WorldWideScience

Sample records for weighing simulated galaxy

  1. Weighing the Giants V: Galaxy Cluster Scaling Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Mantz, Adam B; Morris, R Glenn; von der Linden, Anja; Applegate, Douglas E; Kelly, Patrick L; Burke, David L; Donovan, David; Ebeling, Harald

    2016-01-01

    We present constraints on the scaling relations of galaxy cluster X-ray luminosity, temperature and gas mass (and derived quantities) with mass and redshift, employing masses from robust weak gravitational lensing measurements. These are the first such results obtained from an analysis that simultaneously accounts for selection effects and the underlying mass function, and directly incorporates lensing data to constrain total masses. Our constraints on the scaling relations and their intrinsic scatters are in good agreement with previous studies, and reinforce a picture in which departures from self-similar scaling laws are primarily limited to cluster cores. However, the data are beginning to reveal new features that have implications for cluster astrophysics and provide new tests for hydrodynamical simulations. We find a positive correlation in the intrinsic scatters of luminosity and temperature at fixed mass, which is related to the dynamical state of the clusters. While the evolution of the nominal scali...

  2. Weighing the Giants V: Galaxy Cluster Scaling Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn; von der Linden, Anja; Applegate, Douglas E.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Burke, David L.; Donovan, David; Ebeling, Harald

    2016-09-01

    We present constraints on the scaling relations of galaxy cluster X-ray luminosity, temperature and gas mass (and derived quantities) with mass and redshift, employing masses from robust weak gravitational lensing measurements. These are the first such results obtained from an analysis that simultaneously accounts for selection effects and the underlying mass function, and directly incorporates lensing data to constrain total masses. Our constraints on the scaling relations and their intrinsic scatters are in good agreement with previous studies, and reinforce a picture in which departures from self-similar scaling laws are primarily limited to cluster cores. However, the data are beginning to reveal new features that have implications for cluster astrophysics and provide new tests for hydrodynamical simulations. We find a positive correlation in the intrinsic scatters of luminosity and temperature at fixed mass, which is related to the dynamical state of the clusters. While the evolution of the nominal scaling relations over the redshift range 0.0 luminosity and temperature scatters respectively decrease and increase with redshift. Physically, this likely related to the development of cool cores and the rate of major mergers. We also examine the scaling relations of redMaPPer richness and Compton Y from Planck. While the richness-mass relation is in excellent agreement with recent work, the measured Y-mass relation departs strongly from that assumed in the Planck cluster cosmology analysis. The latter result is consistent with earlier comparisons of lensing and Planck scaling-relation-derived masses.

  3. Weighing the giants- V. Galaxy cluster scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn; von der Linden, Anja; Applegate, Douglas E.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Burke, David L.; Donovan, David; Ebeling, Harald

    2016-12-01

    We present constraints on the scaling relations of galaxy cluster X-ray luminosity, temperature and gas mass (and derived quantities) with mass and redshift, employing masses from robust weak gravitational lensing measurements. These are the first such results obtained from an analysis that simultaneously accounts for selection effects and the underlying mass function, and directly incorporates lensing data to constrain total masses. Our constraints on the scaling relations and their intrinsic scatters are in good agreement with previous studies, and reinforce a picture in which departures from self-similar scaling laws are primarily limited to cluster cores. However, the data are beginning to reveal new features that have implications for cluster astrophysics and provide new tests for hydrodynamical simulations. We find a positive correlation in the intrinsic scatters of luminosity and temperature at fixed mass, which is related to the dynamical state of the clusters. While the evolution of the nominal scaling relations over the redshift range 0.0 examine the scaling relations of redMaPPer richness and Compton Y from Planck. While the richness-mass relation is in excellent agreement with recent work, the measured Y-mass relation departs strongly from that assumed in the Planck cluster cosmology analysis. The latter result is consistent with earlier comparisons of lensing and Planck scaling relation-derived masses.

  4. Simulator for a packing and weighing system of granulated powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto Rodrigues de Oliveira, Rafael; Garcia, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    The development of a simulator for a packing and weighing system (PWS) of granulated powder is described. It employed system identification to obtain the deterministic part of the model and stochastic processes to reproduce disturbances. It reproduces the fluctuations in carton weight observed in real packing systems. Its final use is to evaluate proposed improvements in the PWS, aiming at reducing overweight and underweight. Its performance is satisfactory, as the oscillations observed in the carton weights, due to powder density variability, are close to reality as well as the monetary losses due to overweight and underweight and the power spectral density graphs of the real and simulated weights.

  5. Gas Stripping in the Simulated Pegasus Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Francisco Javier; Samaniego, Alejandro; Wheeler, Coral; Bullock, James

    2017-01-01

    We utilize the hydrodynamic simulation code GIZMO to construct a non-cosmological idealized dwarf galaxy built to match the parameters of the observed Pegasus dwarf galaxy. This simulated galaxy will be used in a series of tests in which we will implement different methods of removing the dwarf’s gas in order to emulate the ram pressure stripping mechanism encountered by dwarf galaxies as they fall into more massive companion galaxies. These scenarios will be analyzed in order to determine the role that the removal of gas plays in rotational vs. dispersion support (Vrot/σ) of our galaxy.

  6. Galaxy alignments: Theory, modelling and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kiessling, Alina; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kirk, Donnacha; Kitching, Thomas D; Leonard, Adrienne; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Sifón, Cristóbal; Brown, Michael L; Rassat, Anais

    2015-01-01

    The shapes of galaxies are not randomly oriented on the sky. During the galaxy formation and evolution process, environment has a strong influence, as tidal gravitational fields in large-scale structure tend to align the shapes and angular momenta of nearby galaxies. Additionally, events such as galaxy mergers affect the relative alignments of galaxies throughout their history. These "intrinsic galaxy alignments" are known to exist, but are still poorly understood. This review will offer a pedagogical introduction to the current theories that describe intrinsic galaxy alignments, including the apparent difference in intrinsic alignment between early- and late-type galaxies and the latest efforts to model them analytically. It will then describe the ongoing efforts to simulate intrinsic alignments using both $N$-body and hydrodynamic simulations. Due to the relative youth of this field, there is still much to be done to understand intrinsic galaxy alignments and this review summarises the current state of the ...

  7. Galaxy-galaxy Lensing: Dissipationless Simulations Versus the Halo Model

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelbaum, R; Seljak, U; Kravtsov, A V; Wechsler, R H; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Tasitsiomi, Argyro; Seljak, Uros; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2004-01-01

    Galaxy-galaxy lensing is a powerful probe of the relation between galaxies and dark matter halos, but its theoretical interpretation requires a careful modeling of various contributions, such as the contribution from central and satellite galaxies. For this purpose, a phenomenological approach based on the halo model has been developed, allowing for fast exploration of the parameter space of models. In this paper, we investigate the ability of the halo model to extract information from the g-g weak lensing signal by comparing it to high-resolution dissipationless simulations that resolve subhalos. We find that the halo model reliably determines parameters such as the host halo mass of central galaxies, the fraction of galaxies that are satellites, and their radial distribution inside larger halos. If there is a significant scatter present in the central galaxy host halo mass distribution, then the mean and median mass of that distribution can differ significantly from one another, and the halo model mass dete...

  8. Weighing the Galactic disk using the Jeans equation: lessons from simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Candlish, G N; Bidin, C Moni; Gibson, B K

    2015-01-01

    Using three-dimensional stellar kinematic data from simulated galaxies, we examine the efficacy of a Jeans equation analysis in reconstructing the total disk surface density, including the dark matter, at the "Solar" radius. Our simulation dataset includes galaxies formed in a cosmological context using state-of-the-art high resolution cosmological zoom simulations, and other idealised models. The cosmologically formed galaxies have been demonstrated to lie on many of the observed scaling relations for late-type spirals, and thus offer an interesting surrogate for real galaxies with the obvious advantage that all the kinematical data are known perfectly. We show that the vertical velocity dispersion is typically the dominant kinematic quantity in the analysis, and that the traditional method of using only the vertical force is reasonably effective at low heights above the disk plane. At higher heights the inclusion of the radial force becomes increasingly important. We also show that the method is sensitive t...

  9. Simulations of Normal Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bottema, R

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented of numerical simulations of normal isolated late type spiral galaxies. Specifically the galaxy NGC 628 is used as a template. The method employs a TREESPH code including stellar particles, gas particles, cooling and heating of the gas, star formation according to a Jeans criterion, and Supernova feedback. A regular spiral disc can be generated as an equilibrium situation of two opposing actions. On the one hand cooling and dissipation of the gas, on the other hand gas heating by the FUV field of young stars and SN mechanical forcing. The disc exhibits small and medium scale spiral structure of which the multiplicity increases as a function of radius. The theory of swing amplification can explain, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the emerging spiral structure. In addition, swing amplification predicts that the existence of a grand design m=2 spiral is only possible if the disc is massive. The simulations show that the galaxy is then unstable to bar formation. A general criterion is ...

  10. Characterizing simulated galaxy stellar mass histories

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, J D

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy formation simulations can now predict many galaxy properties and their evolution through time. To go beyond studying average stellar mass history properties, we classified ensembles of simulated stellar mass histories, holding fixed their z=0 stellar mass. We applied principal component analysis (PCA) to stellar mass histories from the dark matter plus semi-analytic Millennium simulation and the hydrodynamical OverWhelmingly Large Simulations (OWLS) project, finding that a large fraction of the total scatter around the average stellar mass history for each sample is due to only one PCA fluctuation. This fluctuation differs between some different models sharing the same z=0 stellar mass and between lower (<=3e10 M_o) and higher final stellar mass Millennium samples. We correlated the PCA characterization with several $z=0$ galaxy observables (in principle observable in a survey) and galaxy halo history properties. We also explored separating galaxy stellar mass histories into classes, using the large...

  11. Galaxy Zoo: multimergers and the Millennium Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darg, D. W.; Kaviraj, S.; Lintott, C. J.; Schawinski, K.; Silk, J.; Lynn, S.; Bamford, S.; Nichol, R. C.

    2011-09-01

    We present a catalogue of 39 multiple mergers, found using the mergers catalogue of the Galaxy Zoo project for z good agreement with the simulations (especially the Munich group). We then investigate the properties of galaxies in binary mergers and multimergers (morphologies, colours, stellar masses and environment) and compare these results with those predicted by the semi-analytical galaxies. We find that multimergers favour galaxies with properties typical of elliptical morphologies and that this is in qualitative agreement with the models. Studies of multimergers thus provide an independent (and largely corroborating) test of the Millennium semi-analytical models.

  12. Performance of a weighing rain gauge under laboratory simulated time-varying reference rainfall rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, M.; Lanza, L. G.; La Barbera, P.

    2013-09-01

    The available calibration experiences about rain intensity gauges relying on the weighing measuring principle are based on laboratory tests performed under constant reference flow rate conditions. Although the Weighing Gauges (WG) do provide better performance than more traditional Tipping Bucket Rain Gauges (TBR) under constant reference flow rates, dynamic effects do impact on the accuracy of WG measurements under real-world/time-varying rainfall conditions. The most relevant biases are due to the response time of the measurement system and the derived systematic delay in assessing the exact weight of the volume of cumulated precipitation collected in the container. This delay assumes a relevant role in case high resolution rainfall intensity (RI) time series are sought from the instrument, as is the case of many hydrologic and meteo-climatic applications (the one-minute time resolution recommended by the WMO for rainfall intensity measurements is here assumed). A significant sampling error is also attributable to some kind of weighing gauge, which affects the low intensity range as well. A laboratory investigation of the accuracy and precision of a modern weighing gauge manufactured by OTT (Pluvio2) under unsteady-state reference RI conditions is here addressed. Three different laboratory test conditions are applied: single and double step variations of the reference flow rate and a simulated real-world event. The preliminary development and validation of a suitable rainfall simulator for the generation of time-variable reference intensities is presented. The generator is demonstrated to have a sufficiently short time response with respect to the expected instrument behavior in order to ensure effective comparison of the measured vs. reference intensities. The measurements obtained from the WG are compared with those derived from a traditional TBR (manufactured by Casella) under the same laboratory conditions. The TBR measurements have been corrected to account

  13. Counterrotating Stars in Simulated Galaxy Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Algorry, David G; Abadi, Mario G; Sales, Laura V; Steinmetz, Matthias; Piontek, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Counterrotating stars in disk galaxies are a puzzling dynamical feature whose origin has been ascribed to either satellite accretion events or to disk instabilities triggered by deviations from axisymmetry. We use a cosmological simulation of the formation of a disk galaxy to show that counterrotating stellar disk components may arise naturally in hierarchically-clustering scenarios even in the absence of merging. The simulated disk galaxy consists of two coplanar, overlapping stellar components with opposite spins: an inner counterrotating bar-like structure made up mostly of old stars surrounded by an extended, rotationally-supported disk of younger stars. The opposite-spin components originate from material accreted from two distinct filamentary structures which at turn around, when their net spin is acquired, intersect delineating a "V"-like structure. Each filament torques the other in opposite directions; the filament that first drains into the galaxy forms the inner counterrotating bar, while material ...

  14. Simulations of dual morphology in spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, S L

    2003-01-01

    Gas and stars in spiral galaxies are modelled with the DUAL code, using hydrodynamic and N-body techniques. The simulations reveal morphological differences mirroring the dual morphologies seen in B and K' band observations of many spiral galaxies. In particular, the gaseous images are more flocculent with lower pitch angles than the stellar images, and the stellar arm-interarm contrast correlates with the degree of morphological decoupling.

  15. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    and temperature structure of these, with locally resolved radiation fields. In the first study, SÍGAME is combined with the radiative transfer code LIME to model the spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of CO. A CO SLED close to that of the Milky Way is found for normal star-forming massive galaxies at z _ 2...

  16. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    , most [CII] emission can be traced back to the molecular part of their ISM. The observed L[CII]-SFR relation at z > 0:5 is reproduced and a similar relation is established on kpc scales for the first time theoretically. A third study uncovers the presence of AGNs among massive galaxies at z _ 2...

  17. Observationally-Motivated Analysis of Simulated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, M S; Gibson, B K

    2015-01-01

    The spatial and temporal relationships between stellar age, kinematics, and chemistry are a fundamental tool for uncovering the physics driving galaxy formation and evolution. Observationally, these trends are derived using carefully selected samples isolated via the application of appropriate magnitude, colour, and gravity selection functions of individual stars; conversely, the analysis of chemodynamical simulations of galaxies has traditionally been restricted to the age, metallicity, and kinematics of `composite' stellar particles comprised of open cluster-mass simple stellar populations. As we enter the Gaia era, it is crucial that this approach changes, with simulations confronting data in a manner which better mimics the methodology employed by observers. Here, we use the \\textsc{SynCMD} synthetic stellar populations tool to analyse the metallicity distribution function of a Milky Way-like simulated galaxy, employing an apparent magnitude plus gravity selection function similar to that employed by the ...

  18. Simulating Supersonic Turbulence in Galaxy Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Scannapieco, Evan

    2010-01-01

    We present three-dimensional, adaptive mesh simulations of dwarf galaxy out- flows driven by supersonic turbulence. Here we develop a subgrid model to track not only the thermal and bulk velocities of the gas, but also its turbulent velocities and length scales. This allows us to deposit energy from supernovae directly into supersonic turbulence, which acts on scales much larger than a particle mean free path, but much smaller than resolved large-scale flows. Unlike previous approaches, we are able to simulate a starbursting galaxy modeled after NGC 1569, with realistic radiative cooling throughout the simulation. Pockets of hot, diffuse gas around individual OB associations sweep up thick shells of material that persist for long times due to the cooling instability. The overlapping of high-pressure, rarefied regions leads to a collective central outflow that escapes the galaxy by eating away at the exterior gas through turbulent mixing, rather than gathering it into a thin, unstable shell. Supersonic, turbul...

  19. AGN feedback in elliptical galaxies: numerical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ciotti, L

    2011-01-01

    The importance of feedback (radiative and mechanical) from massive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies is not in doubt, given the well established relation among black hole mass and galaxy optical luminosity. Here, with the aid of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations, we discuss how this feedback affects the hot ISM of isolated elliptical galaxies of different mass. The cooling and heating functions include photoionization plus Compton heating, the radiative transport equations are solved, and the mechanical feedback due to the nuclear wind is also described on a physical basis; star formation is considered. In the medium-high mass galaxies the resulting evolution is highly unsteady. At early times major accretion episodes caused by cooling flows in the recycled gas produced by stellar evolution trigger AGN flaring: relaxation instabilities occur so that duty cycles are small enough to account for the very small fraction of massive ellipticals observed to be in the QSO-phase, when the accr...

  20. Isolated Galaxies in Observations and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, S.; Doroshkevich, A.

    2010-10-01

    A comparison of observed and simulated isolated galaxies allows us to check their evolution in a wide range of redshifts and to reveal and evaluate a possible impact of their environment. Using the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) technique we select samples of isolated galaxies, in the SDSS DR7 and in the moderate resolution dark matter simulation. We find that the separation to the nearest neighbour should be 4-5 h-1 Mpc to produce a sample of isolated objects with substantially peculiar environment.

  1. Water table effects on measured and simulated fluxes in weighing lysimeters for differently-textured soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegehenkel Martin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Weighing lysimeters can be used for studying the soil water balance and to analyse evapotranspiration (ET. However, not clear was the impact of the bottom boundary condition on lysimeter results and soil water movement. The objective was to analyse bottom boundary effects on the soil water balance. This analysis was carried out for lysimeters filled with fine- and coarse-textured soil monoliths by comparing simulated and measured data for lysimeters with a higher and a lower water table. The eight weighable lysimeters had a 1 m2 grass-covered surface and a depth of 1.5 m. The lysimeters contained four intact monoliths extracted from a sandy soil and four from a soil with a silty-clay texture. For two lysimeters of each soil, constant water tables were imposed at 135 cm and 210 cm depths. Evapotranspiration, change in soil water storage, and groundwater recharge were simulated for a 3-year period (1996 to 1998 using the Hydrus-1D software. Input data consisted of measured weather data and crop model-based simulated evaporation and transpiration. Snow cover and heat transport were simulated based on measured soil temperatures. Soil hydraulic parameter sets were estimated (i from soil core data and (ii based on texture data using ROSETTA pedotransfer approach. Simulated and measured outflow rates from the sandy soil matched for both parameter sets. For the sand lysimeters with the higher water table, only fast peak flow events observed on May 4, 1996 were not simulated adequately mainly because of differences between simulated and measured soil water storage caused by ET-induced soil water storage depletion. For the silty-clay soil, the simulations using the soil hydraulic parameters from retention data (i were matching the lysimeter data except for the observed peak flows on May, 4, 1996, which here probably resulted from preferential flow. The higher water table at the lysimeter bottom resulted in higher drainage in comparison with the lysimeters

  2. Toy Models for Galaxy Formation versus Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dekel, A; Tweed, D; Cacciato, M; Ceverino, D; Primack, J R

    2013-01-01

    We describe simple useful toy models for key processes of galaxy formation in its most active phase, at z > 1, and test the approximate expressions against the typical behaviour in a suite of high-resolution hydro-cosmological simulations of massive galaxies at z = 4-1. We address in particular the evolution of (a) the total mass inflow rate from the cosmic web into galactic haloes based on the EPS approximation, (b) the penetration of baryonic streams into the inner galaxy, (c) the disc size, (d) the implied steady-state gas content and star-formation rate (SFR) in the galaxy subject to mass conservation and a universal star-formation law, (e) the inflow rate within the disc to a central bulge and black hole as derived using energy conservation and self-regulated Q ~ 1 violent disc instability (VDI), and (f) the implied steady state in the disc and bulge. The toy models provide useful approximations for the behaviour of the simulated galaxies. We find that (a) the inflow rate is proportional to mass and to (...

  3. Small-scale galaxy clustering in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Artale, M Celeste; Trayford, James W; Theuns, Tom; Farrow, Daniel J; Norberg, Peder; Zehavi, Idit; Bower, Richard G; Schaller, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    We study present-day galaxy clustering in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. EAGLE's galaxy formation parameters were calibrated to reproduce the redshift $z = 0.1$ galaxy stellar mass function, and the simulation also reproduces galaxy colours well. The simulation volume is too small to correctly sample large-scale fluctuations and we therefore concentrate on scales smaller than a few megaparsecs. We find very good agreement with observed clustering measurements from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, when galaxies are binned by stellar mass, colour, or luminosity. However, low-mass red-galaxies are clustered too strongly, which is at least partly due to limited numerical resolution. Apart from this limitation, we conclude that EAGLE galaxies inhabit similar dark matter haloes as observed GAMA galaxies, and that the radial distribution of satellite galaxies as function of stellar mass and colour is similar to that observed as well.

  4. Small-scale galaxy clustering in the eagle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artale, M. Celeste; Pedrosa, Susana E.; Trayford, James W.; Theuns, Tom; Farrow, Daniel J.; Norberg, Peder; Zehavi, Idit; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu

    2017-09-01

    We study present-day galaxy clustering in the eagle cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. eagle's galaxy formation parameters were calibrated to reproduce the redshift z = 0.1 galaxy stellar mass function, and the simulation also reproduces galaxy colours well. The simulation volume is too small to correctly sample large-scale fluctuations and we therefore concentrate on scales smaller than a few mega parsecs. We find very good agreement with observed clustering measurements from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, when galaxies are binned by stellar mass, colour or luminosity. However, low-mass red galaxies are clustered too strongly, which is at least partly due to limited numerical resolution. Apart from this limitation, we conclude that eagle galaxies inhabit similar dark matter haloes as observed GAMA galaxies, and that the radial distribution of satellite galaxies, as a function of stellar mass and colour, is similar to that observed as well.

  5. Forming Disk Galaxies in Lambda CDM Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Governato, F; Mayer, L; Quinn, T; Stinson, G; Valenzuela, O; Wadsley, J; Willman, B

    2006-01-01

    We used fully cosmological, high resolution N-body + SPH simulations to follow the formation of disk galaxies with rotational velocities between 135 and 270 km/sec in a Lambda CDM universe. The simulations include gas cooling, star formation, the effects of a uniform UV background and a physically motivated description of feedback from supernovae. The host dark matter halos have a spin and last major merger redshift typical of galaxy sized halos as measured in recent large scale N--Body simulations. The simulated galaxies form rotationally supported disks with realistic exponential scale lengths and fall on both the I-band and baryonic Tully Fisher relations. An extended stellar disk forms inside the Milky Way sized halo immediately after the last major merger. The combination of UV background and SN feedback drastically reduces the number of visible satellites orbiting inside a Milky Way sized halo, bringing it in fair agreement with observations. Our simulations predict that the average age of a primary gal...

  6. Galaxy simulations: Kinematics and mock observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Christopher E.

    2013-08-01

    There are six topics to my thesis, which are: (1) slow rotator production in varied simulation schemes and kinematically decoupled cores and twists in those simulations, (2) the change in number of clumps in radiation pressure and no-radiation pressure simulations, (3) Sunrise experiments and failures including UVJ color-color dust experiments and UVbeta slopes, (4) the Sunrise image pipeline and algorithms. Cosmological simulations of have typically produced too many stars at early times. We find that the additional radiation pressure (RP) feedback suppresses star formation globally by a factor of ~ 3. Despite this reduction, the simulation still overproduces stars by a factor of ~ 2 with respect to the predictions provided by abundance matching methods. In simulations with RP the number of clumps falls dramatically. However, only clumps with masses Mclump/Mdisk ≤ 8% are impacted by the inclusion of RP, and clump counts above this range are comparable. Above this mass, the difference between and RP and no-RP contrast ratios diminishes. If we restrict our selection to galaxies hosting at least a single clump above this mass range then clump numbers, contrast ratios, survival fractions and total clump masses show little discrepancy between RP and no-RP simulations. By creating mock Hubble Space Telescope observations we find that the number of clumps is slightly reduced in simulations with RP. We demonstrate that clumps found in any single gas, stellar, or mock observation image are not necessarily clumps found in another map, and that there are few clumps common to multiple maps. New kinematic observations from ATLAS3D have highlighted the need to understand the evolutionary mechanism leading to a spectrum of fast-rotator and slow-rotators in early-type galaxies. We address the formation of slow and fast rotators through a series of controlled, comprehensive hydrodynamic simulations sampling idealized galaxy merger formation scenarios constructed from model

  7. Chemical Evolution Library for Galaxy Formation Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Takayuki R.

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a software library for chemical evolution simulations of galaxy formation under the simple stellar population (SSP) approximation. In this library, all of the necessary components concerning chemical evolution, such as initial mass functions, stellar lifetimes, yields from Type II and Type Ia supernovae, asymptotic giant branch stars, and neutron star mergers, are compiled from the literature. Various models are pre-implemented in this library so that users can choose their favorite combination of models. Subroutines of this library return released energy and masses of individual elements depending on a given event type. Since the redistribution manner of these quantities depends on the implementation of users’ simulation codes, this library leaves it up to the simulation code. As demonstrations, we carry out both one-zone, closed-box simulations and 3D simulations of a collapsing gas and dark matter system using this library. In these simulations, we can easily compare the impact of individual models on the chemical evolution of galaxies, just by changing the control flags and parameters of the library. Since this library only deals with the part of chemical evolution under the SSP approximation, any simulation codes that use the SSP approximation—namely, particle-base and mesh codes, as well as semianalytical models—can use it. This library is named “CELib” after the term “Chemical Evolution Library” and is made available to the community.

  8. Simulated Galaxy Interactions as Probes of Merger Spectral Energy Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Lanz, Lauranne; Zezas, Andreas; Smith, Howard A; Ashby, Matthew L N; Brassington, Nicola; Fazio, Giovanni G; Hernquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We present the first systematic comparison of ultraviolet-millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of observed and simulated interacting galaxies. Our sample is drawn from the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey, and probes a range of galaxy interaction parameters. We use 31 galaxies in 14 systems which have been observed with Herschel, Spitzer, GALEX, and 2MASS. We create a suite of GADGET-3 hydrodynamic simulations of isolated and interacting galaxies with stellar masses comparable to those in our sample of interacting galaxies. Photometry for the simulated systems is then calculated with the SUNRISE radiative transfer code for comparison with the observed systems. For most of the observed systems, one or more of the simulated SEDs match reasonably well. The best matches recover the infrared luminosity and the star formation rate of the observed systems, and the more massive systems preferentially match SEDs from simulations of more massive galaxies. The most morphologically distorted systems in our sa...

  9. MUFASA: galaxy formation simulations with meshless hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, Romeel; Thompson, Robert; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2016-11-01

    We present the MUFASA suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, which employs the GIZMO meshless finite mass (MFM) code including H2-based star formation, nine-element chemical evolution, two-phase kinetic outflows following scalings from the Feedback in Realistic Environments zoom simulations, and evolving halo mass-based quenching. Our fiducial (50 h-1 Mpc)3 volume is evolved to z = 0 with a quarter billion elements. The predicted galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMFs) reproduces observations from z = 4 → 0 to ≲ 1.2σ in cosmic variance, providing an unprecedented match to this key diagnostic. The cosmic star formation history and stellar mass growth show general agreement with data, with a strong archaeological downsizing trend such that dwarf galaxies form the majority of their stars after z ˜ 1. We run 25 and 12.5 h-1 Mpc volumes to z = 2 with identical feedback prescriptions, the latter resolving all hydrogen-cooling haloes, and the three runs display fair resolution convergence. The specific star formation rates broadly agree with data at z = 0, but are underpredicted at z ˜ 2 by a factor of 3, re-emphasizing a longstanding puzzle in galaxy evolution models. We compare runs using MFM and two flavours of smoothed particle hydrodynamics, and show that the GSMF is sensitive to hydrodynamics methodology at the ˜×2 level, which is sub-dominant to choices for parametrizing feedback.

  10. The metal enrichment of passive galaxies in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Takashi; Lacey, Cedric G; Frenk, Carlos S

    2016-01-01

    Massive early-type galaxies have higher metallicities and higher ratios of $\\alpha$ elements to iron than their less massive counterparts. Reproducing these correlations has long been a problem for hierarchical galaxy formation theory, both in semi-analytic models and cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We show that a simulation in which gas cooling in massive dark haloes is quenched by radio-mode active galactic nuclei (AGNs) feedback naturally reproduces the observed trend between $\\alpha$/Fe and the velocity dispersion of galaxies, $\\sigma$. The quenching occurs earlier for more massive galaxies. Consequently, these galaxies complete their star formation before $\\alpha$/Fe is diluted by the contribution from type Ia supernovae. For galaxies more massive than $\\sim 10^{11}~M_\\odot$ whose $\\alpha$/Fe correlates positively with stellar mass, we find an inversely correlated mass-metallicity relation. This is a common problem in simulations in which star formation in massive galaxies is quenched either by qu...

  11. Modeling the galaxy/light-mass connection with cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Tasitsiomi, A

    2006-01-01

    I review some results on the galaxy/light-mass connection obtained by dissipationless simulations in combination with a simple, non-parametric model to connect halo circular velocity to the luminosity of the galaxy they would host. I focus on the galaxy-mass correlation and mass-to-light ratios obtained from galaxy up to cluster scales. The predictions of this simple scheme are shown to be in very good agreement with SDSS observations.

  12. Galaxy Simulation with Dust Formation and Destruction

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Shohei; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Todoroki, Keita; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    We perform smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of an isolated galaxy with a new treatment for dust formation and destruction. To this aim, we treat dust and metal production self-consistently with star formation and supernova feedback. For dust, we consider a simplified model of grain size distribution by representing the entire range of grain sizes with large and small grains. We include dust production in stellar ejecta, dust destruction by supernova (SN) shocks, grain growth by accretion and coagulation, and grain disruption by shattering. We find that the assumption of fixed dust-to-metal mass ratio becomes no longer valid when the galaxy is older than 0.2 Gyr, at which point the grain growth by accretion starts to contribute to the nonlinear rise of dust-to-gas ratio. As expected in our previous one-zone model, shattering triggers grain growth by accretion since it increases the total surface area of grains. Coagulation becomes significant when the galaxy age is greater than $\\sim$ 1 Gyr: a...

  13. Simulating magnetic fields in the Antennae galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kotarba, H; Naab, T; Johansson, P H; Dolag, K; Lesch, H

    2009-01-01

    We present self-consistent high-resolution simulations of NGC4038/4039 (the "Antennae galaxies") including star formation, supernova feedback and magnetic fields performed with the N-body/SPH code Gadget, in which hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics are followed with the SPH method. We vary the initial magnetic field in the progenitor disks from 1 nG to 1 muG. At the time of the best match with the central region of the Antennae system the magnetic field has been amplified by compression and shear flows to an equilibrium field of approximately 10 muG, independent of the initial seed field. This simulations are a proof of the principle that galaxy mergers are efficient drivers for the cosmic evolution of magnetic fields. We present a detailed analysis of the magnetic field structure in the central overlap region. Simulated radio and polarization maps are in good morphological and quantitative agreement with the observations. In particular, the two cores with the highest synchrotron intensity and ridges of r...

  14. A superbubble feedback model for galaxy simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, B. W.; Wadsley, J.; Benincasa, S. M.; Couchman, H. M. P.

    2014-08-01

    We present a new stellar feedback model that reproduces superbubbles. Superbubbles from clustered young stars evolve quite differently to individual supernovae and are substantially more efficient at generating gas motions. The essential new components of the model are thermal conduction, subgrid evaporation and a subgrid multiphase treatment for cases where the simulation mass resolution is insufficient to model the early stages of the superbubble. The multiphase stage is short compared to superbubble lifetimes. Thermal conduction physically regulates the hot gas mass without requiring a free parameter. Accurately following the hot component naturally avoids overcooling. Prior approaches tend to heat too much mass, leaving the hot interstellar medium (ISM) below 106 K and susceptible to rapid cooling unless ad hoc fixes were used. The hot phase also allows feedback energy to correctly accumulate from multiple, clustered sources, including stellar winds and supernovae. We employ high-resolution simulations of a single star cluster to show the model is insensitive to numerical resolution, unresolved ISM structure and suppression of conduction by magnetic fields. We also simulate a Milky Way analogue and a dwarf galaxy. Both galaxies show regulated star formation and produce strong outflows.

  15. Evolution of galaxy groups in the Illustris simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Raouf, Mojtaba; Dariush, Ali A

    2016-01-01

    We present the first study of evolution of galaxy groups in the Illustris simulation. We focus on dynamically relaxed and unrelaxed galaxy groups representing dynamically evolved and evolving galaxy systems, respectively. The evolutionary state of a group is probed from its luminosity gap and separation between the brightest group galaxy and the center of mass of the group members. We find that the Illustris simulation, over-produces large luminosity gap galaxy systems, known as fossil systems, in comparison to observations and the probed semi-analytical predictions. However, this simulation is equally successful in recovering the correlation between luminosity gap and luminosity centroid offset, in comparison to the probed semi-analytic model. We find evolutionary tracks based on luminosity gap which indicate that a large luminosity gap group is rooted in a small luminosity gap group, regardless of the position of the brightest group galaxy within the halo. This simulation helps, for the first time, to explo...

  16. MUFASA: Galaxy Formation Simulations With Meshless Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel; Hopkins, Philip F

    2016-01-01

    We present the MUFASA suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, which employs the GIZMO meshless finite mass (MFM) code including H2-based star formation, nine-element chemical evolution, two-phase kinetic outflows following scalings from the Feedback in Realistic Environments zoom simulations, and evolving halo mass-based quenching. Our fiducial (50 Mpc/h)^3 volume is evolved to z=0 with a quarter billion particles, The predicted galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMF) reproduce observations from z=4-0 to <1.2sigma in cosmic variance, providing an unprecedented match to this key diagnostic. The cosmic star formation history and stellar mass growth show general agreement with data, with a strong archaeological downsizing trend such that dwarf galaxies form the majority of their stars after z~1. We run 25 Mpc/h and 12.5 Mpc/h volumes to z=2 with identical feedback prescriptions, the latter resolving all hydrogen-cooling halos, and the three runs display fair resolution convergence. The specific star form...

  17. The EAGLE simulations: atomic hydrogen associated with galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Crain, Robert A; Lagos, Claudia del P; Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; McCarthy, Ian G; Marasco, Antonino; Bower, Richard G; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2016-01-01

    We examine the properties of atomic hydrogen (HI) associated with galaxies in the EAGLE simulations of galaxy formation. EAGLE's feedback parameters were calibrated to reproduce the stellar mass function and galaxy sizes at $z=0.1$, and we assess whether this calibration also yields realistic HI properties. We estimate the self-shielding density with a fitting function calibrated using radiation transport simulations, and correct for molecular hydrogen with empirical or theoretical relations. The `standard-resolution' simulations systematically underestimate HI column densities, leading to an HI deficiency in low-mass ($M_\\star < 10^{10}M_\\odot$) galaxies and poor reproduction of the observed HI mass function. These shortcomings are largely absent from EAGLE simulations featuring a factor of 8 (2) better mass (spatial) resolution, within which the HI mass of galaxies evolves more mildly from $z=1$ to $0$ than in the standard-resolution simulations. The largest-volume simulation reproduces the observed clus...

  18. The EAGLE simulation of galaxy formation: public release of halo and galaxy catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Trayford, James W; Qu, Yan; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Frenk, Carlos S; McCarthy, Ian G; Jenkins, Adrian; Rosas-Guevara, Yetli; White, Simon D M; Baes, Maarten; Camps, Peter; Lemson, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    We present the public data release of halo and galaxy catalogues extracted from the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation. These simulations were performed with an enhanced version of the GADGET code that includes a modified hydrodynamics solver, time-step limiter and subgrid treatments of baryonic physics, such as stellar mass loss, element-by-element radiative cooling, star formation and feedback from star formation and black hole accretion. The simulation suite includes runs performed in volumes ranging from 25 to 100 comoving megaparsecs per side, with numerical resolution chosen to marginally resolve the Jeans mass of the gas at the star formation threshold. The free parameters of the subgrid models for feedback are calibrated to the redshift z=0 galaxy stellar mass function, galaxy sizes and black hole mass - stellar mass relation. The simulations have been shown to match a wide range of observations for present-day and higher-redshift galaxies. The raw particle data...

  19. Properties of Simulated Magnetized Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Dolag, K

    2000-01-01

    We study the evolution of magnetized clusters in a cosmological environment using magneto-hydro dynamical simulations. Large scale flows and merging of subclumps generate shear flows leading to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, which, in addition to the compression of the gas where the magnetic field is frozen in, further amplify the magnetic field during the evolution of the cluster. Therefore, well-motivated initial magnetic fields of $^{1/2}=10^{-9} {\\rm G}$ reach the observed $\\sim\\mu{\\rm G}$ field strengths in the cluster cores at $z=0$. These magnetized clusters can be used to study the final magnetic field structure, the dynamical importance of magnetic fields for the interpretation of observed X-Ray properties, and help to constrain further processes in galaxy clusters like the population of relativistic particles giving rise to the observed radio halos or the behavior of magnetized cooling flows.

  20. GALSIM: The modular galaxy image simulation toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, B. T. P.; Jarvis, M.; Mandelbaum, R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bosch, J.; Simet, M.; Meyers, J. E.; Kacprzak, T.; Nakajima, R.; Zuntz, J.; Miyatake, H.; Dietrich, J. P.; Armstrong, R.; Melchior, P.; Gill, M. S. S.

    2015-04-01

    GALSIM is a collaborative, open-source project aimed at providing an image simulation tool of enduring benefit to the astronomical community. It provides a software library for generating images of astronomical objects such as stars and galaxies in a variety of ways, efficiently handling image transformations and operations such as convolution and rendering at high precision. We describe the GALSIM software and its capabilities, including necessary theoretical background. We demonstrate that the performance of GALSIM meets the stringent requirements of high precision image analysis applications such as weak gravitational lensing, for current datasets and for the Stage IV dark energy surveys of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, ESA's Euclid mission, and NASA's WFIRST-AFTA mission. The GALSIM project repository is public and includes the full code history, all open and closed issues, installation instructions, documentation, and wiki pages (including a Frequently Asked Questions section). The GALSIM repository can be found at https://github.com/GalSim-developers/GalSim.

  1. The metal enrichment of passive galaxies in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takashi; Nagashima, Masahiro; Lacey, Cedric G.; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2017-02-01

    Massive early-type galaxies have higher metallicities and higher ratios of α elements to iron than their less massive counterparts. Reproducing these correlations has long been a problem for hierarchical galaxy formation theory, both in semi-analytic models and cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We show that a simulation in which gas cooling in massive dark haloes is quenched by radio-mode active galactic nuclei (AGNs) feedback naturally reproduces the observed trend between α/Fe and the velocity dispersion of galaxies, σ. The quenching occurs earlier for more massive galaxies. Consequently, these galaxies complete their star formation before α/Fe is diluted by the contribution from Type Ia supernovae. For galaxies more massive than ˜1011 M⊙, whose α/Fe correlates positively with stellar mass, we find an inversely correlated mass-metallicity relation. This is a common problem in simulations in which star formation in massive galaxies is quenched either by quasar- or radio-mode AGN feedback. The early suppression of gas cooling in progenitors of massive galaxies prevents them from recapturing enriched gas ejected as winds. Simultaneously reproducing the [α/Fe]-σ relation and the mass-metallicity relation is, thus, difficult in the current framework of galaxy formation.

  2. Weighing the Giants I: Weak Lensing Masses for 51 Massive Galaxy Clusters - Project Overview, Data Analysis Methods, and Cluster Images

    CERN Document Server

    von der Linden, Anja; Applegate, Douglas E; Kelly, Patrick L; Allen, Steven W; Ebeling, Harald; Burchat, Patricia R; Burke, David L; Donovan, David; Morris, R Glenn; Blandford, Roger; Erben, Thomas; Mantz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers in which we measure accurate weak-lensing masses for 51 of the most X-ray luminous galaxy clusters known at redshifts 0.15

  3. Dust Attenuation in Hydrodynamic Simulations of Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, M; Primack, J R; Cox, T J; Rocha, Miguel; Jonsson, Patrik; Primack, Joel R.

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of dust in hydrodynamic simulations of spiral galaxies when different radial metallicity gradients are assumed. SUNRISE, a Monte-Carlo radiative-transfer code, is used to make detailed calculations of the internal extinction of disk galaxies caused by their dust content. SUNRISE is used on eight different Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of isolated spiral galaxies. These galaxies vary mainly in mass and hence luminosity, spanning a range in luminosities from -16 to -22 magnitudes in the B band. We focus on the attenuation in different wavelength bands as a function of the disk inclination and the luminosity of the models, and compare this to observations. Observations suggest different metallicity gradients for galaxies of different luminosities. These metallicity gradients were explored in our different models, finding that the resulting dust attenuation matches observations for edge-on galaxies, but do not show a linear behaviour in log axis ratio as some observations ha...

  4. Simulations of magnetic fields in isolated disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pakmor, R

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic fields are known to be dynamically important in the interstellar medium of our own Galaxy, and they are ubiquitously observed in diffuse gas in the halos of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Yet, magnetic fields have typically been neglected in studies of the formation of galaxies, leaving their global influence on galaxy formation largely unclear. We extend our MHD implementation in the moving-mesh code Arepo to cosmological problems which include radiative cooling and the formation of stars. In particular, we replace our previously employed divergence cleaning approach with a Powell 8-wave scheme, which turns out to be significantly more stable, even in very dynamic environments. We verify the improved accuracy through simulations of the MRI in accretion disks, that reproduce its correct linear growth rate. Using this new MHD code, we simulate the formation of isolated disk galaxies similar to the Milky Way using idealized initial conditions with and without magnetic fields. We find that the magnetic f...

  5. A chronicle of galaxy mass assembly in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan; Helly, John C.; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Furlong, Michelle; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; White, Simon D. M.

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the mass assembly of central galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) hydrodynamical simulations. We build merger trees to connect galaxies to their progenitors at different redshifts and characterize their assembly histories by focusing on the time when half of the galaxy stellar mass was assembled into the main progenitor. We show that galaxies with stellar mass M* < 1010.5 M⊙ assemble most of their stellar mass through star formation in the main progenitor (`in situ' star formation). This can be understood as a consequence of the steep rise in star formation efficiency with halo mass for these galaxies. For more massive galaxies, however, an increasing fraction of their stellar mass is formed outside the main progenitor and subsequently accreted. Consequently, while for low-mass galaxies, the assembly time is close to the stellar formation time, the stars in high-mass galaxies typically formed long before half of the present-day stellar mass was assembled into a single object, giving rise to the observed antihierarchical downsizing trend. In a typical present-day M* ≥ 1011 M⊙ galaxy, around 20 per cent of the stellar mass has an external origin. This fraction decreases with increasing redshift. Bearing in mind that mergers only make an important contribution to the stellar mass growth of massive galaxies, we find that the dominant contribution comes from mergers with galaxies of mass greater than one-tenth of the main progenitor's mass. The galaxy merger fraction derived from our simulations agrees with recent observational estimates.

  6. Kinematic evolution of simulated star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassin, Susan A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Brooks, Alyson [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Governato, Fabio [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Steward Observatory, 933 N. Cherry Street, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gardner, Jonathan P., E-mail: kassin@stsci.edu [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last ∼8 billion years since z = 1.2, undergoing a process of 'disk settling'. For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art 'zoom in' hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking because the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (σ{sub g}) and increase in ordered rotation (V{sub rot}) with time. The slopes of the relations between both σ{sub g} and V{sub rot} with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling'.

  7. Kinematic Evolution of Simulated Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, Susan A.; Brooks, Alyson; Governato, Fabio; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last approximately 8 billion years since z = 1.2, undergoing a process of "disk settling." For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art "zoom in" hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking as the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (sigma(sub g)) and increase in ordered rotation (V(sub rot)) with time. The slopes of the relations between both sigma(sub g) and V(sub rot) with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling.

  8. The EAGLE simulations of galaxy formation: Public release of halo and galaxy catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, S.; Helly, J. C.; Schaller, M.; Trayford, J. W.; Qu, Y.; Furlong, M.; Bower, R. G.; Crain, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Theuns, T.; Dalla Vecchia, C.; Frenk, C. S.; McCarthy, I. G.; Jenkins, A.; Rosas-Guevara, Y.; White, S. D. M.; Baes, M.; Camps, P.; Lemson, G.

