and 8 on the dominant side. The mean time PS was 2 years and 6 months. The reference group consisted of 22 students from the University of the Third Age presenting no neurological disorders. The examination consisted of posturographic weight-bearing (WB distribution and 3-dimensional gait analyses.Results: A significant positive relationship between WBA and GGI was revealed. Moreover, we observed a significant negative association between WBA and paretic step length and walking speed. With regard to kinematic data, the range of motion of knee flexion and peak dorsiflexion in the swing phase of the paretic leg were significantly negatively associated with WBA.Conclusion: Although further research is needed to determine a causal link between postural control asymmetry and gait disturbance in hemiplegics, our findings support the inclusion of WB measurements between paretic and

  7. Robotic Pectoral Fin Thrust Vectoring Using Weighted Gait Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Palmisano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method was devised to vector propulsion of a robotic pectoral fin by means of actively controlling fin surface curvature. Separate flapping fin gaits were designed to maximize thrust for each of three different thrust vectors: forward, reverse, and lift. By using weighted combinations of these three pre-determined main gaits, new intermediate hybrid gaits for any desired propulsion vector can be created with smooth transitioning between these gaits. This weighted gait combination (WGC method is applicable to other difficult-to-model actuators. Both 3D unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD and experimental results are presented.

  8. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J.; Rider, Patrick; DeVita, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Hortobagyi T, Herring C, Pories WJ, Rider P, DeVita P. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait. J Appl Physiol 111: 1391-1399, 2011. First published August 18, 2011; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00291.2011.-We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight

  9. LIGHT-WEIGHT LOAD-BEARING STRUCTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a light-weight load-bearing structure (1) with optimized compression zone (2), where along one or more compression zones (2) in the structure (1) to be cast a core (3) of strong concrete is provided, which core (3) is surrounded by concrete of less strength (4) compared...... to the core (3) of strong concrete. The invention also relates to a method of casting of light-weight load-bearing structures (1) with optimized compression zone (2) where one or more channels, grooves, ducts, pipes and/or hoses (5) formed in the load-bearing structure (1) serves as moulds for moulding one...... or more cores (3) of strong concrete in the light-weight load-bearing structure (1)....

  10. Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) locomotion: gaits and ground reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Catherine L; Penberthy, Skylar; Robbins, Charles T; Nelson, O Lynne; McGowan, Craig P

    2015-10-01

    Locomotion of plantigrade generalists has been relatively little studied compared with more specialised postures even though plantigrady is ancestral among quadrupeds. Bears (Ursidae) are a representative family for plantigrade carnivorans, they have the majority of the morphological characteristics identified for plantigrade species, and they have the full range of generalist behaviours. This study compared the locomotion of adult grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Linnaeus 1758), including stride parameters, gaits and analysis of three-dimensional ground reaction forces, with that of previously studied quadrupeds. At slow to moderate speeds, grizzly bears use walks, running walks and canters. Vertical ground reaction forces demonstrated the typical M-shaped curve for walks; however, this was significantly more pronounced in the hindlimb. The rate of force development was also significantly higher for the hindlimbs than for the forelimbs at all speeds. Mediolateral forces were significantly higher than would be expected for a large erect mammal, almost to the extent of a sprawling crocodilian. There may be morphological or energetic explanations for the use of the running walk rather than the trot. The high medial forces (produced from a lateral push by the animal) could be caused by frontal plane movement of the carpus and elbow by bears. Overall, while grizzly bears share some similarities with large cursorial species, their locomotor kinetics have unique characteristics. Additional studies are needed to determine whether these characters are a feature of all bears or plantigrade species. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Immediate weight bearing of comminuted supracondylar femur fractures using locked plate fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Jaymes D; Litsky, Alan S; Lustenberger, David P; Probe, Robert A; Ellis, Thomas J

    2012-08-01

    Comminuted supracondylar femur fractures (AO-OTA 33A3) are commonly treated with locked plates. Weight bearing is generally restricted for 6 to 12 weeks until radiologic evidence exists of sufficient callous to support weight bearing. Recent clinical studies have reported high nonunion rates with distal femur locked plates. In an attempt to induce beneficial motion across the fracture site, some studies have recommended earlier weight bearing. The purpose of the current study was to determine the biomechanical feasibility of an immediate weight-bearing rehabilitation protocol to encourage healing of distal femur fractures treated with lateral locked plate fixation.Sixteen fresh-frozen cadaveric femora were used for this study. A 2.5-cm supracondylar gap osteotomy was made. Ten-hole, 4.5-mm distal femur locking plates were used with a standardized screw configuration that maximized the working length. The specimens were placed in a servohydraulic testing machine and axially loaded (unidirectional) at 1 Hz for up to 200,000 cycles. Failure was defined as 1 cm of deformation of the construct. The staircase method was used to determine the fatigue limit of the construct. The fatigue limit was calculated to be 1329±106 N. No specimen failed through the non-locking diaphyseal screws. Plastic deformation, when present, occurred at the metaphyseal flare of the plate. The fatigue limit of the locked plate constructs equaled 1.9 times body weight for an average 70-kg patient over a simulated 10-week postoperative course. Given that distal femoral loads during gait have been estimated to be more than 2 times body weight, the data from this study do not support immediate full weight bearing. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Study of gait using weighted vests on balance with paraplegic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyuk-Jae; Kang, Hyun-Joo

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify static and dynamic balance with the addition of weighted vests for the rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. The study was conducted using weighted vest exercises with applied optimal weight ratios. Ten paraplegic patients who use custom orthosis were enrolled for experiments including static standing and dynamic gait with a weighted vest. We set weight ratios as 0%, 10%, and 15% of the patients? weight. A plantar pressure device was used for static ba...

  13. Patient compliance with touchdown weight bearing after microfracture treatment of talar osteochondral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Gökhan; Karademir, Gökhan; Akalan, Ekin; Aşık, Mehmet; Erdil, Mehmet

    2017-03-20

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the compliance of our patients with a touchdown weight bearing (without supporting any weight on the affected side by only touching the plantar aspect of the foot to the ground to maintain balance to protect the affected side from mechanical loading) postoperative rehabilitation protocol after treatment of talar osteochondral lesion (TOL). Fourteen patients, who had been treated with arthroscopic debridement and microfracture, were followed prospectively. The patients were evaluated for weight bearing compliance with using a stationary gait analysis and feedback system at the postoperative first day, first week, third week, and sixth week. The mean visual analog scale (VAS) scores of the patients at the preoperative, postoperative first day, first week, third week, and sixth weeks were 5.5, 5.9, 3.6, 0.9, and 0.4, respectively. The decrease in VAS scores were statistically significant (p compliance, patients should be warned to obey the weight bearing restrictions, and patients should be called for a follow-up at the third postoperative week.

  14. The difference between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing alignment in patient-specific instrumentation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternostre, Frederic; Schwab, Pierre-Emmanuel; Thienpont, Emmanuel

    2014-03-01

    Retrospective study to analyse the difference between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing alignment in osteoarthritic knees planned for patient-specific instrumented (PSI) total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of the study is to observe whether a difference in alignment can be linked to arthritis staging or zone mechanical axis. Full-leg standing radiographs and non-weight-bearing MRI of the whole leg were compared for hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, measured according to Moreland criteria, in seventy osteoarthritic patients. Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) staging and classification according to zone mechanical axis with Kennedy zones was done. A mean preoperative HKA angle on standing radiographs of 176.4° ± 7.2° was measured compared to 176.4° ± 6.9° for the MRI whole-leg HKA angle. A difference of 0°-1° was observed in 54% of patients when comparing the weight-bearing with the non-weight-bearing HKA angle. Twenty-three per cent had a difference of 2° and another 23 % a difference of 3° or more. In female patients, the dynamic load pattern of weight-bearing increases the HKA angle due to convex side soft tissue laxity both in varus and valgus knees. More important differences were observed in the KL stage 3 and 4 patients (P bearing axis outside of the articular surface (P weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing alignment in patients with Kellgren-Lawrence 3 and 4 with a load-bearing axis outside of the articular surface (Kennedy 0 or 1 or 5). According to this study, these changes seem related to the amount of articular wear and the load-bearing axis. This is important for the preoperative planning process in PSI-assisted TKA. More concave side ligamentous release or more constraint can be necessary than imagined based on the PSI alignment result. Full-leg standing radiographs should be performed for PSI-assisted TKAs to analyse the position of the load-bearing axis. IV.

  15. Gait analysis of fixed bearing and mobile bearing total knee prostheses during walking: do mobile bearings offer functional advantages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwin, Samuel G; Kader, Deiary F; Caplan, Nick; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Stewart, Su

    2014-03-01

    Limited previous findings have detailed biomechanical advantages following implantation with mobile bearing (MB) prostheses after total knee replacement (TKR) surgery during walking. The aim of this study was to compare three dimensional spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic parameters during walking to examine whether MBs offer functional advantages over fixed bearing (FB) designs. Sixteen patients undergoing primary unilateral TKR surgery were randomised to receive either a FB (n=8) or MB (n=8) total knee prosthesis. Eight age and gender matched controls underwent the same protocol on one occasion. A 12 camera Vicon system integrated with four force plates was used. Patients were tested pre-surgery and nine months post-surgery. No significant differences between FB and MB groups were found at any time point in the spatiotemporal parameters. The MB group was found to have a significantly reduced frontal plane knee range of motion (ROM) at pre-surgery than the FB group (FB=14.92±4.02°; MB=8.87±4.82°), with the difference not observed post-surgery. No further significant kinematic or kinetic differences were observed between FB and MB groups. Fixed bearing and MB groups both displayed spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic differences when compared to controls. Fixed bearing and MB groups differed from controls in six and five parameters at nine months post-surgery, respectively. No functional advantages were found in knees implanted with MB prostheses during walking, with both groups indicative of similar differences when compared to normal knee biomechanics following prosthesis implantation. Level II. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Foot Loading Characteristics of Different Graduations of Partial Weight Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusinde, Johannes; Pauser, Johannes; Swoboda, Bernd; Gelse, Kolja; Carl, Hans-Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Limited weight bearing of the lower extremity is a commonly applied procedure in orthopaedic rehabilitation after reconstructive forefoot surgery, trauma surgery and joint replacement. The most frequent limitations are given as percentage of body weight (BW) and represent 10 or 50% BW. The extent of foot loading under these graduations of partial…

  17. The Effect of Increasing Weight Bearing on the Paretic Side on Pattern of Muscular Activity During Walking in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mania Sheikh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gait disorder is a common motor complication after stroke. Studies have revealed that conventional physiotherapy cannot manage this disorder efficiently; therefore, more studies regarding efficient treatment protocols are crucial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of compelled weight-bearing approach on muscle activation patterns during walking in individuals with stroke. Methods: 24 hemiparetic patients participated in this study. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental and control. The experimental group received increased weight bearing on the paretic leg via a shoe lift in addition to physical therapy for 6 weeks. The control group received only physical therapy. Laboratory assessments included weight-bearing symmetry ratio and electromyographic parameters recored from the medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris and biceps femoris. The amplitude and duration of electromyographic activity for each subject was then calculated during the stance and swing phases of their gait cycle. All measurements were compared within and between groups after the termination of treatment. Results: After treatment, weight-bearing symmetry ratio improved significantly in the experimental group. Additionally, the electromyographic activity of paretic medial gastrocnemius increased significantly during the stance phase while activity duration of paretic rectus femoris decreased significantly in swing phase. In the control group, the weight-bearing symmetry ratio didn’t change significantly. Only activity duration of non-paretic rectus femoris decreased significantly in swing phase. Conclusion: The results show that compelled weight bearing on the paretic side improve amplitude and the timing for activity of some muscles in the lower limbs during walking.

  18. Static weight-bearing patterns of below-knee amputees using patellar-tendon-bearing prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibarewala, D N; Ganguli, S

    1982-01-01

    While the weight-bearing patterns under human feet during dynamic conditions (i.e. walking or running) have been investigated by many scientists, only a few studies have been reported on such patterns during erect standing posture. This paper describes an investigation where a system composed of strain gauge load cells has been employed to study the static weight-bearing patterns of a group fo below-knee amputees using patellar-tendon-bearing prostheses, and of a matching group of normal persons. Experimental data were analysed to recognize the static weight-bearing patterns; it has been found that specific patterns exist for normal person as well as for healthy and affected sides of the amputees. It has been indicated how these findings could be used to define a performance index proportional to stance disability.

  19. The effects of additional arm weights on arm-swing magnitude and gait patterns in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jiyeon; Park, Jinse; Park, Kunbo; Jo, Geunyeol; Kim, Haeyu; Jang, Wooyoung; Kim, Ji Sun; Youn, Jinyoung; Oh, Eung Seok; Kim, Hee-Tae; Youm, Chang Hong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, arm facilitation has been interested in gait rehabilitation. However, there have been few studies concerning arm facilitation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of increasing arm weights on gait pattern in patients with PD. Twenty-seven patients with PD were enrolled, and they underwent gait analysis using a three-dimensional motion capture system. Sandbags were applied to the distal forearms in all participants. We compared gait parameters including arm swing, pelvic motion, spatiotemporal data, and relative rotational angle between the weighted and unweighted gaits. The total arm-swing amplitude and pelvic rotation were significantly higher when walking with additional arm weights than without arm weights. Cadence, walking speed, stride length, and swing phase were significantly higher, whereas stride time, double-support time, and stance phase were significantly lower, when walking with additional arm weights than without arm weights. We conclude that adding weights to the arm during walking may facilitate arm and pelvic movements, which results in changes to gait patterns. The therapeutic use of additional arm weights could be considered for gait rehabilitation in PD to improve gait impairment. Arm-swing facilitation using weight load improved gait in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement of lower limb alignment: there are within-person differences between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing measurement modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenmakers, Daphne A. L.; Feczko, Peter Z.; Boonen, Bert; Schotanus, Martijn G. M.; Kort, Nanne P.; Emans, Pieter J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have compared weight-bearing mechanical leg axis (MLA) measurements to non-weight-bearing measurement modalities. Most of these studies compared mean or median values and did not analyse within-person differences between measurements. This study evaluates the within-person agreement of MLA measurements between weight-bearing full-length radiographs (FLR) and non-weight-bearing measurement modalities (computer-assisted surgery (CAS) navigation or MRI). Materials and me...

  1. Weights and hematology of wild black bears during hibernation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelGiudice, Glenn D.; Rogers, Lynn L.; Allen, Arthur W.; Seal, U.S.

    1991-01-01

    We compared weights and hematological profiles of adult (greater than 3-yr-old) female black bears (Ursus americanus) during hibernation (after 8 January). We handled 28 bears one to four times (total of 47) over 4 yr of varying mast and berry production. Mean weight of lactating bears was greater (P less than 0.0001) than that of non-lactating females. White blood cells (P less than 0.05) and mean corpuscular volume (P = 0.005) also differed between lactating and non-lactating bears. Hemoglobin (P = 0.006) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.02) varied among years; values were lowest during 1975, following decreased precipitation and the occurrence of a second year of mast and berry crop shortages in a three-year period. Significant (P less than 0.05) interaction between reproductive status (lactating versus non-lactating) and study year for hemoglobin, red blood cells, and packed cell volume, and increased mean corpuscular volume, suggested a greater nutritional challenge for lactating females compared to non-lactating females during the 1975 denning season. Our data suggest that hematological characteristics of denning bears may be more sensitive than weights as indicators of annual changes in nutritional status; however, other influential factors, in addition to mast and berry crop production, remain to be examined.

  2. Effect of partial weight bearing program on functional ability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recurrent joint bleeding in persons with hemophilia is known to lead to joint damage associated with pain, loss of range of motion and function. The researcher was motivated by the essence of the importance of partial weight bearing program in rehabilitation of lower limb conditions and the lack of literatures regarding ...

  3. EARLY WEIGHT-BEARING AFTER ANKLE FRACTURE FIXATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In early 2006 during AO-scholarship training at Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem, I witnessed patients being walked on the same day after fixation of ankle fractures. This was contrary to my original teaching of protected non-weight bearing for six weeks. Literature review in this subject was inconclusive.

  4. Dynamic weight-bearing assessment of pain in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Christensen, Robin; Osborne, Richard

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the reliability, agreement and smallest detectable change in a measurement instrument for pain and function in knee osteoarthritis; the Dynamic weight-bearing Assessment of Pain (DAP). METHODS: The sample size was set to 20 persons, recruited from the outpatient osteoarthritis...

  5. Effect of partial weight bearing program on functional ability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lilian A. Zaky

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... Hemophilic knee arthritis;. Partial weight bearing;. Functional walking;. Quadriceps muscle isometric strength;. Quadriceps training exercise program. Abstract Recurrent joint bleeding in persons with hemophilia is known to lead to joint damage associated with pain, loss of range of motion and function.

  6. Effect of single dose radiation therapy on weight-bearing lameness in dogs with elbow osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapatkin, Amy S; Nordquist, Barbro; Garcia, Tanya C; Griffin, Maureen A; Theon, Alain; Kim, Sun; Hayashi, Kei

    2016-07-19

    To determine if a single low dose of radiation therapy in dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint was associated with a detectable improvement in their lameness and pain as documented by force platform gait analysis. In this cohort longitudinal observational study, five Labrador Retrievers with lameness due to elbow osteoarthritis that was unresponsive to medical treatment were removed from all non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications. A single treatment of radiation therapy delivering 10 Gray was performed on the affected elbow joint(s). Force platform gait analysis was used to assess the ground reaction forces of a limb affected with elbow osteoarthritis both before and after radiation therapy. Significant differences occurred in the weight-bearing on an affected limb with elbow osteoarthritis after radiation therapy at weeks six and 14. Change due to treatment was particularly apparent in dogs with unilateral elbow osteoarthritis. Administering a single low dose of radiation therapy may have a short-term benefit in dogs with elbow osteoarthritis, which is similar to the evidence supporting the use of radiation therapy in horses with orthopaedic disease.

  7. Immediate Weight-Bearing after Ankle Fracture Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Firoozabadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We believe that a certain subset of surgical ankle fracture patients can be made weight-bearing as tolerated immediately following surgery. Immediate weight-bearing as tolerated (IWBAT allows patients to return to ambulation and activities of daily living faster and may facilitate rehabilitation. A prospectively gathered orthopaedic trauma database at a Level 1 trauma center was reviewed retrospectively to identify patients who had ORIF after unstable ankle injuries treated by the senior author. Patients were excluded if they were not IWBAT based on specific criteria or if they did meet followup requirement. Only 1/26 patients was noted to have loss of fixation. This was found at the 6-week followup and was attributed to a missed syndesmotic injury. At 2-week followup, 2 patients had peri-incisional erythema that resolved with a short course of oral antibiotics. At 6-week followup, 20 patients were wearing normal shoes and 6 patients continued to wear the CAM Boot for comfort. To conclude, IWBAT in a certain subset of patients with stable osteosynthesis following an ankle fracture could potentially be a safe alternative to a period of protected weight-bearing.

  8. A Wearable Magneto-Inertial System for Gait Analysis (H-Gait: Validation on Normal Weight and Overweight/Obese Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Agostini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wearable magneto-inertial sensors are being increasingly used to obtain human motion measurements out of the lab, although their performance in applications requiring high accuracy, such as gait analysis, are still a subject of debate. The aim of this work was to validate a gait analysis system (H-Gait based on magneto-inertial sensors, both in normal weight (NW and overweight/obese (OW subjects. The validation is performed against a reference multichannel recording system (STEP32, providing direct measurements of gait timings (through foot-switches and joint angles in the sagittal plane (through electrogoniometers. Methods: Twenty-two young male subjects were recruited for the study (12 NW, 10 OW. After positioning body-fixed sensors of both systems, each subject was asked to walk, at a self-selected speed, over a 14-m straight path for 12 trials. Gait signals were recorded, at the same time, with the two systems. Spatio-temporal parameters, ankle, knee, and hip joint kinematics were extracted analyzing an average of 89 ± 13 gait cycles from each lower limb. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altmann plots were used to compare H-Gait and STEP32 measurements. Changes in gait parameters and joint kinematics of OW with respect NW were also evaluated. Results: The two systems were highly consistent for cadence, while a lower agreement was found for the other spatio-temporal parameters. Ankle and knee joint kinematics is overall comparable. Joint ROMs values were slightly lower for H-Gait with respect to STEP32 for the ankle (by 1.9° for NW, and 1.6° for OW and for the knee (by 4.1° for NW, and 1.8° for OW. More evident differences were found for hip joint, with ROMs values higher for H-Gait (by 6.8° for NW, and 9.5° for OW. NW and OW showed significant differences considering STEP32 (p = 0.0004, but not H-Gait (p = 0.06. In particular, overweight/obese subjects showed a higher cadence (55.0 vs. 52.3 strides/min and a

  9. Effects of weight bearing and non-weight bearing exercises on bone properties using calcaneal quantitative ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, P S; Lai, Y M; Tung, P Y; Tsui, H T; Wong, C K; Hung, V W Y; Qin, L

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate bone properties using heel quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in young adults participating in various sports. A cross sectional study was performed on Chinese male students (n = 55), aged 18-22 years. Subjects with previous fractures or suffering from any diseases known to affect bone metabolism or taking any medication with such an effect, were not included. The subjects were categorised according to their main sporting activities, including soccer (n = 15) (a high impact, weight bearing exercise), dancing (n = 10) (a low impact, weight bearing exercise), and swimming (n = 15) (non-weight bearing exercise). A sedentary group acted as controls (n = 15). A reproducibility study of the velocity of sound (VOS) and the broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) measurement was performed and analysed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). There was good intra-investigator and inter-investigator agreement (ICC > or = 0.8; p 0.05) were found between the dominant and non-dominant heel. Soccer players (137 +/- 4.3 dB/MHz; 1575 +/- 56 m/s; 544.1 +/- 48.4) and dancers (134.6 +/- 3.7 dB/MHz; 1538 +/- 46 m/s; 503.0 +/- 37.0) had significantly higher BUA, VOS, and stiffness index (SI) scores (p impact exercise was revealed in all QUS parameters (p < 0.05). This cross sectional study indicated that regular participation in weight bearing exercise in young people might be beneficial for accruing peak bone mass and optimising bone structure.

  10. Floor Sensors of Animal Weight and Gait for Precision Livestock Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, John; Green, Peter; Salter, Michael; Grieve, Bruce; Ozanyan, Krikor

    2017-01-01

    We report first results on developing smart sensor systems for the automatic and frequent collection of animal weight and gait data, under the hostile conditions of a livestock farm. The novelty in our approach is to sense frequently the animals’ floor contact, in suitably chosen locations, under natural and unobtrusive conditions. We demonstrate a pilot low profile rubberized mat sensor heads, delivering a large number of plastic optical fiber transmission measurements taken frequently from ...

  11. Effects of Changing Body Weight Distribution on Mediolateral Stability Control during Gait Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderby, Teddy; Yiou, Eric; Peyrot, Nicolas; de Viviés, Xavier; Bonazzi, Bruno; Dalleau, Georges

    2017-01-01

    During gait initiation, anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) precede the execution of the first step. It is generally acknowledged that these APA contribute to forward progression but also serve to stabilize the whole body in the mediolateral direction during step execution. Although previous studies have shown that changes in the distribution of body weight between both legs influence motor performance during gait initiation, it is not known whether and how such changes affect a person's postural stability during this task. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of changing initial body weight distribution between legs on mediolateral postural stability during gait initiation. Changes in body weight distribution were induced under experimental conditions by modifying the frontal plane distribution of an external load located at the participants' waists. Fifteen healthy adults performed a gait initiation series at a similar speed under three conditions: with the overload evenly distributed over both legs; with the overload strictly distributed over the swing-limb side; and with the overload strictly distributed over the stance-leg side. Our results showed that the mediolateral location of center-of-mass (CoM) during the initial upright posture differed between the experimental conditions, indicating modifications in the initial distribution of body weight between the legs according to the load distribution. While the parameters related to the forward progression remained unchanged, the alterations in body weight distribution elicited adaptive changes in the amplitude of APA in the mediolateral direction (i.e., maximal mediolateral shift of the center of pressure (CoP)), without variation in their duration. Specifically, it was observed that the amplitude of APA was modulated in such a way that mediolateral dynamic stability at swing foot-contact, quantified by the margin of stability (i.e., the distance between the base of support boundary and the

  12. Orthostatic Tremor and Orthostatic Myoclonus: Weight-bearing Hyperkinetic Disorders: A Systematic Review, New Insights, and Unresolved Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anhar Hassan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthostatic tremor (OT and orthostatic myoclonus (OM are weight-bearing hyperkinetic movement disorders most commonly affecting older people that induce “shaky legs” upon standing. OT is divided into “classical” and “slow” forms based on tremor frequency. In this paper, the first joint review of OT and OM, we review the literature and compare and contrast their demographic, clinical, electrophysiological, neuroimaging, pathophysiological, and treatment characteristics. Methods: A PubMed search up to July 2016 using the phrases “orthostatic tremor,” “orthostatic myoclonus,” “shaky legs,” and “shaky legs syndrome” was performed. Results: OT and OM should be suspected in older patients reporting unsteadiness with prolonged standing and/or who exhibit cautious, wide-based gaits. Surface electromyography (SEMG is necessary to verify the diagnoses. Functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology suggest the generator of classical OT lies within the cerebellothalamocortical network. For OM, and possibly slow OT, the frontal, subcortical cerebrum is the most likely origin. Clonazepam is the most useful medication for classical OT, and levetiracetam for OM, although results are often disappointing. Deep brain stimulation appears promising for classical OT. Rolling walkers reliably improve gait affected by these disorders, as both OT and OM attenuate when weight is transferred from the legs to the arms. Discussion: Orthostatic hyperkinesias are likely underdiagnosed, as SEMG is often unavailable in clinical practice, and thus may be more frequent than currently recognized. The shared weight-bearing induction of OT and OM may indicate a common pathophysiology. Further research, including use of animal models, is necessary to better define the prevalence and pathophysiology of OT and OM, in order to improve their treatment, and provide additional insights into basic balance and gait mechanisms.

  13. Dynamic weight-bearing assessment of pain in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Christensen, Robin; Wæhrens, Eva E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) has suggested to asses pain after specific activities consistently in clinical trials on knee OA. The Dynamic weight-bearing Assessment of Pain (DAP) assesses pain during activity (30 s of performing repeated deep knee-bends from...... a standing position). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability of the DAP for knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: One-hundred participants with knee OA were tested twice each with the DAP, the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), six...

  14. The Combined Effects of Body Weight Support and Gait Speed on Gait Related Muscle Activity: A Comparison between Walking in the Lokomat Exoskeleton and Regular Treadmill Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kammen, Klaske; Boonstra, Annemarijke; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen; den Otter, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background For the development of specialized training protocols for robot assisted gait training, it is important to understand how the use of exoskeletons alters locomotor task demands, and how the nature and magnitude of these changes depend on training parameters. Therefore, the present study assessed the combined effects of gait speed and body weight support (BWS) on muscle activity, and compared these between treadmill walking and walking in the Lokomat exoskeleton. Methods Ten healthy participants walked on a treadmill and in the Lokomat, with varying levels of BWS (0% and 50% of the participants’ body weight) and gait speed (0.8, 1.8, and 2.8 km/h), while temporal step characteristics and muscle activity from Erector Spinae, Gluteus Medius, Vastus Lateralis, Biceps Femoris, Gastrocnemius Medialis, and Tibialis Anterior muscles were recorded. Results The temporal structure of the stepping pattern was altered when participants walked in the Lokomat or when BWS was provided (i.e. the relative duration of the double support phase was reduced, and the single support phase prolonged), but these differences normalized as gait speed increased. Alternations in muscle activity were characterized by complex interactions between walking conditions and training parameters: Differences between treadmill walking and walking in the exoskeleton were most prominent at low gait speeds, and speed effects were attenuated when BWS was provided. Conclusion Walking in the Lokomat exoskeleton without movement guidance alters the temporal step regulation and the neuromuscular control of walking, although the nature and magnitude of these effects depend on complex interactions with gait speed and BWS. If normative neuromuscular control of gait is targeted during training, it is recommended that very low speeds and high levels of BWS should be avoided when possible. PMID:25226302

  15. Body weight unloading modifications on frontal plane joint moments, impulses and Center of Pressure during overground gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arielle G; Wolf, Alon

    2016-11-01

    Body weight unloading is a common method of gait rehabilitation. However, little is known about its effects on the overground gait biomechanical parameters which were often confounded by the walking modality (treadmill) or the speed variability when subjects walked overground while having to pull the body weight unloading system to which they were attached. By designing a mechanical device that pulled the system at a constant speed, we were able to assess the unique effects of body weight unloading on healthy subjects' kinetics during overground gait. Fifteen healthy subjects walked overground under three (0%, 15%, and 30%) body weight unloading experimental conditions. Kinetic measures included hip and knee frontal plane moments and impulses and the foot center of pressure. A significant inverse relationship was shown between increased body weight unloading levels (0% to 30%) and a decrease in the hip and knee first adduction moments and impulses and an increase in the lateral shift of the foot center of pressure. Frontal plane hip and knee kinetic curvature patterns remained similar as evidenced by low normalized RMSE under paired comparisons of the experimental conditions. Overground gait with up to 30% body weight unloading stands out as an efficient method of reducing loads on joints without distorting kinetic gait curvature patterns. The relationship between increased unloading with decreased hip and knee moments and impulses and increased lateral shift of the center of pressure also suggests that this shift may be an important diagnostic tool in gait assessment and correction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of gait using weighted vests on balance with paraplegic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyuk-Jae; Kang, Hyun-Joo

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to identify static and dynamic balance with the addition of weighted vests for the rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. The study was conducted using weighted vest exercises with applied optimal weight ratios. Ten paraplegic patients who use custom orthosis were enrolled for experiments including static standing and dynamic gait with a weighted vest. We set weight ratios as 0%, 10%, and 15% of the patients' weight. A plantar pressure device was used for static balance tests for excursion and velocity of center of pressure and we identified dynamic balance through the tool of Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. The results of static and dynamic balance in 0%, 10%, and 15% weight ratios did not have statistically significant differences, but we found an increasing tendency of sway excursion from nonweight (0%) to weight ratios (10%, 15%) in static balance when weight is applied. Sway excursion in anteroposterior direction is greater than mediolateral sway. In dynamic balance, the TUG results showed a more delayed time when weight ratios were applied. In conclusion, we have to focus on balance training with anteroposterior direction to upgrade a patient's balance and prevent falls. Exercises with weighed vests are more useful than nonweighted but there is no difference between 10% and 15% weight ratios. Weighted vest exercises may play a role in the rehabilitation of balance in those with paraplegia.

  17. Relationships Between Knee Extension Moments During Weighted and Unweighted Gait and Strength Measures That Predict Knee Moments After ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin; Aucoin, Jennifer; Carlson, Rita; Klieber-Kusak, Melanie; Murray, Thomas; Shaw, Bernadette; Lawrence, Michael

    Weighted gait increases internal knee extension moment impulses (KEMI) in the anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed (ACLR) limb; however, limb differences persist. (1) KEMI during normal gait will influence KEMI during weighted gait and (2) peak knee extension (PKE) torque and time to reach PKE torque will predict KEMI during gait tasks. Descriptive laboratory study. Twenty-four women and 14 men completed 3 gait tasks (unweighted, vest, sled) and strength testing after discharge from rehabilitation and clearance to return to sports. KEMI were calculated during the first 25% of stance. PKE torque and time to reach PKE torque were obtained using a dynamometer. Data on the ACLR limb and symmetry indices (SIs) were analyzed for each sex. Women presented with asymmetrical PKE torques and KEMI across tasks. There were three correlations noted for KEMI: between the walk and vest, walk and sled, and vest and sled tasks. Slower time to PKE torque predicted limb asymmetries across tasks and KEMI in the ACLR limb during the sled task. Men presented with asymmetrical PKE torques and KEMI during the sled task. There was a correlation noted for KEMI between walk and vest tasks only. During the sled task, ACLR limb time to PKE torque predicted KEMI in the ACLR limb and PKE torque SI predicted KEMI SI. Women use asymmetrical KEMI profiles during all gait tasks, and those with worse KEMI during walking have worse KEMI during weighted gait. Men have asymmetrical KEMI when sled towing, and these KEMIs do not correlate with KEMI during walking or vest tasks. PKE torque deficits persist when attempting to return to sports. Only men use gains in PKE torque to improve KEMI profiles. Although quicker PKE torque generation will increase KEMI in women, normalization of KEMI profiles will not occur by increasing rate of force development only. Gait retraining is recommended to correct asymmetrical KEMI profiles used across gait tasks in women.

  18. Measuring polyethylene wear in total knee arthroplasty by RSA: differences between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ijsseldijk, Emiel A; Valstar, Edward R; Stoel, Berend C; de Ridder, Ruud; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Kaptein, Bart L

    2014-04-01

    Measuring the minimum-joint-space-width (mJSW) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) provides valuable information on polyethylene wear, a leading cause for TKA failure. Most existing studies use non-weight-bearing (NWB) patient positioning. The latter may compromise mJSW measurements due to knee laxity with subsequent non-contact between the TKA components. We investigated the difference in mJSW between weight-bearing (WB) and NWB images and the association with mediolateral (ML) knee stability. At one-year follow-up, 23 TKAs were included from an ongoing RSA study, and ML stability was evaluated. For each examination, the mJSW and femoral-tibial contact locations were measured. A linear regression model was used to analyze the association between the mJSW difference (NWB-WB) with the ML stability and contact locations. The mean mJSW difference was 0.28 mm medially and 0.20 mm laterally. Four TKAs had medium (5-9°) and 19 TKAs had high (RSA studies are influenced by knee laxity, but may still provide information on wear progression based on TKA with high ML stability. A direct comparison of mJSW measurements from WB and NWB data is not possible. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Management of weight-bearing area fracture of acetabulum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-tong; Wang, Pan-feng; Zhang, Chun-cai

    2011-02-01

    Acetabulum, as the important factor for weight bearing of the upper body, has its unique anatomic features and complicated physiological function. The integrity and stability of the lunata articular surface in the dome region of acetabulum, is the important base to bear the physiological function of acetabulum. The fracture related to this part will cause relation change of contact area and stress between head of femur and acetabulum. Furthermore, the deep anatomical position of the dome region, the complicated surrounding anatomical relation, and the irregular bony structure will also increase the difficulty of surgical treatment. Especially for some complicated comminuted or compressed fracture, even with good explosions, it is hard to get satisfied anatomical reduction. Consequently,forward traumatic arthritis has greater probability of occurrence. Therefore, the clinical research on the fracture in the dome region of acetabulum was getting more and more attention worldly. This paper intended to review the relation of fracture classifications and anatomic features, physiological function,diagnostic criteria,and also its clinical treating countermeasure.

  20. Effect of body weight support variation on muscle activities during robot assisted gait: a dynamic simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid; Jamwal, Prashant K; Ghayesh, Mergen H

    2017-05-01

    While body weight support (BWS) intonation is vital during conventional gait training of neurologically challenged subjects, it is important to evaluate its effect during robot assisted gait training. In the present research we have studied the effect of BWS intonation on muscle activities during robotic gait training using dynamic simulations. Two dimensional (2-D) musculoskeletal model of human gait was developed conjointly with another 2-D model of a robotic orthosis capable of actuating hip, knee and ankle joints simultaneously. The musculoskeletal model consists of eight major muscle groups namely; soleus (SOL), gastrocnemius (GAS), tibialis anterior (TA), hamstrings (HAM), vasti (VAS), gluteus maximus (GLU), uniarticular hip flexors (iliopsoas, IP), and Rectus Femoris (RF). BWS was provided at levels of 0, 20, 40 and 60% during the simulations. In order to obtain a feasible set of muscle activities during subsequent gait cycles, an inverse dynamics algorithm along with a quadratic minimization algorithm was implemented. The dynamic parameters of the robot assisted human gait such as joint angle trajectories, ground contact force (GCF), human limb joint torques and robot induced torques at different levels of BWS were derived. The patterns of muscle activities at variable BWS were derived and analysed. For most part of the gait cycle (GC) the muscle activation patterns are quite similar for all levels of BWS as is apparent from the mean of muscle activities for the complete GC. Effect of BWS variation during robot assisted gait on muscle activities was studied by developing dynamic simulation. It is expected that the proposed dynamic simulation approach will provide important inferences and information about the muscle function variations consequent upon a change in BWS during robot assisted gait. This information shall be quite important while investigating the influence of BWS intonation on neuromuscular parameters of interest during robotic gait training.

  1. Excess body weight loss is associated with nonpathological gait patterns in women 4 to 5 years after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehle, Andrew W; Laughlin, Richard T; Teel, Donovan D; Sherwood, Richard J; Duren, Dana L

    2014-02-01

    This study examined relationships between excess body weight (EBW) loss and current gait and functional status in women 5 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Gait data were analyzed in nine female bariatric patients for relationships with longitudinal changes in weight, body composition, and physical function assessed by the Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire and the timed "get-up-and-go" (TGUG) test. Gait characteristics in the bariatric sample were also compared to an age- and BMI-matched nonsurgical reference sample from the Fels Longitudinal Study. Bariatric patients lost an average of 36.4 kg (61.1%) of EBW between preoperative and 5-year follow-up visits (P weight, not preoperative obesity, suggesting that substantial, sustained recovery of physical function is possible with rapid surgical weight loss.

  2. Image based weighted center of proximity versus directly measured knee contact location during simulated gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongsheng; Chen, Tony; Koff, Matthew F; Hutchinson, Ian D; Gilbert, Susannah; Choi, Dan; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A; Maher, Suzanne A

    2014-07-18

    To understand the mechanical consequences of knee injury requires a detailed analysis of the effect of that injury on joint contact mechanics during activities of daily living. Three-dimensional (3D) knee joint geometric models have been combined with knee joint kinematics to dynamically estimate the location of joint contact during physiological activities-using a weighted center of proximity (WCoP) method. However, the relationship between the estimated WCoP and the actual location of contact has not been defined. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between knee joint contact location as estimated using the image-based WCoP method, and a directly measured weighted center of contact (WCoC) method during simulated walking. To achieve this goal, we created knee specific models of six human cadaveric knees from magnetic resonance imaging. All knees were then subjected to physiological loads on a knee simulator intended to mimic gait. Knee joint motion was captured using a motion capture system. Knee joint contact stresses were synchronously recorded using a thin electronic sensor throughout gait, and used to compute WCoC for the medial and lateral plateaus of each knee. WCoP was calculated by combining knee kinematics with the MRI-based knee specific model. Both metrics were compared throughout gait using linear regression. The anteroposterior (AP) location of WCoP was significantly correlated with that of WCoC on both tibial plateaus in all specimens (p0), but the correlation was not significant in the mediolateral (ML) direction for 4/6 knees (p>0.05). Our study demonstrates that while the location of joint contact obtained from 3D knee joint contact model, using the WCoP method, is significantly correlated with the location of actual contact stresses in the AP direction, that relationship is less certain in the ML direction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hip arthroscopy protocol: expert opinions on post-operative weight bearing and return to sports guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Ehud; Sharfman, Zachary T; Paret, Matan; Amar, Eyal; Drexler, Michael; Bonin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to survey the weight-bearing limitation practices and delay for returning to running and impact sports of high volume hip arthroscopy orthopedic surgeons. The study was designed in the form of expert survey questionnaire. Evidence-based data are scares regarding hip arthroscopy post-operative weight-bearing protocols. An international cross-sectional anonymous Internet survey of 26 high-volume hip arthroscopy specialized surgeons was conducted to report their weight-bearing limitations and rehabilitation protocols after various arthroscopic hip procedures. The International Society of Hip Arthroscopy invited this study. The results were examined in the context of supporting literature to inform the studies suggestions. Four surgeons always allow immediate weight bearing and five never offer immediate weight bearing. Seventeen surgeons provide weight bearing depending on the procedures performed: 17 surgeons allowed immediate weight bearing after labral resection, 10 after labral repair and 8 after labral reconstruction. Sixteen surgeons allow immediate weight bearing after psoas tenotomy. Twenty-one respondents restrict weight bearing after microfracture procedures for 3-8 weeks post-operatively. Return to running and impact sports were shorter for labral procedures and bony procedures and longer for cartilaginous and capsular procedures. Marked variability exists in the post-operative weight-bearing practices of hip arthroscopy surgeons. This study suggests that most surgeons allow immediate weight bearing as tolerated after labral resection, acetabular osteoplasty, chondroplasty and psoas tenotomy. For cartilage defect procedures, 6 weeks or more non-weight bearing is suggested depending on the area of the defect and lateral central edge angle. Delayed return to sports activities is suggested after microfracture procedures. The level of evidence was Level V expert opinions.

  4. Interchangeable Bearings for Profile and Weight Trade Studies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Air-Lock, Incorporated is proposing to design fully sealed shoulder and arm bearings with interchangeable bearing housings. The interchangeable housings shall be...

  5. Excess Body Weight Loss is Associated with Nonpathological Gait Patterns in Women 4 to 5 Years After Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Richard T.; Teel, Donovan D.; Sherwood, Richard J.; Duren, Dana L.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined relationships between excess body weight (EBW) loss and current gait and functional status in women 5 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Methods Gait data were analyzed in nine female bariatric patients for relationships with longitudinal changes in weight, body composition, and physical function assessed by the Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire and the timed “get-up-and-go” (TGUG) test. Gait characteristics in the bariatric sample were also compared to an age- and BMI-matched nonsurgical reference sample from the Fels Longitudinal Study. Results Bariatric patients lost an average of 36.4 kg (61.1 %) of EBW between preoperative and 5-year follow-up visits (P bariatric sample fell within the 95 % confidence intervals of gait/EBW relationships in the reference sample. Conclusions Gait and function 5 years after bariatric surgery were characteristic of current weight, not preoperative obesity, suggesting that substantial, sustained recovery of physical function is possible with rapid surgical weight loss. PMID:24008625

  6. Effects of Talocrural Mobilization with Movement on Ankle Strength, Mobility, and Weight-Bearing Ability in Hemiplegic Patients with Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chang-Man; Jo, Shin-Ok

    2017-01-01

    In general, adequate movement of the ankle joint is known to play an important role in functional activities. Stroke survivors frequently have limited range of motion of the ankle, leading to dysfunctional weight transfer toward the paretic lower limb during standing or gait. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of talocrural mobilization with movement (MWM) on ankle strength, dorsiflexion passive range of motion (DF-PROM), and weight-bearing ability on the paretic limb during standing or gait in stroke patients with limited ankle dorsiflexion. Twenty-six participants with chronic hemiplegia (>6 months post stroke) were divided into 2 groups: MWM group (n = 13) and control group (n = 13). Both groups attended conventional physiotherapy sessions 3 times a week for 5 weeks. Additionally, the MWM group underwent talocrural MWM 3 times a week for 5 weeks. Isokinetic ankle strength, DF-PROM, and weight-bearing ability measures included the limit of stability (LOS); gait parameters were evaluated before and after interventions. Plantarflexors peak torque and DF-PROM significantly increased in the MWM group. In addition, forward and forward-paretic direction LOS significantly increased in the MWM group. Paretic direction LOS, single-limb support phase of the paretic limb significantly increased and double limb support phase significantly decreased within the MWM group. This study demonstrates that talocrural MWM has an augmented effect on ankle strength, mobility, and weight-bearing ability in chronic stroke patients with limited ankle motion when added to conventional therapy. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of a Twelve-Week Weight Reduction Exercise Programme on Selected Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters of Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Jegede

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of twelve-week weight reduction exercises on selected spatiotemporal gait parameters of obese individuals and compare with their normal weight counterparts. Methods. Sixty participants (30 obese and 30 of normal weight started but only 58 participants (obese = 30, normal weight = 28 completed the quasi-experimental study. Only obese group had 12 weeks of weight reduction exercise training but both groups had their walking speed (WS, cadence (CD, step length (SL, step width (SW, and stride length (SDL measured at baseline and at the end of weeks 4, 8, and 12 of the study. Data were analysed using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. There was significantly lower WS, SL, and SDL but higher CD and SW in obese group than the normal weight group at baseline and week 12. However, the obese group had significantly higher percentage changes in all selected spatiotemporal parameters than the normal weight group. Conclusion. The 12-week weight reduction exercise programme produced significantly higher percentage changes in all selected spatiotemporal gait parameters in the obese than normal weight individuals and is recommended for improvement of these parameters among the obese individuals with gait related problems.

  8. Measurement of lower limb alignment: there are within-person differences between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing measurement modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Daphne A L; Feczko, Peter Z; Boonen, Bert; Schotanus, Martijn G M; Kort, Nanne P; Emans, Pieter J

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have compared weight-bearing mechanical leg axis (MLA) measurements to non-weight-bearing measurement modalities. Most of these studies compared mean or median values and did not analyse within-person differences between measurements. This study evaluates the within-person agreement of MLA measurements between weight-bearing full-length radiographs (FLR) and non-weight-bearing measurement modalities (computer-assisted surgery (CAS) navigation or MRI). Two independent observers measured the MLA on pre- and postoperative weight-bearing FLR in 168 patients. These measurements were compared to non-weight-bearing measurements obtained by CAS navigation or MRI. Absolute differences in individual subjects were calculated to determine the agreement between measurement modalities. Linear regression was used to evaluate the possibility that other independent variables impact the differences in measurements. A difference was found in preoperative measurements between FLR and CAS navigation (mean of 2.5° with limit of agreement (1.96 SD) of 6.4°), as well as between FLR and MRI measurements (mean of 2.4° with limit of agreement (1.96 SD) of 6.9°). Postoperatively, the mean difference between MLA measured on FLR compared to CAS navigation was 1.5° (limit of agreement (1.96 SD) of 4.6°). Linear regression analysis showed that weight-bearing MLA measurements vary significantly from non-weight-bearing MLA measurements. Differences were more severe in patients with mediolateral instability (p = 0.010), age (p = 0.049) and ≥3° varus or valgus alignment (p = 0.008). The clinical importance of this study lies in the finding that there are within-person differences between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing measurement modalities. This has implications for preoperative planning, performing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and clinical follow-up after TKA surgery using CAS navigation or patient-specific instrumentation. III.

  9. External pneumatic compression device prevents fainting in standing weight-bearing MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Brandt; Bouert, Rasmus; Bliddal, Henning

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if a peristaltic external pneumatic compression device attached to the legs, while scanning, can reduce a substantial risk of fainting in standing weight-bearing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).......To investigate if a peristaltic external pneumatic compression device attached to the legs, while scanning, can reduce a substantial risk of fainting in standing weight-bearing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)....

  10. Immediate weight-bearing after osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures may be allowed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, Karl Tobias; Palm, Henrik; Holck, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Immediate weight-bearing following osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures is traditionally not allowed due to fear of articular fracture collapse. Anatomically shaped locking plates with sub-articular screws could improve stability and allow greater loading forces. The purpose of this study...... was to investigate if immediate weight-bearing can be allowed following locking plate osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures....

  11. [Correlative analysis on metatarsalgia and the X-ray measurement indexes under weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing of hallux valgus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hao; Sang, Zhi-Cheng; Wen, Jian-Min; Sun, Wei-Dong; Hu, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Yong-Chao; Zuo, Jian-Gang; Wang, Hai-Xiong

    2014-04-01

    To study changes in the radiographic appearance during weight-bearing and non-weigh-bearing in hallux valgus, and to analyse the correlation between the elasticity of plantar soft tissue of hallux valgus and the pain under the metatarsal head. From May 2012 to October 2012, 240 feet of 120 patients with hallux valgus were enrolled in the study. The degrees of the pian under the metatarsal head of all the patients were observed. AP and lateral X-ray films of feet were taken on the condition of weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing. So the hallux valgus angle (HVA), the inter-metatarsal angle between the first and second metatarsals (IM1-2), the inter-metatarsal angle between the first and fifth metatarsals (IM1-5), top angle of the medial longitudinal arch (TAOTMLA),and anterior angle of the medial longitudinal arch (AAOTMLA) were measured on the X-ray films. The differences of HVA, IM1-2, IM1-5, TAOTMLA and AAOTMLA between two groups were compared, and the correlation between the changes of IM1-2, IM 1-5, TAOTMLA, AAOTMLA and the degree of the pain under the metatarsal head were analysed. One hundred and forty-eight feet had the pain under the metatarsal head. The IM1-2, IM1-5 and TAOTMLA increased on weight-bearing position compared with those on non-weight-bearing position, but the HVA and AAOTMLA decreased on weight-bearing position compared with those on non-weight-bearing position. There was a moderate relationship between the changes of IM 1-2,IM1-5 and the degree of the hallux valgus deformity, as well as the relationship between the different of IM1-5 and the degree of the pian under the metatarsal head. The degree of the collapse of the arch of foot with hallux valgus becomes serious with its deformity increasing. The pain under the metatarsal head of hallux valgus increases with the increased changes of IM 1-2,IM 1-5 and TAOTMLA. Analysis of the X-ray observation indexes of hallux valgus on weight-bearing position and non-weight-bearing position has

  12. Weight bearing or non-weight bearing after surgically fixed ankle fractures, the WOW! Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briet, Jan Paul; Houwert, Roderick M; Smeeing, Diederik P J; Pawiroredjo, Janity S; Kelder, Johannes C; Lansink, Koen W; Leenen, Luke P H; van der Zwaal, Peer; van Zutphen, Stephan W A M; Hoogendoorn, Jochem M; van Heijl, Mark; Verleisdonk, Egbert J M M; van Lammeren, Guus W; Segers, Michiel J; Hietbrink, Falco

    2015-04-18

    The optimal post-operative care regimen after surgically fixed Lauge Hansen supination exorotation injuries remains to be established. This study compares whether unprotected weight bearing as tolerated is superior to protected weight bearing and unprotected non-weight bearing in terms of functional outcome and safety. The WOW! Study is a prospective multicenter clinical trial. Patients between 18 and 65 years of age with a Lauge Hansen supination exorotation type 2, 3 or 4 ankle fractures requiring surgical treatment are eligible for inclusion. An expert panel validates the classification and inclusion eligibility. After surgery, patients are randomized to either the 1) unprotected non-weight-bearing, 2) protected weight-bearing, or 3) unprotected weight-bearing group. The primary outcome measure is ankle-specific disability measured by the Olerud-Molander ankle score. Secondary outcomes are 1) quality of life (e.g., return to work and resumption of sport), 2) complications, 3) range of motion, 4) calf wasting, and 5) maximum pressure load after 3 months and 1 year. This trial is designed to compare the effectiveness and safety of unprotected weight bearing with two commonly used post-operative treatment regimens after internal fixation of specified, intrinsically stable but displaced ankle fractures. An expert panel has been established to evaluate every potential subject, which ensures that every patient is strictly screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and that there is a clear indication for surgical fixation. The WOW! Study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register ( NTR3727 ). Date of registration: 28-11-2012.

  13. High Variability of Observed Weight Bearing During Standing Foot and Ankle Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher P; Ghorbanhoseini, Mohammad; Ehrlichman, Lauren K; Walley, Kempland C; Ghaheri, Azadeh; Kwon, John Y

    2017-06-01

    Weight-bearing radiographs are a critical component of evaluating foot and ankle pathology. An underlying assumption is that patients are placing 50% of their body weight on the affected foot during image acquisition. The accuracy of weight bearing during radiographs is unknown and, presumably, variable, which may result in uncertain ability of the resultant radiographs to appropriately portray the pathology of interest. Fifty subjects were tested. The percentage body weight through the foot of interest was measured at the moment of radiographic image acquisition. The subject was then instructed to bear "half [their] weight" prior to the next radiograph. The percentage body weight was calculated and compared to ideal 50% weight bearing. The mean percentage body weight in trial 1 and 2 was 45.7% ± 3.2% ( P = .012 compared to the 50% mark) and 49.2% ± 2.4%, respectively ( P = .428 compared to 50%). The mean absolute difference in percentage weight bearing compared to 50% in trials 1 and 2 was 9.3% ± 2.3% and 5.8% ± 1.8%, respectively ( P = .005). For trial 1, 18/50 subjects were within the "ideal" (45%-55%) range for weight bearing compared to 32/50 on trial 2 ( P = .005). In trial 1, 24/50 subjects had "appropriate" (>45%) weight bearing compared to 39/50 on trial 2 ( P = .002). There was substantial variability in the weight applied during radiograph acquisition. This study raises questions regarding the assumptions, reliability, and interpretation when evaluating weight-bearing radiographs. Level III, comparative study.

  14. Lower Profile, Lighter Weight Space Suit Bearings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Air-Lock will deliver a final report based on the follwoing: 1. Historical summary of bearing design evolution throughout the life of the EMU Program 2. Material...

  15. Changes to transtibial amputee gait with a weighted backpack on multiple surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Sean S; Lemaire, Edward D; Besemann, Markus; Dudek, Nancy L

    2015-12-01

    Modern prosthetic technology and rehabilitation practices have enabled people with lower extremity amputations to participate in almost all occupations and physical activities. Carrying backpack loads can be an essential component for many of these jobs and activities; however, amputee gait with backpack loads is poorly understood. This knowledge gap must be addressed in order to further improve an individual's quality of living through changes in rehabilitation programs and prosthesis development. Ten male, unilateral, K4-level (ability or potential for prosthetic ambulation that exceeds basic ambulation skills, exhibiting high impact, stress, or energy levels), transtibial amputees completed ten walking trials at a self-selected pace on simulated uneven ground, ramp ascent, and ramp descent. Five trials were with a 24.5 kg backpack load and five trials without. Temporal-spatial parameters and kinematic peak values for the ankle, knee, hip, pelvis, and trunk were collected and analyzed for differences between backpack conditions. Each surface had novel findings not found on the other surfaces. However differences in temporal-spatial parameters were congruent with the literature on able bodied individuals. Pelvis and trunk angular velocities decreased with the backpack. Hip flexion on both limbs increased during weight acceptance while wearing the backpack, a common adaptation seen in able-bodied individuals on level ground. A 24.5 kg backpack load can be accommodated by transtibial amputees at the K4 functional level. Future studies on load carriage and gait training programs should include incline and descent due to the increased difficulty. Rehabilitation programs should verify hip and knee flexor strength and work to reduce intact limb reliance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Weight-bearing MRI of the knee: a review of advantages and limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Federico; Barile, Antonio; Arrigoni, Francesco; Laporta, Antonella; Russo, Anna; Carotti, Marina; Splendiani, Alessandra; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2018-01-19

    Standard knee imaging with MRI is usually performed with patient in recumbent position under non-weight-bearing conditions. Recently, magnetic resonance imaging systems to scan the knee joint under weight bearing conditions has been proposed as an approach to improve the clinical utility of musculoskeletal MRI. Imaging under loading can be useful to understand the natural motion behavior of the knee joint and to identify conditions that are challenging to diagnose by using standard position. We reviewed the literature on weight-bearing MR imaging of the knee to describe the current state of use of such MRI technologies, evaluating the advantages and the potential limitations of these technologies.

  17. Cranial acetabular retroversion is common in developmental dysplasia of the hip as assessed by the weight bearing position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Anders; Mikkelsen, Lone Rømer; Jacobsen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of acetabular version differs between the supine and weight bearing positions in developmental dysplasia of the hip. Weight bearing radiographic evaluation has been recommended to ensure the best coherence between symptoms, functional appearance, and hip deformities. Previous...

  18. Correlation of psychomotor findings and the ability to partially weight bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Partial weight bearing is thought to avoid excessive loading that may interfere with the healing process after surgery of the pelvis or the lower extremity. The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ability to partially weight bear and the patient's psychomotor skills and an additional evaluation of the possibility to predict this ability with a standardized psychomotor test. Methods 50 patients with a prescribed partial weight bearing at a target load of 15 kg following surgery were verbally instructed by a physical therapist. After the instruction and sufficient training with the physical therapist vertical ground reaction forces using matrix insoles were measured while walking with forearm crutches. Additionally, psychomotor skills were tested with the Motorische Leistungsserie (MLS). To test for correlations Spearman's Rank correlation was used. For further comparison of the two groups a Mann-Withney test was performed using Bonferroni correction. Results The patient's age and body weight significantly correlated with the ability to partially weight bear at a 15 kg target load. There were significant correlations between several subtests of the MLS and ground reaction forces measured while walking with crutches. Patients that were able to correctly perform partial weight bearing showed significant better psychomotor skills especially for those subtests where both hands had to be coordinated simultaneously. Conclusions The ability to partially weight bear is associated with psychomotor skills. The MLS seems to be a tool that helps predicting the ability to keep within the prescribed load limits. PMID:22330655

  19. Correlation of psychomotor findings and the ability to partially weight bear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruckstuhl Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial weight bearing is thought to avoid excessive loading that may interfere with the healing process after surgery of the pelvis or the lower extremity. The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ability to partially weight bear and the patient's psychomotor skills and an additional evaluation of the possibility to predict this ability with a standardized psychomotor test. Methods 50 patients with a prescribed partial weight bearing at a target load of 15 kg following surgery were verbally instructed by a physical therapist. After the instruction and sufficient training with the physical therapist vertical ground reaction forces using matrix insoles were measured while walking with forearm crutches. Additionally, psychomotor skills were tested with the Motorische Leistungsserie (MLS. To test for correlations Spearman's Rank correlation was used. For further comparison of the two groups a Mann-Withney test was performed using Bonferroni correction. Results The patient's age and body weight significantly correlated with the ability to partially weight bear at a 15 kg target load. There were significant correlations between several subtests of the MLS and ground reaction forces measured while walking with crutches. Patients that were able to correctly perform partial weight bearing showed significant better psychomotor skills especially for those subtests where both hands had to be coordinated simultaneously. Conclusions The ability to partially weight bear is associated with psychomotor skills. The MLS seems to be a tool that helps predicting the ability to keep within the prescribed load limits.

  20. In Vivo Kinematics of the Knee during Weight Bearing in High Flexion

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Wei; Hosseini, Ali; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Li, Jing-Sheng; Rubash, Harry E.; Li, Guoan

    2013-01-01

    Achieving high flexion is an objective of contemporary total knee arthoplasty, however little is known on the knee biomechanics at high flexion under weight-bearing conditions. This study is to investigate the 6DOF kinematics and tibiofemoral cartilage contact biomechanics of the knee during weight-bearing flexion from full extension to maximal flexion. Eight knees from seven healthy subjects with no history of injuries or chronic pain were recruited. The knees were MRI scanned to create 3D m...

  1. Predictors of patellar alignment during weight bearing: an examination of patellar height and trochlear geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hsiang-Ling; Chen, Yu-Jen; Powers, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Patellar malalignment is thought to be an etiological factor with respect to the development of patellofemoral pain. Although previous studies have suggested that the geometry of the femoral trochlea and the height of the patella play an important role in determining patellar alignment, no investigation has systematically examined these relationships during weight bearing. The aim of this study was to determine whether patellar height and/or trochlear geometry predicts patellar alignment (lateral patellar displacement and lateral patellar tilt) during weight bearing. MR images of the patellofemoral joint were acquired from 36 participants during weight bearing (25% of body weight) at 4 knee flexion angles (0°, 20°, 40° and 60°). Using the axial images, patellar alignment (lateral displacement and tilt) and femoral trochlear geometry (sulcus angle and inclination of the lateral femoral trochlea) were measured. Patellar height (Insall-Salvati ratio) was measured on reconstructed sagittal plane images. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that at 0° of knee flexion, the height of the patella was the best predictor of lateral patellar tilt while the lateral trochlea inclination angle was the best predictor of lateral patellar displacement. Lateral trochlear inclination was the best predictor of patellar lateral displacement and tilt at 20°, 40° and 60° of knee flexion. Similar to a previous study performed under non-weight bearing condition, our findings suggest that lateral trochlear inclination is an important determinant of patellar alignment in weight bearing. Level III. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of a 12-week program of static upper extremity weight bearing exercises on weight bearing in children with hemiplegic type of cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jayaraman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The  major  objective  of  this  study  was  to  quantify  the  effects  of a  12-week  program  of  weight  bearing  exercises  on  weight  borne  through  the hand and grip pressures in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. This study also sought to monitor the change in spasticity immediately following weight-bearing  exercises.  A  quasi-experimental,  one  group  pre-test,  post-test  study  was used. Eleven children with hemiplegic type of cerebral palsy from a special school in KwaZulu Natal participated after fully informed written consent. The intervention consisted of a 12-week program of weight bearing. The Tekscan Grip system was used to quantify weight borne through the hand during extended arm prone and quadruped positions and whilst holding a pencil and a tumbler. The modified Ashworth grading of spasticity was used to monitor spasticity. The data was analysed using the random effects GLS model Wald Chi Square test. Significant increases in contact pressure in extended arms prone (p=0,012 and quadruped (p=0,002 and when holding a pencil (p=0,045 was noted post-test compared to pre-test. Significant increases in contact area of the hand was also noted in prone (p=0,000, quadruped (p=0, 03 at assessment 7 and when holding a pencil (p=0,035.  A significant decrease in spasticity during elbow extension (p=0,004, and wrist flexion (p=0,026 and extension (p=0,004 was noted. An overall significant effect of static weight bearing exercises on weight borne through the hands, grip strength and spasticity justifies the use of static weight-bearing in therapy.