    2016-04-01

    We present the public data release of halo and galaxy catalogues extracted from the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation. These simulations were performed with an enhanced version of the GADGET code that includes a modified hydrodynamics solver, time-step limiter and subgrid treatments of baryonic physics, such as stellar mass loss, element-by-element radiative cooling, star formation and feedback from star formation and black hole accretion. The simulation suite includes runs performed in volumes ranging from 25 to 100 comoving megaparsecs per side, with numerical resolution chosen to marginally resolve the Jeans mass of the gas at the star formation threshold. The free parameters of the subgrid models for feedback are calibrated to the redshift z = 0 galaxy stellar mass function, galaxy sizes and black hole mass-stellar mass relation. The simulations have been shown to match a wide range of observations for present-day and higher-redshift galaxies. The raw particle data have been used to link galaxies across redshifts by creating merger trees. The indexing of the tree produces a simple way to connect a galaxy at one redshift to its progenitors at higher redshift and to identify its descendants at lower redshift. In this paper we present a relational database which we are making available for general use. A large number of properties of haloes and galaxies and their merger trees are stored in the database, including stellar masses, star formation rates, metallicities, photometric measurements and mock gri images. Complex queries can be created to explore the evolution of more than 105 galaxies, examples of which are provided in the Appendix. The relatively good and broad agreement of the simulations with a wide range of observational datasets makes the database an ideal resource for the analysis of model galaxies through time, and for connecting and interpreting observational datasets.

  9. Star Formation History of Dwarf Galaxies in Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Nagamine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the past and current work on the star formation (SF histories of dwarf galaxies in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The results obtained from different numerical methods are still somewhat mixed, but the differences are understandable if we consider the numerical and resolution effects. It remains a challenge to simulate the episodic nature of SF history in dwarf galaxies at late times within the cosmological context of a cold dark matter model. More work is needed to solve the mysteries of SF history of dwarf galaxies employing large-scale hydrodynamic simulations on the next generation of supercomputers.

  10. Testing hydrodynamics schemes in galaxy disc simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, C. G.; Dobbs, C.; Pettitt, A.; Konstandin, L.

    2016-08-01

    We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHNG), and a volume-discretized mesh-less code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the SPHNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the SPHNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans length with a greater number of grid cells, we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful in reducing the disparity between RAMSES and SPHNG/GIZMO. Although more similar, SPHNG displays different density distributions and vertical mass profiles to all modes of GIZMO (including the smoothed particle hydrodynamics version). This suggests differences also arise which are not intrinsic to the particular method but rather due to its implementation. The discrepancies between codes (in particular, the densities reached in the spiral arms) could potentially result in differences in the locations and time-scales for gravitational collapse, and therefore impact star formation activity in more complex galaxy disc simulations.

  11. Velocity Structure Diagnostics of Simulated Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Biffi, Veronica; Boehringer, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Gas motions in the hot intracluster medium of galaxy clusters have an important effect on the mass determination of the clusters through X-ray observations. The corresponding dynamical pressure has to be accounted for in addition to the hydrostatic pressure support to achieve a precise mass measurement. An analysis of the velocity structure of the ICM for simulated cluster-size haloes, especially focusing on rotational patterns, has been performed, demonstrating them to be an intermittent phenomenon, strongly related to the internal dynamics of substructures. We find that the expected build-up of rotation due to mass assembly gets easily destroyed by passages of gas-rich substructures close to the central region. Though, if a typical rotation pattern is established, the corresponding mass contribution is estimated to be up to ~17% of the total mass in the innermost region, and one has to account for it. Extending the analysis to a larger sample of simulated haloes we statistically observe that (i) the distrib...

  12. Simulating the [CII] emission of high redshift galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pardos Olsen, Karen; Greve, Thomas Rodriguez; Narayanan, Desika;

    2016-01-01

    density. For the chemistry and radiative transfer, the photoionization code CLOUDY is implemented. I will show results for z=2 star-forming galaxies yet to be observed, as well as preliminary results for galaxies at z~6-7 where observations have presented contradictory detections and non......-detections of star-forming galaxies.......The fine structure line of [CII] at 158 microns can arise throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) and has been proposed as a tracer of star formation rate (SFR). But the origin of [CII] and how it depends on e.g. metallicity and radiation field of a galaxy remain uncertain.Simulating [CII] can...

  13. Simulating disk galaxies and interactions in Milgromian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, Ingo; Famaey, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Since its publication 1983, Milgromian dynamics (aka MOND) has been very successful in modeling the gravitational potential of galaxies from baryonic matter alone. However, the dynamical modeling has long been an unsolved issue. In particular, the setup of a stable galaxy for Milgromian N-body calculations has been a major challenge. Here, I will show a way to set up disc galaxies in MOND for calculations in the PHANTOM OF RAMSES (PoR) code by L\\"ughausen (2015) and Teyssier (2002). The method is done by solving the QUMOND Poisson equations based on a baryonic and a phantom dark matter component. The resulting galaxy models are stable after a brief settling period for a large mass and size range. Simulations of single galaxies as well as colliding galaxies are shown.

  14. N-Body Simulations of Galaxies in the Cluster Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Nicholas; Berrington, R. C.

    2010-01-01

    We present numerous N-body simulations of galaxy clusters consisting of up to 600,000 total particles and 50 galaxies each to characterize the evolution of galaxies in the cluster environment. These simulations were run on the Ball State University (BSU) College of Science and Humanities (CSH) 64-node Beowulf Cluster. Because the velocity dispersion (σ) is a tracer of a galaxies’ potential well and therefore its mass, we will use it to examine the mass evolution of the galaxies in the simulations by fitting a function to the σ of the galaxies. The strength of this function is its direct comparison to observational data. We further investigate the evolution of the galaxy structure parameters through the use of projected mass radii and line-of-sight (LOS) σ. Additionally, we discuss the use of alternate orbital parameters such as Vesc to investigate the potential wells of the galaxies. Our goal is to isolate the mass and luminosity evolution from the environmental effects on the evolution of elliptical galaxies. This project is a subset of a continuing study whose intent is to combine observational data with numerical techniques to study the effects of a galaxies’ environment on its mass evolution and internal dynamics.

  15. Galaxy Zoo: Multi-Mergers and the Millennium Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Darg, D W; Lintott, C J; Schawinski, K; Silk, J; Lynn, S; Bamford, S; Nichol, R C

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalogue of 39 multiple-mergers found using the mergers catalogue of the Galaxy Zoo project for $z<0.1$ and compare them to corresponding semi-analytical galaxies from the Millennium Simulation. We estimate the (volume-limited) multi-merger fraction of the local Universe using our sample and find it to be at least two orders of magnitude less than binary-mergers - in good agreement with the simulations (especially the Munich group). We then investigate the properties of galaxies in binary- and multi-mergers (morphologies, colours, stellar masses and environment) and compare these results with those predicted by the semi-analytical galaxies. We find that multi-mergers favour galaxies with properties typical of elliptical morphologies and that this is in qualitative agreement with the models. Studies of multi-mergers thus provide an independent (and largely corroborating) test of the Millennium semi-analytical models.

  16. Cosmological Simulations of Isotropic Conduction in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Britton D; Voit, G Mark; Ventimiglia, David; Skillman, Samuel W

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of galaxy clusters have a difficult time reproducing the radial gas-property gradients and red central galaxies observed to exist in the cores of galaxy clusters. Thermal conduction has been suggested as a mechanism that can help bring simulations of cluster cores into better alignment with observations by stabilizing the feedback processes that regulate gas cooling, but this idea has not yet been well tested with cosmological numerical simulations. Here we present cosmological simulations of ten galaxy clusters performed with five different levels of isotropic Spitzer conduction, which alters both the cores and outskirts of clusters, but not dramatically. In the cores, conduction flattens central temperature gradients, making them nearly isothermal and slightly lowering the central density but failing to prevent a cooling catastrophe there. Conduction has little effect on temperature gradients outside of cluster cores because outward conductive heat flow tends to inflate the outer parts of the in...

  17. The distribution of mass components in simulated disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Santos-Santos, Isabel M; Stinson, Greg; Di Cintio, Arianna; Wadsley, James; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa; Gottlöber, Stefan; Yepes, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Using 22 hydrodynamical simulated galaxies in a LCDM cosmological context we recover not only the observed baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, but also the observed "mass discrepancy--acceleration" relation, which reflects the distribution of the main components of the galaxies throughout their disks. This implies that the simulations, which span the range 52 < V$_{\\rm flat}$ < 222 km/s where V$_{\\rm flat}$ is the circular velocity at the flat part of the rotation curve, and match galaxy scaling relations, are able to recover the observed relations between the distributions of stars, gas and dark matter over the radial range for which we have observational rotation curve data. Furthermore, we explicitly match the observed baryonic to halo mass relation for the first time with simulated galaxies. We discuss our results in the context of the baryon cycle that is inherent in these simulations, and with regards to the effect of baryonic processes on the distribution of dark matter.

  18. nIFTY galaxy cluster simulations - III. The similarity and diversity of galaxies and subhaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Pascal J.; Knebe, Alexander; Pearce, Frazer R.; Power, Chris; Yepes, Gustavo; Cui, Weiguang; Cunnama, Daniel; Kay, Scott T.; Sembolini, Federico; Beck, Alexander M.; Davé, Romeel; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Katz, Neal; McCarthy, Ian G.; Murante, Giuseppe; Perret, Valentin; Puchwein, Ewald; Saro, Alexandro; Teyssier, Romain

    2016-05-01

    We examine subhaloes and galaxies residing in a simulated Λ cold dark matter galaxy cluster (M^crit_{200}=1.1× 10^{15} h^{-1} M_{⊙}) produced by hydrodynamical codes ranging from classic smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH), newer SPH codes, adaptive and moving mesh codes. These codes use subgrid models to capture galaxy formation physics. We compare how well these codes reproduce the same subhaloes/galaxies in gravity-only, non-radiative hydrodynamics and full feedback physics runs by looking at the overall subhalo/galaxy distribution and on an individual object basis. We find that the subhalo population is reproduced to within ≲10 per cent for both dark matter only and non-radiative runs, with individual objects showing code-to-code scatter of ≲0.1 dex, although the gas in non-radiative simulations shows significant scatter. Including feedback physics significantly increases the diversity. Subhalo mass and Vmax distributions vary by ≈20 per cent. The galaxy populations also show striking code-to-code variations. Although the Tully-Fisher relation is similar in almost all codes, the number of galaxies with 109 h- 1 M⊙ ≲ M* ≲ 1012 h- 1 M⊙ can differ by a factor of 4. Individual galaxies show code-to-code scatter of ˜0.5 dex in stellar mass. Moreover, systematic differences exist, with some codes producing galaxies 70 per cent smaller than others. The diversity partially arises from the inclusion/absence of active galactic nucleus feedback. Our results combined with our companion papers demonstrate that subgrid physics is not just subject to fine-tuning, but the complexity of building galaxies in all environments remains a challenge. We argue that even basic galaxy properties, such as stellar mass to halo mass, should be treated with errors bars of ˜0.2-0.4 dex.

  19. Lagrangian Volume Deformations around Simulated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Robles, S; Oñorbe, J; Martínez-Serrano, F J

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the local evolution of 206 Lagrangian Volumes (LVs) selected at high redshift around galaxy seeds, identified in a large-volume $\\Lambda$CDM hydrodynamical simulation. The LVs have a mass range of $1 - 1500 \\times 10^{10} M_\\odot$. We follow the dynamical evolution of the density field inside these initially spherical LVs from $z=10$ up to $z_{\\rm low}= 0.05$, witnessing highly non-linear, anisotropic mass rearrangements within them, leading to the emergence of the local cosmic web (CW). These mass arrangements have been analysed in terms of the reduced inertia tensor $I_{ij}^r$, focusing on the evolution of the principal axes of inertia and their corresponding eigen directions, and paying particular attention to the times when the evolution of these two structural elements declines. In addition, mass and component effects along this process have also been investigated. We have found that deformations are led by DM dynamics and they transform most of the initially spherical L...

  20. Comparing Simulations and Observations of Reionization-Epoch Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian

    2006-05-01

    We propose to test and constrain models of early galaxy formation through comparisons with observations of reionization-epoch (z>6) galaxies observed using Spitzer. The goals are to (1) Make predictions for z>6 objects using state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation tailored to study the reionization epoch; (2) Develop a publicly-available tool called SPOC designed to obtain detailed constraints on physical properties of observed galaxies through comparisons with simulated galaxy catalogs; and (3) Use SPOC to test and constrain models of galaxy formation through comparisons with rapidly- advancing observations in the new frontier of early universe studies. The results of this study will yield deeper insights into the galaxy formation process at these mostly unexplored epochs, with implications for understanding the formation of massive galaxies, studying the topology and evolution of IGM reionization, and designing future surveys to detect first objects. The SPOC tool will facilitate a closer connection between observations and theory by enabling the community to interpret data within the framework of current hierarchical structure formation models, in turn providing detailed tests of these models that is essential for driving the field forward.

  1. Kinematics of Galaxy Mergers in The FIRE Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jose Antonio; Moreno, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The morphology of galaxies is a field of science still under current investigation. Today, galaxy merger simulations provide us with crucial information that plays an important role in describing the morphology of today and future galaxies. Using the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey, Barrera-Ballesteros et al. find morpho-kinematic misalignments in the stellar and ionized gas’s line of sight velocity when comparing the axis of symmetry to the axis of rotation (2015). Similarly, using the Feedback in Realistic Environment (FIRE) simulation we are able to measure stellar and ionized gas’s line of sight velocities of various galaxy mergers. The aim of this work is to determine if the observed morpho-kinematic misalignments between the axis of symmetry and axis of rotation appears in our simulations. The cause of such morpho-kinematic misalignments is yet unresolved, but by exploring various galaxy merger simulations with different properties on FIRE we plan to find a plausible explanation. This unexplained phenomenon raises awareness in determining whether current simulations match current observations and offer a better insight in understanding the morphology of galaxies.

  2. Chemodynamical analysis of bulge stars for simulated disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Kawata, D.; Brook, Chris B.; Gibson, Brad K.

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the kinematics and chemistry of the bulge stars of two simulated disc galaxies using our chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. First, we compare stars that are born inside the galaxy with those that are born outside the galaxy and are accreted into the centre of the galaxy. Stars that originate outside the bulge are accreted into it early in its formation within 3 Gyr so that these stars have high [α/Fe] as well as a high total energy reflecting their accretion to the centre of the galaxy. Therefore, higher total energy is a good indicator for finding accreted stars. The bulges of the simulated galaxies formed through multiple mergers separated by about a Gyr. Since [α/Fe] is sensitive to the first few Gyr of star formation history, stars that formed during mergers at different epochs show different [α/Fe]. We show that the [Mg/Fe] against star formation time relation can be very useful to identify a multiple merger bulge formation scenario, provided there is sufficiently good age information available. Our simulations also show that stars formed during one of the merger events retain a systematically prograde rotation at the final time. This demonstrates that the orbit of the ancient merger that helped to form the bulge could still remain in the kinematics of bulge stars.

  3. The EAGLE simulations: atomic hydrogen associated with galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert A.; Bahé, Yannick M.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; McCarthy, Ian G.; Marasco, Antonino; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2017-02-01

    We examine the properties of atomic hydrogen (H I) associated with galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulations of galaxy formation. EAGLE's feedback parameters were calibrated to reproduce the stellar mass function and galaxy sizes at z = 0.1, and we assess whether this calibration also yields realistic H I properties. We estimate the self-shielding density with a fitting function calibrated using radiation transport simulations, and correct for molecular hydrogen with empirical or theoretical relations. The `standard-resolution' simulations systematically underestimate H I column densities, leading to an H I deficiency in low-mass (M⋆ standard-resolution simulations. The largest volume simulation reproduces the observed clustering of H I systems, and its dependence on H I richness. At fixed M⋆, galaxies acquire more H I in simulations with stronger feedback, as they become associated with more massive haloes and higher infall rates. They acquire less H I in simulations with a greater star formation efficiency, since the star formation and feedback necessary to balance the infall rate is produced by smaller gas reservoirs. The simulations indicate that the H I of present-day galaxies was acquired primarily by the smooth accretion of ionized, intergalactic gas at z ≃ 1, which later self-shields, and that only a small fraction is contributed by the reincorporation of gas previously heated strongly by feedback. H I reservoirs are highly dynamic: over 40 per cent of H I associated with z = 0.1 galaxies is converted to stars or ejected by z = 0.

  4. 3D Simulations of Galactic Winds in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Marcolini, A; D'Ercole, A; Marcolini, Andrea; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Ercole, Annibale D'

    2002-01-01

    We present 3D hydrodynamical simulations of galactic winds in dwarf, gas-rich galaxies. The galaxy is moving through the ICM of a small galaxy group at v=200 km/s. The ram pressure removes the galactic gas at large radii, but does not strongly influence the ISM near the center. A starburst generates a galactic wind. The newly produced metals are expelled in the ICM and carried to large distance from the galaxy by the ram pressure. 500 Myr after the starburst only a few percent of the heavy elements produced are present in the central region of the dwarf galaxy. A large collection of ram pressure + wind models will be presented in a forthcoming paper.

  5. An algorithm to build mock galaxy catalogues using MICE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Carretero, J; Gaztanaga, E; Crocce, M; Fosalba, P

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to build mock galaxy catalogues starting from a halo catalogue that uses halo occupation distribution (HOD) recipes as well as the subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) technique. Combining both prescriptions we are able to push the absolute magnitude of the resulting catalogue to fainter luminosities than using just the SHAM technique and can interpret our results in terms of the HOD modelling. We optimize the method by populating with galaxies friends-of-friends dark matter haloes extracted from the Marenostrum Institut de Ci\\`{e}ncies de l'Espai (MICE) dark matter simulations and comparing them to observational constraints. Our resulting mock galaxy catalogues manage to reproduce the observed local galaxy luminosity function and the colour-magnitude distribution as observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They also reproduce the observed galaxy clustering properties as a function of luminosity and colour. In order to achieve that, the algorithm also includes scatter in the halo mass - gala...

  6. A chronicle of galaxy mass assembly in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Yan; Bower, Richard G; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A; Frenk, Carlos S; Furlong, Michelle; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; White, Simon D M

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the mass assembly of central galaxies in the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulations. We build merger trees to connect galaxies to their progenitors at different redshifts and characterize their assembly histories by focusing on the time when half of the galaxy stellar mass was assembled into the main progenitor. We show that galaxies with stellar mass $M_*<10^{10.5}M_{\\odot}$ assemble most of their stellar mass through star formation in the main progenitor (`in-situ' star formation). This can be understood as a consequence of the steep rise in star formation efficiency with halo mass for these galaxies. For more massive galaxies, however, an increasing fraction of their stellar mass is formed outside the main progenitor and subsequently accreted. Consequently, while for low-mass galaxies the assembly time is close to the stellar formation time, the stars in high-mass galaxies typically formed long before half of the present-day stellar mass was assembled into a single object, giving rise to the observ...

  7. Properties of galaxies reproduced by a hydrodynamic simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Vogelsberger, Mark; Springel, Volker; Torrey, Paul; Sijacki, Debora; Xu, Dandan; Snyder, Gregory F; Bird, Simeon; Nelson, Dylan; Hernquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Previous simulations of the growth of cosmic structures have broadly reproduced the 'cosmic web' of galaxies that we see in the Universe, but failed to create a mixed population of elliptical and spiral galaxies due to numerical inaccuracies and incomplete physical models. Moreover, because of computational constraints, they were unable to track the small scale evolution of gas and stars to the present epoch within a representative portion of the Universe. Here we report a simulation that starts 12 million years after the Big Bang, and traces 13 billion years of cosmic evolution with 12 billion resolution elements in a volume of $(106.5\\,{\\rm Mpc})^3$. It yields a reasonable population of ellipticals and spirals, reproduces the distribution of galaxies in clusters and statistics of hydrogen on large scales, and at the same time the metal and hydrogen content of galaxies on small scales.

  8. Properties of the galaxy population in hydrodynamical simulations of clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saro, A.; Borgani, S.; Tornatore, L.; Dolag, K.; Murante, G.; Biviano, A.; Calura, F.; Charlot, S.

    2006-11-01

    We present a study of the galaxy population predicted by hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters. These simulations, which are based on the GADGET-2 TREE + SPH code, include gas cooling, star formation, a detailed treatment of stellar evolution and chemical enrichment, as well as supernova energy feedback in the form of galactic winds. As such, they can be used to extract the spectrophotometric properties of the simulated galaxies, which are identified as clumps in the distribution of star particles. Simulations have been carried out for a representative set of 19 cluster-sized haloes, having mass M200 in the range 5 × 1013-1.8 × 1015h-1Msolar. All simulations have been performed for two choices of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), namely using a standard Salpeter IMF with power-law index x = 1.35, and a top-heavy IMF with x = 0.95. In general, we find that several of the observational properties of the galaxy population in nearby clusters are reproduced fairly well by simulations. A Salpeter IMF is successful in accounting for the slope and the normalization of the colour-magnitude relation for the bulk of the galaxy population. In contrast, the top-heavy IMF produces too red galaxies, as a consequence of their exceedingly large metallicity. Simulated clusters have a relation between mass and optical luminosity, which generally agrees with observations, both in normalization and in slope. Also in keeping with observational results, galaxies are generally bluer, younger and more star forming in the cluster outskirts. However, we find that our simulated clusters have a total number of galaxies which is significantly smaller than the observed one, falling short by about a factor of 2-3. We have verified that this problem does not have an obvious numerical origin, such as lack of mass and force resolution. Finally, the brightest cluster galaxies are always predicted to be too massive and too blue, when compared to observations. This is due to gas

  9. The AGORA High-Resolution Galaxy Simulations Comparison Project

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, Tom; Agertz, Oscar; Bryan, Greg L.; Ceverino, Daniel; Christensen, Charlotte R.; Conroy, Charlie; Dekel, Avishai; Gnedin, Nickolay Yu; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Hahn, Oliver; Hobbs, Alexander; Hopkins, Philip F.; Hummels, Cameron B.; Iannuzzi, Francesca; Klypin, Anatoly A.

    2013-01-01

    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 210.1 (2014): 14 reproduced by permission of the AAS We introduce the Assembling Galaxies Of Resolved Anatomy (AGORA) project, a comprehensive numerical study of well-resolved galaxies within the ΛCDM cosmology. Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with force resolutions of ∼100 proper pc or better will be run with a variety of code platforms to follow the hierarchical growth, star formation history, morphological transformation, and the cycle o...

  10. Simulating Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the LSST Image Simulation Effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizagno, James; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Chang, C.; Gibson, R. R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Jones, L.; Kahn, S. M.; Krughoff, S. K.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, S.; Shmakova, S. M.; Sylvestri, N.; Todd, N.; Young, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present an extragalactic source catalog, which includes galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei, that is used for the Large Survey Synoptic Telescope Imaging Simulation effort. The galaxies are taken from the De Lucia et. al. (2006) semi-analytic modeling (SAM) of the Millennium Simulation. The LSST

  11. Cosmological simulations of dwarf galaxies with cosmic ray feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Bryan, Greg L.; Salem, Munier

    2016-08-01

    We perform zoom-in cosmological simulations of a suite of dwarf galaxies, examining the impact of cosmic rays (CRs) generated by supernovae, including the effect of diffusion. We first look at the effect of varying the uncertain CR parameters by repeatedly simulating a single galaxy. Then we fix the comic ray model and simulate five dwarf systems with virial masses range from 8 to 30 × 1010 M⊙. We find that including CR feedback (with diffusion) consistently leads to disc-dominated systems with relatively flat rotation curves and constant star formation rates. In contrast, our purely thermal feedback case results in a hot stellar system and bursty star formation. The CR simulations very well match the observed baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, but have a lower gas fraction than in real systems. We also find that the dark matter cores of the CR feedback galaxies are cuspy, while the purely thermal feedback case results in a substantial core.

  12. Cosmological Simulations of Dwarf Galaxies with Cosmic Ray Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jingjing; Salem, Munier

    2016-01-01

    We perform zoom-in cosmological simulations of a suite of dwarf galaxies, examining the impact of cosmic-rays generated by supernovae, including the effect of diffusion. We first look at the effect of varying the uncertain cosmic ray parameters by repeatedly simulating a single galaxy. Then we fix the comic ray model and simulate five dwarf systems with virial masses range from 8-30 $\\times 10^{10}$ Msun. We find that including cosmic ray feedback (with diffusion) consistently leads to disk dominated systems with relatively flat rotation curves and constant star formation rates. In contrast, our purely thermal feedback case results in a hot stellar system and bursty star formation. The CR simulations very well match the observed baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, but have a lower gas fraction than in real systems. We also find that the dark matter cores of the CR feedback galaxies are cuspy, while the purely thermal feedback case results in a substantial core.

  13. Kinematic Evolution of Simulated Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kassin, Susan A; Governato, Fabio; Weiner, Benjamin J; Gardner, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last ~8 billion years since z=1.2, undergoing a process of "disk settling." For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art "zoom in" hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking as the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (sigma_g) and increase in ordered rotation (Vrot) with time. The slopes of the relations between both sigma_g and Vrot with r...

  14. Simulating galaxy Clusters -II: global star formation histories and galaxy populations

    CERN Document Server

    Romeo, A D; Sommer-Larsen, J

    2004-01-01

    Cosmological (LambdaCDM) TreeSPH simulations of the formation and evolution of galaxy groups and clusters have been performed. The simulations invoke star formation, chemical evolution with non-instantaneous recycling, metal dependent radiative cooling, strong star burst and (optionally) AGN driven galactic super winds, effects of a meta-galactic UV field and thermal conduction. The properties of the galaxy populations in two clusters, one Virgo-like (T~3 keV) and one (sub) Coma-like (T~6 keV), are discussed. The global star formation rates of the cluster galaxies are found to decrease very significantly with time from redshift z=2 to 0, in agreement with observations. The total K-band luminosity of the cluster galaxies correlates tightly with total cluster mass, and for models without additional AGN feedback, the zero point of the relation matches the observed one fairly well. The match to observed galaxy luminosity functions is reasonable, except for a deficiency of bright galaxies (M_B < -20), which bec...

  15. Comparisons of Cosmological MHD Galaxy Cluster Simulations to Radio Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hao; Murgia, Matteo; Li, Hui; Collins, David C; Norman, Michael L; Cen, Renyue; Feretti, Luigina; Giovannini, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Radio observations of galaxy clusters show that there are $\\mu$G magnetic fields permeating the intra-cluster medium (ICM), but it is hard to accurately constrain the strength and structure of the magnetic fields without the help of advanced computer simulations. We present qualitative comparisons of synthetic VLA observations of simulated galaxy clusters to radio observations of Faraday Rotation Measure (RM) and radio halos. The cluster formation is modeled using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations with the assumption that the initial magnetic fields are injected into the ICM by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift. In addition to simulated clusters in Xu et al. (2010, 2011), we present a new simulation with magnetic field injections from multiple AGNs. We find that the cluster with multiple injection sources is magnetized to a similar level as in previous simulations with a single AGN. The RM profiles from simulated clusters, both $|RM|$ and the dispersion of RM (...

  16. Gas around galaxy haloes - III: hydrogen absorption signatures around galaxies and QSOs in the Sherwood simulation suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiksin, Avery; Bolton, James S.; Puchwein, Ewald

    2017-01-01

    Modern theories of galaxy formation predict that galaxies impact on their gaseous surroundings, playing the fundamental role of regulating the amount of gas converted into stars. While star-forming galaxies are believed to provide feedback through galactic winds, Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) are believed instead to provide feedback through the heat generated by accretion onto a central supermassive black hole. A quantitative difference in the impact of feedback on the gaseous environments of star-forming galaxies and QSOs has not been established through direct observations. Using the Sherwood cosmological simulations, we demonstrate that measurements of neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of star-forming galaxies and QSOs during the era of peak galaxy formation show excess Lyman-α absorption extending up to comoving radii of ˜150 kpc for star-forming galaxies and 300 - 700 kpc for QSOs. Simulations including supernovae-driven winds account for the absorption around star-forming galaxies but not QSOs.

  17. Absorption line systems in simulated galaxies fed by cold streams

    CERN Document Server

    Fumagalli, Michele; Kasen, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel R

    2011-01-01

    Hydro cosmological simulations reveal that massive galaxies at high redshift are fed by long narrow streams of merging galaxies and a smoother component of cold gas. We post-process seven high-resolution simulated galaxies with radiative transfer to study the absorption characteristics of the gas in galaxies and streams, in comparison with the statistics of observed absorption-line systems. We find that much of the stream gas is ionized by UV radiation from background and local stellar sources, but still optically thick (N_HI > 10^17 cm^2) so that the streams appear as Lyman-limit systems (LLSs). At z>3, the fraction of neutral gas in streams becomes non-negligible, giving rise to damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) absorbers as well. The gas in the central and incoming galaxies remains mostly neutral, responsible for DLAs. Within one (two) virial radii, the covering factor of optically thick gas is 30% of the observed absorbers in the foreground of quasars, the rest possibly arising from smaller galaxies or the interga...

  18. Satellite Galaxies and Fossil Groups in the Millennium Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sales, L V; Lambas, D G; White, S D M; Croton, D J

    2007-01-01

    We use a semianalytic galaxy catalogue constructed from the Millennium Simulation to study the satellites of isolated galaxies in the LCDM cosmogony. This sample (~80,000$ bright primaries, surrounded by ~178,000 satellites) allows the characterization, with minimal statistical uncertainty, of the dynamical properties of satellite/primary galaxy systems in a LCDM universe. We find that, overall, the satellite population traces the dark matter rather well: its spatial distribution and kinematics may be approximated by an NFW profile with a mildly anisotropic velocity distribution. Their spatial distribution is also mildly anisotropic, with a well-defined ``anti-Holmberg'' effect that reflects the misalignment between the major axis and angular momentum of the host halo. The isolation criteria for our primaries picks not only galaxies in sparse environments, but also a number of primaries at the centre of ''fossil'' groups. We find that the abundance and luminosity function of these unusual systems are in reaso...

  19. Developing the Next Generation of Tools for Simulating Galaxy Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Evan

    Outflows are observed in starbursting galaxies of all masses and at all cosmological epochs. They play a key role throughout the history of the Universe: shaping the galaxy mass-metallicity relation, drastically affecting the content and number density of dwarf galaxies, and transforming the chemical composition of the intergalactic medium. Yet, a complete model of galaxy out ows has proven to be elusive, as it requires both a better understanding of the evolution of the turbulent, multiphase gas in and around starbursting galaxies, and better tools to reproduce this evolution in galaxy-scale simulations. Here we propose to conduct a detailed series of numerical simulations designed to help develop such next-generation tools for the simulation of galaxy outflows. The program will consist of three types of direct numerical simulations, each of which will be targeted to allow galaxy-scale simulations to more accurately model key microphysical processes and their observational consequences. Our first set of simulations will be targeted at better modeling the starbursting interstellar medium (ISM) from which galaxy outflows are driven. The surface densities in starbursting galaxies are much larger than those in the Milky Way, resulting in larger gravitational accelerations and random velocities exceeding 30 or even 100 km/s. Under these conditions, the thermal stability of the ISM is changed dramatically, due to the sharp peak in gas cooling efficiency at H 200,000 K. Our simulations will carefully quantify the key ways in which this medium differs from the local ISM, and the consequences of these differences for when, where, and how outflows are driven. A second set of simulations will be targeted at better modeling the observed properties of rapidly cooling, highly turbulent gas. Because gas cooling in and around starbursts is extremely efficient, turbulent motions are often supersonic, which leads to a distribution of ionization states that is vastly different than

  20. Observing simulations: molecular clouds and their journey in the galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Cabral, A.; Dobbs, C. L.

    2016-05-01

    In order to have a global picture of the cycle of matter in galaxies, we need to understand the interplay of large-scale galactic phenomena with the formation of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and, ultimately, their subsequent star formation (SF). In this work, we study the population of GMCs within a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation of a spiral galaxy, and investigate the link between the GMC properties and position with respect to spiral arms, both directly from the simulation (with the 3D densities of H2 and CO) and from an observer's perspective (with CO emission in PPV space).

  1. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation - IX. Economics of reionizing galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Kim, Han-Seek; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2017-09-01

    Using a series of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations we show that during the rapid growth of high-redshift (z > 5) galaxies, reserves of molecular gas are consumed over a time-scale of 300 Myr, almost independent of feedback scheme. We find that there exists no such simple relation for the total gas fractions of these galaxies, with little correlation between gas fractions and specific star formation rates. The bottleneck or limiting factor in the growth of early galaxies is in converting infalling gas to cold star-forming gas. Thus, we find that the majority of high-redshift dwarf galaxies are effectively in recession, with demand (of star formation) never rising to meet supply (of gas), irrespective of the baryonic feedback physics modelled. We conclude that the basic assumption of self-regulation in galaxies - that they can adjust total gas consumption within a Hubble time - does not apply for the dwarf galaxies thought to be responsible for providing most UV photons to reionize the high-redshift Universe. We demonstrate how this rapid molecular time-scale improves agreement between semi-analytic model predictions of the early Universe and observed stellar mass functions.

  2. NIHAO VI. The hidden discs of simulated galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Obreja, A; Dutton, A A; Macciò, A V; Wang, L; Kang, X

    2016-01-01

    Detailed studies of galaxy formation require clear definitions of the structural components of galaxies. Precisely defined components also enable better comparisons between observations and simulations. We use a subsample of eighteen cosmological zoom-in simulations from the NIHAO project to derive a robust method for defining stellar kinematic discs in galaxies. Our method uses Gaussian Mixture Models in a 3D space of dynamical variables. The NIHAO galaxies have the right stellar mass for their halo mass, and their angular momenta and S\\'ersic indices match observations. While the photometric disc-to-total ratios are close to 1 for all the simulated galaxies, the kinematic ratios are around ~0.5. Thus, exponential structure does not imply a cold kinematic disc. Above log(M*)~9.5, the decomposition leads to thin discs and spheroids that have clearly different properties, in terms of angular momentum, rotational support, ellipticity, [Fe/H] and [O/Fe]. At log(M*)<9.5, the decomposition selects discs and sph...

  3. Cosmological simulations of Milky Way-sized galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Colin, Pedro; Roca-Fabrega, Santi; Valenzuela, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new set of eight Milky Way-sized cosmological simulations performed using the AMR code ART + Hydrodynamics in a LCDM cosmology. The set of zoom-in simulations covers present-day virial masses in the 0.83-1.56 x 10^12 msun range and is carried out with our simple but effective deterministic star formation (SF) and ``explosive' stellar feedback prescriptions. The work is focused on showing the goodness of the simulated set of ``field' Milky Way-sized galaxies. Our results are as follows. (a) The circular velocity curves of our simulated galaxies are nearly flat. (b) Runs ending with a significant disk component, for their stellar masses, have V_max, radius, SF rate, gas fraction, and specific angular momentum values consistent with observations of late-type galaxies. (C) The two most spheroid-dominated galaxies formed in halos with late active merger histories, but other run that ends also as spheroid-dominated, never had major mergers. (d) Our simulations are consistent with the empirical stella...

  4. nIFTY galaxy cluster simulations III: The Similarity & Diversity of Galaxies & Subhaloes

    CERN Document Server

    Elahi, Pascal J; Pearce, Frazer R; Power, Chris; Yepes, Gustavo; Cui, Weiguang; Cunnama, Daniel; Kay, Scott T; Sembolini, Federico; Beck, Alexander M; Davé, Romeel; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Katz, Neal; McCarthy, Ian G; Murante, Giuseppe; Perret, Valentin; Puchwein, Ewald; Saro, Alexandro; Teyssier, Romain

    2015-01-01

    We examine subhaloes and galaxies residing in a simulated LCDM galaxy cluster ($M^{\\rm crit}_{200}=1.1\\times10^{15}M_\\odot/h$) produced by hydrodynamical codes ranging from classic Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), newer SPH codes, an adaptive mesh code and a moving mesh scheme. These codes use subgrid models to capture galaxy formation physics. We compare how well these codes reproduce the same subhaloes/galaxies in gravity only, non-radiative hydrodynamics and full radiative physics runs by looking at the overall subhalo/galaxy distribution and on an individual objects basis. We find the subhalo population is reproduced to within $\\lesssim10\\%$ for both dark matter only and non-radiative runs, with individual objects showing code-to-code scatter of $\\lesssim0.1$ dex, although the gas in non-radiative simulations shows significant scatter. Including radiative physics significantly increases the diversity seen. The subhalo mass and $V_{max}$ distributions vary by $\\approx20\\%$, a result of feedback moving ...

  5. Cosmic ray feedback in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy and galaxy cluster formation

    CERN Document Server

    Pfrommer, C; Jubelgas, M; Ensslin, T A; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker; Jubelgas, Martin; Ensslin, Torsten A.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that cosmic rays (CRs) contribute significantly to the pressure of the interstellar medium in our own Galaxy, suggesting that they may play an important role in regulating star formation during the formation and evolution of galaxies. We will present a novel numerical treatment of the physics of CRs and its implementation in the parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET-2. In our methodology, the non-thermal CR population is treated self-consistently in order to assess its dynamical impact on the thermal gas as well as other implications on cosmological observables. In simulations of galaxy formation, we find that CRs can significantly reduce the star formation efficiencies of small galaxies. This effect becomes progressively stronger towards low mass scales. In cosmological simulations of the formation of dwarf galaxies at high redshift, we find that the total mass-to-light ratio of small halos and the faint-end of the luminosity function are affected. In high resolution sim...

  6. Simulations of Metal Enrichment in Galaxy Clusters by AGN Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, R; Domainko, W; Kapferer, W; Mair, M; Van Kampen, E; Kronberger, T; Kimeswenger, S; Ruffert, M

    2006-01-01

    We assess the importance of AGN outflows with respect to the metal enrichment of the intracluster medium (ICM) in galaxy clusters. We use combined N-body and hydrodynamic simulations, along with a semi-numerical galaxy formation and evolution model. Using assumptions based on observations, we attribute outflows of metal-rich gas initiated by AGN activity to a certain fraction of our model galaxies. The gas is added to the model ICM, where the evolution of the metallicity distribution is calculated by the hydrodynamic simulations. For the parameters describing the AGN content of clusters and their outflow properties, we use the observationally most favorable values. We find that AGNs have the potential to contribute significantly to the metal content of the ICM or even explain the complete abundance, which is typically ~0.5 Z_sun in core regions. Furthermore, the metals end up being inhomogeneously distributed, in accordance with observations.

  7. Formation of the First Galaxies: Theory and Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Jarrett L

    2011-01-01

    The properties of the first galaxies are shaped in large part by the first generations of stars, which emit high energy radiation and unleash both large amounts of mechanical energy and the first heavy elements when they explode as supernovae. We survey the theory of the formation of the first galaxies in this context, focusing on the results of cosmological simulations to illustrate a number of the key processes that define their properties. We first discuss the evolution of the primordial gas as it is incorporated into the earliest galaxies under the influence of the high energy radiation emitted by the earliest stars; we then turn to consider how the injection of heavy elements by the first supernovae transforms the evolution of the primordial gas and alters the character of the first galaxies. Finally, we discuss the prospects for the detection of the first galaxies by future observational missions, in particular focusing on the possibility that primordial star-forming galaxies may be uncovered.

  8. Time Evolution of Galaxy Scaling Relations in Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Philip

    2016-01-01

    We predict the evolution of galaxy scaling relationships from cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations, that reproduce the scaling relations of present-day galaxies. Although we do not assume co-evolution between galaxies and black holes a priori, we are able to reproduce the black hole mass--velocity dispersion relation. This relation does not evolve, and black holes actually grow along the relation from significantly less massive seeds than have previously been used. AGN feedback does not very much affect the chemical evolution of our galaxies. In our predictions, the stellar mass--metallicity relation does not change its shape, but the metallicity significantly increases from $z\\sim2$ to $z\\sim1$, while the gas-phase mass-metallicity relation does change shape, having a steeper slope at higher redshifts ($z\\lesssim3$). Furthermore, AGN feedback is required to reproduce observations of the most massive galaxies at $z\\lesssim1$, specifically their positions on the star formation main sequence and galaxy mass...

  9. The nature of compact groups of galaxies from cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Mamon, G A

    2009-01-01

    The nature of compact groups (CGs) of galaxies, apparently so dense that the galaxies often overlap, is still a subject of debate: Are CGs roughly as dense in 3D as they appear in projection? Or are they caused by chance alignments of galaxies along the line-of-sight within larger virialized groups, or within even longer filamentary structures? The nature of CGs is re-appraised using the redshift zero outputs of three galaxy formation models, applied to the dissipationless Millennium Simulation. The same selection criteria are applied to mock galaxy catalogs from these models as have been applied by Hickson and co-workers in redshift space. We find 50 times as many mock CGs as the 'HCGs' found by Hickson within a distance corresponding to 9000 km/s. This very low (2%) completeness is caused by Hickson missing groups that were either faint, near the surface brightness threshold, of small angular size and with a dominant brightest galaxy. We find that most CGs are physically dense, regardless of the precise thr...

  10. Cosmological simulations of isotropic conduction in galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Britton; O' Shea, Brian W.; Voit, G. Mark; Ventimiglia, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Skillman, Samuel W., E-mail: smit1685@msu.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of galaxy clusters have a difficult time reproducing the radial gas-property gradients and red central galaxies observed to exist in the cores of galaxy clusters. Thermal conduction has been suggested as a mechanism that can help bring simulations of cluster cores into better alignment with observations by stabilizing the feedback processes that regulate gas cooling, but this idea has not yet been well tested with cosmological numerical simulations. Here we present cosmological simulations of 10 galaxy clusters performed with five different levels of isotropic Spitzer conduction, which alters both the cores and outskirts of clusters, though not dramatically. In the cores, conduction flattens central temperature gradients, making them nearly isothermal and slightly lowering the central density, but failing to prevent a cooling catastrophe there. Conduction has little effect on temperature gradients outside of cluster cores because outward conductive heat flow tends to inflate the outer parts of the intracluster medium (ICM), instead of raising its temperature. In general, conduction tends reduce temperature inhomogeneity in the ICM, but our simulations indicate that those homogenizing effects would be extremely difficult to observe in ∼5 keV clusters. Outside the virial radius, our conduction implementation lowers the gas densities and temperatures because it reduces the Mach numbers of accretion shocks. We conclude that, despite the numerous small ways in which conduction alters the structure of galaxy clusters, none of these effects are significant enough to make the efficiency of conduction easily measurable, unless its effects are more pronounced in clusters hotter than those we have simulated.

  11. 2D velocity fields of simulated interacting disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberger, T; Schindler, S; Ziegler, B L

    2007-01-01

    We investigate distortions in the velocity fields of disc galaxies and their use to reveal the dynamical state of interacting galaxies at different redshift. For that purpose, we model disc galaxies in combined N-body/hydrodynamic simulations. 2D velocity fields of the gas are extracted from these simulations which we place at different redshifts from z=0 to z=1 to investigate resolution effects on the properties of the velocity field. To quantify the structure of the velocity field we also perform a kinemetry analysis. If the galaxy is undisturbed we find that the rotation curve extracted from the 2D field agrees well with long-slit rotation curves. This is not true for interacting systems, as the kinematic axis is not well defined and does in general not coincide with the photometric axis of the system. For large (Milky way type) galaxies we find that distortions are still visible at intermediate redshifts but partly smeared out. Thus a careful analysis of the velocity field is necessary before using it for...

  12. Alignments of galaxies and halos in hydrodynamical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Isha; Libeskind, Noam I.

    2016-10-01

    We use a 200 h -1Mpc cosmological hydrodynamical simulation to examine the alignments of galaxies with respect to the host halo. We do separate study for the different components of the halo, such as stars, gas and dark matter. We show that angular momentum of gas is more aligned with the angular momentum of host halo compared with the stellar component.

  13. Simulations of disk galaxies with cosmic ray driven galactic winds

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, C M; Kravtsov, Andrey V; Gnedin, Nickolay Y

    2013-01-01

    We present results from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of isolated SMC- and Milky Way-sized galaxies that include a model for feedback from galactic cosmic rays (CRs). We find that CRs are naturally able to drive winds with mass loading factors of up to ~10 in dwarf systems. The scaling of the mass loading factor with circular velocity between the two simulated systems is consistent with \\propto v_c^{1-2} required to reproduce the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. In addition, simulations with CR feedback reproduce both the normalization and the slope of the observed trend of wind velocity with galaxy circular velocity. We find that winds in simulations with CR feedback exhibit qualitatively different properties compared to SN driven winds, where most of the acceleration happens violently in situ near star forming sites. In contrast, the CR-driven winds are accelerated gently by the large-scale pressure gradient established by CRs diffusing from the star-forming galaxy disk out into the h...

  14. nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations II: radiative models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sembolini, F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We have simulated the formation of a massive galaxy cluster (M(supcrit)(sub200) = 1.1×10(sup15)h(sup-1)M) in a CDM universe using 10 different codes (RAMSES, 2 incarnations of AREPO and 7 of GADGET), modeling hydrodynamics with full radiative...

  15. Galaxy Formation and Chemical Evolution in Hierarchical Hydrodynamical Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cora, S A; Tissera, P B; Lambas, D G

    2000-01-01

    We report first results of an implementation of a chemical model in a cosmological code, based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique. We show that chemical SPH simulations are a promising tool to provide clues for the understanding of the chemical properties of galaxies in relation to their formation and evolution in a cosmological framework.

  16. On the Origin of Cores in Simulated Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, N L; Bower, R G; Theuns, T; Crain, R A

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) The thermal state of the intracluster medium results from a competition between gas cooling and heating. The heating comes from two distinct sources: gravitational heating from the collapse of the dark matter halo and thermal input from galaxy/black hole formation. However, a long standing problem has been that cosmological simulations based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and Eulerian mesh codes predict different results even when cooling and galaxy/black hole heating are switched off. Clusters formed in SPH simulations show near powerlaw entropy profiles, while those formed in mesh simulations develop a core and do not allow gas to reach such low entropies. Since the cooling rate is closely connected to the minimum entropy of the gas, the differences are of potentially key importance. In this paper, we investigate the origin of this discrepancy. By comparing simulations run using the GADGET-2 SPH code and the FLASH adaptive Eulerian mesh code, we show that the discrepancy arises during t...

  17. X-ray coronae in simulations of disc galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert A.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop

    2010-09-01

    The existence of X-ray luminous gaseous coronae around massive disc galaxies is a long-standing prediction of galaxy formation theory in the cold dark matter cosmogony. This prediction has garnered little observational support, with non-detections commonplace and detections for only a relatively small number of galaxies which are much less luminous than expected. We investigate the coronal properties of a large sample of bright, disc-dominated galaxies extracted from the GIMIC suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations recently presented by Crain et al. Remarkably, the simulations reproduce the observed scalings of X-ray luminosity with K-band luminosity and star formation rate (SFR) and, when account is taken of the density structure of the halo, with disc rotation velocity as well. Most of the star formation in the simulated galaxies (which have realistic stellar mass fractions) is fuelled by gas cooling from a quasi-hydrostatic hot corona. However, these coronae are more diffuse, and of a lower luminosity, than predicted by the analytic models of White & Frenk because of a substantial increase in entropy at z ~ 1-3. Both the removal of low entropy gas by star formation and energy injection from supernovae contribute to this increase in entropy, but the latter is dominant for halo masses M200 <~ 1012.5Msolar. Only a small fraction of the mass of the hot gas is outflowing as a wind but, because of its high density and metallicity, it contributes disproportionally to the X-ray emission. The bulk of the X-ray emission, however, comes from the diffuse quasi-hydrostatic corona which supplies the fuel for ongoing star formation in discs today. Future deep X-ray observations with high spectral resolution (e.g. with NeXT/ASTRO-H or IXO) should be able to map the velocity structure of the hot gas and test this fundamental prediction of current galaxy formation theory.

  18. Dark-ages reionization & galaxy formation simulation IV: UV luminosity functions of high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chuanwu; Angel, P W; Duffy, Alan R; Geil, Paul M; Poole, Gregory B; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J Stuart B

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present calculations of the UV luminosity function predictions from the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) project, which combines N-body, semi-analytic and semi-numerical modeling designed to study galaxy formation during the Epoch of Reionization. Using galaxy formation physics including supernova feedback, the model naturally reproduces the UV LFs for high-redshift star-forming galaxies from $z{\\sim}5$ through to $z{\\sim}10$. We investigate the predicted luminosity-star formation rate (SFR) relation, finding that variable SFR histories of galaxies result in a scatter around the mean relation of $0.1$-$0.3$ dex depending on UV luminosity. We find close agreement between the model and observationally derived SFR functions. We use our predicted luminosities to investigate the luminosity function below current detection limits, and the ionizing photon budget for reionization. We predict that the slope of the UV LF remains steep below cu...

  19. Evolution of dwarf galaxies simulated in the cosmological LCDM scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Samaniego, Alejandro; Colin, Pedro; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo; Valenzuela, Octavio

    2014-03-01

    We present results from numerical simulations of low-mass galaxies with the aim to explore the way their stellar masses are assembled. We analyze how the mass assembly histories of the parent halo determine the growth of their host galaxy and its implications on the current paradigm of formation and evolution of low-mass structures in the LCDM scenario. We have found that low-mass galaxies simulated in this scenario assemble their stellar masses following roughly the dark matter halo assembly, which seems to be in tension with the downsizing trend suggested by current observational inferences. We show that there is no more room to increase the strength of feedback from astrophysical processes in order to deviate strongly the stellar mass assembly from the dark halo one, as has been recently invoked to solve some of the potential issues faced by CDM-based simulations of dwarf galaxies. Alejandro González acknowledges finacial support from UNAM, Fundacion UNAM, and the APS to attend this meeting.

  20. AGN Jet-induced Feedback in Galaxies. II. Galaxy colours from a multicloud simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, C; Kaviraj, S; Silk, J; Romeo, A D; Becciani, U

    2009-01-01

    We study the feedback from an AGN on stellar formation within its host galaxy, mainly using one high resolution numerical simulation of the jet propagation within the interstellar medium of an early-type galaxy. In particular, we show that in a realistic simulation where the jet propagates into a two-phase ISM, star formation can initially be slightly enhanced and then, on timescales of few million years, rapidly quenched, as a consequence both of the high temperatures attained and of the reduction of cloud mass (mainly due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities). We then introduce a model of (prevalently) {\\em negative} AGN feedback, where an exponentially declining star formation is quenched, on a very short time scale, at a time t_AGN, due to AGN feedback. Using the Bruzual & Charlot (2003) population synthesis model and our star formation history, we predict galaxy colours from this model and match them to a sample of nearby early-type galaxies showing signs of recent episodes of star formation (Kaviraj et...

  1. The diverse formation histories of simulated disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Aumer, Michael; Naab, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the formation histories of 19 galaxies from cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics zoom-in resimulations. We construct mock three-colour images and show that the models reproduce observed trends in the evolution of galaxy colours and morphologies. However, only a small fraction of galaxies contains bars. Many galaxies go through phases of central mass growth by in-situ star formation driven by gas-rich mergers or misaligned gas infall. These events lead to accretion of low-angular momentum gas to the centres and leave imprints on the distributions of z=0 stellar circularities, radii and metallicities as functions of age. Observations of the evolution of structural properties of samples of disc galaxies at z=2.5-0.0 infer continuous mass assembly at all radii. Our simulations can only explain this if there is a significant contribution from mergers or misaligned infall, as expected in a LambdaCDM universe. Quiescent merger histories lead to high kinematic disc fractions and inside-out growth, ...

  2. How Galaxies Become Red: Insights from Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cen, Renyue

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of more than 3000 galaxies resolved at better than 114pc/h at z=0.62 in a LAOZI cosmological adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic simulation is performed and insights gained on quenching and color migration. The vast majority of red galaxies are found to be within three virial radii of a larger galaxy, at the onset of quenching. We shall thus call this mechanism ``environment quenching", which encompasses satellite quenching. Two physical processes are largely responsible: ram-pressure stripping first disconnects the galaxy from the cold gas supply on large scales, followed by a longer period of cold gas starvation taking place in high velocity dispersion environment, during the early part of which the existing dense cold gas in the central region (=<10kpc) is consumed by in situ star formation. Quenching is found to be more efficient but not faster, on average, in denser environment. Throughout quenching galaxies follow nearly vertical tracks in the color-stellar-mass diagram. In contrast, in...

  3. Towards a realistic population of simulated galaxy groups and clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, Amandine M C Le; Schaye, Joop; Ponman, Trevor J

    2013-01-01

    We present a new suite of large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulations called cosmo-OWLS. They form an extension to the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations (OWLS) project, and have been designed to help improve our understanding of cluster astrophysics and non-linear structure formation, which are now the limiting systematic errors when using clusters as cosmological probes. Starting from identical initial conditions in either the Planck or WMAP7 cosmologies, we systematically vary the most important 'sub-grid' physics, including feedback from supernovae and active galactic nuclei (AGN). We compare the properties of the simulated galaxy groups and clusters to a wide range of observational data, such as X-ray luminosity and temperature, gas mass fractions, entropy and density profiles, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, I-band mass-to-light ratio, dominance of the brightest cluster galaxy, and central massive black hole (BH) masses, by producing synthetic observations and mimicking observational analysis techniques...

  4. Damped Lyman Alpha Systems in Galaxy Formation Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Pontzen, Andrew; Pettini, Max; Booth, C M; Stinson, Greg; Wadsley, James; Brooks, Alyson; Quinn, Thomas; Haehnelt, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the population of z=3 damped Lyman alpha absorbers (DLAs) in a recent series of high resolution galaxy formation simulations. The simulations are of interest because they form at z=0 some of the most realistic disk galaxies to date. No free parameters are available in the simulations: these have been fixed by physical and z=0 observational constraints, and thus our study provides a genuine consistency test. The precise role of DLAs in galaxy formation remains in debate, but they provide a number of strong constraints on the nature of our simulated bound systems at z=3 because of their coupled information on neutral H I densities, kinematics, metallicity and estimates of star formation activity. Our results, without any parameter-tuning, closely match the observed incidence rate and column density distributions of DLAs. Our simulations are the first to reproduce the distribution of metallicities (with a median of Z_{DLA} = Z_{solar}/20) without invoking observationally unsupported mechanisms suc...

  5. COMPARISONS OF COSMOLOGICAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC GALAXY CLUSTER SIMULATIONS TO RADIO OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Hao; Li Hui; Collins, David C. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Govoni, Federica; Murgia, Matteo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Poggio dei Pini, Strada 54, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Norman, Michael L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Cen Renyue [Department of Astrophysical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Feretti, Luigina; Giovannini, Gabriele, E-mail: hao_xu@lanl.gov, E-mail: hli@lanl.gov, E-mail: dccollins@lanl.gov, E-mail: mlnorman@ucsd.edu, E-mail: fgovoni@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: matteo@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: lferetti@ira.inaf.it, E-mail: ggiovann@ira.inaf.it [INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via P.Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Radio observations of galaxy clusters show that there are {mu}G magnetic fields permeating the intracluster medium (ICM), but it is hard to accurately constrain the strength and structure of the magnetic fields without the help of advanced computer simulations. We present qualitative comparisons of synthetic Very Large Array observations of simulated galaxy clusters to radio observations of Faraday rotation measure (RM) and radio halos. The cluster formation is modeled using adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamic simulations with the assumption that the initial magnetic fields are injected into the ICM by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift. In addition to simulated clusters in Xu et al., we present a new simulation with magnetic field injections from multiple AGNs. We find that the cluster with multiple injection sources is magnetized to a similar level as in previous simulations with a single AGN. The RM profiles from simulated clusters, both |RM| and the dispersion of RM ({sigma}{sub RM}), are consistent at a first order with the radial distribution from observations. The correlations between the {sigma}{sub RM} and X-ray surface brightness from simulations are in a broad agreement with the observations, although there is an indication that the simulated clusters could be slightly overdense and less magnetized with respect to those in the observed sample. In addition, the simulated radio halos agree with the observed correlations between the radio power versus the cluster X-ray luminosity and between the radio power versus the radio halo size. These studies show that the cluster-wide magnetic fields that originate from AGNs and are then amplified by the ICM turbulence match observations of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters.

  6. Where do galaxies end? A study of hydrodynamic-simulation galaxies and their integrated properties

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Adam R H; Croton, Darren J; Feng, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Many techniques have been used in the literature for determining which particles or cells in a hydrodynamic simulation are attached to a galaxy. Often these invoke a spherical aperture that defines the boundary between the galaxy and the rest of its parent (sub)halo, sometimes coupled with, or alternatively involving, the use of a subhalo finder and gas property restrictions. Using the suite of high-resolution zoom re-simulations of individual haloes by Martig et al., and the large-scale simulation MassiveBlack-II, we examine the differences in measured galaxy properties from techniques with various aperture definitions. We perform techniques popular in the literature and present a new technique of our own, based on the baryonic mass profiles of simulated (sub)haloes. For the average Milky-Way-mass system, we find the two most popular techniques in the literature return differences of order 30 per cent for stellar mass, a factor of 3 for gas mass, 40 per cent for star formation rate, and factors of several fo...

  7. Constraints on Physical Properties of z~6 Galaxies Using Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Finlator, K; Oppenheimer, B

    2006-01-01

    We introduce SPOC, a new code for constraining the physical properties of observed galaxies through a Bayesian likelihood comparison with galaxies drawn from simulations. SPOC inputs an object's photometry and outputs probability distributions of stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), age, metallicity, dust extinction, and redshift (if none is given) for that galaxy. We apply SPOC, employing model galaxies drawn from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, to Abell 2218 KESR (z~6.7) and five other z>5.5 galaxies for which published rest-frame ultraviolet and optical measurements are available. We compare the outcome of using our simulated galaxies' star formation histories (SFHs) versus using simple one-parameter SFHs such as constant, exponentially-decaying, and rising (a new form we introduce motivated by typical SFHs seen in our simulated galaxies). We show that simulated galaxies match these observations at least as well as simple SFHs, with similar favored values obtained for the intrinsic physical para...

  8. Evolution of galaxy stellar masses and star formation rates in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Furlong, M; Theuns, T; Schaye, J; Crain, R A; Schaller, M; Vecchia, C Dalla; Frenk, C S; McCarthy, I G; Helly, J; Jenkins, A; Rosas-Guevara, Y M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of galaxy masses and star formation rates in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations. These comprise a suite of hydrodynamical simulations in a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony with subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. The subgrid feedback was calibrated to reproduce the observed present-day galaxy stellar mass function and galaxy sizes. Here we demonstrate that the simulations reproduce the observed growth of the stellar mass density to within 20 per cent. The simulation also tracks the observed evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function out to redshift z = 7, with differences comparable to the plausible uncertainties in the interpretation of the data. Just as with observed galaxies, the specific star formation rates of simulated galaxies are bimodal, with distinct star forming and passive sequences. The specific star formation rates of star forming galaxies ar...

  9. Simulations of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 3376

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, Rubens E G

    2013-01-01

    Observed galaxy clusters often exhibit X-ray morphologies suggestive of recent interaction with an infalling subcluster. Abell 3376 is a nearby (z=0.046) massive galaxy cluster whose bullet-shaped X-ray emission indicates that it may have undergone a recent collision. It displays a pair of Mpc-scale radio relics and its brightest cluster galaxy is located 970 h_70^-1 kpc away from the peak of X-ray emission, where the second brightest galaxy lies. We attempt to recover the dynamical history of Abell 3376. We perform a set of N-body adiabatic hydrodynamical simulations using the SPH code Gadget-2. These simulations of binary cluster collisions are aimed at exploring the parameter space of possible initial configurations. By attempting to match X-ray morphology, temperature, virial mass and X-ray luminosity, we set approximate constraints on some merger parameters. Our best models suggest a collision of clusters with mass ratio in the range 1/6-1/8, and having a subcluster with central gas density four times hi...

  10. FIRE in the Field: Simulating the Threshold of Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Fitts, Alex; Elbert, Oliver D; Bullock, James S; Hopkins, Philip F; Onorbe, Jose; Wetzel, Andrew R; Wheeler, Coral; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Keres, Dusan; Skillman, Evan D; Weisz, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    We present a suite of 15 cosmological zoom-in simulations of isolated dark matter halos, all with masses of $M_{\\rm halo} \\approx 10^{10}\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$ at $z=0$, in order to understand the relationship between halo assembly, galaxy formation, and feedback's effects on the central density structure in dwarf galaxies. These simulations are part of the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project and are performed at extremely high resolution. The resultant galaxies have stellar masses that are consistent with rough abundance matching estimates, coinciding with the faintest galaxies that can be seen beyond the virial radius of the Milky Way ($M_\\star/{\\rm M}_\\odot\\approx 10^5-10^7$). This non-negligible spread in stellar mass at $z=0$ in halos within a narrow range of virial masses is strongly correlated with central halo density or maximum circular velocity $V_{\\rm max}$. Much of this dependence of $M_\\star$ on a second parameter (beyond $M_{\\rm halo}$) is a direct consequence of the $M_{\\rm halo}\\sim10^...

  11. Galaxy Morphology and Star Formation in the Illustris Simulation at z=0

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Gregory F; Lotz, Jennifer M; Genel, Shy; McBride, Cameron K; Vogelsberger, Mark; Pillepich, Annalisa; Nelson, Dylan; Sales, Laura V; Sijacki, Debora; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker

    2015-01-01

    We study how optical galaxy morphology depends on mass and star formation rate (SFR) in the Illustris Simulation. To do so, we measure automated diagnostics of galaxy structure in 10808 simulated galaxies at z=0 with stellar masses 10^9.7 -1).

  12. Simulations of shell galaxies with GADGET-2: Multi-generation shell systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bartošková, Kateřina; Ebrová, Ivana; Jílková, Lucie; Křížek, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    As the missing complement to existing studies of shell galaxies, we carried out a set of self-consistent N-body simulations of a minor merger forming a stellar shell system within a giant elliptical galaxy. We discuss the effect of a phenomenon possibly associated with the galaxy merger simulations --- a presence of multiple generations of shells.

  13. Molecular hydrogen abundances of galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Claudia del P; Schaye, Joop; Furlong, Michelle; Frenk, Carlos S; Bower, Richard G; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Trayford, James W; Bahe, Yannick M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the abundance of galactic molecular hydrogen (H$_2$) in the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We assign H$_2$ masses to gas particles in the simulations in post-processing using two different prescriptions that depend on the local dust-to-gas ratio and the interstellar radiation field. Both result in H$_2$ galaxy mass functions that agree well with observations in the local and high-redshift Universe. The simulations reproduce the observed scaling relations between the mass of H$_2$ and the stellar mass, star formation rate and stellar surface density. Towards high edshifts, galaxies in the simulations display larger H$_2$ mass fractions, and correspondingly lower H$_2$ depletion timescales, also in good agreement with observations. The comoving mass density of H$_2$ in units of the critical density, $\\Omega_{\\rm H_2}$, peaks at $z\\approx 1.2-1.5$, later than the predicted peak of the cosmic star formation rate activity, a...

  14. Dark-ages Reionization & Galaxy Formation Simulation I: The dynamical lives of high redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Gregory B; Mutch, Simon J; Power, Chris; Duffy, Alan R; Geil, Paul M; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, Stuart B

    2015-01-01

    We present the Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) program and Tiamat, the collisionless N-body simulation program upon which DRAGONS is built. The primary trait distinguishing Tiamat from other large simulation programs is its density of outputs at high redshift (100 from z=35 to z=5; roughly one every 10 Myr) enabling the construction of very accurate merger trees at an epoch when galaxy formation is rapid and mergers extremely frequent. We find that the friends-of-friends halo mass function agrees well with the prediction of Watson et al. at high masses, but deviates at low masses, perhaps due to our use of a different halo finder or perhaps indicating a break from "universal" behaviour. We then analyse the dynamical evolution of galaxies during the Epoch of Reionization finding that only a small fraction (~20%) of galactic halos are relaxed. We illustrate this using standard relaxation metrics to establish two dynamical recovery time-scales: i) halo...

  15. Assessing Astrophysical Uncertainties in Direct Detection with Galaxy Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloane, Jonathan D; Brooks, Alyson M; Governato, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We study the local dark matter velocity distribution in four simulated Milky Way-mass galaxies, generated at high resolution with both dark matter and baryons. We find that the dark matter in the Solar neighborhood is influenced appreciably by the inclusion of baryons, increasing the speed of dark matter particles compared to dark matter-only simulations. The baryonic effects responsible for the transfer of energy to the dark matter component increase the amount of high velocity dark matter, resulting in velocity distributions which are more similar to the Maxwellian Standard Halo Model than predicted from dark matter-only simulations. Further, the velocity structures present in baryonic simulations possess a greater diversity than expected from dark matter-only simulation. We show the impact on the direct detection experiments LUX, DAMA/Libra, and CoGent using our simulated velocity distributions. Our results indicate that the Standard Halo Model overpredicts the amount of dark matter in the high velocity ta...

  16. Dynamical difference between the cD galaxy and the stellar diffuse component in simulated galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Dolag, K; Borgani, S

    2009-01-01

    Member galaxies within galaxy clusters nowadays can be routinely identified in cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations using methods based on identifying self bound, locally over dense substructures. However, distinguishing the central galaxy from the stellar diffuse component within clusters is notoriously difficult, and in the center it is not even clear if two distinct stellar populations exist. Here, after subtracting all member galaxies, we use the velocity distribution of the remaining stars and detect two dynamically, well-distinct stellar components within simulated galaxy clusters. These differences in the dynamics can be used to apply an un-binding procedure which leads to a spatial separation of the two components into a cD and a diffuse stellar component (DSC). Applying our new algorithm to a cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation we find that -- in line with previous studies -- these two components have clearly distinguished spatial and velocity distributions as well as different star formation...

  17. Simulations of Line Profile Structure in Shell Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jilkova, L; Krizek, M; Ebrova, I; Stoklasova, I; Bartakova, T; Bartoskova, K

    2009-01-01

    In the context of exploring mass distributions of dark matter haloes in giant ellipticals, we extend the analysis carried out Merrifield and Kuijken (1998) for stellar line profiles of shells created in nearly radial mergers of galaxies. We show that line-of-sight velocity distributions are more complex than previously predicted. We simulate shell formation and analyze the detectability of spectroscopic signatures of shells after convolution with spectral PSFs.

  18. Dust properties of Lyman break galaxies in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Thompson, Robert; Choi, Jun-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations have indicated the existence of dust in high-redshift galaxies, however, the dust properties in them are still unknown. Here we present theoretical constraints on dust properties in Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z=3 by post-processing a cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation with radiative transfer calculations. We calculate the dust extinction in 2800 dark matter halos using the metallicity information of individual gas particles in our simulation. We use only bright galaxies with rest-frame UV magnitude M_1700 < -20 mag, and study the dust size, dust-to-metal mass ratio, and dust composition. From the comparison of calculated color excess between B and V-band (i.e., E(B-V)) and the observations, we constrain the typical dust size, and show that the best-fitting dust grain size is ~ 0.05 micron, which is consistent with the results of theoretical dust models for Type-II supernova. Our simulation with the dust extinction effect can naturally reproduce the observed rest...

  19. A Superbubble Feedback Model for Galaxy Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, B W; Benincasa, S M; Couchman, H M P

    2014-01-01

    We present a new stellar feedback model that reproduces superbubbles. Superbubbles from clustered young stars evolve quite differently to individual supernovae and are substantially more efficient at generating gas motions. The essential new components of the model are thermal conduction, sub-grid evaporation and a sub-grid multi-phase treatment for cases where the simulation mass resolution is insufficient to model the early stages of the superbubble. The multi-phase stage is short compared to superbubble lifetimes. Thermal conduction physically regulates the hot gas mass without requiring a free parameter. Accurately following the hot component naturally avoids overcooling. Prior approaches tend to heat too much mass, leaving the hot ISM below $10^6$ K and susceptible to rapid cooling unless ad-hoc fixes were used. The hot phase also allows feedback energy to correctly accumulate from multiple, clustered sources, including stellar winds and supernovae. We employ high-resolution simulations of a single star ...

  20. Gas stripping in galaxy clusters: a new SPH simulation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jachym, P; Köppen, J; Combes, F

    2007-01-01

    The influence of a time-varying ram pressure on spiral galaxies in clusters is explored with a new simulation method based on the N-body SPH/tree code GADGET. We have adapted the code to describe the interaction of two different gas phases, the diffuse hot intracluster medium (ICM) and the denser and colder interstellar medium (ISM). Both the ICM and ISM components are introduced as SPH particles. As a galaxy arrives on a highly radial orbit from outskirts to cluster center, it crosses the ICM density peak and experiences a time-varying wind. Depending on the duration and intensity of the ISM-ICM interaction, early and late type galaxies in galaxy clusters with either a large or small ICM distribution are found to show different stripping efficiencies, amounts of reaccretion of the extra-planar ISM, and final masses. We compare the numerical results with analytical approximations of different complexity and indicate the limits of the Gunn & Gott simple stripping formula. Our investigations emphasize the r...

  1. Magnetic fields in cosmological simulations of disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pakmor, R; Springel, V

    2013-01-01

    Observationally, magnetic fields reach equipartition with thermal energy and cosmic rays in the interstellar medium of disk galaxies such as the Milky Way. However, thus far cosmological simulations of the formation and evolution of galaxies have usually neglected magnetic fields. We employ the moving-mesh code \\textsc{Arepo} to follow for the first time the formation and evolution of a Milky Way-like disk galaxy in its full cosmological context while taking into account magnetic fields. We find that a prescribed tiny magnetic seed field grows exponentially by a small-scale dynamo until it saturates around $z=4$ with a magnetic energy of about $10\\%$ of the kinetic energy in the center of the galaxy's main progenitor halo. By $z=2$, a well-defined gaseous disk forms in which the magnetic field is further amplified by differential rotation, until it saturates at an average field strength of $\\sim 6 \\mu \\mathrm{G}$ in the disk plane. In this phase, the magnetic field is transformed from a chaotic small-scale fi...

  2. Metallicity and colours in galaxy pairs in chemical hydrodynamical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, J; Lambas, D G; Scannapieco, C; Perez, Josefa; Tissera, Patricia; Lambas, Diego Garcia; Scannapieco, Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    Using chemical hydrodynamical simulations consistent with a Lambda-CDM model, we study the role played by mergers and interactions in the regulation of the star formation activity, colours and the chemical properties of galaxies in pairs. A statistical analysis of the orbital parameters in galaxy pairs (r <100 kpc/h) shows that the star formation (SF) activity correlates strongly with the relative separation and weakly with the relative velocity, indicating that close encounters (r <30 kpc/h) can increase the SF activity to levels higher than that exhibit in galaxies without a close companion. Analysing the internal properties of interacting systems, we find that their stability properties also play a role in the regulation the SF activity (Perez et al 2005a). Particularly, we find that the passive star forming galaxies in pairs are statistically more stable with deeper potential wells and less leftover gas than active star forming pairs. In order to compare our results with observations, we also build ...

  3. Simulations of galactic winds and starbursts in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kapferer, W; Domainko, W; Mair, M; Kronberger, T; Schindler, S; Kimeswenger, S; Van Kampen, E; Breitschwerdt, D; Ruffert, M

    2005-01-01

    We present an investigation of the metal enrichment of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) by galactic winds and merger-driven starbursts. We use combined N-body/hydrodynamic simulations with a semi-numerical galaxy formation model. The mass loss by galactic winds is obtained by calculating transonic solutions of steady state outflows, driven by thermal, cosmic ray and MHD wave pressure. The inhomogeneities in the metal distribution caused by these processes are an ideal tool to reveal the dynamical state of a galaxy cluster. We present surface brightness, X-ray emission weighted temperature and metal maps of our model clusters as they would be observed by X-ray telescopes like XMM-Newton. We show that X-ray weighted metal maps distinguish between pre- or post-merger galaxy clusters by comparing the metallicity distribution with the galaxy-density distribution: pre-mergers have a metallicity gap between the subclusters, post-mergers a high metallicity between subclusters. We apply our approach to two observed gala...

  4. Size evolution of normal and compact galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, M.; Bower, R. G.; Crain, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Theuns, T.; Trayford, J. W.; Qu, Y.; Schaller, M.; Berthet, M.; Helly, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    We present the evolution of galaxy sizes, from redshift 2 to 0, for actively star forming and passive galaxies in the cosmological hydrodynamical 1003 cMpc3 simulation of the EAGLE project. We find that the sizes increase with stellar mass, but that the relation weakens with increasing redshift. Separating galaxies by their star formation activity, we find that passive galaxies are typically smaller than active galaxies at a fixed stellar mass. These trends are consistent with those found in observations and the level of agreement between the predicted and observed size-mass relations is of the order of 0.1 dex for z galaxies with that of the population as a whole. While the evolution of the size-stellar mass relation for active galaxies provides a good proxy for the evolution of individual galaxies, the evolution of individual passive galaxies is not well represented by the observed size-mass relation due to the evolving number density of passive galaxies. Observations of z ˜ 2 galaxies have revealed an abundance of massive red compact galaxies, which depletes below z ˜ 1. We find that a similar population forms naturally in the simulation. Comparing these galaxies with their z = 0 descendants, we find that all compact galaxies grow in size due to the high-redshift stars migrating outwards. Approximately 60 per cent of the compact galaxies increase in size further due to renewed star formation and/or mergers.

  5. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy-formation simulation - VII. The sizes of high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanwu; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Angel, P. W.; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate high-redshift galaxy sizes using a semi-analytic model constructed for the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulation project. Our fiducial model, including strong feedback from supernovae and photoionization background, accurately reproduces the evolution of the stellar mass function and ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function. Using this model, we study the size-luminosity relation of galaxies and find that the effective radius scales with UV luminosity as Re ∝ L0.25 at z ∼ 5-9. We show that recently discovered very luminous galaxies at z ∼ 7 and 11 lie on our predicted size-luminosity relations. We find that a significant fraction of galaxies at z > 8 will not be resolved by James Webb Space Telescope, but Giant Magellan Telescope will have the ability to resolve all galaxies in haloes above the atomic cooling limit. We show that our fiducial model successfully reproduces the redshift evolution of average galaxy sizes at z > 5. We also explore galaxy sizes in models without supernova feedback. The no-supernova feedback models produce galaxy sizes that are smaller than observations. We therefore confirm that supernova feedback plays an important role in determining the size-luminosity relation of galaxies and its redshift evolution during reionization.

  6. The Neutral Hydrogen Content of Galaxies in Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D; Kollmeier, Juna A; Weinberg, David H

    2013-01-01

    We examine the global HI properties of galaxies in quarter-billion particle cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, focusing on how our main adjustable physical process, galactic outflows, impacts HI content. In addition to the three outflow models considered in our earlier papers, we present a new one (ezw) motivated by high resolution interstellar medium simulations, in which the scalings of wind speeds and mass loading factors follow those expected for momentum-driven outflows for larger galaxies, and energy-driven outflows for dwarfs (sigma<75 km/s). To obtain predicted HI masses, we employ a simple but effective local correction for particle self-shielding, as well as an observationally-constrained transition from neutral to molecular hydrogen. We find that our ezw model produces an HI mass function whose shape agrees well with observations from the ALFALFA survey, having a low mass end slope of -1.3, while other models agree less well. Outflows critically govern the HI content in low-mass galaxies, wi...

  7. Simulating the dust content of galaxies: successes and failures

    CERN Document Server

    McKinnon, Ryan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hayward, Christopher C; Marinacci, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We present full volume cosmological simulations using the moving-mesh code AREPO to study the coevolution of dust and galaxies. We extend the dust model in AREPO to include thermal sputtering of grains and investigate the evolution of the dust mass function, the cosmic distribution of dust beyond the interstellar medium, and the dependence of dust-to-stellar mass ratio on galactic properties. The simulated dust mass function is well-described by a Schechter fit and lies closest to observations at $z = 0$. The radial scaling of projected dust surface density out to distances of $10 \\, \\text{Mpc}$ around galaxies with magnitudes $17 < i < 21$ is similar to that seen in Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. At $z = 0$, the predicted dust density of $\\Omega_\\text{dust} \\approx 1.9 \\times 10^{-6}$ lies in the range of $\\Omega_\\text{dust}$ values seen in low-redshift observations. We find that dust-to-stellar mass ratio anti-correlates with stellar mass for galaxies living along the star formation main sequence. Mor...

  8. The Galaxy Cluster Merger Catalog: An Online Repository of Mock Observations from Simulated Galaxy Cluster Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    ZuHone, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present the first release of the "Galaxy Cluster Merger Catalog". This catalog provides an extensive suite of mock observations and related data for N-body and hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy cluster mergers. These mock observations consist of projections of a number of important observable quantities in several different wavebands, for the entire evolution of each simulation as well as along different lines of sight through the three-dimensional simulation domain. The web interface to the catalog consists of easily browseable images over epoch and projection direction, as well as download links for the raw data and a JS9 interface for interactive data exploration. All of the data products are provided in the standard FITS file format, in image and table form. Data is being stored on the yt Hub (http://hub.yt), which allows for remote access and analysis using a Jupyter notebook server. Future versions of the catalog will include simulations from a number of research groups and a variety of research t...

  9. Biases and systematics in the observational derivation of galaxy properties: comparing different techniques on synthetic observations of simulated galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Guidi, Giovanni; Walcher, C Jakob

    2015-01-01

    We study the sources of biases and systematics in the derivation of galaxy properties of observational studies, focusing on stellar masses, star formation rates, gas/stellar metallicities, stellar ages and magnitudes/colors. We use hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy formation, for which the real quantities are known, and apply observational techniques to derive the observables. We also make an analysis of biases that are relevant for a proper comparison between simulations and observations. For our study, we post-process the simulation outputs to calculate the galaxies' spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using Stellar Population Synthesis models and also generating the fully-consistent far UV-submillimeter wavelength SEDs with the radiative transfer code SUNRISE. We compared the direct results of simulations with the observationally-derived quantities obtained in various ways, and found that systematic differences in all studied galaxy properties appear, which are caused by: (1) purely observ...

  10. Effects of simulated cosmological magnetic fields on the galaxy population

    CERN Document Server

    Marinacci, Federico

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of varying the intensity of the primordial magnetic seed field on the global properties of the galaxy population in ideal MHD cosmological simulations performed with the moving-mesh code AREPO. We vary the seed field in our calculations in a range of values still compatible with the current cosmological upper limits. We show that above a critical intensity of $\\simeq 10^{-9}\\,{\\rm G}$ the additional pressure arising from the field strongly affects the evolution of gaseous structures, leading to a suppression of the cosmic star formation history. The suppression is stronger for larger seed fields, and directly reflects into a lower galaxy number density at fixed stellar mass and a less massive stellar component at fixed virial mass at all mass scales. These signatures may be used, in addition to the existing methods, to derive tighter constraints on primordial magnetic seed field intensities.

  11. Testing Hydrodynamics Schemes in Galaxy Disc Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Few, C G; Pettitt, A; Konstandin, L

    2016-01-01

    We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (sphNG), and a volume-discretised meshless code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the sphNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the sphNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans' length with a greater number of grid cells we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful i...

  12. Biases and systematics in the observational derivation of galaxy properties: comparing different techniques on synthetic observations of simulated galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Guidi, Giovanni; Scannapieco, Cecilia; Walcher, C. Jakob

    2015-01-01

    We study the sources of biases and systematics in the derivation of galaxy properties of observational studies, focusing on stellar masses, star formation rates, gas/stellar metallicities, stellar ages and magnitudes/colors. We use hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy formation, for which the real quantities are known, and apply observational techniques to derive the observables. We also make an analysis of biases that are relevant for a proper comparison between simulations and ...

  13. Tidal stripping of globular clusters in a simulated galaxy cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Felipe; Muriel, Hernán; Abadi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Using a cosmological N-body numerical simulation of the formation of a galaxy cluster- sized halo, we analyze the temporal evolution of its globular cluster population. We follow the dynamical evolution of 38 galactic dark matter halos orbiting in a galaxy cluster that at redshift z=0 has a virial mass of 1.71 * 10 ^14 Msol h^-1. In order to mimic both "blue" and "red" populations of globular clusters, for each galactic halo we select two different sets of particles at high redshift (z ~ 1), constrained by the condition that, at redshift z=0, their average radial density profiles are similar to the observed profiles. As expected, the general galaxy cluster tidal field removes a significant fraction of the globular cluster populations to feed the intracluster population. On average, halos lost approximately 16% and 29% of their initial red and blue globular cluster populations, respectively. Our results suggest that these fractions strongly depend on the orbital trajectory of the galactic halo, specifically on...

  14. Evolution of the gas kinematics of galaxies in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    De Rossi, Maria E

    2013-01-01

    We studied the evolution of the gas kinematics of galaxies by performing hydrodynamical simulations in a cosmological scenario. We paid special attention to the origin of the scatter of the Tully-Fisher relation and the features which could be associated with mergers and interactions. We extended the study by De Rossi et al. (2010) and analysed their whole simulated sample which includes both, gas disc-dominated and spheroid-dominated systems. We found that mergers and interactions can affect the rotation curves directly or indirectly inducing a scatter in the Tully-Fisher Relation larger than the simulated evolution since z=3. In agreement with previous works, kinematical indicators which combine the rotation velocity and dispersion velocity in their definitions lead to a tighter relation. In addition, when we estimated the rotation velocity at the maximum of the rotation curve, we obtained the best proxy for the potential well regardless of morphology.

  15. Modelling neutral hydrogen in galaxies using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, Alan R; Battye, Richard A; Booth, C M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Schaye, Joop

    2011-01-01

    The characterisation of the atomic and molecular hydrogen content of high-redshift galaxies is a major observational challenge that will be addressed over the coming years with a new generation of radio telescopes. We investigate this important issue by considering the states of hydrogen across a range of structures within high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Additionally, our simulations allow us to investigate the sensitivity of our results to numerical resolution and to sub-grid baryonic physics (especially feedback from supernovae and active galactic nuclei). We find that the most significant uncertainty in modelling the neutral hydrogen distribution arises from our need to model a self-shielding correction in moderate density regions. Future simulations incorporating radiative transfer schemes will be vital to improve on our empirical self-shielding threshold. Irrespective of the exact nature of the threshold we find that while the atomic hydrogen mass function evolves only mildly fro...

  16. Hydrodynamical Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Brad K; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; Teyssier, Romain; House, Elisa L; Brook, Chris B; Kawata, Daisuke

    2008-01-01

    To date, fully cosmological hydrodynamic disk simulations to redshift zero have only been undertaken with particle-based codes, such as GADGET, Gasoline, or GCD+. In light of the (supposed) limitations of traditional implementations of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), or at the very least, their respective idiosyncrasies, it is important to explore complementary approaches to the SPH paradigm to galaxy formation. We present the first high-resolution cosmological disk simulations to redshift zero using an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR)-based hydrodynamical code, in this case, RAMSES. We analyse the temporal and spatial evolution of the simulated stellar disks' vertical heating, velocity ellipsoids, stellar populations, vertical and radial abundance gradients (gas and stars), assembly/infall histories, warps/lopsideness, disk edges/truncations (gas and stars), ISM physics implementations, and compare and contrast these properties with our sample of cosmological SPH disks, generated with GCD+. These prelim...

  17. The BlueTides Simulation: First Galaxies and Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yu; Croft, Rupert A; Bird, Simeon; Battaglia, Nicholas; Wilkins, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the BlueTides simulation and report initial results for the luminosity functions of the first galaxies and AGN, and their contribution to reionization. BlueTides was run on the BlueWaters cluster at NCSA from $z=99$ to $z=8.0$ and includes 2$\\times$7040$^3$ particles in a $400$Mpc/h per side box, making it the largest hydrodynamic simulation ever performed at high redshift. BlueTides includes a pressure-entropy formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics, gas cooling, star formation (including molecular hydrogen), black hole growth and models for stellar and AGN feedback processes. The star formation rate density in the simulation is a good match to current observational data at $z\\sim 8-10$. We find good agreement between observations and the predicted galaxy luminosity function in the currently observable range $-18\\le M_{\\mathrm UV} \\le -22.5$ with some dust extinction required to match the abundance of brighter objects. BlueTides implements a patchy reionization model that produces a fluct...

  18. Characterizing Diffused Stellar Light in simulated galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Weiguang; Borgani, S; Granato, G L; Killedar, M; De Lucia, G; Presotto, V; Dolag, K

    2013-01-01

    [Abridged] In this paper, we carry out a detailed analysis of the performance of two different methods to identify the diffuse stellar light in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters. One method is based on a dynamical analysis of the stellar component. The second method is closer to techniques commonly employed in observational studies. Both the dynamical method and the method based on the surface brightness limit criterion are applied to the same set of hydrodynamical simulations for a large sample about 80 galaxy clusters. We find significant differences between the ICL and DSC fractions computed with the two corresponding methods, which amounts to about a factor of two for the AGN simulations, and a factor of four for the CSF set. We also find that the inclusion of AGN feedback boosts the DSC and ICL fractions by a factor of 1.5-2, respectively, while leaving the BCG+ICL and BCG+DSC mass fraction almost unchanged. The sum of the BCG and DSC mass stellar mass fraction is found to decrea...

  19. Simulating the assembly of galaxies at redshifts z = 6 - 12

    CERN Document Server

    Dayal, Pratika; Maio, Umberto; Ciardi, Benedetta

    2012-01-01

    We use state-of-the-art simulations to explore the physical evolution of galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time. First, we demonstrate that our model, without any tuning, reproduces the basic statistical properties of the observed Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) population at z = 6 - 8, including the evolving ultra-violet (UV) luminosity function (LF), the stellar-mass density (SMD), and the average specific star-formation rates (sSFR) of LBGs with M_{UV} < -18 (AB mag). Encouraged by this success we present predictions for the behaviour of fainter LBGs extending down to M_{UV} <= -15 (as will be probed with the James Webb Space Telescope) and have interrogated our simulations to try to gain insight into the physical drivers of the observed population evolution. We find that mass growth due to star formation in the mass-dominant progenitor builds up about 90% of the total z ~ 6 LBG stellar mass, dominating over the mass contributed by merging throughout this era. Our simulation suggests that the ap...

  20. Colours and luminosities of z=0.1 simulated galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Trayford, James W; Bower, Richard G; Schaye, Joop; Furlong, Michelle; Schaller, Matthieu; Frenk, Carlos S; Crain, Robert A; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; McCarthy, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the colours and luminosities of redshift z = 0.1 galaxies from the EAGLE simulation suite using the GALAXEV population synthesis models. We take into account obscuration by dust in birth clouds and diffuse ISM using a two-component screen model, following the prescription of Charlot and Fall. We compare models in which the dust optical depth is constant to models where it depends on gas metallicity, gas fraction and orientation. The colours of EAGLE galaxies for the more sophisticated models are in broad agreement with those of observed galaxies. In particular, EAGLE produces a red sequence of passive galaxies and a blue cloud of star forming galaxies, with approximately the correct fraction of galaxies in each population and with g-r colours within 0.1 magnitudes of those observed. Luminosity functions from UV to NIR wavelengths differ from observations at a level comparable to systematic shifts resulting from a choice between Petrosian and Kron photometric apertures. Despite the generally good ...