  3. Kinematic Analysis of Healthy Hips during Weight-Bearing Activities by 3D-to-2D Model-to-Image Registration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Hara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic hip kinematics during weight-bearing activities were analyzed for six healthy subjects. Continuous X-ray images of gait, chair-rising, squatting, and twisting were taken using a flat panel X-ray detector. Digitally reconstructed radiographic images were used for 3D-to-2D model-to-image registration technique. The root-mean-square errors associated with tracking the pelvis and femur were less than 0.3 mm and 0.3° for translations and rotations. For gait, chair-rising, and squatting, the maximum hip flexion angles averaged 29.6°, 81.3°, and 102.4°, respectively. The pelvis was tilted anteriorly around 4.4° on average during full gait cycle. For chair-rising and squatting, the maximum absolute value of anterior/posterior pelvic tilt averaged 12.4°/11.7° and 10.7°/10.8°, respectively. Hip flexion peaked on the way of movement due to further anterior pelvic tilt during both chair-rising and squatting. For twisting, the maximum absolute value of hip internal/external rotation averaged 29.2°/30.7°. This study revealed activity dependent kinematics of healthy hip joints with coordinated pelvic and femoral dynamic movements. Kinematics’ data during activities of daily living may provide important insight as to the evaluating kinematics of pathological and reconstructed hips.

  4. Charcot arthropathy and immobilization in a weight-bearing total contact cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Leo J

    2008-04-01

    The standard management for Eichenholtz Stage-I Charcot arthropathy has been with non-weight-bearing total contact casts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of the use of weight-bearing total contact casts for similar patients. Twenty-seven patients with Charcot arthropathy of the foot and ankle were studied prospectively over a period of eighteen years, from 1988 to 2006. The average duration of follow-up was 5.5 years. Of the twenty-seven patients, twenty-six had diabetes mellitus. Total contact casts were used to treat thirty-four feet with Eichenholtz Stage-I or early Stage-II Charcot arthropathy. These patients were allowed to bear weight as tolerated. Casts were changed at weekly intervals and were worn until resolution of the acute stage of the disease. No deleterious effect from weight-bearing, specifically with regard to skin ulceration or rapid deterioration of the osseous architecture, was observed in thirty-three of the thirty-four feet. Immobilization in a weight-bearing total contact cast appears to be a safe method of treatment of acute Eichenholtz Stage-I Charcot arthropathy of the foot and ankle.

  5. Evaluation of medial meniscus tears and meniscal stability: weight-bearing MRI vs arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, Antonio; Conti, Laura; Lanni, Giuseppe; Calvisi, Vittorio; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2013-04-01

    To assess the role of dedicated low-field standard and weight-bearing MRI in the evaluation of stable or unstable tears of medial meniscus in comparison with arthroscopy. Our series included 1750 knee MRI scans performed with a high-field MRI scanner from July 2010 to August 2011. We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed 20 MRI exams of normal knee and 57 MRI exams of knee with clinical evidence of tears of the medial meniscus. In the same session, after conventional 1.5T and "dedicated" 0.25T supine MRI exam, the patients underwent weight-bearing examination with the same dedicated MRI unit. In all cases sagittal and coronal PD-W were used. All patients underwent arthroscopy 18-25 days after the weight-bearing MRI. In the first group, no statistically significant anatomical modifications of shape, intensity and position of the medial meniscus between standard 1.5T, dedicated supine and upright MRI were observed. In group A, the images acquired in the supine position (dedicated and 1.5T MRI) documented in 21 cases a traumatic tear (group 2A) and in 36 cases a degenerative tear (group 2B). In group 2A, weight-bearing MRI showed presence of unstable tear a degenerative unstable meniscal tear only in 19 out of 36 cases. In group 2B, weight-bearing MRI showed only in 9 out 21 cases. Arthroscopy confirmed weight-bearing MRI diagnosis in all cases. This new approach to meniscus pathology gives an important contribution to a better management of a diagnostic-therapeutic approach in which standard MRI has not played a key role, so far. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Automated assessment of pain in rats using a voluntarily accessed static weight-bearing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hung Tae; Uchimoto, Kazuhiro; Duellman, Tyler; Yang, Jay

    2015-11-01

    The weight-bearing test is one method to assess pain in rodent animal models; however, the acceptance of this convenient method is limited by the low throughput data acquisition and necessity of confining the rodents to a small chamber. We developed novel data acquisition hardware and software, data analysis software, and a conditioning protocol for an automated high throughput static weight-bearing assessment of pain. With this device, the rats voluntarily enter the weighing chamber, precluding the necessity to restrain the animals and thereby removing the potential stress-induced confounds as well as operator selection bias during data collection. We name this device the Voluntarily Accessed Static Incapacitance Chamber (VASIC). Control rats subjected to the VASIC device provided hundreds of weight-bearing data points in a single behavioral assay. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) surgery and paw pad injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or carrageenan in rats generated hundreds of weight-bearing data during a 30 minute recording session. Rats subjected to CCI, CFA, or carrageenan demonstrated the expected bias in weight distribution favoring the un-operated leg, and the analgesic effect of i.p. morphine was demonstrated. In comparison with existing methods, brief water restriction encouraged the rats to enter the weighing chamber to access water, and an infrared detector confirmed the rat position with feet properly positioned on the footplates, triggering data collection. This allowed hands-off measurement of weight distribution data reducing operator selection bias. The VASIC device should enhance the hands-free parallel collection of unbiased weight-bearing data in a high throughput manner, allowing further testing of this behavioral measure as an effective assessment of pain in rodents. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy Experience Difficulties Adjusting Their Gait Pattern to Weight Added to the Waist, While Typically Developing Children Do Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyns, Pieter; Van Gestel, Leen; Bar-On, Lynn; Goudriaan, Marije; Wambacq, Hans; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Bruyninckx, Herman; Molenaers, Guy; De Cock, Paul; Ortibus, Els; Desloovere, Kaat

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is increasing in the last decades, also in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Even though it has been established that an increase in weight can have important negative effects on gait in healthy adults and children, it has not been investigated what the effect is of an increase in body weight on the characteristics of gait in children with CP. In CP, pre and post three-dimensional gait analyses are performed to assess the effectiveness of an intervention. As a considerable amount of time can elapse between these measurements, and the effect of an alteration in the body weight is not taken into consideration, this effect of increased body weight is of specific importance. Thirty children with the predominantly spastic type of CP and 15 typically developing (TD) children were enrolled (age 3–15 years). All children underwent three-dimensional gait analysis with weight-free (baseline) and weighted (10% of the body weight added around their waist) trials. Numerous gait parameters showed a different response to the added weight for TD and CP children. TD children increased walking velocity, step- and stride length, and decreased double support duration with a slightly earlier timing of foot-off, while the opposite was found in CP. Similarly, increased ranges of motion at the pelvis (coronal plane) and hip (all planes), higher joint angular velocities at the hip and ankle, as well as increased moments and powers at the hip, knee and ankle were observed for TD children, while CP children did not change or even showed decreases in the respective measures in response to walking with added weight. Further, while TD children increased their gastrocnemius EMG amplitude during weighted walking, CP children slightly decreased their gastrocnemius EMG amplitude. As such, an increase in weight has a significant effect on the gait pattern in CP children. Clinical gait analysts should therefore take into account the negative

  8. Mobile-bearing knee systems: ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear and design issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, A Seth; Heim, Christine S

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Orthopaedic Advisory Panel recommended the reclassification of mobile-bearing knee systems for general use. This reflects the increasing use of mobile-bearing knee systems internationally, which is currently limited in the United States by regulatory requirement. Mobile-bearing knee systems are distinguished from conventional, fixed-plateau systems in that they allow dual-surface articulation between an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene insert and metallic femoral and tibial tray components. Their in vivo success is dependent on patient selection, design, and material choice, as well as surgical precision during implantation. Laboratory and clinical experience extending over 25 years with individual systems suggests that mobile-bearing knee systems represent a viable treatment option for patients with knee arthrosis.

  9. Weighted Kernel Entropy Component Analysis for Fault Diagnosis of Rolling Bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongdi; Shi, Tielin; Liao, Guanglan; Xuan, Jianping; Duan, Jie; Su, Lei; He, Zhenzhi; Lai, Wuxing

    2017-03-18

    This paper presents a supervised feature extraction method called weighted kernel entropy component analysis (WKECA) for fault diagnosis of rolling bearings. The method is developed based on kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) which attempts to preserve the Renyi entropy of the data set after dimension reduction. It makes full use of the labeled information and introduces a weight strategy in the feature extraction. The class-related weights are introduced to denote differences among the samples from different patterns, and genetic algorithm (GA) is implemented to seek out appropriate weights for optimizing the classification results. The features based on wavelet packet decomposition are derived from the original signals. Then the intrinsic geometric features extracted by WKECA are fed into the support vector machine (SVM) classifier to recognize different operating conditions of bearings, and we obtain the overall accuracy (97%) for the experimental samples. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Bone compaction enhances fixation of weight-bearing hydroxyapatite-coated implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, Søren; Rahbek, Ole; Vestermark, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    The effect of bone compaction vs conventional drilling on the fixation of hydroxyapatite-coated implants was examined in a weight-bearing canine model. In each dog, one knee joint had the implant cavity prepared with drilling, the other with compaction. Eight dogs were euthanized after 2 weeks...

  11. Short-time weight-bearing capacity assessment for non-ambulatory patients with subacute stroke: reliability and discriminative power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; Rosemeyer, Heike; Baur, Heiner; Schindelholz, Matthias; Hunt, Kenneth J; Radlinger, Lorenz; Schuster-Amft, Corina

    2015-11-26

    Weight-bearing capacity (WBC) on the hemiparetic leg is crucial for independent walking, and is thus an important outcome to monitor after a stroke. A specific and practical assessment in non-ambulatory patients is not available. This is of importance considering the increasing administration of high intensive gait training for the severely impaired stroke population. The aim was to develop a fast and easy-to-perform assessment for WBC on a foot pressure plate to be used in clinical routine. WBC was assessed in the frontal plane in 30 non-ambulatory patients with subacute stroke and 10 healthy controls under 3 conditions: static, dynamic, and rhythmic. Force-time curves for the hemiparetic leg (patients with stroke) and the non-dominant leg (healthy controls) were normalised as a percentage of body weight (%BW), and the means analysed over 60, 30, and 15 s (static) and the mean of the peak values for 15, 10, 5, 4, and 3 repetition trials (dynamic, rhythmic). The data were tested for discriminative power and reliability. Dynamic and rhythmic tests could discriminate between patients with stroke and healthy controls over all periods (15, 10, 5, 4, and 3 repetitions) (p 0.829] and inter-session reliability (ICC = 0.740) were found for 3 repetitions in the dynamic test with acceptable absolute reliability [standard error of measurement (SEM) <5 %BW, minimal detectable difference (MDD) <12.4 %BW] and no within- or between-test differences (trial 1, p = 0.792; trial 2, p = 0.067; between trials, p = 0.102). Three dynamic repetitions of loading the hemiparetic leg are sufficient to assess WBC in non-ambulatory patients with subacute stroke. This is an important finding regarding the implementation of a fast and easy-to-perform assessment for routine clinical usage in patients with limited standing ability.

  12. Partial Weight Bearing: Long-term monitoring of load in patients with a total hip arthroplasty during postoperative recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.P. Hurkmans (Henri)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPartial weight bearing (PWB) is a central aspect within the postoperative physical therapy of orthopedic and trauma patients with pathologies of the lower extremity. Restriction in weight bearing of the operated leg during standing and walking is needed to avoid complications during

  13. Differences between X-ray and MRI-determined knee cartilage thickness in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, M; Souza, R B; Wyman, B T; Hellio Le Graverand, M-P; Subburaj, K; Link, T M; Majumdar, S

    2013-12-01

    Determine the effect of loading upon MRI-based mean medial femorotibial cartilage thickness (mMFT_th) and radiograph-based minimum joint space width (mJSW), and determine loading's effect on the relationship between these measures. MRI and radiographs were analyzed of 25 knees in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing conditions. Eight subjects had a Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade of 0, indicating no evidence of radiographic OA. The rest were KL = 2 or KL = 3, indicating mild to moderate OA. The change from unloaded to loaded conditions was calculated. Joint space measures decreased from unloaded to loaded conditions for both radiographs (mJSW = 3.29 mm unloaded to 3.16 mm loaded, P MRI (mMFT_th = 2.70 mm unloaded to 2.55 mm loaded P MRI joint space values from our study were no better correlated to one another than loaded X-ray and unloaded MRI. Knee loading does not add a very significant value to the study of joint space on healthy knees, but loading may play a role in the study of OA knees. Unloaded MRI assessments of cartilage thickness are as correlated to loaded JSW as to loaded MRI measurements. More study is necessary to determine whether loaded MRI adds significant value to the study of OA progression. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The influence of gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization on weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gastrocnemius stretching combined with talocrural joint mobilization on weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion. [Subjects] Eleven male subjects with bilateral limited ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion with knee extended participated in this study. [Methods] All subjects received talocrural joint mobilization while performing gastrocnemius stretching. Ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion was measured using an inclinometer under weight-bearing conditions before and immediately after intervention. A paired t-test was used to analyze the difference between weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion pre- and post-intervention. [Results] A significant increase in weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion was found post-intervention compared with pre-intervention. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization is effective for increasing weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion.

  15. Patellofemoral joint contact area increases with knee flexion and weight-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, Thor F; Draper, Christine E; Gold, Garry E; Beaupré, Gary S; Delp, Scott L

    2005-03-01

    Patellofemoral pain is a common and debilitating disorder. Elevated cartilage stress of the patellofemoral joint is hypothesized to play a role in the onset of pain. Estimating cartilage stress requires accurate measurements of contact area. The purpose of this study was to estimate patellofemoral joint contact areas in a group of healthy, pain-free subjects during upright, weight-bearing conditions. Sixteen subjects (8 female, 8 male) were scanned in a GE Signa SP open configuration MRI scanner, which allowed subjects to stand or squat while reclining 25 degrees from vertical with the knee positioned at 0 degrees , 30 degrees , or 60 degrees of flexion. A custom-built backrest enabled subjects to be scanned without motion artifact in both weight-bearing (0.45 body weight per leg) and reduced loading conditions ('unloaded' at 0.15 body weight) at each knee flexion posture. Male subjects displayed mean unloaded patellofemoral joint contact areas of 210, 414, and 520 mm(2) at 0 degrees , 30 degrees and 60 degrees of knee flexion, respectively. Female subjects' unloaded contact areas were similar at full extension (0 degrees ), but significantly smaller at 30 degrees and 60 degrees (pweight-bearing conditions, contact areas increased by an average of 24% (pknee flexion postures, and physiologic loading conditions.

  16. The impact of adding weight-bearing exercise versus nonweight bearing programs to the medical treatment of elderly patients with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsayed A Shanb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a major public health problem affecting the elderly population, particularly women. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of adding weight-bearing exercise as opposed to nonweight-bearing programs to the medical treatment of bone mineral density (BMD and health-related quality of life (HRQoL of elderly patients with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: Participating in the study were 40 elderly osteoporotic patients (27 females and 13 males, with ages ranging from 60 to 67 years, who were receiving medical treatment for osteoporosis. They were assigned randomly into two groups: Group-I: Twenty patients practiced weight-bearing exercises. Group-II: Twenty patients did nonweight-bearing exercises. All patients trained for 45-60 min/session, two sessions/week for 6 months. BMD of the lumbar spine, right neck of femur, and right distal radial head of all patients were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after both treatment programs. In addition, the QoL was measured by means of the HRQoL "ECOS-16" questionnaire. Results: T-tests proved that mean values of BMD of the lumbar spine, right neck of femur and right distal radial head were significantly increased in both groups with greater improvement in the weight-bearing group. The QoL was significantly improved in both groups, but the difference between them was not significant. Conclusion: Addition of weight-bearing exercise program to medical treatment increases BMD more than nonweight-bearing exercise in elderly subjects with osteoporosis. Furthermore, both weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing exercise programs significantly improved the QoL of patients with osteoporosis.

  17. Inadequate thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants : clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The term 'thin soles' refers to the suboptimal thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants. These palmar / plantar surfaces of the claws support the weight of the animal and consist of the distal wall horn, the sole proper, the heel and the minute white line area. The sole should normally only bear weight on uneven or undulating surfaces. A decrease in the thickness of the weight-bearing claw surface will decrease the protective function of this structure and may alter the proportion of weight-bearing by each section with possible detrimental effects on hoof function. Horn tissue readily absorbs water and becomes softer which can lead to increased wear rates. Growth rates normally match wear rates but, unlike the latter, time is needed for the growth rate response to adapt to changes in wear rate. Concrete surfaces can be abrasive and dairy cows that spend their lactation cycle on these floors should be let out to pasture in the dry period so that their claws can recoup lost horn. Frictional coefficient is a measure of the 'slipperiness' of hooves on various surfaces. Newly laid or fresh concrete is not only abrasive but the thin surface suspension of calcium hydroxide that forms has a very alkaline pH which causes keratin degradation and is mostly responsible for the excessive claw wear that occurs. Four case studies are used to illustrate the importance of the distal wall horn, the dangers of over-trimming and the effects of disease and concrete on horn growth and wear rates.

  18. The energy expenditure of non-weight bearing crutch walking on the level and ascending stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jonathan; Murphy, Alexandra; Murphy, David; Austin, Andy; Moran, Danielle; Cronin, Caitriona; Guinan, Emer; Hussey, Juliette

    2015-06-01

    Crutches are commonly prescribed to patients with lower limb dysfunction during rehabilitation to assist with mobility. The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure for non-weight bearing crutch walking on level ground and ascending stairs at a self selected speed in a healthy adult population. Thirty-one healthy male and female adults (mean±SD: age 21.6±1.2 years; height 170.8±10.8 cm; weight 70.8±11.4 kg) mobilised non-weight bearing with elbow crutches along a 30 m corridor and (with one crutch) up a flight of 13 stairs. Energy expenditure for each activity was measured by indirect calorimetry using the COSMED K4b(2) portable ergospirometry system. The established VO2 values were 16.4ml/kg/min for crutch walking on level ground and 17.85 ml/kg/min for stair climbing. Non-weight bearing crutch walking at a self selected speed on the level ground and up a flight of stairs resulted in a MET value of 4.57 and 5.06 respectively. The mean heart rate (HR) for crutch walking along the flat was 117.06±20.54 beats per minute (bpm), while the mean HR for ambulating upstairs with crutches was 113.91±19.32 bpm. The increased energy demands of non-weight bearing crutch walking should be considered by physical therapists when instructing patients on crutch use. Further investigation to determine the implications of these results in populations with chronic disease is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Kinetic gait analysis in English Bulldogs

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizabal Escobar, Andrés Sebastian; de Souza, Alexandre Navarro Alves; de Campos Fonseca Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandão; Matera, Julia Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background Canine breed conformation may interfere with locomotion and may predispose to orthopedic disease. Bulldogs have a high incidence of orthopedic diseases such as hip dysplasia. Kinetic gait analysis provides an objective way to assess and analyze locomotion. The aim of this study was to study the vertical forces of English Bulldogs during walk using a pressure sensitive walkway. We hypothesize that Bulldogs affected by orthopedic diseases have decreased weight bearing and asymmetric ...

  20. Different femorotibial contact on the weight-bearing: midflexion between normal and varus aligned knees after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Eisaku; Sasashige, Yoshiaki; Tomita, Tetsuya; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Inoue, Amiko; Sawa, Mikiya; Ota, Yuki

    2015-06-01

    The influence of residual malalignment on biomechanical analysis after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is currently uncertain. The hypothesis is that postoperative alignment would influence the in vivo kinematics after TKA, under weight-bearing conditions but not under non-weight-bearing condition. The purpose of the present study was to compare weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing conditions and to evaluate the effect of the postoperative alignment on the in vivo kinematics after posterior cruciate ligament-retaining TKA during midflexion using 2-dimensional/3-dimensional registration. Thirty knees of 30 patients with pre-operative varus deformity were divided into 2 groups according to their postoperative alignment: the normal alignment group (N = 21) and the varus alignment group (N = 9). Under weight-bearing conditions, the varus alignment group showed a significant posterior displacement of the medial femoral condyle (flexion: 80°, 90° P difference in the medial and lateral femoral condyle positions under non-weight-bearing conditions was observed between the normal and varus alignment groups. The postoperative alignment influenced knee kinematics under weight-bearing conditions. The weight load influenced knee kinematics through posterior tibial slope and induced greater lateral femoral condyle mobility, which might explain the better clinical and functional outcome. These findings contribute to gaining a proper understanding of the in vivo kinematics of the postoperative varus alignment and might be useful for orthopaedic surgeons in the achievement of patient satisfaction. III.

  1. Effects of weight-bearing exercise on bone health in girls: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Saori; Kim, Youngdeok; Kang, Minsoo; Morgan, Don W

    2013-09-01

    Because growing bone possesses a greater capacity to adapt to mechanical loading than does mature bone, it is important for girls to engage in weight-bearing activities, especially since the prevalence of osteoporosis among older women is considerably higher than that of older men. In recent years, the osteogenic potential of weight-bearing activities performed by children and adolescents has received increasing attention and accumulating evidence suggests that this type of activity may improve bone health prior to adulthood and help prevent osteoporosis later in life. Because previous interventions have varied with respect to the exercise parameters studied and sometimes produced conflicting findings, this meta-analysis was undertaken to evaluate the impact of weight-bearing exercise on the bone health of female children and adolescents and quantify the influence of key moderating variables (e.g. pubertal stage, exercise mode, intervention strategy, exercise duration, frequency of exercise, programme length and study design) on skeletal development in this cohort. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Physical Education Index, Science Direct and ProQuest. Search terms included 'bone mass', 'bone mineral', 'bone health', 'exercise' and 'physical activity'. Randomized- and non-randomized controlled trials featuring healthy prepubertal, early-pubertal and pubertal girls and measurement of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) or bone mineral content (BMC) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry were examined. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software was used to determine weighted mean effect sizes (ES) and conduct moderator analyses for three different regions of interest [i.e. total body, lumbar spine (LS), and femoral neck]. From 17 included studies, 72 ES values were retrieved. Our findings revealed a small, but significant influence of weight-bearing exercise on BMC and aBMD of the LS (overall ES 0

  2. Relationship between pelvic alignment and weight-bearing asymmetry in community-dwelling chronic stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruliraj Karthikbabu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Altered pelvic alignment and asymmetrical weight bearing on lower extremities are the most common findings observed in standing and walking after stroke. The purpose of this study was to find the relationship between pelvic alignment and weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA in community-dwelling chronic stroke survivors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in tertiary care rehabilitation centers. In standing, the lateral and anterior pelvic tilt angle of chronic stroke survivors was assessed using palpation (PALM™ meter device. The percentage of WBA was measured with two standard weighing scales. Pearson correlation coefficient (r was used to study the correlation between pelvic tilt and WBA. Results: Of 112 study participants, the mean (standard deviation age was 54.7 (11.7 years and the poststroke duration was 14 (11 months. The lateral pelvic tilt on the most affected side and bilateral anterior pelvic tilt were 2.47 (1.8 and 4.4 (1.8 degree, respectively. The percentage of WBA was 23.2 (18.94. There was a high correlation of lateral pelvic tilt with WBA (r = 0.631; P< 0.001 than anterior pelvic tilt (r = 0.44; P< 0.001. Conclusion: Excessive lateral pelvic tilt toward the most affected side in standing may influence the weight-bearing ability of the ipsilateral lower extremity in community-dwelling chronic stroke survivors.

  3. Combination of robot-assisted and conventional body-weight-supported treadmill training improves gait in persons with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jennifer; Labas, Michele P; Triche, Elizabeth W; Lo, Albert C

    2013-12-01

    The majority of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience problems with gait, which they characterize as highly disabling impairments that adversely impact their quality of life. Thus, it is crucial to develop effective therapies to improve mobility for these individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether combination gait training, using robot-assisted treadmill training followed by conventional body-weight-supported treadmill training within the same session, improved gait and balance in individuals with MS. This study tested combination gait training in 7 persons with MS. The participants were randomized into the immediate therapy group (IT group) or the delayed therapy group (DT group). In phase I of the trial, the IT group received treatment while the DT group served as a concurrent comparison group. In phase II of the trial, the DT group received treatment identical to the treatment received by the IT group in phase I. Outcome measures included the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the Timed 25-Foot Walk Test, velocity, cadence, and the Functional Reach Test (FRT). Nonparametric statistical techniques were used for analysis. Combination gait training resulted in significantly greater improvements in the 6MWT for the IT group (median change = +59 m) compared with Phase I DT group (median change = -8 m) (P = 0.08) and FRT (median change = +3.3 cm in IT vs -0.8 cm in the DT group phase I; P = 0.03). Significant overall pre-post improvements following combination gait training were found in 6MWT (+32 m; P = 0.02) and FRT (+3.3 cm; P = 0.06) for IT and Phase II DT groups combined. Combination of robot with body-weight-supported treadmill training gait training is feasible and improved 6MWT and FRT distances in persons with MS.Video Abstract available (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A62) for more insights from the authors.

  4. BODY WEIGHT-SUPPORTED GAIT TRAINING FOR RESTORATION OF WALKING IN PEOPLE WITH AN INCOMPLETE SPINAL CORD INJURY : A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, Monique; Lucas, Cees; Eriks, Inge; de Groot, Sonja

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of body weight-supported gait training on restoration of walking, activities of daily living, and quality of life in persons with an incomplete spinal cord injury by a systematic review of the literature. Methods: Cochrane, MEDLINE, EM BASE, CINAHL, PEDro, DocOnline

  5. EFFECT OF LOCOMOTOR TRAINING WITH BODY WEIGHT SUPPORT ON GAIT AND LOWER LIMB STRENGTH IN INCOMPLETE SPINAL CORD INJURY-A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parneet Kaur Bedi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irrespective of the severity of the spinal injury, time after lesion and age at time of injury, the restoration of walking is given high priority by subjects with SCI. There is ample amount of literature with gait training methods for restoration of locomotion from other parts of the world. Rehabilitative training is currently one of the most thriving treatments to promote functional recovery following SCI. Many strategies exist to enhance locomotion, such as treadmill training with and without body weight support, robotic-assisted gait training, functional electrical stimulation, epidural stimulation and surface spinal stimulation. Pertaining to developing countries, this case study is an attempt to determine the effect of Locomotor Training with Body Weight Support on Gait and Muscle Strength in Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury. Methods: Single case design, Body weight support treadmill training for over a period of 12 months for an Individual with SCI (ASIA C in a private clinic set up for SCI rehabilitation. ASIA lower extremity muscle strength, Spinal Cord Injury Functional Ambulation Inventory and Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury –II. Results: Significant change in lower extremity muscle strength, gait parameters and temporal parameters of SCI-FAI. Though, no change was observed in score of assistive devices and similarly WISCI-II scoring. Conclusion: Single participant case study provided us with vital evidence for locomotor training with Body weight support in incomplete SCI. Further research in to the field shall yield valuable clinical findings.

  6. The Combined Effects of Body Weight Support and Gait Speed on Gait Related Muscle Activity : A Comparison between Walking in the Lokomat Exoskeleton and Regular Treadmill Walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kammen, Klaske; Boonstra, Annemarijke; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen; Otter, den Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background: For the development of specialized training protocols for robot assisted gait training, it is important to understand how the use of exoskeletons alters locomotor task demands, and how the nature and magnitude of these changes depend on training parameters. Therefore, the present study

  7. Morphological and Microstructural Alterations of the Articular Cartilage and Bones during Treadmill Exercises with Different Additional Weight-Bearing Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazi Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and microstructural alterations of the articular cartilage and bones during treadmill exercises with different exercise intensities. Sixty 5-week-old female rats were randomly divided into 10 groups: five additional weight-bearing groups (WBx and five additional weight-bearing with treadmill exercise groups (EBx, which were subjected to additional weight bearing of x% (x = 0, 5, 12, 19, and 26 of the corresponding body weight of each rat for 15 min/day. After 8 weeks of experiment, the rats were humanely sacrificed and their bilateral intact knee joints were harvested. Morphological analysis of the cartilages and microcomputed tomography evaluation of bones were subsequently performed. Results showed that increased additional weight bearing may lead to cartilage damage. No significant difference was observed among the subchondral cortical thicknesses of the groups. The microstructure of subchondral trabecular bone of 12% and 19% additional weight-bearing groups was significantly improved; however, the WB26 and EB26 groups showed low bone mineral density and bone volume fraction as well as high structure model index. In conclusion, effects of treadmill exercise on joints may be associated with different additional weight-bearing levels, and exercise intensities during joint growth and maturation should be selected reasonably.

  8. The influence of gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization on weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gastrocnemius stretching combined with talocrural joint mobilization on weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion. [Subjects...

  9. Partial Weight Bearing: Long-term monitoring of load in patients with a total hip arthroplasty during postoperative recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkmans, Henri

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPartial weight bearing (PWB) is a central aspect within the postoperative physical therapy of orthopedic and trauma patients with pathologies of the lower extremity. Restriction in weight bearing of the operated leg during standing and walking is needed to avoid complications during the postoperative recovery. The task of the physical therapist (PT) is to instruct the patient how to unload the lower extremity during recovery, so that the patient can safely and independently perfor...

  10. MANAGEMENT OF TONE AND HAND FUNCTIONS IN CEREBRAL PALSY: INHIBITIVE WEIGHT BEARING SPLINT AS AN ADJUNCT MODALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Manoharrao; Sujit Kumar; Akshataa Atul

    2014-01-01

    A CP child who manifests spasticity in upper extremity, interferes with hand function and hand development. Weight Bearing promotes the development of mature arm and development of hand skills. The present study was intended to evaluate the efficacy of the inhibitive weight bearing splint for cerebral palsy patients in management of tone and hand functions. The performance of the splint was observed using EDPA scale, hand tracing and functional activity of ball play on the cer...

  11. In vivo kinematics of the knee during weight bearing high flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Hosseini, Ali; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Li, Jing-Sheng; Rubash, Harry E; Li, Guoan

    2013-05-31

    Achieving high flexion is an objective of contemporary total knee arthoplasty; however little is known on the knee biomechanics at high flexion under weight-bearing conditions. This study investigates the 6DOF kinematics and tibiofemoral cartilage contact biomechanics of the knee during weight-bearing flexion from full extension to maximal flexion. Eight knees from seven healthy subjects with no history of injuries or chronic pain were recruited. The knees were MRI scanned to create 3D models of the tibia and femur, including their articular cartilage surfaces. The subjects were then imaged using a dual fluoroscopic image system while performing a weight-bearing quasi-static single-legged lunge from full extension to maximal flexion. The 6DOF kinematics and the articular cartilage contact locations were measured along the flexion path of the knee. The result indicated that the internal tibial rotation increased sharply at low flexion angles (full extension to 30°), maintained a small variation in the middle range of flexion (30-120°, and then sharply increased again at high flexion angles (120° to maximal flexion). The contact point moved similarly in the medial and lateral compartments before 120° of flexion, but less on the medial compartment at high flexion angles. The results indicated that the knee motion could not be described using one character in the entire range of flexion, especially in high flexion. The knee kinematic data in the entire range of flexion of the knee could be instrumental for designing new knee prostheses to achieve physical high flexion and improving rehabilitation protocols after knee injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Weighted low-rank sparse model via nuclear norm minimization for bearing fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhaohui; Chen, Xuefeng; Zhang, Han; Yang, Boyuan; Zhai, Zhi; Yan, Ruqiang

    2017-07-01

    It is a fundamental task in the machine fault diagnosis community to detect impulsive signatures generated by the localized faults of bearings. The main goal of this paper is to exploit the low-rank physical structure of periodic impulsive features and further establish a weighted low-rank sparse model for bearing fault detection. The proposed model mainly consists of three basic components: an adaptive partition window, a nuclear norm regularization and a weighted sequence. Firstly, due to the periodic repetition mechanism of impulsive feature, an adaptive partition window could be designed to transform the impulsive feature into a data matrix. The highlight of partition window is to accumulate all local feature information and align them. Then, all columns of the data matrix share similar waveforms and a core physical phenomenon arises, i.e., these singular values of the data matrix demonstrates a sparse distribution pattern. Therefore, a nuclear norm regularization is enforced to capture that sparse prior. However, the nuclear norm regularization treats all singular values equally and thus ignores one basic fact that larger singular values have more information volume of impulsive features and should be preserved as much as possible. Therefore, a weighted sequence with adaptively tuning weights inversely proportional to singular amplitude is adopted to guarantee the distribution consistence of large singular values. On the other hand, the proposed model is difficult to solve due to its non-convexity and thus a new algorithm is developed to search one satisfying stationary solution through alternatively implementing one proximal operator operation and least-square fitting. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis and selection principles of algorithmic parameters are comprehensively investigated through a set of numerical experiments, which shows that the proposed method is robust and only has a few adjustable parameters. Lastly, the proposed model is applied to the

  13. Effects of Intermittent Weight-Bearing and Clenbuterol on Disuse Atrophy of Rat Hindlimb Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of intermittent weight-bearing (IWB) combined with β2-agonist clenbuterol (Cb) medication for suppressing muscle atrophy during progressive disuse atrophy. Male Wistar rats (age: 8weeks, body weight: 232 ± 14 g) were divided into a control group (CON) and an experimental group. The experimental group was further subdivided into a Cb medication group under normal conditions and a hindlimb unweighting (HU) treatment group. The HU treatment group was composed of four groups: HU treatment-only, HU treatment + IWB, HU treatment + Cb medication and HU treatment + IWB + Cb medication. IWB was performed by temporarily removing the suspension device for one hour daily. On Day 14, bilateral soleus muscle (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) were extracted. Muscles from the right side were used for the measurement of contractile properties (physiological functional evaluations). Muscles from the left side were used for histochemical and biochemical analysis. During HU, IWB combined with Cb medication worked to preserve the wet weight and relative weight of SOL as compared to CON. Its contractile properties were affected by weight-bearing, while the cross-sectional area of type I fiber and protein concentration were affected by Cb. This combined therapy had marked effects on the morphology of EDL, particularly on the cross-sectional area of type II fiber. The protein concentration and contractile properties of EDL were unaffected by this combined therapy. The effect of a combination of IWB and Cb medication was specific to fiber-type and region. The data suggested that 1) IWB was effective on functional aspects such as contractile properties and useful for physical therapy, 2) Cb medication exerted the atrophy-suppressive effect in morphological parameters and manifested less effect on functional aspects. The results in this study indicated the possibility of elevating the efficacy of IWB by Cb medication

  14. Kurtosis based weighted sparse model with convex optimization technique for bearing fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Chen, Xuefeng; Du, Zhaohui; Yan, Ruqiang

    2016-12-01

    The bearing failure, generating harmful vibrations, is one of the most frequent reasons for machine breakdowns. Thus, performing bearing fault diagnosis is an essential procedure to improve the reliability of the mechanical system and reduce its operating expenses. Most of the previous studies focused on rolling bearing fault diagnosis could be categorized into two main families, kurtosis-based filter method and wavelet-based shrinkage method. Although tremendous progresses have been made, their effectiveness suffers from three potential drawbacks: firstly, fault information is often decomposed into proximal frequency bands and results in impulsive feature frequency band splitting (IFFBS) phenomenon, which significantly degrades the performance of capturing the optimal information band; secondly, noise energy spreads throughout all frequency bins and contaminates fault information in the information band, especially under the heavy noisy circumstance; thirdly, wavelet coefficients are shrunk equally to satisfy the sparsity constraints and most of the feature information energy are thus eliminated unreasonably. Therefore, exploiting two pieces of prior information (i.e., one is that the coefficient sequences of fault information in the wavelet basis is sparse, and the other is that the kurtosis of the envelope spectrum could evaluate accurately the information capacity of rolling bearing faults), a novel weighted sparse model and its corresponding framework for bearing fault diagnosis is proposed in this paper, coined KurWSD. KurWSD formulates the prior information into weighted sparse regularization terms and then obtains a nonsmooth convex optimization problem. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is sequentially employed to solve this problem and the fault information is extracted through the estimated wavelet coefficients. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, KurWSD overcomes the three drawbacks and utilizes the advantages of both family

  15. Functional weight-bearing mobilization after Achilles tendon rupture enhances early healing response: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkering, Kars P; Aufwerber, Susanna; Ranuccio, Francesco; Lunini, Enricomaria; Edman, Gunnar; Ackermann, Paul W

    2017-06-01

    Functional weight-bearing mobilization may improve repair of Achilles tendon rupture (ATR), but the underlying mechanisms and outcome were unknown. We hypothesized that functional weight-bearing mobilization by means of increased metabolism could improve both early and long-term healing. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, patients with acute ATR were randomized to either direct post-operative functional weight-bearing mobilization (n = 27) in an orthosis or to non-weight-bearing (n = 29) plaster cast immobilization. During the first two post-operative weeks, 15°-30° of plantar flexion was allowed and encouraged in the functional weight-bearing mobilization group. At 2 weeks, patients in the non-weight-bearing cast immobilization group received a stiff orthosis, while the functional weight-bearing mobilization group continued with increased range of motion. At 6 weeks, all patients discontinued immobilization. At 2 weeks, healing metabolites and markers of procollagen type I (PINP) and III (PIIINP) were examined using microdialysis. At 6 and 12 months, functional outcome using heel-rise test was assessed. Healing tendons of both groups exhibited increased levels of metabolites glutamate, lactate, pyruvate, and of PIIINP (all p mobilization group demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of glutamate compared to the non-weight-bearing cast immobilization group (p = 0.045).The upregulated glutamate levels were significantly correlated with the concentrations of PINP (r = 0.5, p = 0.002) as well as with improved functional outcome at 6 months (r = 0.4; p = 0.014). Heel-rise tests at 6 and 12 months did not display any differences between the two groups. Functional weight-bearing mobilization enhanced the early healing response of ATR. In addition, early ankle range of motion was improved without the risk of Achilles tendon elongation and without altering long-term functional outcome. The relationship between functional

  16. Non-weight-bearing neural control of a powered transfemoral prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Levi J; Simon, Ann M; Lipschutz, Robert; Finucane, Suzanne B; Kuiken, Todd A

    2013-06-19

    Lower limb prostheses have traditionally been mechanically passive devices without electronic control systems. Microprocessor-controlled passive and powered devices have recently received much interest from the clinical and research communities. The control systems for these devices typically use finite-state controllers to interpret data measured from mechanical sensors embedded within the prosthesis. In this paper we investigated a control system that relied on information extracted from myoelectric signals to control a lower limb prosthesis while amputee patients were seated. Sagittal plane motions of the knee and ankle can be accurately (>90%) recognized and controlled in both a virtual environment and on an actuated transfemoral prosthesis using only myoelectric signals measured from nine residual thigh muscles. Patients also demonstrated accurate (~90%) control of both the femoral and tibial rotation degrees of freedom within the virtual environment. A channel subset investigation was completed and the results showed that only five residual thigh muscles are required to achieve accurate control. This research is the first step in our long-term goal of implementing myoelectric control of lower limb prostheses during both weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities for individuals with transfemoral amputation.

  17. Appearance of the weight-bearing lateral radiograph in retrocalcaneal bursitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bart; Maas, Mario; Sierevelt, Inger N; van Dijk, C Niek

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose A retrocalcaneal bursitis is caused by repetitive impingement of the bursa between the Achilles tendon and the posterosuperior calcaneus. The bursa is situated in the posteroinferior corner of Kager's triangle (retrocalcaneal recess), which is a radiolucency with sharp borders on the lateral radiograph of the ankle. If there is inflammation, the fluid-filled bursa is less radiolucent, making it difficult to delineate the retrocalcaneal recess. We assessed whether the radiographic appearance of the retrocalcaneal recess on plain digital (filmless) radiographs could be used in the diagnosis of a retrocalcaneal bursitis. Methods Whether or not there was obliteration of the retrocalcaneal recess (yes/no) on 74 digital weight-bearing lateral radiographs of the ankle was independently assessed by 2 observers. The radiographs were from 24 patients (25 heels) with retrocalcaneal bursitis (confirmed on endoscopic calcaneoplasty); the control group consisted of 50 patients (59 heels). Results The sensitivity of the test was 83% for observer 1 and 79% for observer 2. Specificity was 100% and 98%, respectively. The kappa value of the interobserver reliability test was 0.86. For observer 1, intraobserver reliability was 0.96 and for observer 2 it was 0.92. Interpretation On digital weight-bearing lateral radiographs of a retrocalcaneal bursitis, the retrocalcaneal recess has a typical appearance. PMID:20450438

  18. A Canine Non-Weight-Bearing Model with Radial Neurectomy for Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Ji

    Full Text Available The major concern of using a large animal model to study rotator cuff repair is the high rate of repair retears. The purpose of this study was to test a non-weight-bearing (NWB canine model for rotator cuff repair research.First, in the in vitro study, 18 shoulders were randomized to 3 groups. 1 Full-width transections repaired with modified Mason-Allen sutures using 3-0 polyglactin suture, 2 Group 1 repaired using number 2 (#2 polyester braid and long-chain polyethylene suture, and 3 Partial-width transections leaving the superior 2 mm infraspinatus tendon intact without repair. In the in vivo study of 6 dogs, the infraspinatus tendon was partially transected as the same as the in vitro group 3. A radial neurectomy was performed to prevent weight bearing. The operated limb was slung in a custom-made jacket for 6 weeks.In the in vitro study, mean ultimate tensile load and stiffness in Group 2 were significantly higher than Group 1 and 3 (p<0.05. In the in vivo study, gross inspection and histology showed that the preserved superior 2-mm portion of the infraspinatus tendon remained intact with normal structure.Based on the biomechanical and histological findings, this canine NWB model may be an appropriate and useful model for studies of rotator cuff repair.

  19. Recurrence of Hallux Valgus Can Be Predicted from Immediate Postoperative Non-Weight-Bearing Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul Hyun; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2017-07-19

    The aims of this study were to identify risk factors for the recurrence of hallux valgus deformity and to clarify whether recurrence after surgery to treat hallux valgus can be predicted using radiographic parameters assessed on immediate postoperative non-weight-bearing radiographs. A proximal chevron osteotomy combined with a distal soft-tissue procedure was performed by a single surgeon to treat moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity in 93 patients (117 feet). The feet were grouped according to nonrecurrence or recurrence. Changes in the hallux valgus angle, the intermetatarsal angle, and sesamoid position over time were analyzed by comparing values measured during each postoperative period. The relative risks of recurrence as indicated by preoperative and postoperative radiographic parameters were determined. Twenty (17.1%) of the 117 feet showed hallux valgus recurrence at the time of the last follow-up. The hallux valgus angle and the intermetatarsal angle stabilized at 6 months after surgery in the nonrecurrence group. An immediate postoperative hallux valgus angle of ≥8°, an immediate postoperative sesamoid position of grade 4 or greater, a preoperative metatarsus adductus angle of ≥23°, and a preoperative hallux valgus angle of ≥40° were significantly associated with recurrence. Recurrence of hallux valgus after a proximal chevron osteotomy can be reliably predicted from immediate postoperative non-weight-bearing radiographs. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  20. Weight-Bearing Dorsiflexion Range of Motion and Landing Biomechanics in Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew C; Farwell, Kelley E; Gaven, Stacey L; Weinhandl, Joshua T

    2015-08-01

    People with chronic ankle instability (CAI) exhibit less weight-bearing dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) and less knee flexion during landing than people with stable ankles. Examining the relationship between dorsiflexion ROM and landing biomechanics may identify a modifiable factor associated with altered kinematics and kinetics during landing tasks. To examine the relationship between weight-bearing dorsiflexion ROM and single-legged landing biomechanics in persons with CAI. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Fifteen physically active persons with CAI (5 men, 10 women; age = 21.9 ± 2.1 years, height = 168.7 ± 9.0 cm, mass = 69.4 ± 13.3 kg) participated. Participants performed dorsiflexion ROM and single-legged landings from a 40-cm height. Sagittal-plane kinematics of the lower extremity and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were captured during landing. Static dorsiflexion was measured using the weight-bearing-lunge test. Kinematics of the ankle, knee, and hip were observed at initial contact, maximum angle, and sagittal displacement. Sagittal displacements of the ankle, knee, and hip were summed to examine overall sagittal displacement. Kinetic variables were maximum posterior and vertical GRFs normalized to body weight. We used Pearson product moment correlations to evaluate the relationships between dorsiflexion ROM and landing biomechanics. Correlations (r) were interpreted as weak (0.00-0.40), moderate (0.41-0.69), or strong (0.70-1.00). The coefficient of determination (r(2)) was used to determine the amount of explained variance among variables. Static dorsiflexion ROM was moderately correlated with maximum dorsiflexion (r = 0.49, r(2) = 0.24), ankle displacement (r = 0.47, r(2) = 0.22), and total displacement (r = 0.67, r(2) = 0.45) during landing. Dorsiflexion ROM measured statically and during landing demonstrated moderate to strong correlations with maximum knee (r = 0.69-0.74, r(2) = 0.47-0.55) and hip (r = 0.50-0.64, r(2) = 0.25-0.40) flexion, hip

  1. Improvements in gait speed and weight shift of persons with traumatic brain injury and vestibular dysfunction using a virtual reality computer-assisted rehabilitation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessoms, Pinata H; Gottshall, Kim R; Collins, John-David; Markham, Amanda E; Service, Kathrine A; Reini, Seth A

    2015-03-01

    Many people sustaining a traumatic brain injury experience vestibular pathology requiring physical therapy for treatment. This study measured improvements in gait speed and weight shift for subjects receiving vestibular physical therapy using a Computer-Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN). A 6-session CAREN, 6-session traditional vestibular therapy group was compared with a 12-session CAREN only (0 traditional sessions) therapy group. These two groups were compared to each other and with data from healthy controls performing similar tasks on the CAREN. Those participating in 12 CAREN sessions had greater improvements in gait speed (p=0.014) and weight shift scores (p<0.001) and demonstrated similar values achieved by a healthy control population. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. A Frequency-Weighted Energy Operator and complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition for bearing fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaouchen, Yacine; Kedadouche, Mourad; Alkama, Rezak; Thomas, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Signal processing techniques for non-stationary and noisy signals have recently attracted considerable attentions. Among them, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) which is an adaptive and efficient method for decomposing signals from high to low frequencies into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Ensemble EMD (EEMD) is proposed to overcome the mode mixing problem of the EMD. In the present paper, the Complementary EEMD (CEEMD) is used for bearing fault detection. As a noise-improved method, the CEEMD not only overcomes the mode mixing, but also eliminates the residual of added white noise persisting into the IMFs and enhance the calculation efficiency of the EEMD method. Afterward, a selection method is developed to choose relevant IMFs containing information about defects. Subsequently, a signal is reconstructed from the sum of relevant IMFs and a Frequency-Weighted Energy Operator is tailored to extract both the amplitude and frequency modulations from the selected IMFs. This operator outperforms the conventional energy operator and the enveloping methods, especially in the presence of strong noise and multiple vibration interferences. Furthermore, simulation and experimental results showed that the proposed method improves performances for detecting the bearing faults. The method has also high computational efficiency and is able to detect the fault at an early stage of degradation.

  3. In-vivo patellar tendon kinematics during weight-bearing deep knee flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Sakamoto, Makoto; Hosseini, Ali; Rubash, Harry E; Li, Guoan

    2012-10-01

    This study quantified in-vivo 3D patellar tendon kinematics during weight-bearing deep knee bend beyond 150°. Each knee was MRI scanned to create 3D bony models of the patella, tibia, femur, and the attachment sites of the patellar tendon on the distal patella and the tibial tubercle. Each attachment site was divided into lateral, central, and medial thirds. The subjects were then imaged using a dual fluoroscopic image system while performing a deep knee bend. The knee positions were determined using the bony models and the fluoroscopic images. The patellar tendon kinematics was analyzed using the relative positions of its patellar and tibial attachment sites. The relative elongations of all three portions of the patellar tendon increased similarly up to 60°. Beyond 60°, the relative elongation of the medial portion of the patellar tendon decreased as the knee flexed from 60° to 150° while those of the lateral and central portions showed continuous increases from 120° to 150°. At 150°, the relative elongation of the medial portion was significantly lower than that of the central portion. In four of seven knees, the patellar tendon impinged on the tibial bony surface at 120° and 150° of knee flexion. These data may provide useful insight into the intrinsic patellar tendon biomechanics during a weight-bearing deep knee bend and could provide biomechanical guidelines for future development of total knee arthroplasties that are intended to restore normal knee function. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  4. Early weight-bearing after periacetabular osteotomy leads to a high incidence of postoperative pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Tanino, Hiromasa; Sato, Tatsuya; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Matsuno, Takeo

    2014-07-11

    It has not been shown whether accelerated rehabilitation following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is effective for early recovery. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare complication rates in patients with standard and accelerated rehabilitation protocols who underwent PAO. Between January 2002 and August 2011, patients with a lateral center-edge (CE) angle of rehabilitation protocol. In 65 patients (76 hips) with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol, postoperative strengthening of the hip, thigh and core musculature was begun on the day of surgery as tolerated. The exercise program included active hip range of motion, and gentle isometric hamstring and quadriceps muscle sets; these exercises were performed for 30 minutes in the morning and 30 minutes in the afternoon with a physical therapist every weekday for 6 weeks. Full weight-bearing with two axillary crutches started on the day of surgery as tolerated. Complications were evaluated for 2 years. The clinical results at the time of follow-up were similar in the two groups. The average periods between the osteotomy and full-weight-bearing walking without support were 4.2 months and 6.9 months in patients with the accelerated and standard rehabilitation protocols (P rehabilitation protocol could achieve earlier recovery of patients. However, postoperative fractures of the ischial ramus and posterior column of the pelvis were more frequently found in patients with the accelerated rehabilitation protocol (8/76) than in those with the standard rehabilitation protocol (1/80) (P = 0.013). The accelerated rehabilitation protocol seems to have advantages for early muscle recovery in patients undergoing PAO; however, postoperative pelvic fracture rates were unacceptably high in patients with this protocol.

  5. Acetabular roof arc angles and anatomic biomechanical superior acetabular weight bearing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thossart Harnroongroj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acetabular fracture involves whether superior articular weight bearing area and stability of the hip are assessed by acetabular roof arc angles comprising medial, anterior and posterior. Many previous studies, based on clinical, biomechanics and anatomic superior articular surface of acetabulum showed different degrees of the angles. Anatomic biomechanical superior acetabular weight bearing area (ABSAWBA of the femoral head can be identified as radiographic subchondral bone density at superior acetabular dome. The fracture passes through ABSAWBA creating traumatic hip arthritis. Therefore, acetabular roof arc angles of ABSAWBA were studied in order to find out that the most appropriate degrees of recommended acetabular roof arc angles in the previous studies had no ABSAWBA involvement. Materials and Methods: ABSAWBA of femoral head was identified 68 acetabular fractures and 13 isolated pelvic fractures without unstable pelvic ring injury were enrolled. Acetabular roof arc angle was measured on anteroposterior, obturator and iliac oblique view radiographs of normal contralateral acetabulum using programmatic automation controller digital system and measurement tools. Results: Average medial, anterior and posterior acetabular roof arc angles of the ABSAWBA of 94 normal acetabulum were 39.09 (7.41, 42.49 (8.15 and 55.26 (10.08 degrees, respectively. Conclusions: Less than 39°, 42° and 55° of medial, anterior and posterior acetabular roof arc angles involve ABSAWBA of the femoral head. Application of the study results showed that 45°, 45° and 62° from the previous studies are the most appropriate medial, anterior and posterior acetabular roof arc angles without involvement of the ABSAWBA respectively.

  6. The effects of weight bearing yoga training on the bone resorption markers of the postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoosuwan, Manop; Kritpet, Thanomwong; Yuktanandana, Pongsak

    2009-09-01

    This study was a preliminary report to investigate the effects of the weight bearing yoga training on both bone resorption marker and the quality of life of the postmenopausal women. The samples were recruited by the purposive sampling from the female Chulalongkorn University staff aged between 50-60 years. The subjects were divided into two groups: experimental group and control group. The baseline demographic data, the bone resorption marker (beta-CrossLaps), the bone formation marker (P1NP) and quality of Life (SF-36) data were collected. The experimental group attended the 12-week weight-bearing yoga training 3 days a week, 50 minutes a day while the control group lived their normal lives. After 12th week, the data collections were repeated in both groups. The experimental group (19 subjects, the mean age 54.320 yrs) and the control group (14 subjects, the mean age 54.430 yrs) were recruited. The mean ultrasound BMD of both heels in both groups showed no osteopenia or osteoporosis. After the 12-week training, the mean bone resorption marker (beta-CrossLaps) of the experimental group reduced from 0.464 to 0.339 ng/ml (-26.939%) whereas the control group reduced from 0.389 to 0.386 ng/ml (-0.771%). There was a significant difference (p bone formation markers (PINP) in the experimental group reduced from 55.393 to 42.401 ng/ml (-23.454%) and the bone formation markers (PINP) in the control group reduced from 61.903 to 44.832 ng/ml (-27.577%). In the area of the life quality measurement of both groups, the data obtained from the medical outcomes study short-form survey (SF-36) showed that there were significant differences at 0.05 levels for the physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, and vitality. The variance of percentage change value of the experimental group increased to +25.299, +16.565, +15.309, and +21.056. The variance of percentage change value of the control group increased to +12.946, -1.221, -9.303 and +2.291. The weigh-bearing yoga training

  7. Biomechanical Assessment of the Dorsal Spanning Bridge Plate in Distal Radius Fracture Fixation: Implications for Immediate Weight-Bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jerry I; Peterson, Bret; Bellevue, Kate; Lee, Nicolas; Smith, Sean; Herfat, Safa

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the biomechanical stability of a 2.4-mm dorsal spanning bridge plate with a volar locking plate (VLP) in a distal radius fracture model, during simulated crutch weight-bearing. Five paired cadaveric forearms were tested. A 1-cm dorsal wedge osteotomy was created to simulate an unstable distal radius fracture with dorsal comminution. Fractures were fixed with a VLP or a dorsal bridge plate (DBP). Specimens were mounted to a crutch handle, and optical motion-tracking sensors were attached to the proximal and distal segments. Specimens were loaded in compression at 1 mm/s on a servohydraulic test frame until failure, defined as 2 mm of gap site displacement. The VLP construct was significantly more stable to axial load in a crutch weight-bearing model compared with the DBP plate (VLP: 493 N vs DBP: 332 N). Stiffness was higher in the VLP constructs, but this was not statistically significant (VLP: 51.4 N/mm vs DBP: 32.4 N/mm). With the crutch weight-bearing model, DBP failed consistently with wrist flexion and plate bending, whereas VLP failed with axial compression at the fracture site and dorsal collapse. Dorsal spanning bridge plating is effective as an internal spanning fixator in treating highly comminuted intra-articular distal radius fracture and prevents axial collapse at the radiocarpal joint. However, bridge plating may not offer advantages in early weight-bearing or transfer in polytrauma patients, with less axial stability in our crutch weight-bearing model compared with volar plating. A stiffer 3.5-mm DBP or use of a DBP construct without the central holes may be considered for distal radius fractures if the goal is early crutch weight-bearing through the injured extremity.

  8. Slow Recovery of Weight Bearing After Stabilization of Long-Bone Fractures Using Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nails in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardelli, Patrizia; Frech-Dörfler, Martina; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Mayr, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Stabilization of diaphyseal long-bone fractures using elastic stable intramedullary nails (ESIN) in children promises early mobilization and rapid resumption of full weight bearing. We evaluated the duration of postoperative functional rehabilitation after ESIN, measured by the time from stabilization until first partial weight bearing, full weight bearing, and resumption of school sports. Fifty children with unstable, displaced fractures of the femur or lower leg treated with ESIN between 2002 and 2012 were included in this retrospective analysis. We classified fractures according to the pediatric comprehensive classification of fractures (PCCF). Thirty-five children sustained a femur fracture, and 15 children had a fracture of the lower leg or tibia. The surgeons in charge applied an additional plaster cast in 7 of 15 children who suffered a lower leg fracture. The postoperative time interval until full weight bearing in the group of children who had suffered transverse or short oblique femur fractures was significantly shorter (median: 4.4 weeks; range: 0.1-9.1 weeks) than that in the group who had sustained more complex fracture patterns (median: 6.8 weeks; range: 2.9-13.9 weeks; P = 0.04). Similarly, transverse and short oblique lower leg and tibia fractures required less time until full weight bearing (median: 4.1 weeks; range 2.7-6.0 weeks) than complex lower leg fractures (median: 6.1 weeks; range: 1.3-12.9 weeks; P = 0.04). ESIN proved fairly effective in restoring full weight bearing in transverse or short oblique fractures of the lower extremities but was less effective in complex fractures.

  9. Foot lengthening and shortening during gait: a parameter to investigate foot function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, N.M.; Koenraadt, K.L.M.; Louwerens, J.W.; Grim, D.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Keijsers, N.L.W.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on the windlass mechanism theory of Hicks, the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) flattens during weight bearing. Simultaneously, foot lengthening is expected. However, changes in foot length during gait and the influence of walking speed has not been investigated yet. METHODS: The

  10. Do Knee Bracing and Delayed Weight Bearing Affect Mid-Term Functional Outcome after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Miceli, Riccardo; Marambio, Carlotta Bustos; Zati, Alessandro; Monesi, Roberta; Benedetti, Maria Grazia

    2017-12-01

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to assess the effect of knee bracing and timing of full weight bearing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) on functional outcomes at mid-term follow-up. Methods  We performed a retrospective study on 41 patients with ACLR. Patients were divided in two groups: ACLR group, who received isolated ACL reconstruction and ACLR-OI group who received ACL reconstruction and adjunctive surgery. Information about age at surgery, bracing, full or progressive weight bearing permission after surgery were collected for the two groups. Subjective IKDC score was obtained at follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the two groups for IKDC score. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess the effect of postoperative regimen (knee bracing and weight bearing) on functional outcomes. Results  The mean age of patients was 30.8 ± 10.6 years. Mean IKDC score was 87.4 ± 13.9. The mean follow-up was 3.5 ± 1.8 years. Twenty-two (53.7%) patients underwent ACLR only, while 19 (46.3%) also received other interventions, such as meniscal repair and/or collateral ligament suture. Analysis of overall data showed no differences between the groups for IKDC score. Patients in the ACLR group exhibited a significantly better IKDC score when no brace and full weight bearing after 4 weeks from surgery was prescribed in comparison with patients who worn a brace and had delayed full weight bearing. No differences were found with respect to the use of brace and postoperative weight bearing regimen in the ACLR-OI group. Conclusion  Brace and delayed weight bearing after ACLR have a negative influence on long-term functional outcomes. Further research is required to explore possible differences in the patients operated on ACLR and other intervention with respect to the use of a brace and the timing of full weight bearing to identify optimal recovery strategies. Level of Evidence  Level III, retrospective observational

  11. Effects of Patellofemoral Taping on Patellofemoral Joint Alignment and Contact Area During Weight Bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kai-Yu; Epstein, Ryan; Garcia, Ron; Riley, Nicole; Lee, Szu-Ping

    2017-02-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Although it has been theorized that patellofemoral joint (PFJ) taping can correct patellar malalignment, the effects of PFJ taping techniques on patellar alignment and contact area have not yet been studied during weight bearing. Objective To examine the effects of 2 taping approaches (Kinesio and McConnell) on PFJ alignment and contact area. Methods Fourteen female subjects with patellofemoral pain and PFJ malalignment participated. Each subject underwent a pretaping magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan session and 2 MRI scan sessions after the application of the 2 taping techniques, which aimed to correct lateral patellar displacement. Subjects were asked to report their pain level prior to each scan session. During MRI assessment, subjects were loaded with 25% of body weight on their involved/more symptomatic leg at 0°, 20°, and 40° of knee flexion. The outcome measures included patellar lateral displacement (bisect-offset [BSO] index), mediolateral patellar tilt angle, patellar height (Insall-Salvati ratio), contact area, and pain. Patellofemoral joint alignment and contact area were compared among the 3 conditions (no tape, Kinesio, and McConnell) at 3 knee angles using a 2-factor, repeated-measures analysis of variance. Pain was compared among the 3 conditions using the Friedman test and post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results Our data did not reveal any significant effects of either McConnell or Kinesio taping on the BSO index, patellar tilt angle, Insall-Salvati ratio, or contact area across the 3 knee angles, whereas knee angle had a significant effect on the BSO index and contact area. A reduction in pain was observed after the application of the Kinesio taping technique. Conclusion In a weight-bearing condition, this preliminary study did not support the use of PFJ taping as a medial correction technique to alter the PFJ contact area or alignment of the patella. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017

  12. Assessment of Brown Bear\\'s (Ursus arctos syriacus Winter Habitat Using Geographically Weighted Regression and Generalized Linear Model in South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zarei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter dens are one of the important components of brown bear's (Ursus arctos syriacus habitat, affecting their reproduction and survival. Therefore identification of factors affecting the habitat selection and suitable denning areas in the conservation of our largest carnivore is necessary. We used Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression (GWLR and Generalized Linear Model (GLM for modeling suitability of denning habitat in Kouhkhom region in Fars province. In the present research, 20 dens (presence locations and 20 caves where signs of bear were not found (absence locations were used as dependent variables and six environmental factors were used for each location as independent variables. The results of GLM showed that variables of distance to settlements, altitude, and distance to water were the most important parameters affecting suitability of the brown bear's denning habitat. The results of GWLR showed the significant local variations in the relationship between occurrence of brown bear dens and the variable of distance to settlements. Based on the results of both models, suitable habitats for denning of the species are impassable areas in the mountains and inaccessible for humans.