  1. Simulation tests of galaxy cluster constraints on chameleon gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Harry; Nichol, Robert C.; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Bacon, David; Koyama, Kazuya; Romer, A. Kathy

    2016-10-01

    We use two new hydrodynamical simulations of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and f(R) gravity to test the methodology used by Wilcox et al. (W15) in constraining the effects of a fifth force on the profiles of clusters of galaxies. We construct realistic simulated stacked weak lensing and X-ray surface brightness cluster profiles from these cosmological simulations, and then use these data projected along various lines of sight to test the spherical symmetry of our stacking procedure. We also test the applicability of the NFW profile to model weak lensing profiles of clusters in f(R) gravity. Finally, we test the validity of the analytical model developed in W15 against the simulated profiles. Overall, we find our methodology is robust and broadly agrees with these simulated data. We also apply our full Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis from W15 to our simulated X-ray and lensing profiles, providing consistent constraints on the modified gravity parameters as obtained from the real cluster data, e.g. for our ΛCDM simulation we obtain |fR0| < 8.3 × 10-5 (95 per cent CL), which is in good agreement with the W15 measurement of |fR0| < 6 × 10-5. Overall, these tests confirm the power of our methodology which can now be applied to larger cluster samples available with the next generation surveys.

  2. Comparing models of star formation simulating observed interacting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, L. F.; Muñoz-Cuartas, J. C.; Rodrigues, I.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we make a comparison between different models of star formation to reproduce observed interacting galaxies. We use observational data to model the evolution of a pair of galaxies undergoing a minor merger. Minor mergers represent situations weakly deviated from the equilibrium configuration but significant changes in star fomation (SF) efficiency can take place, then, minor mergers provide an unique scene to study SF in galaxies in a realistic but yet simple way. Reproducing observed systems also give us the opportunity to compare the results of the simulations with observations, which at the end can be used as probes to characterize the models of SF implemented in the comparison. In this work we compare two different star formation recipes implemented in Gadget3 and GIZMO codes. Both codes share the same numerical background, and differences arise mainly in the star formation recipe they use. We use observations from Pico dos Días and GEMINI telescopes and show how we use observational data of the interacting pair in AM2229-735 to characterize the interacting pair. Later we use this information to simulate the evolution of the system to finally reproduce the observations: Mass distribution, morphology and main features of the merger-induced star formation burst. We show that both methods manage to reproduce roughly the star formation activity. We show, through a careful study, that resolution plays a major role in the reproducibility of the system. In that sense, star formation recipe implemented in GIZMO code has shown a more robust performance. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by Colciencias, Doctorado Nacional - 617 program.

  3. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, Coral; Bullock, James S; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Elbert, Oliver; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Hopkins, Philip F; Keres, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    We present FIRE/Gizmo hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations of isolated dark matter halos, two each at the mass of classical dwarf galaxies ($M_{\\rm vir} \\simeq 10^{10} M_{\\odot}$) and ultra-faint galaxies ($M_{\\rm vir} \\simeq 10^9 M_{\\odot}$), and with two feedback implementations. The resultant central galaxies lie on an extrapolated abundance matching relation from $M_{\\star} \\simeq 10^6$ to $10^4 M_{\\odot}$ without a break. Every host is filled with subhalos, many of which form stars. Our dwarfs with $M_{\\star} \\simeq 10^6 M_{\\odot}$ each have 1-2 well-resolved satellites with $M_{\\star} = 3-200 \\times 10^3 M_{\\odot}$. Even our isolated ultra-faint galaxies have star-forming subhalos. If this is representative, dwarf galaxies throughout the universe should commonly host tiny satellite galaxies of their own. We combine our results with the ELVIS simulations to show that targeting $\\sim 50~ \\rm kpc$ regions around nearby isolated dwarfs could increase the chances of discovering ultra-faint galaxies by $\\sim 35\\%...

  4. Disk galaxies with broken luminosity profiles from cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Serrano, Francisco J; Doménech-Moral, Mariola; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    We simulate the cosmological formation of three disk galaxies using the zoom-in technique and including a detailed treatment of chemical evolution and cooling. The resulting galaxies have a rather high disk-to-total ratio for a cosmological simulation and thin stellar disks. They present a break in the luminosity profile at 3.0 +- 0.5 disk scale lengths, while showing an exponential mass profile without any apparent breaks, in line with recent observational results. Since the stellar mass profile is exponential, only differences in the stellar populations can be the cause of the luminosity break. Although we find a cutoff for the star formation rate imposed by a density threshold in our star formation model, it does not coincide with the luminosity break and is located at 4.3 +- 0.4 disk scale lengths, with star formation going on between both radii. The color profiles and the age profiles are "U-shaped", with the minimum for both profiles located approximately at the break radius. The SFR to stellar mass rat...

  5. Metallicity gradients of disc stars for a cosmologically simulated galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Awat; Kawata, Daisuke; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Brook, Chris B.; Gibson, Brad K.; Kiessling, Alina

    2011-08-01

    We analyse for the first time the radial abundance gradients of the disc stars of a disc galaxy simulated with our three-dimensional, fully cosmological chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. We study how [Fe/H], [N/O], [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] vary with galactocentric radius. For the young stars of the disc, we found a negative slope for [Fe/H] and [N/O] but a positive [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] slope with radius. By analysing the star formation rate at different radii, we found that the simulated disc contains a greater fraction of young stars in the outer regions, while the old stars tend to be concentrated in the inner parts of the disc. This can explain the positive [α/Fe] gradient as well as the negative [N/O] gradient with radius. This radial trend is a natural outcome of an inside-out formation of the disc, regardless of its size and can thus explain the recently observed positive [α/Fe] gradients in the Milky Way disc open clusters.

  6. Metallicity gradients of disc stars for a cosmologically simulated galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Rahimi, Awat; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Brook, Chris B; Gibson, Brad K; Kiessling, Alina

    2011-01-01

    We analyse for the first time the radial abundance gradients of the disc stars of a disc galaxy simulated with our three dimensional, fully cosmological chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. We study how [Fe/H], [N/O], [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] vary with galactocentric radius. For the young stars of the disc, we found a negative slope for [Fe/H] and [N/O] but a positive [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] slope with radius. By analysing the star formation rate (SFR) at different radii, we found that the simulated disc contains a greater fraction of young stars in the outer regions, while the old stars tend to be concentrated in the inner parts of the disc. This can explain the positive [alpha/Fe] gradient as well as the negative [N/O] gradient with radius. This radial trend is a natural outcome of an inside-out formation of the disc, regardless of its size and can thus explain the recently observed positive [alpha/Fe] gradients in the Milky Way disc open clusters.

  7. Hydrodynamical Simulations of the Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 1097

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lien-Hsuan; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Taam, Ronald E; Yang, Chao-Chin; Yen, David C C

    2013-01-01

    NGC 1097 is a nearby barred spiral galaxy believed to be interacting with the elliptical galaxy NGC 1097A located to its northwest. It hosts a Seyfert 1 nucleus surrounded by a circumnuclear starburst ring. Two straight dust lanes connected to the ring extend almost continuously out to the bar. The other ends of the dust lanes attach to two main spiral arms. To provide a physical understanding of its structural and kinematical properties, two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations have been carried out. Numerical calculations reveal that many features of the gas morphology and kinematics can be reproduced provided that the gas flow is governed by a gravitational potential associated with a slowly rotating strong bar. By including the self-gravity of the gas disk in our calculation, we have found the starburst ring to be gravitationally unstable which is consistent with the observation in \\citet{hsieh11}. Our simulations show that the gas inflow rate is 0.17 M$_\\sun$ yr$^{-1}$ into the region within the starbu...

  8. Simulation tests of galaxy cluster constraints on chameleon gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Harry; Zhao, Gong-bo; Bacon, David; Koyama, Kazuya; Romer, A Kathy

    2016-01-01

    We use two new hydrodynamical simulations of $\\Lambda$CDM and $f(R)$ gravity to test the methodology used by Wilcox et al. 2015 (W15) in constraining the effects of a fifth force on the profiles of clusters of galaxies. We construct realistic simulated stacked weak lensing and X-ray surface brightness cluster profiles from these cosmological simulations, and then use these data projected along various lines-of-sight to test the spherical symmetry of our stacking procedure. We also test the applicability of the NFW profile to model weak lensing profiles of clusters in $f(R)$ gravity. Finally, we test the validity of the analytical model developed in W15 against the simulated profiles. Overall, we find our methodology is robust and broadly agrees with these simulated data. We also apply our full Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis from W15 to our simulated X-ray and lensing profiles, providing consistent constraints on the modified gravity parameters as obtained from the real cluster data, e.g. for our $\\L...

  9. Chandra Survey of Nearby Highly Inclined Disc Galaxies - III: Comparison with Hydrodynamical Simulations of Circumgalactic Coronae

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Q Daniel

    2014-01-01

    X-ray observations of circumgalactic coronae provide a valuable means by which to test galaxy formation theories. Two primary mechanisms are thought to be responsible for the establishment of such coronae: accretion of intergalactic gas (IGM) and/or galactic feedback. In this paper, we first compare our Chandra sample of galactic coronae of 53 nearby highly-inclined disc galaxies to an analytical model considering only the accretion of IGM. We confirm the existing conclusion that this pure accretion model substantially over-predicts the coronal emission. We then select 30 field galaxies from our original sample, and correct their coronal luminosities to uniformly compare them to deep X-ray measurements of several massive disc galaxies from the literature, as well as to a comparable sample of simulated galaxies drawn from the Galaxies-Intergalactic Medium Interaction Calculation (GIMIC). These simulations explicitly model both accretion and SNe feedback and yield galaxies exhibit X-ray properties in broad agre...

  10. A large difference in the progenitor masses of active and passive galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauwens, Bart; Franx, Marijn; Schaye, Joop

    2016-11-01

    Cumulative number density matching of galaxies is a method to observationally connect descendent galaxies to their typical main progenitors at higher redshifts and thereby to assess the evolution of galaxy properties. The accuracy of this method is limited due to galaxy merging and scatter in the stellar mass growth history of individual galaxies. Behroozi et al. have introduced a refinement of the method, based on abundance matching of observed galaxies to the Bolshoi dark matter-only simulation. The EAGLE cosmological hydrosimulation is well suited to test this method, because it reproduces the observed evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function and the passive fraction. We find agreement with the Behroozi et al. method for the complete sample of main progenitors of z = 0 galaxies, but we also find a strong dependence on the current star formation rate. Passive galaxies with a stellar mass up to 1010.75 M⊙ have a completely different median mass history than active galaxies of the same mass. This difference persists if we only select central galaxies. This means that the cumulative number density method should be applied separately to active and passive galaxies. Even then, the typical main progenitor of a z = 0 galaxy already spans two orders of magnitude in stellar mass at z = 2.

  11. Simulations of Galaxy Cluster Collisions with a Dark Plasma Component

    CERN Document Server

    Sepp, Tiit; Heikinheimo, Matti; Hektor, Andi; Raidal, Martti; Spethmann, Christian; Tempel, Elmo; Veermäe, Hardi

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of galaxy cluster collisions with a two component model of dark matter, which is assumed to consist of a predominant non-interacting dark matter component and a 20 percent mass fraction of dark plasma. Dark plasma is an intriguing form of interacting dark matter with an effective fluid-like behavior, which is well motivated by various theoretical particle physics models. We find that by choosing suitable simulation parameters, the observed distributions of dark matter in both the Bullet Cluster (1E 0657-558) and Abell 520 (MS 0451.5+0250) can be qualitatively reproduced. In particular, it is found that dark plasma forms an isolated mass clump in the Abell 520 system which cannot be explained by traditional models of dark matter, but has been detected in weak lensing observations.

  12. Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation with cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Salem, Munier; Hummels, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical impact of cosmic rays in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation using adaptive-mesh refinement simulations of a $10^{12}$ solar mass halo. In agreement with previous work, a run with only our standard thermal energy feedback model results in a massive spheroid and unrealistically peaked rotation curves. However, the addition of a simple two-fluid model for cosmic rays drastically changes the morphology of the forming disk. We include an isotropic diffusive term and a source term tied to star formation due to (unresolved) supernova-driven shocks. Over a wide range of diffusion coefficients, the CRs generate thin, extended disks with a significantly more realistic (although still not flat) rotation curve. We find that the diffusion of CRs is key to this process, as they escape dense star forming clumps and drive outflows within the more diffuse ISM.

  13. Modeling for Stellar Feedback in Galaxy Formation Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Alejandro; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Hu, Chia-Yu; Choi, Ena

    2017-02-01

    Various heuristic approaches to model unresolved supernova (SN) feedback in galaxy formation simulations exist to reproduce the formation of spiral galaxies and the overall inefficient conversion of gas into stars. Some models, however, require resolution-dependent scalings. We present a subresolution model representing the three major phases of supernova blast wave evolution—free expansion, energy-conserving Sedov–Taylor, and momentum-conserving snowplow—with energy scalings adopted from high-resolution interstellar-medium simulations in both uniform and multiphase media. We allow for the effects of significantly enhanced SN remnant propagation in a multiphase medium with the cooling radius scaling with the hot volume fraction, {f}{hot}, as {(1-{f}{hot})}-4/5. We also include winds from young massive stars and AGB stars, Strömgren sphere gas heating by massive stars, and a mechanism that limits gas cooling that is driven by radiative recombination of dense H ii regions. We present initial tests for isolated Milky Way-like systems simulated with the Gadget-based code SPHgal with improved SPH prescription. Compared to pure thermal SN input, the model significantly suppresses star formation at early epochs, with star formation extended both in time and space in better accord with observations. Compared to models with pure thermal SN feedback, the age at which half the stellar mass is assembled increases by a factor of 2.4, and the mass-loading parameter and gas outflow rate from the galactic disk increase by a factor of 2. Simulation results are converged for a variation of two orders of magnitude in particle mass in the range (1.3–130) × 104 solar masses.

  14. Biases and systematics in the observational derivation of galaxy properties: comparing different techniques on synthetic observations of simulated galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Giovanni; Scannapieco, Cecilia; Walcher, C. Jakob

    2015-12-01

    We study the sources of biases and systematics in the derivation of galaxy properties from observational studies, focusing on stellar masses, star formation rates, gas and stellar metallicities, stellar ages, magnitudes and colours. We use hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy formation, for which the real quantities are known, and apply observational techniques to derive the observables. We also analyse biases that are relevant for a proper comparison between simulations and observations. For our study, we post-process the simulation outputs to calculate the galaxies' spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using stellar population synthesis models and also generate the fully consistent far-UV-submillimetre wavelength SEDs with the radiative transfer code SUNRISE. We compared the direct results of simulations with the observationally derived quantities obtained in various ways, and found that systematic differences in all studied galaxy properties appear, which are caused by: (1) purely observational biases, (2) the use of mass-weighted and luminosity-weighted quantities, with preferential sampling of more massive and luminous regions, (3) the different ways of constructing the template of models when a fit to the spectra is performed, and (4) variations due to different calibrations, most notably for gas metallicities and star formation rates. Our results show that large differences can appear depending on the technique used to derive galaxy properties. Understanding these differences is of primary importance both for simulators, to allow a better judgement of similarities and differences with observations, and for observers, to allow a proper interpretation of the data.

  15. On the mass assembly of low-mass galaxies in hydrodynamical simulations of structure formation

    CERN Document Server

    De Rossi, Maria E; Tissera, Patricia B; Gonzalez-Samaniego, Alejandro; Pedrosa, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations are studied in order to analyse generic trends for the stellar, baryonic and halo mass assembly of low-mass galaxies (M_* 2, the overall properties of simulated galaxies are not in large disagreement with those derived from observations.

  16. Non-equilibrium chemistry and cooling in simulations of galaxy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richings, Alexander James

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we used numerical simulations to explore the role that chemistry plays in galaxy formation. Simulations of galaxies often assume chemical equilibrium, where the chemical reactions between ions and molecules have reached a steady state. However, this assumption may not be valid if the

  17. The Distribution of Satellites Around Central Galaxies in a Cosmological Hydrodynamical Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xuce; Kang, Xi; Wang, Yang O; Dutton, Aaron A; Macciò, Andrea V

    2014-01-01

    Observations have shown that the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies is not random, but rather, it is aligned with the major axes of central galaxies. The strength of the alignment is dependent on the properties of both satellites and centrals. Theoretical studies using dissipationless N-body simulations are limited by their inability to directly predict the shape of central galaxies. Using hydrodynamical simulations including gas cooling, star formation and feedback, we carry out a study of galaxy alignment and its dependence on galaxy properties predicted directly from the simulations. We found that the observed alignment signal is well produced, as is the color dependence: red satellites and red centrals both show stronger alignments than their blue counterparts. The reason for the stronger alignment of red satellites is that most of them stay in the inner region of the dark matter halo, where the shape of central galaxy traces better the dark matter distribution. The dependence of alignment on the ...

  18. Evolution of dust extinction curves in galaxy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kuan-Chou; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nagamine, Kentaro; Aoyama, Shohei; Shimizu, Ikkoh

    2017-07-01

    To understand the evolution of extinction curve, we calculate the dust evolution in a galaxy using smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations incorporating stellar dust production, dust destruction in supernova shocks, grain growth by accretion and coagulation, and grain disruption by shattering. The dust species are separated into carbonaceous dust and silicate. The evolution of grain size distribution is considered by dividing grain population into large and small grains, which allows us to estimate extinction curves. We examine the dependence of extinction curves on the position, gas density and metallicity in the galaxy, and find that extinction curves are flat at t ≲ 0.3 Gyr because stellar dust production dominates the total dust abundance. The 2175 Å bump and far-ultraviolet (FUV) rise become prominent after dust growth by accretion. At t ≳ 3 Gyr, shattering works efficiently in the outer disc and low-density regions, so extinction curves show a very strong 2175 Å bump and steep FUV rise. The extinction curves at t ≳ 3 Gyr are consistent with the Milky Way extinction curve, which implies that we successfully included the necessary dust processes in the model. The outer disc component caused by stellar feedback has an extinction curve with a weaker 2175 Å bump and flatter FUV slope. The strong contribution of carbonaceous dust tends to underproduce the FUV rise in the Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve, which supports selective loss of small carbonaceous dust in the galaxy. The snapshot at young ages also explains the extinction curves in high-redshift quasars.

  19. Assessing Astrophysical Uncertainties in Direct Detection with Galaxy Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Jonathan D.; Buckley, Matthew R.; Brooks, Alyson M.; Governato, Fabio

    2016-11-01

    We study the local dark matter velocity distribution in simulated Milky Way-mass galaxies, generated at high resolution with both dark matter and baryons. We find that the dark matter in the solar neighborhood is influenced appreciably by the inclusion of baryons, increasing the speed of dark matter particles compared to dark matter-only simulations. The gravitational potential due to the presence of a baryonic disk increases the amount of high velocity dark matter, resulting in velocity distributions that are more similar to the Maxwellian Standard Halo Model than predicted from dark matter-only simulations. Furthermore, the velocity structures present in baryonic simulations possess a greater diversity than expected from dark matter-only simulations. We show that the impact on the direct detection experiments LUX, DAMA/Libra, and CoGeNT using our simulated velocity distributions, and explore how resolution and halo mass within the Milky Way’s estimated mass range impact the results. A Maxwellian fit to the velocity distribution tends to overpredict the amount of dark matter in the high velocity tail, even with baryons, and thus leads to overly optimistic direct detection bounds on models that are dependent on this region of phase space for an experimental signal. Our work further demonstrates that it is critical to transform simulated velocity distributions to the lab frame of reference, due to the fact that velocity structure in the solar neighborhood appears when baryons are included. There is more velocity structure present when baryons are included than in dark matter-only simulations. Even when baryons are included, the importance of the velocity structure is not as apparent in the Galactic frame of reference as in the Earth frame.

  20. Forming Early-Type Galaxies in LambdaCDM Simulations -I. Assembly histories

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Peter H; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

    2012-01-01

    We present a sample of nine very high resolution cosmological simulations starting from LambdaCDM initial conditions. Our simulations include primordial radiative cooling, photoionization, star formation, supernova II feedback, but exclude supernova driven winds and AGN feedback. We confirm our earlier results with higher resolution simulations and demonstrate that the simulated galaxies assemble in two phases, with the initial growth dominated by compact in situ star formation fueled by cold, low entropy gas streams, whereas the late growth is dominated by accretion of old stars formed in subunits outside the main galaxy. The two-phase formation mechanism naturally explains the observed downsizing, bimodality and size growth of the galaxy population. Very high resolution simulations show that gravitational feedback strongly suppresses late star formation in massive galaxies contributing to the observed galaxy color bimodality. However, additional heating sources probably in the form of AGN and SNI feedback a...

  1. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation--VII. The sizes of high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chuanwu; Poole, Gregory; Angel, Paul; Duffy, Alan; Geil, Paul; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    We investigate high-redshift galaxy sizes using a semi-analytic model constructed for the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulation project. Our fiducial model, including strong feedback from supernovae and photoionization background, accurately reproduces the evolution of the stellar mass function and luminosity function. Using this model, we study the size--luminosity relation of galaxies and find that the effective radius scales with UV luminosity as $R_\\mathrm{e}\\propto L^{0.25}$ at $z{\\sim}5$--$9$. We show that recently discovered very luminous galaxies at $z{\\sim}7$ (Bowler et al. 2016) and $z{\\sim}11$ (Oesch et al. 2016) lie on our predicted size--luminosity relations. We find that a significant fraction of galaxies at $z>6$ will not be resolved by JWST, but GMT will have the ability to resolve all galaxies in haloes above the atomic cooling limit. We show that our fiducial model successfully reproduces the redshift evolution of average galaxy sizes at $z>5$. We ...

  2. Metal Diffusion in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David; Martel, Hugo; Kawata, Daisuke

    2016-05-01

    We perform a series of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies to compare different metal mixing models. In particular, we examine the role of diffusion in the production of enriched outflows and in determining the metallicity distributions of gas and stars. We investigate different diffusion strengths by changing the pre-factor of the diffusion coefficient, by varying how the diffusion coefficient is calculated from the local velocity distribution, and by varying whether the speed of sound is included as a velocity term. Stronger diffusion produces a tighter [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] distribution in the gas and cuts off the gas metallicity distribution function at lower metallicities. Diffusion suppresses the formation of low-metallicity stars, even with weak diffusion, and also strips metals from enriched outflows. This produces a remarkably tight correlation between “metal mass-loading” (mean metal outflow rate divided by mean metal production rate) and the strength of diffusion, even when the diffusion coefficient is calculated in different ways. The effectiveness of outflows at removing metals from dwarf galaxies and the metal distribution of the gas is thus dependent on the strength of diffusion. By contrast, we show that the metallicities of stars are not strongly dependent on the strength of diffusion, provided that some diffusion is present.

  3. The AGORA High-Resolution Galaxy Simulations Comparison Project

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Agertz, Oscar; Bryan, Greg L; Ceverino, Daniel; Christensen, Charlotte; Conroy, Charlie; Dekel, Avishai; Gnedin, Nickolay Y; Goldbaum, Nathan J; Guedes, Javiera; Hahn, Oliver; Hobbs, Alexander; Hopkins, Philip F; Hummels, Cameron B; Iannuzzi, Francesca; Keres, Dusan; Klypin, Anatoly; Kravtsov, Andrey V; Krumholz, Mark R; Kuhlen, Michael; Leitner, Samuel N; Madau, Piero; Mayer, Lucio; Moody, Christopher E; Nagamine, Kentaro; Norman, Michael L; Oñorbe, Jose; O'Shea, Brian W; Pillepich, Annalisa; Primack, Joel R; Quinn, Thomas; Read, Justin I; Robertson, Brant E; Rocha, Miguel; Rudd, Douglas H; Shen, Sijing; Smith, Britton D; Szalay, Alexander S; Teyssier, Romain; Thompson, Robert; Todoroki, Keita; Turk, Matthew J; Wadsley, James W; Wise, John H; Zolotov, Adi

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the AGORA project, a comprehensive numerical study of well-resolved galaxies within the LCDM cosmology. Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with force resolutions of ~100 proper pc or better will be run with a variety of code platforms to follow the hierarchical growth, star formation history, morphological transformation, and the cycle of baryons in and out of 8 galaxies with halo masses M_vir ~= 1e10, 1e11, 1e12, and 1e13 Msun at z=0 and two different ("violent" and "quiescent") assembly histories. The numerical techniques and implementations used in this project include the smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes GADGET and GASOLINE, and the adaptive mesh refinement codes ART, ENZO, and RAMSES. The codes will share common initial conditions and common astrophysics packages including UV background, metal-dependent radiative cooling, metal and energy yields of supernovae, and stellar initial mass function. These are described in detail in the present paper. Subgrid star formation and feedback pr...

  4. Barred galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Algorry, David G; Abadi, Mario G; Sales, Laura V; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Frenk, Carlos S; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We examine the properties of barred disc galaxies in a LCDM cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE project. Our study follows the formation of 269 discs identified at z = 0 in the stellar mass range 10.6 < log Mstr /M < 11. These discs show a wide range of bar strengths, from unbarred discs to weak bars to strongly barred systems (= 20%). Bars in these systems develop after redshift = 1.3, on timescales that depend sen- sitively on the strength of the pattern. Strong bars develop relatively quickly (in a few Gyr, = 10 disc rotation periods) in systems that are disc dominated, gas poor, and have declining rotation curves. Weak bars develop more slowly in systems where the disc is less gravitation- ally important, and are still growing at z = 0. Unbarred galaxies are comparatively gas-rich discs whose rotation speeds do not exceed the maximum circular velocity of the halos they inhabit. Bar lengths compare favourably with observations, ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 times the radius containing 90%...

  5. Extremely Isolated Galaxies I. Sample and Simulation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Spector, O

    2016-01-01

    We have selected a sample of extremely isolated galaxies (EIGs) from the local Universe ($\\mbox{z} < 0.024$), using a simple isolation criterion: having no known neighbours closer than $300\\,{\\rm km\\,s}^{-1}$ ($3\\,h^{-1}\\,\\mbox{Mpc}$) in the three-dimensional redshift space $(\\alpha,\\delta,\\mbox{z})$. The sample is unique both in its level of isolation and in the fact that it utilizes HI redshifts from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey (ALFALFA). We analysed the EIG sample using cosmological simulations and found that it contains extremely isolated galaxies with normal mass haloes which have evolved gradually with little or no "major events" (major mergers, or major mass-loss events) in the last $3\\,\\mbox{Gyr}$. The fraction of EIGs which deviate from this definition (false positives) is 5%-10%. For the general population of dark matter haloes it was further found that the mass accretion (relative to the current halo mass) is affected by the halo environment mainly through strong interactions with its ne...

  6. Why stellar feedback promotes disc formation in simulated galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Übler, Hannah; Oser, Ludwig; Aumer, Michael; Sales, Laura V; White, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We study how feedback influences baryon infall onto galaxies using cosmological, zoom-in simulations of haloes with present mass $\\mathrm{M}_{\\mathrm{vir}}=6.9\\times10^{11} \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$ to $1.7\\times10^{12} \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$. Starting at $z=4$ from identical initial conditions, implementations of weak and strong stellar feedback produce bulge- and disc-dominated galaxies, respectively. Strong feedback favours disc formation: (1) because conversion of gas into stars is suppressed at early times, as required by abundance matching arguments, resulting in flat star formation histories and higher gas fractions; (2) because $50\\%$ of the stars form ${\\it in}$ ${\\it situ}$ from recycled disc gas with angular momentum only weakly related to that of the $z=0$ dark halo; (3) because late-time gas accretion is typically an order of magnitude stronger and has higher specific angular momentum, with recycled gas dominating over primordial infall; (4) because $25-30\\%$ of the total accreted gas is ejected entirely ...

  7. Baryon Census in Hydrodynamical Simulations of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Planelles, Susana; Dolag, Klaus; Ettori, Stefano; Fabjan, Dunja; Murante, Giuseppe; Tornatore, Luca

    2012-01-01

    We carry out an analysis of a set of cosmological SPH hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters and groups aimed at studying the total baryon budget in clusters, and how this budget is shared between the hot diffuse component and the stellar component. Using the TreePM+SPH GADGET-3 code, we carried out one set of non-radiative simulations, and two sets of simulations including radiative cooling, star formation and feedback from supernovae (SN), one of which also accounting for the effect of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). The analysis is carried out with the twofold aim of studying the implication of stellar and hot gas content on the relative role played by SN and AGN feedback, and to calibrate the cluster baryon fraction and its evolution as a cosmological tool. We find that both radiative simulation sets predict a trend of stellar mass fraction with cluster mass that tends to be weaker than the observed one. However this tension depends on the particular set of observational data considered...

  8. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy-formation simulation- VI. The origins and fate of the highest known redshift galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Simon J.; Liu, Chuanwu; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Duffy, Alan R.; Trenti, Michele; Oesch, Pascal A.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2016-12-01

    Using Hubble data, including new grism spectra, Oesch et al. recently identified GN-z11, an MUV = -21.1 galaxy at z = 11.1 (just 400 Myr after the big bang). With an estimated stellar mass of ˜109 M⊙, this galaxy is surprisingly bright and massive, raising questions as to how such an extreme object could form so early in the Universe. Using MERAXES, a semi-analytic galaxy-formation model developed as part of the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) programme, we investigate the potential formation mechanisms and eventual fate of GN-z11. The volume of our simulation is comparable to that of the discovery observations and possesses two analogue galaxies of similar luminosity to this remarkably bright system. Existing in the two most massive subhaloes at z = 11.1 (Mvir = 1.4 × 1011 M⊙ and 6.7 × 1010 M⊙), our model analogues show excellent agreement with all available observationally derived properties of GN-z11. Although they are relatively rare outliers from the full galaxy population at high-z, they are no longer the most massive or brightest systems by z = 5. Furthermore, we find that both objects possess relatively smooth, but extremely rapid mass growth histories with consistently high star formation rates and UV luminosities at z > 11, indicating that their brightness is not a transient, merger-driven feature. Our model results suggest that future wide-field surveys with the James Webb Space Telescope may be able to detect the progenitors of GN-z11 analogues out to z ˜ 13-14, pushing the frontiers of galaxy-formation observations to the early phases of cosmic reionization and providing a valuable glimpse of the first galaxies to reionize the Universe on large scales.

  9. Dark-ages reionization & galaxy formation simulation VI: The origins and fate of the highest known redshift galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Simon J.; Liu, Chuanwu; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Duffy, Alan R.; Trenti, Michele; Oesch, Pascal A.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2016-09-01

    Using Hubble data, including new grism spectra, Oesch et al. (2016) recently identified GN-z11, a MUV=-21.1 galaxy at z=11.1 (just 400 Myr after the Big Bang). With an estimated stellar mass of ˜109 M⊙, this galaxy is surprisingly bright and massive, raising questions as to how such an extreme object could form so early in the Universe. Using MERAXES, a semi-analytic galaxy formation model developed as part of the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) programme, we investigate the potential formation mechanisms and eventual fate of GN-z11. The volume of our simulation is comparable to that of the discovery observations and possesses two analogue galaxies of similar luminosity to this remarkably bright system. Existing in the two most massive subhaloes at z=11.1 (Mvir=1.4× 1011 M⊙ and 6.7× 1010 M⊙), our model analogues show excellent agreement with all available observationally derived properties of GN-z11. Although they are relatively rare outliers from the full galaxy population at high-z, they are no longer the most massive or brightest systems by z=5. Furthermore, we find that both objects possess relatively smooth, but extremely rapid mass growth histories with consistently high star formation rates and UV luminosities at z > 11, indicating that their brightness is not a transient, merger driven feature. Our model results suggest that future wide-field surveys with JWST may be able to detect the progenitors of GN-z11 analogues out to z ˜13-14, pushing the frontiers of galaxy-formation observations to the early phases of cosmic reionization and providing a valuable glimpse of the first galaxies to reionize the Universe on large scales.

  10. Host galaxies of long gamma-ray bursts in the Millennium Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Chisari, Nora E; Pellizza, Leonardo J

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the host galaxies of long Gamma-Ray bursts (LGRBs) using a galaxy catalogue constructed from the Millennium Simulation. We developed an LGRB synthetic model based on the hypothesis that LGRBs originate at the end of the life of massive stars following the collapsar model, optionally including a constraint on the metallicity of the progenitor. An observability pipeline was designed to reproduce observations from BATSE experiment and to include a probability estimation for a galaxy to be observationally identified as a host. This new tool allows us to build an observable host galaxy catalogue, required to reproduce the current stellar mass distribution of observed hosts. Systems in our observable catalogue are able to reproduce the observed properties of host galaxies, namely stellar masses, colours, luminosity, star formation activity and metallicities as a function of redshift. At z>2, our model predicts that the observable host galaxies would be very similar to the global galaxy ...

  11. Metal diffusion in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, David John; Kawata, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    We perform a series of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies to compare different metal mixing models. In particular, we examine the role of diffusion in the production of enriched outflows, and in determining the metallicity distributions of gas and stars. We investigate different diffusion strengths, by changing the pre-factor of the diffusion coefficient, by varying how the diffusion coefficient is calculated from the local velocity distribution, and by varying whether the speed of sound is included as a velocity term. Stronger diffusion produces a tighter [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] distribution in the gas, and cuts off the gas metallicity distribution function at lower metallicities. Diffusion suppresses the formation of low-metallicity stars, even with weak diffusion, and also strips metals from enriched outflows. This produces a remarkably tight correlation between "metal mass-loading" (mean metal outflow rate divided by mean metal production rate) and the strength of diffusion, even...

  12. GalSim: The modular galaxy image simulation toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, Barnaby; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Bernstein, Gary M; Bosch, James; Simet, Melanie; Meyers, Joshua E; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Nakajima, Reiko; Zuntz, Joe; Miyatake, Hironao; Dietrich, Joerg P; Armstrong, Robert; Melchior, Peter; Gill, Mandeep S S

    2014-01-01

    GALSIM is a collaborative, open-source project aimed at providing an image simulation tool of enduring benefit to the astronomical community. It provides a software library for generating images of astronomical objects such as stars and galaxies in a variety of ways, efficiently handling image transformations and operations such as convolution and rendering at high precision. We describe the GALSIM software and its capabilities, including necessary theoretical background. We demonstrate that the performance of GALSIM meets the stringent requirements of high precision image analysis applications such as weak gravitational lensing, for current datasets and for the Stage IV dark energy surveys of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, ESA's Euclid mission, and NASA's WFIRST-AFTA mission. The GALSIM project repository is public and includes the full code history, all open and closed issues, installation instructions, documentation, and wiki pages (including a Frequently Asked Questions section). The GALSIM reposito...

  13. SPHGal: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics with improved accuracy for Galaxy simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Walch, Stefanie; Moster, Benjamin P; Oser, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    We present the smoothed-particle hydrodynamics implementation SPHGal which incorporates several recent developments into the GADGET code. This includes a pressure-entropy formulation of SPH with a Wendland kernel, a higher order estimate of velocity gradients, a modified artificial viscosity switch with a strong limiter, and artificial conduction of thermal energy. We conduct a series of idealized hydrodynamic tests and show that while the pressure-entropy formulation is ideal for resolving fluid mixing at contact discontinuities, it performs conspicuously worse when strong shocks are involved due to the large entropy discontinuities. Including artificial conduction at shocks greatly improves the results. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can be resolved properly and dense clouds in the blob test dissolve qualitatively in agreement with other improved SPH implementations. We further perform simulations of an isolated Milky Way like disk galaxy and find a feedback-induced instability developing if too much arti...

  14. A physical model for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Vogelsberger, Mark; Sijacki, Debora; Torrey, Paul; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; ),

    2013-01-01

    We present a new comprehensive model of the physics of galaxy formation designed for large-scale hydrodynamical simulations of structure formation using the moving mesh code AREPO. Our model includes primordial and metal line cooling with self-shielding corrections, stellar evolution and feedback processes, gas recycling, chemical enrichment, a novel subgrid model for the metal loading of outflows, black hole (BH) seeding, BH growth and merging procedures, quasar- and radio-mode feedback, and a prescription for radiative electro-magnetic (EM) feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). Stellar feedback is realised through kinetic outflows. The scaling of the mass loading of galactic winds can be set to be either energy or momentum driven, or a mixture of both. The metal mass loading of outflows can be adjusted independently of the wind mass loading. This is required to simultaneously reproduce the stellar mass content of low mass haloes and their gas oxygen abundances. Radiative EM AGN feedback is implemented...

  15. Simulations of cosmic ray feedback by AGN in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sijacki, D; Springel, V; Ensslin, T A

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a numerical model for AGN feedback where for the first time a relativistic particle population in AGN-inflated bubbles is followed within a full cosmological context. In our high-resolution simulations of galaxy cluster formation, we assume that BH accretion is accompanied by energy feedback that occurs in two different modes, depending on the accretion rate itself. Unlike in previous work, we inject a non-thermal particle population of relativistic protons into the AGN bubbles, instead of adopting a purely thermal heating. We then follow the subsequent evolution of the cosmic ray (CR) plasma inside the bubbles, considering both its hydrodynamical interactions and dissipation processes relevant for the CR population. Due to the different buoyancy of relativistic plasma and the comparatively long CR dissipation timescale we find substantial changes in the evolution of clusters as a result of CR feedback. In particular, the non-thermal population can provide significant pressure support in centra...

  16. Simulating cosmic metal enrichment by the first galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pallottini, A; Gallerani, S; Salvadori, S; D'Odorico, V

    2014-01-01

    We study cosmic metal enrichment via AMR hydrodynamical simulations in a (10 Mpc/h)$^3$ volume following the Pop III-Pop II transition and for different Pop III IMFs. We have analyzed the joint evolution of metal enrichment on galactic and intergalactic scales at z=6 and z=4. Galaxies account for $10^{4.5}$K) state. Due to these physical conditions, CIV absorption line experiments can probe only ~2% of the total carbon present in the IGM/CGM; however, metal absorption line spectra are very effective tools to study reionization. Finally, the Pop III star formation history is almost insensitive to the chosen Pop III IMF. Pop III stars are preferentially formed in truly pristine (Z=0) gas pockets, well outside polluted regions created by previous star formation episodes.

  17. The inner structure of early-type galaxies in the Illustris simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Dandan; Sluse, Dominique; Schneider, Peter; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Nelson, Dylan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Early-type galaxies provide unique tests for the predictions of the cold dark matter cosmology and the baryonic physics assumptions entering models for galaxy formation. In this work, we use the Illustris simulation to study correlations of three main properties of early-type galaxies, namely, the stellar orbital anisotropies, the central dark matter fractions and the central radial density slopes, as well as their redshift evolution since $z=1.0$. We find that lower-mass galaxies or galaxies at higher redshift tend to be bluer in rest-frame colour, have higher central gas fractions, and feature more tangentially anisotropic orbits and steeper central density slopes than their higher-mass or lower-redshift counterparts, respectively. The projected central dark matter fraction within the effective radius shows no significant mass dependence but positively correlates with galaxy effective radii due to the aperture effect. The central density slopes obtained in the simulation by combining strong lensing measurem...

  18. GRASIL-3D: an Implemention of Dust Effects in the SEDs of Simulated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Domínguez-Tenreiro, R; Granato, G L; Schurer, A; Alpresa, P; Silva, L; Brook, C B; Serna, A

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new model for the spectral energy distribution of galaxies, GRASIL-3D, which includes a careful modelling of the dust component of the interstellar medium. GRASIL-3D is an entirely new model based on the formalism of an existing and widely applied spectrophotometric model, GRASIL, but specifically designed to be interfaced with galaxies with any arbitrarily given geometry, such as galaxies calculated by theoretical hydrodynamical galaxy formation codes. GRASIL-3D is designed to separately treat radiative transfer in molecular clouds and in the diffuse cirrus component. The code has a general applicability to the outputs of simulated galaxies, either from Lagrangian or Eulerian hydrodynamic codes. As an application, the new model has been interfaced to the P-DEVA and GASOLINE smoothed-particle hydrodynamic codes, and has been used to calculate the spectral energy distribution for a variety of simulated galaxies from UV to sub-millimeter wavelengths, whose comparison with observational data gives...

  19. The alignment of satellite galaxies and cosmic filaments: observations and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Tempel, E; Kipper, R; Libeskind, N I

    2015-01-01

    The accretion of satellites onto central galaxies along vast cosmic filaments is an apparent outcome of the anisotropic collapse of structure in our Universe. Numerical work (based on gravitational dynamics of N-body simulations) indicates that satellites are beamed towards hosts along preferred directions imprinted by the velocity shear field. Here we use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to observationally test this claim. We construct 3D filaments and sheets and examine the relative position of satellites galaxies. A statistically significant alignment between satellite galaxy position and filament axis is confirmed. We find a similar (but stronger) signal by examining satellites and filaments similarly identified in the Millennium simulation, semi-analytical galaxy catalogue. We also examine the dependence of the alignment strength on galaxy properties such as colour, magnitude and (relative) satellite magnitude, finding that the alignment is strongest for the reddest and brightest central and satellite galaxi...

  20. Eat More, Weigh Less?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Eat More, Weigh ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español ( ...

  1. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Galaxy Clusters: Scaling Relations and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Truong, N; Mazzotta, P; Planelles, S; Biffi, V; Fabjan, D; Beck, A M; Borgani, S; Dolag, K; Granato, G L; Murante, G; Ragone-Figueroa, C; Steinborn, L K

    2016-01-01

    We analyze hydrodynamical and cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters to study scaling relations between the cluster total masses and observable quantities such as gas luminosity, gas mass, temperature, and YX , i.e., the product of the last two properties. Our simulations are performed with the Smoothed-Particle-Hydrodynamic GADGET-3 code and include different physical processes. The twofold aim of our study is to compare our simulated scaling relations with observations at low (z~0) and intermediate (z~0.5) redshifts and to explore their evolution over the redshift range z=0-2. The result of the comparative study shows a good agreement between our numerical models and real data. We find that AGN feedback significantly affects low-mass haloes at the highest redshifts resulting in a reduction of the slope of the mass-gas mass relation (~13%) and the mass-YX relation (~10%) at z=2 in comparison to z=0. The drop of the slope of the mass-temperature relation at z=2 (~14%) is, instead, caused by early mergers...

  2. Implementing Molecular Hydrogen in Hydrodynamic Simulations of Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Charlotte; Governato, Fabio; Stilp, Adrienne; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the observed connection between molecular hydrogen (H2) and star formation, we present a method for tracking the non-equilibrium abundance and cooling processes of H2 and H2-based star formation in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic simulations. The local abundances of H2 are calculated by integrating over the hydrogen chemical network. This calculation includes the gas-phase and dust grain formation of H2, shielding of HI and H2, and photodissociation of H2 by Lyman-Werner radiation from nearby stellar populations. Because this model does not assume equilibrium abundances, it is particularly well suited for simulations that model low-metallicity environments, such as dwarf galaxies and the early Universe. We further introduce an explicit link between star formation and local H2 abundance. This link limits star formation to "star-forming regions," represented by areas with abundant H2. With this implementation, we determine the effect of H2 on star formation in a cosmological simulation of a dwarf ga...

  3. nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations II: radiative models

    CERN Document Server

    Sembolini, Federico; Pearce, Frazer R; Power, Chris; Knebe, Alexander; Kay, Scott T; Cui, Weiguang; Yepes, Gustavo; Beck, Alexander M; Borgani, Stefano; Cunnama, Daniel; Davé, Romeel; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Katz, Neal; McCarthy, Ian G; Murante, Giuseppe; Newton, Richard D A; Perret, Valentin; Saro, Alexandro; Schaye, Joop; Teyssier, Romain

    2015-01-01

    We have simulated the formation of a massive galaxy cluster (M$_{200}^{\\rm crit}$ = 1.1$\\times$10$^{15}h^{-1}M_{\\odot}$) in a $\\Lambda$CDM universe using 10 different codes (RAMSES, 2 incarnations of AREPO and 7 of GADGET), modeling hydrodynamics with full radiative subgrid physics. These codes include Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), spanning traditional and advanced SPH schemes, adaptive mesh and moving mesh codes. Our goal is to study the consistency between simulated clusters modeled with different radiative physical implementations - such as cooling, star formation and AGN feedback. We compare images of the cluster at $z=0$, global properties such as mass, and radial profiles of various dynamical and thermodynamical quantities. We find that, with respect to non-radiative simulations, dark matter is more centrally concentrated, the extent not simply depending on the presence/absence of AGN feedback. The scatter in global quantities is substantially higher than for non-radiative runs. Intriguingly, a...