  13. Assessment of changes in gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces after total hip arthroplasty

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    Bhargava P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal objectives of arthroplasty are relief of pain and enhancement of range of motion. Currently, postoperative pain and functional capacity are assessed largely on the basis of subjective evaluation scores. Because of the lack of control inherent in this method it is often difficult to interpret data presented by different observers in the critical evaluation of surgical method, new components and modes of rehabilitation. Gait analysis is a rapid, simple and reliable method to assess functional outcome. This study was undertaken in an effort to evaluate the gait characteristics of patients who underwent arthroplasty, using an Ultraflex gait analyzer. Materials and Methods: The study was based on the assessment of gait and weight-bearing pattern of both hips in patients who underwent total hip replacement and its comparison with an age and sex-matched control group. Twenty subjects of total arthroplasty group having unilateral involvement, operated by posterior approach at our institution with a minimum six-month postoperative period were selected. Control group was age and sex-matched, randomly selected from the general population. Gait analysis was done using Ultraflex gait analyzer. Gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces assessment was done by measuring the gait cycle properties, step time parameters and VGRF variables. Data of affected limb was compared with unaffected limb as well as control group to assess the weight-bearing pattern. Statistical analysis was done by′t′ test. Results: Frequency is reduced and gait cycle duration increased in total arthroplasty group as compared with control. Step time parameters including Step time, Stance time and Single support time are significantly reduced ( P value < .05 while Double support time and Single swing time are significantly increased ( P value < .05 in the THR group. Forces over each sensor are increased more on the unaffected limb of the THR group as compared to

  14. A new propeller flap based upon medial-plantar-artery perforator for reconstruction of the distal weight-bearing foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Coriddi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the weight-bearing areas of the plantar foot is challenging with limited options. Here, we describe a medial-plantar-artery perforator-based propeller flap for the reconstruction of a distal plantar defect. Flap design and advantages of this flap are discussed.

  15. Effects of early weight bearing on the functional recovery of ambulatory children with cerebral palsy after bilateral proximal femoral osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Megan K; McCarthy, James J; Josephic, Kyle

    2007-09-01

    This study evaluates the effects of early versus delayed weight bearing on the functional recovery of ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP) after they have undergone proximal femoral osteotomies (PFOs). We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 25 ambulatory children with CP who underwent PFO to correct excessive hip internal rotation and intoeing. Thirteen children were permitted to weight-bear as tolerated (WBAT) immediately after surgery, and 12 were placed on non-weight bearing restrictions for 3 to 7 weeks (mean +/- SD, 30 +/- 6.7 days). There were no major complications. The children in the WBAT group initiated standing 26 days sooner and returned to baseline walking almost 4 months sooner than those on non-weight bearing restrictions. Pain at 8 days postoperatively was significantly less for the WBAT group, but pain at the time of initial standing and walking was not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, early mobilization after PFOs in children with CP is safe, with reduced recovery time, and with decreased pain.

  16. Resistance training versus weight-bearing aquatic exercise: a cross-sectional analysis of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Sandor; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Santana, Frederico Santos de; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Bezerra, Lídia Mara Aguiar; Balsamo, Denise Osti Coscrato; Borges, João Lindolfo Cunha; Paula, Ana Patrícia de; Bottaro, Martim

    2013-04-01

    Many studies have shown that resistance training has a positive effect on bone mineral density (BMD). However, few studies have compared the BMD of individuals undergoing resistance training and those training aquatic weight-bearing exercises. To compare, in a cross-sectional study, the BMD of postmenopausal women undergoing resistance training and postmenopausal women training aquatic weight-bearing exercises. The sample comprised 63 women divided into the following three groups: resistance training (STRENGTH: n = 15; 51.4 ± 2.7 years); aquatic weight-bearing exercises (WA-TER: n = 22; 54.5 ± 3.3 years); and non-trained controls ( n = 26; 52.0 ± 3.3 years). All volunteers were on hormone replacement therapy for at least one year. The STRENGTH and WATER groups were training for at least one year prior to study beginning (mean years of training - STRENGTH: 4.5 ± 2.0; WATER: 4.2 ± 2.2). The STRENGTH group had higher BMD of total body, femoral neck, lumbar spine L2-L4 as compared with the CONTROL group (all P aquatic weight-bearing exercises might be a non-pharmacological strategy to prevent BMD loss in postmenopausal women. 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion range of motion-can side-to-side symmetry be assumed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Alon; Kozol, Zvi; Spitzer, Elad; Finestone, Aharon S

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, the range of motion (ROM) of the non involved side often serves as the reference for comparison with the injured side. Previous investigations of non-weight-bearing (NWB) ankle dorsiflexion (DF) ROM measurements have indicated bilateral symmetry for the most part. Less is known about ankle DF measured under weight-bearing (WB) conditions. Because WB and NWB ankle DF are not strongly correlated, there is a need to determine whether WB ankle DF is also symmetrical in a healthy population. To determine whether WB ankle DF is bilaterally symmetrical. A secondary goal was to further explore the correlation between WB and NWB ankle DF ROM. Cross-sectional study. Training facility of the Israeli Defense Forces. A total of 64 healthy males (age = 19.6 ± 1.0 years, height = 175.0 ± 6.4 cm, and body mass = 71.4 ± 7.7 kg). Dorsiflexion ROM in WB was measured with an inclinometer and DF ROM in NWB was measured with a universal goniometer. All measurements were taken bilaterally by a single examiner. Weight-bearing ankle DF was greater on the nondominant side compared with the dominant side (P < .001). Non-weight-bearing ankle DF was not different between sides (P = .64). The correlation between WB and NWB DF was moderate, with the NWB DF measurement accounting for 30% to 37% of the variance of the WB measurement. Weight-bearing ankle DF ROM should not be assumed to be bilaterally symmetrical. These findings suggest that side-to-side differences in WB DF may need to be interpreted while considering which side is dominant. The difference in bilateral symmetry between the WB and NWB measurements, as well as the only moderate level of correlation between them, suggests that both measurements should be performed routinely.

  18. Weight-Bearing Ankle Dorsiflexion Range of Motion—Can Side-to-Side Symmetry Be Assumed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Alon; Kozol, Zvi; Spitzer, Elad; Finestone, Aharon S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: In clinical practice, the range of motion (ROM) of the noninvolved side often serves as the reference for comparison with the injured side. Previous investigations of non–weight-bearing (NWB) ankle dorsiflexion (DF) ROM measurements have indicated bilateral symmetry for the most part. Less is known about ankle DF measured under weight-bearing (WB) conditions. Because WB and NWB ankle DF are not strongly correlated, there is a need to determine whether WB ankle DF is also symmetrical in a healthy population. Objective: To determine whether WB ankle DF is bilaterally symmetrical. A secondary goal was to further explore the correlation between WB and NWB ankle DF ROM. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Training facility of the Israeli Defense Forces. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 64 healthy males (age = 19.6 ± 1.0 years, height = 175.0 ± 6.4 cm, and body mass = 71.4 ± 7.7 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Dorsiflexion ROM in WB was measured with an inclinometer and DF ROM in NWB was measured with a universal goniometer. All measurements were taken bilaterally by a single examiner. Results: Weight-bearing ankle DF was greater on the nondominant side compared with the dominant side (P < .001). Non–weight-bearing ankle DF was not different between sides (P = .64). The correlation between WB and NWB DF was moderate, with the NWB DF measurement accounting for 30% to 37% of the variance of the WB measurement. Conclusions: Weight-bearing ankle DF ROM should not be assumed to be bilaterally symmetrical. These findings suggest that side-to-side differences in WB DF may need to be interpreted while considering which side is dominant. The difference in bilateral symmetry between the WB and NWB measurements, as well as the only moderate level of correlation between them, suggests that both measurements should be performed routinely. PMID:25329350

  19. An intact fibula may contribute to allow early weight bearing in surgically treated tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Ion; Gelber, Pablo Eduardo; Chary, Gaetan; Gomez Masdeu, Mireia; González Ballester, Miguel A; Monllau, Juan Carlos; Noailly, Jerome

    2017-03-03

    The role of the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) in tibial plateau fractures is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess, with finite-element (FE) calculations, differences in interfragmentary movement (IFM) in a split fracture of lateral tibial plateau, with and without intact fibula. It was hypothesized that an intact fibula could positively contribute to the mechanical stabilization of surgically reduced lateral tibial plateau fractures. A split fracture of the lateral tibial plateau was recreated in an FE model of a human tibia. A three-dimensional FE model geometry of a human femur-tibia system was obtained from the VAKHUM project database, and was built from CT images from a subject with normal bone morphologies and normal alignment. The mesh of the tibia was reconverted into a geometry of NURBS surfaces. The fracture was reproduced using geometrical data from patient radiographs, and two models were created: one with intact fibula and other without fibula. A locking screw plate and cannulated screw systems were modelled to virtually reduce the fracture, and 80 kg static body weight was simulated. Under mechanical loads, the maximum interfragmentary movement achieved with the fibula was about 30% lower than without fibula, with both the cannulated screws and the locking plate. When the locking plate model was loaded, intact fibula contributed to lateromedial forces on the fractured fragments, which would be clinically translated into increased normal compression forces in the fractured plane. The intact fibula also reduced the mediolateral forces with the cannulated screws, contributing to stability of the construct. This FE model showed that an intact fibula contributes to the mechanical stability of the lateral tibial plateau. In combination with a locking plate fixation, early weight bearing may be allowed without significant IFM, contributing to an early clinical and functional recovery of the patient.

  20. Effect of distal ulnar ostectomy on carpal joint stability during weight bearing in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsellem, Pierre M; Young, Aisha N; Muirhead, Tammy L; Pack, LeeAnn; Moak, Peter; Matthews, Andrea R; Marcellin-Little, Denis J

    2017-11-01

    To assess the influence of a 50% distal ulnectomy on mediolateral carpal stability in the dog. Canine cadaveric study. Seven canine thoracic limbs METHODS: Thoracic limbs were placed in a jig to mimic weight bearing with a load representing 30% of body weight. Carpal extension angle was standardized at 190° ± 5°. Frontal plane carpal angles were measured with the limb loaded on craniocaudal radiographs before and after ulnectomy. Valgus and varus stress radiographs with the limb loaded were acquired before and after ulnectomy. The limbs were palpated and were subjectively graded for valgus or varus instability by 2 investigators before and after ulnectomy. Mean (±SD) valgus angulation increased after ulnectomy (2.1° ± 1.7°; P = .017; CI95  = 0.5°-3.7°) when the limb was loaded without valgus or varus stress applied. Mean valgus angulation increased after ulnectomy (2.7° ± 2.8°; P = .032; CI95  = -0.2°-5.5°) when valgus stress was applied to the loaded limb. Varus angulation was unchanged after ulnectomy (0.6° ± 4.6°; P = .383; CI95  = -4.2°-5.3°) when varus stress was applied to the loaded limb. Palpation detected increased valgus score after ulnectomy. Distal ulnectomy with excision of the lateral styloid process induces a slight increase in valgus in canine cadaver carpi. The clinical consequences of that valgus on carpal function and health should be assessed in clinical patients. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Vertical weight-bearing MRI provides an innovative method for standardizing Spurling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Wang, Yi; Liu, Xiaofeng; Li, Jian; Jin, Zhigao; Zheng, Zugen

    2010-12-01

    Although Spurling test, a foraminal compression test, is commonly used in clinical practice in patients with a suspected cervical radiculopathy, its protocol is still obscure. In undergoing this test, patients extend, laterally flex and slightly rotate neck to the symptomatic side, and then a pressure is applied on the top of patient's head by examiner. The test is scored as positive if it causes pain or tingling that starts in the shoulder and radiates distally to the elbow. But the range of neck motion and level of load are not clearly defined. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be an excellent method of assessing the situation of cervical intervertebral foramen. Unfortunately the conventional MRI system is not able to fully achieve this goal because it can only examine patient in supine position while Spurling test needs to be performed in a sitting position. Here we hypothesize that vertical weight-bearing MRI provides an innovative method for researching and standardizing the protocols of Spurling test. The result will provide better knowledge of the mechanism of Spurling test. Standardization of the test will improve its sensitivity and rate of reproducibility. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Computational modelling of bone fracture healing under partial weight-bearing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihai; Miramini, Saeed; Richardson, Martin; Ebeling, Peter; Little, David; Yang, Yi; Huang, Zhiyong

    2017-04-01

    A great deal of evidence suggests that partial weight-bearing exercise plays an important role in bone fracture healing. However, current physiotherapy program tends to follow the "Let's try it and see" strategy due to the lack of a fundamental understanding of in vivo mechanical environment required for the better healing outcomes. The purpose of present study is to develop an innovative framework to predict the healing outcomes as a result of post-surgical physical therapy. The raw acceleration data corresponding to a series of walking tests is firstly captured by ActiGraph accelerometers, and then used as input to theoretically estimate the peak ground reaction force (PGRF) and peak loading rate (PLR). Finally, the healing outcomes as a result of different walking speeds are predicated based on the interfragmentary movement (IFM) measured by using mechanical testing. The results show that PGRF and PLR are important factors for the callus tissue differentiation at the early stage of healing. The developed model could potentially allow the design of effective patient specific post-surgical physical therapy. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of upper extremity weight bearing on upper extremity function in children with hemiplegic type of cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jayaraman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to quantify the effects ofweight bearing on upper limb function in children with hemiplegic cerebralpalsy. This study also sought to monitor the change in spasticity immediatelyfollowing weight bearing exercises. A  quasi-experimental, one group pre-test,post-test design was used. Eleven children with hemiplegic type of cerebral palsyfrom a special school in KwaZulu Natal participated after fully informed consentof the caretaking guardian. The intervention consisted of a standardized programof weight bearing. The Melbourne A ssessment of Upper Extremity function wasused to quantify upper extremity function of reach, grasp and manipulation and the modified A shworth grading of spasticity was used to grade and monitor spasticity. The data was analysed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test.  A  significant decrease in spasticity during elbow extension (p= 0,004, wrist flexion (p=0,026 and extension (p=0,004was noted. Statistically significant improvement in function, reach (p=0, 00, grasp (p=0, 02 manipulation (p=0, 05and overall quality of function (p= 0,003 was also found. A n overall significant effect of weight bearing exercises onupper extremity function was noted providing evidence for practice.

  4. Enhancement of brain plasticity and recovery of locomotive function after lumbar spinal cord stimulation in combination with gait training with partial weight support in rats with cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hee; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2017-05-01

    Lumbar spinal cord stimulation (LSCS) is reportedly effective for the recovery of locomotive intraspinal neural network, motor cortex and basal ganglia in animals with complete spinal cord injury and parkinsonism. We evaluated the effect of LSCS in combination with gait training on the recovery of locomotive function and brain plasticity using a rat model of brain ischemia. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats with ischemia were randomly assigned into one of four groups: sham treatment (group 1), LSCS only (group 2), LSCS with gait training and 50% (group 3) and 80% (group 4) of body weight support. Evaluations before randomization and 4weeks after intervention included motor scoring index, real-time PCR and Western blot. Motor scoring index was significantly improved after the intervention in groups 2 and 3. The ratio of phospho-protein kinase C (PKC) to PKC measured in the infarcted area tended to be higher in groups 3 and 4. Protein expression of mGluR2 and mRNA expression of mGluR1 measured in the contralateral cortex were lower in groups 3 and 4. The ratio of phospho-Akt to Akt and mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor measured in the ischemic border zone were higher in group 2. The mRNA expression of MAP1b measured in the infarcted area was significantly higher in group 2. The findings suggest that LSCS and gait training with an adequate amount of body weight support may promote brain plasticity and facilitate the functional recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spaceflight-Relevant Challenges of Radiation and/or Reduced Weight Bearing Cause Arthritic Responses in Knee Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, J S; Kwok, A T; Moore, J E; Payne, V; Lindburg, C A; Balk, S A; Olson, J; Black, P J; Walb, M C; Yammani, R R; Munley, M T

    2016-10-01

    There is little known about the effect of both reduced weight bearing and exposure to radiation during spaceflight on the mechanically-sensitive cartilage lining the knee joint. In this study, we characterized cartilage damage in rat knees after periods of reduced weight bearing with/without exposure to solar-flare-relevant radiation, then cartilage recovery after return to weight bearing. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 120) were either hindlimb unloaded (HLU) via tail suspension or remained weight bearing in cages (GROUND). On day 5, half of the HLU and GROUND rats were 1 Gy total-body X-ray irradiated during HLU, and half were sham irradiated (SHAM), yielding 4 groups: GROUND-SHAM; GROUND-IR; HLU-SHAM; and HLU-IR. Hindlimbs were collected from half of each group of rats on day 13. The remaining rats were then removed from HLU or remained weight bearing, and hindlimbs from these rats were collected on day 62. On day 13, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in cartilage lining the tibial plateau and femoral condyles of HLU rats was lower than that of the GROUND animals. Likewise, on day 13, immunoreactivity of the collagen type II-degrading matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and of a resultant metalloproteinase-generated neoepitope VDIPEN was increased in all groups versus GROUND-SHAM. Clustering of chondrocytes indicating cartilage damage was present in all HLU and IR groups versus GROUND-SHAM on day 13. On day 62, after 49 days of reloading, the loss of GAG content was attenuated in the HLU-SHAM and HLU-IR groups, and the increased VDIPEN staining in all treatment groups was attenuated. However, the increased chondrocyte clustering remained in all treatment groups on day 62. MMP-13 activity also remained elevated in the GROUND-IR and HLU-IR groups. Increased T2 relaxation times, measured on day 62 using 7T MRI, were greater in GROUND-IR and HLU-IR knees, indicating persistent cartilage damage in the irradiated groups. Both HLU and total-body irradiation resulted in

  6. Bone loss during partial weight bearing (1/6th gravity) is mitigated by resistance and aerobic exercise in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, R. D.; Metzger, C. E.; Macias, B. R.; Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Hogan, H. A.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    Astronauts on long duration missions continue to experience bone loss, as much as 1-2% each month, for up to 4.5 years after a mission. Mechanical loading of bone with exercise has been shown to increase bone formation, mass, and geometry. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two exercise protocols during a period of reduced gravitational loading (1/6th body weight) in mice. Since muscle contractions via resistance exercise impart the largest physiological loads on the skeleton, we hypothesized that resistance training (via vertical tower climbing) would better protect against the deleterious musculoskeletal effects of reduced gravitational weight bearing when compared to endurance exercise (treadmill running). Young adult female BALB/cBYJ mice were randomly assigned to three groups: 1/6 g (G/6; n=6), 1/6 g with treadmill running (G/6+RUN; n=8), or 1/6 g with vertical tower climbing (G/6+CLB; n=9). Exercise was performed five times per week. Reduced weight bearing for 21 days was achieved through a novel harness suspension system. Treadmill velocity (12-20 m/min) and daily run time duration (32-51 min) increased incrementally throughout the study. Bone geometry and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at proximal metaphysis and mid-diaphysis tibia were assessed by in vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) on days 0 and 21 and standard dynamic histomorphometry was performed on undemineralized sections of the mid-diaphysis after tissue harvest. G/6 caused a significant decrease (Pbone formation can be increased even in the presence of reduced weight bearing. These data suggest that moderately vigorous endurance exercise and resistance training, through treadmill running or climb training mitigates decrements in vBMD during 21 days of reduced weight bearing. Consistent with our hypothesis, tower climb training, most pronounced in the tibia mid-diaphysis, provides a more potent osteogenic response compared to treadmill running.

  7. Biofeedback in Partial Weight Bearing: Usability of Two Different Devices from a Patient's and Physical Therapist's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Remko; Pisters, Martijn F; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; de Bie, Rob A; Wouters, Eveline J; Stukstette, Mirelle J

    2016-01-01

    Partial weight bearing is frequently instructed by physical therapists in patients after lower-limb trauma or surgery. The use of biofeedback devices seems promising to improve the patient's compliance with weight-bearing instructions. SmartStep and OpenGo-Science are biofeedback devices that provide real-time feedback. For a successful implementation, usability of the devices is a critical aspect and should be tested from a user's perspective. To describe the usability from the physical therapists' and a patients' perspective of Smartstep and OpenGo-Science to provide feedback on partial weight bearing during supervised rehabilitation of patients after lower-limb trauma or surgery. In a convergent mixed-methods design, qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Usability was subdivided into user performance, satisfaction and acceptability. Patients prescribed with partial weight bearing and their physical therapists were asked to use SmartStep and OpenGo-Science during supervised rehabilitation. Usability was qualitatively tested by a think-aloud method and a semi-structured interview and quantitatively tested by the System-Usability-Scale (SUS) and closed questions. For the qualitative data thematic content analyses were used. Nine pairs of physical therapists and their patients participated. The mean SUS scores for patients and physical therapists were for SmartStep 70 and 53, and for OpenGo-Science 79 and 81, respectively. Scores were interpreted with the Curved Grading Scale. The qualitative data showed that there were mixed views and perceptions from patients and physical therapists on satisfaction and acceptability. This study gives insight in the usability of two biofeedback devices from the patient's and physical therapist's perspective. The overall usability from both perspectives seemed to be acceptable for OpenGo-Science. For SmartStep, overall usability seemed only acceptable from the patient's perspective. The study findings could help

  8. Factors associated with an immediate weight-bearing and early ambulation program for older adults after hip fracture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Antonella; Giusti, Andrea; Pizzonia, Monica; Razzano, Monica; Oliveri, Mauro; Palummeri, Ernesto; Pioli, Giulio

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate baseline characteristics and in-hospital factors associated with nonadherence with an immediate weight-bearing and early ambulation (IWB-EA) program after hip fracture (HF) surgery. Prospective inception cohort study. Ortho-geriatric unit in an acute care hospital. Older adults (N=469) admitted with an osteoporotic HF who underwent surgery. Immediate weight-bearing and assisted ambulation training on the first postoperative day (all patients). Proportion of subjects who adhered to the IWB-EA protocol within 48 hours of surgery. A total of 366 patients (78%) bore weight and ambulated within 48 hours (weight-bearing [WB] group) while the others did not adhere to the protocol (nonweight-bearing [NWB] group). Subjects in the NWB group were significantly older, were more cognitively and functionally impaired, and presented a higher comorbidity at baseline. A higher proportion of subjects in the NWB group (42.7%) than the WB group (23.5%; PIWB-EA protocol (odds ratio=2.5; 95% confidence interval=1.6-4.0; PIWB-EA is feasible in a high proportion of patients after surgical stabilization of HF. Neither cognitive impairment nor high comorbidity influenced significantly the adherence to the protocol, indicating that IWB-EA may be offered to an unselected population of the elderly with HF. The day of surgery (eg, preholiday or not) was the only variable influencing the participation to the IWB-EA protocol, suggesting the importance of maintaining the same standard of daytime care every day of the week.

  9. Effect of modified constraint induced movement therapy on weight bearing and protective extension in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Gharib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constraint induced movement therapy is one of the new therapeutic interventions that limits the performance of intact upper limb with increased use of the affected limb. Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modified constraint induced movement therapy on weight bearing & protective extension in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.Methods: 21 hemiplegic children were selected and randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Common Practices of Occupational Therapy applied for 6 weeks in both groups equally and test group received constrain induced movement therapy for three hours every day. Weight-bearing and protective extension was measured based on quality of test skills of upper limbs (QUEST. Data analyzed using appropriated statistical methods. Results: 11 children in the experimental group (7 girls, 4 boys with mean age 47.2 ± 55.5 months and 10 children in the control group (5 girls, 5 boys with mean age 19.2 ± 10.5 months were studied. No significant difference observed before and after six weeks intervention between two groups (P>0.05. There was a significant change before and after six weeks intervention in both subscales (P<0.05.Conclusion: This study showed that modified constraint induced movement therapy may affect weight bearing, but has no effect on the protective extension.

  10. A novel tool for continuous fracture aftercare - Clinical feasibility and first results of a new telemetric gait analysis insole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Benedikt J; Bushuven, Eva; Hell, Rebecca; Veith, Nils T; Buschbaum, Jan; Holstein, Joerg H; Pohlemann, Tim

    2016-02-01

    Weight bearing after lower extremity fractures still remains a highly controversial issue. Even in ankle fractures, the most common lower extremity injury no standard aftercare protocol has been established. Average non weight bearing times range from 0 to 7 weeks, with standardised, radiological healing controls at fixed time intervals. Recent literature calls for patient-adapted aftercare protocols based on individual fracture and load scenarios. We show the clinical feasibility and first results of a new, insole embedded gait analysis tool for continuous monitoring of gait, load and activity. Ten patients were monitored with a new, independent gait analysis insole for up to 3 months postoperatively. Strict 20 kg partial weight bearing was ordered for 6 weeks. Overall activity, load spectrum, ground reaction forces, clinical scoring and general health data were recorded and correlated. Statistical analysis with power analysis, t-test and Spearman correlation was performed. Only one patient completely adhered to the set weight bearing limit. Average time in minutes over the limit was 374 min. Based on the parameters load, activity, gait time over 20 kg weight bearing and maximum ground reaction force high and low performers were defined after 3 weeks. Significant difference in time to painless full weight bearing between high and low performers was shown. Correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between weight bearing and clinical scoring as well as pain (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Score rs=0.74; Olerud-Molander Score rs=0.93; VAS pain rs=-0.95). Early, continuous gait analysis is able to define aftercare performers with significant differences in time to full painless weight bearing where clinical or radiographic controls could not. Patient compliance to standardised weight bearing limits and protocols is low. Highly individual rehabilitation patterns were seen in all patients. Aftercare protocols should be adjusted to real

  11. Bone marrow lesions and joint effusion are strongly and independently associated with weight-bearing pain in knee osteoarthritis: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, G H; McAlindon, T E; Niu, J; Zhang, Y; Beals, C; Dabrowski, C; Le Graverand, M P Hellio; Hunter, D J

    2009-12-01

    It is widely believed that there are multiple sources of pain at a tissue level in osteoarthritis (OA). Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) provide a wealth of anatomic information and may allow identification of specific features associated with pain. We hypothesized that in knees with OA, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), synovitis, and effusion would be associated with weight-bearing and (less so with) non-weight-bearing pain independently. In a cross-sectional study of persons with symptomatic knee OA using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions with maximal BML, effusion, and synovitis defined by Boston Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score as predictors, and knee pain using weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing Western Ontario and McMaster University OA Index pain questions as the outcome, we tested the association between MRI findings and knee symptoms. 160 participants, mean age 61 (+/-9.9), mean body mass index (BMI) 30.3 (+/-4.7) and 50% female, stronger associations were seen with weight-bearing compared with non-weight-bearing knee pain with adjusted risk ratios (RRs) of weight-bearing knee pain, for increasing maximal BML scores of 1.0 (referent) (maximal BML=0), 1.2, 1.9, and 2.0 (P for trend=0.006). For effusion scores, adjusted RRs of knee pain were 1.0, 1.7, 2.0, and 2.6 (P for trend=0.0004); and for synovitis scores, adjusted ORs were 1.0, 1.4, 1.5, and 1.9 (P for trend=0.22). Cross-sectionally, maximal BML and effusion scores are independently associated with weight-bearing and less so with non-weight-bearing knee pain, supporting the idea that pain in OA is multifactorial. These MRI features should be considered as possible new treatment targets in knee OA.

  12. Effect of Different Bearing Ratios on the Friction between Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Ski Bases and Snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohm, Sebastian; Knoflach, Christoph; Nachbauer, Werner; Hasler, Michael; Kaserer, Lukas; van Putten, Joost; Unterberger, Seraphin H; Lackner, Roman

    2016-05-18

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of surfaces with different bearing ratios, but similar roughness heights, on the friction between ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and snow. On a linear tribometer positioned inside a cold chamber, the different samples were tested over a wide range of velocities and snow temperatures. The surface roughness was measured with a focus variation microscope and analyzed using the bearing ratio curve and its parameters. The surface energy was investigated by measuring the contact angles of a polar (water) and nonpolar (diiodmethane) liquid. The friction tests showed that the bearing ratio had a major effect on the friction between UHMWPE and snow. For temperatures close to the melting point a surface with wide grooves and narrow plateaus (nonbearing surface) performed well. For cold conditions, the friction was less for a surface with narrow grooves and wide plateaus (bearing surface). Interpretations of the results are given on the basis of mixed friction, with lubricated friction being dominant at higher snow temperatures and solid-solid interaction at lower ones.

  13. Human Muscle Protein Synthetic Responses during Weight-Bearing and Non-Weight-Bearing Exercise: A Comparative Study of Exercise Modes and Recovery Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; McClung, Holly L; Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Lin, Gregory G; Hydren, Jay R; Young, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Effects of conventional endurance (CE) exercise and essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation on protein turnover are well described. Protein turnover responses to weighted endurance exercise (i.e., load carriage, LC) and EAA may differ from CE, because the mechanical forces and contractile properties of LC and CE likely differ. This study examined muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and whole-body protein turnover in response to LC and CE, with and without EAA supplementation, using stable isotope amino acid tracer infusions. Forty adults (mean ± SD, 22 ± 4 y, 80 ± 10 kg, VO 2peak 4.0 ± 0.5 L ∙ min(-1)) were randomly assigned to perform 90 min, absolute intensity-matched (2.2 ± 0.1 VO2 L ∙ m(-1)) LC (performed on a treadmill wearing a vest equal to 30% of individual body mass, mean ± SD load carried 24 ± 3 kg) or CE (cycle ergometry performed at the same absolute VO2 as LC) exercise, during which EAA (10 g EAA, 3.6 g leucine) or control (CON, non-nutritive) drinks were consumed. Mixed-muscle and myofibrillar MPS were higher during exercise for LC than CE (mode main effect, P drink main effect, P drink) were observed. However, EAA attenuated whole-body protein breakdown, increased amino acid oxidation, and enhanced net protein balance in recovery compared to CON, regardless of exercise mode (P protein turnover responses to absolute VO2-matched LC and CE are the same, LC elicited a greater muscle protein synthetic response than CE.

  14. Human Muscle Protein Synthetic Responses during Weight-Bearing and Non-Weight-Bearing Exercise: A Comparative Study of Exercise Modes and Recovery Nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M Pasiakos

    Full Text Available Effects of conventional endurance (CE exercise and essential amino acid (EAA supplementation on protein turnover are well described. Protein turnover responses to weighted endurance exercise (i.e., load carriage, LC and EAA may differ from CE, because the mechanical forces and contractile properties of LC and CE likely differ. This study examined muscle protein synthesis (MPS and whole-body protein turnover in response to LC and CE, with and without EAA supplementation, using stable isotope amino acid tracer infusions. Forty adults (mean ± SD, 22 ± 4 y, 80 ± 10 kg, VO 2peak 4.0 ± 0.5 L ∙ min(-1 were randomly assigned to perform 90 min, absolute intensity-matched (2.2 ± 0.1 VO2 L ∙ m(-1 LC (performed on a treadmill wearing a vest equal to 30% of individual body mass, mean ± SD load carried 24 ± 3 kg or CE (cycle ergometry performed at the same absolute VO2 as LC exercise, during which EAA (10 g EAA, 3.6 g leucine or control (CON, non-nutritive drinks were consumed. Mixed-muscle and myofibrillar MPS were higher during exercise for LC than CE (mode main effect, P < 0.05, independent of dietary treatment. EAA enhanced mixed-muscle and sarcoplasmic MPS during exercise, regardless of mode (drink main effect, P < 0.05. Mixed-muscle and sarcoplasmic MPS were higher in recovery for LC than CE (mode main effect, P < 0.05. No other differences or interactions (mode x drink were observed. However, EAA attenuated whole-body protein breakdown, increased amino acid oxidation, and enhanced net protein balance in recovery compared to CON, regardless of exercise mode (P < 0.05. These data show that, although whole-body protein turnover responses to absolute VO2-matched LC and CE are the same, LC elicited a greater muscle protein synthetic response than CE.

  15. Reductions in knee joint forces with weight loss are attenuated by gait adaptations in class III obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    A consensus exists that high knee joint forces are a precursor to knee osteoarthritis and weight loss reduces these forces. Because large weight loss also leads to increased step length and walking velocity, knee contact forces may be reduced less than predicted by the magnitude of weight loss. The

  16. Balzac and human gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, S; Carrillo, J M

    2015-05-01

    People have been interested in movement analysis in general, and gait analysis in particular, since ancient times. Aristotle, Hippocrates, Galen, Leonardo da Vinci and Honoré de Balzac all used observation to analyse the gait of human beings. The purpose of this study is to compare Honoré de Balzac's writings with a scientific analysis of human gait. Honoré de Balzac's Theory of walking and other works by that author referring to gait. Honoré de Balzac had an interest in gait analysis, as demonstrated by his descriptions of characters which often include references to their way of walking. He also wrote a treatise entitled Theory of walking (Théorie de la demarche) in which he employed his keen observation skills to define gait using a literary style. He stated that the walking process is divided into phases and listed the factors that influence gait, such as personality, mood, height, weight, profession and social class, and also provided a description of the correct way of walking. Balzac considered gait analysis to be very important and this is reflected in both his character descriptions and Theory of walking, his analytical observation of gait. In our own technology-dominated times, this serves as a reminder of the importance of observation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. A knee brace alters patella position in patellofemoral osteoarthritis: a study using weight bearing magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, M J; Guney, H; Reeves, N D; Bailey, D; Doslikova, K; Maganaris, C N; Hodgson, R; Felson, D T

    2016-12-01

    To assess using weight bearing magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs), whether a patellar brace altered patellar position and alignment in patellofemoral joint (PFJ) osteoarthritis (OA). Subjects age 40-70 years old with symptomatic and a radiographic Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) evidence of PFJOA. Weight bearing knee MRIs with and without a patellar brace were obtained using an upright open 0.25 T scanner (G-Scan, Easote Biomedica, Italy). Five aspects of patellar position were measured: mediolateral alignment by the bisect offset index, angulation by patellar tilt, patellar height by patellar height ratio (patellar length/patellar tendon length), lateral patellofemoral (PF) contact area and finally a measurement of PF bony separation of the lateral patellar facet and the adjacent surface on the femoral trochlea (Fig. 1). Thirty participants were recruited (mean age 57 SD 27.8; body mass index (BMI) 27.8 SD 4.2); 17 were females. Four patients had non-usable data. Main analysis used paired t tests comparing within subject patellar position with and without brace. For bisect offset index, patellar tilt and patellar height ratio there were no significant differences between the brace and no brace conditions. However, the brace increased lateral facet contact area (P = .04) and decreased lateral PF separation (P = .03). A patellar brace alters patellar position and increases contact area between the patella and femoral trochlea. These changes would lower contact stress at the PFJ. Such changes in patella position in weight bearing provide a possible biomechanical explanation for the success of the PFJ brace in clinical trials on PFJOA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Dorsolateral subluxation of hip joints in dogs measured in a weight-bearing position with radiography and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farese, J P; Todhunter, R J; Lust, G; Williams, A J; Dykes, N L

    1998-01-01

    develop a radiographic procedure to measure dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) of the femoral head in canine coxofemoral (hip) joints in a weight-bearing position. DLS measured on a radiographic projection was compared with DLS measured on computed tomography (CT) images of hip joints in a weight-bearing position. A total of 24 dogs of varying ages were examined including Labrador retrievers, greyhounds, and Labrador-greyhound crossbreeds. Anesthetized dogs were placed in sternal recumbency in a kneeling position in a foam rubber mold. The stifles were flexed and adducted with the femora perpendicular to, and in contact with, the table. To test for DLS, dogs were imaged in this weight-bearing position (DLS test) with routine radiography and CT. For each hip, the DLS score was determined by measuring the percentage of the femoral head medial to the lateralmost point of the cranial acetabular rim on the dorsoventral radiographic projection and the lateralmost point of the central, dorsal acetabular rim on the CT image. Higher DLS scores indicated better coverage of the femoral head by the acetabulum. DLS scores were compared with the distraction index (DI) by grouping joints according to their probability of developing osteoarthritis (OA) as predicted by the DI. The DLS score in the new position ranged from 29% to 71% for radiography and 15% to 59% for CT. Joints classified as OA unsusceptible had a mean score of 64% +/- 1.5% for radiography and 55% +/- 0.8% for CT (n = 10); hip joints having a high probability of developing OA had a score of 39% +/- 2.6% for radiography and 26% +/- 1.9% for CT (n = 8). When the DLS test was repeated on the same dogs at a different time, the intraclass correlation coefficient for the DLS score on the radiographs was 0.85 (left hip) and 0.89 (right hip). There was a strong correlation (r = .89 for both hips) between the DLS score measured on the weight-bearing radiograph and the CT image. A strong correlation also was observed between the

  19. Dynamic weight bearing is an efficient and predictable method for evaluation of arthritic nociception and its pathophysiological mechanisms in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Quadros, Andreza U.; Pinto, Larissa G.; Fonseca, Miriam M.; Ricardo Kusuda; Fernando Q Cunha; Cunha, Thiago M.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of articular nociception in experimental animals is a challenge because available methods are limited and subject to investigator influence. In an attempt to solve this problem, the purpose of this study was to establish the use of dynamic weight bearing (DWB) as a new device for evaluating joint nociception in an experimental model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in mice. AIA was induced in Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice, and joint nociception was evaluated by DWB. Western Blottin...

  20. Kinematic and dynamic gait compensations in a rat model of lumbar radiculopathy and the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kyle D; Shamji, Mohammed F; Mata, Brian A; Gabr, Mostafa A; Sinclair, S Michael; Schmitt, Daniel O; Richardson, William J; Setton, Lori A

    2011-08-26

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) has received significant attention as a mediator of lumbar radiculopathy, with interest in TNF antagonism to treat radiculopathy. Prior studies have demonstrated that TNF antagonists can attenuate heightened nociception resulting from lumbar radiculopathy in the preclinical model. Less is known about the potential impact of TNF antagonism on gait compensations, despite being of clinical relevance. In this study, we expand on previous descriptions of gait compensations resulting from lumbar radiculopathy in the rat and describe the ability of local TNF antagonism to prevent the development of gait compensations, altered weight bearing, and heightened nociception. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated for mechanical sensitivity, weight-bearing, and gait pre- and post-operatively. For surgery, tail nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue was collected and the right L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was exposed (Day 0). In sham animals, NP tissue was discarded (n = 6); for experimental animals, autologous NP was placed on the DRG with or without 20 μg of soluble TNF receptor type II (sTNFRII, n = 6 per group). Spatiotemporal gait characteristics (open arena) and mechanical sensitivity (von Frey filaments) were assessed on post-operative Day 5; gait dynamics (force plate arena) and weight-bearing (incapacitance meter) were assessed on post-operative Day 6. High-speed gait characterization revealed animals with NP alone had a 5% decrease in stance time on their affected limbs on Day 5 (P ≤0.032). Ground reaction force analysis on Day 6 aligned with temporal changes observed on Day 5, with vertical impulse reduced in the affected limb of animals with NP alone (area under the vertical force-time curve, P lumbar radiculopathy. Furthermore, TNF antagonism prevented the development of gait compensations subsequent to lumbar radiculopathy in our model.

  1. Reductions in knee joint forces with weight loss are attenuated by gait adaptations in class III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2016-03-01

    A consensus exists that high knee joint forces are a precursor to knee osteoarthritis and weight loss reduces these forces. Because large weight loss also leads to increased step length and walking velocity, knee contact forces may be reduced less than predicted by the magnitude of weight loss. The purpose was to determine the effects of weight loss on knee muscle and joint loads during walking in Class III obese adults. We determined through motion capture, force platform measures and biomechanical modeling the effects of weight loss produced by gastric bypass surgery over one year on knee muscle and joint loads during walking at a standard, controlled velocity and at self-selected walking velocities. Weight loss equaling 412 N or 34% of initial body weight reduced maximum knee compressive force by 824 N or 67% of initial body weight when walking at the controlled velocity. These changes represent a 2:1 reduction in knee force relative to weight loss when walking velocity is constrained to the baseline value. However, behavioral adaptations including increased stride length and walking velocity in the self-selected velocity condition attenuated this effect by ∼50% leading to a 392 N or 32% initial body weight reduction in compressive force in the knee joint. Thus, unconstrained walking elicited approximately 1:1 ratio of reduction in knee force relative to weight loss and is more indicative of walking behavior than the standard velocity condition. In conclusion, massive weight loss produces dramatic reductions in knee forces during walking but when patients stride out and walk faster, these favorable reductions become substantially attenuated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Multiple-Kernel Relevance Vector Machine with Nonlinear Decreasing Inertia Weight PSO for State Prediction of Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-wei Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and accurate prediction for state of bearing is the key to ensure its safe operation. A multiple-kernel relevance vector machine (MkRVM including RBF kernel and polynomial kernel is proposed for state prediction of bearing in this study; the proportions of RBF kernel and polynomial kernel are determined by a controlled parameter. As the selection of the parameters of the kernel functions and the controlled parameter has a certain influence on the prediction results of MkRVM, nonlinear decreasing inertia weight PSO (NDIWPSO is used to select its kernel parameters and controlled parameter. The RBF kernel RVM model with NDIWPSO (NDIWPSO-RBFRVM and the polynomial kernel RVM model with NDIWPSO (NDIWPSO-PolyRVM are used, respectively, to compare with the multiple-kernel RVM model with NDIWPSO (NDIWPSO-MkRVM. The experimental results indicate that NDIWPSO-MkRVM is more suitable for the state prediction of bearing than NDIWPSO-RBFRVM and NDIWPSO-PolyRVM.

  3. In vivo assessment of weight-bearing knee flexion reveals compartment-specific alterations in meniscal slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Sebastien; Scholes, Corey J; Balestro, Jean-Christian; Parker, David A

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of flexion angle on meniscal slope during partial weight-bearing knee flexion. Forty-eight sagittal sequences were performed on 12 patients (6 male patients, 6 female patients; 25.7 ± 10.5 years) during partial weight bearing in an open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner at full extension, 60°, 90°, and maximum knee flexion. A previously published method was used to measure the meniscal slope for each compartment using manual digitalization. A general linear model was used to test for effects of compartment and flexion angle on meniscal slope. The mean maximum flexion angle achieved was 125° ± 10.5°. A significant main effect of compartment (P knee flexion (P = .031). The results showed that meniscal slope in healthy knees increased significantly with knee flexion for both menisci, with significantly greater changes in the lateral meniscus. Furthermore, a lack of correlation was observed between the meniscal slope in extension and the meniscal slope at increasing flexion angles, questioning the efficacy of measuring the meniscal slope only in extension as commonly described. Overall, this study has provided valuable insight into how meniscal slope changes with knee motion. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle on patellofemoral indices using magnetic resonance imaging in patients with patellofemoral instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Christoph; Fleischer, Benjamin; Rase, Marten; Schumacher, Thees; Ettinger, Max; Ostermeier, Sven; Smith, Tomas

    2017-08-01

    This study analysed the effects of upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle on patellofemoral indices, determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in patients with patellofemoral instability (PI). Healthy volunteers (control group, n = 9) and PI patients (PI group, n = 16) were scanned in an open-configuration MRI scanner during upright weight bearing and supine non-weight bearing positions at full extension (0° flexion) and at 15°, 30°, and 45° flexion. Patellofemoral indices included the Insall-Salvati Index, Caton-Deschamp Index, and Patellotrochlear Index (PTI) to determine patellar height and the patellar tilt angle (PTA), bisect offset (BO), and the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance to assess patellar rotation and translation with respect to the femur and alignment of the extensor mechanism. A significant interaction effect of weight bearing by flexion angle was observed for the PTI, PTA, and BO for subjects with PI. At full extension, post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed a significant effect of weight bearing on the indices, with increased patellar height and increased PTA and BO in the PI group. Except for the BO, no such changes were seen in the control group. Independent of weight bearing, flexing the knee caused the PTA, BO, and TT-TG distance to be significantly reduced. Upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle affected patellofemoral MRI indices in PI patients, with significantly increased values at full extension. The observations of this study provide a caution to be considered by professionals when treating PI patients. These patients should be evaluated clinically and radiographically at full extension and various flexion angles in context with quadriceps engagement. Explorative case-control study, Level III.

  5. Balance asymmetry in Parkinson's disease and its contribution to freezing of gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjitske A Boonstra

    Full Text Available Balance control (the ability to maintain an upright posture is asymmetrically controlled in a proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease. Gait asymmetries have been linked to the pathophysiology of freezing of gait. We speculate that asymmetries in balance could contribute to freezing by a hampering the unloading of the stepping leg and/or b leading to a preferred stance leg during gait, which then results in asymmetric gait. To investigate this, we examined the relationship between balance control and weight-bearing asymmetries and freezing. We included 20 human patients with Parkinson (tested OFF medication; nine freezers and nine healthy controls. Balance was perturbed in the sagittal plane, using continuous multi-sine perturbations, applied by a motion platform and by a force at the sacrum. Applying closed-loop system identification techniques, relating the body sway angle to the joint torques of each leg separately, determined the relative contribution of each ankle and hip joint to the total amount of joint torque. We also calculated weight-bearing asymmetries. We determined the 99-percent confidence interval of weight-bearing and balance-control asymmetry using the responses of the healthy controls. Freezers did not have larger asymmetries in weight bearing (p = 0.85 nor more asymmetrical balance control compared to non-freezers (p = 0.25. The healthy linear one-to-one relationship between weight bearing and balance control was significantly different for freezers and non-freezers (p = 0.01. Specifically, non-freezers had a significant relationship between weight bearing and balance control (p = 0.02, whereas this relation was not significant for freezers (p = 0.15. Balance control is asymmetrical in most patients (about 75 percent with Parkinson's disease, but this asymmetry is not related to freezing. The relationship between weight bearing and balance control seems to be less pronounced in freezers, compared to

  6. Cross-sectional geometry of weight-bearing tibia in female athletes subjected to different exercise loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikander, R; Kannus, P; Rantalainen, T; Uusi-Rasi, K; Heinonen, A; Sievänen, H

    2010-10-01

    The association of long-term sport-specific exercise loading with cross-sectional geometry of the weight-bearing tibia was evaluated among 204 female athletes representing five different exercise loadings and 50 referents. All exercises involving ground impacts (e.g., endurance running, ball games, jumping) were associated with thicker cortex at the distal and diaphyseal sites of the tibia and also with large diaphyseal cross-section, whereas the high-magnitude (powerlifting) and non-impact (swimming) exercises were not. Bones adapt to the specific loading to which they are habitually subjected. In this cross-sectional study, the association of long-term sport-specific exercise loading with the geometry of the weight-bearing tibia was evaluated among premenopausal female athletes representing 11 different sports. A total of 204 athletes were divided into five exercise loading groups, and the respective peripheral quantitative computed tomographic data were compared to data obtained from 50 physically active, non-athletic referents. Analysis of covariance was used to estimate the between-group differences. At the distal tibia, the high-impact, odd-impact, and repetitive low-impact exercise loading groups had approximately 30% to 50% (p < 0.05) greater cortical area (CoA) than the referents. At the tibial shaft, these three impact groups had approximately 15% to 20% (p < 0.05) greater total area (ToA) and approximately 15% to 30% (p < 0.05) greater CoA. By contrast, both the high-magnitude and repetitive non-impact groups had similar ToA and CoA values to the reference group at both tibial sites. High-impact, odd-impact, and repetitive low-impact exercise loadings were associated with thicker cortex at the distal tibia. At the tibial shaft, impact loading was not only associated with thicker cortex, but also a larger cross-sectional area. High-magnitude exercise loading did not show such associations at either site but was comparable to repetitive non-impact loading

  7. Two Patients with Osteochondral Injury of the Weight-Bearing Portion of the Lateral Femoral Condyle Associated with Lateral Dislocation of the Patella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Nakagawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complications of patellar dislocation include osteochondral injury of the lateral femoral condyle and patella. Most cases of osteochondral injury occur in the anterior region, which is the non-weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle. We describe two patients with osteochondral injury of the weight-bearing surface of the lateral femoral condyle associated with lateral dislocation of the patella. The patients were 18- and 11-year-old females. Osteochondral injury occurred on the weight-bearing surface distal to the lateral femoral condyle. The presence of a free osteochondral fragment and osteochondral injury of the lateral femoral condyle was confirmed on MRI and reconstruction CT scan. Treatment consisted of osteochondral fragment fixation or microfracture, as well as patellar stabilization. Osteochondral injury was present in the weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle in both patients, suggesting that the injury was caused by friction between the patella and lateral femoral condyle when the patella was dislocated or reduced at about 90° flexion of the knee joint. These findings indicate that patellar dislocation may occur and osteochondral injury may extend to the weight-bearing portion of the femur even in deep flexion, when the patella is stabilized on the bones of the femoral groove.

  8. Weight-bearing asymmetries during Sit-To-Stand in patients with mild-to-moderate hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eitzen, Ingrid; Fernandes, Linda; Nordsletten, Lars

    2014-01-01

    and kinetic data were collected using an eight-camera motion analysis system synchronized with two force plates embedded in the floor. There were no distinctive biomechanical alterations in sagittal or frontal plane kinematics or kinetics, movement time, or time to reach peak ground reaction force (GRF...... of this study was to explore inter-limb weight-bearing asymmetries (WBA) and selected kinematic and kinetic variables during STS in patients with mild-to-moderate hip OA compared with healthy controls. Twenty-one hip OA patients and 23 controls were included in the study. Sagittal and frontal plane kinematic......) in hip OA patients compared with controls. However, the hip OA patients revealed a distinct pattern of WBA compared with the controls, in unloading their involved limb by 18.4% at peak GRF. These findings indicate that patients with early stage hip OA are not yet forced into a stereotypical movement...

  9. Weight-bearing computed tomography findings in varus ankle osteoarthritis: abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Yi, Young; Lee, Woo-Chun [Seoul Foot and Ankle Center, Dubalo Orthopaedic Clinic, Seochogu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Young; Kwon, Min-Soo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk [Inje University Seoul Paik Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jung-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae-Ho [Hallym University, ChunCheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chuncheon, GangWon-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    To assess the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and to determine whether this incidence differs from the severity of varus ankle osteoarthritis (moderate versus severe). We retrospectively evaluated weight-bearing computed tomography (CT) and plain radiographs of 52 ankles with no abnormalities (control group) and 96 ankles with varus osteoarthritis (varus-OA group), which were further stratified into a moderate-OA subgroup (50 ankles) and a severe-OA subgroup (46 ankles). A new radiographic parameter on weight-bearing CT, the talus rotation ratio, was used to assess the rotation of the talus in the axial plane. The normal range of the talus rotation ratio was defined as the 95% prediction interval for talus rotation ratio values in the control group. Abnormal internal rotation of the talus was defined for talus rotation ratio values above the normal range. We determined the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the varus-OA group, moderate-OA subgroup, and severe-OA subgroup. In the varus-OA group, the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus was 45% (43 ankles), which corresponded to an incidence of 32% (16 ankles) in the moderate-OA subgroup and 59% (27 ankles) in the severe-OA subgroup (p = 0.013). Our study demonstrates that abnormal internal rotation of the talus occurs in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and is more frequently noted in severe than in moderate varus ankle osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  10. Validity of clinical outcome measures to evaluate ankle range of motion during the weight-bearing lunge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emily A; Docherty, Carrie L

    2017-07-01

    To determine the concurrent validity of standard clinical outcome measures compared to laboratory outcome measure while performing the weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT). Cross-sectional study. Fifty participants performed the WBLT to determine dorsiflexion ROM using four different measurement techniques: dorsiflexion angle with digital inclinometer at 15cm distal to the tibial tuberosity (°), dorsiflexion angle with inclinometer at tibial tuberosity (°), maximum lunge distance (cm), and dorsiflexion angle using a 2D motion capture system (°). Outcome measures were recorded concurrently during each trial. To establish concurrent validity, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients (r) were conducted, comparing each dependent variable to the 2D motion capture analysis (identified as the reference standard). A higher correlation indicates strong concurrent validity. There was a high correlation between each measurement technique and the reference standard. Specifically the correlation between the inclinometer placement at 15cm below the tibial tuberosity (44.9°±5.5°) and the motion capture angle (27.0°±6.0°) was r=0.76 (p=0.001), between the inclinometer placement at the tibial tuberosity angle (39.0°±4.6°) and the motion capture angle was r=0.71 (p=0.001), and between the distance from the wall clinical measure (10.3±3.0cm) to the motion capture angle was r=0.74 (p=0.001). This study determined that the clinical measures used during the WBLT have a high correlation with the reference standard for assessing dorsiflexion range of motion. Therefore, obtaining maximum lunge distance and inclinometer angles are both valid assessments during the weight-bearing lunge test. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of a short burst of gait training with body weight-supported treadmill training for a person with chronic stroke: a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Stephanie A; Miller, Ellen Winchell

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-burst dose of intense gait training with body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on walking speed, endurance, and quality of life of a participant with chronic stroke. A single-subject experimental (A-B-A-A) design with immediate and 3-month retention phases was used. The participant was a 66-year-old woman, 1 year after left cerebrovascular accident. Repeated baseline walking performance was established during 2 weeks of testing using the comfortable 10-meter walk test (CWT) and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). The Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) was measured one time during baseline. Baseline testing was followed by ten 30-minute sessions of BWSTT over a 2-week duration. Retention testing was conducted immediately and 3 months following the intervention. Statistically significant improvements from baseline with the CWT and the 6MWT were achieved and maintained by the participant across all subsequent measurement phases. Improvements considered to be clinically meaningful changes in the SIS domains of strength and mobility achieved immediately after the intervention were not maintained at 3-month retention testing. For the participant in this study, the short-burst dosage of BWSTT provided a feasible and effective means for improving goal-oriented functional walking ability.

  12. Maternal and pregnancy-related factors affecting human milk cytokines among Peruvian mothers bearing low-birth-weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambruni, Mara; Villalobos, Alex; Somasunderam, Anoma; Westergaard, Sarah; Nigalye, Maitreyee; Turin, Christie G; Zegarra, Jaime; Bellomo, Sicilia; Mercado, Erik; Ochoa, Theresa J; Utay, Netanya S

    2017-04-01

    Several cytokines have been detected in human milk but their relative concentrations differ among women and vary over time in the same person. The drivers of such differences have been only partially identified, while the effect of luminal cytokines in the fine-regulation of the intestinal immune system is increasingly appreciated. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between obstetrical complications and human milk cytokine profiles in a cohort of Peruvian women giving birth to Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants. Colostrum and mature human milk samples were collected from 301 Peruvian women bearing LBW infants. The concentration of twenty-three cytokines was measured using the Luminex platform. Ninety-nine percent of women had at least one identified obstetrical complication leading to intra-uterine growth restriction and/or preterm birth. Median weight at birth was 1,420g; median gestational age 31 weeks. A core of 12 cytokines, mainly involved in innate immunity and epithelial cell integrity, was detectable in most samples. Maternal age, maternal infection, hypertensive disorders, preterm labor, and premature rupture of membranes were associated with specific cytokine profiles both in colostrum and mature human milk. Mothers of Very LBW (VLBW) neonates had significantly higher concentrations of chemokines and growth factor cytokines both in their colostrum and mature milk compared with mothers of larger neonates. Thus, maternal conditions affecting pregnancy duration and in utero growth are also associated with specific human milk cytokine signatures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Evaluation of a bisphosphonate enriched ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for enhanced total joint replacement bearing surface functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright-Walker, Cassandra Jane

    Each year in the United States there is an increasing trend of patients receiving total joint replacement (TJR) procedures. Approximately a half million total knee replacements (TKRs) are performed annually in the United States with increasing prevalence attributed to baby-boomers, obesity, older, and younger patients. This trend is also seen for total hip replacements (THRs) as well. The use of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) inserts in TJRs results in wear particle-induced osteolysis, which is the predominant cause for prosthesis failure and revision surgery. Sub-micron size particle generation is inevitable despite the numerous efforts in improving this bearing material. Work by others has shown that the use of oral and intravenous systemic bisphosphonates (BP) can significantly minimize periprosthetic osteolysis. However, the systemic delivery and the high solubility of BPs results in a predominant portion of the drug being excreted via the kidney without reaching its target, bone. This doctoral research project is focused on the development and evaluation of a novel method to administer BPs locally using the inherent wear of UHMWPE for possible use as an anti-osteolysis treatment. For new materials to be considered, they must be mechanically and tribologically comparable to the current gold standard, UHMWPE. In order to evaluate this material, mechanical, drug elution and tribological experiments were performed to allow assessment of material properties. Tensile tests showed comparable yield stress and pin-on-disk testing showed comparable wear to standard virgin UHMWPE. Further, drug elution tests have shown that BP was released from the enriched material both in static and dynamic conditions. Additionally, an aggressive 2 million cycle total knee simulator experiment has shown statistically similar wear results for the two materials. Overall, this research has provided the groundwork for further characterization and development of a new

  14. Multistimuli-responsive supramolecular organogels formed by low-molecular-weight peptides bearing side-chain azobenzene moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatás, Paola; Bachl, Jürgen; Oehm, Stefan; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos; Díaz Díaz, David

    2013-07-01

    This work demonstrates that the incorporation of azobenzene residues into the side chain of low-molecular-weight peptides can modulate their self-assembly process in organic solvents leading to the formation of stimuli responsive physical organogels. The major driving forces for the gelation process are hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions, which can be triggered either by thermal or ultrasound external stimuli, affording materials having virtually the same properties. In addition, a predictive model for gelation of polar protic solvent was developed by using Kamlet-Taft solvent parameters and experimental data. The obtained viscoelastic materials exhibited interconnected multistimuli responsive behaviors including thermal-, photo-, chemo- and mechanical responses. All of them displayed thermoreversability with gel-to-sol transition temperatures established between 33-80 °C and gelation times from minutes to several hours. Structure-property relationship studies of a designed peptide library have demonstrated that the presence and position of the azobenzene residue can be operated as a versatile regulator to reduce the critical gelation concentration and enhance both the thermal stability and mechanical strength of the gels, as demonstrated by comparative dynamic rheology. The presence of N-Boc protecting group in the peptides showed also a remarkable effect on the formation and properties of the gels. Despite numerous examples of peptide-based gelators known in the literature, this is the first time in which low-molecular-weight peptides bearing side chain azobenzene units are used for the synthesis of "intelligent" supramolecular organogels. Compared with other approaches, this strategy is advantageous in terms of structural flexibility since it is compatible with a free, unprotected amino terminus and allows placement of the chromophore at any position of the peptide sequence. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Characterization of gait in female patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, S; Moerenhout, K; Crevoisier, X

    2015-07-01

    Hallux valgus is one of the most common forefoot problems in females. Studies have looked at gait alterations due to hallux valgus deformity, assessing temporal, kinematic or plantar pressure parameters individually. The present study, however, aims to assess all listed parameters at once and to isolate the most clinically relevant gait parameters for moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity with the intent of improving post-operative patient prognosis and rehabilitation. The study included 26 feet with moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity and 30 feet with no sign of hallux valgus in female participants. Initially, weight bearing radiographs and foot and ankle clinical scores were assessed. Gait assessment was then performed utilizing pressure insoles (PEDAR) and inertial sensors (Physilog) and the two groups were compared using a non-parametric statistical hypothesis test (Wilcoxon rank sum, Phallux valgus group compared to controls and 9 gait parameters (effect size between 1.03 and 1.76) were successfully isolated to best describe the altered gait in hallux valgus deformity (r(2)=0.71) as well as showed good correlation with clinical scores. Our results, and nine listed parameters, could serve as benchmark for characterization of hallux valgus and objective evaluation of treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phasic-to-tonic shift in trunk muscle activity relative to walking during low-impact weight bearing exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Nick; Gibbon, Karl; Hibbs, Angela; Evetts, Simon; Debuse, Dorothée

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an exercise device, designed to improve the function of lumbopelvic muscles via low-impact weight-bearing exercise, on electromyographic (EMG) activity of lumbopelvic, including abdominal muscles. Surface EMG activity was collected from lumbar multifidus (LM), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) and rectus abdominis (RA) during overground walking (OW) and exercise device (EX) conditions. During walking, most muscles showed peaks in activity which were not seen during EX. Spinal extensors (LM, ES) were more active in EX. Internal oblique and RA were less active in EX. In EX, LM and ES were active for longer than during OW. Conversely, EO and RA were active for a shorter duration in EX than OW. The exercise device showed a phasic-to-tonic shift in activation of both local and global lumbopelvic muscles and promoted increased activation of spinal extensors in relation to walking. These features could make the exercise device a useful rehabilitative tool for populations with lumbopelvic muscle atrophy and dysfunction, including those recovering from deconditioning due to long-term bed rest and microgravity in astronauts.

  17. Effects of calcaneal eversion on three-dimensional kinematics of the hip, pelvis and thorax in unilateral weight bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Wada, Osamu; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the kinematic chain from foot to thorax will provide a better basis for assessment of malalignment of the body. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of induced calcaneal eversion on the kinematics of the hip, pelvis and thorax in three dimensions under unilateral weight-bearing. Twenty-eight healthy males were requested to stand on one leg under three conditions: normal (standing directly on the floor), and on wedges producing 5° and 10° calcaneal eversion. Recorded kinematic parameters included the angles of the hip joint, pelvis, and thorax in three dimensions. Eversion induced by wedges produced significant increases in hip flexion, hip medial rotation, pelvic anterior tilt, and thoracic lateral tilt and axial rotation to the standing side. In the frontal plane, pelvic lateral tilt to the standing side was decreased in 5° eversion condition compared with normal condition; conversely, it was increased in 10° eversion condition compared with 5° eversion condition. Arch height was negatively correlated with change in thoracic axial rotation to standing side from the normal to 10° eversion (r=-.528, pthorax through the hip joint and the pelvis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of motor control training on abdominal muscle contraction during simulated weight bearing in elite cricketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Endicott, Timothy; Mendis, M Dilani; Stanton, Warren R

    2016-07-01

    To investigate whether motor control training alters automatic contraction of abdominal muscles in elite cricketers with low back pain (LBP) during performance of a simulated unilateral weight-bearing task. Clinical trial. 26 male elite-cricketers attended a 13-week cricket training camp. Prior to the camp, participants were allocated to a LBP or asymptomatic group. Real-time ultrasound imaging was used to assess automatic abdominal muscle response to axial loading. During the camp, the LBP group performed a staged motor control training program. Following the camp, the automatic response of the abdominal muscles was re-assessed. At pre-camp assessment, when participants were axially loaded with 25% of their own bodyweight, the LBP group showed a 15.5% thicker internal oblique (IO) muscle compared to the asymptomatic group (p = 0.009). The post-camp assessment showed that participants in the LBP group demonstrated less contraction of the IO muscle in response to axial loading compared with the asymptomatic group. A trend was found in the automatic recruitment pattern of the transversus abdominis (p = 0.08). Motor control training normalized excessive contraction of abdominal muscles in response to a low load task. This may be a useful strategy for rehabilitation of cricketers with LBP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic weight bearing is an efficient and predictable method for evaluation of arthritic nociception and its pathophysiological mechanisms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadros, Andreza U; Pinto, Larissa G; Fonseca, Miriam M; Kusuda, Ricardo; Cunha, Fernando Q; Cunha, Thiago M

    2015-10-29

    The assessment of articular nociception in experimental animals is a challenge because available methods are limited and subject to investigator influence. In an attempt to solve this problem, the purpose of this study was to establish the use of dynamic weight bearing (DWB) as a new device for evaluating joint nociception in an experimental model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in mice. AIA was induced in Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice, and joint nociception was evaluated by DWB. Western Blotting and real-time PCR were used to determine protein and mRNA expression, respectively. DWB detected a dose- and time-dependent increase in joint nociception during AIA and was able to detect the dose-response effects of different classes of analgesics. Using DWB, it was possible to evaluate the participation of spinal glial cells (microglia and astrocytes) and cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) for the genesis of joint nociception during AIA. In conclusion, the present results indicated that DWB is an effective, objective and predictable test to study both the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in arthritic nociception in mice and for evaluating novel analgesic drugs against arthritis.

  20. Acoustic Gaits: Gait Analysis With Footstep Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, M Umair Bin; Butko, Taras; Juang, Biing-Hwang Fred

    2015-08-01

    We describe the acoustic gaits-the natural human gait quantitative characteristics derived from the sound of footsteps as the person walks normally. We introduce the acoustic gait profile, which is obtained from temporal signal analysis of sound of footsteps collected by microphones and illustrate some of the spatio-temporal gait parameters that can be extracted from the acoustic gait profile by using three temporal signal analysis methods-the squared energy estimate, Hilbert transform and Teager-Kaiser energy operator. Based on the statistical analysis of the parameter estimates, we show that the spatio-temporal parameters and gait characteristics obtained using the acoustic gait profile can consistently and reliably estimate a subset of clinical and biometric gait parameters currently in use for standardized gait assessments. We conclude that the Teager-Kaiser energy operator provides the most consistent gait parameter estimates showing the least variation across different sessions and zones. Acoustic gaits use an inexpensive set of microphones with a computing device as an accurate and unintrusive gait analysis system. This is in contrast to the expensive and intrusive systems currently used in laboratory gait analysis such as the force plates, pressure mats and wearable sensors, some of which may change the gait parameters that are being measured.

  1. Joint-space width in the weight-bearing radiogram of the tibiofemoral joint. Should the patient stand on one leg or two?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegaard, T.; Rudling, O. [County Hospital, Helsingborg (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Petersson, I.F. [Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Halmstad (Sweden); Jonsson, K. [Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare the minimal joint-space (MJS) width of the tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) in weight-bearing radiograms with the patient in two different positions. Material and Methods: From a study of 54 patients with chronic knee pain (aged 42-59 years, mean 52 years), we selected 21 consecutive patients for this study. In these 21 patients, both knees were examined by means of p.a. weight-bearing radiograms in semiflexion with fluoroscopic guidance. The patient stood with the weight: (1) almost entirely on the examined leg; and (2) equally distributed on both legs. The MJS was measured with a scale loupe in tenths of a millimeter in the medial and lateral compartments of the TFJ. Results: With the patient standing on one leg, the MJS was 0.18 mm wider (p<0.006) in the medial compartment and 0.18 mm narrower (p<0.029) in the lateral compartment as compared to standing on both legs. Conclusion: With the technique used, the assessment of the MJS width in the p.a. view of the TFJ in weight-bearing examinations should be performed with equal weight on both legs. Standing on only the examined leg might be an option in cases of suspected narrowing in the lateral compartment. (orig.).

  2. Treadmill training with partial body weight support compared with conventional gait training for low-functioning children and adolescents with nonspastic cerebral palsy: a two-period crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ivan Y W; Chung, Kenny K Y; Chow, Daniel H K

    2013-12-01

    Partial body weight-supported treadmill training has been shown to be effective in gait training for patients with neurological disorders such as spinal cord injuries and stroke. Recent applications on children with cerebral palsy were reported, mostly on spastic cerebral palsy with single subject design. There is lack of evidence on the effectiveness of such training for nonspastic cerebral palsy, particularly those who are low functioning with limited intellectual capacity. This study evaluated the effectiveness of partial body weight-supported treadmill training for improving gross motor skills among these clients. A two-period randomized crossover design with repeated measures. A crossover design following an A-B versus a B-A pattern was adopted. The two training periods consisted of 12-week partial body weight-supported treadmill training (Training A) and 12-week conventional gait training (Training B) with a 10-week washout in between. Ten school-age participants with nonspastic cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation were recruited. The Gross Motor Function Measure-66 was administered immediately before and after each training period. Significant improvements in dimensions D and E of the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 and the Gross Motor Ability Estimator were obtained. Our findings revealed that the partial body weight-supported treadmill training was effective in improving gross motor skills for low-functioning children and adolescents with nonspastic cerebral palsy. .

  3. Bilateral sleeve fractures of the patella in a 12-year-old boy with hereditary spastic paraparesis and crouch gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ailish; Kiernan, Damien; O Brien, Tim

    2013-12-04

    This is the first reported case of bilateral sleeve fractures of the patellae in a child with crouch gait. A 12-year-old boy with hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP), who was found to have mid-stance crouch of 20° on previous gait analysis, presented with pain of gradual onset and limited mobility. There was no history of trauma. Three-dimensional gait analysis showed that extensor mechanism function during loading response was intact, but knee flexion in swing was significantly reduced, indicating protective guarding by rectus femoris. X-rays showed bilateral minimally displaced sleeve fractures of the patellae. These were treated with immobilisation in cylinder casts in extension for 4 weeks. Follow-up X-rays showed that the fractures had successfully united and the patient progressed to full weight bearing and mobility as tolerated.

  4. Gait phase varies over velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan

    2014-02-01

    We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of First-Ray Mobility in Patients with Hallux Valgus Using Weight-Bearing CT and a 3-D Analysis System: A Comparison with Normal Feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Kubota, Makoto; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki; Marumo, Keishi

    2017-02-01

    Some physicians report that patients with hallux valgus have hypermobility at the tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint of the first ray and 3-dimensional (3-D) deformity. With use of non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing computed tomography (CT), we evaluated the 3-D mobility of each joint of the first ray in feet with hallux valgus compared with normal feet. Ten feet of 10 patients with hallux valgus and 10 feet of 10 healthy volunteers with no foot disorders were examined. All participants were women. Weight-bearing (a load equivalent to body weight) and non-weight-bearing CT scans were made with use of a device that we developed. Orthogonal coordinate axes were set and a 3-D model was reconstructed. Each joint of the first ray was aligned with the respective proximal bone, and 3-D displacement of the distal bone relative to the proximal bone under loading was quantified. At the talonavicular joint, significantly greater dorsiflexion of the navicular relative to the talus was observed in the hallux valgus group compared with the control group. At the medial cuneonavicular joint, the hallux valgus group showed significantly greater eversion and abduction of the medial cuneiform relative to the navicular. At the first TMT joint, the hallux valgus group showed significantly greater dorsiflexion, inversion, and adduction of the first metatarsal relative to the medial cuneiform. At the first metatarsophalangeal joint, the hallux valgus group showed significantly greater eversion and abduction of the first proximal phalanx relative to the first metatarsal (all p hallux valgus.

  6. Optimizing ankle performance when taped: Effects of kinesiology and athletic taping on proprioception in full weight-bearing stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhi; Wang, Renwei; Han, Jia; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Anson, Judith

    2017-03-01

    To explore the effects of kinesiology taping (KT) and athletic taping (AT) on ankle proprioception when tested in functional, full weight-bearing stance. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-four healthy university students participated. Proprioception was measured using the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus (AMEDA). The three testing conditions: no-taping, KT, AT, and foot tested were randomly assigned. Perceived comfort, support and proprioceptive performance under two taping conditions were recorded. Proprioceptive discrimination scores with 95% CIs for no-taping, KT and AT were 0.81 (0.79-0.84), 0.81 (0.79-0.83), and 0.79 (0.77-0.81). Repeated measures ANOVA showed neither any significant difference associated with taping compared with no-taping (p=0.30), nor any difference between KT and AT (p=0.19). The group was then divided, according to their no-taping scores, into two sub-groups: with scores below the no-taping mean (n=13), and above the mean (n=11). ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p=0.008) indicating that above-average no-taping performers proprioception scores were worse when taped, whereas below-average performers improved. For both KT and AT, only ratings of perceived comfort when taped were significantly associated with actual proprioceptive performance (both r>0.44, p≤0.03). Other perception ratings (support and performance) were significantly inter-correlated (both r>0.42, p0.31). Taping of the foot and ankle may amplify sensory input in a way that enhances proprioception of poor performers but produces an input overload that impairs proprioception in those who originally performed well when no-taping. Screening of ankle proprioception may identify those who would benefit most from taping. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic measurement of patello-femoral joint alignment using weight-bearing magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Silvia; La Marra, Alice; Arrigoni, Francesco; Necozione, Stefano; Splendiani, Alessandra; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Barile, Antonio; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Aim of our work was to compare standard and weight-bearing WB-MRI to define their contribution in unmasking patello-femoral (PF) maltracking and to define what measurement of patellar alignment is the most reliable. We prospectively collected 95 non consecutive patients, clinically divided into 2 groups: group A (the control group), including 20 patients (negative for patellar maltracking), and group B including 75 patients (positive for patellar maltracking). The patients underwent a dedicated 0.25 T MRI, in supine and WB position, with knee flexion of 12-15°. The following measurements were performed: Insall-Salvati index (IS), lateral patellar displacement (LPD), lateral patello-femoral angle (LPA) and lateral patellar tilt (LPT). Quantitative and qualitative statistical analyses were performed to compare the results obtained before and after WB-MRI. Measurements were subsequently performed on both groups. Group A patients showed no statistically significant variations at all measurements both on standard and WB-MRI. On the basis of measurements made on standard MRI, group B patients were divided into group B1 (23 patients) (negative or positive at 1 measurement) and group B2 (52 patients) (positive at 2 or more measurements). After WB-MRI, group B1 patients were divided into group B1a (6 patients), in case they remained positive at 0/1 measurement, and group B1b (17 patients), in case they became positive at 2 or more measurements. All group B2 patients confirmed to be positive at 2 or more measurements at WB-MRI. Quantitative statistical analysis showed that LPT and LPA were the most reproducible and clinically useful measurements. Qualitative statistical analysis performed on standard and WB-MRI demonstrated that LPT was the best predictive measurement. This study demonstrates both the high diagnostic value of WB-MRI in unmasking PF-maltracking and the best predictive value of LPT measurement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. LIGHT-WEIGHT LOAD-BEARING STRUCTURES REINFORCED BY CORE ELEMENTS MADE OF SEGMENTS AND A METHOD OF CASTING SUCH STRUCTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a light-weight load-bearing structure, reinforced by core elements (2) of a strong material constituting one or more compression or tension zones in the structure to be cast, which core (2) is surrounded by or adjacent to a material of less strength compared to the core (2......), where the core (2) is constructed from segments (1) of core elements (2) assembled by means of one or more prestressing elements (4). The invention further relates to a method of casting of light-weight load-bearing structures, reinforced by core elements (2) of a strong material constituting one...... or more compression or tension zones in the structure to be cast, which core (2) is surrounded by or adjacent to a material of less strength compared to the core (2), where the core (2) is constructed from segments (1) of core elements (2) assembled and hold together by means of one or more prestressing...

  9. Radiographic and functional results in the treatment of early stages of Charcot neuroarthropathy with a walker boot and immediate weight bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Candida Ribeiro Parisi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common gold standards for the treatment of Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN in the early Eichenholtz stages I and II is immobilization with the total contact casting and lower limb offloading. However, the total amount of offloading is still debatable. Objectives: This study evaluates the clinical and radiographic findings in the treatment of early stages of CN (Eichenholtz stages I and II with a walker boot and immediate total weight-bearing status. Methods: Twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and CN of Eichenholtz stages I and II were selected for non-operative treatment. All patients were educated about their condition, and full weight bearing was allowed as tolerated. Patients were monitored on a fortnightly basis in the earlier stages, with clinical examination, temperature measurement, and standardized weight-bearing radiographs. Their American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS scores were determined before and after the treatment protocol. Results: No cutaneous ulcerations or infections were observed in the evaluated cases. The mean measured angles at the beginning and end of the study, although showing relative increase, did not present a statistically significant difference (p > 0.05. Mean AOFAS scores showed a statistically significant improvement by the end of the study (p < 0.005. Conclusion: The treatment of early stages of CN (Eichenholtz stages I and II with emphasis on walker boot and immediate weight bearing has shown a good functional outcome, non-progressive deformity on radiographic assessment, and promising results as a safe treatment option.

  10. Estimating joint space of the knee during weight-bearing squatting activity using motion capture ? preliminary results of a new method

    OpenAIRE

    CLEMENT, Julien; CRESSON, T.; HAGEMEISTER, Nicola; DUMAS, Raphaël; DE GUISE, Jaques A

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, several studies analyzed 3D joint space of the knee and deduced articular contact kinematics during various weight-bearing activities. Joint space and articular contact kinematics provide relevant data on how the intrinsic biomechanics of the knee is altered after a disease or a surgical procedure, such as knee osteoarthritis (OA) or total knee arthroplasty. Although very accurate, the methods employed by these studies require complex acquisition protocols, implying 3D...

  11. THE EFFECT OF SWISS BALL THERAPY ON SIT-TO-STAND FUNCTION, PARETIC LIMB WEIGHT BEARING AND LOWER LIMB MOTOR SCORE IN PATIENTS WITH HEMIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadnagarwala Rasheeda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swiss ball is used as a tool in stroke rehabilitation It is commonly used to improve postural control. Sitting on unstable surfaces can provoke lower extremity muscle contractions as a component of postural control. Effect of unstable surface sitting on lower extremity control and functions following stroke is not clear from available literature. Hence this study was planned to study the effect of Swiss ball training on sit to stand function, weight bearing through paretic lower limb and motor control of paretic limb in patients with hemiplegia. Methods: First-time stroke patients with hemiplegia were recruited from an acute stroke care set up in a University teaching hospital and assigned to control (n=34 and experimental group (n = 33. Along with physiotherapy based on impairments, patients in control group were trained for sitting to standing and sitting activities on a stool, and from in the experimental group were trained with Swiss Ball. Both the groups underwent 40 minutes of training for ten days. 30-second sit to stand, Percentage of weight bearing through the paretic limb and Brunnstrom stages were recorded. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used based on the outcome tested. Results: The baseline characteristics between the groups were similar statistically. Post-intervention experimental group had better weight bearing ability and motor control of lower limb (p<0.05, than the control group. The difference in 30-second sit to stand did not reach statistical significance (p=0.059. Conclusion: Training with Swiss ball results in greater improvement in weight - bearing ability and motor control of paretic lower limb, compared to conventional training. The Swiss ball training does not enhance the sit to stand performance more than conventional training.

  12. Balancing the rates of new bone formation and polymer degradation enhances healing of weight-bearing allograft/polyurethane composites in rabbit femoral defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jerald E; Prieto, Edna M; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna J; Guda, Teja; Wenke, Joseph C; Bible, Jesse; Holt, Ginger E; Guelcher, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    There is a compelling clinical need for bone grafts with initial bone-like mechanical properties that actively remodel for repair of weight-bearing bone defects, such as fractures of the tibial plateau and vertebrae. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating remodeling of weight-bearing bone grafts in preclinical models, and consequently there is limited understanding of the mechanisms by which these grafts remodel in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of the rates of new bone formation, matrix resorption, and polymer degradation on healing of settable weight-bearing polyurethane/allograft composites in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model. The grafts induced progressive healing in vivo, as evidenced by an increase in new bone formation, as well as a decrease in residual allograft and polymer from 6 to 12 weeks. However, the mismatch between the rates of autocatalytic polymer degradation and zero-order (independent of time) new bone formation resulted in incomplete healing in the interior of the composite. Augmentation of the grafts with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 not only increased the rate of new bone formation, but also altered the degradation mechanism of the polymer to approximate a zero-order process. The consequent matching of the rates of new bone formation and polymer degradation resulted in more extensive healing at later time points in all regions of the graft. These observations underscore the importance of balancing the rates of new bone formation and degradation to promote healing of settable weight-bearing bone grafts that maintain bone-like strength, while actively remodeling.

  13. The Influence of Ambulatory Aid on Lower-extremity Muscle Activation During Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Michael; Bowden, Anton E; Baker, Spencer; Jensen, Ryan; Nichols, McKenzie; Seeley, Matthew K

    2017-04-19

    Foot and ankle injuries are common, and often require a non-weight bearing period of immobilization for the involved leg. This non-weight bearing period usually results in muscle atrophy for the involved leg. There is a dearth of objective data describing muscle activation for different ambulatory aids that are used during the aforementioned non-weight bearing period. To compare activation amplitudes for four leg muscles during (1) able-bodied gait and (2) ambulation involving three different ambulatory aids that can be used during the acute phase of foot and ankle injury care. Within-subject, repeated measures. University biomechanics laboratory. Sixteen able-bodied individuals (7 females and 9 males). Each participant performed able-bodied gait and ambulation using three different ambulatory aids (traditional axillary crutches, knee scooter, and a novel lower-leg prosthesis). Muscle activation amplitude, quantified via mean surface electromyography amplitude, throughout the stance phase of ambulation. Numerous statistical differences (P ambulatory aids, and able-bodied gait. For the involved leg, comparing the three ambulatory aids: (1) knee scooter ambulation resulted in the greatest vastus lateralis activation, (2) ambulation using the novel prosthesis and traditional crutches resulted in greater biceps femoris activation than knee scooter ambulation, and (3) ambulation using the novel prosthesis resulted in the greatest gastrocnemius activation (p ambulatory aid influences muscle activation amplitude. Traditional axillary crutches appear to be less likely to mitigate muscle atrophy during the non-weighting, immobilization period that often follows foot or ankle injuries. Researchers and clinicians should consider these results when recommending ambulatory aids for foot or ankle injuries.

  14. American Society of Biomechanics Clinical Biomechanics Award 2013: tibiofemoral contact location changes associated with lateral heel wedging--a weight bearing MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrance, Peter J; Gade, Venkata; Allen, Jerome; Cole, Jeffrey L

    2014-11-01

    Vertically open magnetic resonance imaging permits study of knee joint contact during weight bearing. Lateral wedging is a low cost intervention for knee osteoarthritis that may influence load distribution and contact. This study assessed the ability of feedback-assisted weight bearing magnetic resonance imaging to detect changes in tibiofemoral contact associated with lateral wedging. One knee in each of fourteen subjects with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis was studied, without specification of compartmental involvement. Knees were imaged during upright standing and at 20° knee flexion. Bilateral external heel wedges were used to provide non-wedged and 5° lateral wedging conditions. Computer modeling was used to measure the medial and lateral compartment contact patch center coordinates on the tibial plateau and the respective contact areas. Lateral heel wedging in flexion was associated with a significant anterior shift of the contact patch of the lateral femoral condyle. Changes with knee flexion were similar to previous reports: both medial and lateral contact centers moved posteriorly with flexion, and lateral condyle contact also moved laterally. Lateral condyle contact area significantly reduced with flexion, while lateral wedging did not significantly affect contact areas. In symptomatic knee osteoarthritis patients standing in knee flexion, weight bearing magnetic resonance imaging recorded an anterior shift of lateral condyle contact in response to lateral heel wedging. Future studies may investigate lateral wedging effects more specifically in candidates for this clinical intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Insulin, not glutamine dipeptide, reduces lipases expression and prevents fat wasting and weight loss in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Hely; de Fatima Silva, Flaviane; da Silva, Francemilson Goulart; Silva, Milene Ortiz; Graciano, Maria Fernanda Rodrigues; Martins, Maria Isabel Lovo; Carpinelli, Ângelo Rafael; Mazucco, Tânia Longo; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; de Souza, Helenir Medri

    2017-07-05

    Cachexia is the main cause of mortality in advanced cancer patients. We investigated the effects of insulin (INS) and glutamine dipeptide (GDP), isolated or associated, on cachexia and metabolic changes induced by Walker 256 tumor in rats. INS (NPH, 40 UI/kg, sc) or GDP (1.5g/kg, oral gavage) was once-daily administered during 11 days after tumor cell inoculation. GDP, INS or INS+GDP treatments did not influence the tumor growth. However, INS and INS+GDP prevented retroperitoneal fat wasting and body weight loss of tumor-bearing rats. In consistency, INS and INS+GDP prevented the increased expression of triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), without changing the expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue of tumor-bearing rats. INS and INS+GDP also prevented anorexia and hyperlactatemia of tumor-bearing rats. However, INS and INS+GDP accentuated the loss of muscle mass (gastrocnemius, soleus and long digital extensor) without affecting the myostatin expression in the gastrocnemius muscle and blood corticosterone. GDP treatment did not promote beneficial effects. It can be concluded that treatment with INS (INS or INS+GDP), not with GDP, prevented fat wasting and weight loss in tumor-bearing rats without reducing tumor growth. These effects might be attributed to the reduction of lipases expression (ATGL and LHS) and increased food intake. The results show the physiological function of INS in the suppression of lipolysis induced by cachexia mediators in tumor-bearing rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Description of a multifaceted rehabilitation program including overground gait training for a child with cerebral palsy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Elizabeth; Naber, Erin; Geigle, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This case describes the outcomes of a multifaceted rehabilitation program including body weight-supported overground gait training (BWSOGT) in a nonambulatory child with cerebral palsy (CP) and the impact of this treatment on the child's functional mobility. The patient is a nonambulatory 10-year-old female with CP who during an inpatient rehabilitation stay participated in direct, physical therapy 6 days per week for 5 weeks. Physical therapy interventions included stretching of her bilateral lower extremities, transfer training, bed mobility training, balance training, kinesiotaping, supported standing in a prone stander, two trials of partial weight-supported treadmill training, and for 4 weeks, three to five times per week, engaged in 30 minutes of BWSOGT using the Up n' go gait trainer, Lite Gait Walkable, and Rifton Pacer gait trainer. Following the multifaceted rehabilitation program, the patient demonstrated increased step initiation, increased weight bearing through bilateral lower extremities, improved bed mobility, and increased participation in transfers. The child's Gross Motor Functional Measure (GMFM) scores increased across four dimensions and her Physical Abilities and Mobility Scale (PAMS) increased significantly. This case report illustrates that a multifaceted rehabilitation program including BWSOGT was an effective intervention strategy to improve functional mobility in this nonambulatory child with CP.

  17. A cross-sectional study comparing lateral and diagonal maximum weight shift in people with stroke and healthy controls and the correlation with balance, gait and fear of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Margaretha M; Meyer, Sarah; Sandstad, Solveig; Wiskerke, Evelyne; Thuwis, Rhea; Vandekerckhove, Chesny; Myny, Charlotte; Ghosh, Nitesh; Beyens, Hilde; Dejaeger, Eddy; Verheyden, Geert

    2017-01-01

    Impaired balance is common post stroke and can be assessed by means of force-platforms measuring center of pressure (COP) displacements during static standing, or more dynamically during lateral maximum weight shift (MWS). However, activities of daily life also include diagonal MWS and since force platforms are nowadays commercially available, investigating lateral and diagonal MWS in a clinical setting might be feasible and clinically relevant. We investigated lateral and diagonal MWS while standing in patients with stroke (PwS) and healthy controls (HC), evaluated MWS towards the affected and the non-affected side for PwS and correlated MWS with measures of balance, gait and fear of falling. In a cross-sectional observational study including 36 ambulatory sub-acute inpatients and 32 age-matched HC, a force platform (BioRescue, RM Ingénierie, France) was used to measure lateral and diagonal MWS in standing. Clinical outcome measures collected were Berg Balance Scale and Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CBMS) for balance, 10-meter walk test (10MWT) for gait speed and Falls Efficacy Scale-international version for fear of falling. MWS for PwS towards the affected side was significantly smaller compared to HC (lateral: p = 0.029; diagonal-forward: p = 0.000). MWS for PwS was also significantly reduced towards the affected side in the diagonal-forward direction (p = 0.019) compared to the non-affected side of PwS. Strong correlations were found for MWS for PwS in the diagonal-forward direction towards the affected side, and clinical measures of balance (CBMS: r = 0.66) and gait speed (10MWT: r = 0.66). Our study showed that ambulatory sub-acute PwS, in comparison to HC, have decreased ability to shift their body weight diagonally forward in standing towards their affected side. This reduced ability is strongly related to clinical measures of balance and gait speed. Our results suggest that MWS in a diagonal-forward direction should receive attention in

  18. A cross-sectional study comparing lateral and diagonal maximum weight shift in people with stroke and healthy controls and the correlation with balance, gait and fear of falling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha M van Dijk

    Full Text Available Impaired balance is common post stroke and can be assessed by means of force-platforms measuring center of pressure (COP displacements during static standing, or more dynamically during lateral maximum weight shift (MWS. However, activities of daily life also include diagonal MWS and since force platforms are nowadays commercially available, investigating lateral and diagonal MWS in a clinical setting might be feasible and clinically relevant. We investigated lateral and diagonal MWS while standing in patients with stroke (PwS and healthy controls (HC, evaluated MWS towards the affected and the non-affected side for PwS and correlated MWS with measures of balance, gait and fear of falling. In a cross-sectional observational study including 36 ambulatory sub-acute inpatients and 32 age-matched HC, a force platform (BioRescue, RM Ingénierie, France was used to measure lateral and diagonal MWS in standing. Clinical outcome measures collected were Berg Balance Scale and Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CBMS for balance, 10-meter walk test (10MWT for gait speed and Falls Efficacy Scale-international version for fear of falling. MWS for PwS towards the affected side was significantly smaller compared to HC (lateral: p = 0.029; diagonal-forward: p = 0.000. MWS for PwS was also significantly reduced towards the affected side in the diagonal-forward direction (p = 0.019 compared to the non-affected side of PwS. Strong correlations were found for MWS for PwS in the diagonal-forward direction towards the affected side, and clinical measures of balance (CBMS: r = 0.66 and gait speed (10MWT: r = 0.66. Our study showed that ambulatory sub-acute PwS, in comparison to HC, have decreased ability to shift their body weight diagonally forward in standing towards their affected side. This reduced ability is strongly related to clinical measures of balance and gait speed. Our results suggest that MWS in a diagonal-forward direction should receive attention in

  19. A Multiple-Kernel Relevance Vector Machine with Nonlinear Decreasing Inertia Weight PSO for State Prediction of Bearing

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-wei Fei; Yong He

    2015-01-01

    The scientific and accurate prediction for state of bearing is the key to ensure its safe operation. A multiple-kernel relevance vector machine (MkRVM) including RBF kernel and polynomial kernel is proposed for state prediction of bearing in this study; the proportions of RBF kernel and polynomial kernel are determined by a controlled parameter. As the selection of the parameters of the kernel functions and the controlled parameter has a certain influence on the prediction results of MkRVM, n...

  20. Asymmetry of Anticipatory Postural Adjustment During Gait Initiation

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    Hiraoka Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the start tone, the condition of initiating gait with the non-preferred leg indicated by the start tone, and the condition of initiating gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. These findings fail to support the view that the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The lateral displacement of the center of pressure in the period in which shifting the center of pressure to the initial swing phase before initiating gait with the left leg indicated by the external cue was significantly larger than that when initiating gait with the right leg indicated by the external cue, and significantly larger than that when initiating gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. Weight shift to the initial swing side during APA during gait initiation was found to be asymmetrical when choosing the leg in response to an external cue

  1. Effect of Mulligan?s mobilization with movement technique on gait function in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Lim; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] We examined the effectiveness of Mulligan?s mobilization with movement (MWM) technique on spatiotemporal variables of gait in individuals who had a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: Mulligan?s mobilization with movement group (n=12) and ?weight-bearing with placebo? mobilization with movement group (n=12). The subjects in the mobilization with movement group performed 5 sets of 10 glides a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The mo...

  2. Gait analysis in rats with single joint inflammation: influence of experimental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ängeby Möller

    Full Text Available Disability and movement-related pain are major symptoms of joint disease, motivating the development of methods to quantify motor behaviour in rodent joint pain models. We used observational scoring and automated methods to compare weight bearing during locomotion and during standing after single joint inflammation induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (0.12-8.0 mg/mL or carrageenan (0.47-30 mg/mL. Automated gait analysis was based on video capture of prints generated by light projected into the long edge of the floor of a walkway, producing an illuminated image of the contact area of each paw with light intensity reflecting the contact pressure. Weight bearing was calculated as an area-integrated paw pressure, that is, the light intensity of all pixels activated during the contact phase of a paw placement. Automated static weight bearing was measured with the Incapacitance tester. Pharmacological sensitivity of weight-bearing during locomotion was tested in carrageenan-induced monoarthritis by administration of the commonly used analgesics diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen, as well as oxycodone and paracetamol. Observational scoring and automated quantification yielded similar results. We found that the window between control rats and monoarthritic rats was greater during locomotion. The response was more pronounced for inflammation in the ankle as compared to the knee, suggesting a methodological advantage of using this injection site. The effects of both Freund's complete adjuvant and carrageenan were concentration related, but Freund's incomplete adjuvant was found to be as effective as lower, commonly used concentrations of the complete adjuvant. The results show that gait analysis can be an effective method to quantify behavioural effects of single joint inflammation in the rat, sensitive to analgesic treatment.

  3. The effect of frog pressure and downward vertical load on hoof wall weight-bearing and third phalanx displacement in the horse - an in vitro study : research communication

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    A. Olivier

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A shoe was designed to combine the advantages of a reverse shoe and an adjustable heart bar shoe in the treatment of chronic laminitis. This reverse even frog pressure (REFP shoe applies pressure uniformly over a large area of the frog solar surface. Pressure is applied vertically upward parallel to the solar surface of the frog and can be increased or decreased as required. Five clinically healthy horses were humanely euthanased and their dismem-bered forelimbs used in an in vitro study. Frog pressure was measured by strain gauges applied to the ground surface of the carrying tab portion of the shoe. A linear variable distance transducer (LVDT was inserted into a hole drilled in the dorsal hoof wall. The LVDT measured movement of the third phalanx (P3 in a dorsopalmar plane relative to the dorsal hoof wall. The vertical component of hoof wall compression was measured by means of unidirectional strain gauges attached to the toe, quarter and heel of the medial hoof wall of each specimen. The entire limb was mounted vertically in a tensile testing machine and submitted to vertical downward compressive forces of 0 to 2500 Nat a rate of 5 cm/minute. The effects of increasing frog pressure on hoof wall weight-bearing and third phalanx movement within the hoof were determined. Each specimen was tested with the shoe under the following conditions: zero frog pressure; frog pressure used to treat clinical cases of chronic laminitis (7 N-cm; frog pressure clinically painful to the horse as determined prior to euthanasia; frog pressure just alleviating this pain. The specimens were also tested after shoe removal. Total weight-bearing on the hoof wall at zero frog pressure was used as the basis for comparison. Pain-causing and pain-alleviating frog pressures decreased total weight-bearing on the hoof wall (P < 0.05. Frog pressure of 7 N-cm had no statistically significant effect on hoof wall weight-bearing although there was a trend for it to decrease as

  4. Measurements of Weight Bearing Asymmetry Using the Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Board Are Not Reliable for Older Adults and Individuals With Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzo, Derek M; Peters, Denise M; Middleton, Addie; Lanier, Wes; Chain, Rebecca; Barksdale, Brittany; Fritz, Stacy L

    Clinicians and researchers have used bathroom scales, balance performance monitors with feedback, postural scale analysis, and force platforms to evaluate weight bearing asymmetry (WBA). Now video game consoles offer a novel alternative for assessing this construct. By using specialized software, the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board can provide reliable measurements of WBA in healthy, young adults. However, reliability of measurements obtained using only the factory settings to assess WBA in older adults and individuals with stroke has not been established. To determine whether measurements of WBA obtained using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board and default settings are reliable in older adults and individuals with stroke. Weight bearing asymmetry was assessed using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board in 2 groups of participants-individuals older than 65 years (n = 41) and individuals with stroke (n = 41). Participants were given a standardized set of instructions and were not provided auditory or visual feedback. Two trials were performed. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of measure (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC) scores were determined for each group. The ICC for the older adults sample was 0.59 (0.35-0.76) with SEM95 = 6.2% and MDC95 = 8.8%. The ICC for the sample including individuals with stroke was 0.60 (0.47-0.70) with SEM95 = 9.6% and MDC95 = 13.6%. Although measurements of WBA obtained using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board, and its default factory settings, demonstrate moderate reliability in older adults and individuals with stroke, the relatively high associated SEM and MDC values substantially reduce the clinical utility of the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board as an assessment tool for WBA. Weight bearing asymmetry cannot be measured reliably in older adults and individuals with stroke using the Nintendo Wii Fit balance board without the use of specialized software.

  5. Comparison of Findings from Oblique Radiographs of the Raised Limb with Those of the Weight-bearing Limb for Selected Diseases of the Equine Digit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šterc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the radiographic examination of the distal and proximal interphalangeal joints was performed in 43 randomly selected horses. A total of 86 forelimbs were examined. On the forelimbs, dorsolateral-palmaromedial, and dorsomedial-palmarolateral oblique views were performed. The oblique views were performed on raised limbs placed in a navicular block and on weight-bearing limbs placed on a pedestal made at the equine clinic. In total, 688 dorsolateral-palmaromedial and dorsomedial-palmarolateral views were taken. During the evaluation of the radiographs we focused on the detection of signs of degenerative joint disease of the distal and proximal iterphalangeal joints, and the detection of new bone formation in the phalanx regions, not associated with a disease of the distal or proximal interphalangeal joints. Based on the radiographic signs visible on these views, we diagnosed 9 cases of degenerative joint disease of the distal intraphalangeal joint, 13 cases of the degenerative joint disease of the proximal intraphalangeal joint and 21 cases of new bone formation in the phalanx regions. These signs were observed in 253 of 688 oblique views. Positive radiographic findings of the above-mentioned disorders were shown on 127 oblique views of the raised limb placed in the navicular block and 126 oblique views of the weight-bearing limb placed on the pedestal we made. When 128 oblique views of the weight-bearing limb (placed on the pedestal were compared with those of the raised limb (in the navicular block, there were different radiographic findings in three cases only. The differences in detection rates of radiographic signs between different type views showed no statistical significance (p ≥ 0.05. Therefore we assume that the pedestal we made can be routinely used for the radiographic examination of the distal and proximal interphalangeal joints on DL-PM and DM-PL oblique views, as part of pre-purchase examination or diagnosis

  6. Effects of spine loading in a patient with post-decompression lumbar disc herniation: observations using an open weight-bearing MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Niladri Kumar; Sybert, Daryl; Law, Tim; Clark, Brian

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to use an open weight-bearing MRI to identify the effects of different loading conditions on the inter-vertebral anatomy of the lumbar spine in a post-discectomy recurrent lumbar disc herniation patient. A 43-year-old male with a left-sided L5-S1 post-decompression re-herniation underwent MR imaging in three spine-loading conditions: (1) supine, (2) weight-bearing on standing (WB), and (3) WB with 10 % of body mass axial loading (WB + AL) (5 % through each shoulder). A segmentation-based proprietary software was used to calculate and compare linear dimensions, angles and cross sections across the lumbar spine. The L5 vertebrae showed a 4.6 mm posterior shift at L5-S1 in the supine position that changed to an anterior translation >2.0 mm on WB. The spinal canal sagittal thickness at L5-S1 reduced from supine to WB and WB + AL (13.4, 10.6, 9.5 mm) with corresponding increases of 2.4 and 3.5 mm in the L5-S1 disc protrusion with WB and WB + AL, respectively. Change from supine to WB and WB + AL altered the L5-S1 disc heights (10.2, 8.6, 7.0 mm), left L5-S1 foramen heights (12.9, 11.8, 10.9 mm), L5-S1 segmental angles (10.3°, 2.8°, 4.3°), sacral angles (38.5°, 38.3°, 40.3°), L1-L3-L5 angles (161.4°, 157.1°, 155.1°), and the dural sac cross sectional areas (149, 130, 131 mm2). Notably, the adjacent L4-L5 segment demonstrated a retro-listhesis >2.3 mm on WB. We observed that with weight-bearing, measurements indicative of spinal canal narrowing could be detected. These findings suggest that further research is warranted to determine the potential utility of weight-bearing MRI in clinical decision-making.

  7. Biofeedback in Partial Weight Bearing: Usability of Two Different Devices from a Patient’s and Physical Therapist’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Remko; Pisters, Martijn F.; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; de Bie, Rob A.; Wouters, Eveline J.; Stukstette, Mirelle J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Partial weight bearing is frequently instructed by physical therapists in patients after lower-limb trauma or surgery. The use of biofeedback devices seems promising to improve the patient’s compliance with weight-bearing instructions. SmartStep and OpenGo-Science are biofeedback devices that provide real-time feedback. For a successful implementation, usability of the devices is a critical aspect and should be tested from a user’s perspective. Aim To describe the usability from the physical therapists’ and a patients’ perspective of Smartstep and OpenGo-Science to provide feedback on partial weight bearing during supervised rehabilitation of patients after lower-limb trauma or surgery. Methods In a convergent mixed-methods design, qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Usability was subdivided into user performance, satisfaction and acceptability. Patients prescribed with partial weight bearing and their physical therapists were asked to use SmartStep and OpenGo-Science during supervised rehabilitation. Usability was qualitatively tested by a think-aloud method and a semi-structured interview and quantitatively tested by the System-Usability-Scale (SUS) and closed questions. For the qualitative data thematic content analyses were used. Results Nine pairs of physical therapists and their patients participated. The mean SUS scores for patients and physical therapists were for SmartStep 70 and 53, and for OpenGo-Science 79 and 81, respectively. Scores were interpreted with the Curved Grading Scale. The qualitative data showed that there were mixed views and perceptions from patients and physical therapists on satisfaction and acceptability. Conclusion This study gives insight in the usability of two biofeedback devices from the patient’s and physical therapist’s perspective. The overall usability from both perspectives seemed to be acceptable for OpenGo-Science. For SmartStep, overall usability seemed only acceptable from the

  8. Wayside Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Envelope Analysis Paved with Time-Domain Interpolation Resampling and Weighted-Correlation-Coefficient-Guided Stochastic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Envelope spectrum analysis is a simple, effective, and classic method for bearing fault identification. However, in the wayside acoustic health monitoring system, owing to the high relative moving speed between the railway vehicle and the wayside mounted microphone, the recorded signal is embedded with Doppler effect, which brings in shift and expansion of the bearing fault characteristic frequency (FCF. What is more, the background noise is relatively heavy, which makes it difficult to identify the FCF. To solve the two problems, this study introduces solutions for the wayside acoustic fault diagnosis of train bearing based on Doppler effect reduction using the improved time-domain interpolation resampling (TIR method and diagnosis-relevant information enhancement using Weighted-Correlation-Coefficient-Guided Stochastic Resonance (WCCSR method. First, the traditional TIR method is improved by incorporating the original method with kinematic parameter estimation based on time-frequency analysis and curve fitting. Based on the estimated parameters, the Doppler effect is removed using the TIR easily. Second, WCCSR is employed to enhance the diagnosis-relevant period signal component in the obtained Doppler-free signal. Finally, paved with the above two procedures, the local fault is identified using envelope spectrum analysis. Simulated and experimental cases have verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Evaluation and management of crouch gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedem, Paz; Scher, David M

    2016-02-01

    Crouch gait is defined as excessive ankle dorsiflexion, knee and hip flexion during the stance phase. This gait disorder is common among patients with cerebral palsy. The present article brings an up-to-date literature review on the pathoanatomy, natural history, and treatment of this frequent gait abnormality. Hamstrings are often not shortened in patients with crouch. Patella alta must be addressed if surgery is performed. Surgical correction of joint contractures and lever arm dysfunction can be effectively achieved through a single-event multilevel surgery. Crouch gait is a common gait deviation, often seen among ambulatory diplegic and quadriplegic patients, once they reach the pubertal spurt, when weak muscles can no longer support a toe walking pattern because of rapidly increased weight. This form of gait is highly ineffective and might compromise walking ability over time. The anterior knee is overloaded; pain, extensor mechanism failure, and arthritis might develop. Its progressive nature often requires surgical intervention. The cause of crouch gait is multifactorial, and surgery should be tailored to meet the individual's specific anatomic and physiologic abnormalities.

  10. In vivo regulation of the beta-myosin heavy chain gene in soleus muscle of suspended and weight-bearing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, J. M.; Haddad, F.; Qin, A. X.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2000-01-01

    In the weight-bearing hindlimb soleus muscle of the rat, approximately 90% of muscle fibers express the beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC) isoform protein. Hindlimb suspension (HS) causes the MHC isoform population to shift from beta toward the fast MHC isoforms. Our aim was to establish a model to test the hypothesis that this shift in expression is transcriptionally regulated through specific cis elements of the beta-MHC promoter. With the use of a direct gene transfer approach, we determined the activity of different length beta-MHC promoter fragments, linked to a firefly luciferase reporter gene, in soleus muscle of control and HS rats. In weight-bearing rats, the relative luciferase activity of the longest beta-promoter fragment (-3500 bp) was threefold higher than the shorter promoter constructs, which suggests that an enhancer sequence is present in the upstream promoter region. After 1 wk of HS, the reporter activities of the -3500-, -914-, and -408-bp promoter constructs were significantly reduced ( approximately 40%), compared with the control muscles. However, using the -215-bp construct, no differences in promoter activity were observed between HS and control muscles, which indicates that the response to HS in the rodent appears to be regulated within the -408 and -215 bp of the promoter.

  11. Biofeedback for robotic gait rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Gery

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development and increasing acceptance of rehabilitation robots as well as advances in technology allow new forms of therapy for patients with neurological disorders. Robot-assisted gait therapy can increase the training duration and the intensity for the patients while reducing the physical strain for the therapist. Optimal training effects during gait therapy generally depend on appropriate feedback about performance. Compared to manual treadmill therapy, there is a loss of physical interaction between therapist and patient with robotic gait retraining. Thus, it is difficult for the therapist to assess the necessary feedback and instructions. The aim of this study was to define a biofeedback system for a gait training robot and test its usability in subjects without neurological disorders. Methods To provide an overview of biofeedback and motivation methods applied in gait rehabilitation, previous publications and results from our own research are reviewed. A biofeedback method is presented showing how a rehabilitation robot can assess the patients' performance and deliver augmented feedback. For validation, three subjects without neurological disorders walked in a rehabilitation robot for treadmill training. Several training parameters, such as body weight support and treadmill speed, were varied to assess the robustness of the biofeedback calculation to confounding factors. Results The biofeedback values correlated well with the different activity levels of the subjects. Changes in body weight support and treadmill velocity had a minor effect on the biofeedback values. The synchronization of the robot and the treadmill affected the biofeedback values describing the stance phase. Conclusion Robot-aided assessment and feedback can extend and improve robot-aided training devices. The presented method estimates the patients' gait performance with the use of the robot's existing sensors, and displays the resulting biofeedback

  12. Short-term effects of self-mobilization with a strap on pain and range of motion of the wrist joint in patients with dorsal wrist pain when weight bearing through the hand: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Sung-Dae; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Park, Kyue-Nam; Kim, Si-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock

    2013-12-01

    Dorsal wrist pain frequently occurs in weight bearing through the hand in patients with distal radius stress injuries, scaphoid impaction syndrome, and dorsal impingement. To improve the wrist extension motion, joint mobilization has been used. However, there is no report on the effects of mobilization on the range of motion (ROM) and pain onset in patients with dorsal wrist pain when weight bearing through the hand. This study determined the effects of self-mobilization with a strap (SMWS) while weight bearing through the hand on the ROM and force generated at the onset of pain (FGOP) and intensity in the wrist joints of patients with dorsal wrist pain. Fifteen patients (six men, nine women) with dorsal wrist pain during weight bearing through the hand were recruited from a workplace-based work-conditioning center. SMWS was applied during five visits for a 1-week period. Both passive and active wrist extension ROM, FGOP, and pain intensity (PI) while pushing down through the hand were measured before and after SMWS. Passive and active ROM of wrist extension and FGOP increased significantly after the five sessions over 1 week of SMWS (p wrist extension ROM and decrease wrist pain in patients with dorsal wrist pain during weight bearing through the hand. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth hormone, IGF-I, and exercise effects on non-weight-bearing fast muscles of hypophysectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, E. J.; Grindeland, R. E.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Evans, J.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) with or without exercise (ladder climbing) in countering the effects of unweighting on fast muscles of hypophysectomized rats during 10 days of hindlimb suspension were determined. Compared with untreated suspended rats, muscle weights were 16-29% larger in GH-treated and 5-15% larger in IGF-I-treated suspended rats. Exercise alone had no effect on muscle weights. Compared with ambulatory control, the medial gastrocnemius weight in suspended, exercised rats was larger after GH treatment and maintained with IGF-I treatment. The combination of GH or IGF-I plus exercise in suspended rats resulted in an increase in size of each predominant fiber type, i.e., types I, I + IIa and IIa + IIx, in the medial gastrocnemius compared with untreated suspended rats. Normal ambulation or exercise during suspension increased the proportion of fibers expressing embryonic myosin heavy chain in hypophysectomized rats. The phenotype of the medial gastrocnemius was minimally affected by GH, IGF-I, and/or exercise. These results show that there is an IGF-I, as well as a GH, and exercise interactive effect in maintaining medial gastrocnemius fiber size in suspended hypophysectomized rats.

  14. The effects of posterior talar glide and dorsiflexion of the ankle plus mobilization with movement on balance and gait function in patient with chronic stroke: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Lim Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was to evaluate the effects of weight-bearing-based mobilization with movement (WBBMWM on balance and gait in stroke patients. Methods: Thirty stroke patients participated in this study. All individuals were randomly assigned to either WBMWM group (n = 15 or weight-bearing with placebo mobilization with movement group (control, n = 15. Individuals in the WBMWM group were trained for 10 glides of 5 sets a day, 5 times a week during 4 weeks. Furthermore, individuals in the control group were trained for 10 lunges of 5 sets a day, 5 times a week during 4 weeks. All individuals were measured weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT, static balance ability, timed up and go test (TUG, and dynamic gait index (DGI in before and after intervention. Results: The result showed that WBBMWM group and control group had significantly increased in WBLT, postural sway speed, total postural sway path length with eyes open and closed, TUG and DGI (P < 0.05. In particular, the WBMWM group showed significantly greater improvement than control group in WBLT, static balance measures, TUG, and DGI (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Therefore, WBMWM improved ankle range of motion, balance, and gait in stroke patients. These results suggest that WBBMWM is feasible and suitable for individuals with a stroke.

  15. Gait analysis: clinical facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard; Esquenazi, Alberto; Benedetti, Maria G; Desloovere, Kaat

    2016-08-01

    Gait analysis is a well-established tool for the quantitative assessment of gait disturbances providing functional diagnosis, assessment for treatment planning, and monitoring of disease progress. There is a large volume of literature on the research use of gait analysis, but evidence on its clinical routine use supports a favorable cost-benefit ratio in a limited number of conditions. Initially gait analysis was introduced to clinical practice to improve the management of children with cerebral palsy. However, there is good evidence to extend its use to patients with various upper motor neuron diseases, and to lower limb amputation. Thereby, the methodology for properly conducting and interpreting the exam is of paramount relevance. Appropriateness of gait analysis prescription and reliability of data obtained are required in the clinical environment. This paper provides an overview on guidelines for managing a clinical gait analysis service and on the principal clinical domains of its application: cerebral palsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury and lower limb amputation.

  16. Upright MRI measurement of mechanical axis and frontal plane alignment as a new technique: a comparative study with weight bearing full length radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liodakis, Emmanouil; Kenawey, Mohamed; Doxastaki, Iosifina; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl; Hankemeier, Stefan [Medical School Hannover, Department of Trauma Surgery, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the practicality, accuracy, and reliability of upright MR imaging as a new radiation-free technique for the measurement of mechanical axis. We used upright MRI in 15 consecutive patients (30 limbs, 44.7 {+-} 20.6 years old) to measure mechanical axis deviation (MAD), hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, leg length, and all remaining angles of the frontal plane alignment according to Paley (mLPFA, mLDTA, mMPTA, mLDTA, JLCA). The measurements were compared to weight bearing full length radiographs, which are considered to be the standard of reference for planning corrective surgery. FDA-approved medical planning software (MediCAD) was used for the above measurements. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility using mean absolute differences was also calculated for both methods. The correlation coefficient between angles determined with upright MRI and weight bearing full length radiographs was high for mLPFA, mLDTA, mMPTA, mLDTA, and the HKA angle (r > 0.70). Mean interobserver and intraobserver agreements for upright MRI were also very high (r > 0.89). The leg length and the MAD were significantly underestimated by MRI (-3.2 {+-} 2.2 cm, p < 0.001 and -6.2 {+-} 4.4 mm, p = 0.006, respectively). With the exception of underestimation of leg length and MAD, upright MR imaging measurements of the frontal plane angles are precise and produce reliable, reproducible results. (orig.)

  17. Altered knee and ankle kinematics during squatting in those with limited weight-bearing-lunge ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Karli E; Begalle, Rebecca L; Frank, Barnett S; Zinder, Steven M; Padua, Darin A

    2014-01-01

    Ankle-dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM) may influence movement variables that are known to affect anterior cruciate ligament loading, such as knee valgus and knee flexion. To our knowledge, researchers have not studied individuals with limited or normal ankle DF-ROM to investigate the relationship between those factors and the lower extremity movement patterns associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury. To determine, using 2 different measurement techniques, whether knee- and ankle-joint kinematics differ between participants with limited and normal ankle DF-ROM. Cross-sectional study. Sports medicine research laboratory. Forty physically active adults (20 with limited ankle DF-ROM, 20 with normal ankle DF-ROM). Ankle DF-ROM was assessed using 2 techniques: (1) nonweight-bearing ankle DF-ROM with the knee straight, and (2) weight-bearing lunge (WBL). Knee flexion, knee valgus-varus, knee internal-external rotation, and ankle DF displacements were assessed during the overhead-squat, single-legged squat, and jump-landing tasks. Separate 1-way analyses of variance were performed to determine whether differences in knee- and ankle-joint kinematics existed between the normal and limited groups for each assessment. We observed no differences between the normal and limited groups when classifying groups based on nonweight-bearing passive-ankle DF-ROM. However, individuals with greater ankle DF-ROM during the WBL displayed greater knee-flexion and ankle-DF displacement and peak knee flexion during the overhead-squat and single-legged squat tasks. In addition, those individuals also demonstrated greater knee-varus displacement during the single-legged squat. Greater ankle DF-ROM assessed during the WBL was associated with greater knee-flexion and ankle-DF displacement during both squatting tasks as well as greater knee-varus displacement during the single-legged squat. Assessment of ankle DF-ROM using the WBL provided important insight into compensatory

  18. Boosting Discriminant Learners for Gait Recognition Using MPCA Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Lu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a boosted linear discriminant analysis (LDA solution on features extracted by the multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA to enhance gait recognition performance. Three-dimensional gait objects are projected in the MPCA space first to obtain low-dimensional tensorial features. Then, lower-dimensional vectorial features are obtained through discriminative feature selection. These feature vectors are then fed into an LDA-style booster, where several regularized and weakened LDA learners work together to produce a strong learner through a novel feature weighting and sampling process. The LDA learner employs a simple nearest-neighbor classifier with a weighted angle distance measure for classification. The experimental results on the NIST/USF “Gait Challenge” data-sets show that the proposed solution has successfully improved the gait recognition performance and outperformed several state-of-the-art gait recognition algorithms.

  19. Effect of Mulligan’s mobilization with movement technique on gait function in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Lim; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] We examined the effectiveness of Mulligan’s mobilization with movement (MWM) technique on spatiotemporal variables of gait in individuals who had a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: Mulligan’s mobilization with movement group (n=12) and “weight-bearing with placebo” mobilization with movement group (n=12). The subjects in the mobilization with movement group performed 5 sets of 10 glides a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The mobilization with movement technique comprised grade III movements that involved gliding and resting. The control group subjects performed lunges in the same conditions as those of the experimental group. Gait function was measured in terms of spatiotemporal parameters to determine the effect of mobilization with movement. [Results] The mobilization with movement group showed significant improvements in velocity, cadence, stride length, single-support time, and step length of the affected side, and step length and stride length of the non-affected side. Overall, the mobilization with movement group showed significantly greater improvements than the control group in terms of velocity, cadence, and single-support time of the affected side. [Conclusion] Mobilization with movement can be used to improve the gait function of patients recovering from stroke. PMID:27630424

  20. Effect of Mulligan's mobilization with movement technique on gait function in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Lim; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] We examined the effectiveness of Mulligan's mobilization with movement (MWM) technique on spatiotemporal variables of gait in individuals who had a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: Mulligan's mobilization with movement group (n=12) and "weight-bearing with placebo" mobilization with movement group (n=12). The subjects in the mobilization with movement group performed 5 sets of 10 glides a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The mobilization with movement technique comprised grade III movements that involved gliding and resting. The control group subjects performed lunges in the same conditions as those of the experimental group. Gait function was measured in terms of spatiotemporal parameters to determine the effect of mobilization with movement. [Results] The mobilization with movement group showed significant improvements in velocity, cadence, stride length, single-support time, and step length of the affected side, and step length and stride length of the non-affected side. Overall, the mobilization with movement group showed significantly greater improvements than the control group in terms of velocity, cadence, and single-support time of the affected side. [Conclusion] Mobilization with movement can be used to improve the gait function of patients recovering from stroke.

  1. Despite a high prevalence of menstrual disorders, bone health is improved at a weight-bearing bone site in world-class female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïmoun, Laurent; Coste, Olivier; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Mahadea, Krishna Kunal; Tsouka, Alexandra; Mura, Thibault; Philibert, Pascal; Gaspari, Laura; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Leglise, Michel; Sultan, Charles

    2013-12-01

    Regular physical activity during puberty improves bone mass acquisition. However, it is unknown whether extreme intense training has the same favorable effect on the skeleton. We evaluated the bone mass acquisition in a unique cohort of world-class rhythmic gymnasts. A total of 133 adolescent girls and young women with a mean age of 18.7 ± 2.7 (14.4-26.7) years participated in this study: 82 elite rhythmic gymnasts (RGs) and 51 controls (CONs). Anthropometric variables and body composition were assessed, and all participants completed questionnaires on their general medical, menstrual, and training histories. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA in decibels per megahertz) was determined by quantitative ultrasound at the heel. RGs presented lower weight (-8.5%, P rhythmic gymnastics appeared to have a beneficial effect on the bone health of a weight-bearing site. This effect was nevertheless modulated by the age of menarche. The high mechanical loading generated by this activity may counterbalance the negative effect of menstrual disorders.

  2. Pioglitazone treatment increases survival and prevents body weight loss in tumor-bearing animals: possible anti-cachectic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beluzi, Mércia; Peres, Sidney B; Henriques, Felipe S; Sertié, Rogério A L; Franco, Felipe O; Santos, Kaltinaitis B; Knobl, Pâmela; Andreotti, Sandra; Shida, Cláudio S; Neves, Rodrigo X; Farmer, Stephen R; Seelaender, Marília; Lima, Fábio B; Batista, Miguel L

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ) was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107) of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control) and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg). Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT) depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group). The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01) when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01) on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05) and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT) was entirely re-established due to

  3. Pioglitazone treatment increases survival and prevents body weight loss in tumor-bearing animals: possible anti-cachectic effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Beluzi

    Full Text Available Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107 of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg. Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group. The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01 when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01 on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05 and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT was entirely re

  4. Recognition using gait.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Mark William

    2007-09-01

    Gait or an individual's manner of walking, is one approach for recognizing people at a distance. Studies in psychophysics and medicine indicate that humans can recognize people by their gait and have found twenty-four different components to gait that taken together make it a unique signature. Besides not requiring close sensor contact, gait also does not necessarily require a cooperative subject. Using video data of people walking in different scenarios and environmental conditions we develop and test an algorithm that uses shape and motion to identify people from their gait. The algorithm uses dynamic time warping to match stored templates against an unknown sequence of silhouettes extracted from a person walking. While results under similar constraints and conditions are very good, the algorithm quickly degrades with varying conditions such as surface and clothing.

  5. How Crouch Gait Can Dynamically Induce Stiff-Knee Gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, M.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Wisse, M.; Doorenbosch, C.A.M.; Harlaar, J.; Collins, S.H.

    Children with cerebral palsy frequently experience foot dragging and tripping during walking due to a lack of adequate knee flexion in swing (stiff-knee gait). Stiff-knee gait is often accompanied by an overly flexed knee during stance (crouch gait). Studies on stiff-knee gait have mostly focused on

  6. How Crouch Gait Can Dynamically Induce Stiff-Knee Gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Krogt, M.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Wisse, M.; Doorenbosch, C.A.M.; Harlaar, J.

    2010-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy frequently experience foot dragging and tripping during walking due to a lack of adequate knee flexion in swing (stiff-knee gait). Stiff-knee gait is often accompanied by an overly flexed knee during stance (crouch gait). Studies on stiff-knee gait have mostly focused on

  7. High Bone Mass is associated with bone-forming features of osteoarthritis in non-weight bearing joints independent of body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, C L; Hardcastle, S A; Murphy, A; Faber, B; Fraser, W D; Williams, M; Davey Smith, G; Tobias, J H

    2017-04-01

    High Bone Mass (HBM) is associated with (a) radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA), partly mediated by increased BMI, and (b) pelvic enthesophytes and hip osteophytes, suggestive of a bone-forming phenotype. We aimed to establish whether HBM is associated with radiographic features of OA in non-weight-bearing (hand) joints, and whether such OA demonstrates a bone-forming phenotype. HBM cases (BMD Z-scores≥+3.2) were compared with family controls. A blinded assessor graded all PA hand radiographs for: osteophytes (0-3), joint space narrowing (JSN) (0-3), subchondral sclerosis (0-1), at the index Distal Interphalangeal Joint (DIPJ) and 1st Carpometacarpal Joint (CMCJ), using an established atlas. Analyses used a random effects logistic regression model, adjusting a priori for age and gender. Mediating roles of BMI and bone turnover markers (BTMs) were explored by further adjustment. 314 HBM cases (mean age 61.1years, 74% female) and 183 controls (54.3years, 46% female) were included. Osteophytes (grade≥1) were more common in HBM (DIPJ: 67% vs. 45%, CMCJ: 69% vs. 50%), with adjusted OR [95% CI] 1.82 [1.11, 2.97], p=0.017 and 1.89 [1.19, 3.01], p=0.007 respectively; no differences were seen in JSN. Further adjustment for BMI failed to attenuate ORs for osteophytes in HBM cases vs. controls; DIPJ 1.72 [1.05, 2.83], p=0.032, CMCJ 1.76 [1.00, 3.06], p=0.049. Adjustment for BTMs (concentrations lower amongst HBM cases) did not attenuate ORs. HBM is positively associated with OA in non-weight-bearing joints, independent of BMI. HBM-associated OA is characterised by osteophytes, consistent with a bone-forming phenotype, rather than JSN reflecting cartilage loss. Systemic factors (e.g. genetic architecture) which govern HBM may also increase bone-forming OA risk. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gait abnormalities following slipped capital femoral epiphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kit M; Halliday, Suzanne; Reilly, Chris; Keezel, William

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluated 30 subjects with treated unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis and a range of severity from mild to severe to characterize gait and strength abnormalities using instrumented three-dimensional gait analysis and isokinetic muscle testing. For slip angles less than 30 degrees, kinematic, kinetic, and strength variables were not significantly different from age- and weight-matched controls. For moderate to severe slips, as slip angle increased, passive hip flexion, hip abduction, and internal rotation in the flexed and extended positions decreased significantly. Persistent pelvic obliquity, medial lateral trunk sway, and trunk obliquity in stance increased, as did extension, adduction, and external rotation during gait. Gait velocity and step length decreased with increased amount of time spent in double limb stance. Hip abductor moment, hip extension moment, knee flexion moment, and ankle dorsiflexion moment were all decreased on the involved side. Hip and knee strength also decreased with increasing slip severity. All of these changes were present on the affected and to a lesser degree the unaffected side. Body center of mass translation or pelvic obliquity in mid-stance greater than one standard deviation above normal correlated well with the impression of compensated or uncompensated Trendelenburg gait.