  4. A large difference in the progenitor masses of active and passive galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Clauwens, Bart; Schaye, Joop

    2016-01-01

    Cumulative number density matching of galaxies is a method to observationally connect descendent galaxies to their typical main progenitors at higher redshifts and thereby to assess the evolution of galaxy properties. The accuracy of this method is limited due to galaxy merging and scatter in the stellar mass growth history of individual galaxies. Behroozi et al. (2013) have introduced a refinement of the method, based on abundance matching of observed galaxies to the Bolshoi dark-matter-only simulation. The EAGLE cosmological hydro-simulation is well suited to test this method, because it reproduces the observed evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function and has a representative sample of passive/active galaxies. We find agreement with the Behroozi et al. (2013) method for the complete sample of main progenitors of z = 0 galaxies, but we also find a strong dependence on the current star formation rate. Passive galaxies with a stellar mass up to 10^10.75 Msun have a completely different median mass history...

  5. Weigh - in - motion (WIM)

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović Neven B.; Subotić Marko M.

    2014-01-01

    The biggest wealth of every country lies in its transportation infrastructure so the protection of negative impacts on infrastructure must be provided. The progress of sensor technology proposes today several types of weigh-in-motion systems, which have been tested for their efficiency, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Technologies of piezoelectric sensors, bending plates and load cells are used for a number of applications comprising weigh enforcement, traffic data collection, bridge and tol...

  6. It is not easy being green: the evolution of galaxy colour in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayford, James W.; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-08-01

    We examine the evolution of intrinsic u-r colours of galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which has been shown to reproduce the observed redshift z = 0.1 colour-magnitude distribution well, with a focus on z < 2. The median u-r of star-forming (`blue cloud') galaxies reddens by 1 mag from z = 2 to 0 at fixed stellar mass, as their specific star formation rates decrease with time. A red sequence starts to build-up around z = 1, due to the quenching of low-mass satellite galaxies at the faint end, and due to the quenching of more massive central galaxies by their active galactic nuclei (AGN) at the bright end. This leaves a dearth of intermediate-mass red sequence galaxies at z = 1, which is mostly filled in by z = 0. We quantify the time-scales of colour transition finding that most galaxies spend less than 2 Gyr in the `green valley'. We find the time-scale of transition to be independent of quenching mechanism, i.e. whether a galaxy is a satellite or hosting an AGN. On examining the trajectories of galaxies in a colour-stellar mass diagram, we identify three characteristic tracks that galaxies follow (quiescently star-forming, quenching and rejuvenating galaxies) and quantify the fraction of galaxies that follow each track.

  7. Characterizing Clumpy Structure of z 2 Galaxies in HST Observations from CANDELS and Hydrodynamical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozena, Mark; Faber, S. M.; Primack, J. R.; Dekel, A.; Ceverino, D.; Koo, D. C.; Fumagalli, M.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D. J.; Lai, K.; Kocevski, D. D.; McGrath, E. J.; Trump, J. R.; CANDELS

    2011-01-01

    The first data from the HST Multi-Cycle Treasury CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near Infra-red Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey - candels.ucolick.org) are producing images of thousands of z 2 galaxies in observed optical (ACS) and NIR (WFC3) bands. We have developed a new visual classification scheme for z 2 galaxies which is motivated by the significant population of galaxies that are dominated by giant clumps in the HST images, and by the theoretical predictions for clumpy galaxies based on analytic studies and zoom-in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. This classification method was developed using about a thousand z 2 galaxies in the GOODS-S Early Release Survey (ERS) region imaged with ACS and WFC3. The ERS data have been observed in a way similar to the CANDELS observations. I will also discuss the latest cosmologically motivated ART hydrodynamical simulations by Ceverino, Dekel, and Primack. We render these simulated z 2 galaxies to mimic our HST ACS and WFC3 images and visually classify their stellar structure to compare them with the galaxies observed in ERS. We have compared the effects of dust extinction due to the complex clumpy distribution of gas within these simulations. Comparing the visual classification of the HST observations with the simulations provides new clues to galaxy assembly.

  8. Physical properties of galaxies: toward a consistent comparison between hydrodynamical simulations and SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Guidi, Giovanni; Walcher, C Jakob; Gallazzi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of applying observational techniques to derive the properties of simulated galaxies, with the aim of making an unbiased comparison between observations and simulations. For our study, we used fifteen galaxies simulated in a cosmological context using three different feedback and chemical enrichment models, and compared their z=0 properties with data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We show that the physical properties obtained directly from the simulations without post-processing can be very different to those obtained mimicking observational techniques. In order to provide simulators a way to reliably compare their galaxies with SDSS data, for each physical property that we studied - colours, magnitudes, gas and stellar metallicities, mean stellar ages and star formation rates - we give scaling relations that can be easily applied to the values extracted from the simulations. These scalings have in general a high correlation, except for the galaxy mean stellar ages and gas oxyge...

  9. Physical properties of galaxies: towards a consistent comparison between hydrodynamical simulations and SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Giovanni; Scannapieco, Cecilia; Walcher, Jakob; Gallazzi, Anna

    2016-10-01

    We study the effects of applying observational techniques to derive the properties of simulated galaxies, with the aim of making an unbiased comparison between observations and simulations. For our study, we used 15 galaxies simulated in a cosmological context using three different feedback and chemical enrichment models, and compared their z = 0 properties with data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We show that the physical properties obtained directly from the simulations without post-processing can be very different from those obtained mimicking observational techniques. In order to provide simulators a way to reliably compare their galaxies with SDSS data, for each physical property that we studied - colours, magnitudes, gas and stellar metallicities, mean stellar ages and star formation rates - we give scaling relations that can be easily applied to the values extracted from the simulations; these scalings have in general a high correlation, except for the gas oxygen metallicities. Our simulated galaxies are photometrically similar to galaxies in the blue sequence/green valley, but in general they appear older, passive and with lower metal content compared to most of the spirals in SDSS. As a careful assessment of the agreement/disagreement with observations is the primary test of the baryonic physics implemented in hydrodynamical codes, our study shows that considering the observational biases in the derivation of the galaxies' properties is of fundamental importance to decide on the failure/success of a galaxy formation model.

  10. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation - III. Modelling galaxy formation and the epoch of reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Simon J.; Geil, Paul M.; Poole, Gregory B.; Angel, Paul W.; Duffy, Alan R.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2016-10-01

    We introduce MERAXES, a new, purpose-built semi-analytic galaxy formation model designed for studying galaxy growth during reionization. MERAXES is the first model of its type to include a temporally and spatially coupled treatment of reionization and is built upon a custom (100 Mpc)3 N-body simulation with high temporal and mass resolution, allowing us to resolve the galaxy and star formation physics relevant to early galaxy formation. Our fiducial model with supernova feedback reproduces the observed optical depth to electron scattering and evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function between z = 5 and 7, predicting that a broad range of halo masses contribute to reionization. Using a constant escape fraction and global recombination rate, our model is unable to simultaneously match the observed ionizing emissivity at z ≲ 6. However, the use of an evolving escape fraction of 0.05-0.1 at z ˜ 6, increasing towards higher redshift, is able to satisfy these three constraints. We also demonstrate that photoionization suppression of low-mass galaxy formation during reionization has only a small effect on the ionization history of the intergalactic medium. This lack of `self-regulation' arises due to the already efficient quenching of star formation by supernova feedback. It is only in models with gas supply-limited star formation that reionization feedback is effective at regulating galaxy growth. We similarly find that reionization has only a small effect on the stellar mass function, with no observationally detectable imprint at M* > 107.5 M⊙. However, patchy reionization has significant effects on individual galaxy masses, with variations of factors of 2-3 at z = 5 that correlate with environment.

  11. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation - IV. UV luminosity functions of high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanwu; Mutch, Simon J.; Angel, P. W.; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Poole, Gregory B.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present calculations of the UV luminosity function (LF) from the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulations project, which combines N-body, semi-analytic and seminumerical modelling designed to study galaxy formation during the Epoch of Reionization. Using galaxy formation physics including supernova feedback, the model naturally reproduces the UV LFs for high-redshift star-forming galaxies from z ˜ 5 through to z ˜ 10. We investigate the luminosity-star formation rate (SFR) relation, finding that variable SFR histories of galaxies result in a scatter around the median relation of 0.1-0.3 dex depending on UV luminosity. We find close agreement between the model and observationally derived SFR functions. We use our calculated luminosities to investigate the LF below current detection limits, and the ionizing photon budget for reionization. We predict that the slope of the UV LF remains steep below current detection limits and becomes flat at MUV ≳ -14. We find that 48 (17) per cent of the total UV flux at z ˜ 6 (10) has been detected above an observational limit of MUV ˜ -17, and that galaxies fainter than MUV ˜ -17 are the main source of ionizing photons for reionization. We investigate the luminosity-stellar mass relation, and find a correlation for galaxies with MUV luminosity-halo mass relation to be M_vir ∝ 10^{-0.35M_UV}, finding that galaxies with MUV = -20 reside in host dark matter haloes of 1011.0±0.1 M⊙ at z ˜ 6, and that this mass decreases towards high redshift.

  12. Dark-ages reionization & galaxy formation simulation VI: The origins and fate of the highest known redshift galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Mutch, Simon J; Poole, Gregory B; Geil, Paul M; Duffy, Alan R; Trenti, Michele; Oesch, Pascal A; Illingworth, Garth D; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J Stuart B

    2016-01-01

    Using Hubble data, including new grism spectra, Oesch et al. (2016) recently identified GN-z11, a $M_\\textrm{UV}$=-21.1 galaxy at $z$=11.1 (just 400 Myr after the Big Bang). With an estimated stellar mass of $\\sim$10$^9$M$_\\odot$, this galaxy is surprisingly bright and massive, raising questions as to how such an extreme object could form so early in the Universe. Using Meraxes, a semi-analytic galaxy formation model developed as part of the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) programme, we investigate the potential formation mechanisms and eventual fate of GN-z11. The volume of our simulation is comparable to that of the discovery observations and possesses two analogue galaxies of similar luminosity to this remarkably bright system. Existing in the two most massive subhaloes at $z$=11.1 ($M_\\textrm{vir}$=1.4$\\times 10^{11}$M$_\\odot$ and 6.7$\\times 10^{10}$M$_\\odot$), our model analogues show excellent agreement with all available observationally deriv...

  13. Synthetic Observations of the HI Line in SPH-Simulated Spiral Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, Kevin A.; Acreman, David; Dobbs, Clare; Brunt, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Using the radiative transfer code Torus, we produce spectral-line cubes of the predicted HI profile from global SPH simulations of spiral galaxies. Torus grids the SPH galaxy using Adaptive Mesh Refinement, then applies a ray-tracing method to infer the HI profile along the line(s) of sight. The gri

  14. nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations - II. Radiative models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembolini, Federico; Elahi, Pascal Jahan; Pearce, Frazer R.; Power, Chris; Knebe, Alexander; Kay, Scott T.; Cui, Weiguang; Yepes, Gustavo; Beck, Alexander M.; Borgani, Stefano; Cunnama, Daniel; Davé, Romeel; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Katz, Neal; McCarthy, Ian G.; Murante, Giuseppe; Newton, Richard D. A.; Perret, Valentin; Puchwein, Ewald; Saro, Alexandro; Schaye, Joop; Teyssier, Romain

    2016-07-01

    We have simulated the formation of a massive galaxy cluster (M_{200}^crit = 1.1 × 1015 h-1 M⊙) in a Λ cold dark matter universe using 10 different codes (RAMSES, 2 incarnations of AREPO and 7 of GADGET), modelling hydrodynamics with full radiative subgrid physics. These codes include smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH), spanning traditional and advanced SPH schemes, adaptive mesh and moving mesh codes. Our goal is to study the consistency between simulated clusters modelled with different radiative physical implementations - such as cooling, star formation and thermal active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. We compare images of the cluster at z = 0, global properties such as mass, and radial profiles of various dynamical and thermodynamical quantities. We find that, with respect to non-radiative simulations, dark matter is more centrally concentrated, the extent not simply depending on the presence/absence of AGN feedback. The scatter in global quantities is substantially higher than for non-radiative runs. Intriguingly, adding radiative physics seems to have washed away the marked code-based differences present in the entropy profile seen for non-radiative simulations in Sembolini et al.: radiative physics + classic SPH can produce entropy cores, at least in the case of non cool-core clusters. Furthermore, the inclusion/absence of AGN feedback is not the dividing line -as in the case of describing the stellar content - for whether a code produces an unrealistic temperature inversion and a falling central entropy profile. However, AGN feedback does strongly affect the overall stellar distribution, limiting the effect of overcooling and reducing sensibly the stellar fraction.

  15. The first galaxies: simulating their feedback-regulated assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Myoungwon; Pawlik, Andreas H; Milosavljevic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the formation of a galaxy reaching a virial mass of ~10^8 at z~10 by carrying out a zoomed radiation-hydrodynamical cosmological simulation. This simulation traces Population~III (Pop~III) star formation, characterized by a modestly top-heavy initial mass function (IMF), and considers stellar feedback such as photoionization heating from Pop~III and Population~II (Pop~II) stars, mechanical and chemical feedback from supernovae (SNe), and X-ray feedback from accreting black holes (BHs) and high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). We self-consistently impose a transition in star formation mode from top-heavy Pop~III to low-mass Pop~II at the critical metallicity Zcrit=10^{-3.5} solar metallicity. We find that the star formation rate in the computational box is dominated by Pop~III until z~13, and by Pop~II thereafter. The intergalactic medium (IGM) is metal-enriched to an average of Zavg=10^{-4} solar metallicity at z~10, mainly by pair-instability SNe (PISNe), while 70% of the produced Pop~III stars di...

  16. Chemical evolution of giant molecular clouds in simulations of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Richings, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) identified in hydrodynamic simulations of isolated, low-mass (M* ~ 10^9 M_sol) disc galaxies, with a particular focus on the evolution of molecular abundances and the implications for CO emission and the X_CO conversion factor in individual clouds. We define clouds either as regions above a density threshold n_H,min = 10 cm^-3, or using an observationally motivated velocity-integrated CO line intensity threshold of 0.25 K km s^-1. Our simulations include a non-equilibrium treatment for the chemistry of 157 species, including 20 molecules. We use a suite of runs to carefully investigate the effects of numerical resolution and pressure floors (i.e. Jeans mass limiters). We find cloud lifetimes up to ~40 Myr, with a median of 13 Myr, in agreement with observations. At ten per cent solar metallicity, young clouds (<10-15 Myr) tend to be underabundant in H2 and CO compared to chemical equilibrium, by factors of ~3 and 1-2 orders of magnitude, respectively....

  17. The baryon fraction in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ettori, S; Borgani, S; Murante, G

    2006-01-01

    We study the baryon mass fraction in a set of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters performed using the Tree+SPH code GADGET-2. We investigate the dependence of the baryon fraction upon the radiative cooling, star formation, feedback through galactic winds, conduction and redshift. Both the cold stellar component and the hot X-ray emitting gas have narrow distributions that, at large cluster-centric distances r>R500, are nearly independent of the physics included in the simulations. Only the non-radiative runs reproduce the gas fraction inferred from observations of the inner regions (r ~ R2500) of massive clusters. When cooling is turned on, the excess star formation is mitigated by the action of galactic winds, but yet not by the amount required by observational data. The baryon fraction within a fixed overdensity increases slightly with redshift, independent of the physical processes involved in the accumulation of baryons in the cluster potential well. In runs with cooling and feedback, the increa...

  18. Simulations of ram-pressure stripping in galaxy-cluster interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhauser, Dominik; Springel, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Observationally, the quenching of star-forming galaxies appears to depend both on their mass and environment. The exact cause of the environmental dependence is still poorly understood, yet semi-analytic models (SAMs) of galaxy formation need to parameterise it to reproduce observations of galaxy properties. In this work, we use hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the quenching of disk galaxies through ram-pressure stripping (RPS) as they fall into galaxy clusters with the goal of characterising the importance of this effect for the reddening of disk galaxies. Our set-up employs a live model of a galaxy cluster that interacts with infalling disk galaxies on different orbits. We use the moving-mesh code AREPO, augmented with a special refinement strategy to yield high resolution around the galaxy on its way through the cluster in a computationally efficient way. Our direct simulations differ substantially from stripping models employed in current SAMs, which in most cases overpredict the mass loss from R...

  19. Galaxy pairs in cosmological simulations: effects of interactions on colours and chemical abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, M J; Lambas, D G; Scannapieco, C; Tissera, P B; Lambas, Diego G.; Rossi, Maria E. De; Scannapieco, Cecilia; Tissera, Patricia B.

    2006-01-01

    We perform an statistical analysis of galaxies in pairs in a Lambda-CDM scenario by using the chemical GADGET-2 of Scannapieco et al. (2005) in order to study the effects of galaxy interactions on colours and metallicities. We find that galaxy-galaxy interactions can produce a bimodal colour distribution with galaxies with significant recent star formation activity contributing mainly to blue colours. In the simulations, the colours and the fractions of recently formed stars of galaxies in pairs depend on environment more strongly than those of galaxies without a close companion, suggesting that interactions play an important role in galaxy evolution. If the metallicity of the stellar populations is used as the chemical indicator, we find that the simulated galaxies determine luminosity-metallicity and stellar mass-metallicity relations which do not depend on the presence of a close companion. However, in the case of the luminosity-metallicity relation, at a given level of enrichment, we detect a systematic d...

  20. Size evolution of normal and compact galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Furlong, M; Crain, R A; Schaye, J; Theuns, T; Trayford, J W; Qu, Y; Schaller, M; Berthet, M; Helly, J C

    2015-01-01

    We present the evolution of galaxy sizes, from redshift 2 to 0, for actively star forming and passive galaxies in the cosmological hydrodynamical 1003 cMpc3 simulation of the EAGLE project. We find that the sizes increase with stellar mass , but that the relation weakens with increasing redshift. Separating galaxies by their star formation activity, we find that passive galaxies are typically smaller than active galaxies at fixed stellar mass. These trends are consistent with those found in observations and the level of agreement between the predicted and observed size - mass relation is of order 0.1 dex for z < 1 and 0.2-0.3 dex from redshift 1 to 2. We use the simulation to compare the evolution of individual galaxies to that of the population as a whole. While the evolution of the size-stellar mass relation for active galaxies provides a good proxy for the evolution of individual galaxies, the evolution of individual passive galaxies is not well represented by the observed size - mass relation due to th...

  1. The HORIZON-AGN simulation: morphological diversity of galaxies promoted by AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Yohan; Peirani, Sébastien; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Welker, Charlotte; Volonteri, Marta

    2016-12-01

    The interplay between cosmic gas accretion on to galaxies and galaxy mergers drives the observed morphological diversity of galaxies. By comparing the state-of-the-art hydrodynamical cosmological simulations HORIZON-AGN and HORIZON-NOAGN, we unambiguously identify the critical role of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in setting up the correct galaxy morphology for the massive end of the population. With AGN feedback, typical kinematic and morpho-metric properties of galaxy populations as well as the galaxy-halo mass relation are in much better agreement with observations. Only AGN feedback allows massive galaxies at the centre of groups and clusters to become ellipticals, while without AGN feedback those galaxies reform discs. It is the merger-enhanced AGN activity that is able to freeze the morphological type of the post-merger remnant by durably quenching its quiescent star formation. Hence morphology is shown to be driven not only by mass but also by the nature of cosmic accretion: at constant galaxy mass, ellipticals are galaxies that are mainly assembled through mergers, while discs are preferentially built from the in situ star formation fed by smooth cosmic gas infall.

  2. The Horizon-AGN simulation: morphological diversity of galaxies promoted by AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Yohan; Peirani, Sébastien; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Welker, Charlotte; Volonteri, Marta

    2016-09-01

    The interplay between cosmic gas accretion onto galaxies and galaxy mergers drives the observed morphological diversity of galaxies. By comparing the state-of-the-art hydrodynamical cosmological simulations Horizon-AGN and Horizon-noAGN, we unambiguously identify the critical role of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in setting up the correct galaxy morphology for the massive end of the population. With AGN feedback, typical kinematic and morpho-metric properties of galaxy populations as well as the galaxy-halo mass relation are in much better agreement with observations. Only AGN feedback allows massive galaxies at the center of groups and clusters to become ellipticals, while without AGN feedback those galaxies reform discs. It is the merger-enhanced AGN activity that is able to freeze the morphological type of the post-merger remnant by durably quenching its quiescent star formation. Hence morphology is shown not to be purely driven by mass but also by the nature of cosmic accretion: at constant galaxy mass, ellipticals are galaxies that are mainly assembled through mergers, while discs are preferentially built from the in situ star formation fed by smooth cosmic gas infall.

  3. Structures in galaxies: nature versus nurture. Input from theory and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Athanassoula, E

    2009-01-01

    Galaxies, in particular disc galaxies, contain a number of structures and substructures with well defined morphological, photometric and kinematic properties. Considerable theoretical effort has been put into explaining their formation and evolution, both analytically and with numerical simulations. In some theories, structures form during the natural evolution of the galaxy, i.e. they are a result of nature. For others, it is the interaction with other galaxies, or with the intergalactic medium -- i.e. nurture -- that accounts for a structure. Either way, the existence and properties of these structures reveal important information on the underlying potential of the galaxy, i.e. on the amount and distribution of matter -- including the dark matter -- in it, and on the evolutionary history of the galaxy. Here, I will briefly review the various formation scenarios and the respective role of nature and nurture in the formation, evolution and properties of the main structures and substructures.

  4. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution - from X-ray to Millimeter Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    2015-01-01

    What main mechanisms set the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies? This PhD thesis is a quest into the influences of gas and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) on the SFR, with particular focus on massive galaxies at z~2. First, a new code if presented; SImulator of GAlaxy Millimeter/submillimeter Emission (S\\'IGAME) which can predict the atomic/molecular line emission from galaxies. By post-processing the outputs of cosmological simulations of galaxy formation with sub-grid physics recipes, S\\'IGAME divides the Interstellar Medium (ISM) into different gas phases and derives density and temperature structure, with locally resolved radiation fields. This method is used to predict the strengths of CO rotational transitions as well as the [CII] emission line in normal star-forming galaxies at z~2. A CO ladder close to that of our own Galaxy is found, but with CO-H2 conversion factors about 3 times smaller. For a set of 7 simulated galaxies at z~2, the relation between [CII] luminosity and SFR displays a slope signif...

  5. A Universe of ultradiffuse galaxies: theoretical predictions from ΛCDM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yu; Guo, Qi; Gao, Liang; Liao, Shihong; Xie, Lizhi; Puzia, Thomas H.; Sun, Shuangpeng; Pan, Jun

    2017-10-01

    A particular population of galaxies have drawn much interest recently, which are as faint as typical dwarf galaxies but have the sizes as large as L* galaxies, the so called ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs). The lack of tidal features of UDGs in dense environments suggests that their host haloes are perhaps as massive as that of the Milky Way. On the other hand, galaxy formation efficiency should be much higher in the haloes of such masses. Here, we use the model galaxy catalogue generated by populating two large simulations: the Millennium-II cosmological simulation and Phoenix simulations of nine big clusters with the semi-analytic galaxy formation model. This model reproduces remarkably well the observed properties of UDGs in the nearby clusters, including the abundance, profile, colour and morphology, etc. We search for UDG candidates using the public data and find two UDG candidates in our Local Group and 23 in our Local Volume, in excellent agreement with the model predictions. We demonstrate that UDGs are genuine dwarf galaxies, formed in the haloes of ˜1010 M⊙. It is the combination of the late formation time and high spins of the host haloes that results in the spatially extended feature of this particular population. The lack of tidal disruption features of UDGs in clusters can also be explained by their late infall-time.

  6. Intrinsic alignments of galaxies in the EAGLE and cosmo-OWLS simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Velliscig, Marco; Schaye, Joop; Hoekstra, Henk; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; van Daalen, Marcel P; Furlong, Michelle; McCarthy, I G; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We report results for the alignments of galaxies in the EAGLE and cosmo-OWLS simulations as a function of galaxy separation and halo mass. The combination of these hydro-cosmological simulations enables us to span four orders of magnitude in halo mass ($10.7galaxies with respect to either the directions to, or the orientations of, surrounding galaxies. We find that the strength of the alignment is a strongly decreasing function of the distance between galaxies. The orientation-direction alignment can remain significant up to ~100 Mpc, for galaxies hosted by the most massive haloes in our simulations. Galaxies hosted by more massive subhaloes show stronger alignment. At a fixed halo mass, more aspherical or prolate galaxies exhibit stronger alignments. The spatial distribution of satellites is anisotropic and significantly aligned wit...

  7. The cosmic baryon cycle and galaxy mass assembly in the FIRE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Hopkins, Philip F.; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman

    2017-10-01

    We use cosmological simulations from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project to study the baryon cycle and galaxy mass assembly for central galaxies in the halo mass range Mhalo ˜ 1010-1013 M⊙. By tracing cosmic inflows, galactic outflows, gas recycling and merger histories, we quantify the contribution of physically distinct sources of material to galaxy growth. We show that in situ star formation fuelled by fresh accretion dominates the early growth of galaxies of all masses, while the re-accretion of gas previously ejected in galactic winds often dominates the gas supply for a large portion of every galaxy's evolution. Externally processed material contributes increasingly to the growth of central galaxies at lower redshifts. This includes stars formed ex situ and gas delivered by mergers, as well as smooth intergalactic transfer of gas from other galaxies, an important but previously underappreciated growth mode. By z = 0, wind transfer, i.e. the exchange of gas between galaxies via winds, can dominate gas accretion on to ˜L* galaxies over fresh accretion and standard wind recycling. Galaxies of all masses re-accrete ≳50 per cent of the gas ejected in winds and recurrent recycling is common. The total mass deposited in the intergalactic medium per unit stellar mass formed increases in lower mass galaxies. Re-accretion of wind ejecta occurs over a broad range of time-scales, with median recycling times (˜100-350 Myr) shorter than previously found. Wind recycling typically occurs at the scale radius of the halo, independent of halo mass and redshift, suggesting a characteristic recycling zone around galaxies that scales with the size of the inner halo and the galaxy's stellar component.

  8. Stellar population gradients from cosmological simulations: dependence on mass and environment in local galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, C; Napolitano, N R; Antonuccio-Delogu, V; Meza, A; Sommer-Larsen, J; Capaccioli, M

    2010-01-01

    The age and metallicity gradients for a sample of group and cluster galaxies from N-body+hydrodynamical simulation are analyzed in terms of galaxy stellar mass. Dwarf galaxies show null age gradient with a tail of high and positive values for systems in groups and cluster outskirts. Massive systems have generally zero age gradients which turn to positive for the most massive ones. Metallicity gradients are distributed around zero in dwarf galaxies and become more negative with mass; massive galaxies have steeper negative metallicity gradients, but the trend flatten with mass. In particular, fossil groups are characterized by a tighter distribution of both age and metallicity gradients. We find a good agreement with both local observations and independent simulations. The results are also discussed in terms of the central age and metallicity, as well as the total colour, specific star formation and velocity dispersion.

  9. Particle Paths of Lagrangian Velocity Distribution Simulating the Spiral Arms of Galaxy M51

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tzu-Fang Chen; Georgios H. Vatistas; Sui Lin

    2008-01-01

    Galaxies are huge families of stars held together by their own gravities. The system M51 is a spiral galaxy. It possesses billions of stars. The range of the spiral arms extends hundred thousand light years. The present study is in an attempt in using the particle paths of the Lagrangian flow field to simulate the spiral arms of Galaxy M51.The Lagrangian flow field is introduced. The initial locations of fluid particles in the space between two concentric cylinders are first specified. Then a linear velocity distribution of the fluid particles is used with different angle rotations of the particles to obtain the particle paths in the Lagrangian diagram. For simulating the spiral arms of Galaxy M51, the Lagrangian M51 diagram is developed. The particle paths of the Lagrangian M51 diagram agree quite well with the spiral arms of Galaxy M51.

  10. The Horizon-AGN simulation: evolution of galaxy properties over cosmic time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviraj, S.; Laigle, C.; Kimm, T.; Devriendt, J. E. G.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Slyz, A.; Chisari, E.; Peirani, S.

    2017-06-01

    We compare the predictions of Horizon-AGN, a hydrodynamical cosmological simulation that uses an adaptive mesh refinement code, to observational data in the redshift range 0 z z generation of galaxy surveys.

  11. Properties of Galaxy Disks in Hierarchical Hydrodynamical Simulations Comparison with Observational Data

    CERN Document Server

    Saiz, A; Tissera, P B; Courteau, S

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the structural and dynamical properties of disk-like objects formed in fully consistent cosmological simulations with an inefficient star formation algorithm. Comparison with data of similar observable properties of spiral galaxies gives satisfactory agreement.

  12. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation III: Modelling galaxy formation and the Epoch of Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Mutch, Simon J; Poole, Gregory B; Angel, Paul W; Duffy, Alan R; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J Stuart B

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Meraxes, a new, purpose-built semi-analytic galaxy formation model designed for studying galaxy growth during reionization. Meraxes is the first model of its type to include a temporally- and spatially-coupled treatment of reionization and is built upon a custom (100 Mpc)$^3$ N-body simulation with high temporal and mass resolution, allowing us to resolve the galaxy and star formation physics relevant to early galaxy formation. Our fiducial model with supernova feedback reproduces the observed optical depth to electron scattering and evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function between $z$=5-7, predicting that a broad range of halo masses contribute to reionization. Using a constant escape fraction and global recombination rate, our model is unable to simultaneously match the observed ionizing emissivity at $z{\\lesssim}6$. However, the use of an evolving escape fraction of 0.05-0.1 at $z{\\sim}6$, increasing towards higher redshift, is able to satisfy these three constraints. We also demonstrate ...

  13. Diverse Structural Evolution at z > 1 in Cosmologically Simulated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Gregory F; Moody, Christopher; Peth, Michael; Freeman, Peter; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel; Dekel, Avishai

    2014-01-01

    From mock Hubble Space Telescope images, we quantify non-parametric statistics of galaxy morphology, thereby predicting the emergence of relationships among stellar mass, star formation, and observed rest-frame optical structure at 1 10^10 M_sun contain relatively more disc-dominated light profiles than those with lower mass, reflecting significant disc brightening in some haloes at 1 10^10 M_sun. We analyze a cosmological major merger at z~1.5 and find that the newly proposed MID morphology diagnostics trace later stages while G-M20 trace earlier ones. MID is sensitive also to clumpy star-forming discs. The observability time of typical MID-enhanced events in our simulation sample is less than 100 Myr. A larger sample of cosmological assembly histories may be required to calibrate such diagnostics in the face of their sensitivity to viewing angle, segmentation algorithm, and various phenomena such as clumpy star formation and minor mergers.

  14. The Effect of Environment on Milky Way-mass galaxies in a Constrained Simulation of the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Creasey, Peter; Nuza, Sebastian E; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottloeber, Stefan; Steinmetz, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    In this letter we present, for the first time, a study of star formation rate, gas fraction and galaxy morphology of a constrained simulation of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) galaxies, compared to other MW-mass galaxies. By combining with unconstrained simulations we cover a sufficient volume to compare these galaxies environmental densities ranging from the field to that of the Local Group (LG). This is particularly relevant as it has been shown that, quite generally, galaxy properties depend intimately upon their environment, most prominently when galaxies in clusters are compared to those in the field. For galaxies in loose groups such as the LG, however, environmental effects have been less clear. We consider the galaxy's environmental density in spheres of 1200 kpc (comoving) and find that whilst environment does not appear to directly affect morphology, there is a positive trend with star formation rates. This enhancement in star formation occurs systematically for galaxies in higher density en...

  15. SImulator of GAlaxy Millimetre/submillimetre Emission (SÍGAME): CO emission from massive z = 2 main-sequence galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Karen P.; Greve, Thomas R.; Brinch, Christian; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jesper; Toft, Sune; Zirm, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    We present SÍGAME (SImulator of GAlaxy Millimetre/submillimetre Emission), a new numerical code designed to simulate the 12CO rotational line spectrum of galaxies. Using sub-grid physics recipes to post-process the outputs of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, a molecular gas phase is condensed out of the hot and partly ionized SPH gas. The gas is subjected to far-UV radiation fields and cosmic ray ionization rates which are set to scale with the local star formation rate volume density. Level populations and radiative transport of the CO lines are solved with the 3D radiative transfer code LIME. We have applied SÍGAME to cosmological SPH simulations of three disc galaxies at z = 2 with stellar masses in the range ˜0.5-2 × 1011 M⊙ and star formation rates ˜40-140 M⊙ yr-1. Global CO luminosities and line ratios are in agreement with observations of disc galaxies at z ˜ 2 up to and including J = 3-2 but falling short of the few existing J=5-4 observations. The central 5 kpc regions of our galaxies have CO 3 - 2/1 - 0 and 7 - 6/1 - 0 brightness temperature ratios of ˜0.55-0.65 and ˜0.02-0.08, respectively, while further out in the disc the ratios drop to more quiescent values of ˜0.5 and <0.01. Global CO-to-H2 conversion (αCO) factors are {˜eq } 1.5 {{M_{⊙}} pc^{-2} (K km s^{-1})^{-1}}, i.e. ˜2-3 times below the typically adopted values for disc galaxies, and αCO increases with radius, in agreement with observations of nearby galaxies. Adopting a top-heavy Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) mass spectrum does not significantly change the results. Steepening the GMC density profiles leads to higher global line ratios for Jup ≥ 3 and CO-to-H2 conversion factors [{˜eq } 3.6 {{M_{⊙}} pc^{-2} (K km s^{-1})^{-1}}].

  16. Chemical evolution of giant molecular clouds in simulations of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richings, Alexander J.; Schaye, Joop

    2016-08-01

    We present an analysis of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) within hydrodynamic simulations of isolated, low-mass (M* ˜ 109 M⊙) disc galaxies. We study the evolution of molecular abundances and the implications for CO emission and the XCO conversion factor in individual clouds. We define clouds either as regions above a density threshold n_{H, min} = 10 {cm}^{-3}, or using an observationally motivated CO intensity threshold of 0.25 {K} {km} {s}^{-1}. Our simulations include a non-equilibrium chemical model with 157 species, including 20 molecules. We also investigate the effects of resolution and pressure floors (i.e. Jeans limiters). We find cloud lifetimes up to ≈ 40 Myr, with a median of 13 Myr, in agreement with observations. At one-tenth solar metallicity, young clouds ( ≲ 10-15 Myr) are underabundant in H2 and CO compared to chemical equilibrium, by factors of ≈3 and one to two orders of magnitude, respectively. At solar metallicity, GMCs reach chemical equilibrium faster (within ≈ 1 Myr). We also compute CO emission from individual clouds. The mean CO intensity, ICO, is strongly suppressed at low dust extinction, Av, and possibly saturates towards high Av, in agreement with observations. The ICO-Av relation shifts towards higher Av for higher metallicities and, to a lesser extent, for stronger UV radiation. At one-tenth solar metallicity, CO emission is weaker in young clouds ( ≲ 10-15 Myr), consistent with the underabundance of CO. Consequently, XCO decreases by an order of magnitude from 0 to 15 Myr, albeit with a large scatter.

  17. Reconciling dwarf galaxies with LCDM cosmology: Simulating a realistic population of satellites around a Milky Way-mass galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Wetzel, Andrew R; Kim, Ji-hoon; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Keres, Dusan; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass "dwarf" galaxies represent the most significant challenges to the cold dark matter (CDM) model of cosmological structure formation. Because these faint galaxies are (best) observed within the Local Group of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31), understanding their formation in such an environment is critical. We present the first results from the Latte Project: the Milky Way on FIRE (Feedback in Realistic Environments). This simulation models the formation of a MW-mass galaxy to z = 0 within LCDM cosmology, including dark matter, gas, and stars at unprecedented resolution: baryon mass of 7070 M_sun at spatial resolution down to 1 pc. Latte was simulated using the GIZMO code with a mesh-free method for accurate hydrodynamics and the FIRE model for star formation and explicit feedback within a multi-phase interstellar medium. For the first time, Latte self-consistently resolves the internal structure of dwarf galaxies that form around a MW-mass host down to M_star > 10^5 M_sun. Latte's population of ...

  18. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of simulated galaxies: results at redshift z = 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goz, David; Monaco, Pierluigi; Granato, Gian Luigi; Murante, Giuseppe; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa; Obreja, Aura; Annunziatella, Marianna; Tescari, Edoardo

    2017-08-01

    We present predictions of spectral energy distributions (SEDs), from the UV to the FIR, of simulated galaxies at z = 0. These were obtained by post-processing the results of an N-body+hydro simulation of a cosmological box of side 25 Mpc, which uses the Multi-Phase Particle Integrator (MUPPI) for star formation and stellar feedback, with the grasil-3d radiative transfer code that includes reprocessing of UV light by dust. Physical properties of our sample of ˜500 galaxies resemble observed ones, though with some tension at small and large stellar masses. Comparing predicted SEDs of simulated galaxies with different samples of local galaxies, we find that these resemble observed ones, when normalized at 3.6 μm. A comparison with the Herschel Reference Survey shows that the average SEDs of galaxies, divided in bins of star formation rate (SFR), are reproduced in shape and absolute normalization to within a factor of ˜2, while average SEDs of galaxies divided in bins of stellar mass show tensions that are an effect of the difference of simulated and observed galaxies in the stellar mass-SFR plane. We use our sample to investigate the correlation of IR luminosity in Spitzer and Herschel bands with several galaxy properties. SFR is the quantity that best correlates with IR light up to 160 μm, while at longer wavelengths better correlations are found with molecular mass and, at 500 μm, with dust mass. However, using the position of the FIR peak as a proxy for cold dust temperature, we assess that heating of cold dust is mostly determined by SFR, with stellar mass giving only a minor contribution. We finally show how our sample of simulated galaxies can be used as a guide to understand the physical properties and selection biases of observed samples.

  19. The Horizon-AGN Simulation: Morphological Diversity of Galaxies Promoted by AGN feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Dubois, Yohan; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien; Gavazzi, Raphael; Welker, Charlotte; Volonteri, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between cosmic gas accretion onto galaxies and galaxy mergers drives the observed morphological diversity of galaxies. By comparing the state-of-the-art hydrodynamical cosmological simulations Horizon-AGN and Horizon-noAGN, we unambiguously identify the critical role of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in setting up the correct galaxy morphology for the massive end of the population. With AGN feedback, typical kinematic and morpho-metric properties of galaxy populations as well as the galaxy-halo mass relation are in much better agreement with observations. Only AGN feedback allows massive galaxies at the center of groups and clusters to become ellipticals, while without AGN feedback those galaxies reform discs. It is the merger-enhanced AGN activity that is able to freeze the morphological type of the post-merger remnant by durably quenching its quiescent star formation. Hence morphology is shown not to be purely driven by mass but also by the nature of cosmic accretion: at constant galaxy mass, el...

  20. The inner structure of early-type galaxies in the Illustris simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; Springel, Volker; Sluse, Dominique; Schneider, Peter; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Nelson, Dylan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars

    2017-08-01

    Early-type galaxies provide unique tests for the predictions of the cold dark matter cosmology and the baryonic physics assumptions entering models for galaxy formation. In this work, we use the Illustris simulation to study correlations of three main properties of early-type galaxies, namely the stellar orbital anisotropies, the central dark matter fractions and the central radial density slopes, as well as their redshift evolution since z = 1.0. We find that lower mass galaxies or galaxies at higher redshift tend to be bluer in rest-frame colour, have higher central gas fractions, and feature more tangentially anisotropic orbits and steeper central density slopes than their higher mass or lower redshift counterparts, respectively. The projected central dark matter fraction within the effective radius shows a very mild mass dependence but positively correlates with galaxy effective radii due to the aperture effect. The central density slopes obtained by combining strong lensing measurements with single-aperture kinematics are found to differ from the true density slopes. We identify systematic biases in this measurement to be due to two common modelling assumptions, isotropic stellar orbital distributions and power-law density profiles. We also compare the properties of early-type galaxies in Illustris to those from existing galaxy and strong lensing surveys; we find in general broad agreement but also some tension, which poses a potential challenge to the stellar formation and feedback models adopted by the simulation.

  1. The Multi-SAG project: filling the MultiDark simulations with semi-analytic galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Martínez, C. A.; Cora, S. A.; Padilla, N. D.; Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.; Orsi, A. A.; Ruiz, A. N.

    2016-08-01

    The semi-analytical model sag is a code of galaxy formation and evolution which is applied to halo catalogs and merger trees extracted from cosmological -body simulations of dark matter. This contribution describes the project of constructing a catalog of simulated galaxies by adapting and applying the model sag over two dark matter simulations of the spanish MultiDark Project publicly available. Those simulations have particles, each, in boxes with sizes of 1000 Mpc and 400 Mpc respectively with Planck cosmological parameters. They cover a large range of masses and have halo mass resolutions of , therefore each simulation is able to produce more than 150 millions of simulated galaxies. A detailed description of the method is explained, and the first statistical results are shown.

  2. The formation of disc galaxies in high resolution moving-mesh cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Marinacci, Federico; Springel, Volker

    2013-01-01

    We present cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of eight Milky Way-sized haloes that have been previously studied with dark matter only in the Aquarius project. For the first time, we employ the moving-mesh code AREPO in zoom simulations combined with a new comprehensive model for galaxy formation physics designed for large cosmological simulations. Our simulations form in most of the eight haloes strongly disc-dominated systems with realistic rotation curves, close to exponential surface density profiles, a stellar-mass to halo-mass ratio that matches expectations from abundance matching techniques, and galaxy sizes and ages consistent with expectations from large galaxy surveys in the local Universe. There is no evidence for any dark matter core formation in our simulations, even so they include repeated baryonic outflows by supernova-driven winds and black hole quasar feedback. The simulations significantly improve upon the results obtained for the same objects in some of the earlier work based on the S...

  3. SImulator of GAlaxy Millimeter/submillimeter Emission (SIGAME): CO emission from massive z=2 main sequence galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Karen P; Brinch, Christian; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jesper; Toft, Sune; Zirm, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We present SIGAME (SImulator of GAlaxy Molecular Emission), a new numerical code designed to simulate the 12CO rotational line emission spectrum of galaxies. Using sub-grid physics recipes to post-process the outputs of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, a molecular gas phase is condensed out of the initial hot and partly ionised SPH gas and distributed in Giant Molecular Cloud (GMCs). The GMCs are subjected to far-UV radiation fields and cosmic ray ionisation rates which scale with the local star formation rate volume density, thereby ensuring that the thermal state of the gas is directly coupled to the in situ star formation conditions. Level populations as well as line radiative transport of the CO rotational lines are solved for with the 3-D radiative transfer code LIME. We have applied SIGAME to cosmological SPH simulations of three disk galaxies at z=2 with stellar masses in the range ~(0.5-2)x10^11 Msun and star formation rates ~40-140 Msun/yr, for which we predict a low-excitation gas ...

  4. A physical model for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation: multi-epoch validation

    CERN Document Server

    Torrey, Paul; Genel, Shy; Sijacki, Debora; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-epoch analysis of the galaxy populations formed within the cosmological hydrodynamical simulations presented in Vogelsberger et al. (2013). These simulations explore the performance of a recently implemented feedback model which includes primordial and metal line radiative cooling with self-shielding corrections; stellar evolution with associated mass loss and chemical enrichment; feedback by stellar winds; black hole seeding, growth and merging; and AGN quasar- and radio-mode heating with a phenomenological prescription for AGN electro-magnetic feedback. We illustrate the impact of the model parameter choices on the resulting simulated galaxy population properties at high and intermediate redshifts. We demonstrate that our scheme is capable of producing galaxy populations that broadly reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function extending from redshift z=0 to z=3. We also characterise the evolving galactic B-band luminosity function, stellar mass to halo mass ratio, star formation m...