  9. Gait Symmetry in Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Chester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies examining gait asymmetry have focused on infants and toddlers and have tended to use subjective methods of evaluating movement. No previous studies have examined gait symmetry in older children with autism using objective motion capture systems. The purpose of this paper was to quantify gait symmetry in children with autism versus age-matched controls. Fourteen children with autism (N=14 and twenty-two (N=22 age, height, and weight-matched controls participated in the study. An eight camera Vicon motion capture system and four Kistler force plates were used to compute temporal-spatial parameters and symmetry indices during walking. Group differences in these measures were tested using MANOVAs. No significant differences between the autism and control group were found for any of the temporal-spatial measures or symmetry indices. Therefore, results suggest that children with autism demonstrate typical symmetry or interlimb movement during gait. Further research is needed to examine the use of different gait inputs to the symmetry indices (e.g., joint angles and moments. A greater awareness of the movement patterns associated with autism may increase our understanding of this disorder and have important implications for treatment planning.

  10. In vivo evaluation of the bond strength of adhesive 4-META/MMA-TBB bone cement under weight-bearing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T; Morita, S; Shinomiya, K i; Watanabe, A; Nakabayashi, N; Ishihara, K

    2000-10-01

    In order to minimize the problems associated with implant fixation using acrylic bone cement, we studied a new adhesive bone cement that consists of 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydryde (4-META) and methylmethacrylate (MMA) as monomers, tri-n-butylborane (TBB) as an initiator, and PMMA powder (4-META/MMA-TBB cement). It shows remarkable adhesive properties to metal and bone in vitro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the strength of the bond of the cement to both metal and bone in vivo under weight-bearing conditions. Metal prostheses were implanted in the right femora of 12 rabbits using either adhesive 4-META/MMA-TBB cement or the conventional PMMA cement, as the control, for fixation. After 4 and 12 weeks, both femora were excised and the same operations were performed in the left femora in vitro. Eighteen femora were sectioned for the mechanical assessment of the bone-cement and cement-implant interfaces. 4-META/MMA-TBB cement had a significantly higher interfacial shear strength than the conventional PMMA cement: 201 N and 90 N, on average, for the implant-cement interface (pMMA-TBB cement in providing greater fixation of implants to bone and promise a firmer intramedullary fixation than the control conventional PMMA cement. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Image-based compensation for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm cone-beam CT scanning of knees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unberath, Mathias; Choi, Jang-Hwan; Berger, Martin; Maier, Andreas; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    We previously introduced four fiducial marker-based strategies to compensate for involuntary knee-joint motion during weight-bearing C-arm CT scanning of the lower body. 2D methods showed significant reduction of motion- related artifacts, but 3D methods worked best. However, previous methods led to increased examination times and patient discomfort caused by the marker attachment process. Moreover, sub-optimal marker placement may lead to decreased marker detectability and therefore unstable motion estimates. In order to reduce overall patient discomfort, we developed a new image-based 2D projection shifting method. A C-arm cone-beam CT system was used to acquire projection images of five healthy volunteers at various flexion angles. Projection matrices for the horizontal scanning trajectory were calibrated using the Siemens standard PDS-2 phantom. The initial reconstruction was forward projected using maximum-intensity projections (MIP), yielding an estimate of a static scan. This estimate was then used to obtain the 2D projection shifts via registration. For the scan with the most motion, the proposed method reproduced the marker-based results with a mean error of 2.90 mm +/- 1.43 mm (compared to a mean error of 4.10 mm +/- 3.03 mm in the uncorrected case). Bone contour surrounding modeling clay layer was improved. The proposed method is a first step towards automatic image-based, marker-free motion-compensation.

  12. Gait assessment system based on novel gait variability measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchen; Ristic-Durrant, Danijela; Spranger, Matthias; Graser, Axel

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a novel gait assessment system based on measures of gait variability reflected through the variability of shapes of gait cycles trajectories is proposed. The presented gait assessment system is based on SVM (support vector machine) classifier and on gait variability-based features calculated from the hip and knee joint angle trajectories recorded using wearable IMUs during walking trials. A system classifier was trained to distinguish healthy gait patterns from the pathological ones. The features were extracted by calculating the distances between the joint trajectories of the individual gait cycles using 4 different distance functions. As result, the system is able to provide a Gait Variability Index (GVI), which is a numeric value that can be used as an indicator of a degree to which a pathological gait pattern is close to a healthy gait pattern. The system and GVI were tested in three experiments, involving subjects suffering from gait disorders caused by different neurological diseases. The results demonstrated that the proposed gait assessment system would be suitable for supporting clinicians in the evaluation of gait performances during the gait rehabilitation procedures.

  13. Preserved gait kinematics during controlled body unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awai, L; Franz, M; Easthope, C S; Vallery, H; Curt, A; Bolliger, M

    2017-04-04

    Body weight supported locomotor training was shown to improve walking function in neurological patients and is often performed on a treadmill. However, walking on a treadmill does not mimic natural walking for several reasons: absent self-initiation, less active retraction of leg required and altered afferent input. The superiority of overground training has been suggested in humans and was shown in rats demonstrating greater plasticity especially in descending pathways compared to treadmill training. We therefore developed a body weight support system allowing unrestricted overground walking with minimal interfering forces to train neurological patients. The present study investigated the influence of different amounts of body weight support on gait in healthy individuals. Kinematic and electromyographic data of 19 healthy individuals were recorded during overground walking at different levels of body weight support (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%). Upper body inclination, lower body joint angles and multi-joint coordination as well as time-distance parameters were calculated. Continuous data were analyzed with regard to distinct changes within a gait cycle across all unloading conditions. Temporal gait parameters were most sensitive to changes in body unloading while spatial variables (step length, joint angles) showed modest responses when unloaded by as much as 50% body weight. The activation of the gastrocnemius muscle showed a gradual decrease with increasing unloading while the biceps femoris muscle showed increased activity levels at 50% unloading. These changes occurred during stance phase while swing phase activity remained unaltered. Healthy individuals were able to keep their walking kinematics strikingly constant even when unloaded by half of their body weight, suggesting that the weight support system permits a physiological gait pattern. However, maintaining a given walking speed using close-to-normal kinematics while being unloaded was achieved by

  14. Spatio-temporal gait disorder and gait fatigue index in a six-minute walk test in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Jimenez, Jose; Latorre-Roman, Pedro; Santos-Campos, Maria; Orantes-Gonzalez, Eva; Soto-Hermoso, Victor M

    2016-03-01

    Gait disorders in fibromyalgia patients affect several gait parameters and different muscle recruitment patterns. The aim of this study was to assess the gait differences observed during a six-minute walk test between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls. Forty-eight women with fibromyalgia and 15 healthy women were evaluated. Fibromyalgia patients met the American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia selected of an ambulatory care. Both patients and controls had a negative history of musculoskeletal disease, neurological disorders, and gait abnormalities. The 15 controls were healthy women matched to the patients in age, height and body weight. Spatio-temporal gait variables and the rate of perceived exertion during the six-minute walk test (all subjects) and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (fibromyalgia subjects) were evaluated. All walking sets on the GaitRITE were collected and the gait variables were selected at three stages during the six-minute walk test: two sets at the beginning, two sets at 3 min and two sets at the end of the test. In addition, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire was used for the fibromyalgia patients. Fibromyalgia patients showed a significant decrease in all spatio-temporal gait variables at each of the three stages and had a lower walk distance covered in the six-minute walk test and higher rate of perceived exertion. No correlations were found between the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and gait variables. The fibromyalgia and control subjects showed lower gait fatigue indices between the middle and last stages. Gait analysis during a six-minute walk test is a good tool to assess the fatigue and physical symptoms of patients with fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gait analysis using wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications.

  16. Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutian Feng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications.

  17. Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications. PMID:22438763

  18. Gait rehabilitation machines based on programmable footplates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhardt Rolf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait restoration is an integral part of rehabilitation of brain lesioned patients. Modern concepts favour a task-specific repetitive approach, i.e. who wants to regain walking has to walk, while tone-inhibiting and gait preparatory manoeuvres had dominated therapy before. Following the first mobilization out of the bed, the wheelchair-bound patient should have the possibility to practise complex gait cycles as soon as possible. Steps in this direction were treadmill training with partial body weight support and most recently gait machines enabling the repetitive training of even surface gait and even of stair climbing. Results With treadmill training harness-secured and partially relieved wheelchair-mobilised patients could practise up to 1000 steps per session for the first time. Controlled trials in stroke and SCI patients, however, failed to show a superior result when compared to walking exercise on the floor. Most likely explanation was the effort for the therapists, e.g. manually setting the paretic limbs during the swing phase resulting in a too little gait intensity. The next steps were gait machines, either consisting of a powered exoskeleton and a treadmill (Lokomat, AutoAmbulator or an electromechanical solution with the harness secured patient placed on movable foot plates (Gait Trainer GT I. For the latter, a large multi-centre trial with 155 non-ambulatory stroke patients (DEGAS revealed a superior gait ability and competence in basic activities of living in the experimental group. The HapticWalker continued the end effector concept of movable foot plates, now fully programmable and equipped with 6 DOF force sensors. This device for the first time enables training of arbitrary walking situations, hence not only the simulation of floor walking but also for example of stair climbing and perturbations. Conclusion Locomotor therapy is a fascinating new tool in rehabilitation, which is in line with modern principles

  19. Foot lengthening and shortening during gait: a parameter to investigate foot function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolwijk, N M; Koenraadt, K L M; Louwerens, J W K; Grim, D; Duysens, J; Keijsers, N L W

    2014-02-01

    Based on the windlass mechanism theory of Hicks, the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) flattens during weight bearing. Simultaneously, foot lengthening is expected. However, changes in foot length during gait and the influence of walking speed has not been investigated yet. The foot length and MLA angle of 34 healthy subjects (18 males, 16 females) at 3 velocities (preferred, low (preferred -0.4 m/s) and fast (preferred +0.4 m/s) speed were investigated with a 3D motion analysis system (VICON(®)). The MLA angle was calculated as the angle between the second metatarsal head, the navicular tuberculum and the heel in the local sagittal plane. Foot length was calculated as the distance between the marker at the heel and the 2nd metatarsal head. A General Linear Model for repeated measures was used to indicate significant differences in MLA angle and foot length between different walking speeds. The foot lengthened during the weight acceptance phase of gait and shortened during propulsion. With increased walking speed, the foot elongated less after heel strike and shortened more during push off. The MLA angle and foot length curve were similar, except between 50% and 80% of the stance phase in which the MLA increases whereas the foot length showed a slight decrease. Foot length seems to represent the Hicks mechanism in the foot and the ability of the foot to bear weight. At higher speeds, the foot becomes relatively stiffer, presumably to act as a lever arm to provide extra propulsion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Soap-bubble Optimization of Gaits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Suresh; Hatton, Ross

    We present a geometric gait optimizer that applies Lie bracket theory to identify optimal cost-of-transport (displacement divided by effort) gaits. This optimizer builds on our previous work, where we have shown that for drag-dominated systems, the efficiency of a gait corresponds to a ratio between ``metric-weighted perimeter length of the cycle and the area integral of the Lie bracket it encloses. In this work, we encode this geometric insight into a variational gait optimizer. For a system with two shape variables, the dynamics of this optimizer are similar to the dynamics of a soap bubble, with the Lie bracket providing internal pressure which causes the boundary of the bubble to expand, the metric-weighted path length providing surface tension constraining the growth of the soap bubble, and a pace-balancing term corresponding to the concentration gradient that evenly distributes soap across the surface of the bubble. In systems with three shape variables, the dynamics are more akin to a windsock, capturing maximum flux through a loop. The variational form of the optimizer allows us to extend it to higher dimensional shape spaces beyond these physical analogies.

  1. Gait Variability and Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Socie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gait variability, that is, fluctuations in movement during walking, is an indicator of walking function and has been associated with various adverse outcomes such as falls. In this paper, current research concerning gait variability in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS is discussed. It is well established that persons with MS have greater gait variability compared to age and gender matched controls without MS. The reasons for the increase in gait variability are not completely understood. Evidence indicates that disability level, assistive device use, attentional requirement, and fatigue are related to gait variability in persons with MS. Future research should address the time-evolving structure (i.e., temporal characteristics of gait variability, the clinical importance of gait variability, and underlying mechanisms that drive gait variability in individuals with MS.

  2. Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hutian Feng; Rencheng Zheng; Tao Liu; Weijun Tao

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phas...

  3. Effect of Dynamic Platform Lateral Step-Up versus Stable Platform Lateral Step-Up Weight Bearing Exercise in Hip Abductor Strengthening on Healthy Male Volunteers - Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagatheesan Alagesan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective & Background: To determine the effect of the dynamic platform lateral step-up and stable platform lateral step-up weight bearing standing exercise in strengthening of hip abductor. Many researchers have reported that strengthening of hip muscles as important component especially hip abductors in lower extremity rehabilitation program. Study Design: Single blinded randomized comparative clinical trial. Methodology: Sixty five healthy college going male subjects (Age group of 18 – 24 years volunteered for this study. They were randomly assigned to one of the 2 groups. One group received the dynamic platform lateral step-up and the other received stable platform lateral step-up weight bearing standing exercise. The strength measurements were recorded using hand held dynamometer. Results: The results indicate that both groups had a positive effect on the outcome measures. The strength of hip abductors in dynamic platform group improved from a mean value (SD of 19.47(3.59 to 26.93(3.19 and in stable platform group from 19.07(2.32 to 22.67(2.46. Significant difference is also observed between the two groups at p value .05. Conclusion: The study shows that dynamic platform lateral step-up exercise is more beneficial than stable platform lateral step-up weight bearing standing exercise in improving hip abductor muscle strength.

  4. Gait as evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2014-01-01

    This study examines what in Denmark may constitute evidence based on forensic anthropological gait analyses, in the sense of pointing to a match (or not) between a perpetrator and a suspect, based on video and photographic imagery. Gait and anthropometric measures can be used when direct facial...... comparison is not possible because of perpetrators masking their faces. The nature of judicial and natural scientific forms of evidence is discussed, and rulings dealing with the admissibility of video footage and forensic evidence in general are given. Technical issues of video materials are discussed......, and the study also discusses how such evidence may be presented, both in written statements and in court....

  5. Journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  6. Reliability, validity, and minimal detectable change of the push-off test scores in assessing upper extremity weight-bearing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh P; George, Hannah R; Goering, Christian A; Shafer, Danielle R; Koester, Alan; Novotny, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Clinical measurement study. The push-off test (POT) was recently conceived and found to be reliable and valid for assessing weight bearing through injured wrist or elbow. However, further research with larger sample can lend credence to the preliminary findings supporting the use of the POT. This study examined the interrater reliability, construct validity, and measurement error for the POT in patients with wrist conditions. Participants with musculoskeletal (MSK) wrist conditions were recruited. The performance on the POT, grip isometric strength of wrist extensors was assessed. The shortened version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and numeric pain rating scale were completed. The intraclass correlation coefficient assessed interrater reliability of the POT. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) examined the concurrent relationships between the POT and other measures. The standard error of measurement and the minimal detectable change at 90% confidence interval were assessed as measurement error and index of true change for the POT. A total of 50 participants with different elbow or wrist conditions (age: 48.1 ± 16.6 years) were included in this study. The results of this study strongly supported the interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.96 and 0.93 for the affected and unaffected sides, respectively) of the POT in patients with wrist MSK conditions. The POT showed convergent relationships with the grip strength on the injured side (r = 0.89) and the wrist extensor strength (r = 0.7). The POT showed smaller standard error of measurement (1.9 kg). The minimal detectable change at 90% confidence interval for the POT was 4.4 kg for the sample. This study provides additional evidence to support the reliability and validity of the POT. This is the first study that provides the values for the measurement error and true change on the POT scores in patients with wrist MSK conditions. Further research should examine the

  7. Association between bone stiffness and nutritional biomarkers combined with weight-bearing exercise, physical activity, and sedentary time in preadolescent children. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Diana; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Gianfagna, Francesco; Konstabel, Kenn; Lissner, Lauren; Mårild, Staffan; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Siani, Alfonso; Sioen, Isabelle; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity (PA) and micronutrients such as calcium (Ca), vitamin D (25OHD), and phosphate (PO) are important determinants of skeletal development. This case-control study examined the association of these nutritional biomarkers and different PA behaviours, such as habitual PA, weight-bearing exercise (WBE) and sedentary time (SED) with bone stiffness (SI) in 1819 2-9-year-old children from the IDEFICS study (2007-2008). SI was measured on the calcaneus using quantitative ultrasound. Serum and urine Ca and PO and serum 25OHD were determined. Children's sports activities were reported by parents using a standardised questionnaire. A subsample of 1089 children had accelerometer-based PA data (counts per minute, cpm). Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and SED were estimated. Children with poor SI (below the 15th age-/sex-/height-specific percentile) were defined as cases (N=603). Randomly selected controls (N=1216) were matched by age, sex, and country. Odds ratios (OR) for poor SI were calculated by conditional logistic regression for all biomarkers and PA behaviour variables separately and combined (expressed as tertiles and dichotomised variables, respectively). ORs were adjusted for fat-free mass, dairy product consumption, and daylight duration. We observed increased ORs for no sports (OR=1.39, p<0.05), PA levels below 524 cpm (OR=1.85, p<0.05) and MVPA below 4.2% a day (OR=1.69, p<0.05) compared to WBE, high PA levels (<688 cpm) and high MVPA (6.7%), respectively. SED was not associated with SI. ORs were moderately elevated for low serum Ca and 25OHD. However, biomarkers were not statistically significantly associated with SI and did not modify the association between PA behaviours and SI. Although nutritional biomarkers appear to play a minor role compared to the osteogenic effect of PA and WBE, it is noteworthy that the highest risk for poor SI was observed for no sports or low MVPA combined with lower serum Ca (<2.5 mmol/l) or lower 25OHD (<43.0 nmol

  8. Effects of weight-bearing exercise on a mini-trampoline on foot mobility, plantar pressure and sensation of diabetic neuropathic feet; a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanasamut, Wararom; Pensri, Praneet

    2017-01-01

    Objective : Foot and ankle exercise has been advocated as a preventative approach in reducing the risk of foot ulceration. However, knowledge about the appropriate types and intensity of exercise program for diabetic foot ulcer prevention is still limited. The current study aimed to examine the effects of an eight-week mini-trampoline exercise on improving foot mobility, plantar pressure and sensation of diabetic neuropathic feet. Methods : Twenty-one people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy who had impaired sensation perception were divided into two groups. The exercise group received a foot-care education program plus an eight-week home exercise program using the mini-trampoline ( n  = 11); whereas a control group received a foot-care education only ( n  = 10). Measurements were undertaken at the beginning, at the completion of the eight-week program and at a 20-week follow-up. Results : Both groups were similar prior to the study. Subjects in the exercise group significantly increased the range of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in flexion (left: p  = 0.040, right: p  = 0.012) and extension (left: p  = 0.013) of both feet more than controlled subjects. There was a trend for peak plantar pressure at the medial forefoot to decrease in the exercise group ( p  = 0.016), but not in the control group. At week 20, the number of subjects in the exercise group who improved their vibration perception in their feet notably increased when compared to the control group (left: p  = 0.043; right: p  = 0.004). Conclusions : This is a preliminary study to document the improvements in foot mobility, plantar pressure and sensation following weight-bearing exercise on a flexible surface in people with diabetic neuropathic feet. Mini-trampoline exercise may be used as an adjunct to other interventions to reduce risk of foot ulceration. A larger sample size is needed to verify these findings. This trial is registered with COA No. 097.2/55.

  9. Gait Deviation Index, Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and Gait Profile Score (GPS) are the most used summary measures of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, the reliability and agreement of these indices have not been investigated, limiting their clinimetric quality for research and clinical...... practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability and agreement of summary measures of gait (GDI; GPS; and the Gait Variable Score (GVS) derived from the GPS). The intra-rater reliability and agreement were investigated across two repeated sessions in 18 children aged 5...

  10. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifang Fan

    Full Text Available There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1 in stance phase, there is a significant difference (p<0.01 in the distributions of VGRF of plantar; (2 in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (p<0.01 in the rate of change of footprint area. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension to the flat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  11. Effects of the addition of functional electrical stimulation to ground level gait training with body weight support after chronic stroke Efeitos da adição da estimulação elétrica funcional ao treino de marcha em piso fixo com suporte parcial de peso após acidente vascular encefálico crônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane L. Prado-Medeiros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The addition of functional electrical stimulation (FES to treadmill gait training with partial body weight support (BWS has been proposed as a strategy to facilitate gait training in people with hemiparesis. However, there is a lack of studies that evaluate the effectiveness of FES addition on ground level gait training with BWS, which is the most common locomotion surface. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the additional effects of commum peroneal nerve FES combined with gait training and BWS on ground level, on spatial-temporal gait parameters, segmental angles, and motor function. METHODS: Twelve people with chronic hemiparesis participated in the study. An A1-B-A2 design was applied. A1 and A2 corresponded to ground level gait training using BWS, and B corresponded to the same training with the addition of FES. The assessments were performed using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS, Functional Ambulation Category (FAC, Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA, and filming. The kinematics analyzed variables were mean walking speed of locomotion; step length; stride length, speed and duration; initial and final double support duration; single-limb support duration; swing period; range of motion (ROM, maximum and minimum angles of foot, leg, thigh, and trunk segments. RESULTS: There were not changes between phases for the functional assessment of RMA, for the spatial-temporal gait variables and segmental angles, no changes were observed after the addition of FES. CONCLUSION: The use of FES on ground level gait training with BWS did not provide additional benefits for all assessed parameters.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A adição da estimulação elétrica funcional (EEF ao treino de marcha em esteira, com sistema de suporte parcial de peso corporal (SPPC, tem sido proposta como estratégia para melhorar a marcha em hemiparéticos. Entretanto, nenhum estudo verificou a eficácia da adição da EEF ao treino de marcha com SPPC em piso fixo, a superfície mais

  12. Grizzly bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  13. Assessment of motion of a swing leg and gait rehabilitation with a gravity balancing exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sunil K; Banala, Sai K; Fattah, Abbas; Sangwan, Vivek; Krishnamoorthy, Vijaya; Scholz, John P; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2007-09-01

    The gravity balancing exoskeleton, designed at University of Delaware, Newark, consists of rigid links, joints and springs, which are adjustable to the geometry and inertia of the leg of a human subject wearing it. This passive exoskeleton does not use any motors but is designed to unload the human leg joints from the gravity load over its range-of-motion. The underlying principle of gravity balancing is to make the potential energy of the combined leg-machine system invariant with configuration of the leg. Additionally, parameters of the exoskeleton can be changed to achieve a prescribed level of gravity assistance, from 0% to 100%. The goal of the results reported in this paper is to provide preliminary quantitative assessment of the changes in kinematics and kinetics of the walking gait when a human subject wears such an exoskeleton. The data on kinematics and kinetics were collected on four healthy and three stroke patients who wore this exoskeleton. These data were computed from the joint encoders and interface torque sensors mounted on the exoskeleton. This exoskeleton was also recently used for a six-week training of a chronic stroke patient, where the gravity assistance was progressively reduced from 100% to 0%. The results show a significant improvement in gait of the stroke patient in terms of range-of-motion of the hip and knee, weight bearing on the hemiparetic leg, and speed of walking. Currently, training studies are underway to assess the long-term effects of such a device on gait rehabilitation of hemiparetic stroke patients.

  14. Fusion of gait and fingerprint for user authentication on mobile devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derawi, Mohammad; Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    A new multi-modal biometric authentication approach using gait signals and fingerprint images as biometric traits is proposed. The individual comparison scores derived from the gait and fingers are normalized using four methods (min-max, z-score, median absolute deviation, tangent hyperbolic......) and then four fusion approaches (simple sum, user-weighting, maximum score and minimum core) are applied. Gait samples are obtained by using a dedicated accelerometer sensor attached to the hip. The proposed method is evaluated using 7200 fingerprint images and gait samples. Fingerprints are collected...

  15. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-05-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  16. Effects of robot-assisted gait training on spatiotemporal gait parameters and balance in patients with chronic stroke: A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Dae-Hyouk; Shin, Won-Seob

    2016-04-06

    Body weight-supported treadmill training assisted by a robotic gait orthosis is a helpful tool for restoring a symmetrical gait pattern in people with gait discrepancies. This study's aim was to compare the effects of robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) versus treadmill gait training (TGT) on spatiotemporal gait parameters, balance, and activities-specific balance confidence with stroke patients. Eighteen participants with stroke were randomly assigned to RAGT or TGT. Each group underwent twenty sessions (1 h/d, 5 d/wk for 4 weeks). Patients were assessed with gait parameters (gait speed, cadence, step length, and double limb support period) using the GAITRite, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score, and the activities-specific balance confidence (ABC) score before and after the intervention. Gait speed (P = 0.003), cadence (P = 0.002), step length (P = 0.004), the BBS score (P = 0.048), and the ABC score (P = 0.017) were significantly higher in the RAGT group than in the TGT group, while the double limb support period was significantly lower in the RAGT group (P = 0.043). RAGT using Lokomat may be more effective than TGT in improving waking ability, balance, and balance confidence in patients with chronic stroke.

  17. Increased treatment durations lead to greater improvements in non-weight bearing dorsiflexion range of motion for asymptomatic individuals immediately following an anteroposterior grade IV mobilisation of the talus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Christopher James; Campbell, Kevin; Hutt, Kim

    2015-08-01

    Manual therapy aims to minimise pain and restore joint mobility and function. Joint mobilisations are integral to these techniques, with anteroposterior (AP) talocrural joint mobilisations purported to increase dorsiflexion range of motion (DF-ROM). This study aimed to determine whether different treatment durations of single grade IV anteroposterior talocrural joint mobilisations elicit statistically significant differences in DF-ROM. Sixteen asymptomatic male football players (age = 27.1 ± 5.3 years) participated in the study. Non-weight bearing (NWB) and weight bearing (WB) DF-ROM was measured before and after 4 randomised treatment conditions: control treatment, 30 s, 1 min, 2 min. NWB DF-ROM was measured using a universal goniometer, and WB DF-ROM using the weight-bearing lunge test. A within-subjects design was employed so that all participants received each of the treatment conditions. A 4 × 4 balanced Latin square design and 1 week interval between sessions reduced any residual effects. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant improvement in DF-ROM following all AP mobilisation treatments (p < 0.001). The within subjects contrasts showed that increases in treatment duration was associated with statistically significant improvements in DF-ROM (NWB DF-ROM control = 0.01%, 30 s = 14.2%, 1 min = 21.6%, 2 min = 32.8%; WB DF-ROM control = 0.01%, 30 s = 5.0%, 1 min = 7.6%, 2 min = 10.9%; p < 0.05). However, WB DF-ROM improvements were below the minimal detectable change scores needed to conclude that improvements were not a consequence of measurement error. This research shows that single session mobilisations can elicit NWB DF-ROM improvements in asymptomatic individuals in the absence of pain, whilst increases in treatment duration confer greater improvements in NWB DF-ROM within this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic Algorithm based Gait Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    R.Ashok Kumar Reddy; G. Venkata Narasimhulu; Dr. S. A. K. Jilani; Dr D.Seshappa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a face/gait recognition system for personal identification and verification using genetic algorithm. This face/gait Recognition System (FRS/GRS) is also being trained for gender identification. The Face/Gait recognition system consists of three steps. At the very outset some pre-processing are applied on the input image. Secondly face/gait features are extracted, which will be taken as the input of the BPNN and genetic algorithm (GA) in the third step and classification is carr...

  19. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen; Huu-Hung Huynh; Jean Meunier

    2016-01-01

    Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton) in time series. ...

  20. Gait Recognition and Walking Exercise Intensity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shing Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular patients consult doctors for advice regarding regular exercise, whereas obese patients must self-manage their weight. Because a system for permanently monitoring and tracking patients’ exercise intensities and workouts is necessary, a system for recognizing gait and estimating walking exercise intensity was proposed. For gait recognition analysis, αβ filters were used to improve the recognition of athletic attitude. Furthermore, empirical mode decomposition (EMD was used to filter the noise of patients’ attitude to acquire the Fourier transform energy spectrum. Linear discriminant analysis was then applied to this energy spectrum for training and recognition. When the gait or motion was recognized, the walking exercise intensity was estimated. In addition, this study addressed the correlation between inertia and exercise intensity by using the residual function of the EMD and quadratic approximation to filter the effect of the baseline drift integral of the acceleration sensor. The increase in the determination coefficient of the regression equation from 0.55 to 0.81 proved that the accuracy of the method for estimating walking exercise intensity proposed by Kurihara was improved in this study.

  1. Gait disorder in spasticity and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, V

    2001-01-01

    The central programming, timing, and reciprocal mode of leg muscle activation during gait are basically intact in patients with spastic paresis. Exaggerated monosynaptic reflexes are associated with a loss of the functionally essential polysynaptic reflex mechanisms, both being dependent on supraspinal control. When this control is either not yet matured (small children) or impaired (spastic paresis), inhibition of monosynaptic stretch reflexes is missing in combination with a reduced facilitation of polysynaptic reflexes. A spinal or cerebral lesion associated with paresis is followed by a transformation of motor units (and most probably shortening of muscle fibers leading to muscle contracture), such that tension development in the muscle occurs in a simpler fashion. Calf muscle tension during gait is normally determined by modulated gastrocnemius or soleus EMG activity. In the spastic leg, calf muscle tension is associated with the stretching of the tonically activated muscle. This regulation of muscle tension at a lower level is efficient insofar as it enables the patient to support body weight during gait. Consequently, physiotherapeutic approaches should be applied primarily and antispastic drug therapy secondarily in mobile patients; whereas antispastic drugs may relieve muscle spasms and improve nursing care in immobilized patients.

  2. Outcome of patients after lower limb fracture with partial weight bearing postoperatively treated with or without anti-gravity treadmill (alter G®) during six weeks of rehabilitation - a protocol of a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkelmann, Ralf; Schneider, Sebastian; Müller, Daniel; Gahr, Ralf; Josten, Christoph; Böhme, Jörg

    2017-03-14

    Partial or complete immobilization leads to different adjustment processes like higher risk of muscle atrophy or a decrease of general performance. The present study is designed to prove efficacy of the anti-gravity treadmill (alter G®) compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol in patients with tibial plateau (group 1)or ankle fractures (group 2) with six weeks of partial weight bearing of 20 kg. This prospective randomized study will include a total of 60 patients for each group according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. 1:1 randomization will be performed centrally via fax supported by the Clinical Trial Centre Leipzig (ZKS Leipzig). Patients in the treatment arm will be treated with an anti-gravity treadmill (alter G®) instead of physiotherapy. The protocol is designed parallel to standard physiotherapy with a frequency of two to three times of training with the treadmill per week with duration of 20 min for six weeks. Up to date no published randomized controlled trial with an anti-gravity treadmill is available. The findings of this study can help to modify rehabilitation of patients with partial weight bearing due to their injury or postoperative protocol. It will deliver interesting results if an anti-gravity treadmill is useful in rehabilitation in those patients. Further ongoing studies will identify different indications for an anti-gravity treadmill. Thus, in connection with those studies, a more valid statement regarding safety and efficacy is possible. NCT02790229 registered on May 29, 2016.

  3. The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions significantly reversed the weight-bearing deficit and the overexpression of CGRP in DRG neurons, GFAP and Iba-1 in the spinal dorsal horn in the monosodium iodoacetate induced model of osteoarthritis pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degang Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is the most prominent and disabling symptom of osteoarthritis (OA. Clinical data suggest that subchondral bone lesions contribute to the occurrence of joint pain. The present study investigated the effect of the inhibition of subchondral bone lesions on joint pain. METHODS: Osteoarthritic pain was induced by an injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA into the rat knee joint. Zoledronic acid (ZOL, a third generation of bisphosphonate, was used to inhibit subchondral bone lesions. Joint histomorphology was evaluated using X-ray micro computed tomography scanning and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The activity of osteoclast in subchondral bone was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Joint pain was evaluated using weight-bearing asymmetry, the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG, and spinal glial activation status using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1 immunofluorescence. Afferent neurons in the DRGs that innervated the joints were identified using retrograde fluorogold labeling. RESULTS: MIA injections induced significant histomorphological alterations and joint pain. The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions by ZOL significantly reduced the MIA-induced weight-bearing deficit and overexpression of CGRP in DRG neurons, GFAP and Iba-1 in the spinal dorsal horn at 3 and 6 weeks after MIA injection; however, joint swelling and synovial reaction were unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions alleviated joint pain. Subchondral bone lesions should be a key target in the management of osteoarthritic joint pain.

  4. Gait analysis in forensic medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter K; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Recordings from video surveillance systems are used as evidence from crime scenes. It would be useful to perform comparisons between disguised perpetrators and suspects based on their gait. We applied functional anatomical and biomechanical knowledge to analyze the gait of perpetrators, as record...

  5. Invariant Classification of Gait Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method of classifying human gait in an invariant manner based on silhouette comparison. A database of artificially generated silhouettes is created representing the three main types of gait, i.e. walking, jogging, and running. Silhouettes generated from different camera angles...

  6. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mobility; appropriate timing of muscle activation across the gait cycle (time between the first contact with the ground by the heel of the one foot and the next heel-ground contact with the same foot); ... for gait include the hip extensors, knee extensors, plantar flexors, ...

  7. During gait with crutches

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Rizo, Enrique; Solís-Mozos, Marta; Belda-Lois, Juan Manuel; Page, Álvaro; Taylor, Julian; Pons, Jose Luis; Gil-Agudo, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic model of the right upper extremity and a Lofstrand crutch in order to analyze joint displacements and loads during crutch-assisted gait. A Lofstrand crutch was instrumented with a six-component load cell to measure forces and moments at the crutch tip. The crutch and the right upper extremity of a subject were instrumented with markers to obtain kinematic data. A biomechanical model based on rigid bodies was imple...

  8. Seismic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    Textron Systems (Textron) has been using geophones for target detection for many years. This sensing capability was utilized for detection and classification purposes only. Recently Textron has been evaluating multiaxis geophones to calculate bearings and track targets more specifically personnel. This capability will not only aid the system in locating personnel in bearing space or cartesian space but also enhance detection and reduce false alarms. Textron has been involved in the testing and evaluation of several sensors at multiple sites. One of the challenges of calculating seismic bearing is an adequate signal to noise ratio. The sensor signal to noise ratio is a function of sensor coupling to the ground, seismic propagation and range to target. The goals of testing at multiple sites are to gain a good understanding of the maximum and minimum ranges for bearing and detection and to exploit that information to tailor sensor system emplacement to achieve desired performance. Test sites include 10A Site Devens, MA, McKenna Airfield Ft. Benning, GA and Yuma Proving Ground Yuma, AZ. Geophone sensors evaluated include a 28 Hz triax spike, a 15 Hz triax spike and a hybrid triax spike consisting of a 10 Hz vertical geophone and two 28 Hz horizontal geophones. The algorithm uses raw seismic data to calculate the bearings. All evaluated sensors have triaxial geophone configuration mounted to a spike housing/fixture. The suite of sensors also compares various types of geophones to evaluate benefits in lower bandwidth. The data products of these tests include raw geophone signals, seismic features, seismic bearings, seismic detection and GPS position truth data. The analyses produce Probability of Detection vs range, bearing accuracy vs range, and seismic feature level vs range. These analysis products are compared across test sites and sensor types.

  9. Immunostimulatory activities of a low molecular weight antitumoral polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill (LMPAB) in Sarcoma 180 ascitic tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ying-Cai; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Zhao, Xue-Mei; Su, Fu-Qin; Cui, Hong-Xia

    2009-07-01

    LMPAB is a linear beta-(1-3)-glucan we isolated from polysaccharide extract of Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM). Effects of LMPAB on splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity, splenocyte proliferation, index of spleen and thymus, IFN-gamma expression in spleen and the concentration of IL-12, IL-18 and TNF-alpha in serum of S180 ascitic tumor-bearing mice were detected. The results showed that intraperitoneal injection of LMPAB (100 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) significantly increased the thymus index. LMPAB augmented splenic NK cell activity in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). The concanavalin A (3 microg/ ml) stimulated splenocyte proliferation was significantly enhanced by LMPAB at dosages of 50, 100 or 200 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1). Further studies showed that LMPAB (50, 100 or 200 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), 14d) significantly increased the production of IL-12, TNF-alpha, IL-18 and the expression IFN-gamma as determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the anti-tumor effects of LMPAB are closely associated with up-regulation of activity of NK cells, expression of IFN-gamma in spleen and the systemic level of IL-12, IL-18 and TNF-alpha in tumor-bearing mice.

  10. `An observational report of intensive robotic and manual gait training in sub-acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conesa Lucas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of automated electromechanical devices for gait training in neurological patients is increasing, yet the functional outcomes of well-defined training programs using these devices and the characteristics of patients that would most benefit are seldom reported in the literature. In an observational study of functional outcomes, we aimed to provide a benchmark for expected change in gait function in early stroke patients, from an intensive inpatient rehabilitation program including both robotic and manual gait training. Methods We followed 103 sub-acute stroke patients who met the clinical inclusion criteria for Body Weight Supported Robotic Gait Training (BWSRGT. Patients completed an intensive 8-week gait-training program comprising robotic gait training (weeks 0-4 followed by manual gait training (weeks 4-8. A change in clinical function was determined by the following assessments taken at 0, 4 and 8 weeks (baseline, mid-point and end-point respectively: Functional Ambulatory Categories (FAC, 10 m Walking Test (10 MWT, and Tinetti Gait and Balance Scales. Results Over half of the patients made a clinically meaningful improvement on the Tinetti Gait Scale (> 3 points and Tinetti Balance Scale (> 5 points, while over 80% of the patients increased at least 1 point on the FAC scale (0-5 and improved walking speed by more than 0.2 m/s. Patients responded positively in gait function regardless of variables gender, age, aetiology (hemorrhagic/ischemic, and affected hemisphere. The most robust and significant change was observed for patients in the FAC categories two and three. The therapy was well tolerated and no patients withdrew for factors related to the type or intensity of training. Conclusions Eight-weeks of intensive rehabilitation including robotic and manual gait training was well tolerated by early stroke patients, and was associated with significant gains in function. Patients with mid-level gait dysfunction

  11. [Foot drop treatment by implantation of a neuroprosthesis (ActiGait®)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, D; Jakubowitz, E; Ettinger, S; Plaass, C; Stukenborg-Colsman, C; Daniilidis, K

    2017-06-01

    Gait improvement by restoring dorsiflexion using a neuroprosthesis implant. Foot drop with damage to the 1st motor neuron; passive mobility in ankle is possible; adult patients. Foot drop with peripheral damage and injury to the peroneal nerve; already implanted stimulators (e.g., defibrillator, pacemaker, or pain stimulator); severe anesthesia risks in multimorbid patients. Surgery in lateral position. Searching for the peroneal nerve after dorsal incision in the popliteal fossa, using the medial edge of the biceps femoris as anatomic landmark. After identification of the motor branch of the peroneal nerve by positive dorsiflexion after using electrostimulation apply the electrode cuff on the nerve. Epifascial implantation of stimulation body lateral at the middle third of the thigh over the tractus iliotibialis. Pain-adapted full weight bearing, no knee flexion more than 90° for 4-6 weeks, activation of neuroprosthesis 3 weeks after surgery, physiotherapy with gait training is required. Between 2013 and 2015, implantation of the neuroprosthesis was performed in 21 patients (13 men/8 women) with chronic foot drop due to a central lesion. Significant improvement in walking speed measured with the 10 meter walk test (11.8 ± 5.4 s to 7.9 s ± 3.4; p = 0.007), in gait endurance with 6 min walk test (212.2 ± 75.5 m to 306.4 ± 96.4 m; p ≤ 0.001), and in gait performance using the Emory Functional Ambulation Profile (105.9 ± 49.7 s to 63.2 ± 31. 3 s; p ≤ 0.001). No patient required surgical revision. Postoperative bleeding was recorded in one case (4%). Patient satisfaction and improvement in mobility and quality of life could be achieved (95% and 90%, respectively).

  12. Comparação entre medidas de descarga, simetria e transferência de peso em indivíduos com e sem hemiparesia Comparison between bearing, symmetry, and transfer weight measurements in subjects with or without hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Fachin Martins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliação da Simetria e Transferência de Peso (ASTP foi indicada para se fazer associação entre simetria e atividades funcionais nas hemiparesias, apontando simétricos como mais capacitados. Contudo, tais relações não são claras e divergem com evidências que sugerem assimetrias como estratégias funcionais. Assim, objetivou-se verificar se as medidas subjetivamente determinadas pela ASTP concordam com medidas calculas pela descarga de peso entre os pés. Realizou-se estudo observacional do tipo transversal para amostra de sujeitos com hemiparesia (n=20 pareados por idade e gênero a controles (n=20. Os participantes submeteram-se a procedimentos para obtenção de escore determinado pela ASTP e para cálculo da razão de simetria (RS na descarga de peso entre os pés obtido por meio de duas balanças digitais. Os resultados obtidos pela ASTP identificaram apenas um sujeito com hemiparesia apresentando simetria, dentre os quatro sujeitos identificados pela RS como simétricos. Ainda, a ASTP não diferenciou assimetrias com sobrecarga para o lado afetado e apresentou correlação significativa somente quando os escores foram analisados com os valores de RSAssessment of symmetry and weight-transfer (ASWT was indicated to relate symmetry and functional activity in the hemiparesis, pointing as the most qualified symmetrical. However, such relationships are not clear and disagree with evidences suggesting asymmetries as strategies for functional strategies. Then, it was proposed to verify the measurements subjectively determined by ASWT agree with measurements calculated by weight-bearing distribution for each foot. It was applied observational study with transversal design for sample of subjects with hemiparesis (n=20 matched by age and gender with controls (n=20. Participants were included in procedures toobtain scores by ASWT and to calculate symmetry ratio (SR in the weight-bearing between feet by digital scales. The results obtained by

  13. Energy Expenditure of Trotting Gait Under Different Gait Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-Bao; Gao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Robots driven by batteries are clean, quiet, and can work indoors or in space. However, the battery endurance is a great problem. A new gait parameter design energy saving strategy to extend the working hours of the quadruped robot is proposed. A dynamic model of the robot is established to estimate and analyze the energy expenditures during trotting. Given a trotting speed, optimal stride frequency and stride length can minimize the energy expenditure. However, the relationship between the speed and the optimal gait parameters is nonlinear, which is difficult for practical application. Therefore, a simplified gait parameter design method for energy saving is proposed. A critical trotting speed of the quadruped robot is found and can be used to decide the gait parameters. When the robot is travelling lower than this speed, it is better to keep a constant stride length and change the cycle period. When the robot is travelling higher than this speed, it is better to keep a constant cycle period and change the stride length. Simulations and experiments on the quadruped robot show that by using the proposed gait parameter design approach, the energy expenditure can be reduced by about 54% compared with the 100 mm stride length under 500 mm/s speed. In general, an energy expenditure model based on the gait parameter of the quadruped robot is built and the trotting gait parameters design approach for energy saving is proposed.

  14. A method to standardize gait and balance variables for gait velocity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.B. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    Many gait and balance variables depend on gait velocity, which seriously hinders the interpretation of gait and balance data derived from walks at different velocities. However, as far as we know there is no widely accepted method to correct for effects of gait velocity on other gait and balance

  15. Intoeing gait in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li; Leong

    1999-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the aetiology and management of intoeing. DATA SOURCES: Medline and non-Medline literature search, and personal experience. STUDY SELECTION: Studies that provided evidence-based information about the aetiology and management of paediatric intoeing gait were selected. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted and reviewed independently by both authors. DATA SYNTHESIS: An intoeing gait affects many children and, as with flexible flatfoot, bowleg, and knock-knee, it falls into the category of physiological problems that occur in normal children. The usual causes are excessive femoral anteversion, internal tibial torsion, and metatarsus adductus. Management is based on understanding the causes and the natural course of the condition and the effectiveness of various treatment modalities. Unfortunately, due to poor understanding of the condition, intoeing is commonly overtreated with braces or special footwear. CONCLUSIONS: Intoeing is one of the most common conditions encountered in paediatric orthopaedic practice. It is important to make an early diagnosis of pathological causes of intoeing such as cerebral palsy and developmental dysplasia of the hips so that treatment can be commenced as soon as possible.

  16. [Gait disorders due to neurological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Snijders, A.H.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    Gait disorders are seen frequently and often have a neurological cause. The clinical management of patients presenting with a gait disorder is often complicated due to the large number of diseases that can cause a gait disorder and to the difficulties in interpreting a specific gait disorder

  17. Gait Disturbances in Dystrophic Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Hampton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The delta-sarcoglycan-deficient hamster is an excellent model to study muscular dystrophy. Gait disturbances, important clinically, have not been described in this animal model. We applied ventral plane videography (DigiGait to analyze gait in BIO TO-2 dystrophic and BIO F1B control hamsters walking on a transparent treadmill belt. Stride length was ~13% shorter (<.05 in TO-2 hamsters at 9 months of age compared to F1B hamsters. Hindlimb propulsion duration, an indicator of muscle strength, was shorter in 9-month-old TO-2 (247±8 ms compared to F1B hamsters (272±11 ms; <.05. Braking duration, reflecting generation of ground reaction forces, was delayed in 9-month-old TO-2 (147±6 ms compared to F1B hamsters (126±8 ms; <.05. Hindpaw eversion, evidence of muscle weakness, was greater in 9-month-old TO-2 than in F1B hamsters (17.7±1.2∘ versus 8.7±1.6∘; <.05. Incline and decline walking aggravated gait disturbances in TO-2 hamsters at 3 months of age. Several gait deficits were apparent in TO-2 hamsters at 1 month of age. Quantitative gait analysis demonstrates that dystrophic TO-2 hamsters recapitulate functional aspects of human muscular dystrophy. Early detection of gait abnormalities in a convenient animal model may accelerate the development of therapies for muscular dystrophy.

  18. Terminology and forensic gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gait, mobility, and falls in older people

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwind, Yves Josef

    2012-01-01

    My doctoral thesis contributes to the understanding of gait, mobility, and falls in older people. All presented projects investigated the most prominent and sensitive markers for fall-related gait changes, that is gait velocity and gait variability. Based on the measurement of these spatio-temporal gait parameters, particularly when using a change-sensitive dual task paradigm, it is possible to make conclusions regarding walking, balance, activities of daily living, and falls in o...

  20. Human Identification by Gait Using Corner Points

    OpenAIRE

    Mridul Ghosh; Debotosh Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    Recently human gait has become a promising and very important biometric for identification. Current research on gait recognition is usually based on an average gait image or a silhouette sequence, or a motion structure model. In this paper, the information about gait is obtained from the disparity on time and space of the different parts of the silhouette. This paper proposes a gait recognition method using edge detection, identification of corner points from edges, and selection of control p...

  1. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  2. Evaluation of gait kinetics in puppies with coxofemoral joint laxity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mandi J; Quinn, Margaret M; Markel, Mark D

    2006-02-01

    To characterize ground reaction forces (GRFs) and determine whether there were correlations between forces and passive coxofemoral joint laxity in puppies. Fifty-one 16-week-old hound-breed dogs. Force-plate gait evaluation and distraction radiographic imaging were performed. Ground reaction forces evaluated included x (mediolateral), y (craniocaudal breaking and propulsion), and z (vertical) peak force and impulse. Z-plane limb loading and unloading rates, loading interval, and weight distribution and y-plane stance time breaking and propulsion percentages were calculated. One-way ANOVA with the Duncan multiple range test was used to evaluate differences in gait variables among limbs. The relationships of left, right, highest, and mean distraction index (DI) with individual limb data of each dog were evaluated with the Spearman rank correlation. Left and right DIs were compared by means of linear regression analysis. Mean +/- SEM DI was 0.67 +/- 0.02. Left and right DIs were strongly correlated, but there were no significant relationships between DIs and gait variables. Most fore- and hind limb gait variables differed significantly, whereas paired fore- and hind limb gait variables did not. Asymmetry was most pronounced in the x- and y-planes. GRFs were consistent with those of clinically normal mature dogs, supporting an absence of association between GRF and DI in young dogs. The GRFs and elucidation of the relationship between GRFs and DI may be useful for future studies in immature dogs.

  3. Fixed or mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liau Jiann-Jong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fixed and mobile-bearing in total knee arthroplasty are still discussed controversially. In this article, biomechanical and clinical aspects in both fixed and mobile-bearing designs were reviewed. In biomechanical aspect, the mobile-bearing design has proved to provide less tibiofemoral contact stresses under tibiofemoral malalignment conditions. It also provides less wear rate in in-vitro simulator test. Patients with posterior stabilized mobile-bearing knees had more axial tibiofemoral rotation than patients with posterior stabilized fixed-bearing knees during gait as well as in a deep knee-bend activity. However, in clinical aspect, the mid-term or long-term survivorship of mobile-bearing knees has no superiority over that of fixed-bearing knees. The theoretical advantages for mobile-bearing design to provide a long-term durability have not been demonstrated by any outcome studies. Finally, the fixed-bearing design with all-polyethylene tibial component is suggested for relatively inactive, elder people. The mobile-bearing design is suggested for younger or higher-demand patients due to the potential for reduced polyethylene wear and more normal kinematics response after joint replacement. For younger surgeon, the fixed-bearing design is suggested due to less demand for surgical technique. For experienced surgeon, one familiar surgical protocol and instrumentation is suggested rather than implant design, either fixed-bearing or mobile-bearing.

  4. To Compare the Effect of Pre and Post Weight Bearing Anxiety, Depression in Conventional and Modular Prosthesis on Unilateral Transtibial Amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To compare the effect of anxiety and depression on unilateral trans tibial amputees those who are using conventional and modular patellar tendon bearing (PTB prosthesis with stump exercises. Material and Methods: A sample of 40 persons with below knee amputation who were trained to wear prosthesis were studied with an experimental comparative study design. Patients who were admitted at Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore, K. S. Hegde Medical Academy and Research Centre Mangalore, (N=150 who underwent unilateral transtibial, transfemoral and other amputations between August 2009 - December 2011. To find out peri and postoperative prosthetic fitting, anxiety and depression level of transtibial amputees who wear conventional and modular PTB prosthesis. 3 years of experimental comparative study reveals that the outcome measures of peri and post-operative anxiety and depression level while using conventional PTB prosthesis with stump exercises and modular PTB prosthesis with stump exercises on unilateral transtibial amputees. Results: The unilateral transtibial amputees who were trained with modular prosthesis along with stump exercises group patients anxiety and depression levels are reduced as compared to the unilateral transtibial amputees who were trained with conventional PTB prosthesis along with stump exercises. There is no significant difference seen in both the groups while giving stump exercises alone. Conclusion: The unilateral transtibial amputees who were trained with modular prosthesis along with stump exercises group, patient’s anxiety and depression levels are reduced drastically.

  5. Abnormalities of the First Three Steps of Gait Initiation in Patients with Parkinson's Disease with Freezing of Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Okada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate abnormalities of the first three steps of gait initiation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD with freezing of gait (FOG. Ten PD patients with FOG and 10 age-matched healthy controls performed self-generated gait initiation. The center of pressure (COP, heel contact positions, and spatiotemporal parameters were estimated from the vertical pressures on the surface of the force platform. The initial swing side of gait initiation was consistent among the trials in healthy controls but not among the trials in PD patients. The COP and the heel contact position deviated to the initial swing side during the first step, and the COP passed medial to each heel contact position during the first two steps in PD patients. Medial deviation of the COP from the first heel contact position had significant correlation with FOG questionnaire item 5. These findings indicate that weight shifting between the legs is abnormal and that medial deviation of the COP from the first heel contact position sensitively reflects the severity of FOG during the first three steps of gait initiation in PD patients with FOG.

  6. Evaluation of knee-joint cartilage and menisci ten years after isolated and combined ruptures of the medial collateral ligament. Investigation by weight-bearing radiography, MR imaging and analysis of proteoglycan fragments in the joint fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, M. [Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine (Sweden); Thuomas, K.Aa. [Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Messner, K. [Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare radiography, MR imaging, and chemical analysis in posttraumatic knees. Material and Methods: Ten matched pairs with either isolated partial rupture of the medial collateral ligament or combined medial collateral ligament/anterior cruciate ligament rupture were compared with matched controls 10 years after trauma. Weight-bearing radiographys and MR examinations were compared with proteoglycan fragment concentrations in the joint fluid. Results: The chemical analyses were similar in both trauma groups. The radiographs showed mild signs of arthrosis in half the patients with combined injury. MR images showed almost all injuried knees to have degenerative changes of various degrees in the cartilage and menisci. More frequent and more advanced changes were found after combined injury than after isolated injury (p<0.01). There were no changes in the controls. Conclusion: MR imaging is the best method for detecting and differentiating early posttraumatic knee arthrosis. (orig.).

  7. Association between saccular function and gait speed: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layman, Andrew J; Li, Carol; Simonsick, Eleanor; Ferrucci, Luigi; Carey, John P; Agrawal, Yuri

    2015-02-01

    To investigate whether otolith function (saccular and utricular) is associated with walking performance. Cross-sectional analysis of observational data collected in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program Clinical Research Unit at Harbor Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland. Community-dwelling participants. Cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) were used to assess saccular and utricular function, respectively. Cervical and ocular VEMP latency and amplitude responses and usual, rapid, and narrow (20 cm) gait speed assessed over a 6-m course. In 314 participants (mean age, 73.1 yr; range, 26-96 yr), cervical VEMP amplitude mediated the association between age and gait speed-particularly narrow walk speed-in both men and women. Cervical VEMP latency had an independent association with gait speed in age-, height-, and weight-adjusted analyses, although the direction of the association differed by sex. Greater cervical VEMP latency was associated with slower usual, rapid, and narrow gait speed in women but faster rapid gait speed in men. Neither the amplitude nor latency of ocular VEMP was associated with gait speed in men or women. These findings suggest that age-related slowing of gait speed is in part mediated by the decreased magnitude of saccular response associated with age. The sex-related differential association between saccular response latency and gait speed requires further study.

  8. Gait analysis in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, Stéphane; Decoulon, Geraldo; Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) children present complex and heterogeneous motor disorders that cause gait deviations. Clinical gait analysis (CGA) is needed to identify, understand and support the management of gait deviations in CP. CGA assesses a large amount of quantitative data concerning patients’ gait characteristics, such as video, kinematics, kinetics, electromyography and plantar pressure data. Common gait deviations in CP can be grouped into the gait patterns of spastic hemiplegia (drop foot, equinus with different knee positions) and spastic diplegia (true equinus, jump, apparent equinus and crouch) to facilitate communication. However, gait deviations in CP tend to be a continuum of deviations rather than well delineated groups. To interpret CGA, it is necessary to link gait deviations to clinical impairments and to distinguish primary gait deviations from compensatory strategies. CGA does not tell us how to treat a CP patient, but can provide objective identification of gait deviations and further the understanding of gait deviations. Numerous treatment options are available to manage gait deviations in CP. Generally, treatments strive to limit secondary deformations, re-establish the lever arm function and preserve muscle strength. Additional roles of CGA are to better understand the effects of treatments on gait deviations. Cite this article: Armand S, Decoulon G, Bonnefoy-Mazure A. Gait analysis in children with cerebral palsy. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:448-460. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000052. PMID:28698802

  9. Effects of acceleration on gait measures in three horse gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Zarski, Lila; Aerts, Peter; Clayton, Hilary

    2015-05-01

    Animals switch gaits according to locomotor speed. In terrestrial locomotion, gaits have been defined according to footfall patterns or differences in center of mass (COM) motion, which characterizes mechanisms that are more general and more predictive than footfall patterns. This has generated different variables designed primarily to evaluate steady-speed locomotion, which is easier to standardize in laboratory conditions. However, in the ecology of an animal, steady-state conditions are rare and the ability to accelerate, decelerate and turn is essential. Currently, there are no data available that have tested whether COM variables can be used in accelerative or decelerative conditions. This study used a data set of kinematics and kinetics of horses using three gaits (walk, trot, canter) to evaluate the effects of acceleration (both positive and negative) on commonly used gait descriptors. The goal was to identify variables that distinguish between gaits both at steady state and during acceleration/deceleration. These variables will either be unaffected by acceleration or affected by it in a predictable way. Congruity, phase shift and COM velocity angle did not distinguish between gaits when the dataset included trials in unsteady conditions. Work (positive and negative) and energy recovery distinguished between gaits and showed a clear relationship with acceleration. Hodographs are interesting graphical representations to study COM mechanics, but they are descriptive rather than quantitative. Force angle, collision angle and collision fraction showed a U-shaped relationship with acceleration and seem promising tools for future research in unsteady conditions. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Duck gait: Relationship to hip angle, bone ash, bone density, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Cara I; Rice, Meredith; Makagon, Maja M; Karcher, Darrin M

    2015-05-01

    The rapid growth meat birds, including ducks, undergo requires skeletal integrity; however, fast growth may not be conducive to adequate bone structure. A relationship likely exists between skeletal changes and duck mobility. Reduced mobility in meat ducks may have impacts on welfare and production. This study examined the relationships among gait score, bone parameters, and hip angle. Commercial Pekin ducks, ages 14 d (n = 100), 21 d (n = 100), and 32 d (n = 100) were weighed and gait scored with a 3-point gait score system by an observer as they walked over a Tekscan gait analysis system. Gait was scored as GS0, GS1, or GS2 with a score of GS0 defined as good walking ability and a score of GS2 as poorest walking ability. Ducks were humanely euthanized, full body scanned using quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and the right femur and tibia were extracted. Leg bones were cleaned, measured, fat extracted, and ashed. QCT scans were rendered to create computerized 3D models where pelvic hip angles and bone density were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted using PROC MIXED with age and gait score in the model. Body weight increased with age, but within an age, body weight decreased as walking ability became worse (P bone width and length were observed as the ducks aged (P Bone density increased linearly with both age and gait score (P relationship between duck mobility and skeletal changes during growth. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Unsupervised gait detection using biomechanical restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Shinji; Inomata, Akihiro; Sasamoto, Yuki; Washizawa, Shiho; Caulfield, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Quantification of human gait with sensors has enormous potential in health and rehabilitation applications. Objective measurement of gait features in the home and community can reveal the true nature of impact of disease on activities of daily living or response to interventions. Previously reported gait event detection methods have achieved good success, yet can produce errors in some irregular gait patterns. In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised detection of gait events and gait duration by combining two exclusive processes: (i) exploration of gait event candidates based on iterative running of existing methods with changing parameters and, (ii) selection of the candidate which satisfies gait-specific biomechanical restrictions (e.g., when one leg is in swing, another leg is likely to be in stance). We evaluated this approach using data from a single-axis gyroscope on the left and right ankles in three experimental conditions. The proposed method decreased the timing error for detection of gait events (toe off and heel strike) in irregular gait patterns compared with the conventional method. It also improved the accuracy of measurement of gait duration in a longitudinal free-living dataset and distinguishing gait from non-gait actions.

  12. Gait patterns in Prader-Willi and Down syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertini Giorgio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prader-Willi (PWS and Down Syndrome (DS are two genetic disorders characterised by some common clinical and functional features. A quantitative description and comparison of their patterns would contribute to a deeper understanding of the determinants of motor disability in these two syndromes. The aim of this study was to measure gait pattern in PWS and DS in order to provide data for developing evidence-based deficit-specific or common rehabilitation strategies. Methods 19 PWS patients (17.7-40 yr and 21 DS patients (18-39 yr were evaluated with an optoelectronic system and force platforms for measuring kinematic and kinetic parameters during walking. The results were compared with those obtained in a group of normal-weight controls (Control Group: CG; 33.4 + 9.6 yr. Results and Discussion The results show that PWS and DS are characterised by different gait strategies. Spatio-temporal parameters indicated a cautious, abnormal gait in both groups, but DS walked with a less stable strategy than PWS. As for kinematics, DS showed a significantly reduced hip and knee flexion, especially at initial contact and ankle range of motion than PWS. DS were characterised by lower ranges of motion (p Conclusions Our data show that DS walk with a less physiological gait pattern than PWS. Based on our results, PWS and DS patients need targeted rehabilitation and exercise prescription. Common to both groups is the aim to improve hypotonia, muscle strength and motor control during gait. In DS, improving pelvis and hip range of motion should represent a major specific goal to optimize gait pattern.

  13. Effects of Acute Fatigue of the Tibialis Anterior Due to a Weight-Bearing Muscle Activity on the Ankle Joint Position Sense in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghanbari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Joint position sense (JPS is comprised of sensory input from several sources, including skin, joint capsule/ligaments, and muscular receptors. If the muscle receptors play a leading role in detecting joint position awareness, then muscle fatigue might yield a declination in JPS. The aim of this study was to evaluate if a sustained fatiguing contraction of the tibialis anterior (ankle dorsiflexor could alter the ankle JPS. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which 40 healthy subjects (age, 23.9±2.3 years; height, 172.6±5.7 cm; weight, 67.8±4.7 kg were recruited. Subjects were asked to recognize 2 pre-recognized positions (10° in dorsiflexion (DF and 21° in plantarflexion (PF for 2 experimental conditions: normal and fatigued. Muscular fatigue was induced in the tibialis anterior of the dominant leg by using an isometric test. The average of the absolute angular error (AAE deviations from the target positions of three trials were recorded as scores for both fatigue and non-fatigue conditions. Results: There was significant decrease in subjects’ abilities to recognize active and passive repositioning of their ankle after a fatigue protocol (P=0.0001. Conclusion: The acuity of the ankle JPS is reduced subsequent to a fatigue protocol.