  5. Cold Galaxies on FIRE: Modeling the Most Luminous Starbursts in the Universe with Cosmological Zoom Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Desika

    2014-10-01

    As the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe, Submillimeter Galaxies at z 2-4 are key players in galaxy evolution. Since their discovery, SMGs have received significant attention from HST in characterizing their physical morphology, stellar masses, and star formation histories. Unfortunately, these physical constraints have been difficult for theorists to reconcile with galaxy formation simulations. Previous generations of simulations have all either {a} neglected baryons; {b} neglected radiative transfer {and connecting to observations}; or {c} neglected cosmological conditions. Here, we propose to conduct the first ever cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of Submillimeter Galaxy formation that couple with bona fide 3D dust radiative transfer calculations. These ultra-high resolution simulations {parsec-scale} will be the first to resolve the sites of dust obscuration, the cosmic growth history of SMGs, and their evolutionary destiny. Our proposal has two principle goals: {1} Develop the first ever model for SMG formation from cosmological simulations that include both baryons and dust radiative transfer; {2} Capitalize on our parsec-scale resolution to understand the connection between the physical properties of star-forming regions in high-z starbursts, and recent IMF constraints from present-epoch massive galaxies.

  6. Probing the Ultraviolet Luminosity Function of the Earliest Galaxies with the Renaissance Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Brian W.; Wise, John H.; Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present the first results from the Renaissance Simulations, a suite of extremely high-resolution and physics-rich AMR calculations of high-redshift galaxy formation performed on the Blue Waters supercomputer. These simulations contain hundreds of well-resolved galaxies at z˜ 25-8, and make several novel, testable predictions. Most critically, we show that the ultraviolet luminosity function of our simulated galaxies is consistent with observations of high-z galaxy populations at the bright end of the luminosity function ({M}1600≤slant -17), but at lower luminosities is essentially flat rather than rising steeply, as has been inferred by Schechter function fits to high-z observations, and has a clearly defined lower limit in UV luminosity. This behavior of the luminosity function is due to two factors: (i) the strong dependence of the star formation rate (SFR) on halo virial mass in our simulated galaxy population, with lower-mass halos having systematically lower SFRs and thus lower UV luminosities; and (ii) the fact that halos with virial masses below ≃ 2× {10}8 {M}⊙ do not universally contain stars, with the fraction of halos containing stars dropping to zero at ≃ 7× {10}6 {M}⊙ . Finally, we show that the brightest of our simulated galaxies may be visible to current and future ultra-deep space-based surveys, particularly if lensed regions are chosen for observation.

  7. Feedback and the Structure of Simulated Galaxies at redshift z=2

    CERN Document Server

    Sales, Laura V; Schaye, Joop; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Springel, Volker; Booth, C M

    2010-01-01

    We study the properties of simulated high-redshift galaxies using cosmological N-body/gasdynamical runs from the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations (OWLS) project. The runs contrast several feedback implementations of varying effectiveness: from no-feedback, to supernova-driven winds to powerful AGN-driven outflows. These different feedback models result in large variations in the abundance and structural properties of bright galaxies at z=2. We find that feedback affects the baryonic mass of a galaxy much more severely than its spin, which is on average roughly half that of its surrounding dark matter halo in our runs. Feedback induces strong correlations between angular momentum content and galaxy mass that leave their imprint on galaxy scaling relations and morphologies. Encouragingly, we find that galaxy disks are common in moderate-feedback runs, making up typically ~50% of all galaxies at the centers of haloes with virial mass exceeding 1e11 M_sun. The size, stellar masses, and circular speeds of simulate...

  8. Absorption-line systems in simulated galaxies fed by cold streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Michele; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Kasen, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel R.

    2011-12-01

    Hydro-cosmological simulations reveal that massive galaxies at high redshift are fed by long narrow streams of merging galaxies and a smoother component of cold gas. We post-process seven high-resolution simulated galaxies with radiative transfer to study the absorption characteristics of the gas in galaxies and streams, in comparison with the statistics of observed absorption-line systems. We find that much of the stream gas is ionized by UV radiation from background and local stellar sources, but still optically thick (? cm-2) so that the streams appear as Lyman-limit systems (LLSs). At z > 3, the fraction of neutral gas in streams becomes non-negligible, giving rise to damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) as well. The gas in the central and incoming galaxies remains mostly neutral, responsible for DLAs. Within one (two) virial radii, the covering factor of optically thick gas is cold streams in the studied mass range, Mvir= 1010-1012 M⊙, account for >30 per cent of the observed absorbers in the foreground of quasars, the rest possibly arising from smaller galaxies or the intergalactic medium. The mean metallicity in the streams is ˜1 per cent solar, much lower than in the galaxies. The simulated galaxies reproduce the Lyα-absorption equivalent widths observed around Lyman-break galaxies, but they severely underpredict the equivalent widths in metal lines, suggesting that the latter may arise from outflows. We conclude that the observed metal-poor LLSs are likely detections of the predicted cold streams. Revised analysis of the observed LLSs kinematics and simulations with more massive outflows in conjunction with the inflows may enable a clearer distinction between the signatures of the various gas modes.

  9. Identifying old Tidal Dwarf Galaxies in Simulations and in the Nearby Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Duc, P A; Masset, F; Bournaud, Frederic; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Masset, Frederic

    2004-01-01

    Most Tidal Dwarf Galaxies (TDGs) so-far discussed in the literature may be considered as young ones or even newborns, as they are still physically linked to their parent galaxies by an umbilical cord: the tidal tail at the tip of which they are usually observed. Old Tidal Dwarf Galaxies, completely detached from their progenitors, are still to be found. Using N--body numerical simulations, we have shown that tidal objects as massive as 10^9 solar masses may be formed in interacting systems and survive for more than one Gyr. Old TDGs should hence exist in the Universe. They may be identified looking at a peculiarity of their "genetic identity card": a relatively high abundance in heavy elements, inherited from their parent galaxies. Finally, using this technique, we revisit the dwarf galaxies in the local Universe trying to find arguments pro and con a tidal origin.

  10. BARRED GALAXY PHOTOMETRY: COMPARING RESULTS FROM THE CANANEA SAMPLE WITH N-BODY SIMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Athanassoula

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare the results of the photometrical analysis of barred galaxies with those of a similar analysis from N-body simulations. The photometry is for a sample of nine barred galaxies observed in the J and Ks bands with the CANICA near infrared (NIR camera at the 2.1 m telescope of the Observatorio Astrofisico Guillermo Haro (OAGH in Cananea, Sonora, Mexico. The comparison includes radial ellipticity pro les and surface brightness (density for the N-body galaxies pro les along the bar major and minor axes. We nd very good agreement, arguing that the exchange of angular momentum within the galaxy plays a determinant role in the evolution of barred galaxies.

  11. The EAGLE simulations of galaxy formation: calibration of subgrid physics and model variations

    CERN Document Server

    Crain, Robert A; Bower, Richard G; Furlong, Michelle; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Frenk, Carlos S; McCarthy, Ian G; Helly, John C; Jenkins, Adrian; Rosas-Guevara, Yetli M; White, Simon D M; Trayford, James W

    2015-01-01

    We present results from thirteen cosmological simulations that explore the parameter space of the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) simulation project. Four of the simulations follow the evolution of a periodic cube L = 50 cMpc on a side, and each employs a different subgrid model of the energetic feedback associated with star formation. The relevant parameters were adjusted so that the simulations each reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function at z = 0.1. Three of the simulations fail to form disc galaxies as extended as observed, and we show analytically that this is a consequence of numerical radiative losses that reduce the efficiency of stellar feedback in high-density gas. Such losses are greatly reduced in the fourth simulation - the EAGLE reference model - by injecting more energy in higher density gas. This model produces galaxies with the observed size distribution, and also reproduces many galaxy scaling relations. In the remaining nine simulations, a sin...

  12. Mergers and Mass Accretion Rates in Galaxy Assembly: The Millennium Simulation Compared to Observations of z~2 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Genel, S; Bouché, N; Sternberg, A; Naab, T; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Shapiro, K L; Tacconi, L J; Lutz, D; Cresci, G; Buschkamp, P; Davies, R I; Hicks, E K S

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations of UV-/optically selected, massive star forming galaxies at z~2 indicate that the baryonic mass assembly and star formation history is dominated by continuous rapid accretion of gas and internal secular evolution, rather than by major mergers. We use the Millennium Simulation to build new halo merger trees, and extract halo merger fractions and mass accretion rates. We find that even for halos not undergoing major mergers the mass accretion rates are plausibly sufficient to account for the high star formation rates observed in z~2 disks. On the other hand, the fraction of major mergers in the Millennium Simulation is sufficient to account for the number counts of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), in support of observational evidence that these are major mergers. When following the fate of these two populations in the Millennium Simulation to z=0, we find that subsequent mergers are not frequent enough to convert all z~2 turbulent disks into elliptical galaxies at z=0. Similarly, mergers canno...

  13. Weigh - in - motion (WIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Neven B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biggest wealth of every country lies in its transportation infrastructure so the protection of negative impacts on infrastructure must be provided. The progress of sensor technology proposes today several types of weigh-in-motion systems, which have been tested for their efficiency, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Technologies of piezoelectric sensors, bending plates and load cells are used for a number of applications comprising weigh enforcement, traffic data collection, bridge and toll control systems and so on. Advantages of using WIM technology are various and its benefits affects all road users (transport companies, public, public transport authorities. Potential of WIM application has been recognized in the leading EU countries, so the existence of the numerous WIM projects.

  14. Absorption Line Analysis to Interprete and Constrain Cosmological Simulations of Galaxy Evolution with Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    The mammoth challenge for contemporary studies of galaxy formation and evolution are to establish detailed models in the cosmological context in which both the few parsec scale physics within galaxies are self-consistently unified and made consistent with the observed universe of galaxies. They key diagnostics reside with the gas physics, which dictate virtually every aspect of galaxy formation and evolution. The small scale physics includes stellar feedback, gas cooling, heating, and advection and the multiphase interstellar medium; the large scale physics includes intergalactic accretion, local merging, effects of supernovae driven winds, and the development of extended metal-enriched gas halos.Absorption line data have historically proven to be {and shall in the future} virtually the most powerful tool for understanding gas physics on all spatial scales over the majority of the age of the universe- the key to success. Simply stated, absorption lines are one of astronomy's most powerful observational windows on the universe {galaxy formation, galaxy winds, IGM metal enrichment, etc.}. The high quality and vast numbers of absorption line data {obtained with HST and FUSE} probe a broad range of gas structures {ISM, HVCs, halos, IGM} over the full cosmic span when galaxies are actively evolving.We propose to use LCDM hydrodynamic cosmological simulations employing a Eulerian Gasdynamics plus N-body Adaptive Refinement Tree {ART} code to develop and refine our understanding of stellar feedback physics and its role in governing the gas physics that regulates the evolution of galaxies and the IGM. We aim to substantially progress our understanding of all possible gas phases embedded within and extending far from galaxies. Our methodology is to apply a series of quantitative observational constraints from absorption line systems to better understand extended galaxy halos and the influence of the cosmological environment of the simulated galaxies: {1} galaxy halos

  15. Environment and mass dependencies of galactic $\\lambda$ spin parameter: cosmological simulations and SDSS galaxies compared

    CERN Document Server

    Cervantes-Sodi, B; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2008-01-01

    We use a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to search for correlations between the $\\lambda$ spin parameter and the environment and mass of galaxies. In order to calculate the total value of $\\lambda$ for each observed galaxy, we employed a simple model of the dynamical structure of the galaxies which allows a rough estimate of the value of $\\lambda$ using only readily obtainable observables from the luminous galaxies. Use of a large volume limited sample (upwards of 11,000) allows reliable inferences of mean values and dispersions of $\\lambda$ distributions. We find, in agreement with some N-body cosmological simulations, no significant dependence of $\\lambda$ on the environmental density of the galaxies. For the case of mass, our results show a marked correlation with $\\lambda$, in the sense that low mass galaxies present both higher mean values of $\\lambda$ and associated dispersions, than high mass galaxies. This last direct empirical result, at odds with expectations from N-body ...

  16. It's not easy being green: The evolution of galaxy colour in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Trayford, James W; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Lagos, Claudia del P; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-01-01

    We examine the evolution of intrinsic u-r colours of galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which has been shown to reproduce the observed redshift z=0.1 colour-magnitude distribution well. The median u-r of star-forming ('blue cloud') galaxies reddens by 1 mag from z=2 to 0 at fixed stellar mass, as their specific star formation rates decrease with time. A red sequence starts to build-up around z=1, due to the quenching of low-mass satellite galaxies at the faint end, and due to the quenching of more massive central galaxies by their active galactic nuclei (AGN) at the bright end. This leaves a dearth of intermediate-mass red sequence galaxies at z=1, which is mostly filled in by z=0. We quantify the time-scales of colour transition due to satellite and AGN quenching, finding that most galaxies spend less than 2 Gyr in the 'green valley'. On examining the trajectories of galaxies in a colour-stellar mass diagram, we identify three characteristic tracks that galaxies follow (quiescentl...

  17. Galaxy Evolution in Cosmological Simulations With Outflows I: Stellar Masses and Star Formation Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    We examine the growth of the stellar content of galaxies from z=3-0 in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations incorporating parameterised galactic outflows. Without outflows, galaxies overproduce stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) compared to observations. Winds introduce a three-tier form for the galaxy stellar mass and star formation rate functions, where the middle tier depends on differential (i.e. mass-dependent) recycling of ejected wind material back into galaxies. A tight M*-SFR relation is a generic outcome of all these simulations, and its evolution is well-described as being powered by cold accretion, although current observations at z>2 suggest that star formation in small early galaxies must be highly suppressed. Roughly one-third of z=0 galaxies at masses below M^* are satellites, and star formation in satellites is not much burstier than in centrals. All models fail to suppress star formation and stellar mass growth in massive galaxies at z<2, indicating the need for an exter...

  18. Galaxies in the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation and in the Durham and Munich semi-analytical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Quan; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Guo, Qi; Schaller, Matthieu; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G.; Cole, Shaun; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helly, John C.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Mitchell, Peter; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-10-01

    We compare global predictions from the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation, and two semi-analytic (SA) models of galaxy formation, L-GALAXIES and GALFORM. All three models include the key physical processes for the formation and evolution of galaxies and their parameters are calibrated against a small number of observables at z ≈ 0. The two SA models have been applied to merger trees constructed from the EAGLE dark matter only simulation. We find that at z ≤ 2, both the galaxy stellar mass functions for stellar masses M* EAGLE and L-GALAXIES there are more central passive galaxies with M* EAGLE is a factor of ≈1.5 steeper than for the two SA models. The median sizes for galaxies with M* > 109.5 M⊙ differ in some instances by an order of magnitude, while the stellar mass-size relation in EAGLE is a factor of ≈2 tighter than for the two SA models. Our results suggest the need for a revision of how SA models treat the effect of baryonic self-gravity on the underlying dark matter. The treatment of gas flows in the models needs to be revised based on detailed comparison with observations to understand in particular the evolution of the stellar mass-metallicity relation.

  19. Evaluating Galactic Habitability Using High Resolution Cosmological Simulations of Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan; Cockell, Charles; Libeskind, Noam

    2015-01-01

    We present the first model that couples high-resolution simulations of the formation of Local Group galaxies with calculations of the galactic habitable zone (GHZ), a region of space which has sufficient metallicity to form terrestrial planets without being subject to hazardous radiation. These simulations allow us to make substantial progress in mapping out the asymmetric three-dimensional GHZ and its time evolution for the Milky Way (MW) and Triangulum (M33) galaxies, as opposed to works that generally assume an azimuthally symmetric GHZ. Applying typical habitability metrics to MW and M33, we find that while a large number of habitable planets exist as close as a few kiloparsecs from the galactic centre, the probability of individual planetary systems being habitable rises as one approaches the edge of the stellar disc. Tidal streams and satellite galaxies also appear to be fertile grounds for habitable planet formation. In short, we find that both galaxies arrive at similar GHZs by different evolutionary ...

  20. Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy formation simulation - I. The dynamical lives of high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Gregory B.; Angel, Paul W.; Mutch, Simon J.; Power, Chris; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, Stuart B.

    2016-07-01

    We present the Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) programme and Tiamat, the collisionless N-body simulation programme upon which DRAGONS is built. The primary trait distinguishing Tiamat from other large simulation programme is its density of outputs at high redshift (100 from z = 35 to z = 5; roughly one every 10 Myr) enabling the construction of very accurate merger trees at an epoch when galaxy formation is rapid and mergers extremely frequent. We find that the friends-of-friends halo mass function agrees well with the prediction of Watson et al. at high masses, but deviates at low masses, perhaps due to our use of a different halo finder or perhaps indicating a break from `universal' behaviour. We then analyse the dynamical evolution of galaxies during the Epoch of Reionization finding that only a small fraction (˜20 per cent) of galactic haloes are relaxed. We illustrate this using standard relaxation metrics to establish two dynamical recovery time-scales: (i) haloes need ˜1.5 dynamical times following formation, and (ii) ˜2 dynamical times following a major (3:1) or minor (10:1) merger to be relaxed. This is remarkably consistent across a wide mass range. Lastly, we use a phase-space halo finder to illustrate that major mergers drive long-lived massive phase-space structures which take many dynamical times to dissipate. This can yield significant differences in the inferred mass build-up of galactic haloes and we suggest that care must be taken to ensure a physically meaningful match between the galaxy formation physics of semi-analytic models and the halo finders supplying their input.

  1. How Environment Affects Galaxy Metallicity through Stripping and Formation History: Lessons from the Illustris Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Genel, Shy

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies found higher galaxy metallicities in richer environments. It is not yet clear, however, whether metallicity-environment dependencies are merely an indirect consequence of environmentally-dependent formation histories, or of environment-related processes affecting metallicity directly. Here we present a first detailed study of metallicity-environment correlations in a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, in particular the Illustris simulation. Illustris galaxies display similar relations to those observed. Utilizing knowledge of simulated formation histories, and leveraging the large simulation volume, we construct galaxy samples of satellites and centrals that are matched in formation histories. This allows us to find that ~1/3 of the metallicity-environment correlation is due to different formation histories in different environments. This is a combined effect of satellites (in particular in denser environments) having average lower z=0 star-formation rates (SFRs), and of their older stella...

  2. The properties, origin and evolution of stellar clusters in galaxy simulations and observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, C L; Few, C G; Calzetti, D; Dale, D A; Elmegreen, B G; Evans, A S; Gouliermis, D A; Grasha, K; Grebel, E K; Johnson, K E; Kim, H; Lee, J C; Messa, M; Ryon, J E; Smith, L J; Thilker, D A; Ubeda, L; Whitmore, B

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties and evolution of star particles in two simulations of isolated spiral galaxies, and two galaxies from cosmological simulations. Unlike previous numerical work, where typically each star particle represents one `cluster', for the isolated galaxies we are able to model features we term `clusters' with groups of particles. We compute the spatial distribution of stars with different ages, and cluster mass distributions, comparing our findings with observations including the recent LEGUS survey. We find that spiral structure tends to be present in older (100s Myrs) stars and clusters in the simulations compared to the observations. This likely reflects differences in the numbers of stars or clusters, the strength of spiral arms, and whether the clusters are allowed to evolve. Where we model clusters with multiple particles, we are able to study their evolution. The evolution of simulated clusters tends to follow that of their natal gas clouds. Massive, dense, long-lived clouds host ma...

  3. Simulating Compact Elliptical Galaxy Formation by Tidal Stripping for Comparison to the RESOLVE Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Christine; Snyder, Elaine M.; Kannappan, Sheila; Sinha, Manodeep; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    Observations of compact elliptical galaxies (cEs) have uncovered abnormally high velocity dispersions and surface brightnesses for objects of their mass. These properties indicate that they may be the tidally stripped remnants of larger disk galaxies. We test this tidal stripping scenario using N-body simulations of cE formation with the Gadget-2 code. We track the velocity dispersions of stellar particles within the half-light radius throughout our simulations, which allows us to compare our simulated galaxies with velocity dispersion data for cEs in the RESOLVE survey. We first consider initial conditions similar to published work, which report stripping of a large spiral galaxy (stellar mass ~ 10^11 solar masses) to cE size in a cluster potential. We find that the density of the disk galaxy is too high to allow it to lose particles to the less dense cluster. We argue that the initial position of the galaxy with respect to the cluster as well as the large size of the cluster particles in comparison to the size of the galaxy particles artificially heightened the stripping percentages reported in previous work. We hypothesize that only a dwarf galaxy with a shallower density profile can be stripped to cE size, and we present initial efforts to test this idea. We simulate a dwarf galaxy based on a real system in the RESOLVE survey, with stellar mass 10^9 solar masses and half-light radius 1.15 kpc. Within ~700 pc our dwarf is denser than our cluster, suggesting the stripped remnant should be close to the size of RESOLVE cEs. This radius contains approximately 13% of the total stellar mass of the galaxy, or ~2 x 10^8 solar masses. We therefore expect our stripped remnant to be at least this massive, although the impact parameter of the orbit will determine how much mass is actually removed. We discuss the position of our simulated galaxies compared to RESOLVE cEs in the velocity dispersion vs. mass plane. This research has been supported by National Science

  4. The anatomy of a star-forming galaxy: pressure-driven regulation of star formation in simulated galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, S. M.; Wadsley, J.; Couchman, H. M. P.; Keller, B. W.

    2016-11-01

    We explore the regulation of star formation in star-forming galaxies through a suite of high-resolution isolated galaxy simulations. We use the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GASOLINE, including photoelectric heating and metal cooling, which produces a multi-phase interstellar medium (ISM). We show that representative star formation and feedback sub-grid models naturally lead to a weak, sub-linear dependence between the amount of star formation and changes to star formation parameters. We incorporate these sub-grid models into an equilibrium pressure-driven regulation framework. We show that the sub-linear scaling arises as a consequence of the non-linear relationship between scaleheight and the effective pressure generated by stellar feedback. Thus, simulated star formation regulation is sensitive to how well vertical structure in the ISM is resolved. Full galaxy discs experience density waves which drive locally time-dependent star formation. We develop a simple time-dependent, pressure-driven model that reproduces the response extremely well.

  5. The anatomy of a star-forming galaxy: Pressure-driven regulation of star formation in simulated galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Benincasa, S M; Couchman, H M P; Keller, B W

    2016-01-01

    We explore the regulation of star formation in star-forming galaxies through a suite of high-resolution isolated galaxy simulations. We use the SPH code GASOLINE, including photoelectric heating and metal cooling, which produces a multi-phase interstellar medium. We show that representative star formation and feedback sub-grid models naturally lead to a weak, sub-linear dependence between the amount of star formation and changes to star formation parameters. We incorporate these sub-grid models into an equilibrium pressure-driven regulation framework. We show that the sub-linear scaling arises as a consequence of the non-linear relationship between scale height and the effective pressure generated by stellar feedback. Thus, simulated star-formation regulation is sensitive to how well vertical structure in the ISM is resolved. Full galaxy disks experience density waves which drive locally time-dependent star formation. We develop a simple time-dependent, pressure-driven model that reproduces the response extre...

  6. Simulating the COSMOS: The fraction of merging galaxies at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Kampczyk, P; Carollo, C M; Scarlata, C; Feldmann, R; Koekemoer, A; Leauthaud, A; Taniguchi, Y; Capak, P

    2006-01-01

    Simulations of nearby (0.015 < z < 0.025) SDSS galaxies have been used to reproduce as accurately as possible the appearance that they would have on COSMOS ACS images if they had been observed at z ~ 0.7 and z ~ 1.2. By adding the SDSS galaxies to random locations in the COSMOS images, we simulate the effects of chance superpositions of high redshift galaxies with unrelated foreground or background objects. We have used these simulated images, together with those of real COSMOS galaxies at these same redshifts, to undertake a "blind" morphological classification of galaxies to identify those that appear to be undergoing mergers and thus to estimate the change in merger fraction with redshift. We find that real mergers are harder to recognize at high redshift, and also that the chance superposition of unrelated galaxies often produces the appearance of mergers where in reality none exists. In particular, we estimate that 1.5 - 2.0% of objects randomly added to ACS images are misclassified as mergers due ...

  7. The Illustris Simulation: the evolution of galaxy populations across cosmic time

    CERN Document Server

    Genel, Shy; Springel, Volker; Sijacki, Debora; Nelson, Dylan; Snyder, Greg; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Torrey, Paul; Hernquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of galaxy evolution across cosmic time in the Illustris Simulation. Illustris is an N-body/hydrodynamical simulation that evolves 2*1820^3 resolution elements in a (106.5Mpc)^3 box from cosmological initial conditions down to z=0 using the AREPO moving-mesh code. The simulation uses a state-of-the-art set of physical models for galaxy formation that was tuned to reproduce the z=0 stellar mass function and the history of the cosmic star-formation rate density. We find that Illustris successfully reproduces a plethora of observations of galaxy populations at various redshifts, for which no tuning was performed, and provide predictions for future observations. In particular, we discuss (a) the buildup of galactic mass, showing stellar mass functions and the relations between stellar mass and halo mass from z=7 to z=0, (b) galaxy number density profiles around massive central galaxies out to z=4, (c) the gas and total baryon content of both galaxies and their halos for different redshifts, ...

  8. The evolution of galaxy metallicity scaling relations in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    De Rossi, Maria E; Font, Andreea S; McCarthy, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the metal content of galaxies and its relations to other global properties [such as total stellar mass (M*), circular velocity, star formation rate (SFR), halo mass, etc.] provides important constraints on models of galaxy formation. Here we examine the evolution of metallicity scaling relations of simulated galaxies in the Galaxies-Intergalactic Medium Interaction Calculation suite of cosmological simulations. We make comparisons to observations of the correlation of gas-phase abundances with M* (the mass-metallicity relation, MZR), as well as with both M* and SFR or gas mass fraction (the so-called 3D fundamental metallicity relations, FMRs). The simulated galaxies follow the observed local MZR and FMRs over an order of magnitude in M*, but overpredict the metallicity of massive galaxies (log M* > 10.5), plausibly due to inefficient feedback in this regime. We discuss the origin of the MZR and FMRs in the context of galactic outflows and gas accretion. We examine the evolution of mass-metal...

  9. Intrinsic alignments of galaxies in the Horizon-AGN cosmological hydrodynamical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Chisari, Nora Elisa; Laigle, Clotilde; Dubois, Yohan; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Miller, Lance; Gavazzi, Raphael; Benabed, Karim

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic alignments of galaxies are recognised as a contaminant to weak gravitational lensing measurements. In this work, we study the alignment of galaxy shapes and spins at low redshift (z~0.5) in Horizon-AGN, an adaptive-mesh-refinement hydrodynamical cosmological simulation box of 100 Mpc/h a side with AGN feedback implementation. We find that spheroidal galaxies in the simulation show a tendency to be aligned radially towards over-densities in the dark matter density field and other spheroidals. This trend is in agreement with observations, but the amplitude of the signal depends strongly on how shapes are measured and how galaxies are selected in the simulation. Disc galaxies show a tendency to be oriented tangentially around spheroidals in three-dimensions. While this signal seems suppressed in projection, this does not guarantee that disc alignments can be safely ignored in future weak lensing surveys. The shape alignments of luminous galaxies in Horizon-AGN are in agreement with observations and...

  10. Bulges versus disks: the evolution of angular momentum in cosmological simulations of galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Zavala, J; Frenk, Carlos S

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of angular momentum in simulations of galaxy formation in a cold dark matter universe. We analyse two model galaxies produced in the N-body/hydrodynamic simulations of Okamoto et al. Starting from identical initial conditions, but using different assumptions for the baryonic physics, one of the simulations produced a bulge-dominated galaxy and the other one a disk-dominated galaxy. The main difference is the treatment of star formation and feedback, both of which were designed to be more efficient in the disk-dominated object. We find that the specific angular momentum of the disk-dominated galaxy tracks the evolution of the angular momentum of the dark matter halo very closely: the angular momentum grows as predicted by linear theory until the epoch of maximum expansion and remains constant thereafter. By contrast, the evolution of the angular momentum of the bulge-dominated galaxy resembles that of the central, most bound halo material: it also grows at first according to linear...

  11. On the influence of ram-pressure stripping on the star formation of simulated spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberger, T; Ferrari, C; Unterguggenberger, S; Schindler, S

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the influence of ram-pressure stripping on the star formation and the mass distribution in simulated spiral galaxies. Special emphasis is put on the question where the newly formed stars are located. The stripping radius from the simulation is compared to analytical estimates. Disc galaxies are modelled in combined N-body/hydrodynamic simulations (GADGET-2) with prescriptions for cooling, star formation, stellar feedback, and galactic winds. These model galaxies move through a constant density and temperature gas, which has parameters comparable to the intra-cluster medium (ICM) in the outskirts of a galaxy cluster (T=3 keV ~3.6x10^7 K and rho=10^-28 g/cm^3). With this numerical setup we analyse the influence of ram-pressure stripping on the star formation rate of the model galaxy. We find that the star formation rate is significantly enhanced by the ram-pressure effect (up to a factor of 3). Stars form in the compressed central region of the galaxy as well as in the stripped gas behind the gal...

  12. Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weighing rain gauge charts record the amount of precipitation that falls at a given location. The vast majority of the Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts...

  13. Intrinsic alignments of disc and elliptical galaxies in the MassiveBlack-II and Illustris simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenneti, Ananth; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Di Matteo, Tiziana

    2016-11-01

    We study the shapes and intrinsic alignments of discs and elliptical galaxies in the MassiveBlack-II (MBII) and Illustris cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, with volumes of (100 h-1 Mpc)3 and (75 h-1 Mpc)3, respectively. We find that simulated disc galaxies are more oblate in shape and more misaligned with the shape of their host dark matter subhalo when compared with ellipticals. The disc major axis is found to be oriented towards the location of nearby elliptical galaxies. We also find that the discs are thinner in MBII and misalignments with dark matter halo orientations are smaller in both discs and ellipticals when compared with Illustris. As a result, the intrinsic alignment correlation functions at fixed mass have a higher amplitude in MBII than in Illustris. Finally, at scales above ˜0.1 h-1 Mpc, the intrinsic alignment two-point correlation functions for disc galaxies in both simulations are consistent with a null detection, unlike those for ellipticals. Despite significant differences in the treatments of hydrodynamics and baryonic physics in the simulations, we find that the wδ + correlation function scales similarly with transverse separation. However, the less massive galaxies show different scale dependence in the ellipticity-direction correlation. This result indicates that, while hydrodynamic simulations are a promising tool to study intrinsic alignments, further study is needed to understand the impact of differences in the implementations of hydrodynamics and baryonic feedback.

  14. Properties of Local Group galaxies in hydrodynamical simulations of sterile neutrino dark matter cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lovell, Mark R; Boyarsky, Alexey; Crain, Robert A; Frenk, Carlos S; Hellwing, Wojciech A; Ludlow, Aaron D; Navarro, Julio F; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Sawala, Till; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We study galaxy formation in sterile neutrino dark matter models that differ significantly from both cold and from `warm thermal relic' models. We use the EAGLE code to carry out hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of pairs of galaxies chosen to resemble the Local Group, as part of the APOSTLE simulations project. We compare cold dark matter (CDM) with two sterile neutrino models with 7 keV mass: one, the warmest among all models of this mass (LA120) and the other, a relatively cold case (LA10). We show that the lower concentration of sterile neutrino subhalos compared to their CDM counterparts makes the inferred inner dark matter content of galaxies like Fornax (or Magellanic Clouds) less of an outlier in the sterile neutrino cosmologies. In terms of the galaxy number counts the LA10 simulations are \\emph{indistinguishable} from CDM when one takes into account halo-to-halo (or `simulation-to-simulation') scatter. In order for the LA120 model to match the number of Local Group dwarf galaxies, a higher f...

  15. Hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters: exploring the thermodynamics of the hot intra-cluster medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planelles, S.

    2015-05-01

    Modern cosmological simulations represent a powerful means to analyse and interpret the formation and evolution of cosmic structures. The first attempts to perform such simulations, dated back to 1960-1970, consisted in N-body collisionless computations with few point masses. Since then, cosmological simulations have experienced a great progress and have increased significantly in scale and complexity. A relevant effort has been done to properly model the hydrodynamical mechanisms shaping the observational properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Despite the significant improvements of the last years, results from current simulations still show important deviations from observations, especially within the core regions of galaxy clusters and within the framework of galaxy formation. In this contribution, I will briefly review the current numerical methods employed in large-scale cosmological simulations. A special emphasis will be put on the effects that the inclusion of different baryonic processes, such as radiative cooling, star formation or AGN feedback, has on the physical properties of the hot intra-cluster medium of massive galaxy clusters. In addition, some of the technical and computational challenges that numerical cosmology has to overcome in the near future will be outlined.

  16. N-body simulations of collective effects in spiral and barred galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.

    2016-10-01

    We present gravitational N-body simulations of the secular morphological evolution of disk galaxies induced by density wave modes. In particular, we address the demands collective effects place on the choice of simulation parameters, and show that the common practice of the use of a large gravity softening parameter was responsible for the failure of past simulations to correctly model the secular evolution process in galaxies, even for those simulations where the choice of basic state allows an unstable mode to emerge, a prerequisite for obtaining the coordinated radial mass flow pattern needed for secular evolution of galaxies along the Hubble sequence. We also demonstrate that the secular evolution rates measured in our improved simulations agree to an impressive degree with the corresponding rates predicted by the recently-advanced theories of dynamically-driven secular evolution of galaxies. The results of the current work, besides having direct implications on the cosmological evolution of galaxies, also shed light on the general question of how irreversibility emerges from a nominally reversible physical system.

  17. Far-infrared and dust properties of present-day galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Peter; Trayford, James W.; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-10-01

    The Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) cosmological simulations reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function and many galaxy properties. In this work, we study the dust-related properties of present-day EAGLE galaxies through mock observations in the far-infrared and submm wavelength ranges obtained with the 3D dust radiative transfer code SKIRT. To prepare an EAGLE galaxy for radiative transfer processing, we derive a diffuse dust distribution from the gas particles and we re-sample the star-forming gas particles and the youngest star particles into star-forming regions that are assigned dedicated emission templates. We select a set of redshift-zero EAGLE galaxies that matches the K-band luminosity distribution of the galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample of about 300 normal galaxies in the Local Universe. We find overall agreement of the EAGLE dust scaling relations with those observed in the HRS, such as the dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus stellar mass and versus NUV-r colour relations. A discrepancy in the f250/f350 versus f350/f500 submm colour-colour relation implies that part of the simulated dust is insufficiently heated, likely because of limitations in our sub-grid model for star-forming regions. We also investigate the effect of adjusting the metal-to-dust ratio and the covering factor of the photodissociation regions surrounding the star-forming cores. We are able to constrain the important dust-related parameters in our method, informing the calculation of dust attenuation for EAGLE galaxies in the UV and optical domain.

  18. The diverse evolutionary paths of simulated high-z massive, compact galaxies to z = 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Sarah; Torrey, Paul; Ma, Chung-Pei; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Pillepich, Annalisa; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-02-01

    Massive quiescent galaxies have much smaller physical sizes at high redshift than today. The strong evolution of galaxy size may be caused by progenitor bias, major and minor mergers, adiabatic expansion, and/or renewed star formation, but it is difficult to test these theories observationally. Herein, we select a sample of 35 massive, compact galaxies (M* = 1-3 × 1011 M⊙, M*/R1.5 > 1010.5 M⊙/kpc1.5) at z = 2 in the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Illustris and trace them forwards to z = 0 to uncover their evolution and identify their descendants. By z = 0, the original factor of 3 difference in stellar mass spreads to a factor of 20. The dark matter halo masses similarly spread from a factor of 5 to 40. The galaxies' evolutionary paths are diverse: about half acquire an ex situ envelope and are the core of a more massive descendant, a third survive undisturbed and gain very little mass, 15 per cent are consumed in a merger with a more massive galaxy, and a small remainder are thoroughly mixed by major mergers. The galaxies grow in size as well as mass, and only ˜10 per cent remain compact by z = 0. The majority of the size growth is driven by the acquisition of ex situ mass. The most massive galaxies at z = 0 are the most likely to have compact progenitors, but this trend possesses significant dispersion which precludes a direct linkage to compact galaxies at z = 2. The compact galaxies' merger rates are influenced by their z = 2 environments, so that isolated or satellite compact galaxies (which are protected from mergers) are the most likely to survive to the present day.

  19. ON THE ROAD TO MORE REALISTIC GALAXY CLUSTER SIMULATIONS: THE EFFECTS OF RADIATIVE COOLING AND THERMAL FEEDBACK PRESCRIPTIONS ON THE OBSERVATIONAL PROPERTIES OF SIMULATED GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skory, Stephen; Hallman, Eric; Burns, Jack O.; Skillman, Samuel W. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); O' Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton D., E-mail: stephen.skory@colorado.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    Flux-limited X-ray surveys of galaxy clusters show that clusters come in two roughly equally proportioned varieties: 'cool core' clusters (CCs) and non-'cool core' clusters (NCCs). In previous work, we have demonstrated using cosmological N-body + Eulerian hydrodynamic simulations that NCCs are often consistent with early major merger events that destroy embryonic CCs. In this paper we extend those results and conduct a series of simulations using different methods of gas cooling and of energy and metal feedback from supernovae, where we attempt to produce a population of clusters with realistic central cooling times, entropies, and temperatures. We find that the use of metallicity-dependent gas cooling is essential to prevent early overcooling, and that adjusting the amount of energy and metal feedback can have a significant impact on observable X-ray quantities of the gas. We are able to produce clusters with more realistic central observable quantities than have previously been attained. However, there are still significant discrepancies between the simulated clusters and observations, which indicates that a different approach to simulating galaxies in clusters is needed. We conclude by looking toward a promising subgrid method of modeling galaxy feedback in clusters that may help to ameliorate the discrepancies between simulations and observations.

  20. Liquid Water and Vapor Flow in Arid Soil: Comparison of Weighing Lysimeter Data with Simulations from a Process-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berli, M.; Dijkema, J.; Koonce, J.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; Van Genuchten, M.

    2015-12-01

    Desert soils account for about a third of the Earth's land surface and are believed to be important players in terrestrial energy balance. However, the mechanisms that govern energy and mass fluxes across the land-atmosphere interface of hot deserts remain poorly understood. This knowledge gap also spills over to our insufficient understanding of the ecology and hydrology of deserts. A recently constructed weighing lysimeter (3 m deep and 2.26 m in diameter) located in Boulder City, NV, provides data of water and energy fluxes across the soil-atmosphere boundary of the Mojave Desert. The lysimeter has been filled with homogenized desert soil from nearby Eldorado Valley, instrumented with a suite of more than 150 sensors at multiple depth between 2.5 and 250 cm and under continuous operation since July 2008. In this study, we report on water content, water potential, and temperature data from one hydrologic year at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The data was used to develop, calibrate and validate a coupled, process-based water flow and storage model using Hydrus-1D. The model simulates liquid water flow, heat flow, and non-isothermal vapor flow along the soil profile. Detailed soil bulk density and porosity profiles are known based on soil mass and volume determined during lysimeter soil installation. Water retention property was determined from concurrent volumetric water content and matric potential measurements. A density-dependent scaling relation was developed to adjust water retention properties to the different soil bulk densities in the profile. The water flux across the soil-atmosphere boundary was determined from high-resolution lysimeter scale data. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was estimated via inverse modeling, using a subset of the soil moisture data. The calibrated model was validated using the remainder of the data set. The model accurately captures the soil temperature dynamics through the year and across the profile. The water

  1. Far-infrared and dust properties of present-day galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Camps, Peter; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The EAGLE cosmological simulations reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function and many galaxy properties. In this work, we study the dust-related properties of present-day EAGLE galaxies through mock observations in the far-infrared and submm wavelength ranges obtained with the 3D dust radiative transfer code SKIRT. To prepare an EAGLE galaxy for radiative transfer processing, we derive a diffuse dust distribution from the gas particles and we re-sample the star-forming gas particles and the youngest star particles into star-forming regions that are assigned dedicated emission templates. We select a set of redshift-zero EAGLE galaxies that matches the K-band luminosity distribution of the galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample of about 300 normal galaxies in the Local Universe. We find overall agreement of the EAGLE dust scaling relations with those observed in the HRS, such as the dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus stellar mass and versus NUV-r colour relations. A di...

  2. The Cosmic Baryon Cycle and Galaxy Mass Assembly in the FIRE Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Kereš, Dušan; Hopkins, Philip F; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman

    2016-01-01

    We use cosmological simulations from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project to study the baryon cycle and galaxy mass assembly for central galaxies in the halo mass range $M_{\\rm halo} \\sim 10^{10} - 10^{13} M_{\\odot}$. By tracing cosmic inflows, galactic outflows, gas recycling, and merger histories, we quantify the contribution of physically distinct sources of material to galaxy growth. We show that in situ star formation fueled by fresh accretion dominates the early growth of galaxies of all masses, while the re-accretion of gas previously ejected in galactic winds often dominates the gas supply for a large portion of every galaxy's evolution. Externally processed material contributes increasingly to the growth of central galaxies at lower redshifts. This includes stars formed ex situ and gas delivered by mergers, as well as smooth intergalactic transfer of gas from other galaxies, an important but previously under-appreciated growth mode. By $z=0$, wind transfer, i.e. the exchange of gas b...

  3. Intrinsic alignment of simulated galaxies in the cosmic web: implications for weak lensing surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Codis, Sandrine; Dubois, Yohan; Pichon, Christophe; Benabed, Karim; Desjacques, Vincent; Pogosyan, Dmitry; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic alignment of galaxy shapes and their cross-correlation with the surrounding dark matter tidal field are investigated using the 160 000, z=1.2 synthetic galaxies extracted from the high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon-AGN. One- and two-point statistics of the spin of the stellar component are measured as a function of mass and colour. For the low-mass galaxies, this spin is locally aligned with the tidal field `filamentary' direction while, for the high-mass galaxies, it is perpendicular to both filaments and walls. The bluest galaxies of our synthetic catalog are more strongly correlated with the surrounding tidal field than the reddest galaxies, and this correlation extends up to 10 Mpc/h comoving distance. We also report a correlation of the projected ellipticities of blue, intermediate mass galaxies on a similar scale at a level of 10^(-4) which could be a concern for cosmic shear measurements. We do not report any measurable intrinsic alignments of the reddest galax...

  4. Dark-ages reionization & galaxy formation simulation V: morphology and statistical signatures of reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Geil, Paul M; Poole, Gregory B; Angel, Paul W; Duffy, Alan R; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J Stuart B

    2015-01-01

    We use the Dark-ages, Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) framework to investigate the effect of galaxy-formation physics on the morphology and statistics of ionized hydrogen (HII) regions during the Epoch of Reioinization (EoR). DRAGONS self-consistently couples a semi-analytic galaxy-formation model with the inhomogeneous ionizing UV background, and can therefore be used to study the dependence of morphology and statistics of reionization on feedback phenomena of the ionizing source galaxy population. Changes in galaxy-formation physics modify the sizes of HII regions and the amplitude and shape of 21-cm power spectra. Of the galaxy physics investigated, we find that supernova feedback plays the most important role in reionization, with HII regions up to $\\approx 20$ per cent smaller and a fractional difference in the amplitude of power spectra of up to $\\approx 17$ per cent at fixed ionized fraction in the absence of this feedback. We compare our galaxy-format...

  5. The evolution of the galaxy Red Sequence in simulated clusters and groups

    CERN Document Server

    Romeo, Alessio D; Covone, G; Sommer-Larsen, J; Antonuccio-Delogu, V; Capaccioli, M

    2008-01-01

    N-body + hydrodynamical simulations of the formation and evolution of galaxy groups and clusters in a LambdaCDM cosmology are used in order to follow the building-up of the colour-magnitude relation in two clusters and in 12 groups. We have found that galaxies, starting from the more massive, move to the Red Sequence (RS) as they get aged over times and eventually set upon a ``dead sequence'' (DS) once they have stopped their bulk star formation activity. Fainter galaxies keep having significant star formation out to very recent epochs and lie broader around the RS. Environment plays a role as galaxies in groups and cluster outskirts hold star formation activity longer than the central cluster regions. However galaxies experiencing infall from the outskirts to the central parts keep star formation on until they settle on to the DS of the core galaxies. Merging contributes to mass assembly until z~1, after which major events only involve the brightest cluster galaxies. The emerging scenario is that the evoluti...