  14. GaitKeeper: A System for Measuring Canine Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassim Ladha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is understood gait has the potential to be used as a window into neurodegenerative disorders, identify markers of subclinical pathology, inform diagnostic algorithms of disease progression and measure the efficacy of interventions. Dogs’ gaits are frequently assessed in a veterinary setting to detect signs of lameness. Despite this, a reliable, affordable and objective method to assess lameness in dogs is lacking. Most described canine lameness assessments are subjective, unvalidated and at high risk of bias. This means reliable, early detection of canine gait abnormalities is challenging, which may have detrimental implications for dogs’ welfare. In this paper, we draw from approaches and technologies used in human movement science and describe a system for objectively measuring temporal gait characteristics in dogs (step-time, swing-time, stance-time. Asymmetries and variabilities in these characteristics are of known clinical significance when assessing lameness but presently may only be assessed on coarse scales or under highly instrumented environments. The system consists an inertial measurement unit, containing a 3-axis accelerometer and gyroscope coupled with a standardized walking course. The measurement unit is attached to each leg of the dog under assessment before it is walked around the course. The data by the measurement unit is then processed to identify steps and subsequently, micro-gait characteristics. This method has been tested on a cohort of 19 healthy dogs of various breeds ranging in height from 34.2 cm to 84.9 cm. We report the system as capable of making precise step delineations with detections of initial and final contact times of foot-to-floor to a mean precision of 0.011 s and 0.048 s, respectively. Results are based on analysis of 12,678 foot falls and we report a sensitivity, positive predictive value and F-score of 0.81, 0.83 and 0.82 respectively. To investigate the effect of gait on system performance

  15. Multiple gait parameters derived from iPod accelerometry predict age-related gait changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, Nienke; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claude

    Introduction Normative data of how natural aging affects gait can serve as a frame of reference for changes in gait dynamics due to pathologies. Therefore, the present study aims (1) to identify gait variables sensitive to age-related changes in gait over the adult life span using the iPod and (2)

  16. Gait analysis in forensic medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Peter K.; Simonsen, Erik B.; Lynnerup, Niels

    2007-01-01

    We have combined the basic human ability to recognize other individuals with functional anatomical and biomechanical knowledge, in order to analyze the gait of perpetrators as recorded on surveillance video. The perpetrators are then compared with similar analyses of suspects. At present we give a statement to the police as to whether the perpetrator has a characteristic gait pattern compared to normal gait, and if a suspect has a comparable gait pattern. We have found agreements such as: limping, varus instability in the knee at heel strike, larger lateral flexion of the spinal column to one side than the other, inverted ankle during stance, pronounced sagittal head-movements, and marked head-shoulder posture. Based on these characteristic features, we state whether suspect and perpetrator could have the same identity but it is not possible to positively identify the perpetrator. Nevertheless, we have been involved in several cases where the court has found that this type of gait analysis, especially combined with photogrammetry, was a valuable tool. The primary requisites are surveillance cameras recording with sufficient frequency, ideally about 15 Hz, which are positioned in frontal and preferably also in profile view.

  17. Proximal femoral nail shows better concordance of gait analysis between operated and uninjured limbs compared to hemiarthroplasty in intertrochanteric femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Melih; Kocadal, Onur; Akman, Budak; Poyanlı, Oğuz S; Kemah, Bahattin; Atay, Evren Fehmi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of pedobarographic gait analysis between the patients treated by proximal femoral nail or bipolar partial hemiarthroplasty due to intertrochanteric fractures. Thirty-seven patients with a minimum 1-year follow-up who had been operated for intertrochanteric fractures were evaluated clinically, radiologically and with pedobarographic gait analysis. Proximal femoral nail had been performed to 21 patients (group A), whilst 16 patients had been operated by partial bipolar hemiarthroplasty (group B). Pedobarographic analysis was performed by measuring plantar pressure, force and contact area values in both static and dynamic manner. Pedobarographic results of operated limb were compared among groups. Same data's also were compared between operated and uninjured limbs in each group to determine any asymmetry on weight-bearing. Average follow-up period in group A and group B was 36 (12-56) and 30 (12-48) months, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences among groups in terms of age, gender, body mass index, type and side of fracture, follow-up period, leg length discrepancy and postoperative hip scores. When the pedobarographic results of operated limb were compared, group B showed much more plantar force and pressure values than group A, on both static and dynamic evaluations. If the evaluation was taken into consideration to comparison of pedobarographic results between operated and uninjured limbs in each group, we found asymmetry in static load bearing, caused by higher load on uninjured limb in both groups. However, there was no statistically significant asymmetry between operated and uninjured limbs in respect to dynamic pedobarographic parameters for patients in group A. On the contrary, operated limbs in group B exposed much more plantar force and pressure values than uninjured limbs, which indicated asymmetric weight-bearing on dynamic evaluation. Assessment of pedobarographic parameters

  18. Donor site morbidity of the medial plantar artery flap studied with gait and pressure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, James T-E H; Izadi, David; Haj-Basheer, Mohammed; Barnett, Sue; Winson, Ian; Khan, Umraz

    2015-03-01

    The medial plantar artery flap (MPA) allows transfer of both glabrous (smooth and free from hair) and sensate tissue. It has been suggested that the non-weight bearing instep area of the foot provides tissue for transfer with minimal donor morbidity. However the abductor hallucis muscle and plantar fascia are dissected during flap harvest which may affect foot mechanics. Patients were included who had undergone MPA flap harvest and were walking unaided. The majority of the patients studied had problems with soft tissues of their heels rather than trauma as a starting point. Laboratory normals and the patient's contralateral limb were used as controls. Gait and pressure analysis were performed using 3D gait analysis and high resolution pressure analysis. This study included 6 patients, with 5 chronic wounds (4 ipsilateral, 1 contralateral) and 1 traumatic ankle defect. Enneking scores: 67.9% return to function; Foot Function Index scores: 39.1% loss of function. Significant differences were seen in kinetic and kinematic data. The donor site group had significantly less pressure in the great toe (38.1kPa vs. 78.1kPa, p=0.013), significantly slower transition through the midfoot (445.2ms vs. 352.07ms, p=0.016) and increased impulse in the heel (3.1kPa/s vs. 11.7kPa/s, p=0.038). This study demonstrates subjective and objective evidence of MPA donor site morbidity. Comparison to other studies looking at gait and pressure changes seen after flap reconstruction of the plantar region suggest that much of this difference may be attributable to ipsilateral reconstruction. As the majority had chronic problems with the soft tissues over the heel some of these biomechanical responses could be related to learned behaviour preoperatively or continued discomfort in the heel pad. Nonetheless it demonstrates accurately the effect of the technique overall on the function of the foot. The changes in the region of the great toe may be solely attributable to MPA harvest. These results

  19. Biomechanics of Gait during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Branco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. During pregnancy women experience several changes in the body’s physiology, morphology, and hormonal system. These changes may affect the balance and body stability and can cause discomfort and pain. The adaptations of the musculoskeletal system due to morphological changes during pregnancy are not fully understood. Few studies clarify the biomechanical changes of gait that occur during pregnancy and in postpartum period. Purposes. The purpose of this review was to analyze the available evidence on the biomechanical adaptations of gait that occur throughout pregnancy and in postpartum period, specifically with regard to the temporal, spatial, kinematic, and kinetic parameters of gait. Methods. Three databases were searched and 9 studies with a follow-up design were retrieved for analysis. Results. Most studies performed temporal, spatial, and kinematic analysis. Only three studies performed kinetic analysis. Conclusion. The adaptation strategies to the anatomical and physiological changes throughout pregnancy are still unclear, particularly in a longitudinal perspective and regarding kinetic parameters.

  20. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  1. Gait Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as…

  2. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trong-Nguyen; Huynh, Huu-Hung; Meunier, Jean

    2016-10-26

    Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton) in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  3. A mechanical energy analysis of gait initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. A.; Verstraete, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of gait initiation (the transient state between standing and walking) is an important diagnostic tool to study pathologic gait and to evaluate prosthetic devices. While past studies have quantified mechanical energy of the body during steady-state gait, to date no one has computed the mechanical energy of the body during gait initiation. In this study, gait initiation in seven normal male subjects was studied using a mechanical energy analysis to compute total body energy. The data showed three separate states: quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady-state gait. During gait initiation, the trends in the energy data for the individual segments were similar to those seen during steady-state gait (and in Winter DA, Quanbury AO, Reimer GD. Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J Biochem 1976;9:253-257), but diminished in amplitude. However, these amplitudes increased to those seen in steady-state during the gait initiation event (GIE), with the greatest increase occurring in the second step due to the push-off of the foundation leg. The baseline level of mechanical energy was due to the potential energy of the individual segments, while the cyclic nature of the data was indicative of the kinetic energy of the particular leg in swing phase during that step. The data presented showed differences in energy trends during gait initiation from those of steady state, thereby demonstrating the importance of this event in the study of locomotion.

  4. Gait modification strategies for altering medial knee joint load: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Milena; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V; Bennell, Kim L; Hunt, Michael A

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of gait modification strategies on the external knee adduction moment (KAM), a marker of medial knee joint load; determine potentially adverse effects; assess the methodologic quality; and identify areas of future research. Five electronic databases were searched. Studies evaluating the effects of gait modifications on the KAM in either healthy individuals or those with knee osteoarthritis (OA) were included. Methodologic quality was evaluated by 2 reviewers using the Downs and Black checklist. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, exploring 14 different gait modifications of varying sample sizes, age groups, and OA classifications. Contralateral cane use, increased step width, medial knee thrust, increased hip internal rotation, weight transfer to the medial foot, and increased lateral trunk lean demonstrated KAM reductions. Tai Chi gait, ipsilateral cane use, Nordic walking poles, and increased knee flexion exhibited increases in the KAM, demonstrating a potential detriment to their use. The effects of reduced stride length, as well as increases and reductions in either toe-out or gait speed, were inconsistent across the studies and gait cycle. This review demonstrates that some gait modifications have the ability to alter knee load. Future research is required to determine the magnitude of modification required to maximize beneficial effects, the best method of training, long-term patient adherence, and if these biomechanical changes can translate into clinically relevant changes in symptoms or disease progression risk. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Gait characterization for osteoarthritis patients using wearable gait sensors (H-Gait systems).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadano, Shigeru; Takeda, Ryo; Sasaki, Keita; Fujisawa, Tadashi; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2016-03-21

    The objective of this work was to investigate the possibilities of using the wearable sensors-based H-Gait system in an actual clinical trial and proposes new gait parameters for characterizing OA gait. Seven H-Gait sensors, consisting of tri-axial inertial sensors, were attached to seven lower limb body segments (pelvis, both thighs, both shanks and both feet). The acceleration and angular velocity data measured were used to estimate three-dimensional kinematic parameters of patients during level walking. Three new parameters were proposed to assess the severity of OA based on the characteristics of these joint center trajectories in addition to conventional gait spatio-temporal parameters. The experiment was conducted on ten subjects with knee OA. The kinematic results obtained (hip, knee and ankle joint angles, joint trajectory in the horizontal and sagittal planes) were compared with those from a reference healthy (control) group. As a result, the angle between the right and left knee trajectories along with that of the ankle joint trajectories were almost twice as large (21.3° vs. 11.6° and 14.9° vs. 7.8°) compared to those of the healthy subjects. In conclusion, it was found that the ankle joints during stance abduct less to avoid adduction at the knee as the severity of OA increases and lead to more acute angles (less parallel) between the right and left knee/ankle joints in the horizontal plane. This method was capable to provide quantitative information about the gait of OA patients and has the advantage to allow for out-of-laboratory monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of a Muscle Weight-Bearing and Aerobic Exercise Program on the Body Composition, Muscular Strength, Biochemical Markers, and Bone Mass of Obese Patients Who Have Undergone Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanha-Versiani, Luciana; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Ribeiro-Samora, Giane Amorim; Ramos, Adauto Versiani; de Sander Diniz, Maria Fatima H; De Marco, Luiz Armando; Soares, Maria Marta Sarquis

    2017-08-01

    The effect of an exercise program on the body composition, muscular strength (MS), biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) of individuals undergoing gastric bypass is unclear. We assessed lean mass (LM), MS, bone remodeling markers, and BMD before and after supervised weight-bearing and aerobic exercise training in obese patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This study included 37 obese patients (81.1% women, mean age 38.2 years, mean body mass index 42.4 ± 0.5 kg/m2). Whole body densitometry was used to evaluate pre- and postoperative BMD, total body fat, and LM. Serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and bone remodeling markers were measured. MS was determined through the concentric 10 repetition maximum test. Postoperatively, participants were divided into two groups: the training group, who followed an exercise program (TG, n = 18), and the control group, who did not (CG, n = 19). After 1 year, the TG showed a lower decrease in total BMD and at the lumbar spine and right hip compared with the CG (p loss and improved LM in the arms and overall MS but did not affect bone remodeling.

  7. Use of an arm weight-bearing combined with upper-limb reaching apparatus to facilitate motor paralysis recovery in an incomplete spinal cord injury patient: a single case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoei, Takashi; Kawahira, Kazumi; Fukuda, Hidefumi; Sihgenobu, Keizo; Shimodozono, Megumi; Ogura, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Training using an arm weight-bearing device combined with upper-limb reaching apparatus to facilitate motor paralysis recovery, named the "Reaching Robot", as well as Repetitive Facilitation Exercise were applied to a patient with severe impairment of the shoulder and elbow due to incomplete spinal cord injury and the effects were examined. [Subjects and Methods] A 66-year-old man with incomplete spinal cord injury participated in an upper extremity rehabilitation program involving a Reaching Robot. The program was comprised of active motor suspension, continuous low amplitude neuromuscular electrical stimulation and functional vibratory stimulation, as well as Repetitive Facilitation Exercise combined with continuous low amplitude neuromuscular electrical stimulation. This protocol used a crossover design following an A1-B1-A2-B2. "A" consisted of 2 weeks of Repetitive Facilitation Exercise, and "B" consisted of 2 weeks of Reaching Robot training. [Results] Improvements were observed after all sessions. Active range of motion for shoulder flexion improved after 2 weeks of Reaching Robot sessions only. There were no adverse events. [Conclusion] Reaching Robot training for severe paretic upper-extremity after incomplete spinal cord injury was a safe and effective treatment. Reaching Robot training may be useful for rehabilitation of paretic upper-extremity after incomplete spinal cord injury.

  8. Real-time Classification of Non-Weight Bearing Lower-Limb Movements Using EMG to Facilitate Phantom Motor Execution: Engineering and Case Study Application on Phantom Limb Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendaro, Eva; Mastinu, Enzo; Håkansson, Bo; Ortiz-Catalan, Max

    2017-01-01

    Phantom motor execution (PME), facilitated by myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR) and virtual reality (VR), is positioned to be a viable option to treat phantom limb pain (PLP). A recent clinical trial using PME on upper-limb amputees with chronic intractable PLP yielded promising results. However, further work in the area of signal acquisition is needed if such technology is to be used on subjects with lower-limb amputation. We propose two alternative electrode configurations to conventional, bipolar, targeted recordings for acquiring surface electromyography. We evaluated their performance in a real-time MPR task for non-weight-bearing, lower-limb movements. We found that monopolar recordings using a circumferential electrode of conductive fabric, performed similarly to classical bipolar recordings, but were easier to use in a clinical setting. In addition, we present the first case study of a lower-limb amputee with chronic, intractable PLP treated with PME. The patient’s Pain Rating Index dropped by 22 points (from 32 to 10, 68%) after 23 PME sessions. These results represent a methodological advancement and a positive proof-of-concept of PME in lower limbs. Further work remains to be conducted for a high-evidence level clinical validation of PME as a treatment of PLP in lower-limb amputees. PMID:28955294

  9. [Morphological investigations of deep sole ulcers in cattle. Part 2: Toe ulcers, white line disease in the heel and changes due to inappropriate weight bearing and deficient claw care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehringer, Susanne; Müller, Matthias; Maierl, Johann

    2017-04-19

    To demonstrate the morphology of pathological changes to the inner structures of the claw in cases of toe ulcers, white line disease in the heel and changes due to inappropriate weight bearing and deficient claw care. Hind limbs of 55 cows displaying external signs of complicated sole ulcers were examined externally and internally. To examine the samples internally, a sagittal section was performed. Furthermore, the material was examined after bone maceration and histologically. A total of 43 claws of 112 digits with 120 deep sole ulcers displayed a toe ulcer and in 18 claws white line disease was diagnosed. In animals with toe ulcers, necrosis of the pedal bone was found in severely altered claws. In cows with white line disease, osteolysis in the abaxial region of the margo solearis and arthritis in the distal interphalangeal joint were the most common pathological findings. Claws with deficient claw care displayed severe pathological changes to the pedal bone. Sole ulcers may rapidly cause serious and irreversible changes to the structures encased within the hoof capsule and consequently have an impact on animal welfare. Therefore, prophylaxis and functional claw care are essential measures to avoid pathological conditions in claws and to improve animal welfare.

  10. Real-time Classification of Non-Weight Bearing Lower-Limb Movements Using EMG to Facilitate Phantom Motor Execution: Engineering and Case Study Application on Phantom Limb Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendaro, Eva; Mastinu, Enzo; Håkansson, Bo; Ortiz-Catalan, Max

    2017-01-01

    Phantom motor execution (PME), facilitated by myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR) and virtual reality (VR), is positioned to be a viable option to treat phantom limb pain (PLP). A recent clinical trial using PME on upper-limb amputees with chronic intractable PLP yielded promising results. However, further work in the area of signal acquisition is needed if such technology is to be used on subjects with lower-limb amputation. We propose two alternative electrode configurations to conventional, bipolar, targeted recordings for acquiring surface electromyography. We evaluated their performance in a real-time MPR task for non-weight-bearing, lower-limb movements. We found that monopolar recordings using a circumferential electrode of conductive fabric, performed similarly to classical bipolar recordings, but were easier to use in a clinical setting. In addition, we present the first case study of a lower-limb amputee with chronic, intractable PLP treated with PME. The patient's Pain Rating Index dropped by 22 points (from 32 to 10, 68%) after 23 PME sessions. These results represent a methodological advancement and a positive proof-of-concept of PME in lower limbs. Further work remains to be conducted for a high-evidence level clinical validation of PME as a treatment of PLP in lower-limb amputees.

  11. Real-time Classification of Non-Weight Bearing Lower-Limb Movements Using EMG to Facilitate Phantom Motor Execution: Engineering and Case Study Application on Phantom Limb Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lendaro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phantom motor execution (PME, facilitated by myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR and virtual reality (VR, is positioned to be a viable option to treat phantom limb pain (PLP. A recent clinical trial using PME on upper-limb amputees with chronic intractable PLP yielded promising results. However, further work in the area of signal acquisition is needed if such technology is to be used on subjects with lower-limb amputation. We propose two alternative electrode configurations to conventional, bipolar, targeted recordings for acquiring surface electromyography. We evaluated their performance in a real-time MPR task for non-weight-bearing, lower-limb movements. We found that monopolar recordings using a circumferential electrode of conductive fabric, performed similarly to classical bipolar recordings, but were easier to use in a clinical setting. In addition, we present the first case study of a lower-limb amputee with chronic, intractable PLP treated with PME. The patient’s Pain Rating Index dropped by 22 points (from 32 to 10, 68% after 23 PME sessions. These results represent a methodological advancement and a positive proof-of-concept of PME in lower limbs. Further work remains to be conducted for a high-evidence level clinical validation of PME as a treatment of PLP in lower-limb amputees.

  12. Effects of plantar flexion resistive moment generated by an ankle-foot orthosis with an oil damper on the gait of stroke patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Sumiko; Tomokiyo, Naoki; Yasui, Tadashi; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu

    2013-06-01

    An ankle-foot orthosis with an oil damper was previously developed to assist the first rocker function during gait, but the effects of the amount of resistive moment generated on gait have not been clarified. To measure the amount of resistive moment generated by the ankle-foot orthosis with an oil damper during gait and determine its effect on the gait of patients with stroke. Preliminary cross-sectional study. The gait of four patients with stroke in the chronic phase was measured in four conditions: without an ankle-foot orthosis and with the ankle-foot orthosis with an oil damper generating three different amounts of resistive moment. Measurements were taken with a three-dimensional motion analysis system and a specially designed device to determine the resistive moment. The resistive moment was observed in the former half in stance of the paretic limb, and its magnitude was less than 10 N m. Some gait parameters related to terminal stance and preswing were affected by the amount of resistive moment. The forward component of floor reaction force and the shank vertical angle showed peak values when the patients reported feeling most comfortable during gait. Although the resistive moment generated by the ankle-foot orthosis with an oil damper was small, it was sufficient to alter gait. To maximize the effectiveness of ankle-foot orthoses, it is necessary to know the effects of resistive moment on the gait of patients with stroke. The ankle-foot orthosis with an oil damper assists the first rocker function in gait and also affects the gait in a later phase in stance. The peak values of some gait parameters coincided with patients reporting gait to be most comfortable. It is important to know that ankle-foot orthosis with an oil damper assistance in the first rocker alters the weight acceptance on the paretic limb and affects the gait parameters related to propulsion ability in stance.

  13. 'CatWalk' automated quantitative gait analysis as a novel method to assess mechanical allodynia in the rat; a comparison with von Frey testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrinten, Dorien H; Hamers, Frank F T

    2003-03-01

    A characteristic symptom of neuropathic pain is mechanical allodynia. In animal models of neuropathic pain, mechanical allodynia is often assessed using von Frey filaments. Although the forces applied with these filaments are highly reproducible, there are various disadvantages of using this method. Testing paradigms and definitions of withdrawal threshold are not standardised. Moreover, measurements may be influenced by various conditions, such as ambient temperature, humidity, weight bearing of the limb and stress. We have therefore investigated another technique to assess mechanical allodynia, the 'CatWalk' automated quantitative gait analysis. With this computer-assisted method of locomotor analysis, it is possible to objectively and rapidly quantify several gait parameters, including duration of different phases of the step cycle and pressure applied during locomotion. We tested rats with a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, a model of neuropathic pain, both with von Frey filaments and the CatWalk method. We demonstrate that these rats minimise contact with the affected paw during locomotion, as demonstrated by a reduction in stance phase and pressure applied during stance. Moreover, these parameters show a high degree of correlation with mechanical withdrawal thresholds as determined by von Frey filaments. We therefore suggest that the CatWalk method might serve as an additional tool in the investigation of mechanical allodynia.

  14. SURGICAL CORRECTION OF BILATERAL PATELLAR LUXATION IN AN AMERICAN BLACK BEAR CUB (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Katarina R; Desmarchelier, Marion R; Bailey, Trina R

    2015-06-01

    A wild orphaned male American black bear cub ( Ursus americanus ) presented with hind limb gait abnormalities and was found to have bilateral grade 3 laterally luxating patellas. There were no other significant abnormalities detected on neurologic, radiographic, or hematologic examinations. The trochlear grooves were deepened with a chondroplasty, and the redundant soft tissues imbricated. There was a marked improvement in the bear's gait postoperatively, with an apparent full return to function. To the authors' knowledge, patellar luxation has not been reported in the Ursidae family, and the success in this case suggests that this technique may be used in large wild or captive carnivore cubs.

  15. An Automated Classification of Pathological Gait using Unobtrusive Sensing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, Elham; Taati, Babak; Mihailidis, Alex

    2017-08-07

    This study integrates an unobtrusive and affordable sensing technology with machine learning methods to discriminate between healthy and pathological gait patterns as a result of stroke or acquired brain injury (ABI). A feature analysis is used to identify the role of each body part in separating pathological patterns from healthy patterns. Gait features including the orientations of the hips and spine (trunk), shoulders and neck (upper limb), knees and ankles (lower limb), are calculated during walking based on Kinect skeletal tracking sequences. Sequences of these features during three types of walking conditions were examined: walking at (1) self pace (WSP), (2) distracted (WD) and (3) fast pace (WFP). Two machine learning approaches, an instance-based discriminative classifier (k-nearest neighbor) and a dynamical generative classifier (using Gaussian Process Latent Variable Model) are examined to distinguish between healthy and pathological gaits. Nested cross validation is implemented to evaluate the performance of the two classifiers using three metrics: F1-score, macro-averaged error, and micro-averaged error. The discriminative model outperforms the generative model in terms of the F1-score (discriminative: WSP > 0.95, WD > 0.96 and WFP > 0.95 and generative: WSP > 0.87, WD > 0.85 and WFP > 0.68) and macro-averaged error (discriminative: WSP gait features are divided into 5 subsets: lower limb, upper limb, trunk, velocity, and acceleration. An instance-based feature analysis method (ReliefF) is used to assign weights to each subset of features according to its discriminatory power. The feature analysis establishes the most informative features (upper limb, lower limb, and trunk) for identifying pathological gait.

  16. Genetic feature selection for gait recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazzoli, Faezeh; Bebis, George; Louis, Sushil; Hussain, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Many research studies have demonstrated that gait can serve as a useful biometric modality for human identification at a distance. Traditional gait recognition systems, however, have mostly been evaluated without explicitly considering the most relevant gait features, which might have compromised performance. We investigate the problem of selecting a subset of the most relevant gait features for improving gait recognition performance. This is achieved by discarding redundant and irrelevant gait features while preserving the most informative ones. Motivated by our previous work on feature subset selection using genetic algorithms (GAs), we propose using GAs to select an optimal subset of gait features. First, features are extracted using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) on spatiotemporal projections of gait silhouettes. Then, GA is applied to select a subset of eigenvectors in KPCA space that best represents a subject's identity. Each gait pattern is then represented by projecting it only on the eigenvectors selected by the GA. To evaluate the effectiveness of the selected features, we have experimented with two different classifiers: k nearest-neighbor and Naïve Bayes classifier. We report considerable gait recognition performance improvements on the Georgia Tech and CASIA databases.

  17. Gait Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Complete motion analysis laboratory has evolved out of analyzing walking patterns of crippled children at Stanford Children's Hospital. Data is collected by placing tiny electrical sensors over muscle groups of child's legs and inserting step-sensing switches in soles of shoes. Miniature radio transmitters send signals to receiver for continuous recording of abnormal walking pattern. Engineers are working to apply space electronics miniaturization techniques to reduce size and weight of telemetry system further as well as striving to increase signal bandwidth so analysis can be performed faster and more accurately using a mini-computer.

  18. Gait adaptations following multiple-ligament knee reconstruction occur with altered knee kinematics during level walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Corey J; Lynch, Joe T; Ebrahimi, Milad; Fritsch, Brett A; Parker, David A

    2017-05-01

    The biomechanical behaviour of the knee following multiple-ligament reconstruction (MLKR) may play a role in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to compare three-dimensional knee kinematics and gait characteristics of MLKR patients to healthy controls during level walking. Three-dimensional optoelectronic motion capture during overground walking was performed on 16 patients with MLKR and a group of healthy controls matched individually to each patient for age, gender, height and weight. Three-dimensional knee angles were extracted from the weight acceptance and propulsion sub-phases of gait. Statistical analysis was performed using group-aggregated data, as well as for each patient-control pair using a single-case approach. Although group analysis detected few differences, single-case analysis revealed significant differences for a proportion of patients for all dependent variables during weight acceptance and propulsion sub-phases of stance. These kinematic differences occurred in the context of reduced gait velocity, step length and cadence, as well as increased time spent in double support. Patients with MLKR display abnormalities in knee kinematics during gait at an average of 4.5 years after surgery. The pattern of kinematic abnormalities appears individual specific and may not be related to differences in spatiotemporal gait characteristics. The current findings describe detailed functional outcomes of MLKR reconstruction at average medium-term follow-up that provide improved prognostic information for clinicians to counsel patients with these types of injuries.

  19. A novel flexible capacitive load sensor for use in a mobile unicompartmental knee replacement bearing: An in vitro proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentink, M J A; Van Duren, B H; Murray, D W; Gill, H S

    2017-08-01

    Instrumented knee replacements can provide in vivo data quantifying physiological loads acting on the knee. To date instrumented mobile unicompartmental knee replacements (UKR) have not been realised. Ideally instrumentation would be embedded within the polyethylene bearing. This study investigated the feasibility of an embedded flexible capacitive load sensor. A novel flexible capacitive load sensor was developed which could be incorporated into standard manufacturing of compression moulded polyethylene bearings. Dynamic experiments were performed to determine the characteristics of the sensor on a uniaxial servo-hydraulic material testing machine. The instrumented bearing was measured at sinusoidal frequencies between 0.1 and 10Hz, allowing for measurement of typical gait load magnitudes and frequencies. These correspond to frequencies of interest in physiological loading. The loads that were applied were a static load of 390N, corresponding to an equivalent body weight load for UKR, and a dynamic load of ±293N. The frequency transfer response of the sensor suggests a low pass filter response with a -3dB frequency of 10Hz. The proposed embedded capacitive load sensor was shown to be applicable for measuring in vivo loads within a polyethylene mobile UKR bearing. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Full body gait analysis with Kinect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Moshe; Gilad-Bachrach, Ran; Renshaw, Erin; Schuster, Assaf

    2012-01-01

    Human gait is an important indicator of health, with applications ranging from diagnosis, monitoring, and rehabilitation. In practice, the use of gait analysis has been limited. Existing gait analysis systems are either expensive, intrusive, or require well-controlled environments such as a clinic or a laboratory. We present an accurate gait analysis system that is economical and non-intrusive. Our system is based on the Kinect sensor and thus can extract comprehensive gait information from all parts of the body. Beyond standard stride information, we also measure arm kinematics, demonstrating the wide range of parameters that can be extracted. We further improve over existing work by using information from the entire body to more accurately measure stride intervals. Our system requires no markers or battery-powered sensors, and instead relies on a single, inexpensive commodity 3D sensor with a large preexisting install base. We suggest that the proposed technique can be used for continuous gait tracking at home.

  1. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Chen, Janini; Freitag, Fernanda; Valente, Debora; Souza, Carolina Oliveira de; Voos,Mariana Callil; Chien, Hsin Fen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do n...

  2. Inter-Trial Gait Variability Reduction Using Continous Curve Registration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadeghi, H

    2001-01-01

    Timing in peak gait values shifts slightly between gait trials. When gait data are averaged, some of the standard deviation can be associated to this inter-trial variability unless normalization is carried out beforehand...

  3. Gait-related cerebral alterations in patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, A.H.; Leunissen, H.P.; Bakker, M.; Overeem, S.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.

    2011-01-01

    Freezing of gait is a common, debilitating feature of Parkinson’s disease. We have studied gait planning in patients with freezing of gait, using motor imagery of walking in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging. This approach exploits the large neural overlap that exists between

  4. Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease: the paradoxical interplay between gait and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardi, L.; Bloem, B.R.; Snijders, A.H.; Daniele, A.; Quaranta, D.; Bentivoglio, A.R.; Fasano, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait is a disabling episodic gait disturbance common in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent evidences suggest a complex interplay between gait impairment and executive functions. Aim of our study was to evaluate whether specific motor conditions (sitting or walking)

  5. Gait-related cerebral alterations in patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, A.H.; Leunissen, I.; Bakker, M.; Overeem, S.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.

    2011-01-01

    Freezing of gait is a common, debilitating feature of Parkinson's disease. We have studied gait planning in patients with freezing of gait, using motor imagery of walking in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging. This approach exploits the large neural overlap that exists between

  6. Prediction of Polyethylene Wear Rates from Gait Biomechanics and Implant Positioning in Total Hip Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Marzieh M; Amenábar Edwards, Pedro P; Wimmer, Markus A

    2017-08-01

    factors rather than single variables. The linear discriminant analysis model correctly predicted the level of wear in 80% of patients with low wear, 87% of subjects with moderate wear, and 73% of subjects with high wear based on a combination of gait and positioning variables. For every wear level, multiple linear and nonlinear regression showed strong associations between gait biomechanics, implant positioning, and wear rate, with the nonlinear model having a higher prediction accuracy. Flexion-extension ROM and hip moments in the sagittal and transverse planes explained 42% to 60% of wear rate while positioning factors, (such as cup medialization and cup inclination angle) explained only 10% to 33%. Patient-specific wear rates are associated with patients' gait patterns. Gait pattern has a greater influence on wear than component positioning for traditional metal-on-polyethylene bearings. The consideration of individual gait bears potential to further reduce implant wear in THR. In the future, a predictive wear model may identify individual, modifiable wear factors for modern materials.

  7. Variations in Kinematics during Clinical Gait Analysis in Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Boudarham; Nicolas Roche; Didier Pradon; Céline Bonnyaud; Djamel Bensmail; Raphael Zory

    2013-01-01

    In addition to changes in spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters, patients with stroke exhibit fear of falling as well as fatigability during gait. These changes could compromise interpretation of data from gait analysis. The aim of this study was to determine if the gait of hemiplegic patients changes significantly over successive gait trials. Forty two stroke patients and twenty healthy subjects performed 9 gait trials during a gait analysis session. The mean and variability of spatio-tem...

  8. Gait training facilitates central drive to ankle dorsiflexors in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Tue Hvass; Farmer, Simon Francis; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Foot drop and toe walking are frequent concerns in children with cerebral palsy. The main underlying cause of these problems is early damage and lack of maturation of the corticospinal tract. In the present study we investigated whether 4 weeks of daily treadmill training with an incline may facilitate corticospinal transmission and improve the control of the ankle joint in children with cerebral palsy. Sixteen children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Classification System I:6, II:6, III:4) aged 5–14 years old, were recruited for the study. Evaluation of gait ability and intramuscular coherence was made twice before and twice after training with an interval of 1 month. Gait kinematics were recorded by 3D video analysis during treadmill walking with a velocity chosen by the child at the first evaluation. Foot pressure was measured by force sensitive foot soles during treadmill and over ground walking. EMG-EMG coherence was calculated from two separate electrode recordings placed over the tibialis anterior muscle. Training involved 30 min of walking daily on a treadmill with an incline for 30 days. Gait training was accompanied by significant increases in gait speed, incline on the treadmill, the maximal voluntary dorsiflexion torque, the number and amplitude of toe lifts late in the swing phase during gait and the weight exerted on the heel during the early stance phase of the gait cycle. EMG-EMG coherence in the beta and gamma frequency bands recorded from tibialis anterior muscle increased significantly when compared to coherence before training. The largest changes in coherence with training were observed for children children with cerebral palsy. We propose that intensive gait training may produce plastic changes in the corticospinal tract, which are responsible for improvements in gait function. PMID:25623137

  9. Identification of gait domains and key gait variables following hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thingstad, Pernille; Egerton, Thorlene; Ihlen, Espen F; Taraldsen, Kristin; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Helbostad, Jorunn L

    2015-11-18

    Restoration of gait is an important goal of rehabilitation after hip fracture. Numerous spatial and temporal gait variables have been reported in the literature, but beyond gait speed, there is little agreement on which gait variables should be reported and which are redundant in describing gait recovery following hip fracture. The aims of this study were to identify distinct domains of gait and key variables representing these domains, and to explore how known predictors of poor outcome after hip fracture were associated with these key variables. Spatial and temporal gait variables were collected four months following hip fracture in 249 participants using an electronic walkway (GAITRite®). From the initial set of 31 gait variables, 16 were selected following a systematic procedure. An explorative factor analysis with oblique (oblimin) rotation was performed, using principal component analysis for extraction of factors. Unique domains of gait and the variable best representing these domains were identified. Multiple regression analyses including six predictors; age, gender, fracture type, pain, global cognitive function and grip strength were performed for each of the identified key gait variables. Mean age of participants was 82.6 (SD = 6.0) years, 75 % were women, and mean gait speed was 0.6 (SD = 0.2) m/sec. The factor analysis revealed four distinct gait domains, and the key variables that best represented these domains were double support time, walk ratio, variability of step velocity, and single support asymmetry. Cognitive decline, low grip strength, extra capsular fracture and male gender, but not pain or age, were significant predictors of impaired gait. This work proposes four key variables to represent gait of older people after hip fracture. These core variables were associated with known predictors of poor outcome after hip fracture and should warrant further assessment to confirm their importance as outcome variables in addition to gait

  10. Gait performance and foot pressure distribution during wearable robot-assisted gait in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Hyun; Lee, Hwang-Jae; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Byung-Ok; Lee, Jusuk; Kim, Jeonghun; Ryu, Gyu-Ha; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-11-28

    A robotic exoskeleton device is an intelligent system designed to improve gait performance and quality of life for the wearer. Robotic technology has developed rapidly in recent years, and several robot-assisted gait devices were developed to enhance gait function and activities of daily living in elderly adults and patients with gait disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of the Gait-enhancing Mechatronic System (GEMS), a new wearable robotic hip-assist device developed by Samsung Electronics Co, Ltd., Korea, on gait performance and foot pressure distribution in elderly adults. Thirty elderly adults who had no neurological or musculoskeletal abnormalities affecting gait participated in this study. A three-dimensional (3D) motion capture system, surface electromyography and the F-Scan system were used to collect data on spatiotemporal gait parameters, muscle activity and foot pressure distribution under three conditions: free gait without robot assistance (FG), robot-assisted gait with zero torque (RAG-Z) and robot-assisted gait (RAG). We found increased gait speed, cadence, stride length and single support time in the RAG condition. Reduced rectus femoris and medial gastrocnemius muscle activity throughout the terminal stance phase and reduced effort of the medial gastrocnemius muscle throughout the pre-swing phase were also observed in the RAG condition. In addition, walking with the assistance of GEMS resulted in a significant increase in foot pressure distribution, specifically in maximum force and peak pressure of the total foot, medial masks, anterior masks and posterior masks. The results of the present study reveal that GEMS may present an alternative way of restoring age-related changes in gait such as gait instability with muscle weakness, reduced step force and lower foot pressure in elderly adults. In addition, GEMS improved gait performance by improving push-off power and walking speed and reducing muscle activity in the lower

  11. First signs of elderly gait for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Wiszomirska, Ida; Błażkiewicz, Michalina; Wychowański, Michał; Wit, Andrzej

    2017-06-27

    The aims of this study have been twofold: to attempt to reduce the number of spatiotemporal parameters used for describing gait through the factor analysis and component analysis; and to explore the critical age of decline for other gait parameters for healthy women. A total of 106 women (aged ≥ 40 years old (N = 76) and ≤ 31 years old (N = 30)) were evaluated using a pressure-sensitive mat (Zebris Medical System, Tübingen, Germany) for collecting spatiotemporal gait parameters. The factor analysis identified 2 factors - labelled Time and Rhythm - that accounted for 72% of the variation in significant free-gait parameters; the principal component analysis identified 4 of these parameters that permit full clinical evaluation of gait quality. No difference was found between the groups in terms of the values of parameters reflecting the temporal nature of gait (Rhythm), namely step time, stride time and cadence, whereas significant differences were found for total double support phase (p gait, we selected 3 parameters: total double support, stride time and velocity. We concluded that the women taking part in the experiment manifested significant signs of senile gait after the age of 60 years old, with the first symptoms thereof already manifesting themselves after 50 years of age. We show that among 26 spatiotemporal parameters that may be used for characterizing gait, at least a half of them may be omitted in the assessment of gait correctness; a finding that may be useful in clinical practice. The finding that the onset of senile gait occurs in the case of women after the age of 60 years old, in turn, may be useful in evaluating the ability for performing types of physical work that mainly require ambulation. Med Pr 2017;68(4):441-448.

  12. The influence of orthotic gait training with an isocentric reciprocating gait orthosis on the walking ability of paraplegic patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadian, M; Arazpour, M; Ahmadi Bani, M; Pouyan, A; Bahramizadeh, M; Hutchins, S W

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of walking with an isocentric reciprocating gait orthosis (IRGO) by spinal cord injury (SCI) patients on walking speed, distance walked and energy consumption whilst participating in a 12-week gait re-training program. Six people with motor complete SCI (mean age 29 years, weight 63 kg and height 160 cm with injury levels ranging from T8 to T12) participated in this study. Gait evaluation was performed at baseline and after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Walking speed and heart rate were measured to calculate the resulting physiological cost index (PCI). Reductions in energy consumption were observed after 4, 8 and 12 weeks compared with baseline but were not significant. However, walking distance increased significantly (P=0.010, P=0.003 and P=0.005, respectively) and also did so during the 8-12-week period (P=0.013). Walking speed also improved, but not significantly. Intensive gait training with the IRGO improved walking speed and the distance walked by paraplegics, as well as reducing the PCI of walking, as compared with baseline during the whole 12-week period. This indicates that further improvements in these parameters may be expected when utilizing gait training longer than 8 weeks.

  13. Developing a portable gait cycle detection system using an inertial sensor and evaluating the accuracy of the gait cycle detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Hwa; Kwak, Ki-Young; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Although researches had analyzed gait using small sensors, they analyzed only normal gaits. Thus, a research that can overcome the spatial limitations of the existing motion analyses and diagnose abnormal gaits for medical treatment is needed. Accordingly, this research developed the portable gait detection system that can detect gait using a gyroscope, and evaluated the accuracy of the system. The results showed an average recognition error rate of 1.7% for the normal and abnormal gaits, and confirmed that the gait cycle was detected with a high degree of accuracy. Using these characteristics, we could distinguish or diagnose, and treat, an abnormal gait.

  14. Variability and similarity of gait as evaluated by joint angles: implications for forensic gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-03-01

    Closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage is used in criminal investigations to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, incomplete gait cycles are collected, making evidential gait analysis challenging. This study aimed to analyze the discriminatory power of joint angles throughout a gait cycle. Six sets from 12 men were collected. For each man, a variability range VR (mean ± 1SD) of a specific joint angle at a specific time point (a gait cycle was 100 time points) was calculated. In turn, each individual was compared with the 11 others, and whenever 1 of these 11 had a value within this individual’s VR, it counted as positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, we created simple bar graphs; tall bars indicated a small discriminatory power, short bars indicated a larger one. The highest discriminatory power was at time points 60–80 in the gait cycle. We show how our data can assess gait data from an actual case.

  15. Effectiveness of elastic band-type ankle–foot orthoses on postural control in poststroke elderly patients as determined using combined measurement of the stability index and body weight-bearing ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jong Hyun Kim, Woo Sang Sim, Byeong Hee Won Usability Evaluation Technology Center, Advanced Biomedical and Welfare R&D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea Purpose: Poor recovery of postural stability poststroke is the primary cause of impairment in activities and social participation in elderly stroke survivors. The purpose of our study was to experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of our new elastic ankle–foot orthosis (AFO, compared to a traditional AFO fabricated with hard plastic, in improving postural stability in elderly chronic stroke survivors. Patients and methods: Postural stability was evaluated in ten chronic stroke patients, 55.7±8.43 years old. Postural stability was evaluated using the standardized methods of the Biodex Balance System combined with a foot pressure system, under three experimental conditions, no AFO, rigid plastic AFO, and elastic AFO (E-AFO. The following dependent variables of postural stability were analyzed: plantar pressure under the paretic and nonparetic foot, area of the center of balance (COB and % time spent in each location, distance traveled by the COB away from the body center, distance traveled by the center of pressure, and calculated index of overall stability, as well as indices anterior–posterior and medial–lateral stability. Results: Both AFO designs improved all indices of postural stability. Compared to the rigid plastic AFO, the E-AFO produced additional positive effects in controlling anterior–posterior body sway, equalizing weight bearing through the paretic and nonparetic limbs, and restraining the displacement of the center of pressure and of the COB. Conclusion: Based on our outcomes, we recommend the prescription of E-AFOs as part of a physiotherapy rehabilitation program to promote recovery of postural stability poststroke. When possible, therapeutic outcomes should be documented using the Biodex Balance System and

  16. Integrating participatory ergonomic management in non-weight-bearing exercise and progressive resistance exercise on self-care and functional ability in aged farmers with knee osteoarthritis: a clustered randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaramalai SA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sang-arun Isaramalai,1 Kanokwan Hounsri,1 Chanon Kongkamol,2 Pornnit Wattanapisitkul,3 Napaporn Tangadulrat,3 Tippawan Kaewmanee,3 Varah Yuenyongviwat4 1Research Center for Caring System of Thai Elderly, Faculty of Nursing, 2Research Unit of Holistic Health and Safety Management in Community, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Physical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand Background: Ergonomic hazards are the most important cause of knee osteoarthritis (OA in aged para rubber farmers. Ergonomic management comprising improvement of working conditions and muscle-strengthening exercise has been well documented in terms of workers’ health benefit. However, those interventions were not adequate to sustain the advantage. Few studies have demonstrated the effect of integrating participatory ergonomic management (PEM in non-weight-bearing exercise (NWE and progressive resistance exercise (PRE, and none has focused on aged para rubber farmers with knee OA.Purpose: This study investigated the effect of PEM-NWE, PEM-PRE, and standard treatment (ST on self-care and functional ability in the aged population.Materials and methods: A single-blinded, clustered randomized controlled trial was carried out. Participants (n=75 from three different communities in southern Thailand were randomly assigned to PEM-NWE, PEM-PRE, and ST. Self-care and functional ability (pain, stiffness, and physical function were examined at baseline (B, during the intervention at Week 5 (W5, and after its completion at Week 9 (W9. Mean comparison of those outcomes over time was made using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs.Results: Compared to the standard treatment, the means of both groups, PEM-NWE and PEM-PRE, were significantly increased in self-care and functional ability. However, no significant difference between PEM-NWE and PEM-PRE was found

  17. Describing gait as a sequence of states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forner Cordero, A.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; van der Helm, F.C.T.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, gait analysis has been based on normalizing the stride time to a percentage and then averaging several strides measured under the same conditions. This procedure relies on the questionable assumptions that gait is a cyclic movement with superimposed noise and that there is no

  18. Surface electromyography analysis for variable gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roetenberg, D.; Buurke, Jaap; Veltink, Petrus H.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Forner Cordero, A.

    2003-01-01

    The surface electromyographic (SEMG) signal obtained during gait is often presented as the SEMG profile, the average SEMG activation pattern during one gait cycle. A disadvantage of this method is that it omits the step-to-step variability of the timing of the muscle activation patterns that might

  19. Bipedal walking gait with variable stiffness knees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozing, W.; Carloni, Raffaella

    The Segmented Spring-Loaded Inverted Pendulum model is analysed, and it is shown that it exhibits walking gait. We propose a control architecture that exploits control of the knee stiffness to provide robustness of the system with respect to changes in gait. This controller is extended for a

  20. Person identification by gait analysis and photogrammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Vedel, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Surveillance images from a bank robbery were analyzed and compared with images of a suspect. Based on general bodily features, gait and anthropometric measurements, we were able to conclude that one of the perpetrators showed strong resemblance to the suspect. Both exhibited a gait characterized ...

  1. Gait Analysis by High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Andre; van Dongen, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Human walking is a complicated motion. Movement scientists have developed various research methods to study gait. This article describes how a high school student collected and analysed high quality gait data in much the same way that movement scientists do, via the recording and measurement of motions with a video analysis tool and via…

  2. The Effects of Visual Feedback Distortion with Unilateral Leg Loading on Gait Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Carlos; Martinez, Eva; Rhouni, Nada; Kim, Seung-Jae

    2018-02-01

    Our prior work provides evidence that visual feedback distortion drives an implicit adaptation; a gradual distortion of visual representation of step length modulated subjects' step lengths away from symmetry. To further explore the effect of the visual feedback distortion on unconscious change in step symmetry, we investigated whether such adaptation would occur even in the presence of altered limb mechanics by adding mass to one side of the leg. 26 subjects performed three 8-min trials (weight only, weight plus visual feedback, and weight plus visual feedback distortion) of treadmill walking. During the weight only trial, the subjects wore a 5 lb mass around the right ankle. The modification of limb inertia caused asymmetric gait. The visual feedback showing right and left step length information as bar graphs was displayed on a computer screen. To add visual feedback distortion, we increased the length of one side of the visual bars by 10% above the actual step length, and the visual distortion was implemented for the side that took longer in response to the added mass. We found that even when adjustments were made to unilateral loading, the subjects spontaneously changed their step symmetry in response to the visual distortion, which resulted in a more symmetric gait. This change may be characterized by sensory prediction errors, and our results suggest that visual feedback distortion has a significant impact on gait symmetry regardless of other conditions affecting limb mechanics. A rehabilitation program employing visual feedback distortion may provide an effective way to restore gait symmetry.

  3. Foil Bearing Stiffness Estimation with Pseudospectral Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compliant foil gas lubricated bearings are used for the support of light loads in the order of few kilograms at high speeds, in the order of 50,000 RPM. The stiffness of the foil bearings depends both on the stiffness of the compliant foil and on the lubricating gas film. The stiffness of the bearings plays a crucial role in the stable operation of the supported rotor over a range of speeds. This paper describes a numerical approach to estimate the stiffness of the bearings using pseudo spectral scheme. Methodology to obtain the stiffness of the foil bearing as a function of weight of the shaft is given and the results are presented.

  4. Investigation of first ray mobility during gait by kinematic fluoroscopic imaging-a novel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heiner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is often suggested that sagittal instability at the first tarso-metatarsal joint level is a primary factor for hallux valgus and that sagittal instability increases with the progression of the deformity. The assessment of the degree of vertical instability is usually made by clinical evaluation while any measurements mostly refer to a static assessment of medial ray mobility (i.e. the plantar/dorsal flexion in the sagittal plane. Testing methods currently available cannot attribute the degree of mobility to the corresponding anatomical joints making up the medial column of the foot. The aim of this study was to develop a technique which allows for a quantification of the in-vivo sagittal mobility of the joints of the medial foot column during the roll-over process under full weight bearing. Methods Mobility of first ray bones was investigated by dynamic distortion-free fluoroscopy (25 frames/s of 14 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with manifested clinical instability of the first ray. A CAD-based evaluation method allowed the determination of mobility and relative displacements and rotations of the first ray bones within the sagittal plane during the stance phase of gait. Results Total flexion of the first ray was found to be 13.63 (SD 6.14 mm with the healthy volunteers and 13.06 (SD 8.01 mm with the patients (resolution: 0.245 mm/pixel. The dorsiflexion angle was 5.27 (SD 2.34 degrees in the healthy volunteers and increased to 5.56 (SD 3.37 degrees in the patients. Maximum rotations were found at the naviculo-cuneiform joints and least at the first tarso-metatarsal joint level in both groups. Conclusions Dynamic fluoroscopic assessment has been shown to be a valuable tool for characterisation of the kinematics of the joints of the medial foot column during gait. A significant difference in first ray flexion and angular rotation between the patients and healthy volunteers however could not be found.

  5. Probabilistic combination of static and dynamic gait features for verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Alex I.; Nixon, Mark S.

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes a novel probabilistic framework for biometric identification and data fusion. Based on intra and inter-class variation extracted from training data, posterior probabilities describing the similarity between two feature vectors may be directly calculated from the data using the logistic function and Bayes rule. Using a large publicly available database we show the two imbalanced gait modalities may be fused using this framework. All fusion methods tested provide an improvement over the best modality, with the weighted sum rule giving the best performance, hence showing that highly imbalanced classifiers may be fused in a probabilistic setting; improving not only the performance, but also generalized application capability.

  6. A visão do ortopedista brasileiro sobre a descarga parcial de peso em ortostase nas fraturas expostas da diáfise da tíbia após osteossíntese The view of Brazilian orthopedists on partial weight bearing in open fractures of the tibial shaft following osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria R. G. Sella

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: As fraturas da diáfise da tíbia são as mais frequentes dentre as dos ossos longos. Há descrições na literatura, de acordo com o método e dispositivo de tratamento, com recomendações que vão desde a descarga total até a proibição do suporte de peso corporal em ortostase. Existem estudos comparando os dispositivos de osteossíntese e os diversos aspectos cirúrgicos, porém não são encontradas referências que descrevam como e quando se deve liberar a descarga sobre o membro acometido na posição ortostática. OBJETIVOS: Verificar, entre os ortopedistas brasileiros, qual ou quais são os métodos de osteossíntese adotados para o tratamento de fraturas expostas de tíbia, se indicam o tratamento fisioterápico, quando e quais fatores influem para liberar a descarga parcial em ortostase, tanto para a função quanto para a fisioterapia. MÉTODOS: 235 ortopedistas responderam a um questionário durante o XIV Congresso Brasileiro de Trauma Ortopédico. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que, no Brasil, o dispositivo de osteossíntese mais utilizado é o fixador externo (FE, porém a descarga de peso em pé ocorre mais precocemente quando são utilizadas as hastes intramedulares. A grande maioria dos ortopedistas indica fisioterapia, e o período para liberação de descarga de peso parcial em ortostatismo varia de acordo com o material de síntese utilizado. Conclusões: Concluiu-se que há preferência pelos FEs, a grande maioria indica tratamento fisioterápico e o material de síntese influencia o tempo de liberação de descarga parcial de peso em ortostatismo.BACKGROUND: Tibial shaft fractures are the most frequent among long bone fractures. They are described in the literature according to the device and method of treatment, with recommendations that range from full weight bearing to non-weight bearing restrictions. There are studies comparing osteosynthesis devices and surgical aspects, but no references

  7. Instrumented gait analysis: a measure of gait improvement by a wheeled walker in hospitalized geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülein, Samuel; Barth, Jens; Rampp, Alexander; Rupprecht, Roland; Eskofier, Björn M; Winkler, Jürgen; Gaßmann, Karl-Günter; Klucken, Jochen

    2017-02-27

    In an increasing aging society, reduced mobility is one of the most important factors limiting activities of daily living and overall quality of life. The ability to walk independently contributes to the mobility, but is increasingly restricted by numerous diseases that impair gait and balance. The aim of this cross-sectional observation study was to examine whether spatio-temporal gait parameters derived from mobile instrumented gait analysis can be used to measure the gait stabilizing effects of a wheeled walker (WW) and whether these gait parameters may serve as surrogate marker in hospitalized patients with multifactorial gait and balance impairment. One hundred six patients (ages 68-95) wearing inertial sensor equipped shoes passed an instrumented walkway with and without gait support from a WW. The walkway assessed the risk of falling associated gait parameters velocity, swing time, stride length, stride time- and double support time variability. Inertial sensor-equipped shoes measured heel strike and toe off angles, and foot clearance. The use of a WW improved the risk of spatio-temporal parameters velocity, swing time, stride length and the sagittal plane associated parameters heel strike and toe off angles in all patients. First-time users (FTUs) showed similar gait parameter improvement patterns as frequent WW users (FUs). However, FUs with higher levels of gait impairment improved more in velocity, stride length and toe off angle compared to the FTUs. The impact of a WW can be quantified objectively by instrumented gait assessment. Thus, objective gait parameters may serve as surrogate markers for the use of walking aids in patients with gait and balance impairments.

  8. IMU-Based Gait Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Multi-Sensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Dehzangi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wide spread usage of wearable sensors such as in smart watches has provided continuous access to valuable user generated data such as human motion that could be used to identify an individual based on his/her motion patterns such as, gait. Several methods have been suggested to extract various heuristic and high-level features from gait motion data to identify discriminative gait signatures and distinguish the target individual from others. However, the manual and hand crafted feature extraction is error prone and subjective. Furthermore, the motion data collected from inertial sensors have complex structure and the detachment between manual feature extraction module and the predictive learning models might limit the generalization capabilities. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for human gait identification using time-frequency (TF expansion of human gait cycles in order to capture joint 2 dimensional (2D spectral and temporal patterns of gait cycles. Then, we design a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN learning to extract discriminative features from the 2D expanded gait cycles and jointly optimize the identification model and the spectro-temporal features in a discriminative fashion. We collect raw motion data from five inertial sensors placed at the chest, lower-back, right hand wrist, right knee, and right ankle of each human subject synchronously in order to investigate the impact of sensor location on the gait identification performance. We then present two methods for early (input level and late (decision score level multi-sensor fusion to improve the gait identification generalization performance. We specifically propose the minimum error score fusion (MESF method that discriminatively learns the linear fusion weights of individual DCNN scores at the decision level by minimizing the error rate on the training data in an iterative manner. 10 subjects participated in this study and hence, the problem is a 10-class

  9. IMU-Based Gait Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Multi-Sensor Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehzangi, Omid; Taherisadr, Mojtaba; ChangalVala, Raghvendar

    2017-11-27

    The wide spread usage of wearable sensors such as in smart watches has provided continuous access to valuable user generated data such as human motion that could be used to identify an individual based on his/her motion patterns such as, gait. Several methods have been suggested to extract various heuristic and high-level features from gait motion data to identify discriminative gait signatures and distinguish the target individual from others. However, the manual and hand crafted feature extraction is error prone and subjective. Furthermore, the motion data collected from inertial sensors have complex structure and the detachment between manual feature extraction module and the predictive learning models might limit the generalization capabilities. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for human gait identification using time-frequency (TF) expansion of human gait cycles in order to capture joint 2 dimensional (2D) spectral and temporal patterns of gait cycles. Then, we design a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) learning to extract discriminative features from the 2D expanded gait cycles and jointly optimize the identification model and the spectro-temporal features in a discriminative fashion. We collect raw motion data from five inertial sensors placed at the chest, lower-back, right hand wrist, right knee, and right ankle of each human subject synchronously in order to investigate the impact of sensor location on the gait identification performance. We then present two methods for early (input level) and late (decision score level) multi-sensor fusion to improve the gait identification generalization performance. We specifically propose the minimum error score fusion (MESF) method that discriminatively learns the linear fusion weights of individual DCNN scores at the decision level by minimizing the error rate on the training data in an iterative manner. 10 subjects participated in this study and hence, the problem is a 10-class identification task

  10. Gait transitions in simulated reduced gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Yuri P; Labini, Francesca Sylos; Cappellini, Germana; Macellari, Velio; McIntyre, Joseph; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Gravity has a strong effect on gait and the speed of gait transitions. A gait has been defined as a pattern of locomotion that changes discontinuously at the transition to another gait. On Earth, during gradual speed changes, humans exhibit a sudden discontinuous switch from walking to running at a specific speed. To study the effects of altered gravity on both the stance and swing legs, we developed a novel unloading exoskeleton that allows a person to step in simulated reduced gravity by tilting the body relative to the vertical. Using different simulation techniques, we confirmed that at lower gravity levels the transition speed is slower (in accordance with the previously reported Froude number ∼0.5). Surprisingly, however, we found that at lower levels of simulated gravity the transition between walking and running was generally gradual, without any noticeable abrupt change in gait parameters. This was associated with a significant prolongation of the swing phase, whose duration became virtually equal to that of stance in the vicinity of the walk-run transition speed, and with a gradual shift from inverted-pendulum gait (walking) to bouncing gait (running).

  11. Methods to temporally align gait cycle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Nathaniel E; Hong, Sungjin; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Polk, John D

    2011-02-03

    The need for the temporal alignment of gait cycle data is well known; however, there is little consensus concerning which alignment method to use. In this paper, we discuss the pros and cons of some methods commonly applied to temporally align gait cycle data (normalization to percent gait cycle, dynamic time warping, derivative dynamic time warping, and piecewise alignment methods). In addition, we empirically evaluate these different methods' abilities to produce successful temporal alignment when mapping a test gait cycle trajectory to a target trajectory. We demonstrate that piecewise temporal alignment techniques outperform other commonly used alignment methods (normalization to percent gait cycle, dynamic time warping, and derivative dynamic time warping) in typical biomechanical and clinical alignment tasks. Lastly, we present an example of how these piecewise alignment techniques make it possible to separately examine intensity and temporal differences between gait cycle data throughout the entire gait cycle, which can provide greater insight into the complexities of movement patterns. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring phase dependent functional gait variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Daniel; Hamacher, Dennis; Müller, Roy; Schega, Lutz; Zech, Astrid

    2017-04-01

    Gait variability is frequently used to evaluate the sensorimotor system and elderly fallers compared to non-fallers exhibit an altered variability in gait parameters during unchanged conditions. While gait variability is often interpreted as movement error, it is also necessary to change the gait pattern in order to react to internal and external perturbations. This phenomenon has been described as functional variability and ensures the stability of gait motor control. The aim of the current study is to explore the functional variability in relation to the different phases of the gait cycle (phase-dependent gait variability). Kinematics of the foot, shank and thigh were registered with inertial sensors (MTw2, Xsens Technologies B.V) in 25 older participants (70±6years) during normal overground walking. Phase-dependent variability was defined as the standard deviation of the Euclidean norm of the angular velocity data. To assess differences with respect to the variability of different body segments (foot, shank, and thigh), the statistical parametric mapping method was applied. In normal walking, the variability of the time-continuous foot kinematics during parts of the swing phase was higher compared to the shank (9-14% of swing phase, pgait. In fact, we found reduced variability in the time-continuous foot kinematics in mid swing during normal walking where also the minimum toe clearance event occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using visual stimuli to enhance gait control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Christopher K; Kuznetsov, Nikita A

    2017-01-01

    Gait control challenges commonly coincide with vestibular dysfunction and there is a long history in using balance and gait activities to enhance functional mobility in this population. While much has been learned using traditional rehabilitation exercises, there is a new line of research emerging that is using visual stimuli in a very specific way to enhance gait control. For example, avatars can be created in an individualized manner to incorporate specific gait characteristics. The avatar could then be used as a visual stimulus to which the patient can synchronize their own gait cycle. This line of research builds upon the rich history of sensorimotor control research in which augmented sensory information (visual, haptic, or auditory) is used to probe, and even enhance, human motor control. This review paper focuses on gait control challenges in patients with vestibular dysfunction, provides a brief historical perspective on how various visual displays have been used to probe sensorimotor and gait control, and offers some recommendations for future research.

  14. Gait variability: methods, modeling and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hausdorff Jeffrey M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of gait variability, the stride-to-stride fluctuations in walking, offers a complementary way of quantifying locomotion and its changes with aging and disease as well as a means of monitoring the effects of therapeutic interventions and rehabilitation. Previous work has suggested that measures of gait variability may be more closely related to falls, a serious consequence of many gait disorders, than are measures based on the mean values of other walking parameters. The Current JNER series presents nine reports on the results of recent investigations into gait variability. One novel method for collecting unconstrained, ambulatory data is reviewed, and a primer on analysis methods is presented along with a heuristic approach to summarizing variability measures. In addition, the first studies of gait variability in animal models of neurodegenerative disease are described, as is a mathematical model of human walking that characterizes certain complex (multifractal features of the motor control's pattern generator. Another investigation demonstrates that, whereas both healthy older controls and patients with a higher-level gait disorder walk more slowly in reduced lighting, only the latter's stride variability increases. Studies of the effects of dual tasks suggest that the regulation of the stride-to-stride fluctuations in stride width and stride time may be influenced by attention loading and may require cognitive input. Finally, a report of gait variability in over 500 subjects, probably the largest study of this kind, suggests how step width variability may relate to fall risk. Together, these studies provide new insights into the factors that regulate the stride-to-stride fluctuations in walking and pave the way for expanded research into the control of gait and the practical application of measures of gait variability in the clinical setting.

  15. Effects of Power Training on Mobility and Gait Biomechanics in Old Adults with Moderate Mobility Disability: Protocol and Design of the Potsdam Gait Study (POGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijersbergen, Chantal M I; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Beurskens, Rainer; Lenzen-Grossimlinghaus, Romana; Gäbler, Martijn; Granacher, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Walking speed decreases in old age. Even though old adults regularly participate in exercise interventions, we do not know how the intervention-induced changes in physical abilities produce faster walking. The Potsdam Gait Study (POGS) will examine the effects of 10 weeks of power training and detraining on leg muscle power and, for the first time, on complete gait biomechanics, including joint kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activation in old adults with moderate mobility disability. POGS is a randomized controlled trial with two arms, each crossed over, without blinding. Arm 1 starts with a 10-week control period to assess the reliability of the tests and is then crossed over to complete 25-30 training sessions over 10 weeks. Arm 2 completes 25-30 exercise sessions over 10 weeks, followed by a 10-week follow-up (detraining) period. The exercise program is designed to improve lower extremity muscle power. Main outcome measures are: muscle power, gait speed, and gait biomechanics measured at baseline and after 10 weeks of training and 10 weeks of detraining. It is expected that power training will increase leg muscle power measured by the weight lifted and by dynamometry, and these increased abilities become expressed in joint powers measured during gait. Such favorably modified powers will underlie the increase in step length, leading ultimately to a faster walking speed. POGS will increase our basic understanding of the biomechanical mechanisms of how power training improves gait speed in old adults with moderate levels of mobility disabilities. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Assessment of Gait Symmetry in Transfemoral Amputees Using C-Leg Compared With 3R60 Prosthetic Knees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas Overbeck; Comins, Jonathan David; Alkjaer, T

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate gait symmetry in transfemoral amputees using a hydraulic- and a microprocessor-controlled knee prosthesis. An A-B design with repeated measurements was chosen, and the measurements were carried out at a prosthetics/orthotics rehabilitation center. Nine...... was performed on the 3R60 prosthesis. The outcome measures were temporospatial symmetry, duration of single support on the sound side and the prosthetic side, and the introduced butterfly symmetry ratio. Spatial symmetry was not significantly different between the two prosthetic knees. Temporal symmetry...... unilateral transfemoral C-Leg bearing amputees participated in the study, of whom five subjects completed the study. Three-dimensional inverse dynamic gait analysis was performed on each subject. Each subject was then fitted with a 3R60 prosthesis. After a 1-week acclimation period, gait analysis...

  17. Teddy Bear Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Caldas-Coulthardt, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a semiotic analysis of a key cultural artefact, the teddy bear. After introducing the iconography of the teddy bear, it analyses different kinds of stories to show how teddy bears are endowed with meaning in everyday life: stories from children's books, reminiscenses by adults...... about their childhood teddy bears, and children's accounts of what they do with teddy bears, both written for school and told 'out of school', The chapter sees teddy bears as artefacts that provide a cultural channeling for the child's need of a transitional object and argues that the meanings of teddy...... bears have traditionally centred on interpersonal relations within the nuclear family, but have recently been institutionalized and commercialized....

  18. Relationships of Stroke Patients’ Gait Parameters with Fear of Falling

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jin; Yoo, Ingyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of gait parameters with fear of falling in stroke survivors. [Subjects] In total, 12 patients with stroke participated. [Methods] The subjects performed on a Biodex Gait Trainer 2 for 5 min to evaluate characteristic gait parameters. The kinematic gait parameters measured were gait speed, step cycle, step length, and time on each foot (step symmetry). All the subjects also completed a fall anxiety survey. [Results] Correlations...

  19. Asymmetry of Anticipatory Postural Adjustment During Gait Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraoka Koichi; Hatanaka Ryota; Nikaido Yasutaka; Jono Yasutomo; Nomura Yoshifumi; Tani Keisuke; Chujo Yuta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the...

  20. Equilibrium Condition during Locomotion and Gait in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCF Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating a methodology to estimate the angulation and equilibrium condition, relating them to gait score and the main diseases of the locomotion system in males and females of commercial broiler strains. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial arrangement (2x2 was applied, consisting of two sexes and two genetic strains, with five replicates of 53 chickens each. The following characteristics related to broiler locomotion were studied: gait score (GS; incidence of Valgus (VAL and Varus (VAR deformities and of pododermatitis (POD; body angle relative the ground (ANG; equilibrium condition (EC; body weight (BW and breast weight (BrW; and incidence of femoral degeneration (FD, tibial dyschondroplasia (TD and spondylolisthesis (SPO. GS, and VAL and VAR were assessed inside a broiler house. Birds were then photographed to estimate ANG and EC. Birds were sacrificed at 42 days of age and analyzed for FD, TD, and SPO. Breast percentage was not influenced by sex or strain. Males showed better ANG than females, regardless of strain. Overall, the strains studied showed prostrated EC. The correlation between GS and the evaluated traits was low. There was a moderate to high association between EC and ANG both in males and females. GS showed low correlation with locomotion problems, and therefore, it is a poor indicator of skeletal diseases. On the other hand, the moderate to high correlations of ANG and EC with locomotion problems make them better indicators of bone diseases than gait score, which is possibly more related to EC and body posture than to bone pathologies.

  1. Controlling patient participation during robot-assisted gait training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerli Lukas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall goal of this paper was to investigate approaches to controlling active participation in stroke patients during robot-assisted gait therapy. Although active physical participation during gait rehabilitation after stroke was shown to improve therapy outcome, some patients can behave passively during rehabilitation, not maximally benefiting from the gait training. Up to now, there has not been an effective method for forcing patient activity to the desired level that would most benefit stroke patients with a broad variety of cognitive and biomechanical impairments. Methods Patient activity was quantified in two ways: by heart rate (HR, a physiological parameter that reflected physical effort during body weight supported treadmill training, and by a weighted sum of the interaction torques (WIT between robot and patient, recorded from hip and knee joints of both legs. We recorded data in three experiments, each with five stroke patients, and controlled HR and WIT to a desired temporal profile. Depending on the patient's cognitive capabilities, two different approaches were taken: either by allowing voluntary patient effort via visual instructions or by forcing the patient to vary physical effort by adapting the treadmill speed. Results We successfully controlled patient activity quantified by WIT and by HR to a desired level. The setup was thereby individually adaptable to the specific cognitive and biomechanical needs of each patient. Conclusion Based on the three successful approaches to controlling patient participation, we propose a metric which enables clinicians to select the best strategy for each patient, according to the patient's physical and cognitive capabilities. Our framework will enable therapists to challenge the patient to more activity by automatically controlling the patient effort to a desired level. We expect that the increase in activity will lead to improved rehabilitation outcome.

  2. Variations in kinematics during clinical gait analysis in stroke patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Boudarham

    Full Text Available In addition to changes in spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters, patients with stroke exhibit fear of falling as well as fatigability during gait. These changes could compromise interpretation of data from gait analysis. The aim of this study was to determine if the gait of hemiplegic patients changes significantly over successive gait trials. Forty two stroke patients and twenty healthy subjects performed 9 gait trials during a gait analysis session. The mean and variability of spatio-temporal and kinematic joint parameters were analyzed during 3 groups of consecutive gait trials (1-3, 4-6 and 7-9. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of variables from the joint kinematic waveforms and to identify the parts of the gait cycle which changed during the gait analysis session. The results showed that i spontaneous gait velocity and the other spatio-temporal parameters significantly increased, and ii gait variability decreased, over the last 6 gait trials compared to the first 3, for hemiplegic patients but not healthy subjects. Principal component analysis revealed changes in the sagittal waveforms of the hip, knee and ankle for hemiplegic patients after the first 3 gait trials. These results suggest that at the beginning of the gait analysis session, stroke patients exhibited phase of adaptation,characterized by a "cautious gait" but no fatigue was observed.

  3. A Brain–Spinal Interface Alleviating Gait Deficits after Spinal Cord Injury in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogrosso, Marco; Milekovic, Tomislav; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Buse, Nicolas; Gandar, Jerome; Barraud, Quentin; Xing, David; Rey, Elodie; Duis, Simone; Jianzhong, Yang; Ko, Wai Kin D.; Li, Qin; Detemple, Peter; Denison, Tim; Micera, Silvestro; Bezard, Erwan; Bloch, Jocelyne; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury disrupts the communication between the brain and the spinal circuits that orchestrate movement. To bypass the lesion, brain–computer interfaces1–3 have directly linked cortical activity to electrical stimulation of muscles, which have restored grasping abilities after hand paralysis1,4. Theoretically, this strategy could also restore control over leg muscle activity for walking5. However, replicating the complex sequence of individual muscle activation patterns underlying natural and adaptive locomotor movements poses formidable conceptual and technological challenges6,7. Recently, we showed in rats that epidural electrical stimulation of the lumbar spinal cord can reproduce the natural activation of synergistic muscle groups producing locomotion8–10. Here, we interfaced leg motor cortex activity with epidural electrical stimulation protocols to establish a brain–spinal interface that alleviated gait deficits after a spinal cord injury in nonhuman primates. Rhesus monkeys were implanted with an intracortical microelectrode array into the leg area of motor cortex; and a spinal cord stimulation system composed of a spatially selective epidural implant and a pulse generator with real-time triggering capabilities. We designed and implemented wireless control systems that linked online neural decoding of extension and flexion motor states with stimulation protocols promoting these movements. These systems allowed the monkeys to behave freely without any restrictions or constraining tethered electronics. After validation of the brain–spinal interface in intact monkeys, we performed a unilateral corticospinal tract lesion at the thoracic level. As early as six days post-injury and without prior training of the monkeys, the brain–spinal interface restored weight-bearing locomotion of the paralyzed leg on a treadmill and overground. The implantable components integrated in the brain–spinal interface have all been approved for investigational

  4. Gait analysis before and after unilateral total knee arthroplasty. Study using a linear regression model of normal controls -- women without arthropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Tsuchida, T; Kitahara, H; Moriya, H

    1999-01-01

    Stepwise multiple regression analysis (forward method) was performed with 22 gait variables obtained from the free and slow gait of 35 normal controls (women without knee arthropathy). These 22 variables were target variables, and velocity, age, body height, and body weight were explanatory variables. Velocity showed the greatest effect on the gait variables, followed by weight, age, and height. Of the 22 target variables, 16 could be explained by a significant level of difference of P linear regression model of normal gait was then established, based on the judgment that these 16 gait variables were greatly affected by four variables -- velocity, age, height, and weight. Since this model does not perfectly represent the observed values, we compared the observed value/predicted value ratios in different groups to compensate for their differences. The free gait velocity in 20 osteoarthritic patients, 1 year or more after unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and who had no pain in the contralateral knee was lower than in the normal controls. In comparisons using linear regression models, step length was shorter, step width was longer, and gait cycle was shorter than in controls. Single support time was shorter and double support time was longer. Of the ground reaction forces, the first peak of the vertical component and the peak of the driving force of the fore-aft component were smaller than in controls. The total range of motion (TRM) in the stance phase was less than in controls. These results show quantitatively not only that the velocity of gait after TKA is lower than in normal controls, but also that gait patterns are different. In eight osteoarthritic patients assessed before and after TKA, and who had no pain in the contralateral knee, free gait velocity increased 6 months post-operation, but showed no further changes at 1 year. A linear regression study comparing the gait before TKA and 6 months post-TKA revealed that step time, single support time

  5. Gait and neuromuscular adaptations after using a feedback-based gait monitoring knee brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskowski, Jody L

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gait and neuromuscular effects of a feedback-based gait monitoring knee brace. The aim of this paper was to explore how training with this knee brace affected the gait pattern utilized, rate of loading (ROL), and proprioceptive acuity. Fifteen healthy women wore this knee brace that provided audible feedback on gait kinematics for a 30-min training period. We performed pre- and post-gait analyses and proprioceptive acuity assessments to determine gait learning and adaptation with this training. Post-training significant changes were seen in the knee angle prior to and at initial contact and peak knee extensor, flexor, and adductor moments, which ultimately led to a reduced ROL experienced. Subjects also had improved proprioceptive acuity post-training. Our results indicate that using a feedback-based gait monitoring knee brace can change the gait pattern by increasing the knee flexion angle during the swing to stance transition. Though there was an approximate 25% decrease in the ROL experienced, there was also an increase in the knee adductor moment. Future long-term studies are needed to further explore the positive and negative effects of feedback-based gait monitoring knee brace on individuals with a compromised knee joint, such as those post-anterior cruciate ligament injury. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gait-Event-Based Synchronization Method for Gait Rehabilitation Robots via a Bioinspired Adaptive Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Qi, Peng; Guo, Zhao; Yu, Haoyong

    2017-06-01

    In the field of gait rehabilitation robotics, achieving human-robot synchronization is very important. In this paper, a novel human-robot synchronization method using gait event information is proposed. This method includes two steps. First, seven gait events in one gait cycle are detected in real time with a hidden Markov model; second, an adaptive oscillator is utilized to estimate the stride percentage of human gait using any one of the gait events. Synchronous reference trajectories for the robot are then generated with the estimated stride percentage. This method is based on a bioinspired adaptive oscillator, which is a mathematical tool, first proposed to explain the phenomenon of synchronous flashing among fireflies. The proposed synchronization method is implemented in a portable knee-ankle-foot robot and tested in 15 healthy subjects. This method has the advantages of simple structure, flexible selection of gait events, and fast adaptation. Gait event is the only information needed, and hence the performance of synchronization holds when an abnormal gait pattern is involved. The results of the experiments reveal that our approach is efficient in achieving human-robot synchronization and feasible for rehabilitation robotics application.

  7. Autonomous Gait Event Detection with Portable Single-Camera Gait Kinematics Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-based nonwearable motion analysis systems have significantly advanced with robust objective measurement of the limb motion, resulting in quantified, standardized, and reliable outcome measures compared with traditional, semisubjective, observational gait analysis. However, the requirement for large laboratory space and operational expertise makes these systems impractical for gait analysis at local clinics and homes. In this paper, we focus on autonomous gait event detection with our bespoke, relatively inexpensive, and portable, single-camera gait kinematics analysis system. Our proposed system includes video acquisition with camera calibration, Kalman filter + Structural-Similarity-based marker tracking, autonomous knee angle calculation, video-frame-identification-based autonomous gait event detection, and result visualization. The only operational effort required is the marker-template selection for tracking initialization, aided by an easy-to-use graphic user interface. The knee angle validation on 10 stroke patients and 5 healthy volunteers against a gold standard optical motion analysis system indicates very good agreement. The autonomous gait event detection shows high detection rates for all gait events. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can automatically measure the knee angle and detect gait events with good accuracy and thus offer an alternative, cost-effective, and convenient solution for clinical gait kinematics analysis.

  8. Wearable sensors objectively measure gait parameters in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlachetzki, Johannes C M; Barth, Jens; Marxreiter, Franz; Gossler, Julia; Kohl, Zacharias; Reinfelder, Samuel; Gassner, Heiko; Aminian, Kamiar; Eskofier, Bjoern M; Winkler, Jürgen; Klucken, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Distinct gait characteristics like short steps and shuffling gait are prototypical signs commonly observed in Parkinson's disease. Routinely assessed by observation through clinicians, gait is rated as part of categorical clinical scores. There is an increasing need to provide quantitative measurements of gait, e.g. to provide detailed information about disease progression. Recently, we developed a wearable sensor-based gait analysis system as diagnostic tool that objectively assesses gait parameter in Parkinson's disease without the need of having a specialized gait laboratory. This system consists of inertial sensor units attached laterally to both shoes. The computed target of measures are spatiotemporal gait parameters including stride length and time, stance phase time, heel-strike and toe-off angle, toe clearance, and inter-stride variation from gait sequences. To translate this prototype into medical care, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 190 Parkinson's disease patients and 101 age-matched controls and measured gait characteristics during a 4x10 meter walk at the subjects' preferred speed. To determine intraindividual changes in gait, we monitored the gait characteristics of 63 patients longitudinally. Cross-sectional analysis revealed distinct spatiotemporal gait parameter differences reflecting typical Parkinson's disease gait characteristics including short steps, shuffling gait, and postural instability specific for different disease stages and levels of motor impairment. The longitudinal analysis revealed that gait parameters were sensitive to changes by mirroring the progressive nature of Parkinson's disease and corresponded to physician ratings. Taken together, we successfully show that wearable sensor-based gait analysis reaches clinical applicability providing a high biomechanical resolution for gait impairment in Parkinson's disease. These data demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of objective wearable sensor-based gait

  9. Toward understanding the limits of gait recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongyi; Malave, Laura; Osuntogun, Adebola; Sudhakar, Preksha; Sarkar, Sudeep

    2004-08-01

    Most state of the art video-based gait recognition algorithms start from binary silhouettes. These silhouettes, defined as foreground regions, are usually detected by background subtraction methods, which results in holes or missed parts due to similarity of foreground and background color, and boundary errors due to video compression artifacts. Errors in low-level representation make it hard to understand the effect of certain conditions, such as surface and time, on gait recognition. In this paper, we present a part-level, manual silhouette database consisting of 71 subjects, over one gait cycle, with differences in surface, shoe-type, carrying condition, and time. We have a total of about 11,000 manual silhouette frames. The purpose of this manual silhouette database is twofold. First, this is a resource that we make available at http://www.GaitChallenge.org for use by the gait community to test and design better silhouette detection algorithms. These silhouettes can also be used to learn gait dynamics. Second, using the baseline gait recognition algorithm, which was specified along with the HumanID Gait Challenge problem, we show that performance from manual silhouettes is similar and only sometimes better than that from automated silhouettes detected by statistical background subtraction. Low performances when comparing sequences with differences in walking surfaces and time-variation are not fully explained by silhouette quality. We also study the recognition power in each body part and show that recognition based on just the legs is equal to that from the whole silhouette. There is also significant recognition power in the head and torso shape.

  10. Bearing Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Health monitoring of bearings is a widely researched topic and has been attempted by analysing acoustic, thermal and vibration signatures. The methods usually require signal of a healthy bearing to be used as a baseline. This limits their use in practical scenarios. This work proposes a kurtosis based baseline free method of analysing vibration signals to identify the bearing which has generated a fault. It then reports a detailed study on empirical mode decomposition technique for extracting intrinsic mode functions and suggests a set of steps which are necessary and sufficient for the purpose of bearing health monitoring. Thereafter, it compares a few dominant frequencies with the expected ones based on known bearing dimensions. This process has been shown to be fairly accurate in identifying the location of fault in a bearing.

  11. Bearings: Technology and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A brief status report on bearing technology and present and near-term future problems that warrant research support is presented. For rolling element bearings a material with improved fracture toughness, life data in the low Lambda region, a comprehensive failure theory verified by life data and incorporated into dynamic analyses, and an improved corrosion resistant alloy are perceived as important needs. For hydrodynamic bearings better definition of cavitation boundaries and pressure distributions for squeeze film dampers, and geometry optimization for minimum power loss in turbulent film bearings are needed. For gas film bearings, foil bearing geometries that form more nearly optimum film shapes for maximum load capacity, and more effective surface protective coatings for high temperature operation are needed.

  12. Gait Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Snekkenes, Einar

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach, where gait is collected by the sensors attached to the person's body. Such wearable sensors record motion (e.g. acceleration) of the body parts during walking. The recorded motion signals are then investigated for person recognition purposes. We analyzed acceleration signals from the foot, hip, pocket and arm. Applying various methods, the best EER obtained for foot-, pocket-, arm- and hip- based user authentication were 5%, 7%, 10% and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, we present the results of our analysis on security assessment of gait. Studying gait-based user authentication (in case of hip motion) under three attack scenarios, we revealed that a minimal effort mimicking does not help to improve the acceptance chances of impostors. However, impostors who know their closest person in the database or the genders of the users can be a threat to gait-based authentication. We also provide some new insights toward the uniqueness of gait in case of foot motion. In particular, we revealed the following: a sideway motion of the foot provides the most discrimination, compared to an up-down or forward-backward directions; and different segments of the gait cycle provide different level of discrimination.

  13. Gait Disorders In Patients After Polytrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakušonoka Ruta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the gait of patients after polytrauma is important, as it indicates the ability of patients to the previous activities and work. The aim of our study was to evaluate the gait of patients with lower limb injuries in the medium-term after polytrauma. Three-dimensional instrumental gait analysis was performed in 26 polytrauma patients (16 women and 10 men; mean age 38.6 years, 14 to 41 months after the trauma. Spatio-temporal parameters, motions in pelvis and lower extremities joints in sagittal plane and vertical load ground reaction force were analysed. Gait parameters in polytrauma patients were compared with a healthy control group. Polytrauma patients in the injured side had decreased step length, cadence, hip extension, maximum knee flexion, vertical load ground reaction force, and increased stance time and pelvic anterior tilt; in the uninjured side they had decreased step length, cadence, maximum knee flexion, vertical load ground reaction force and increased stance time (p < 0.05. The use of the three-dimensional instrumental gait analysis in the evaluation of polytrauma patients with lower limb injuries consequences makes it possible to identify the gait disorders not only in the injured, but also in the uninjured side.

  14. Gait Partitioning Methods: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Taborri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, gait phase partitioning has come to be a challenging research topic due to its impact on several applications related to gait technologies. A variety of sensors can be used to feed algorithms for gait phase partitioning, mainly classifiable as wearable or non-wearable. Among wearable sensors, footswitches or foot pressure insoles are generally considered as the gold standard; however, to overcome some inherent limitations of the former, inertial measurement units have become popular in recent decades. Valuable results have been achieved also though electromyography, electroneurography, and ultrasonic sensors. Non-wearable sensors, such as opto-electronic systems along with force platforms, remain the most accurate system to perform gait analysis in an indoor environment. In the present paper we identify, select, and categorize the available methodologies for gait phase detection, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Finally, we comparatively examine the obtainable gait phase granularities, the usable computational methodologies and the optimal sensor placements on the targeted body segments.

  15. Gait Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davrondzhon Gafurov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach, where gait is collected by the sensors attached to the person's body. Such wearable sensors record motion (e.g. acceleration of the body parts during walking. The recorded motion signals are then investigated for person recognition purposes. We analyzed acceleration signals from the foot, hip, pocket and arm. Applying various methods, the best EER obtained for foot-, pocket-, arm- and hip- based user authentication were 5%, 7%, 10% and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, we present the results of our analysis on security assessment of gait. Studying gait-based user authentication (in case of hip motion under three attack scenarios, we revealed that a minimal effort mimicking does not help to improve the acceptance chances of impostors. However, impostors who know their closest person in the database or the genders of the users can be a threat to gait-based authentication. We also provide some new insights toward the uniqueness of gait in case of foot motion. In particular, we revealed the following: a sideway motion of the foot provides the most discrimination, compared to an up-down or forward-backward directions; and different segments of the gait cycle provide different level of discrimination.

  16. Polar bears, Ursus maritimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Stirling, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Polar bears are the largest of the eight species of bears found worldwide and are covered in a pigment-free fur giving them the appearance of being white. They are the most carnivorous of bear species consuming a high-fat diet, primarily of ice-associated seals and other marine mammals. They range throughout the circumpolar Arctic to the southernmost extent of seasonal pack ice.

  17. Variations in Kinematics during Clinical Gait Analysis in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Bonnyaud, Céline; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    In addition to changes in spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters, patients with stroke exhibit fear of falling as well as fatigability during gait. These changes could compromise interpretation of data from gait analysis. The aim of this study was to determine if the gait of hemiplegic patients changes significantly over successive gait trials. Forty two stroke patients and twenty healthy subjects performed 9 gait trials during a gait analysis session. The mean and variability of spatio-temporal and kinematic joint parameters were analyzed during 3 groups of consecutive gait trials (1–3, 4–6 and 7–9). Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of variables from the joint kinematic waveforms and to identify the parts of the gait cycle which changed during the gait analysis session. The results showed that i) spontaneous gait velocity and the other spatio-temporal parameters significantly increased, and ii) gait variability decreased, over the last 6 gait trials compared to the first 3, for hemiplegic patients but not healthy subjects. Principal component analysis revealed changes in the sagittal waveforms of the hip, knee and ankle for hemiplegic patients after the first 3 gait trials. These results suggest that at the beginning of the gait analysis session, stroke patients exhibited phase of adaptation,characterized by a “cautious gait” but no fatigue was observed. PMID:23799100

  18. Development of a novel virtual reality gait intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Anna E; Foreman, Matthew H; Engsberg, Jack R

    2017-02-01

    Improving gait speed and kinematics can be a time consuming and tiresome process. We hypothesize that incorporating virtual reality videogame play into variable improvement goals will improve levels of enjoyment and motivation and lead to improved gait performance. To develop a feasible, engaging, VR gait intervention for improving gait variables. Completing this investigation involved four steps: 1) identify gait variables that could be manipulated to improve gait speed and kinematics using the Microsoft Kinect and free software, 2) identify free internet videogames that could successfully manipulate the chosen gait variables, 3) experimentally evaluate the ability of the videogames and software to manipulate the gait variables, and 4) evaluate the enjoyment and motivation from a small sample of persons without disability. The Kinect sensor was able to detect stride length, cadence, and joint angles. FAAST software was able to identify predetermined gait variable thresholds and use the thresholds to play free online videogames. Videogames that involved continuous pressing of a keyboard key were found to be most appropriate for manipulating the gait variables. Five participants without disability evaluated the effectiveness for modifying the gait variables and enjoyment and motivation during play. Participants were able to modify gait variables to permit successful videogame play. Motivation and enjoyment were high. A clinically feasible and engaging virtual intervention for improving gait speed and kinematics has been developed and initially tested. It may provide an engaging avenue for achieving thousands of repetitions necessary for neural plastic changes and improved gait. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gait quality is improved by locomotor training in individuals with SCI regardless of training approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Hoeve Nienke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While various body weight supported locomotor training (BWSLT approaches are reported in the literature for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI, none have evaluated outcomes in terms of gait quality. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in measures of gait quality associated with four different BWSLT approaches in individuals with chronic motor-incomplete SCI, and to identify how gait parameters differed from those of non-disabled (ND individuals. Methods Data were analyzed from 51 subjects with SCI who had been randomized into one of four BWSLT groups: treadmill with manual assistance (TM, treadmill with electrical stimulation (TS, overground with electrical stimulation (OG, treadmill with locomotor robot (LR. Subjects with SCI performed a 10-meter kinematic walk test before and after 12 weeks of training. Ten ND subjects performed the test under three conditions: walking at preferred speed, at speed comparable to subjects with SCI, and with a walker at comparable speed. Six kinematic gait quality parameters were calculated including: cadence, step length, stride length, symmetry index, intralimb coordination, and timing of knee extension. Results In subjects with SCI, all training approaches were associated with improvements in gait quality. After training, subjects with SCI walked at higher cadence and had longer step and stride lengths. No significant differences were found among training groups, however there was an interaction effect indicating that step and stride length improved least in the LR group. Compared to when walking at preferred speed, gait quality of ND subjects was significantly different when walking at speeds comparable to those of the subjects with SCI (both with and without a walker. Post training, gait quality measures of subjects with SCI were more similar to those of ND subjects. Conclusion BWSLT leads to improvements in gait quality (values closer to ND subjects regardless of

  20. Correlation between balance and gait according to pelvic displacement in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seon Woong; Jeong, Yeon Woo; Kim, Jin Young

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations of balance and gait according to pelvic displacement in stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 58 stroke patients who had been admitted to a hospital. [Methods] A Global Postural System was used to measure pelvic displacement. To measure the balance ability, a Tetrax balance system was used to measure the weight distribution index and stability index. Gait ability was measured during the 10-Meter Walking Test and Figure-of-8 Walk Test. [Results] The results of this study showed that was significant positive correlation between the anterior superior iliac spine height difference in pelvic displacement and the weight distribution index and significant positive correlation between the posterior superior iliac spine height difference and the stability index in the normal position with the eyes closed. Statistically significant positive correlation also was found between the anterior superior iliac spine height difference and the straight and curved gait ability. [Conclusion] The increased pelvic displacement in stroke patients results in a decrease in balance ability and gait speed. This suggests that control of pelvic displacement is necessary before functional training for patients with stroke.

  1. Is Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease a Result of Multiple Gait Impairments? Implications for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Plotnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several gait impairments have been associated with freezing of gait (FOG in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. These include deteriorations in rhythm control, gait symmetry, bilateral coordination of gait, dynamic postural control and step scaling. We suggest that these seemingly independent gait features may have mutual interactions which, during certain circumstances, jointly drive the predisposed locomotion system into a FOG episode. This new theoretical framework is illustrated by the evaluation of the potential relationships between the so-called “sequence effect”, that is, impairments in step scaling, and gait asymmetry just prior to FOG. We further discuss what factors influence gait control to maintain functional gait. “Triggers”, for example, such as attention shifts or trajectory transitions, may precede FOG. We propose distinct categories of interventions and describe examples of existing work that support this idea: (a interventions which aim to maintain a good level of locomotion control especially with respect to aspects related to FOG; (b those that aim at avoiding FOG “triggers”; and (c those that merely aim to escape from FOG once it occurs. The proposed theoretical framework sets the stage for testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms that lead to FOG and may also lead to new treatment ideas.

  2. Individual selection of gait retraining strategies is essential to optimally reduce medial knee load during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Ing. Tim Gerbrands; B. Vanwanseele; M.F. Pisters

    2014-01-01

    Background: The progression of medial knee osteoarthritis seems closely related to a high external knee adduction moment, which could be reduced through gait retraining. We aimed to determine the retraining strategy that reduces this knee moment most effective during gait, and to determine if the

  3. Changes in Post-Stroke Gait Biomechanics Induced by One Session of Gait Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesar, T M; Reisman, D S; Higginson, J S; Awad, L N; Binder-Macleod, S A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether one session of targeted locomotor training can induce measurable improvements in the post-stroke gait impairments. Thirteen individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis participated in one locomotor training session combining fast treadmill training and functional electrical stimulation (FES) of ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexor muscles. Three dimensional gait analysis was performed to assess within-session changes (after versus before training) in gait biomechanics at the subject's self-selected speed without FES. Our results showed that one session of locomotor training resulted in significant improvements in peak anterior ground reaction force (AGRF) and AGRF integral for the paretic leg. Additionally, individual subject data showed that a majority of study participants demonstrated improvements in the primary outcome variables following the training session. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that a single session of intense, targeted post-stroke locomotor retraining can induce significant improvements in post-stroke gait biomechanics. We posit that the within-session changes induced by a single exposure to gait training can be used to predict whether an individual is responsive to a particular gait intervention, and aid with the development of individualized gait retraining strategies. Future studies are needed to determine whether these single-session improvements in biomechanics are accompanied by short-term changes in corticospinal excitability, and whether single-session responses can serve as predictors for the longer-term effects of the intervention with other targeted gait interventions.

  4. Gait analysis in Down syndrome pediatric patients using a sheet-type gait analyzer: Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Makiko; Aoki, Sayaka; Kamide, Anri; Miyamura, Kohei; Honda, Manami; Nagai, Akira; Mezawa, Hidetoshi; Hashimoto, Keiji

    2015-10-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS), who are likely to suffer from a large number of musculoskeletal problems, tend to have a unique pattern of walking in clinical settings. Despite such apparent uniqueness, few studies have empirically investigated gait development pattern in DS children, especially at an earlier age. We therefore conducted gait analysis in young DS children who are prescribed insoles, to explore how their gait patterns develop, using the gait parameters identified by Sutherland et al. as determinants of gait maturity of typical children. Participants consisted of 63 DS children (31 boys) aged 1-6 years (mean, 4 years 1 month) with a diagnosis of flat feet who were prescribed orthotic insoles. A 2.4 m sheet-type gait analyzer was used to analyze gait pattern. We measured the following variables: walking velocity (cm/min), cadence (steps/min), step length (cm), and single-limb stance phase ratio (%), and examined their relationship with age on regression analysis. Walking velocity and step length were significantly and positively related to age. Cadence was also significantly, but negatively associated with age. In contrast, SLS phase ratio did not have a statistically significant relationship with age. Down syndrome children have unique gait development patterns. Although walking velocity, cadence, and step length were found to develop with age, as in typical children, SLS phase ratio did not change with age in DS children. Further studies with a larger sample are necessary to replicate these findings. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Utilization of a lower extremity ambulatory feedback system to reduce gait asymmetry in transtibial amputation gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Dyer, P S; Carson, R J; Webster, J B; Bo Foreman, K; Bamberg, S J M

    2012-07-01

    The goal of our research is to augment gait rehabilitation for persons with gait asymmetry through a real-time feedback system that can be used independently by patients in the community. Our wireless, wearable, real-time gait asymmetry detection system called the lower extremity ambulatory feedback system (LEAFS) is a low-cost, in-shoe gait detection device that provides real-time auditory feedback based on the stance time symmetry ratio between the right and left limbs. This study evaluated the performance of the LEAFS in three study subjects with gait asymmetry secondary to unilateral transtibial amputation. Study subjects used the LEAFS for six 30-min training sessions under the supervision of a physical therapist. Two subjects demonstrated improved gait symmetry, with one subject reducing trunk sway by 85.5%, and the other subject reducing trunk sway by 16.0% and increasing symmetry ratio toward unity by 26.5%, as measured by a clinical motion analysis lab. The third subject did not demonstrate any objective improvements in gait symmetry or trunk sway. While testing with a larger number of subjects is necessary, this initial study using LEAFS with persons with transtibial amputations suggests that it can assist in improving gait symmetry in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. LOPES: Selective control of gait functions during the gait rehabilitation of CVA patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkelenkamp, R.; Veneman, J.F.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2005-01-01

    LOPES aims for an active role of the patient by selective and partial support of gait functions during robotic treadmill training sessions. Virtual model control (VMC) was applied to the robot as an intuitive method for translating current treadmill gait rehabilitation therapy programs into robotic

  7. Factors Leading to Improved Gait Function in Patients with Subacute or Chronic Central Nervous System Impairments Who Receive Functional Training with the Robot Suit Hybrid Assistive Limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Shigetaka; Kinjo, Yuki; Hokama, Yohei; Sugawara, Kenichi; Tsuchida, Yukio; Tominaga, Daisuke; Ishiuchi, Shogo

    2017-12-01

    The factors that lead to the improvement of gait function in patients with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) who use a hybrid assistive limb (HAL) are not yet fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze these factors to determine the prognosis of the patients' gait function. Patients whose CNS disease was within 180 days since onset were designated as the subacute-phase patients, and patients whose disease onset had occurred more than 180 days previously were designated as chronic-phase patients. Fifteen subacute-phase patients and 15 chronic-phase patients were given HAL training. The study analyzed how post-training walking independence in these patients was affected by the following factors: age, disease, lesion area, lower limb function, balance, period until the start of training, number of training sessions, additional rehabilitation, higher-order cognitive dysfunction, HAL model, and the use of a non-weight-bearing walking-aid. In subacute-phase patients, walking independence was related to lower limb function (rs = 0.35). In chronic-phase patients, there was a statistically significant correlation between post-training walking independence and balance (rs = 0.78). In addition, in patients with a severe motor dysfunction that was accompanied by inattention and global cognitive dysfunction, little improvement occurred, even with double-leg model training, because they had difficulty wearing the device. The results demonstrated that the factors that improved walking independence post HAL training differed between patients with subacute- and chronic-stage CNS diseases. The findings may serve as valuable information for future HAL training of patients with CNS diseases.

  8. Foot pressure analysis of adults with flat and normal feet at different gait speeds on an ascending slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the difference in foot pressures between flat and normal feet at different gait speeds on an ascending slope. [Subjects] This study enrolled 30 adults with normal (n=15) and flat feet (n=15), with ages from 21 to 30 years old, who had no history of neurological disorders or gait problems. A treadmill was used for the analysis of kinematic features during gait, using a slope of 10%, and gait velocities of slow, normal, and fast. [Methods] A foot pressure analyzer was used to measure changes in foot pressure. [Results] Compared to the normal subjects, the foot pressure of the flatfoot subjects showed a significant increase in the 2-3rd metatarsal region with increasing gait speed, whereas there were significant decreases in the 1st toe and 1st metatarsal regions with increasing gait speed. [Conclusion] The body weight of adults with flatfoot was concentrated on the 2-3rd metatarsal region during the stance phase and increased with walking speed on the ascending slope due to weakening of function of the medial longitudinal arch.

  9. Comparison of Gait Aspects According to FES Stimulation Position Applied to Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mun, Byeong-mu; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Jin-hwan; Lim, Jin-youg; Seo, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study sought to identify the gait aspects according to the FES stimulation position in stroke patients during gait training. [Subjects and Methods] To perform gait analysis, ten stroke patients were grouped based on 4 types of gait conditions: gait without FES stimulation (non-FES), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior (Ta), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and quadriceps (TaQ), and gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and gluteus m...

  10. Bears Arouse Interest in Microbiota's Role in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A; Suen, Garret; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-04-01

    The first report of the effect of hibernation on the gut microbiota of bears reveals trends both similar and distinct from those found in small hibernators. A model mouse system also suggested possible roles of the microbiota for healthy weight gain and insulin tolerance in bears during their active season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EcoBears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nick; Pedersen, Sandra Bleuenn; Sørensen, Jens Ager

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the EcoBears concept that aims to augment household appliances with functional and aesthetic features to promote their "use'' and "longevity of use'' to prevent their disposal. The EcoBears also aim to support the communication of environmental issues in the home setting...

  12. Impaired heel to toe progression during gait is related to reduced ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarakis, Michael; Greene, David; Moresi, Mark; Baker, Michael; Stubbs, Peter; Brodie, Matthew; Lord, Stephen; Hoang, Phu

    2017-11-01

    Gait impairment in people with Multiple Sclerosis results from neurological impairment, muscle weakness and reduced range of motion. Restrictions in passive ankle range of motion can result in abnormal heel-to-toe progression (weight transfer) and inefficient gait patterns in people with Multiple Sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between gait impairment, heel-to-toe progression and ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis. Twelve participants with Multiple Sclerosis and twelve healthy age-matched participants were assessed. Spatiotemporal parameters of gait and individual footprint data were used to investigate group differences. A pressure sensitive walkway was used to divide each footprint into three phases (contact, mid-stance, propulsive) and calculate the heel-to-toe progression during the stance phase of gait. Compared to healthy controls, people with Multiple Sclerosis spent relatively less time in contact phase (7.8% vs 25.1%) and more time in the mid stance phase of gait (57.3% vs 33.7%). Inter-limb differences were observed in people with Multiple Sclerosis between the affected and non-affected sides for contact (7.8% vs 15.3%) and mid stance (57.3% and 47.1%) phases. Differences in heel-to-toe progression remained significant after adjusting for walking speed and were correlated with walking distance and ankle range of motion. Impaired heel-to-toe progression was related to poor ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis. Heel-to-toe progression provided a sensitive measure for assessing gait impairments that were not detectable using standard spatiotemporal gait parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gait initiation in children with Rett syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Ugo Isaias

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental condition mainly characterized by loss of spoken language and a regression of purposeful hand use, with the development of distinctive hand stereotypies, and gait abnormalities. Gait initiation is the transition from quiet stance to steady-state condition of walking. The associated motor program seems to be centrally mediated and includes preparatory adjustments prior to any apparent voluntary movement of the lower limbs. Anticipatory postural adjustments contribute to postural stability and to create the propulsive forces necessary to reach steady-state gait at a predefined velocity and may be indicative of the effectiveness of the feedforward control of gait. In this study, we examined anticipatory postural adjustments associated with gait initiation in eleven girls with Rett syndrome and ten healthy subjects. Muscle activity (tibialis anterior and soleus muscles, ground reaction forces and body kinematic were recorded. Children with Rett syndrome showed a distinctive impairment in temporal organization of all phases of the anticipatory postural adjustments. The lack of appropriate temporal scaling resulted in a diminished impulse to move forward, documented by an impairment in several parameters describing the efficiency of gait start: length and velocity of the first step, magnitude and orientation of centre of pressure-centre of mass vector at the instant of (swing-toe off. These findings were related to an abnormal muscular activation pattern mainly characterized by a disruption of the synergistic activity of antagonistic pairs of postural muscles. This study showed that girls with Rett syndrome lack accurate tuning of feedforward control of gait.

  14. Deficits in Scaling of Gait Force and Cycle in Parkinsonian Gait Identified by Long-Term Monitoring of Acceleration with the Portable Gait Rhythmogram

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroo Terashi; Hiroya Utsumi; Yohei Ishimura; Tomoko Takazawa; Yasuyuki Okuma; Mitsuru Yoneyama; Hiroshi Mitoma

    2012-01-01

    To examine the range of gait acceleration and cycle in daily walking of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), we compared the gait of 40 patients with PD and 17 normal controls by using a newly developed long-term monitoring device that extracts gait-related accelerations from overall movements-related accelerations. The range of change in gait acceleration, relative to the control, was less than 75% in 12 patients. The range of change in gait cycle was less than 75% in 8 patients. The rang...

  15. Modeling and simulation of normal and hemiparetic gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengas, Lely A.; Camargo, Esperanza; Sanchez, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Gait is the collective term for the two types of bipedal locomotion, walking and running. This paper is focused on walking. The analysis of human gait is of interest to many different disciplines, including biomechanics, human-movement science, rehabilitation and medicine in general. Here we present a new model that is capable of reproducing the properties of walking, normal and pathological. The aim of this paper is to establish the biomechanical principles that underlie human walking by using Lagrange method. The constraint forces of Rayleigh dissipation function, through which to consider the effect on the tissues in the gait, are included. Depending on the value of the factor present in the Rayleigh dissipation function, both normal and pathological gait can be simulated. First of all, we apply it in the normal gait and then in the permanent hemiparetic gait. Anthropometric data of adult person are used by simulation, and it is possible to use anthropometric data for children but is necessary to consider existing table of anthropometric data. Validation of these models includes simulations of passive dynamic gait that walk on level ground. The dynamic walking approach provides a new perspective of gait analysis, focusing on the kinematics and kinetics of gait. There have been studies and simulations to show normal human gait, but few of them have focused on abnormal, especially hemiparetic gait. Quantitative comparisons of the model predictions with gait measurements show that the model can reproduce the significant characteristics of normal gait.

  16. Dynamic stability and phase resetting during biped gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taishin; Kawa, Kazuyoshi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Nakanishi, Masao; Yamasaki, Taiga

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic stability during periodic biped gait in humans and in a humanoid robot is considered. Here gait systems of human neuromusculoskeletal system and a humanoid are simply modeled while keeping their mechanical properties plausible. We prescribe periodic gait trajectories in terms of joint angles of the models as a function of time. The equations of motion of the models are then constrained by one of the prescribed gait trajectories to obtain types of periodically forced nonlinear dynamical systems. Simulated gait of the models may or may not fall down during gait, since the constraints are made only for joint angles of limbs but not for the motion of the body trunk. The equations of motion can exhibit a limit cycle solution (or an oscillatory solution that can be considered as a limit cycle practically) for each selected gait trajectory, if an initial condition is set appropriately. We analyze the stability of the limit cycle in terms of Poincaré maps and the basin of attraction of the limit cycle in order to examine how the stability depends on the prescribed trajectory. Moreover, the phase resetting of gait rhythm in response to external force perturbation is modeled. Since we always prescribe a gait trajectory in this study, reacting gait trajectories during the phase resetting are also prescribed. We show that an optimally prescribed reacting gait trajectory with an appropriate amount of the phase resetting can increase the gait stability. Neural mechanisms for generation and modulation of the gait trajectories are discussed.

  17. The effect of extension constraint knee bracing on dynamic balance, gait mechanics, and joint alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Robert J; Queen, Robin M; Wilson, Becky; Stephenson, John; Barnes, C Lowry

    2014-04-01

    To examine how an extension constraint knee brace affects active and passive standing knee joint alignment, dynamic balance, and gait mechanics. Repeated-measures, within-subjects design. Research laboratory. Persons (N = 24) with no current diagnosed gait dysfunction or neuromuscular limitations that limit activities of daily living. All subjects were tested with use of dynamic balance and gait analysis. Dynamic balance was examined with the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test. Gait analysis was conducted at a freely chosen walking speed for 2 conditions: (1) use of a brace with free range of motion (FROM) and (2) use of a brace with 30-degree extension constraint (ECON). In a subset of subjects, radiographs were used to examine standing knee alignment for 3 conditions: (1) FROM, (2) use of a knee ECON brace in a relaxed position; and (3) use of a knee ECON brace with maximal volitional quadriceps contraction. Peak knee flexion, knee flexion range of motion, peak vertical ground reaction force during weight acceptance and propulsion, and maximum reach distance in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions were measured. Differences in dynamic balance were observed between ECON and FROM for the anterior reach. Peak knee flexion increased 3.2° and peak knee extension decreased 7.4° in the ECON condition. Vertical GRF values were found to increase bilaterally during ECON at midstance but decreased bilaterally during propulsion. Radiographic images revealed that the ECON elicited a 22.2° flexion contracture with minimal quadriceps activation but only reduced motion by 4.8° with maximal volitional quadriceps activation. Extension constraint knee braces alter joint alignment, dynamic balance, knee mechanics during gait, and vertical loading during gait. However, the changes in motion observed were lower than those induced by the constraining mechanism. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc

  18. The effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on static balance and gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijken, Noortje H M; Vonhögen, Leon H; Duysens, Jacques; Keijsers, Noël L W

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has a negative effect on static balance and gait, which is implicated by the increased incidence of falls leading to frequently occurring lead migrations. A controlled trial is performed with 11 subjects (four female, seven male) with a mean age of 46 years old. A baseline measurement consisting of static balance and gait tests was performed. Within two weeks after implantation of a spinal cord stimulator, subjects performed the same tests with both stimulation switched on and off. Static balance was assessed with eyes open and eyes closed on hard surface and foam surface. The velocity of the center of pressure and weight symmetry were the main outcome parameters. Kinematics and spatiotemporal outcome parameters were used to analyze gait. ANOVAs were used to compare between baseline, stimulation on, and stimulation off.  Spinal cord stimulation resulted in significant pain relief as scored on a Visual Analog Scale (p balance) was significant (p = 0.007). No other significant group differences were found between stimulation baseline and post-surgery measurements. SCS did not influence static balance or gait when group effects were analyzed. Four subjects showed significant differences in static balance between stimulation on and off.  The lack of group differences in normal gait and static balance cannot explain the increased incidence of falls. However, four subjects showed an effect of SCS on static balance. Further research to clarify why only a part of the subjects experienced balance problems is recommended and assessments of more demanding balance and gait tasks are desirable. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  19. Transmit TACAN Bearing Information with a Circular Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mark Dorsey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using TACAN and array fundamentals, we derive an architecture for transmitting TACAN bearing information from a circular array with time-varying weights. We evaluate performance for a simulated example array of Vivaldi elements.

  20. The salmon bears: giants of the great bear rainforest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAllister, I; Read, N

    2010-01-01

    The Salmon Bears explores the delicate balance that exists between the grizzly, black and spirit bears of the Great Bear Rainforest and their natural environment on the central coast of British Columbia...

  1. The efficiency of gait plate insole for children with in-toeing gait due to femoral antetorsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjehie, Sahar; Saeedi, Hassan; Farahmand, Behshid; Curran, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    One of the most common gait disorders in children is in-toeing. Few studies have examined the efficacy gait plate insole in in-toeing. we used more precise apparatus than previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of gait plate insole on the angle of gait and center of pressure displacement in children with in-toeing gait. Quasi-experimental before -after study. The angle of gait and center of pressure displacement were measured in 17 children aged 4-10 years with in-toeing gait. The RS scan pressure platform was employed to perform walking tests in three conditions including barefoot, with shoes only, and gait plate insole with shoes. The gait plate insole with shoes as well as shoes alone produced a significant 11.1° and 3.85° increase in the angle of gait in in-toeing children respectively ( p displacement of center of pressure showed a significant difference (3 mm) in shoes only condition when compared with barefoot condition. The shoes only and gait plate insole compared with barefoot condition increased the anterior-posterior displacement by 28 and 30 mm respectively. The gait plate insole with ordinary shoes and shoes only were able to increase angle of gait and the center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior direction in children with in-toeing gait due to excessive femoral anteversion. Clinical relevance The use of a gait plate insole inserted in ordinary shoes can improve gait appearance in children with in-toeing gait caused by Excessive femoral anteversion.

  2. Gait Characteristics in Adolescents With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Frid, Lior; Menascu, Shay

    2017-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a progressive autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. A presentation of multiple sclerosis before age18 years has traditionally been thought to be rare. However, during the past decade, more cases have been reported. We examined gait characteristics in 24 adolescents with multiple sclerosis (12 girls, 12 boys). Mean disease duration was 20.4 (S.D. = 24.9) months and mean age was 15.5 (S.D. = 1.1) years. The mean expanded disability status scale score was 1.7 (S.D. = 0.7) indicating minimal disability. Outcomes were compared with gait and the gait variability index value of healthy age-matched adolescents. Adolescents with multiple sclerosis walked slower with a wider base of support compared with age-matched healthy control subjects. Moreover, the gait variability index was lower in the multiple sclerosis group compared with the values in the healthy adolescents: 85.4 (S.D. = 8.1) versus 96.5 (S.D. = 7.4). We present gait parameters of adolescents with multiple sclerosis. From a clinical standpoint, our data could improve management of walking dysfunction in this relatively young population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Robot-Crawler: Statically Balanced Gaits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new statically balanced walking technique for a robot-crawler. The gait design and the control of the robot crawler aim to achieve stability while walking. This statically balanced gait has to be designed in a different fashion to a wheeled robot, as there are discrete changes in the support of the robot when its legs are lifted or placed on the ground. The stability of the robot depends on how the legs are positioned relative to the body and also on the sequence and timing with which the legs are lifted and placed. In order to reduce the risk of stability loss while walking, a measure for the robot stability (so-called stability margin is typically used in the gait and motion planning. In this paper different biological behaviours of four-legged animals are studied and mapped on a quad-legrobot-crawler. Experiments were carried out on the forward walking gaits of lizards and horses. Based on these results, the stability margins of different gaits are discussed and compared.

  4. Gait termination in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeing, Kathleen L; Wajda, Douglas A; Motl, Robert W; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2015-09-01

    Despite the ubiquitous nature of gait impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS), there is limited information concerning the control of gait termination in individuals with MS. The purpose of this investigation was to examine planned gait termination in individuals with MS and healthy controls with and without cognitive distractors. Individuals with MS and age matched controls completed a series of gait termination tasks over a pressure sensitive walkway under non-distracting and cognitively distracting conditions. As expected the MS group had a lower velocity (89.9±33.3 cm/s) than controls (142.8±22.4 cm/s) and there was a significant reduction in velocity in both groups under the cognitive distracting conditions (MS: 73.9±30.7 cm/s; control: 120.0±25.9 cm/s). Although individuals with MS walked slower, there was no difference between groups in the rate a participant failed to stop at the target (i.e. failure rate). Overall failure rate had a 10-fold increase in the cognitively distracting condition across groups. Individuals with MS were more unstable during termination. Future research examining the neuromuscular mechanisms contributing to gait termination is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Scrunching: a novel escape gait in planarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Mickolajczyk, Keith J.; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

    2015-10-01

    The ability to escape a predator or other life-threatening situations is central to animal survival. Different species have evolved unique strategies under anatomical and environmental constraints. In this study, we describe a novel musculature-driven escape gait in planarians, ‘scrunching’, which is quantitatively different from other planarian gaits, such as gliding and peristalsis. We show that scrunching is a conserved gait among different flatworm species, underlying its importance as an escape mechanism. We further demonstrate that it can be induced by a variety of physical stimuli, including amputation, high temperature, electric shock and low pH. We discuss the functional basis for scrunching as the preferential gait when gliding is impaired due to a disruption of mucus production. Finally, we show that the key mechanical features of scrunching are adequately captured by a simple biomechanical model that is solely based on experimental data from traction force microscopy and tissue rheology without fit parameters. Together, our results form a complete description of this novel form of planarian locomotion. Because scrunching has distinct dynamics, this gait can serve as a robust behavioral readout for studies of motor neuron and muscular functions in planarians and in particular the restoration of these functions during regeneration.

  6. Kinematic gait analyses in healthy Golden Retrievers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela C.A. Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinematic analysis relates to the relative movement between rigid bodies and finds application in gait analysis and other body movements, interpretation of their data when there is change, determines the choice of treatment to be instituted. The objective of this study was to standardize the march of Dog Golden Retriever Healthy to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. We used a kinematic analysis system to analyse the gait of seven dogs Golden Retriever, female, aged between 2 and 4 years, weighing 21.5 to 28 kg, clinically normal. Flexion and extension were described for shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, femorotibialis and tarsal joints. The gait was characterized lateral and had accepted hypothesis of normality for all variables, except for the stance of hip and elbow, considering a confidence level of 95%, significance level α = 0.05. Variations have been attributed to displacement of the stripes during movement and the duplicated number of reviews. The kinematic analysis proved to be a consistent method of evaluation of the movement during canine gait and the data can be used in the diagnosis and evaluation of canine gait in comparison to other studies and treatment of dogs with musculoskeletal disorders.

  7. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cimolin, Veronica; Vismara, Luca; Galli, Manuela; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP). Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait...

  8. Kinematic evaluation of mobile robotic platforms for overground gait neurorehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, N. Akmal; Huq, M. Saiful; Ibrahim, B. S. K. K.; Omar, Rosli

    2017-09-01

    Gait assistive devices offer a great solution to the walking re-education which reduce patients theoretical limit by aiding the anatomical joints to be in line with the rehabilitation session. Overground gait training, which is differs significantly from body-weight supported treadmill training in many aspects, essentially consists of a mobile robotic base to support the subject securely (usually with overhead harness) while its motion and orientation is controlled seamlessly to facilitate subjects free movement. In this study, efforts have been made for evaluation of both holonomic and nonholonomic drives, the outcome of which may constitute the primarily results to the effective approach in designing a robotic platform for the mobile rehabilitation robot. The sets of kinematic equations are derived using typical geometries of two different drives. The results indicate that omnidirectional mecanum wheel platform is capable for more sophisticated discipline. Although the differential drive platform happens to be more simple and easy to construct, but it is less desirable as it has limited number of motions applicable to the system. The omnidirectional robot consisting of mecanum wheels, which is classified as holonomic is potentially the best solution in terms of its capability to move in arbitrary direction without concerning the changing of wheel's direction.

  9. Touchdown Ball-Bearing System for Magnetic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Edward P.; Price, Robert; Gelotte, Erik; Singer, Herbert B.

    2003-01-01

    The torque-limited touchdown bearing system (TLTBS) is a backup mechanical-bearing system for a high-speed rotary machine in which the rotor shaft is supported by magnetic bearings in steady-state normal operation. The TLTBS provides ball-bearing support to augment or supplant the magnetic bearings during startup, shutdown, or failure of the magnetic bearings. The TLTBS also provides support in the presence of conditions (in particular, rotational acceleration) that make it difficult or impossible to control the magnetic bearings or in which the magnetic bearings are not strong enough (e.g., when the side load against the rotor exceeds the available lateral magnetic force).

  10. Rotordynamics and bearing design of turbochargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen Jeng

    2012-05-01

    Turbochargers have gained significant attention in recent years. They are already widely used in automotive, locomotive, and marine applications with diesel engines. They are also applied in the aerospace application to increase the engine performance now. The turbochargers used in automotive and aerospace industry are very light-weight with operating speeds above 100,000 rpm. The turbochargers used in locomotive and marine applications are relatively heavy in size and power compared to the automotive and aerospace applications, and the maximum continuous operating speeds are around 30,000 rpm depending on the diesel engine power rating. Floating ring bushings, semi-floating dampers, ball bearings, and ball bearings with dampers are commonly used in automotive applications for small turbochargers. However, these bearings may not be appropriate for large turbochargers in locomotive and marine applications. Instead, multi-lobed bearings with and without squeeze film dampers are commonly used in these heavy-duty turbochargers. This paper deals with the rotordynamic characteristics of larger turbochargers in locomotive and marine applications. Various bearing designs are discussed. Bearing design parameters are studied and optimal values are suggested. Test results are also presented to support the analytical simulation.

  11. Correlação entre a Visual Gait Assessment Scale, Edinburgh Visual Gait Scale e Escala Observacional da Marcha em crianças com paralisia cerebral diparética espástica Correlation among the Visual Gait Assessment Scale, Edinburgh Visual Gait Scale and Observational Gait Scale in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geruza P. Bella

    2012-04-01

    children with spastic diplegia CP with level I or II in the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS through the EVGS, VGAS and OGS scales performed by 3 examiners. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP. Weighted Kappa scores were used to analyze the data considering a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The intra-rater analyses showed a moderate to excellent agreement (k=0.41, 1.00 among the methods of the children's classification, being the comparison between VGAS and the EVGS scales presented the highest level of agreement, while the OGS scale presented a considerable disagreement in comparison with other scales. The inter-rater agreement showed to be predominantly high. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide evidence that the VGAS and the EVGS scales are more suitable for children's spastic diplegia CP gait assessment when compared to OGS.

  12. Generation of Underactuated Bipedal Gait Completing in One Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    collisionless limit cycle walking. We then mathematically analyze the stability of the zero dynamics and investigate the fundamental gait properties through...island to the next. I. INTRODUCTION In general, a stable walking gait of limit- cycle walkers is designed to increase mechanical energy efficiently for...discuss the limit cycle stability. IV. GAIT ANALYSIS A. Typical Walking Gait Fig. 2 shows the simulation results of collisionless un- deractuated bipedal

  13. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  14. Development of gait motor control: what happens after a sudden increase in height during adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Maria Cristina; Stagni, Rita

    2016-05-20

    Basic understanding of motor control and its processes is a topic of well-known high relevance. During adolescence walking is theoretically a well-achieved fundamental skill, having reached a mature manifestation; on the other hand, adolescence is marked by a period of accelerated increases in both height and weight, referred as growth spurt. Thus, this period was chosen as a controlled and natural environment for partially isolating one of the factors influencing motor development (segment growth). The aim of the study was to compare gait performance of growing and not growing male adolescents during walking in single task (ST) and dual task (DT), in order to study which are the modifications that motor control handles when encountering a sudden change in segment length. 19 adolescents were selected as growing adolescents (they showed a height increase greater than 3 cm in 3 months). A group of BMI-matched peers were selected as not growing adolescents (they showed a height increase lower than 1 cm in 3 months). Measures of acceleration of the trunk (L5 level) were collected using one tri-axial wireless inertial sensor. The participants were asked to walk at self-selected speed back and forth four times in a 10 m long corridor in ST and DT conditions. The following characteristics of gait performance were evaluated using different indices: variability, smoothness, regularity, complexity and local dynamic stability. An unpaired t-test was performed on the two groups for each method. Different indices followed the hypothesized trend in the two groups, even if differences were not always statistically significant: not growing adolescents showed a lower variability and complexity of gait and a higher smoothness/rhythm. Stability results showed a similarly stable gait pattern (or even higher in DT) in the growing adolescents when compared to their not growing peers. The findings of the present work suggest that growth spurt affects gait variability, smoothness and

  15. Quantifying gait patterns in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Mónica; Atehortúa, Angélica; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is constituted by a set of motor symptoms, namely tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, which are usually described but not quantified. This work proposes an objective characterization of PD gait patterns by approximating the single stance phase a single grounded pendulum. This model estimates the force generated by the gait during the single support from gait data. This force describes the motion pattern for different stages of the disease. The model was validated using recorded videos of 8 young control subjects, 10 old control subjects and 10 subjects with Parkinson's disease in different stages. The estimated force showed differences among stages of Parkinson disease, observing a decrease of the estimated force for the advanced stages of this illness.