  6. Towards a complete accounting of energy and momentum from stellar feedback in galaxy formation simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Agertz, Oscar; Leitner, Samuel N; Gnedin, Nickolay Y

    2012-01-01

    Stellar feedback plays a key role in galaxy formation by regulating star formation, driving interstellar turbulence and generating galactic scale outflows. Although modern simulations of galaxy formation can resolve scales of 10-100 pc, star formation and feedback operate on smaller, "subgrid" scales. Great care should therefore be taken in order to properly account for the effect of feedback on global galaxy evolution. We investigate the momentum and energy budget of feedback during different stages of stellar evolution, and study its impact on the interstellar medium using simulations of local star forming regions and galactic disks at the resolution affordable in modern cosmological zoom-in simulations. In particular, we present a novel subgrid model for the momentum injection due to radiation pressure and stellar winds from massive stars during early, pre-supernova evolutionary stages of young star clusters. Early injection of momentum acts to clear out dense gas in star forming regions, hence limiting st...

  7. Galaxy Pairs in cosmological simulations: Effects of interactions on star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, M J; Lambas, D G; Scannapieco, C; Tissera, Patricia B.; Lambas, Diego G.; Scannapieco, Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    We carried out a statistical analysis of galaxy pairs in hydrodynamical Lambda-CDM simulations. We focused on the triggering of star formation by interactions and analysed the enhancement of star formation activity in terms of orbital parameters. By comparing to a suitable sample of simulated galaxies without a nearby companion, we find that close encounters (r<30 kpc/h) may effectively induce star formation. However, our results suggest that the stability properties of systems and the spatial proximity are both relevant factors in the process of triggering star formation by tidal interactions. In order to assess the effects of projection and spurious pairs in observational samples, we also constructed and analysed samples of pairs of galaxies in the simulations obtained in projection. We found a good agreement with observational results with a threshold at rp ~ 25 kpc/h for interactions to effectively enhance star formation activity. For pairs within rp < 100 kpc/h, we estimated a ~27% contamination by...

  8. Evolution of star cluster systems in isolated galaxies: first results from direct N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L. J.; Bekki, K.; Hurley, J. R.

    2016-11-01

    The evolution of star clusters is largely affected by the tidal field generated by the host galaxy. It is thus in principle expected that under the assumption of a `universal' initial cluster mass function the properties of the evolved present-day mass function of star cluster systems should show a dependence on the properties of the galactic environment in which they evolve. To explore this expectation, a sophisticated model of the tidal field is required in order to study the evolution of star cluster systems in realistic galaxies. Along these lines, in this work we first describe a method developed for coupling N-body simulations of galaxies and star clusters. We then generate a data base of galaxy models along the Hubble sequence and calibrate evolutionary equations to the results of direct N-body simulations of star clusters in order to predict the clusters' mass evolution as function of the galactic environment. We finally apply our methods to explore the properties of evolved `universal' initial cluster mass functions and any dependence on the host galaxy morphology and mass distribution. The preliminary results show that an initial power-law distribution of the masses `universally' evolves into a lognormal distribution, with the properties correlated with the stellar mass and stellar mass density of the host galaxy.

  9. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation V: morphology and statistical signatures of reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geil, Paul M.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Angel, Paul W.; Duffy, Alan R.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2016-10-01

    We use the Dark-ages, Reionization And Galaxy formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) framework to investigate the effect of galaxy formation physics on the morphology and statistics of ionized hydrogen (H II) regions during the Epoch of Reioinization (EoR). DRAGONS self-consistently couples a semi-analytic galaxy formation model with the inhomogeneous ionizing UV background, and can therefore be used to study the dependence of morphology and statistics of reionization on feedback phenomena of the ionizing source galaxy population. Changes in galaxy formation physics modify the sizes of H II regions and the amplitude and shape of 21-cm power spectra. Of the galaxy physics investigated, we find that supernova feedback plays the most important role in reionization, with H II regions up to ≈20 per cent smaller and a fractional difference in the amplitude of power spectra of up to ≈17 per cent at fixed ionized fraction in the absence of this feedback. We compare our galaxy formation-based reionization models with past calculations that assume constant stellar-to-halo mass ratios and find that with the correct choice of minimum halo mass, such models can mimic the predicted reionization morphology. Reionization morphology at fixed neutral fraction is therefore not uniquely determined by the details of galaxy formation, but is sensitive to the mass of the haloes hosting the bulk of the ionizing sources. Simple EoR parametrizations are therefore accurate predictors of reionization statistics. However, a complete understanding of reionization using future 21-cm observations will require interpretation with realistic galaxy formation models, in combination with other observations.

  10. The VLT LBG Redshift Survey - IV. Gas and galaxies at z~3 in observations and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Tummuangpak, P; Bielby, R; Crighton, N H M; Francke, H; Infante, L; Theuns, T

    2013-01-01

    We use observations and simulations to study the relationship between star-forming galaxies and the IGM at z~3. We use redshift data taken from the VLT LBG Redshift Survey (VLRS) and Keck surveys in fields centred on bright background QSOs, whilst the simulated data is taken from GIMIC. In the simulations, we find that the dominant peculiar velocities are in the form of large-scale coherent motions of gas and galaxies. Gravitational infall of galaxies towards each other is also seen, consistent with linear theory. Peculiar velocity pairs with separations smaller than 1Mpc have a smaller dispersion and better explain the simulated z-space correlations. Lyman-alpha auto- and cross-correlations in the simulations appear to show smaller infall than implied by the expected beta_Lyman-alpha ~ 1.3. Galaxy-wide outflows implemented in the simulations may contribute to this effect. When velocity errors are taken into account, the LBG correlation function prefers the high clustering amplitude shown by higher mass galax...

  11. RHAPSODY-G simulations - II. Baryonic growth and metal enrichment in massive galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martizzi, Davide; Hahn, Oliver; Wu, Hao-Yi; Evrard, August E.; Teyssier, Romain; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-07-01

    We study the evolution of the stellar component and the metallicity of both the intracluster medium and of stars in massive (Mvir ≈ 6 × 1014 M⊙ h-1) simulated galaxy clusters from the RHAPSODY-G suite in detail and compare them to observational results. The simulations were performed with the AMR code RAMSES and include the effect of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback at the subgrid level. AGN feedback is required to produce realistic galaxy and cluster properties and plays a role in mixing material in the central regions and regulating star formation in the central galaxy. In both our low- and high-resolution runs with fiducial stellar yields, we find that stellar and ICM metallicities are a factor of 2 lower than in observations. We find that cool core clusters exhibit steeper metallicity gradients than non-cool core clusters, in qualitative agreement with observations. We verify that the ICM metallicities measured in the simulation can be explained by a simple `regulator' model in which the metallicity is set by a balance of stellar yield and gas accretion. It is plausible that a combination of higher resolution and higher metal yield in AMR simulation would allow the metallicity of simulated clusters to match observed values; however, this hypothesis needs to be tested with future simulations. Comparison to recent literature highlights that results concerning the metallicity of clusters and cluster galaxies might depend sensitively on the scheme chosen to solve the hydrodynamics.

  12. The effects of ionizing radiation on the evolution of SPH-simulated galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, David Clay

    2010-12-01

    Since its beginning some fifteen years ago, the simulation of galaxies using smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) codes has become a crucial tool to understand the physics which shapes the evolution of galaxies from their origins in the early Universe to what we observe in the local Universe today. However, one piece of this physics has been relatively understudied: namely, the ionizing radiation---ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray---which is emitted by early stars, supernovae, and the accretion regions of massive black holes (BHs), and which permeates the Universe from the epoch of reionization to the present day. Therefore I perform my own SPH simulations of galaxies to study in detail the influence of this radiation. In the first chapter of this work I find that the UV background used by most simulations to date may not fit observations constraining it at high redshift, and furthermore the details of the UV background at those redshifts, as well as the presence of an X-ray component, can strongly affect galaxy formation and evolution, specifically the gas dynamics and the amount and location of star formation. In the second chapter I consider why, even though the dark-matter power spectrum and dark-matter simulations predict a large number of small satellite galaxies, hydrodynamic simulations have typically produced fewer satellites, consistent with observations. Performing simulations with various UV and X-ray backgrounds, I show that the number of small galaxies at the present is dependent primarily on the mean gas temperature at the epoch when low-mass systems form their stars, and this temperature is significantly determined by the ionizing radiation background. In the third and final chapter I leave the ionizing background and turn to X-rays emitted by local active galactic nuclei (AGN)---which are massive, accreting BHs. I perform simulations with this new mode of feedback added to the standard mode (the injection of energy to adjacent gas), and find that the X

  13. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Coral Rose

    2016-06-01

    The high dark matter content and the shallow potential wells of low mass galaxies (10^3 Msun 10 Gyr), having had their star formation shut down by reionization. Additionally, we show that the kinematics and ellipticities of isolated simulated dwarf centrals are consistent with observed dSphs satellites without the need for harassment from a massive host. We further show that most (but not all) observed *isolated* dIrrs in the Local Volume also have dispersion-supported stellar populations, contradicting the previous view that these objects are rotating. Finally, we investigate the stellar age gradients in dwarfs — showing that early mergers and strong feedback can create an inverted gradient, with the older stars occupying larger galactocentric radii.These results offer an interesting direction in testing models that attempt to solve dark matter problems via explosive feedback episodes. Can the same models that create large cores in simulated dwarfs preserve the mild stellar rotation that is seen in a minority of isolated dIrrs? Can the bursty star formation that created a dark matter core also match observed stellar gradients in low mass galaxies? Comparisons between our simulations and observed dwarfs should provide an important benchmark for this question going forward.

  14. Bursts of star formation in computer simulations of dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comins, N.F.

    1984-09-01

    A three-dimensional Stochastic Self-Propagating Star Formation (SSPSF) model of compact galacies is presented. Two phases of gas, active and inactive, are present, and permanent depletion of gas in the form of long lived, low mass stars and remnants occurs. Similarly, global infall of gas from a galactic halo or through galactic cannibalism is permitted. We base our parameters on the observed properties of the compact blue galaxy I Zw 36. Our results are that bursts of star formation occur much more frequently in these runs than continuous nonbursting star formation, suggesting that the blue compact galaxies are probably undergoing bursts rather than continuous, nonbursting low-level star formation activity.

  15. Cosmic ray feedback in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Jubelgas, M; Pfrommer, C; Springel, V; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Jubelgas, Martin; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that cosmic rays (CRs) contribute significantly to the pressure of the interstellar medium in our own Galaxy, suggesting that they may play an important role in regulating star formation during the formation and evolution of galaxies. We here discuss a novel numerical treatment of the physics of CRs and its implementation in the parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET-2. In our methodology, the non-thermal CR population of each gaseous fluid element is approximated by a simple power law spectrum in particle momentum, characterized by an amplitude, a cut-off, and a fixed slope. Adiabatic compression, and a number of physical source and sink terms are modelled which modify the CR pressure of each particle. The most important sources considered are injection by supernovae and diffusive shock acceleration, while the primary sinks are thermalization by Coulomb interactions, and catastrophic losses by hadronic interactions. We also include diffusion of CRs. Our scheme allows us to carr...

  16. Observable Properties of Double-Barred Galaxies in N-Body Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Juntai

    2007-01-01

    Although at least one quarter of early-type barred galaxies host secondary stellar bars embedded in their large-scale primary counterparts, the dynamics of such double barred galaxies are still not well understood. Recently we reported success at simulating such systems in a repeatable way in collisionless systems. In order to further our understanding of double-barred galaxies, here we characterize the density and kinematics of the N-body simulations of these galaxies. This will facilitate comparison with observations and lead to a better understanding of the observed double-barred galaxies. We find the shape and size of our simulated secondary bars are quite reasonable compared to the observed ones. We demonstrate that an authentic decoupled secondary bar may produce only a weak twist of the kinematic minor axis in the stellar velocity field, due to the relatively large random motion of stars in the central region. We also find that the edge-on nuclear bars are probably not related to boxy peanut-shaped bul...

  17. Simulation of the Cosmic Evolution of Atomic and Molecular Hydrogen in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Obreschkow, D; De Lucia, G; Khochfar, S; Rawlings, S

    2009-01-01

    We present a simulation of the cosmic evolution of the atomic and molecular phases of the cold hydrogen gas in about 3e7 galaxies, obtained by post-processing the virtual galaxy catalog produced by (De Lucia et al. 2007) on the Millennium Simulation of cosmic structure (Springel et al. 2005). Our method uses a set of physical prescriptions to assign neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) and molecular hydrogen (H2) to galaxies, based on their total cold gas masses and a few additional galaxy properties. These prescriptions are specially designed for large cosmological simulations, where, given current computational limitations, individual galaxies can only be represented by simplistic model-objects with a few global properties. Our recipes allow us to (i) split total cold gas masses between HI, H2, and Helium, (ii) assign realistic sizes to both the HI- and H2-disks, and (iii) evaluate the corresponding velocity profiles and shapes of the characteristic radio emission lines. The results presented in this paper include ...

  18. Panchromatic Spectral Energy Distributions of simulated galaxies: results at redshift $z=0$

    CERN Document Server

    Goz, David; Granato, Gian Luigi; Murante, Giuseppe; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa; Obreja, Aura; Annunziatella, Marianna; Tescari, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    We present predictions of Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs), from the UV to the FIR, of simulated galaxies at $z=0$. These were obtained by post-processing the results of an N-body+hydro simulation of a small cosmological volume, that uses the Multi-Phase Particle Integrator (MUPPI) for star formation and stellar feedback, with the GRASIL-3D radiative transfer code, that includes reprocessing of UV light by dust. Physical properties of galaxies resemble observed ones, though with some tension at small and large stellar masses. Comparing predicted SEDs of simulated galaxies with different samples of local galaxies, we find that these resemble observed ones, when normalised at 3.6 $\\mu$m. A comparison with the Herschel Reference Survey shows that, when binning galaxies in Star Formation Rate (SFR), average SEDs are reproduced to within a factor of $\\sim2$ even in normalization, while binning in stellar mass highlights the same tension that is present in the stellar mass -- SFR plane. We use our sample to inv...

  19. Evolution of cosmic filaments and of their galaxy population from MHD cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheller, C.; Vazza, F.; Brüggen, M.; Alpaslan, M.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Liske, J.

    2016-10-01

    Despite containing about a half of the total matter in the Universe, at most wavelengths the filamentary structure of the cosmic web is difficult to observe. In this work, we use large unigrid cosmological simulations to investigate how the geometrical, thermodynamical and magnetic properties of cosmological filaments vary with mass and redshift (z ≤ 1). We find that the average temperature, length, volume and magnetic field of filaments scales well with their total mass. This reflects the role of self-gravity in shaping their properties and enables statistical predictions of their observational properties based on their mass. We also focus on the properties of the simulated population of galaxy-sized haloes within filaments, and compare their properties to the results obtained from the spectroscopic GAMA survey. Simulated and observed filaments with the same length are found to contain an equal number of galaxies, with very similar distribution of masses. The total number of galaxies within each filament and the total/average stellar mass in galaxies can now be used to predict also the large-scale properties of the gas in the host filaments across tens or hundreds of Mpc in scale. These results are the first steps towards the future use of galaxy catalogues in order to select the best targets for observations of the warm-hot intergalactic medium.

  20. The effects of ram-pressure stripping on the internal kinematics of simulated spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberger, T; Unterguggenberger, S; Schindler, S; Ziegler, B L

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the influence of ram-pressure stripping on the internal gas kinematics of simulated spiral galaxies. Additional emphasis is put on the question of how the resulting distortions of the gaseous disc are visible in the rotation curve and/or the full 2D velocity field of galaxies at different redshifts. A Milky-Way type disc galaxy is modelled in combined N-body/hydrodynamic simulations with prescriptions for cooling, star formation, stellar feedback, and galactic winds. This model galaxy moves through a constant density and temperature gas, which has parameters similar to the intra-cluster medium (ICM). Rotation curves (RCs) and 2D velocity fields of the gas are extracted from these simulations in a way that follows the procedure applied to observations of distant, small, and faint galaxies as closely as possible. We find that the appearance of distortions of the gaseous disc due to ram-pressure stripping depends on the direction of the acting ram pressure. In the case of face-on ram pressure, the...

  1. Portable pallet weighing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An assembly for use with several like units in weighing the mass of a loaded cargo pallet supported by its trunnions has a bridge frame for positioning the assembly on a transportation frame carrying the pallet while straddling one trunnion of the pallet and its trunnion lock, and a cradle assembly for incrementally raising the trunnion. The mass at the trunnion is carried as a static load by a slidable bracket mounted upon the bridge frame for supporting the cradle assembly. The bracket applies the static loading to an electrical load cell symmetrically positioned between the bridge frame and the bracket. The static loading compresses the load cell, causing a slight deformation and a potential difference at load cell terminals which is proportional in amplitude to the mass of the pallet at the trunnion.

  2. Weigh in Motion Based on Parameters Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-feng; CAI Ping; CHEN Ri-xing

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic tire forces are the main factor affecting the measurement accuracy of the axle weight of moving vehicle. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the influence of the dynamic tire forces on the weighing accuracy. On the basis of analyzing the characteristic of the dynamic tire forces, the objective optimization equation is constructed. The optimization algorithm is presented to get the optimal estimations of the objective parameters. According to the estimations of the parameters, the dynamic tire forces are separated from the axle weigh signal. The results of simulation and field experiments prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Host galaxies of long gamma-ray bursts in the Millennium Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, N. E.; Tissera, P. B.; Pellizza, L. J.

    2010-10-01

    In this work, we investigate the nature of the host galaxies of long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) using a galaxy catalogue constructed from the Millennium Simulation. We developed an LGRB synthetic model based on the hypothesis that these events originate at the end of the life of massive stars following the collapsar model, with the possibility of including a constraint on the metallicity of the progenitor star. A complete observability pipeline was designed to calculate a probability estimation for a galaxy to be observationally identified as a host for LGRBs detected by present observational facilities. This new tool allows us to build an observable host galaxy catalogue which is required to reproduce the current stellar mass distribution of observed hosts. This observability pipeline predicts that the minimum mass for the progenitor stars should be ~ 75 Msolar in order to be able to reproduce BATSE observations. Systems in our observable catalogue are able to reproduce the observed properties of host galaxies, namely stellar masses, colours, luminosity, star formation activity and metallicities as a function of redshift. At z > 2, our model predicts that the observable host galaxies would be very similar to the global galaxy population. We found that ~ 88 per cent of the observable host galaxies with mean gas metallicity lower than 0.6 Zsolar have stellar masses in the range 108.5-1010.3 Msolar, in excellent agreement with observations. Interestingly in our model, observable host galaxies remain mainly within this mass range regardless of redshift, since lower stellar mass systems would have a low probability of being observed while more massive ones would be too metal-rich. Observable host galaxies are predicted to preferentially inhabit dark matter haloes in the range 1011-1011.5 Msolar, with a weak dependence on redshift. They are also found to preferentially map different density environments at different stages of evolution of the Universe. At high redshifts

  4. Spatially adaptive radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation during cosmological reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlik, Andreas H; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla

    2015-01-01

    We present a suite of cosmological radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of the assembly of galaxies driving the reionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z >~ 6. The simulations account for the hydrodynamical feedback from photoionization heating and the explosion of massive stars as supernovae (SNe). Our reference simulation, which was carried out in a box of size 25 comoving Mpc/h using 2 x 512^3 particles, produces a reasonable reionization history and matches the observed UV luminosity function of galaxies. Simulations with different box sizes and resolutions are used to investigate numerical convergence, and simulations in which either SNe or photoionization heating or both are turned off, are used to investigate the role of feedback from star formation. Ionizing radiation is treated using accurate radiative transfer at the high spatially adaptive resolution at which the hydrodynamics is carried out. SN feedback strongly reduces the star formation rates (SFRs) over nearly the full mass range of s...

  5. The Nature of Massive Transition Galaxies in CANDELS, GAMA, and Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Pandya, Viraj; Somerville, Rachel S; Choi, Ena; Barro, Guillermo; Wuyts, Stijn; Taylor, Edward N; Behroozi, Peter; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Faber, Sandra M; Primack, Joel; Koo, David C; McIntosh, Daniel H; Kocevski, Dale; Bell, Eric F; Dekel, Avishai; Fang, Jerome J; Ferguson, Henry C; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lu, Yu; Mantha, Kameswara; Mobasher, Bahram; Newman, Jeffrey; Pacifici, Camilla; Papovich, Casey; van der Wel, Arjen; Yesuf, Hassen M

    2016-01-01

    It is common practice to speak of a "green valley" that hosts galaxies whose colors are intermediate relative to those in the "blue cloud" and the "red sequence." In this study, we raise several questions about how galaxies might transition between the star-forming main sequence (SFMS) and varying "degrees of quiescence" from $z=3$ to $z\\sim0$. We develop a physically and statistically motivated definition of "transition galaxies" based on their uniquely intermediate specific star formation rates, which relieves ambiguities associated with color-based selections and allows us to more cleanly compare observations to theoretical models. Our analysis is focused on galaxies with stellar mass $M_*>10^{10}M_{\\odot}$, and is enabled by GAMA and CANDELS observations, a semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation, and a hydrodynamical simulation with state-of-the-art mechanical AGN feedback. In both the observations and the SAM, transition galaxies tend to have intermediate S\\'ersic indices, half-light radii, and su...

  6. Uncovering mass segregation with galaxy analogues in dark-matter simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gandhali D.; Parker, Laura C.; Wadsley, James

    2016-10-01

    We investigate mass segregation in group and cluster environments by identifying galaxy analogues in high-resolution dark-matter simulations. Subhaloes identified by the Amiga's Halo Finder (AHF) and ROCKSTAR halo finders have similar mass functions, independent of resolution, but different radial distributions due to significantly different subhalo hierarchies. We propose a simple way to classify subhaloes as galaxy analogues. The radial distributions of galaxy analogues agree well at large halocentric radii for both AHF and ROCKSTAR but disagree near parent halo centres where the phase-space information used by ROCKSTAR is essential. We see clear mass segregation at small radii (within 0.5 rvir) with average galaxy analogue mass decreasing with radius. Beyond the virial radius, we find a mild trend where the average galaxy analogue mass increases with radius. These mass segregation trends are strongest in small groups and dominated by the segregation of low-mass analogues. The lack of mass segregation in massive galaxy analogues suggests that the observed trends are driven by the complex accretion histories of the parent haloes rather than dynamical friction.

  7. The MICE Grand Challenge Lightcone Simulation II: Halo and Galaxy catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Crocce, M; Gaztanaga, E; Fosalba, P; Carretero, J

    2013-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three papers in which we present an end-to-end simulation from the MICE collaboration, the MICE Grand Challenge (MICE-GC) run. The N-body contains about 70 billion dark-matter particles in a (3 \\Gpc)^3 comoving volume spanning 5 orders of magnitude in dynamical range. In this paper we introduce the halo and galaxy catalogues built upon it, both in a wide (5000 sq. deg) and deep (z<1.4) light-cone and in several redshift snapshots. Friend-of-friends halos were resolved down to few 10^{11} Msun/h what allowed us to model galaxies down to faint luminosities (absolute magnitudes M_r<-18.9). We used a new hybrid Halo Occupation Distribution and Abundance Matching technique for galaxy assignment. The catalogue includes the Spectral Energy Distributions of all galaxies from which we can model multi-band photometric galaxy surveys. We describe a variety of applications for halo and galaxy clustering statistics. We discuss how mass resolution effects can bias the large scale 2-p...

  8. An analysis of the evolving comoving number density of galaxies in hydrodynamical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Torrey, Paul; Machado, Francisco; Griffen, Brendan; Nelson, Dylan; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; McKinnon, Ryan; Pillepich, Annalisa; Ma, Chung-Pei; Vogelsberger, Mark; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative comoving number-density of galaxies as a function of stellar mass or central velocity dispersion is commonly used to link galaxy populations across different epochs. By assuming that galaxies preserve their number-density in time, one can infer the evolution of their properties, such as masses, sizes, and morphologies. However, this assumption does not hold in the presence of galaxy mergers or when rank ordering is broken owing to variable stellar growth rates. We present an analysis of the evolving comoving number density of galaxy populations found in the Illustris cosmological hydrodynamical simulation focused on the redshift range $0\\leq z \\leq 3$. Our primary results are as follows: 1) The inferred average stellar mass evolution obtained via a constant comoving number density assumption is systematically biased compared to the merger tree results at the factor of $\\sim$2(4) level when tracking galaxies from redshift $z=0$ out to redshift $z=2(3)$; 2) The median number density evolution for...

  9. Galaxies in a simulated $\\Lambda$CDM Universe I: cold mode and hot cores

    CERN Document Server

    Keres, Dusan; Fardal, Mark; Dave, Romeel; Weinberg, David H

    2008-01-01

    We study the formation of galaxies in a (50 Mpc/h)^3 cosmological simulation (2x288^3 particles), evolved using the entropy conserving SPH code Gadget-2. Most of the baryonic mass in galaxies of all masses is originally acquired through filamentary "cold mode" accretion of gas that was never shock heated to its halo virial temperature, confirming the key feature of our earlier results obtained with a different SPH code (Keres et al. 2005). Atmospheres of hot, virialized gas develop in halos above ~2.5e11 Msun, a transition mass that is nearly constant from z=3 to z=0. Cold accretion persists in halos above the transition mass, especially at z>=2. It dominates the growth of galaxies in low mass halos at all times, and it is the main driver of the cosmic star formation history. Satellite galaxies have accretion rates similar to central galaxies of the same baryonic mass at high redshifts, but they have less accretion than comparable central galaxies at low redshift. Relative to our earlier results, the Gadget-2...

  10. Weighing the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Karim, M; Bokhari, A H; Karim, Munawar; Tartaglia, Angelo; Bokhari, Ashfaque H.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an experiment to measure the mass of the Milky Way galaxy. The experiment is based on calculated light travel times along orthogonal directions in the Schwarzschild metric of the Galactic center. We show that the difference is proportional to the Galactic mass. We apply the result to light travel times in a 10cm Michelson type interferometer located on Earth. The mass of the Galactic center is shown to contribute 10^-6 to the flat space component of the metric. An experiment is proposed to measure the effect.

  11. Evaluating galactic habitability using high-resolution cosmological simulations of galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, Duncan; Dayal, Pratika; Cockell, Charles; Libeskind, Noam

    2017-01-01

    We present the first model that couples high-resolution simulations of the formation of local group galaxies with calculations of the galactic habitable zone (GHZ), a region of space which has sufficient metallicity to form terrestrial planets without being subject to hazardous radiation. These simulations allow us to make substantial progress in mapping out the asymmetric three-dimensional GHZ and its time evolution for the Milky Way (MW) and Triangulum (M33) galaxies, as opposed to works that generally assume an azimuthally symmetric GHZ. Applying typical habitability metrics to MW and M33, we find that while a large number of habitable planets exist as close as a few kiloparsecs from the galactic centre, the probability of individual planetary systems being habitable rises as one approaches the edge of the stellar disc. Tidal streams and satellite galaxies also appear to be fertile grounds for habitable planet formation. In short, we find that both galaxies arrive at similar GHZs by different evolutionary paths, as measured by the first and third quartiles of surviving biospheres. For the MW, this interquartile range begins as a narrow band at large radii, expanding to encompass much of the Galaxy at intermediate times before settling at a range of 2-13 kpc. In the case of M33, the opposite behaviour occurs - the initial and final interquartile ranges are quite similar, showing gradual evolution. This suggests that Galaxy assembly history strongly influences the time evolution of the GHZ, which will affect the relative time lag between biospheres in different galactic locations. We end by noting the caveats involved in such studies and demonstrate that high-resolution cosmological simulations will play a vital role in understanding habitability on galactic scales, provided that these simulations accurately resolve chemical evolution.

  12. Galaxy evolution in cosmological simulations with outflows - II. Metallicities and gas fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.

    2011-09-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to investigate how inflows, star formation and outflows govern the gaseous and metal content of galaxies within a hierarchical structure formation context. In our simulations, galaxy metallicities are established by a balance between inflows and outflows as governed by the mass outflow rate, implying that the mass-metallicity relation reflects how the outflow rate varies with stellar mass. Gas content, meanwhile, is set by a competition between inflow into and gas consumption within the interstellar medium, the latter being governed by the star formation law, while the former is impacted by both wind recycling and preventive feedback. Stochastic variations in the inflow rate move galaxies off the equilibrium mass-metallicity and mass-gas fraction relations in a manner correlated with the star formation rate, and the scatter is set by the time-scale to re-equilibrate. The evolution of both relations from z= 3 → 0 is slow, as individual galaxies tend to evolve mostly along the relations. Gas fractions at a given stellar mass slowly decrease with time because the cosmic inflow rate diminishes faster than the consumption rate, while metallicities slowly increase as infalling gas becomes more enriched. Observations from z˜ 3 → 0 are better matched by simulations employing momentum-driven wind scalings rather than constant wind speeds, but all models predict too low gas fractions at low masses and too high metallicities at high masses. All our models reproduce observed second-parameter trends of the mass-metallicity relation with the star formation rate and environment, indicating that these are a consequence of equilibrium and not feedback. Overall, the analytical framework of our equilibrium scenario broadly captures the relevant physics establishing the galaxy gas and metal content in simulations, which suggests that the cycle of baryonic inflows and outflows centrally governs the cosmic evolution of these properties

  13. Real & Simulated IFU Observations of Low-Mass Early-Type Galaxies: Environmental Influence Probed for Cluster Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybilska, Agnieszka; Łokas, Ewa Luiza; Fouquet, Sylvain

    2017-03-01

    We combine high-quality IFU data with a new set of numerical simulations to study low-mass early type galaxies (dEs) in dense environments. Our earlier study of dEs in the Virgo cluster has produced the first large-scale maps of kinematic and stellar population properties of dEs in those environments (Ryś et al. 2013, 2014, 2015). A quantitative discrimination between various (trans)formation processes proposed for these objects is, however, a complex issue, requiring a priori assumptions about the progenitors of galaxies we observe and study today. To bridge this gap between observations and theoretical predictions, we use the expertise gained in the IFU data analysis to look ``through the eye of SAURON'' at our new suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of dEs in the Virgo cluster. Mimicking the observers perspective as closely as possible, we can also indicate the existing instrumental and viewer limitations regarding what we are/are not able to detect as observers.

  14. Investigating the AGN-Galaxy Interaction Relationship by Examining the Color and Morphology Measurements of Real and Simulated AGN Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Christina M.

    2009-01-01

    UV-optical colors provide a clear distinction between quiescent galaxies and those undergoing star formation. Galaxy morphology measurements, such as the Gini coefficient, M20, concentration, asymmetry, and the Sersic index, allow identification of interacting galaxies and separation of non-interacting galaxies into bulge or disk-dominated systems. Thus, one can use the colors and morphologies of AGN host galaxies to probe the predicted relationship between galaxy interactions and significant black hole growth (an AGN stage). However, due to the UV excess observed in many AGNs (particularly quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies) and the potentially significant optical contribution from AGNs that are not heavily obscured, one must exercise caution when interpreting the results from color and morphology measurements of AGN host galaxies. With this in mind, we created a set of simulated AGNs to test the reliability of color and morphology measurements of AGN host galaxies. The results were compared to observations of AGN host galaxies at z 1 from the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS). Our observed results reveal a population of X-ray luminous AGN hosts that appear to have green UV-optical colors, indicative of recent star-formation, and a largely disk-dominated profile, suggesting a bulge that is not yet fully developed. Comparison with results from our simulated AGNs suggest that at least some of the observational results are not likely to be due to color or morphological contamination from the presence of an AGN. Therefore, the observed AGN hosts seem to represent a real population that may be going through a transition phase, during which significant star-formation has recently ceased, but for which the black hole remains quite luminous.

  15. The EAGLE project: Simulating the evolution and assembly of galaxies and their environments

    CERN Document Server

    Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G; Furlong, Michelle; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Frenk, Carlos S; McCarthy, I G; Helly, John C; Jenkins, Adrian; Rosas-Guevara, Y M; White, Simon D M; Baes, Maarten; Booth, C M; Camps, Peter; Navarro, Julio F; Qu, Yan; Rahmati, Alireza; Sawala, Till; Thomas, Peter A; Trayford, James

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the Virgo Consortium's EAGLE project, a suite of hydrodynamical simulations that follow the formation of galaxies and black holes in representative volumes. We discuss the limitations of such simulations in light of their finite resolution and poorly constrained subgrid physics, and how these affect their predictive power. One major improvement is our treatment of feedback from massive stars and AGN in which thermal energy is injected into the gas without the need to turn off cooling or hydrodynamical forces, allowing winds to develop without predetermined speed or mass loading factors. Because the feedback efficiencies cannot be predicted from first principles, we calibrate them to the z~0 galaxy stellar mass function and the amplitude of the galaxy-central black hole mass relation, also taking galaxy sizes into account. The observed galaxy mass function is reproduced to $\\lesssim 0.2$ dex over the full mass range, $10^8 < M_*/M_\\odot \\lesssim 10^{11}$, a level of agreement close to that atta...

  16. Simulating galaxy formation with black hole driven thermal and kinetic feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Rainer; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; Pillepich, Annalisa; Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Naiman, Jill; Torrey, Paul

    2017-03-01

    The inefficiency of star formation in massive elliptical galaxies is widely believed to be caused by the interactions of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) with the surrounding gas. Achieving a sufficiently rapid reddening of moderately massive galaxies without expelling too many baryons has however proven difficult for hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation, prompting us to explore a new model for the accretion and feedback effects of supermassive black holes. For high-accretion rates relative to the Eddington limit, we assume that a fraction of the accreted rest mass energy heats the surrounding gas thermally, similar to the 'quasar mode' in previous work. For low-accretion rates, we invoke a new, pure kinetic feedback model that imparts momentum to the surrounding gas in a stochastic manner. These two modes of feedback are motivated both by theoretical conjectures for the existence of different types of accretion flows as well as recent observational evidence for the importance of kinetic AGN winds in quenching galaxies. We find that a large fraction of the injected kinetic energy in this mode thermalizes via shocks in the surrounding gas, thereby providing a distributed heating channel. In cosmological simulations, the resulting model produces red, non-star-forming massive elliptical galaxies, and achieves realistic gas fractions, black hole growth histories and thermodynamic profiles in large haloes.

  17. N-body simulations of gravitational redshifts and other relativistic distortions of galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongyu; Alam, Shadab; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Ho, Shirley; Giusarma, Elena

    2017-10-01

    Large redshift surveys of galaxies and clusters are providing the first opportunities to search for distortions in the observed pattern of large-scale structure due to such effects as gravitational redshift. We focus on non-linear scales and apply a quasi-Newtonian approach using N-body simulations to predict the small asymmetries in the cross-correlation function of two galaxy different populations. Following recent work by Bonvin et al., Zhao and Peacock and Kaiser on galaxy clusters, we include effects which enter at the same order as gravitational redshift: the transverse Doppler effect, light-cone effects, relativistic beaming, luminosity distance perturbation and wide-angle effects. We find that all these effects cause asymmetries in the cross-correlation functions. Quantifying these asymmetries, we find that the total effect is dominated by the gravitational redshift and luminosity distance perturbation at small and large scales, respectively. By adding additional subresolution modelling of galaxy structure to the large-scale structure information, we find that the signal is significantly increased, indicating that structure on the smallest scales is important and should be included. We report on comparison of our simulation results with measurements from the SDSS/BOSS galaxy redshift survey in a companion paper.

  18. The star formation main sequence and stellar mass assembly of galaxies in the Illustris simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sparre, Martin; Springel, Volker; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Torrey, Paul; Nelson, Dylan; Sijacki, Debora; Hernquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the physical processes that drive star formation is a key challenge for galaxy formation models. In this article we study the tight correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass of galaxies at a given redshift, how halo growth influences star formation, and star formation histories of individual galaxies. We study these topics using Illustris, a state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulation of galaxy formation. Illustris reproduces the observed relation (the star formation main sequence; SFMS) between SFR and stellar mass at redshifts z=0 and z=4, but at intermediate redshifts of z~2, the simulated SFMS has a significantly lower normalisation than reported by observations. The scatter in the relation is consistent with the observed scatter. However, the fraction of outliers above the SFR-stellar mass relation in Illustris is less than that observed. Galaxies with halo masses of ~10^{12} solar masses dominate the SFR density of the Universe, in agreement with the re...

  19. The Horizon-AGN simulation: evolution of galaxy properties over cosmic time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviraj, S.; Laigle, C.; Kimm, T.; Devriendt, J. E. G.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Slyz, A.; Chisari, E.; Peirani, S.

    2017-01-01

    We compare the predictions of Horizon-AGN, a hydro-dynamical cosmological simulation that uses an adaptive mesh refinement code, to observational data in the redshift range 0 formation main sequence, rest-frame UV-optical-near infrared colours and the cosmic star-formation history. We show that Horizon-AGN, which is not tuned to reproduce the local Universe, produces good overall agreement with these quantities, from the present day to the epoch when the Universe was 5% of its current age. By comparison to Horizon-noAGN, a twin simulation without AGN feedback, we quantify how feedback from black holes is likely to help shape galaxy stellar-mass growth in the redshift range 0 < z < 6, particularly in the most massive galaxies. Our results demonstrate that Horizon-AGN successfully captures the evolutionary trends of observed galaxies over the lifetime of the Universe, making it an excellent tool for studying the processes that drive galaxy evolution and making predictions for the next generation of galaxy surveys.

  20. The masses and density profiles of halos in a LCDM galaxy formation simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, Matthieu; Bower, Richard G; Theuns, Tom; Jenkins, Adrian; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A; Furlong, Michelle; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; McCarthy, I G

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the internal structure and density profiles of halos of mass $10^{10}-10^{14}~M_\\odot$ in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations. These follow the formation of galaxies in a $\\Lambda$CDM Universe and include a treatment of the baryon physics thought to be relevant. The EAGLE simulations reproduce the observed present-day galaxy stellar mass function, as well as many other properties of the galaxy population as a function of time. We find significant differences between the masses of halos in the EAGLE simulations and in simulations that follow only the dark matter component. Nevertheless, halos are well described by the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile at radii larger than ~5% of the virial radius but, closer to the centre, the presence of stars can produce cuspier profiles. Central enhancements in the total mass profile are most important in halos of mass $10^{12}-10^{13}M_\\odot$, where the stellar fraction peaks. Over the radial range where t...

  1. The resolution bias: low resolution feedback simulations are better at destroying galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bourne, Martin A; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Feedback from super-massive black holes (SMBHs) is thought to play a key role in regulating the growth of host galaxies. Cosmological and galaxy formation simulations using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), which usually use a fixed mass for SPH particles, often employ the same sub-grid Active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback prescription across a range of resolutions. It is thus important to ask how the impact of the simulated AGN feedback on a galaxy changes when only the numerical resolution (the SPH particle mass) changes. We present a suite of simulations modelling the interaction of an AGN outflow with the ambient turbulent and clumpy interstellar medium (ISM) in the inner part of the host galaxy at a range of mass resolutions. We find that, with other things being equal, degrading the resolution leads to feedback becoming more efficient at clearing out all gas in its path. For the simulations presented here, the difference in the mass of the gas ejected by AGN feedback varies by more than a factor o...

  2. An Empirical Approach to Cosmological Galaxy Survey Simulation: Application to SPHEREx Low-Resolution Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stickley, Nathaniel R; Masters, Daniel; de Putter, Roland; Doré, Olivier; Bock, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Highly accurate models of the galaxy population over cosmological volumes are necessary in order to predict the performance of upcoming cosmological missions. We present a data-driven model of the galaxy population constrained by deep 0.1-8 $\\rm \\mu m$ imaging and spectroscopic data in the COSMOS survey, with the immediate goal of simulating the spectroscopic redshift performance of the proposed SPHEREx mission. SPHEREx will obtain over the full-sky $R\\sim41$ spectrophotometry at moderate spatial resolution ($\\sim6"$) over the wavelength range 0.75-4.18 $\\rm \\mu m$ and $R\\sim135$ over the wavelength range 4.18-5 $\\rm \\mu m$. We show that our simulation accurately reproduces a range of known galaxy properties, encapsulating the full complexity of the galaxy population and enables realistic, full end-to-end simulations to predict mission performance. Finally, we discuss potential applications of the simulation framework to future cosmology missions and give a description of released data products.

  3. Comparison between Disk-like Objects Formed in Hierarchical Hydrodynamical Simulations and Observations of Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Saiz, A; Tissera, P B; Courteau, S

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the structural and dynamical properties of disk-like objects formed in fully consistent cosmological simulations which include inefficient star formation. Comparison with data of similar observable properties of spiral galaxies gives satisfactory agreement, in contrast with previous findings using other codes. This suggests that the stellar formation implementation used has allowed the formation of disks as well as guaranteed their stability.

  4. Weighing 'El Gordo' with a precision scale: Hubble space telescope weak-lensing analysis of the merging galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102–4915 at z = 0.87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, M. James; Ng, Karen Y. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hughes, John P.; Menanteau, Felipe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghysen Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sifón, Cristóbal [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Mandelbaum, Rachel [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Barrientos, L. Felipe; Infante, Leopoldo [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Ponticia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2014-04-10

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope weak-lensing study of the merging galaxy cluster 'El Gordo' (ACT-CL J0102–4915) at z = 0.87 discovered by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) collaboration as the strongest Sunyaev-Zel'dovich decrement in its ∼1000 deg{sup 2} survey. Our weak-lensing analysis confirms that ACT-CL J0102–4915 is indeed an extreme system consisting of two massive (≳ 10{sup 15} M {sub ☉} each) subclusters with a projected separation of ∼0.7 h{sub 70}{sup −1} Mpc. This binary mass structure revealed by our lensing study is consistent with the cluster galaxy distribution and the dynamical study carried out with 89 spectroscopic members. We estimate the mass of ACT-CL J0102–4915 by simultaneously fitting two axisymmetric Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profiles allowing their centers to vary. We use only a single parameter for the NFW mass profile by enforcing the mass-concentration relation from numerical simulations. Our Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo analysis shows that the masses of the northwestern (NW) and the southeastern (SE) components are M{sub 200c}=(1.38±0.22)×10{sup 15} h{sub 70}{sup −1} M{sub ⊙} and (0.78±0.20)×10{sup 15} h{sub 70}{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}, respectively, where the quoted errors include only 1σ statistical uncertainties determined by the finite number of source galaxies. These mass estimates are subject to additional uncertainties (20%-30%) due to the possible presence of triaxiality, correlated/uncorrelated large scale structure, and departure of the cluster profile from the NFW model. The lensing-based velocity dispersions are 1133{sub −61}{sup +58} km s{sup −1} and 1064{sub −66}{sup +62} km s{sup −1} for the NW and SE components, respectively, which are consistent with their spectroscopic measurements (1290 ± 134 km s{sup –1} and 1089 ± 200 km s{sup –1}, respectively). The centroids of both components are tightly constrained (∼4'') and close to the optical luminosity

  5. Reproducing the Stellar Mass/Halo Mass Relation in Simulated LCDM Galaxies: Theory vs Observational Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Munshi, Ferah; Brooks, A M; Christensen, C; Shen, S; Loebman, S; Moster, B; Quinn, T; Wadsley, J

    2012-01-01

    We examine the present-day total stellar-to-halo mass (SHM) ratio as a function of halo mass for a new sample of simulated field galaxies using fully cosmological, LCDM, high resolution SPH + N-Body simulations.These simulations include an explicit treatment of metal line cooling, dust and self-shielding, H2 based star formation and supernova driven gas outflows. The 18 simulated halos have masses ranging from a few times 10^8 to nearly 10^12 solar masses. At z=0 our simulated galaxies have a baryon content and morphology typical of field galaxies. Over a stellar mass range of 2.2 x 10^3 to 4.5 x 10^10 solar masses, we find extremely good agreement between the SHM ratio in simulations and the present-day predictions from the statistical Abundance Matching Technique presented in Moster et al. (2012). This improvement over past simulations is due to a number systematic factors, each decreasing the SHM ratios: 1) gas outflows that reduce the overall SF efficiency but allow for the formation of a cold gas compone...