  16. Invariant Gait Continuum Based on the Duty-Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to describe the continuum of human gait in an invariant manner. The gait description is based on the duty-factor which is adopted from the biomechanics literature. We generate a database of artificial silhouettes representing the three main types of gait, i...

  17. Brain imaging in patients with freezing of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Anna L.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2008-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is a disabling gait disturbance with unknown cerebral pathophysiology. In this review, we discuss the functional brain imaging Studies that address gait physiology and pathophysiology of FOG. Radiotracer metabolic studies show basal ganglia-cortical circuitry involvement in

  18. Quantitative Gait Measurement With Pulse-Doppler Radar for Passive In-Home Gait Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fang; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the ot...

  19. A stochastic model of human gait dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; M. Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Ch. Ivanov, Plamen; Eugene Stanley, H.

    2002-12-01

    We present a stochastic model of gait rhythm dynamics, based on transitions between different “neural centers”, that reproduces distinctive statistical properties of normal human walking. By tuning one model parameter, the transition (hopping) range, the model can describe alterations in gait dynamics from childhood to adulthood-including a decrease in the correlation and volatility exponents with maturation. The model also generates time series with multifractal spectra whose broadness depends only on this parameter. Moreover, we find that the volatility exponent increases monotonically as a function of the width of the multifractal spectrum, suggesting the possibility of a change in multifractality with maturation.

  20. Management recommendations: Bear River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional...

  1. DW_BEAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Subset of BEAR (Bi-Weekly Examination Analysis and Reporting) data used for financial audit remediation reporting within the Coast Guard Business Intelligence (CGBI)...

  2. A study of position independent algorithms for phone-based gait frequency detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarashansky, Alexander; Vathsangam, Harshvardhan; Sukhatme, Gaurav S

    2014-01-01

    Estimating gait frequency is an important component in the detection and diagnosis of various medical conditions. Smartphone-based kinematic sensors offer a window of opportunity in free-living gait frequency estimation. The main issue with smartphone-based gait frequency estimation algorithms is how to adjust for variations in orientation and location of the phone on the human body. While numerous algorithms have been implemented to account for these differences, little work has been done in comparing these algorithms. In this study, we compare various position independent algorithms to determine which are more suited to robust gait frequency estimation. Using sensor data collected from volunteers walking with a smartphone, we examine the effect of using three different time series with the magnitude, weighted sum, and closest vertical component algorithms described in the paper. We also test two different methods of extracting step frequency: time domain peak counting and spectral analysis. The results show that the choice of time series does not significantly affect the accuracy of frequency measurements. Furthermore, both time domain and spectral approaches show comparable results. However, time domain approaches are sensitive to false-positives while spectral approaches require a minimum set of repetitive measurements. Our study suggests a hybrid approach where both time-domain and spectral approaches be used together to complement each other's shortcomings.

  3. Changes in gait kinematics and posture with the use of a front pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolkowski, Paul; Horodyski, Marybeth; Bishop, Mark; Williams, Melissa; Stylianou, Lee

    2006-07-15

    The objective of this study was to determine if posture during gait can be affected by position of the load. It was hypothesized that the front pack would result in postural changes in the gait cycle, compared to a similarly loaded backpack. Thirteen healthy adults, free of any injury, volunteered to participate in this study. Two dimensional video data were collected at 50 Hz using a MacReflex video system. A backpack and a front pack were compared using loads of 10 and 15% of body weight. Markers were placed on the ear, acromion, greater trochanter and lateral joint line of the knee, lateral malleolus and fifth metatarsophalangeal joint. Data were collected while the participants walked at 0.75 stride/s. The data were used to calculate joint angles and displacements during each gait cycle. There was a significant difference noted in angles of the hip flexion, with the backpack condition demonstrating a greater flexion in each stride than either the control or front pack. Both backpack and front pack conditions demonstrated a significant change in neck motion compared to the control condition. The results of the position analysis over time also revealed an increase in the forward head position when participants were wearing the backpack compared to either the control or the front pack condition. It was concluded that the use of a front pack results in a more upright posture in gait, when compared to a backpack carrying the same load.

  4. Carrying shopping bags does not alter static postural stability and gait parameters in healthy older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Food shopping is an important aspect of maintaining independence and social interaction in older age. Carriage of shopping bags alters the body's weight distribution which, depending on load distribution, could potentially increase instability during standing and walking. The study examined the effect of carrying UK style shopping bags on static postural stability and gait in healthy older and young females. Nine older (71.0±6.0 years) and 10 young (26.7±5.2 years) females were assessed in five conditions carrying no bags, one 1.5kg bag in each hand, one 3kg bag in each hand, one 1.5kg bag in preferred hand, one 3kg bag in preferred hand. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacement, and 95% ellipse area from a 30s quiet standing were used for postural stability assessment. Stride length and its coefficient of variation, total double support time, step asymmetry and gait stability ratio were calculated from 1min treadmill walking at self-selected speed for gait assessment. Carrying shopping bags did not negatively affect postural stability or gait variables, in either group. Further, in older individuals, a decrease in sway velocity was found when holding bags during the postural stability assessment (pshopping bags and help encourage shopping, both as a social and as a physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A

    2001-01-01

    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  6. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  7. Selective control of gait subtasks in robotic gait training : Foot clearance support in stroke survivors with a powered exoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, B.; Van Asseldonk, E.H.F.; Van der Kooij, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Robot-aided gait training is an emerging clinical tool for gait rehabilitation of neurological patients. This paper deals with a novel method of offering gait assistance, using an impedance controlled exoskeleton (LOPES). The provided assistance is based on a recent finding that, in the

  8. Selective control of gait subtasks in robotic gait training: foot clearance support in stroke survivors with a powered exoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Bram; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Background Robot-aided gait training is an emerging clinical tool for gait rehabilitation of neurological patients. This paper deals with a novel method of offering gait assistance, using an impedance controlled exoskeleton (LOPES). The provided assistance is based on a recent finding that, in the

  9. An ambulatory gait monitoring system with activity classification and gait parameter calculation based on a single foot inertial sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minsu; Kim, Jonghyun

    2017-07-12

    For healthcare and clinical use, ambulatory gait monitoring systems using inertial sensors have been developed to estimate the user gait parameters, such as walking speed, stride time, and stride length. However, to adapt the systems effectively to daily-life activities, they need to be able to classify the gait activities of daily-life to obtain the parameters for each activity. In this study, we propose a simple classification algorithm based on a single inertial sensor for ease of use, which classifies three major gait activities: leveled walk, ramp walk, and stair walk. The classification can be performed with gait parameter estimation simultaneously. The developed system that includes classification and parameter estimation algorithms was evaluated with eight healthy subjects within a gait lab and on an outdoor daily-life walking course. The results showed that the estimated gait parameters were comparable to existing studies (range of walking speed root mean square error (RMSE): 0.059-0.129 m/s), and the classification accuracy was sufficiently high for all three gait activities: 98.5 % for the indoor gait lab experiment and 95.5 % for the outdoor complex daily-life walking course experiment. The proposed system is simple and effective for daily-life gait analysis, including gait activity classification and gait parameter estimation. for each activity.

  10. Design, simulation and modelling of auxiliary exoskeleton to improve human gait cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkani, O; Maleki, A; Jamshidi, N

    2017-03-01

    Exoskeleton is a walking assistance device that improves human gait cycle through providing auxiliary force and transferring physical load to the stronger muscles. This device takes the natural state of organ and follows its natural movement. Exoskeleton functions as an auxiliary device to help those with disabilities in hip and knee such as devotees, elderly farmers and agricultural machinery operators who suffer from knee complications. In this research, an exoskeleton designed with two screw jacks at knee and hip joints. To simulate extension and flexion movements of the leg joints, bearings were used at the end of hip and knee joints. The generated torque and motion angles of these joints obtained as well as the displacement curves of screw jacks in the gait cycle. Then, the human gait cycle was simulated in stance and swing phases and the obtained torque curves were compared. The results indicated that they followed the natural circle of the generated torque in joints with a little difference from each other. The maximum displacement obtained 4 and 6 cm in hip and knee joints jack respectively. The maximum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in foot contact phase. Also the minimum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in toe off and heel off phases respectively.

  11. Parkinson's disease classification using gait analysis via deterministic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Liu, Fenglin; Wang, Qinghui; Wang, Ying; Ma, Limin; Zhang, Yu

    2016-10-28

    Gait analysis plays an important role in maintaining the well-being of human mobility and health care, and is a valuable tool for obtaining quantitative information on motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this paper, we propose a method to classify (diagnose) patients with PD and healthy control subjects using gait analysis via deterministic learning theory. The classification approach consists of two phases: a training phase and a classification phase. In the training phase, gait characteristics represented by the gait dynamics are derived from the vertical ground reaction forces under the usual and self-selected paces of the subjects. The gait dynamics underlying gait patterns of healthy controls and PD patients are locally accurately approximated by radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. The obtained knowledge of approximated gait dynamics is stored in constant RBF networks. The gait patterns of healthy controls and PD patients constitute a training set. In the classification phase, a bank of dynamical estimators is constructed for all the training gait patterns. Prior knowledge of gait dynamics represented by the constant RBF networks is embedded in the estimators. By comparing the set of estimators with a test gait pattern of a certain PD patient to be classified (diagnosed), a set of classification errors are generated. The average L1 norms of the errors are taken as the classification measure between the dynamics of the training gait patterns and the dynamics of the test PD gait pattern according to the smallest error principle. When the gait patterns of 93 PD patients and 73 healthy controls are classified with five-fold cross-validation method, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the results are 96.39%, 96.77% and 95.89%, respectively. Based on the results, it may be claimed that the features and the classifiers used in the present study could effectively separate the gait patterns between the groups of PD patients and healthy

  12. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  13. The effects of high custom made shoes on gait characteristics and patient satisfaction in hemiplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhardt, Martine M.; Mulder, Mascha C. Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L.; van der Woude, Luc H.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. Design: Clinical experimental

  14. The effects of high custom made shoes on gait characteristics and patient satisfaction in hemiplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhardt, Martine M; Mulder, Mascha C Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L; van der Woude, Lucas; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. DESIGN: Clinical experimental

  15. Gait analysis in lower-limb amputation and prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquenazi, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Gait analysis combined with sound clinical judgment plays an important role in elucidating the factors involved in the pathologic prosthetic gait and the selection and effects of available interventions to optimize it. Detailed clinical evaluation of walking contributes to the analysis of the prosthetic gait, but evaluation in the gait laboratory using kinetic and kinematic data is often necessary to quantify and identify the particular contributions of the variables impacting the gait with confidence and assess the results of such intervention. The same approach can be considered when selecting prosthetic components and assessing leg length in this patient population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinetic changes in gait during low magnitude military load carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Deepti; Pal, Madhu Sudan; Pramanik, Anilendu; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2013-01-01

    Indian infantry soldiers carry smaller magnitudes of loads for operational requirements. The ground reaction forces (GRFs) and impulse responses of 10 healthy male Indian infantry soldiers were collected while they walked carrying operational loads between 4.2 and 17.5 kg (6.5-27.2% of mean body weight (BW)) and a control condition of no external load (NL). The GRF and impulse components were normalised for BW, and data for each load condition were compared with NL in each side applying one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. Right foot data were compared with corresponding left foot GRF data for all load conditions and NL. There were significant increases in vertical and anteroposterior GRFs with increase in load. Left and right feet GRF data in corresponding load conditions were significantly different in anteroposterior plane. No significant change was observed in the temporal components of support phase of gait. Changes in impulse parameter were observed in the anteroposterior and vertical planes while carrying load greater than 23 and 16.6% of BW for the right foot and left foot, respectively. Result indicates that smaller magnitudes of loads produced kinetic changes proportional to system weight, similar to heavier loads with the possibility of increased injury risk. Observed smaller asymmetric changes in gait may be considered as postural adjustment due to load. Unique physical characteristics of Indian soldiers and the probable design shortcomings of the existing backpack might have caused significant changes in GRF and peak impulse during smaller load carriage.

  17. Foothills model forest grizzly bear study : project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    This report updates a five year study launched in 1999 to ensure the continued healthy existence of grizzly bears in west-central Alberta by integrating their needs into land management decisions. The objective was to gather better information and to develop computer-based maps and models regarding grizzly bear migration, habitat use and response to human activities. The study area covers 9,700 square km in west-central Alberta where 66 to 147 grizzly bears exist. During the first 3 field seasons, researchers captured and radio collared 60 bears. Researchers at the University of Calgary used remote sensing tools and satellite images to develop grizzly bear habitat maps. Collaborators at the University of Washington used trained dogs to find bear scat which was analyzed for DNA, stress levels and reproductive hormones. Resource Selection Function models are being developed by researchers at the University of Alberta to identify bear locations and to see how habitat is influenced by vegetation cover and oil, gas, forestry and mining activities. The health of the bears is being studied by researchers at the University of Saskatchewan and the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre. The study has already advanced the scientific knowledge of grizzly bear behaviour. Preliminary results indicate that grizzlies continue to find mates, reproduce and gain weight and establish dens. These are all good indicators of a healthy population. Most bear deaths have been related to poaching. The study will continue for another two years. 1 fig.

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Gait Bradykinesia in Parkinson’s Disease Using a Portable Gait Rhythmogram

    OpenAIRE

    Utsumi, Hiroya; Terashi, Hiroo; Ishimura, Yohei; Takazawa, Tomoko; Hayashi, Akito; Mochizuki, Hideki; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Orimo, Satoshi; Takahashi, Kazushi; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    To quantify gait bradykinesia during daily activity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), we measured movement-induced accelerations over more than 24h in 50 patients with PD and 17 age-matched normal controls, using a new device, the portable gait rhythmogram. Acceleration values induced by various movements, averaged each 10 min, exhibited a gamma distribution. The mean value of the distribution curve was used as an index of the "amount of overall movement per 24h". Characteristic chan...

  19. Effects of Three Types of Exercise Interventions on Healthy Old Adults' Gait Speed: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Lesinski, Melanie; Gäbler, Martijn; VanSwearingen, Jessie M; Malatesta, Davide; Granacher, Urs

    2015-12-01

    Habitual walking speed predicts many clinical conditions later in life, but it declines with age. However, which particular exercise intervention can minimize the age-related gait speed loss is unclear. Our objective was to determine the effects of strength, power, coordination, and multimodal exercise training on healthy old adults' habitual and fast gait speed. We performed a computerized systematic literature search in PubMed and Web of Knowledge from January 1984 up to December 2014. Search terms included 'Resistance training', 'power training', 'coordination training', 'multimodal training', and 'gait speed (outcome term). Inclusion criteria were articles available in full text, publication period over past 30 years, human species, journal articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, English as publication language, and subject age ≥65 years. The methodological quality of all eligible intervention studies was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. We computed weighted average standardized mean differences of the intervention-induced adaptations in gait speed using a random-effects model and tested for overall and individual intervention effects relative to no-exercise controls. A total of 42 studies (mean PEDro score of 5.0 ± 1.2) were included in the analyses (2495 healthy old adults; age 74.2 years [64.4-82.7]; body mass 69.9 ± 4.9 kg, height 1.64 ± 0.05 m, body mass index 26.4 ± 1.9 kg/m2, and gait speed 1.22 ± 0.18 m/s). The search identified only one power training study, therefore the subsequent analyses focused only on the effects of resistance, coordination, and multimodal training on gait speed. The three types of intervention improved gait speed in the three experimental groups combined (n = 1297) by 0.10 m/s (±0.12) or 8.4% (±9.7), with a large effect size (ES) of 0.84. Resistance (24 studies; n = 613; 0.11 m/s; 9.3%; ES: 0.84), coordination (eight studies, n = 198; 0.09 m/s; 7.6%; ES: 0.76), and

  20. The Effect of Stimulus Timing on Unplanned Gait Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Kelly; Hahn, Michael E

    2016-08-01

    Gait termination can be challenging for balance-impaired populations, including lower limb amputees. As powered prosthetic ankle devices come to market, it is important to better understand gait termination timing in an unplanned situation. Timing patterns were examined in unplanned gait termination to determine a threshold for being able to terminate gait in 1 step. Time to terminate gait (TTG) was also examined, using both final heel strike and center of mass (COM) acceleration metrics. Fourteen able-bodied subjects walked over ground and terminated gait in response to a randomly-timed auditory stimulus. A lumbar-mounted accelerometer and footswitches were used to assess timing of gait termination. Subjects were able to terminate gait in 1 step if the stimulus occurred at or before 19.8% of gait cycle. Later stimulus resulted in a 2-step stop pattern. The TTG using COM acceleration was greater than when using heel strike data. Motion of the COM was not fully arrested until 162 ± 38% of gait cycle. The stabilization phase between heel strike and COM motion arrest was greater for 1-step stops (1.41 ± 0.42 s) than 2-step stops (0.96 ± 0.33 s). These findings indicate gait termination timing should be calculated using COM motion, including the stabilization phase post heel strike.

  1. Robot assisted gait training with active leg exoskeleton (ALEX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banala, Sai K; Kim, Seok Hun; Agrawal, Sunil K; Scholz, John P

    2009-02-01

    Gait training of stroke survivors is crucial to facilitate neuromuscular plasticity needed for improvements in functional walking ability. Robot assisted gait training (RAGT) was developed for stroke survivors using active leg exoskeleton (ALEX) and a force-field controller, which uses assist-as-needed paradigm for rehabilitation. In this paradigm undesirable gait motion is resisted and assistance is provided towards desired motion. The force-field controller achieves this paradigm by effectively applying forces at the ankle of the subject through actuators on the hip and knee joints. Two stroke survivors participated in a 15-session gait training study each with ALEX. The results show that by the end of the training the gait pattern of the patients improved and became closer to a healthy subject's gait pattern. Improvement is seen as an increase in the size of the patients' gait pattern, increased knee and ankle joint excursions and increase in their walking speeds on the treadmill.

  2. Patellar tendon shortening for flexed knee gait in spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossai, Roberto; Vavken, Patrick; Brunner, Reinald; Camathias, Carlo; Graham, H Kerr; Rutz, Erich

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the outcome of three different approaches to the management of flexed knee gait patients with spastic diplegia. The three surgical procedures were patellar tendon shortening (PTS), PTS combined with rotational osteotomies of the femur and/or tibia, and PTS combined with supracondylar extension osteotomy (SEO) of the distal femur. The primary outcome measure was gait kinematics. The knee gait variable score (GVS) and the gait profile score (GPS) were derived from gait kinematics. 24 patients (16 male and 8 female), mean age 16.1 years (SD 5.8 years), who had surgery between 2002 and 2008, were followed for a mean of 22 months. Knee extension during gait improved by a mean of 20° throughout the gait cycle, with an improvement in the knee GVS of 14° (pdiplegia is both feasible and appropriate. Level III. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Basic gait analysis based on continuous wave radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun

    2012-09-01

    A gait analysis method based on continuous wave (CW) radar is proposed in this paper. Time-frequency analysis is used to analyze the radar micro-Doppler echo from walking humans, and the relationships between the time-frequency spectrogram and human biological gait are discussed. The methods for extracting the gait parameters from the spectrogram are studied in depth and experiments on more than twenty subjects have been performed to acquire the radar gait data. The gait parameters are calculated and compared. The gait difference between men and women are presented based on the experimental data and extracted features. Gait analysis based on CW radar will provide a new method for clinical diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A view invariant gait cycle segmentation for ambient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao Wu; Beilei Xu; Madhu, Himanshu; Jing Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Gait analysis has many clinical applications in disease detection and treatment evaluation. Gait cycle segmentation is a critical component in gait analysis for timing the gait phases in evaluating many movement disorders. Computer vision techniques have been widely used in surveillance for security monitoring. They are nonintrusive and do not require cooperation from subjects. In this paper, we propose to leverage the videos from existing surveillance monitoring systems to provide long-term and ambient assessments of gait patterns from subjects' daily activity without the requirement of wearing a device. Our proposed method is a novel view-independent method for gait cycle segmentation. We use the temporal duration of spatial features to achieve fast, robust and accurate gait cycle segmentation. The method take videos from a single non-calibrated camera and is not limited by specific viewing angles of the subject.

  5. Multilayer Joint Gait-Pose Manifolds for Human Gait Motion Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meng; Fan, Guolian

    2015-11-01

    We present new multilayer joint gait-pose manifolds (multilayer JGPMs) for complex human gait motion modeling, where three latent variables are defined jointly in a low-dimensional manifold to represent a variety of body configurations. Specifically, the pose variable (along the pose manifold) denotes a specific stage in a walking cycle; the gait variable (along the gait manifold) represents different walking styles; and the linear scale variable characterizes the maximum stride in a walking cycle. We discuss two kinds of topological priors for coupling the pose and gait manifolds, i.e., cylindrical and toroidal, to examine their effectiveness and suitability for motion modeling. We resort to a topologically-constrained Gaussian process (GP) latent variable model to learn the multilayer JGPMs where two new techniques are introduced to facilitate model learning under limited training data. First is training data diversification that creates a set of simulated motion data with different strides. Second is the topology-aware local learning to speed up model learning by taking advantage of the local topological structure. The experimental results on the Carnegie Mellon University motion capture data demonstrate the advantages of our proposed multilayer models over several existing GP-based motion models in terms of the overall performance of human gait motion modeling.

  6. Methods to quantify the velocity dependence of common gait measurements from automated rodent gait analysis devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckel, Nathan D

    2015-09-30

    Walking slowly is a different biomechanical task than walking quickly, thus measures of gait will be different at different velocities, such as pre/post injury. It is necessary to determine if the difference in gait measures are from the experimental changes, or simply from traveling at different speeds. Instead of limiting this effect, we have developed techniques to embrace the velocity dependence of gait measures. By translating the pawprints into a body coordinate frame we are able to measure location of paw placement in addition to the standard gait measures. At higher velocities rats have greater consistency of steps, place their forelimb initial contact more medially and anteriorly, and place their hindlimb toe off more medially and posteriorly. Interlimb phasing also becomes more consistent at higher velocities. Following a cervical spinal cord injury consistency is reduced and the velocity dependent behaviors are significantly different. Translating the coordinate frame improves the ability to measure changes in base of support following spinal cord injury. Employing a treadmill, or limiting analysis to a narrow velocity window does address the effects of velocity. We feel that measuring across all velocities is more appropriate than dictating that the animals match speeds. Quantifying locomotion with automated gait analysis devices is a great way to evaluate the changes that experimental treatments provide. These new methods allow for a more appropriate way to address the confound of many gait measures being velocity dependent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimating Instantaneous Energetic Cost During Gait Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-31

    energetic penalties imposed by various gait disabilities, and the 30   evaluation of the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions at mitigating...of level walking with powered ankle 410   exoskeletons . Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 1402–1413, 2008. 411   25. Schmalz T, Blumentritt S

  8. Gait analysis using ultrasound and inertial sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Meulen, Fokke; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Droog, Adriaan; Roetenberg, D.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and past research: Inertial sensors are great for orientation estimation, but they cannot measure relative positions of human body segments directly. In previous work we used ultrasound to estimate distances between body segments [1]. In [2] we presented an easy to use system for gait

  9. Gait patterns of young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H; Sako, H; Mukae, H; Sato, A; Takahashi, T

    1991-06-01

    Gait patterns of 440 young Japanese women walking along a sidewalk were observed in September. Walking speed, step length and cadence were significantly greater in single walking than in group walking. Time of day, walking direction and clothes did not influence the walking patterns. Step length in heeled shoes was shorter than that in sneakers and flat shoes.

  10. The Importance of Mid-to-Late-Life Body Mass Index Trajectories on Late-Life Gait Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, B Gwen; Griswold, Michael E; Wang, Wanmei; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Demerath, Ellen W; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Pompeii, Lisa A; Butler, Kenneth; Wagenknecht, Lynne; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Mosley, Thomas H

    2017-08-01

    Prior studies suggest being overweight may be protective against poor functional outcomes in older adults. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was measured over 25 years across five visits (1987-2011) among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants (baseline Visit 1 n = 15,720, aged 45-64 years). Gait speed was measured at Visit 5 ("late-life", aged ≥65 years, n = 6,229). BMI trajectories were examined using clinical cutpoints and continuous mixed models to estimate effects of patterns of BMI change on gait speed, adjusting for demographics and comorbidities. Mid-life BMI (baseline visit; 55% women; 27% black) was associated with late-life gait speed 25 years later; gait speeds were 94.3, 89.6, and 82.1 cm/s for participants with baseline normal BMI (<25), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30), and obese (BMI ≥ 30) (p < .001). In longitudinal analyses, late-life gait speeds were 96.9, 88.8, and 81.3 cm/s for participants who maintained normal, overweight, and obese weight status, respectively, across 25 years (p < .01). Increasing BMI over 25 years was associated with poorer late-life gait speeds; a 1%/year BMI increase for a participant with a baseline BMI of 22.5 (final BMI 28.5) was associated with a 4.6-cm/s (95% confidence interval: -7.0, -1.8) slower late-life gait speed than a participant who maintained a baseline BMI of 22.5. Being overweight in older age was not protective of mobility function. Maintaining a normal BMI in mid- and late-life may help preserve late-life mobility.

  11. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  12. Long-term data of gait characteristics and moment-knee angle relations in female total knee arthroplasty patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Boris; Stening, Jens; Pelzer, Thiemo; Raab, Jana

    2015-06-01

    Despite the clinical success of total knee arthroplasty, impaired gait patterns and quadriceps and hamstring maximal voluntary force production might persist years post-surgery. Long-term data of gait patterns and quadriceps and hamstring maximal force production are rarely published with total knee arthroplasty patients. This work examined gait characteristics and the moment-knee angle relations of the knee extensors and flexors about 10 years post-total knee arthroplasty. About a decade post-surgery, 10 female total knee arthroplasty patients (64 years, mobile-bearing inlay) and 10 age-matched female controls were examined. Sagittal plane kinematics in the hip and knee joint during treadmill walking at 2 kilometres per hour were recorded using motion analysis. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were analyzed at self-selected walking speeds with a pressure-platform. The unilateral isometric moment-knee angle relations of the knee extensors and flexors and the electromyographic knee angle relation of the quadriceps were studied using dynamometry. Due to group differences for body mass index values, univariate analysis of variance (main effect: group, secondary effect: body mass index) was used for statistical analysis. Total knee arthroplasty patients demonstrated significant (Pgait deficits during constant and self-selected walking speeds and lower average absolute values in the moment-knee angle relations of the knee extensors and flexors. Significant (Pgait characteristics and maximal voluntary force production, especially for the knee extensors, might persist after total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Impact of Mild Cognitive Impairment on Gait and Balance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Instrumented Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahureksa, Lindsay; Najafi, Bijan; Saleh, Ahlam; Sabbagh, Marwan; Coon, David; Mohler, M Jane; Schwenk, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In addition to cognitive deficits, people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can experience motor dysfunction, including deficits in gait and balance. Objective, instrumented motor performance assessment may allow the detection of subtle MCI-related motor deficits, allowing early diagnosis and intervention. Motor assessment under dual-task conditions may increase diagnostic accuracy; however, the sensitivity of different cognitive tasks is unclear. To systematically review the extant literature focusing on instrumented assessment of gait and balance parameters for discriminating MCI patients from cognitively intact peers. Database searches were conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Inclusion criteria were: (1) clinically confirmed MCI; (2) instrumented measurement of gait and/or balance; (3) English language, and (4) reporting gait or balance parameters which could be included in a meta-analysis for discriminating between MCI patients and cognitively intact individuals based on weighted effect size (d). Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and reported quantitative gait (n = 11) or postural balance (n = 4) parameters to be included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that several gait parameters including velocity (d = -0.74, p task conditions. Importantly, dual-task assessment increased the discriminative power of gait variables wherein gait variables with counting tasks appeared to be more sensitive (range d = 0.84-1.35) compared to verbal fluency tasks such as animal naming (range d = 0.65-0.94). Balance parameters identified as significant discriminators were anterior-posterior (d = 0.49, p dual task), suggesting that gait assessment with an additional cognitive task is useful for diagnosis and outcome analysis in the target population. Static balance seems to also be affected by MCI, although limited evidence exists. Instrumented motor assessment could provide a critical opportunity for MCI diagnosis

  14. Gait recognition based on Kinect sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohammed; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Sabir, Azhin T.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents gait recognition based on human skeleton and trajectory of joint points captured by Microsoft Kinect sensor. In this paper Two sets of dynamic features are extracted during one gait cycle: the first is Horizontal Distance Features (HDF) that is based on the distances between (Ankles, knees, hands, shoulders), the second set is the Vertical Distance Features (VDF) that provide significant information of human gait extracted from the height to the ground of (hand, shoulder, and ankles) during one gait cycle. Extracting these two sets of feature are difficult and not accurate based on using traditional camera, therefore the Kinect sensor is used in this paper to determine the precise measurements. The two sets of feature are separately tested and then fused to create one feature vector. A database has been created in house to perform our experiments. This database consists of sixteen males and four females. For each individual, 10 videos have been recorded, each record includes in average two gait cycles. The Kinect sensor is used here to extract all the skeleton points, and these points are used to build up the feature vectors mentioned above. K-nearest neighbor is used as the classification method based on Cityblock distance function. Based on the experimental result the proposed method provides 56% as a recognition rate using HDF, while VDF provided 83.5% recognition accuracy. When fusing both of the HDF and VDF as one feature vector, the recognition rate increased to 92%, the experimental result shows that our method provides significant result compared to the existence methods.

  15. Gait analysis in anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Vismara, Luca; Vimercati, Sara Laura; Precilios, Helmer; Cattani, Laila; Fabris De Souza, Shirley; Petroni, Maria Letizia; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2013-09-13

    Anorexia (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) are two common eating disorders, which appear to share some reduced motor capacities, such as a reduced balance. The presence and the extent of other motor disorders have not been investigated in a comprehensive way. The aim of this study was to quantify gait pattern in AN and BN individuals in order to ascertain possible differences from the normality range and provide novel data for developing some evidence-based rehabilitation strategies. Nineteen AN patients (age 30.16+9.73) and 20 BN patients (age 26.8+8.41) were assessed with quantitative 3D computerized Gait Analysis. Results were compared with a group of healthy controls (CG; 30.7+5.6). AN and BN patients were characterized by different gait strategies compared to CG. Spatio-temporal parameters indicated shorter step length, with AN showing the shortest values. AN walked slower than BN and CG. As for kinematics, AN and BN showed a nonphysiologic pattern at pelvis and hip level on the sagittal and frontal plane, with BN yielding the most abnormal values. Both AN and BN patients were characterized by high ankle plantar flexion capacity at toe-off when compared to CG. As for ankle kinetics, both AN and BN showed physiologic patterns. Stiffness at hip level was close to CG in both pathologic groups; at the ankle level, stiffness was significantly decreased in both groups, with AN displaying lower values. Both AN and BN were characterized by an altered gait pattern compared to CG. Biomechanical differences were evident mainly at pelvis and hip level. Loss of lean mass may lead to musculoskeletal adaptation, ultimately causing alterations in the gait pattern.

  16. Tribology of alternative bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin; Tipper, Joanne; Stone, Martin; Ingham, Eileen

    2006-12-01

    The tribological performance and biological activity of the wear debris produced has been compared for highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and modified metal bearings in a series of in vitro studies from a single laboratory. The functional lifetime demand of young and active patients is 10-fold greater than the estimated functional lifetime of traditional polyethylene. There is considerable interest in using larger diameter heads in these high demand patients. Highly cross-linked polyethylene show a four-fold reduction in functional biological activity. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have the lowest wear rates and least reactive wear debris. The functional biological activity is 20-fold lower than with highly cross-linked polyethylene. Hence, ceramic-on-ceramic bearings address the tribological lifetime demand of highly active patients. Metal-on-metal bearings have substantially lower wear rates than highly cross-linked polyethylene and wear decreases with head diameter. Bedding in wear is also lower with reduced radial clearance. Differential hardness ceramic-on-metal bearings and the application of ceramic-like coatings reduce metal wear and ion levels.

  17. Influence of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure: a standardized examination of workers in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsmann, Elke; Noll, Ulrike; Ellegast, Rolf; Hermanns, Ingo; Kraus, Thomas

    2016-09-30

    Working conditions, such as walking and standing on hard surfaces, can increase the development of musculoskeletal complaints. At the interface between flooring and musculoskeletal system, safety shoes may play an important role in the well-being of employees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure distributions on industrial flooring. Twenty automotive workers were individually fitted out with three different pairs of safety shoes ( "normal" shoes, cushioned shoes, and midfoot bearing shoes). They walked at a given speed of 1.5 m/s. The CUELA measuring system and shoe insoles were used for gait analysis and plantar pressure measurements, respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by ANOVA analysis for repeated measures. Walking with cushioned safety shoes or a midfoot bearing safety shoe led to a significant decrease of the average trunk inclination (pindustrial accident, but in addition, safety shoes could be a long-term preventive instrument for maintaining health of the employees' musculoskeletal system, as they are able to affect gait parameters. Further research needs to focus on safety shoes in working situations.

  18. Automated Gait Analysis Through Hues and Areas (AGATHA): A Method to Characterize the Spatiotemporal Pattern of Rat Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloefkorn, Heidi E; Pettengill, Travis R; Turner, Sara M F; Streeter, Kristi A; Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa J; Fuller, David D; Allen, Kyle D

    2017-03-01

    While rodent gait analysis can quantify the behavioral consequences of disease, significant methodological differences exist between analysis platforms and little validation has been performed to understand or mitigate these sources of variance. By providing the algorithms used to quantify gait, open-source gait analysis software can be validated and used to explore methodological differences. Our group is introducing, for the first time, a fully-automated, open-source method for the characterization of rodent spatiotemporal gait patterns, termed Automated Gait Analysis Through Hues and Areas (AGATHA). This study describes how AGATHA identifies gait events, validates AGATHA relative to manual digitization methods, and utilizes AGATHA to detect gait compensations in orthopaedic and spinal cord injury models. To validate AGATHA against manual digitization, results from videos of rodent gait, recorded at 1000 frames per second (fps), were compared. To assess one common source of variance (the effects of video frame rate), these 1000 fps videos were re-sampled to mimic several lower fps and compared again. While spatial variables were indistinguishable between AGATHA and manual digitization, low video frame rates resulted in temporal errors for both methods. At frame rates over 125 fps, AGATHA achieved a comparable accuracy and precision to manual digitization for all gait variables. Moreover, AGATHA detected unique gait changes in each injury model. These data demonstrate AGATHA is an accurate and precise platform for the analysis of rodent spatiotemporal gait patterns.

  19. Variables affecting the manifestation of and intensity of pacing behavior: A preliminary case study in zoo-housed polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cless, Isabelle T; Lukas, Kristen E

    2017-09-01

    High-speed video analysis was used to quantify two aspects of gait in 10 zoo-housed polar bears. These two variables were then examined as to how they differed in the conditions of pacing versus locomoting for each bear. Percent difference calculations measured the difference between pacing and locomoting data for each bear. We inferred that the higher the percent difference between pacing and locomoting in a given subject, the more intense the pacing may be. The percent difference values were analyzed alongside caregiver survey data defining the locations, frequency, and anticipatory nature of pacing in each bear, as well as each bear's age and sex, to determine whether any variables were correlated. The frequency and intensity of pacing behavior were not correlated. However, location of pacing was significantly correlated both with the subjects' age and whether or not the subject was classified as an anticipatory pacer. Bears appeared to select specific spots within their exhibits to pace, and the location therefore seemed tied to underlying motivation for the behavior. Additionally, bears that were classified in the survey as pacing anticipatorily displayed significantly more intense pacing behavior as quantified by gait analysis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Telemetry experiments with a hibernating black bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, J. J.; Varney, J. R.; Sumner, J. S.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop and test telemetry equipment suitable for monitoring physiological parameters and activity of a hibernating bear in its den, to monitor this data and other environmental information with the Nimbus 3 IRLS data collection system, and to refine immobilizing, handling, and other techniques required in future work with wild bears under natural conditions. A temperature-telemetering transmitter was implanted in the abdominal cavity of a captive black bear and body temperature data was recorded continuously during a 3 month hibernation period. Body temperatures ranging between 37.5 and 31.8 C were observed. Body temperature and overall activity were influenced by disturbances and ambient den temperature. Nychthemeral temperature changes were not noticable. A load cell weight recording device was tested for determining weight loss during hibernation. Monitoring of data by satellite was not attempted. The implanted transmitter was removed and the bear was released with a radiolocation collar at the conclusion of the experiment.

  1. EMG-driven Forward Dynamics Simulation to Estimate in Vivo Joint Contact Forces During Normal, Smooth, and Bouncy Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razu, Swithin; Guess, Trent M

    2017-11-21

    This study leveraged data from the "Sixth Grand Challenge Competition to Predict in Vivo Knee Loads" to create a full-body musculoskeletal model that incorporates subject specific geometries of the right leg in order to concurrently predict knee contact forces, ligament forces, muscle forces, and ground contact forces. The objectives of this paper are twofold: First, to describe an electromyography (EMG)-driven modeling methodology to predict knee contact forces, and second to validate model predictions by evaluating the model predictions against known values for a patient with an instrumented total knee replacement (TKR) for three distinctly different gait styles (normal, smooth, and bouncy gait). A novel EMG-driven feedforward with feedback trim motor control strategy was used to concurrently estimate muscle forces and knee contact forces from standard motion capture data collected on the individual subject. The predicted medial, lateral, and total tibiofemoral forces represented the overall measured magnitude and temporal patterns with good root mean squared errors (RMSEs) and Pearson's correlation (?2). The model accuracy was high: medial, lateral, and total tibiofemoral contact force RMSEs = 0.15, 0.14, 0.21 body weight (BW), and (0.92< ?2<0.96) for normal gait; RMSEs = 0.18 BW, 0.21 BW, 0.29 BW, and (0.81< ?2<0.93) for smooth gait; and RMSEs = 0.21 BW, 0.22 BW, 0.33 BW, and (0.86< ?2<0.95) for bouncy gait, respectively.

  2. Effects of frontal and sagittal thorax attitudes in gait on trunk and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begon, Mickaël; Leardini, Alberto; Belvedere, Claudio; Farahpour, Nader; Allard, Paul

    2015-10-01

    While sagittal trunk inclinations alter upper body biomechanics, little is known about the extent of frontal trunk bending on upper body and pelvis kinematics in adults during gait and its relation to sagittal trunk inclinations. The objective was to determine the effect of the mean lateral trunk attitude on upper body and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics during gait in asymptomatic subjects. Three gait cycles were collected in 30 subjects using a motion analysis system (Vicon 612) and an established protocol. Sub-groups were formed based on the mean thorax lateral bending angle, bending side, and also sagittal tilt. These were compared based on 38 peak angles identified on pelvis, thorax and shoulder kinematics using MANOVAs. A main effect for bending side (p = 0.038) was found, especially for thorax peak angles. Statistics revealed also a significant interaction (p = 0.04993) between bending side and tilt for the thorax sagittal inclination during body-weight transfer. These results reinforce the existence of different gait patterns, which correlate upper body and pelvis motion measures. The results also suggest that frontal and sagittal trunk attitude should be considered carefully when treating a patient with impaired gait. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comprehensive non-dimensional normalization of gait data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzone, Ornella; Schwartz, Michael H; Baker, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Normalizing clinical gait analysis data is required to remove variability due to physical characteristics such as leg length and weight. This is particularly important for children where both are associated with age. In most clinical centres conventional normalization (by mass only) is used whereas there is a stronger biomechanical argument for non-dimensional normalization. This study used data from 82 typically developing children to compare how the two schemes performed over a wide range of temporal-spatial and kinetic parameters by calculating the coefficients of determination with leg length, weight and height. 81% of the conventionally normalized parameters had a coefficient of determination above the threshold for a statistical association (p<0.05) compared to 23% of those normalized non-dimensionally. All the conventionally normalized parameters exceeding this threshold showed a reduced association with non-dimensional normalization. In conclusion, non-dimensional normalization is more effective that conventional normalization in reducing the effects of height, weight and age in a comprehensive range of temporal-spatial and kinetic parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Radial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Radial Halbach magnetic bearings are based on the same principle as that of axial Halbach magnetic bearings, differing in geometry as the names of these two types of bearings suggest. Both radial and axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings were described in Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (LEW-18066-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 85. In the remainder of this article, the description of the principle of operation from the cited prior article is recapitulated and updated to incorporate the present radial geometry. In simplest terms, the basic principle of levitation in an axial or radial Halbach magnetic bearing is that of the repulsive electromagnetic force between (1) a moving permanent magnet and (2) an electric current induced in a stationary electrical conductor by the motion of the magnetic field. An axial or radial Halbach bearing includes multiple permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array ("Halbach array" is defined below) in a rotor and multiple conductors in the form of wire coils in a stator, all arranged so the rotary motion produces an axial or radial repulsion that is sufficient to levitate the rotor. A basic Halbach array (see Figure 1) consists of a row of permanent magnets, each oriented so that its magnetic field is at a right angle to that of the adjacent magnet, and the right-angle turns are sequenced so as to maximize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density on one side of the row while

  5. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  6. Gait and Cognition in Parkinson’s Disease: Cognitive Impairment Is Inadequately Reflected by Gait Performance during Dual Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Gaßner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionCognitive and gait deficits are common symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Motor-cognitive dual tasks (DTs are used to explore the interplay between gait and cognition. However, it is unclear if DT gait performance is indicative for cognitive impairment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if cognitive deficits are reflected by DT costs of spatiotemporal gait parameters.MethodsCognitive function, single task (ST and DT gait performance were investigated in 67 PD patients. Cognition was assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA followed by a standardized, sensor-based gait test and the identical gait test while subtracting serial 3’s. Cognitive impairment was defined by a MoCA score <26. DT costs in gait parameters [(DT − ST/ST × 100] were calculated as a measure of DT effect on gait. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between MoCA performance and gait parameters. In a linear regression model, DT gait costs and clinical confounders (age, gender, disease duration, motor impairment, medication, and depression were correlated to cognitive performance. In a subgroup analysis, we compared matched groups of cognitively impaired and unimpaired PD patients regarding differences in ST, DT, and DT gait costs.ResultsCorrelation analysis revealed weak correlations between MoCA score and DT costs of gait parameters (r/rSp ≤ 0.3. DT costs of stride length, swing time variability, and maximum toe clearance (|r/rSp| > 0.2 were included in a regression analysis. The parameters only explain 8% of the cognitive variance. In combination with clinical confounders, regression analysis showed that these gait parameters explained 30% of MoCA performance. Group comparison revealed strong DT effects within both groups (large effect sizes, but significant between-group effects in DT gait costs were not observed.ConclusionThese findings suggest that DT gait performance is not indicative

  7. Modular gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

  8. Kinematic analysis quantifies gait abnormalities associated with lameness in broiler chickens and identifies evolutionary gait differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Caplen

    Full Text Available This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10 would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12 and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult. Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated

  9. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP): effects on gait asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pötzelsberger, B; Lindinger, S J; Stöggl, T; Buchecker, M; Müller, E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a 12-week recreational skiing intervention on functional gait performance in people with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Twenty-three older adults (71 ± 5 years) were assigned to the intervention (IG) or control group (CG). Test time and ground reaction forces (GRF) were recorded at pre- and post-intervention and in the retention phase during functional gait tests. Ground contact was recorded bilaterally and divided into the weight acceptance and push-off phases. In IG, a faster stair descent time (16%) was observed at post-test with no further change at the retention test. The asymmetry indices for all analyzed variables were decreased in stair descent and during weight acceptance in stair ascent and level walking without further changes between post- and retention test. The reduced asymmetries occurred mainly because of increased loading of the operated leg. Most variables were unchanged in CG. Similar to the force data, the asymmetry index for temporal stride characteristics was reduced in all stair descent variables. These results demonstrate that alpine skiing as a leisure-time activity has a beneficial effect on gait performance and leads to a more balanced load distribution between the legs during daily activities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Velocity modulation and rhythmic synchronization of gait in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, M H; Miltner, R; Lange, H W; Hurt, C P; Hoemberg, V

    1999-09-01

    This study analyzed the ability of patients with Huntington's disease (HD) to modulate gait velocity without external sensory cues and in response to an auditory rhythmic cue within a frequency entrainment design. Uncued gait patterns of 27 patients were first assessed during normal, slower, and faster self-paced walking. During rhythmic trials, metronome and musical beat patterns were delivered at rates 10% slower and 10-20% faster than baseline cadence to cue gait patterns. After the rhythmic trials, patients were retested at normal gait speed without rhythm. Gait velocities in the patients with HD were below normal reference values in all ranges. Patients were able to significantly (p music. The ability to modulate gait velocity was retained regardless of the severity of the disease. Gait velocity declined with an increase in disability and chorea score. The disability score differentiated better between gait velocity of moderately and severe patients than chorea score. Slowness of gait was significantly correlated only with disability score and not with chorea. Patients had more difficulty producing adequate step rates than stride lengths during normal and fast walking speeds. After the rhythmic trials, unpaced gait velocity remained significantly (p music declined more with severity of disease than metronome tracking. In summary, patients were able to modulate velocity with and without external cues. Velocity adaptations to the external rhythm in music and metronome were achieved without exact synchronization between step cadence and rhythmic stimulus.

  11. Guidelines for Assessment of Gait and Reference Values for Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters in Older Adults: The Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortiums Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchet, Olivier; Allali, Gilles; Sekhon, Harmehr; Verghese, Joe; Guilain, Sylvie; Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Kressig, Reto W; Barden, John M; Szturm, Tony; Launay, Cyrille P; Grenier, Sébastien; Bherer, Louis; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Chester, Vicky L; Callisaya, Michele L; Srikanth, Velandai; Léonard, Guillaume; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Sawa, Ryuichi; Duque, Gustavo; Camicioli, Richard; Helbostad, Jorunn L

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gait disorders, a highly prevalent condition in older adults, are associated with several adverse health consequences. Gait analysis allows qualitative and quantitative assessments of gait that improves the understanding of mechanisms of gait disorders and the choice of interventions. This manuscript aims (1) to give consensus guidance for clinical and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls in older adults aged 65 years and over, and (2) to provide reference values for spatiotemporal gait parameters based on the recorded footfalls in healthy older adults free of cognitive impairment and multi-morbidities. Methods: International experts working in a network of two different consortiums (i.e., Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortium) participated in this initiative. First, they identified items of standardized information following the usual procedure of formulation of consensus findings. Second, they merged databases including spatiotemporal gait assessments with GAITRite® system and clinical information from the "Gait, cOgnitiOn & Decline" (GOOD) initiative and the Generation 100 (Gen 100) study. Only healthy-free of cognitive impairment and multi-morbidities (i.e., ≤ 3 therapeutics taken daily)-participants aged 65 and older were selected. Age, sex, body mass index, mean values, and coefficients of variation (CoV) of gait parameters were used for the analyses. Results: Standardized systematic assessment of three categories of items, which were demographics and clinical information, and gait characteristics (clinical and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls), were selected for the proposed guidelines. Two complementary sets of items were distinguished: a minimal data set and a full data set. In addition, a total of 954 participants (mean age 72.8 ± 4.8 years, 45.8% women) were recruited to establish the reference values. Performance of spatiotemporal gait parameters based on the recorded footfalls

  12. Guidelines for Assessment of Gait and Reference Values for Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters in Older Adults: The Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortiums Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Beauchet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gait disorders, a highly prevalent condition in older adults, are associated with several adverse health consequences. Gait analysis allows qualitative and quantitative assessments of gait that improves the understanding of mechanisms of gait disorders and the choice of interventions. This manuscript aims (1 to give consensus guidance for clinical and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls in older adults aged 65 years and over, and (2 to provide reference values for spatiotemporal gait parameters based on the recorded footfalls in healthy older adults free of cognitive impairment and multi-morbidities.Methods: International experts working in a network of two different consortiums (i.e., Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortium participated in this initiative. First, they identified items of standardized information following the usual procedure of formulation of consensus findings. Second, they merged databases including spatiotemporal gait assessments with GAITRite® system and clinical information from the “Gait, cOgnitiOn & Decline” (GOOD initiative and the Generation 100 (Gen 100 study. Only healthy—free of cognitive impairment and multi-morbidities (i.e., ≤ 3 therapeutics taken daily—participants aged 65 and older were selected. Age, sex, body mass index, mean values, and coefficients of variation (CoV of gait parameters were used for the analyses.Results: Standardized systematic assessment of three categories of items, which were demographics and clinical information, and gait characteristics (clinical and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls, were selected for the proposed guidelines. Two complementary sets of items were distinguished: a minimal data set and a full data set. In addition, a total of 954 participants (mean age 72.8 ± 4.8 years, 45.8% women were recruited to establish the reference values. Performance of spatiotemporal gait parameters based on the recorded

  13. Biomechanical Profiles When Towing a Sled and Wearing a Weighted Vest Once Cleared for Sports Post-ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin; Lawrence, Michael; Murray, Thomas; Shaw, Bernadette; Collins, Erin; Powers, Kaitlin; Townsend, James

    2016-09-01

    Though rehabilitation attempts to correct "stiff knee gait" and control for dynamic limb valgus after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), impaired biomechanics often persist when an individual is cleared to return to sport (RTS). Reduced knee extension moments (KEMs) and knee flexion angles (KFAs) often continue. While at the hip, increased hip adduction angles (HADDAs) and hip internal rotation angles (HIRAs) often persist in spite of dynamic hip stabilization exercises. Sled towing and weighted vest tasks increase KEM and hip extension moments (HEMs) in healthy individuals, yet biomechanical profiles during these tasks after ACLR are unknown. Weighted gait will increase KEM, HEM, hip abduction moments (HABDMs), and hip external rotation moments (HERMs) and will not increase unwanted biomechanics (limb asymmetries, HIRA, HADDA) compared with normal gait. Controlled laboratory study. Level 4. Fourteen men and 24 women who were 5 to 12 months after ACLR, had no concomitant ligament injuries, and were cleared to RTS were recruited. Sexes were evaluated independently given the sex-specific incidence to ACL injury, reinjury, and gait responses to certain interventions. Joint moment impulses and peak angles over the first 25% of stance were compared between limbs and across tasks (eg, unweighted gait, sled 50% body weight [BW], and vest 50% BW). Men showed that weighted gait increased KEM, HEM, HERM, HADBM (vest only), HADDA, HIRA (sled only), and KFA. Asymmetrical KEM and KFA existed across tasks. Women showed that weighted gait increased KEM, HEM, HERM, HADBM (vest only), HFA (sled only), HADDA, and KFA. Asymmetrical KEM, HEM, HIRA, and KFA (sled only) existed across tasks. Weighted gait generally increased joint moments. Unwanted biomechanics were unique for each weighted gait task. Though joint moments increased, both tasks created unwanted biomechanics after ACLR. Persistent hip (women only) and KEM asymmetries across tasks when cleared to RTS are

  14. Changes in dynamic plantar pressure during loaded gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffar, Stephen L; Reber, Rett J; Christiansen, Bryan C; Miller, Robert B; Naylor, Jacob A; Rodriguez, Brittany M; Walker, Michael J; Teyhen, Deydre S

    2013-09-01

    Lower extremity overuse injuries are detrimental to military readiness. Extremes of arch height and heavy loads carried by military personnel are associated with increased risk for overuse injury. Little is known regarding the impact of load carriage on plantar pressure distributions during gait. The objective of this study was to determine how load carriage affects plantar pressure distributions during gait in individuals with varying arch types. A cross-sectional, repeated-measures design was used for the study. The study was performed at a research laboratory at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Service members who were healthy and weighing ≥70 kg were enrolled in the study. The participants (97 men, 18 women; mean age=31.3 years, SD=5.6; mean weight=86.0 kg, SD=11.0) were categorized as having high-, normal-, or low-arched feet on the basis of published cutoff values for the arch height index. Plantar pressure measurements were obtained with the use of an in-shoe pressure measurement system while participants wore combat boots and walked on a treadmill under 3 loaded conditions (uniform, 20-kg load, and 40-kg load). Maximal force (MaxF) and force-time integral (FTI) were assessed with the use of a 9-sector mask to represent regions of the foot. A 3 × 3 repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for analysis across the levels of load and arch type. A significant interaction existed between arch type and load for MaxF and FTI in the medial midfoot, with greater force in low-arched feet. In the medial forefoot, MaxF and FTI were greatest in high-arched feet across all load conditions. In the great toe region, low-arched and normally arched feet had greater MaxF and FTI. The relative distribution of FTI increased proportionately in all regions of the foot regardless of arch type for all load conditions. The influence of fatigue, greater loads, and different walking speeds was not assessed. Regardless of arch type, increases in load did not alter the relative

  15. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  16. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with , the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (, , repeated measure analysis of variance or from (, resp., t-tests. The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  17. Intra-individual gait pattern variability in specific situations: Implications for forensic gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Oliver; Dillinger, Steffen; Marschall, Franz

    2016-07-01

    In this study, inter- and intra-individual gait pattern differences are examined in various gait situations by means of phase diagrams of the extremity angles (cyclograms). 8 test subjects walked along a walking distance of 6m under different conditions three times each: barefoot, wearing sneakers, wearing combat boots, after muscular fatigue, and wearing a full-face motorcycle helmet restricting vision. The joint angles of foot, knee, and hip were recorded in the sagittal plane. The coupling of movements was represented by time-adjusted cyclograms, and the inter- and intra-individual differences were captured by calculating the similarity between different gait patterns. Gait pattern variability was often greater between the defined test situations than between the individual test subjects. The results have been interpreted considering neurophysiological regulation mechanisms. Footwear, masking, and fatigue were interpreted as disturbance parameters, each being a cause for gait pattern variability and complicating the inference of identity of persons in video recordings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gait disorders in the elderly and dual task gait analysis: a new approach for identifying motor phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, Bernard; Touzard, Claude; Montestruc, François; Delafond, Arnaud; Goeb, Vincent

    2017-01-31

    Gait disorders and gait analysis under single and dual-task conditions are topics of great interest, but very few studies have looked for the relevance of gait analysis under dual-task conditions in elderly people on the basis of a clinical approach. An observational study including 103 patients (mean age 76.3 ± 7.2, women 56%) suffering from gait disorders or memory impairment was conducted. Gait analysis under dual-task conditions was carried out for all patients. Brain MRI was performed in the absence of contra-indications. Three main gait variables were measured: walking speed, stride frequency, and stride regularity. For each gait variable, the dual task cost was computed and a quartile analysis was obtained. Nonparametric tests were used for all the comparisons (Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher or Chi 2 tests). Four clinical subgroups were identified: gait instability (45%), recurrent falls (29%), memory impairment (18%), and cautious gait (8%). The biomechanical severity of these subgroups was ordered according to walking speed and stride regularity under both conditions, from least to most serious as follows: memory impairment, gait instability, recurrent falls, cautious gait (p task cost for walking speed, stride frequency and stride regularity were different among these subgroups (p task cost for each variable compared to the other subgroups combined (p = 0.01). The quartile analysis of dual task cost for stride frequency and stride regularity allowed the identification of 3 motor phenotypes (p task conditions in elderly people suffering from gait disorders or memory impairment is of great value in assessing the severity of gait disorders, differentiating between peripheral pathologies and central nervous system pathologies, and identifying motor phenotypes. Correlations between motor phenotypes and brain imaging require further studies.

  19. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie E McFadden-Hiller

    Full Text Available Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents. We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula, primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99, with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping

  20. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E; Beyer, Dean E; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents). We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula), primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99), with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping techniques to

  1. Gait analysis of a radial symmetrical hexapod robot based on parallel mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Ding, Xilun

    2014-09-01

    Most gait studies of multi-legged robots in past neglected the dexterity of robot body and the relationship between stride length and body height. This paper investigates the performance of a radial symmetrical hexapod robot based on the dexterity of parallel mechanism. Assuming the constraints between the supporting feet and the ground with hinges, the supporting legs and the hexapod body are taken as a parallel mechanism, and each swing leg is regarded as a serial manipulator. The hexapod robot can be considered as a series of hybrid serial-parallel mechanisms while walking on the ground. Locomotion performance can be got by analyzing these equivalent mechanisms. The kinematics of the whole robotic system is established, and the influence of foothold position on the workspace of robot body is analyzed. A new method to calculate the stride length of multi-legged robots is proposed by analyzing the relationship between the workspaces of two adjacent equivalent parallel mechanisms in one gait cycle. Referring to service region and service sphere, weight service sphere and weight service region are put forward to evaluate the dexterity of robot body. The dexterity of single point in workspace and the dexterity distribution in vertical and horizontal projection plane are demonstrated. Simulation shows when the foothold offset goes up to 174 mm, the dexterity of robot body achieves its maximum value 0.1644 in mixed gait. The proposed methods based on parallel mechanisms can be used to calculate the stride length and the dexterity of multi-legged robot, and provide new approach to determine the stride length, body height, footholds in gait planning of multi-legged robot.

  2. Gait Analysis by Multi Video Sequence Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Juhl, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The project presented in this article aims to develop software so that close-range photogrammetry with sufficient accuracy can be used to point out the most frequent foot mal positions and monitor the effect of the traditional treatment. The project is carried out as a cooperation between...... the Orthopaedic Surgery in Northern Jutland and the Laboratory for Geoinformatics, Aalborg University. The superior requirements on the system are that it shall be without heavy expenses, be easy to install and easy to operate. A first version of the system is designed to measure the navicula height...... and the calcaneus angle during gait. In the introductory phase of the project the task has been to select, purchase and draw up hardware, select and purchase software concerning video streaming and to develop special software concerning automated registration of the position of the foot during gait by Multi Video...

  3. Gait analysis with reference to chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, P Z; Updyke, W F; Allen, W C

    1983-01-01

    This study analyzed the gait of women exhibiting symptoms of chondromalacia patellae, and compared them with a group of women without chondromalacia symptoms. High speed cinematography was used to film the subjects walking on a level surface and a 15 downhill slope. Flexion of the knee on both surfaces during the single support phase was significantly less for the chondromalacia subjects (P < 0.05). increased external femoral rotation was detected in chondromalacia patellae subjects (P < 0.05) during swing phase on level and sloping surfaces. A radical inward femoral rotation occurred immediately preceding heel strike (P < 0.001). We conclude that significant differences in gait are apparent in females exibiting chondromalacia patellae symptoms as compared with apparently normal female knees.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1983;5(3):127-131.

  4. Extraction and Classification of Human Gait Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hu; Tan, Wooi-Haw; Tong, Hau-Lee; Abdullah, Junaidi; Komiya, Ryoichi

    In this paper, a new approach is proposed for extracting human gait features from a walking human based on the silhouette images. The approach consists of six stages: clearing the background noise of image by morphological opening; measuring of the width and height of the human silhouette; dividing the enhanced human silhouette into six body segments based on anatomical knowledge; applying morphological skeleton to obtain the body skeleton; applying Hough transform to obtain the joint angles from the body segment skeletons; and measuring the distance between the bottom of right leg and left leg from the body segment skeletons. The angles of joints, step-size together with the height and width of the human silhouette are collected and used for gait analysis. The experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed system is feasible and achieved satisfactory results.

  5. Deterioration of gait and balance over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreisel, Stefan H; Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study...... relevance: given the increasing use of neuroimaging, incidental white matter pathology is common; being able to delineate natural trajectories of balance and gait function given ARWMC may improve patient advice and help optimize allocation of care....... investigates if the degree of prevalent ARWMC has a differential effect on lower body motor function as it changes over time, hypothesizing that individuals with more severe baseline white matter pathology experience greater clinical deterioration independent of potential confounders. This is of clinical...

  6. Variability and Similarity of Gait as Evaluated by Joint Angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage is used in criminal investigations to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, incomplete gait cycles are collected, making evidential gait analysis challenging. This study aimed to analyze the discriminatory power of joint angles throughout a gait cycle....... Six sets from 12 men were collected. For each man, a variability range VR (mean ± 1SD) of a specific joint angle at a specific time point (a gait cycle was 100 time points) was calculated. In turn, each individual was compared with the 11 others, and whenever 1 of these 11 had a value within...... this individual’s VR, it counted as positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, we created simple bar graphs; tall bars indicated a small discriminatory power, short bars indicated a larger one. The highest discriminatory power was at time points 60–80 in the gait cycle. We show how our data can...

  7. Autonomous Evolution of Dynamic Gaits with Two Quadruped Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Gregory S.; Takamura, Seichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Fujita, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    A challenging task that must be accomplished for every legged robot is creating the walking and running behaviors needed for it to move. In this paper we describe our system for autonomously evolving dynamic gaits on two of Sony's quadruped robots. Our evolutionary algorithm runs on board the robot and uses the robot's sensors to compute the quality of a gait without assistance from the experimenter. First we show the evolution of a pace and trot gait on the OPEN-R prototype robot. With the fastest gait, the robot moves at over 10/min/min., which is more than forty body-lengths/min. While these first gaits are somewhat sensitive to the robot and environment in which they are evolved, we then show the evolution of robust dynamic gaits, one of which is used on the ERS-110, the first consumer version of AIBO.

  8. Soap-bubble Optimization of Gaits

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy, Suresh; Hatton, Ross L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a geometric variational algorithm for optimizing the gaits of kinematic locomoting systems. The dynamics of this algorithm are analogous to the physics of a soap bubble, with the system's Lie bracket supplying an "inflation pressure" that is balanced by a "surface tension" term derived from a Riemannian metric on the system's shape space. We demonstrate this optimizer on a variety of system geometries (including Purcell's swimmer) and for optimization criteria that i...