  6. The Impact of Simulations in Cosmology and Galaxy Formation A summary of the Workshop NOVICOSMO 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Salucci, Paolo; Frenk, Carlos; Moscardini, Lauro; Viel, Matteo

    2008-01-01

    In the study of the process of cosmic structure formation numerical simulations are crucial tools to interface observational data to theoretical models and to investigate issues otherwise unexplored. Enormous advances have been achieved in the last years thanks to the availability of sophisticated codes, now allowing to tackle the problem of cosmic structure formation and subsequent evolution by covering larger and larger dynamical ranges. Moreover, computational cosmology is the ideal interpretative framework for the overwhelming amount of new data from extragalactic surveys and from large sample of individual objects. The Workshop Novicosmo 2008 "The Impact of Simulations in Cosmology and Galaxy Formation' held in SISSA was aimed at providing the state-of-the-art on the latest numerical simulations in Cosmology and in Galaxy Formation. Particular emphasis was given to the implementation of new physical processes in simulation codes, to the comparison between different codes and numerical schemes and how to ...

  7. Large-eddy simulations of isolated disc galaxies with thermal and turbulent feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Harald; Niemeyer, Jens C; Almgren, Ann S

    2014-01-01

    We present a subgrid-scale model for the Multi-phase Interstellar medium, Star formation, and Turbulence (MIST) and explore its behaviour in high-resolution large-eddy simulations of isolated disc galaxies. MIST follows the evolution of a clumpy cold and a diffuse warm component of the gas within a volume element which exchange mass and energy via various cooling, heating and mixing processes. The star formation rate is dynamically computed from the state of the gas in the cold phase. An important feature of MIST is the treatment of unresolved turbulence in the two phases and its interaction with star formation and feedback by supernovae. This makes MIST a particularly suitable model for the interstellar medium in galaxy simulations. We carried out a suite of simulations varying fundamental parameters of our feedback implementation. Several observational properties of galactic star formation are reproduced in our simulations, such as an average star formation efficiency ~1%, a typical velocity dispersion arou...

  8. The SELGIFS data challenge: generating synthetic observations of CALIFA galaxies from hydrodynamical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Guidi, Giovanni; Ascasibar, Yago; Galbany, Lluis; Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia; Sánchez, Sebastian F; Rosales-Ortega, F Fabián; Scannapieco, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present a set of synthetic observations that mimic the properties of the Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) survey CALIFA, generated using radiative transfer techniques applied to hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies in a cosmological context. The simulated spatially-resolved spectra include stellar and nebular emission, kinematic broadening of the lines, and dust extinction and scattering. The results of the radiative transfer simulations have been post-processed to reproduce the main properties of the CALIFA V500 and V1200 observational setups. The data has been further formatted to mimic the CALIFA survey in terms of field of view size, spectral range and sampling. We have included the effect of the spatial and spectral Point Spread Functions affecting CALIFA observations, and added detector noise after characterizing it on a sample of 20 galaxies. The simulated datacubes are suited to be analyzed by the same algorithms used on real IFS data. In order to provide a benchmark to compare the ...

  9. Study of galaxy cluster properties from high-resolution SPH simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Yepes, G; Gottlöber, S; Müller, V

    2003-01-01

    We present some of the results of an ongoing collaboration to sudy the dynamical properties of galaxy clusters by means of high resolution adiabatic SPH cosmological simulations. Results from our numerical clusters have been tested against analytical models often used in X-ray observations: $\\beta$ model (isothermal and polytropic) and those based on universal dark matter profiles. We find a universal temperature profile, in agreement with AMR gasdynamical simulations of galaxy clusters. Temperature decreases by a factor 2-3 from the center to virial radius. Therefore, isothermal models (e.g. $\\beta$ model) give a very poor fit to simulated data. Moreover, gas entropy profiles deviate from a power law near the center, which is also in very good agreement with independent AMR simulations. Thus, if future X-ray observations confirm that gas in clusters has an extended isothermal core, then non-adiabatic physics would be required in order to explain it.

  10. The UV view of multi spin galaxies: insight from SPH simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bettoni, Daniela; Marino, Antonina; Rampazzo, Roberto; Galletta, Giuseppe; Buson, Lucio M

    2014-01-01

    The UV images of GALEX revealed that ~30% of Early Type Galaxies (ETG) show UV emission indicating a rejuvenation episode. In ETGs with multiple spin components this percentage increases at 50%. We present here the characteristics of this sample and our smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations with chemo-photometric implementation that provide dynamical and morphological information together with the spectral energy distribution (SED) at each evolutionary stage. We show our match of the global properties of two ETGs (e.g. NGC 3626 and NGC 5173). For these galaxies we can trace their evolutionary path.

  11. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF GALAXY FORMATION IN A ¿ COLD DARK MATTER UNIVERSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Abadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of the A Cold Dark Matter model in reproducing observational results from the large scale structure of the Universe has established it as the new paradigm for galaxy formation and evolution. Cosmological gravitational/hydrodynamical numerical simulations are an invaluable tool to study the origin and evolution of di erent galactic components in this cosmological framework. In the following we review the main ideas presently accepted regarding galaxy formation, and stress the importance of di erent complex astrophysical e ects usually invoked during this process. We emphasise, as well, the fundamental role that satellite accretion events play in shaping the formation of galactic systems.

  12. A New Hydrodynamic Model for Numerical Simulation of Interacting Galaxies on Intel Xeon Phi Supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Igor; Chernykh, Igor; Tutukov, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new hydrodynamic model of interacting galaxies based on the joint solution of multicomponent hydrodynamic equations, first moments of the collisionless Boltzmann equation and the Poisson equation for gravity. Using this model, it is possible to formulate a unified numerical method for solving hyperbolic equations. This numerical method has been implemented for hybrid supercomputers with Intel Xeon Phi accelerators. The collision of spiral and disk galaxies considering the star formation process, supernova feedback and molecular hydrogen formation is shown as a simulation result.

  13. The properties, origin and evolution of stellar clusters in galaxy simulations and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, C. L.; Adamo, A.; Few, C. G.; Calzetti, D.; Dale, D. A.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Evans, A. S.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Kim, H.; Johnson, K. E.; Lee, J. C.; Messa, M.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Ubeda, L.; Whitmore, B.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the properties and evolution of star particles in two simulations of isolated spiral galaxies, and two galaxies from cosmological simulations. Unlike previous numerical work, where typically each star particle represents one `cluster', for the isolated galaxies we are able to model features we term `clusters' with groups of particles. We compute the spatial distribution of stars with different ages, and cluster mass distributions, comparing our findings with observations including the recent LEGUS survey. We find that spiral structure tends to be present in older (100s Myrs) stars and clusters in the simulations compared to the observations. This likely reflects differences in the numbers of stars or clusters, the strength of spiral arms, and whether the clusters are allowed to evolve. Where we model clusters with multiple particles, we are able to study their evolution. The evolution of simulated clusters tends to follow that of their natal gas clouds. Massive, dense, long-lived clouds host massive clusters, whilst short-lived clouds host smaller clusters which readily disperse. Most clusters appear to disperse fairly quickly, in basic agreement with observational findings. We note that embedded clusters may be less inclined to disperse in simulations in a galactic environment with continuous accretion of gas onto the clouds than isolated clouds and correspondingly, massive young clusters which are no longer associated with gas tend not to occur in the simulations. Caveats of our models include that the cluster densities are lower than realistic clusters, and the simplistic implementation of stellar feedback.

  14. The distribution of neutral hydrogen around high-redshift galaxies and quasars in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rahmati, Alireza; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Furlong, Michelle; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The observed high covering fractions of neutral hydrogen (HI) with column densities above $\\sim 10^{17} \\rm{cm}^{-2}$ around Lyman-Break Galaxies (LBGs) and bright quasars at redshifts z ~ 2-3 has been identified as a challenge for simulations of galaxy formation. We use the EAGLE cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation, which has been shown to reproduce a wide range of galaxy properties and for which the subgrid feedback was calibrated without considering gas properties, to study the distribution of HI around high-redshift galaxies. We predict the covering fractions of strong HI absorbers ($N_{\\rm{HI}} \\gtrsim 10^{17} \\rm{cm}^{-2}$) inside haloes to increase rapidly with redshift but to depend only weakly on halo mass. For massive ($M_{200} \\gtrsim 10^{12} {\\rm M_{\\odot}}$) halos the covering fraction profiles are nearly scale-invariant and we provide fitting functions that reproduce the simulation results. While efficient feedback is required to increase the HI covering fractions to the high observed values...

  15. Exploring Quenching, Morphological Transformation and AGN-Driven Winds with Simulations of Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Ryan; CANDELS

    2017-01-01

    We present an examination of the spheroid growth and star formation quenching experienced by galaxies since z~3 by studying the evolution with redshift of the quiescent and spheroid-dominated fractions of galaxies from the CANDELS and GAMA surveys. We compare these fractions with predictions from a semi-analytic model which includes prescriptions for bulge growth and AGN feedback due to mergers and disk instabilities. We then subdivide our population into the four quadrants of the specific star-formation rate (sSFR)-Sersic index plane. We find that the fraction of star forming disks declines steadily while the fraction of quiescent spheroids increases with cosmic time. The fraction of star-forming spheroids and quiescent disks are both non-negligible and remain nearly constant. Our model is qualitatively successful at reproducing these fractions, suggesting a plausible explanation for the observed correlations between star formation activity and galaxy structure.Next, we study the correlation of galaxy structural properties with their location relative to the star-formation rate-stellar mass correlation, or the star forming main sequence. We find that as we move from observed galaxies above the main sequence to those below it, we see a nearly monotonic trend towards higher median Sersic index, smaller radius, lower SFR density and higher stellar mass density. Our model again qualitatively reproduces these trends, supporting a picture in which bulges and black holes co-evolve and AGN feedback plays a critical role in galaxy quenching.Finally, we examine AGN-driven winds in a suite of cosmological zoom simulations including a novel mechanical and radiation-driven AGN feedback prescription and compare the gas cycle with a matched suite of zoom simulations that include only feedback from supernovae and young stars. We find that while stellar feedback can drive mass out of galaxies, it is unlikely to be able to keep the gas from re-accreting, whereas in our AGN runs it

  16. Giant clumps in the FIRE simulations: a case study of a massive high-redshift galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklopčić, Antonija; Hopkins, Philip F.; Feldmann, Robert; Kereš, Dušan; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Murray, Norman

    2017-02-01

    The morphology of massive star-forming galaxies at high redshift is often dominated by giant clumps of mass ˜108-109 M⊙ and size ˜100-1000 pc. Previous studies have proposed that giant clumps might have an important role in the evolution of their host galaxy, particularly in building the central bulge. However, this depends on whether clumps live long enough to migrate from their original location in the disc or whether they get disrupted by their own stellar feedback before reaching the centre of the galaxy. We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations from the FIRE (Feedback in Realistic Environments) project which implement explicit treatments of stellar feedback and interstellar medium physics to study the properties of these clumps. We follow the evolution of giant clumps in a massive (M* ˜ 1010.8 M⊙ at z = 1), discy, gas-rich galaxy from redshift z ≳ 2 to z = 1. Even though the clumpy phase of this galaxy lasts over a gigayear, individual gas clumps are short-lived, with mean lifetime of massive clumps of ˜20 Myr. During that time, they turn between 0.1 per cent and 20 per cent of their gas into stars before being disrupted, similar to local giant molecular clouds. Clumps with M ≳ 107 M⊙ account for ˜20 per cent of the total star formation in the galaxy during the clumpy phase, producing ˜1010 M⊙ of stars. We do not find evidence for net inward migration of clumps within the galaxy. The number of giant clumps and their mass decrease at lower redshifts, following the decrease in the overall gas fraction and star formation rate.

  17. Cosmological MHD Simulations of Galaxy Cluster Radio Relics: Insights and Warnings for Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Skillman, Samuel W; Hallman, Eric J; O'Shea, Brian W; Burns, Jack O; Li, Hui; Collins, David C; Norman, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    Non-thermal radio emission from cosmic ray electrons in the vicinity of merging galaxy clusters is an important tracer of cluster merger activity, and is the result of complex physical processes that involve magnetic fields, particle acceleration, gas dynamics, and radiation. In particular, objects known as radio relics are thought to be the result of shock-accelerated electrons that, when embedded in a magnetic field, emit synchrotron radiation in the radio wavelengths. In order to properly model this emission, we utilize the adaptive mesh refinement simulation of the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a galaxy cluster from cosmological initial conditions. We locate shock fronts and apply models of cosmic ray electron acceleration that are then input into radio emission models. We have determined the thermodynamic properties of this radio-emitting plasma and constructed synthetic radio observations to compare to observed galaxy clusters. We find a significant dependence of the observed morphology and radio rel...

  18. Simulating galaxy formation with black hole driven thermal and kinetic feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberger, Rainer; Hernquist, Lars; Pillepich, Annalisa; Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Naiman, Jill; Torrey, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The inefficiency of star formation in massive elliptical galaxies is widely believed to be caused by the interactions of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) with the surrounding gas. Achieving a sufficiently rapid reddening of moderately massive galaxies without expelling too many baryons has however proven difficult for hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation, prompting us to explore a new model for the accretion and feedback effects of supermassive black holes. For high accretion rates relative to the Eddington limit, we assume that a fraction of the accreted rest mass energy heats the surrounding gas thermally, similar to the `quasar mode' in previous work. For low accretion rates, we invoke a new, pure kinetic feedback model which imparts momentum into the surrounding gas in a stochastic manner. These two modes of feedback are motivated both by theoretical conjectures for the existence of different types of accretion flows as well as recent observational evidence for the importance of kinetic AGN wind...

  19. Using deep images and simulations to trace collisional debris around massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2017-03-01

    Deep imaging programs, such as MATLAS which has just been completed at the CFHT, allows us to study with their diffuse light the outer stellar populations around large number of galaxies. We have carried out a systematic census of their fine structures, i.e. the collisional debris from past mergers. We have identified among them stellar streams from minor mergers, tidal tails from gas-rich major mergers, plumes from gas-poor major mergers, and shells from intermediate mass mergers. Having estimated the visibility and life time of each of these structures with numerical simulations, we can reconstruct the past mass assembly of the host galaxy. Preliminary statistical results based on a sample of 360 massive nearby galaxies are presented.

  20. Ab initio Simulations of a Supernova Driven Galactic Dynamo in an Isolated Disk Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Butsky, Iryna; Kim, Ji-hoon; Yang, Hung-I; Abel, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We study the magnetic field evolution of an isolated spiral galaxy, using isolated Milky Way-mass galaxy formation simulations and a novel prescription for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) supernova feedback. Our main result is that a galactic dynamo can be seeded and driven by supernova explosions, resulting in magnetic fields whose strength and morphology is consistent with observations. In our model, supernovae supply thermal energy, and a low level magnetic field along with their ejecta. The thermal expansion drives turbulence, which serves a dual role by efficiently mixing the magnetic field into the interstellar medium, and amplifying it by means of turbulent dynamo. The computational prescription for MHD supernova feedback has been implemented within the publicly available ENZO code, and is fully described in this paper. This improves upon ENZO's existing modules for hydrodynamic feedback from stars and active galaxies. We find that the field attains $\\mu G$-levels over Gyr-time scales throughout the disk. Th...

  1. Incorporating the molecular gas phase in galaxy-size numerical simulations: first applications in dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pelupessy, F I; Van der Werf, P P

    2006-01-01

    We present models of the evolution of the gaseous and stellar content of galaxies incorporating the formation of H_2 out of HI gas as part of such a model. We do so by formulating a subgrid model for gas clouds that uses well-known cloud scaling relations and solves for the HI-H_2 balance set by the H_2 formation on dust grains and its FUV-induced photodissociation by the temporally and spatially varying interstellar radiation field. This allows the seamless tracking of the evolution of the H_2 gas phase, its precursor Cold Neutral Medium (CNM) HI gas, simultaneously with the star formation. Our most important findings are: a) a significant dependence of the HI-H_2 transition and the resultant H_2 gas mass on the ambient metallicity and the H_2 formation rate, b) the important influence of the characteristic star formation timescale (regulating the ambient FUV radiation field) on the equilibrium H_2 gas mass and c) the possibility of a diffuse H_2 gas phase. Finally, we implement and briefly explore a novel a...

  2. Luminosity function of [OII] emission-line galaxies in the MassiveBlack-II simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Park, KwangHo; Ho, Shirley; Croft, Rupert; Wilkins, Stephen M; Feng, Yu; Khandai, Nishikanta

    2015-01-01

    We examine the luminosity function (LF) of [OII] emission-line galaxies in the high-resolution cosmological simulation MassiveBlack-II (MBII). From the spectral energy distribution of each galaxy, we select a sub-sample of star-forming galaxies at $0.06 \\le z \\le 3.0$ using the [OII] emission line luminosity L([OII]). We confirm that the specific star formation rate matches that in the GAMA survey. We show that the [OII] LF at z=1.0 from the MBII shows a good agreement with the LFs from several surveys below L([OII])=$10^{43.0}$ erg/s while the low redshifts ($z \\le 0.3$) show an excess in the prediction of bright [OII] galaxies, but still displaying a good match with observations below L([OII])=$10^{41.6}$ erg/s. Based on the validity in reproducing the properties of [OII] galaxies at low redshift ($z \\le 1$), we forecast the evolution of the [OII] LF at high redshift ($z \\le 3$), which can be tested by upcoming surveys such as the HETDEX and DESI. The slopes of the LFs at bright and faint ends range from -3...

  3. Giant clumps in the FIRE simulations: a case study of a massive high-redshift galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Oklopcic, Antonija; Feldmann, Robert; Keres, Dusan; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Murray, Norman

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of massive star-forming galaxies at high redshift is often dominated by giant clumps of mass ~10^8-10^9 Msun and size ~100-1000 pc. Previous studies have proposed that giant clumps might have an important role in the evolution of their host galaxy, particularly in building the central bulge. However, this depends on whether clumps live long enough to migrate from their original location in the disc or whether they get disrupted by their own stellar feedback before reaching the centre of the galaxy. We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations from the FIRE (Feedback in Realistic Environments) project that implement explicit treatments of stellar feedback and ISM physics to study the properties of these clumps. We follow the evolution of giant clumps in a massive (stellar mass ~10^10.8 Msun at z=1), discy, gas-rich galaxy from redshift z>2 to z=1. Even though the clumpy phase of this galaxy lasts over a gigayear, individual gas clumps are short-lived, with mean lifetime of massive clumps of ~2...

  4. The diverse evolutionary paths of simulated high-$z$ massive, compact galaxies to $z = 0$

    CERN Document Server

    Wellons, Sarah; Ma, Chung-Pei; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Pillepich, Annalisa; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Massive quiescent galaxies at high redshift have been observed to have much smaller physical sizes than their local counterparts. Several mechanisms have been invoked to explain the strong evolution of galaxy size with redshift, including progenitor bias, major and minor mergers, adiabatic expansion, and renewed star formation. However, it is difficult to connect galaxy populations between cosmological epochs to test these theories observationally. Herein, we select a sample of 35 massive, compact galaxies ($M_*$ = 1-3 x $10^{11}$ M$_\\odot$, $M_*/R^{1.5}$ > $10^{10.5}$ M$_\\odot$/kpc$^{1.5}$) at z=2 in the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Illustris and trace them forward to z=0 to uncover how they evolve to the present day. By z=0, the original factor of 3 difference in stellar mass has spread to a factor of 20. The spread in dark matter halo mass similarly increases from a factor of 5 to a factor of 40. The compact galaxies' evolutionary paths are diverse: about half acquire an ex-situ envelope and exis...

  5. The impact of environment and mergers on the HI content of galaxies in hydrodynamic simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rafieferantsoa, Mika; Anglés-Alcazar, Daniel; Katz, Neal; Kollmeier, Juna A; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    We quantitatively examine the effects of accretion and environment on the HI content of galaxies within a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation that reproduces basic observed trends of HI in galaxies. We show that our model broadly reproduces the observed scatter in HI at a given stellar mass as quantified by the HI mass function in bins of stellar mass, as well as the HI richness versus local galaxy density. This shows that the predicted HI fluctuations and environmental effects are roughly consistent with data with few minor discrepancies. For satellite galaxies in >= 10^12M_* halos, the HI richness distribution is bimodal and drops towards the largest halo masses. The depletion rate of HI once a galaxy enters a more massive halo is more rapid at higher halo mass, in contrast to the specific star formation rate which shows much less variation in the attenuation rate versus halo mass. This suggests that, up to halo mass scales probed here (<= 10^14M_*), star formation is mainly attenuated by starvation, bu...

  6. The fundamental plane of star formation in galaxies revealed by the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Claudia del P; Schaye, Joop; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A; Trayford, James W; Matthee, Jorryt

    2015-01-01

    We investigate correlations between different physical properties of star-forming galaxies in the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamical simulation suite over the redshift range $0\\le z\\le 4.5$. A principal component analysis reveals that neutral gas fraction ($f_{\\rm gas, neutral}$), stellar mass ($M_{\\rm stellar}$) and star formation rate (SFR) account for most of the variance seen in the population, with galaxies tracing a two-dimensional, nearly flat, surface in the three-dimensional space of $f_{\\rm gas, neutral}-M_{\\rm stellar}-\\rm SFR$ with little scatter. The location of this plane varies little with redshift, whereas galaxies themselves move along the plane as their $f_{\\rm gas, neutral}$ and SFR drop with redshift. The positions of galaxies along the plane are highly correlated with gas metallicity. The metallicity can therefore be robustly predicted from $f_{\\rm gas, neutral}$, or from the $M_{\\rm stellar}$ and SFR. We argue that the appearan...

  7. Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations of Preferential Accretion in the SMBH of Milky Way Size Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, N Nicole; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Tremmel, Michael; Brooks, Alyson; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Tom; Volonteri, Marta; Wadsley, James

    2016-01-01

    Using a new, high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulation of a Milky Way-type (MW-type) galaxy, we explore how a merger-rich assembly history affects the mass budget of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). We examine a MW-mass halo at the present epoch whose evolution is characterized by several major mergers to isolate the importance of merger history on black hole accretion. This study is an extension of Bellovary et. al. 2013, which analyzed the accretion of high mass, high redshift galaxies and their central black holes, and found that the gas content of the central black hole reflects what is accreted by the host galaxy halo. In this study, we find that a merger-rich galaxy will have a central SMBH preferentially fed by merger gas. Moreover, we find that nearly 30$\\%$ of the accreted mass budget of the SMBH enters the galaxy through the two major mergers in its history, which may account for the increase of merger-gas fueling the SMBH. Through an investigation of the angular momentum of th...

  8. Star/galaxy separation at faint magnitudes: Application to a simulated Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soumagnac, M.T.; et al.

    2013-06-21

    We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the Gravitational Weak Lensing and Large Scale Structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by Point Spread Function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use Principal Component Analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial Neural Network. This multi-parameter approach improves upon purely morphometric classifiers (such as the classifier implemented in SExtractor), especially at faint magnitudes: it increases the purity by up to 20% for stars and by up to 12% for galaxies, at i-magnitude fainter than 23.

  9. Simulated stellar kinematics studies of high-redshift galaxies with the HARMONI Integral Field Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Kendrew, S; Houghton, R C W; Thatte, N; Devriendt, J; Tecza, M; Clarke, F; O'Brien, K; Häussler, B

    2016-01-01

    We present a study into the capabilities of integrated and spatially resolved integral field spectroscopy of galaxies at z=2-4 with the future HARMONI spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) using the simulation pipeline, HSIM. We focus particularly on the instrument's capabilities in stellar absorption line integral field spectroscopy, which will allow us to study the stellar kinematics and stellar population characteristics. Such measurements for star-forming and passive galaxies around the peak star formation era will provide a critical insight into the star formation, quenching and mass assembly history of high-z, and thus present-day galaxies. First, we perform a signal-to-noise study for passive galaxies at a range of stellar masses for z=2-4, assuming different light profiles; for this population we estimate integrated stellar absorption line spectroscopy with HARMONI will be limited to galaxies with M_star > 10^10.7 solar masses. Second, we use HSIM to perform a mock observatio...

  10. Monsters in the dark: predictions for luminous galaxies in the early Universe from the BLUETIDES simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Dacen; Wilkins, Stephen M.; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Feng, Yu; Croft, Rupert; Nagai, Daisuke

    2016-09-01

    Using deep Hubble and Spitzer observations Oesch et al. have identified a bright (MUV ≈ -22) star-forming galaxy candidate at z ≈ 11. The presence of GN-z11 implies a number density ˜10-6 Mpc-3, roughly an order of magnitude higher than the expected value based on extrapolations from lower redshift. Using the unprecedented volume and high resolution of the BLUETIDES cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, we study the population of luminous rare objects at z > 10. The luminosity function in BLUETIDES implies an enhanced number of massive galaxies, consistent with the observation of GN-z11. We find about 30 galaxies at MUV ≈ -22 at z = 11 in the BLUETIDES volume, including a few objects about 1.5 mag brighter. The probability of observing GN-z11 in the volume probed by Oesch et al. is ˜13 per cent. The predicted properties of the rare bright galaxies at z = 11 in BLUETIDES closely match those inferred from the observations of GN-z11. BLUETIDES predicts a negligible contribution from faint AGN in the observed SED. The enormous increase in volume surveyed by WFIRST will provide observations of ˜1000 galaxies with MUV < -22 beyond z = 11 out to z = 13.5.

  11. The Fundamental Plane of star formation in galaxies revealed by the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Claudia del P.; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Trayford, James W.; Matthee, Jorryt

    2016-07-01

    We investigate correlations between different physical properties of star-forming galaxies in the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamical simulation suite over the redshift range 0 ≤ z ≤ 4.5. A principal component analysis reveals that neutral gas fraction (fgas,neutral), stellar mass (Mstellar) and star formation rate (SFR) account for most of the variance seen in the population, with galaxies tracing a two-dimensional, nearly flat, surface in the three-dimensional space of fgas, neutral-Mstellar-SFR with little scatter. The location of this plane varies little with redshift, whereas galaxies themselves move along the plane as their fgas, neutral and SFR drop with redshift. The positions of galaxies along the plane are highly correlated with gas metallicity. The metallicity can therefore be robustly predicted from fgas, neutral, or from the Mstellar and SFR. We argue that the appearance of this `Fundamental Plane of star formation' is a consequence of self-regulation, with the plane's curvature set by the dependence of the SFR on gas density and metallicity. We analyse a large compilation of observations spanning the redshift range 0 ≲ z ≲ 3, and find that such a plane is also present in the data. The properties of the observed Fundamental Plane of star formation are in good agreement with EAGLE's predictions.

  12. Star/galaxy separation at faint magnitudes: application to a simulated Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soumagnac, M. T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Lahav, O.; Kirk, D.; Sevilla, I.; Bertin, E.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Annis, J.; Busha, M. T.; Da Costa, L. N.; Frieman, J. A.; Gaztanaga, E.; Jarvis, M.; Lin, H.; Percival, W. J.; Santiago, B. X.; Sabiu, C. G.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wolz, L.; Yanny, B.

    2015-04-14

    We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the gravitational weak lensing and large-scale structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by point spread function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use principal component analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial Neural Network. This multiparameter approach improves upon purely morphometric classifiers (such as the classifier implemented in SExtractor), especially at faint magnitudes: it increases the purity by up to 20 per cent for stars and by up to 12 per cent for galaxies, at i-magnitude fainter than 23.

  13. Evolution of cosmic filaments and of their galaxy population from MHD cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Gheller, Claudio; Brueggen, Marcus; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Holwerda, Benne Willem; Hopkins, Andrew; Liske, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Despite containing about a half of the total matter in the Universe, at most wavelengths the filamentary structure of the cosmic web is difficult to observe. In this work, we use large unigrid cosmological simulations to investigate how the geometrical, thermodynamical and magnetic properties of cosmological filaments vary with mass and redshift (z $\\leq 1$). We find that the average temperature, length, volume and magnetic field of filaments are tightly log-log correlated with the underlying total gravitational mass. This reflects the role of self-gravity in shaping their properties and enables statistical predictions of their observational properties based on their mass. We also focus on the properties of the simulated population of galaxy-sized halos within filaments, and compare their properties to the results obtained from the spectroscopic GAMA survey. Simulated and observed filaments with the same length are found to contain an equal number of galaxies, with very similar distribution of halo masses. Th...

  14. Measuring cosmic magnetic fields by rotation measure-galaxy cross-correlations in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Stasyszyn, F; Dolag, K; Beck, R; Donnert, J

    2010-01-01

    Using cosmological MHD simulations of the magnetic field in galaxy clusters and filaments we evaluate the possibility to infer the magnetic field strength in filaments by measuring cross-correlation functions between Faraday Rotation Measures (RM) and the galaxy density field. We also test the reliability of recent estimates considering the problem of data quality and Galactic foreground (GF) removal in current datasets. Besides the two self-consistent simulations of cosmological magnetic fields based on primordial seed fields and galactic outflows analyzed here, we also explore a larger range of models scaling up the resulting magnetic fields of one of the simulations. We find that, if an unnormalized estimator for the cross-correlation functions and a GF removal procedure is used, the detectability of the cosmological signal is only possible for future instruments (e.g. SKA and ASKAP). However, mapping of the observed RM signal to the underlying magnetization of the Universe (both in space and time) is an e...

  15. Constraints on sigma(8) from galaxy clustering in N-body simulations and semi-analytic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harker, Geraint; Cole, Shaun; Jenkins, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    We generate mock galaxy catalogues for a grid of different cosmologies, using rescaled N-body simulations in tandem with a semi-analytic model run using consistent parameters. Because we predict the galaxy bias, rather than fitting it as a nuisance parameter, we obtain an almost pure constraint on s

  16. Constraints on sigma(8) from galaxy clustering in N-body simulations and semi-analytic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harker, Geraint; Cole, Shaun; Jenkins, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    We generate mock galaxy catalogues for a grid of different cosmologies, using rescaled N-body simulations in tandem with a semi-analytic model run using consistent parameters. Because we predict the galaxy bias, rather than fitting it as a nuisance parameter, we obtain an almost pure constraint on

  17. Analysis of the spiral structure in a simulated galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Mata-Chávez, Dolores; Puerari, Ivânio

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the spiral structure that results in a numerical simulation of a galactic disk with stellar and gaseous components evolving in a potential that includes an axisymmetric halo and bulge. We perform a second simulation without the gas component to observe how it affects the spiral structure in the disk. To quantify this, we use a Fourier analysis and obtain values for the pitch angle and the velocity of the self-excited spiral pattern of the disk. The results show a tighter spiral in the simulation with gaseous component. The spiral structure is consistent with a superposition of waves, each with a constant pattern velocity in given radial ranges.

  18. The Spectral Evolution of the First Galaxies. III. Simulated James Webb Space Telescope Spectra of Reionization-epoch Galaxies with Lyman-continuum Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackrisson, Erik; Binggeli, Christian; Finlator, Kristian; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Inoue, Akio K.; Jensen, Hannes; Micheva, Genoveva; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    Using four different suites of cosmological simulations, we generate synthetic spectra for galaxies with different Lyman-continuum escape fractions (f esc) at redshifts z≈ 7–9, in the rest-frame wavelength range relevant for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) NIRSpec instrument. By investigating the effects of realistic star formation histories and metallicity distributions on the EW(Hβ)–β diagram (previously proposed as a tool for identifying galaxies with very high f esc), we find that neither of these effects are likely to jeopardize the identification of galaxies with extreme Lyman-continuum leakage. Based on our models, we expect that essentially all z≈ 7{--}9 galaxies that exhibit rest-frame {EW}({{H}}β )≲ 30 Å to have {f}{esc}> 0.5. Incorrect assumptions concerning the ionizing fluxes of stellar populations or the dust properties of z> 6 galaxies can in principle bias the selection, but substantial model deficiencies of this type should at the same time be evident from offsets in the observed distribution of z> 6 galaxies in the EW(Hβ)–β diagram compared to the simulated distribution. Such offsets would thereby allow JWST/NIRSpec measurements of these observables to serve as input for further model refinement.

  19. Galaxies in the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation and in the Durham and Munich semi-analytical models

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Quan; Guo, Qi; Schaller, Matthieu; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G; Cole, Shaun; Crain, Robert A; Frenk, Carlos S; Helly, John C; Lacey, Cedric G; Lagos, Claudia del P; Mitchell, Peter; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We compare global predictions from the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation, and two semi-analytic (SA) models of galaxy formation, L-GALAXIES and GALFORM. All three models include the key physical processes considered to be essential for the formation and evolution of galaxies and their parameters are calibrated against a small number of observables at $z\\approx 0$. The two SA models have been applied to merger trees constructed from the EAGLE dark matter only simulation. GALFORM has been run with two prescriptions for the ram pressure stripping of hot gas from satellites: instantaneous or gradual stripping. We find that at $z\\leq 2$, both the galaxy stellar mass functions for stellar masses $M_{*} 10^{9.5} {\\rm M}_{\\odot}$ differ in some instances by an order of magnitude, while the stellar mass-size relation in EAGLE is a factor of $\\approx 2$ tighter than for the two SA models. Our results suggest the need for a revision of the galactic wind treatment in SA models and of the effect that the baryonic self-grav...

  20. Star formation quenching in simulated group and cluster galaxies: When, how, and why?

    CERN Document Server

    Bahe, Yannick M

    2014-01-01

    Star formation is observed to be suppressed in group and cluster galaxies compared to the field. To gain insight into the quenching process, we have analysed ~2000 galaxies formed in the GIMIC suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. The time of quenching varies from ~2 Gyr before accretion (first crossing of r200,c) to >4 Gyr after, depending on satellite and host mass. Once begun, quenching is rapid (>~ 500 Myr) in low-mass galaxies (M* < 10^10 M_Sun), but significantly more protracted for more massive satellites. The simulations predict a substantial role of outflows driven by ram pressure -- but not tidal forces -- in removing the star-forming interstellar matter (ISM) from satellite galaxies, especially dwarfs (M* ~ 10^9 M_Sun) where they account for nearly two thirds of ISM loss in both groups and clusters. Immediately before quenching is complete, this fraction rises to ~80% even for Milky Way analogues (M* ~ 10^10.5 M_Sun) in groups (M_host ~ 10^13.5 M_Sun). We show that (i) ISM stripping ...

  1. Long-lived double-barred galaxies in N-body simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Juntai

    2010-01-01

    Many barred galaxies harbor small-scale secondary bars in the center. The evolution of such double-barred galaxies is still not well understood, partly because of a lack of realistic N-body models with which to study them. Here we report the generation of such systems in the presence of rotating pseudobulges. We demonstrate with high mass and force resolution collisionless N-body simulations that long-lived secondary bars can form spontaneously without requiring gas, contrary to previous claims. We find that secondary bars rotate faster than primary ones. The rotation is not rigid: the secondary bars pulsate, with their amplitude and pattern speed oscillating as they rotate through the primary bars. This self-consistent study supports previous work based on orbital analysis in the potential of two rigidly rotating bars. We also characterize the density and kinematics of the N-body simulations of the double-barred galaxies, compare with observations to achieve a better understanding of such galaxies. The pulsa...

  2. Galaxy Evolution in Cosmological Simulations with Outflows II: Metallicities and Gas Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D

    2011-01-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to investigate how inflows, star formation, and outflows govern the the gaseous and metal content of galaxies. In our simulations, galaxy metallicities are established by a balance between inflows and outflows as governed by the mass outflow rate, implying that the mass-metallicity relation reflects how the outflow rate varies with stellar mass. Gas content is set by a competition between inflow into and gas consumption within the ISM, the latter being governed by the star formation law, while the former is impacted by both wind recycling and preventive feedback. Stochasticity in the inflow rate moves galaxies off the equilibrium mass-metallicity and mass-gas fraction relations in a manner correlated with the SFR, and the scatter is set by the timescale to re-equilibrate. The evolution of both relations from z=3-0 is slow, as individual galaxies tend to evolve mostly along the relations. Gas fractions at a given stellar mass slowly decrease with time because the co...

  3. Investigating Galaxy-Filament Alignments in Hydrodynamic Simulations using Density Ridges

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yen-Chi; Tenneti, Ananth; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Croft, Rupert; DiMatteo, Tiziana; Freeman, Peter E; Genovese, Christopher R; Wasserman, Larry

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the filamentary structures and the galaxy alignment along filaments at redshift $z=0.06$ in the MassiveBlack-II simulation, a state-of-the-art, high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulation which includes stellar and AGN feedback in a volume of (100 Mpc$/h$)$^3$. The filaments are constructed using the subspace constrained mean shift (SCMS; Ozertem & Erdogmus (2011) and Chen et al. (2015a)). First, we show that reconstructed filaments using galaxies and reconstructed filaments using dark matter particles are similar to each other; over $50\\%$ of the points on the galaxy filaments have a corresponding point on the dark matter filaments within distance $0.13$ Mpc$/h$ (and vice versa) and this distance is even smaller at high-density regions. Second, we observe the alignment of the major principal axis of a galaxy with respect to the orientation of its nearest filament and detect a $2.5$ Mpc$/h$ critical radius for filament's influence on the alignment when the subhalo mass o...

  4. GARROTXA cosmological simulations of Milky Way like galaxies - I. Hot gas and the missing baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Colín, Pedro; Figueras, Francesca; Krongold, Yair; Velázquez, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new set of simulations of a Milky Way like galaxy using the AMR code ART + hydrodynamics in a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony. The simulation series is named GARROTXA and follow the formation of a late type galaxy from z=60 with a final virial mass of \\sim$7.4$\\times$10$^{11}$M$_{\\odot}$. This system has no major mergers since z=3 and at z=0 becomes a disk late-type spiral galaxy. Several of its large scale properties fall inside recent observational limits of our Galaxy, like the rotation curve shape, the presence of a stellar bar and flare, and a gaseous disk warp, as well as the stellar and baryonic mass. Here, as a first scientific exploitation of the model we study the total amount and spatial distribution of hot X-ray luminous gas. We do not observe in our models a significant presence of a hot gas thick disk as has been recently discussed in observational studies. The analysis of hot gas mock observations (column density and emission measure) revealed that commonly used hypothesis assumed to deri...

  5. Intrinsic alignments of galaxies in the MassiveBlack-II simulation: analysis of two-point statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Tenneti, Ananth; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Feng, Yu; Khandai, Nishikanta

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic alignment of galaxies with the large-scale density field is an important astrophysical contaminant in upcoming weak lensing surveys whilst offering insights into galaxy formation and evolution. We present detailed measurements of the galaxy intrinsic alignments and associated ellipticity-direction (ED) and projected shape ($w_{g+}$) correlation functions for galaxies in the cosmological hydrodynamic MassiveBlack-II (MB-II) simulation. We carefully assess the effects on galaxy shapes, misalignments and two-point statistics of iterative weighted (by mass, luminosity, and color) definitions of the (reduced and unreduced) inertia tensor. We find that iterative procedures must be adopted for a reliable measurement of reduced tensor but that luminosity versus mass weighting has only negligible effects. Blue galaxies exhibit stronger misalignments and suppressed $w_{g+}$ amplitude. Both ED and $w_{g+}$ correlations increase in amplitude with subhalo mass (in the range of $10^{10} - 6.0\\times 10^{14}h^{...

  6. Mass assembly of galaxies from the MASSIV survey and the MIRAGE simulation sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    The MIRAGE (Merging & isolated high-redshift AMR galaxies, Perret et al. 2014) sample has been built in order to understand the contribution of the merger processes to the mass assembly in the MASSIV (Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS, Contini et al. 2012) sample. It consists of a sample of idealized simulations based on the RAMSES code; the initial conditions were designed to reproduce the physical properties of the most gas-rich young galaxies. It is composed of simulations of mergers exploring the initial parameters of mass and orientation of the disks with a spatial resolution reaching 7 parsecs. We carry out a comparative study of the MASSIV kinematical data to a set of more than 4000 pseudo-observations at z=1.7 built from simulations of the MIRAGE sample to determine the ability to detect galaxy merger signatures under the observational conditions of the SINFONI instrument. The MIRAGE simulations show (i) an absence of star formation bursts in mergers of fragmented and turbulent disks, suggesting a saturation mechanism; (ii) that the gas rich clump merging mechanism is able to control the bulge mass growth, to erode the central profile of the dark matter halo and to drive massive gas outflows into the disk plane; (iii) irrespectively of the orbital configuration and of the mass ratio between the disks a new disk of gas is reconstructed quickly after the merger.

  7. From Butterflies to Galaxies: Testing Chaotic System Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, W.

    2005-05-01

    N-body simulations have become a mainstay in modern astrophysics. They have been used to garner understanding of such varied phenomena as chaos in the solar system, to clumping of matter in the early universe. However, even the earliest practitioners realized that the results of such simulations may be suspect, because the tiniest differences between two simulations (such as what machine the simulation is run on, or old-fashioned numerical errors) can lead to vastly different simulation results. Over the decades, enormous effort has been put into studying and minimizing such errors, and the consensus today is that, although the microscopic details of large simulations are almost certainly incorrect, certain macroscopic measures are valid. However, nobody is quite sure which measures are valid and under precisely what conditions; as such, the fundamental reliability of such simulations has yet to be conclusively demonstrated. In this talk I will review some past results of simulation reliability and then introduce the concept of shadowing, which was first applied to N-body systems by Quinlan & Tremaine in 1992. A shadow of a numerical integration is an exact solution that remains close to the numerical solution for a long time. As such, an integration which has a shadow can be viewed as an observation of an exact trajectory. Unfortunately, it turns out that the full phase-space integration of a large n-body system is not shadowable. Howewver, it appears that if one is willing to allow that only some particles have reliable trajectories, then we can demonstrate that the number of reliable particles decays exponentially with time, and that the decay becomes slower with increasing simulation accuracy. Unfortunately the decay is extremely rapid for collisional systems, so that all particles have become unshadowable after just a few crossing times. However, preliminary results for collisionless systems appear to indicate that a large majority of particles can be shadowed

  8. THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON MILKY-WAY-MASS GALAXIES IN A CONSTRAINED SIMULATION OF THE LOCAL GROUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creasey, Peter; Scannapieco, Cecilia; Nuza, Sebastián E.; Gottlöber, Stefan; Steinmetz, Matthias [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Yepes, Gustavo [Grupo de Astrofísica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid E-28049 (Spain)

    2015-02-10

    In this Letter, we present, for the first time, a study of star formation rate (SFR), gas fraction, and galaxy morphology of a constrained simulation of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) galaxies compared to other MW-mass galaxies. By combining with unconstrained simulations, we cover a sufficient volume to compare these galaxies’ environmental densities ranging from the field to that of the Local Group (LG). This is particularly relevant as it has been shown that, quite generally, galaxy properties depend intimately upon their environment, most prominently when galaxies in clusters are compared to those in the field. For galaxies in loose groups such as the LG, however, environmental effects have been less clear. We consider the galaxy’s environmental density in spheres of 1200 kpc (comoving) and find that while environment does not appear to directly affect morphology, there is a positive trend with SFRs. This enhancement in star formation occurs systematically for galaxies in higher density environments, regardless whether they are part of the LG or in filaments. Our simulations suggest that the richer environment at megaparsec scales may help replenish the star-forming gas, allowing higher specific SFRs in galaxies such as the MW.

  9. Stochasticity in N-body Simulations of Disc Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sellwood, J A

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that the chaotic nature of N-body systems can lead to macroscopic variations in the outcomes of collisionless simulations containing rotationally supported discs. The unavoidable stochasticity that afflicts all simulations generally causes mild differences between the evolution of similar models but, in order to illustrate that this is not always true, we present a case that shows extreme bimodal divergence. We identify and give explicit illustrations of several sources of stochasticity, and also show that macroscopic variations in the outcomes can originate from differences at the round-off error level. We obtain somewhat more consistent results from simulations in which the halo is set up with great care compared with those started from more approximate equilibria, but we have been unable to eliminate diverging behaviour entirely because the main sources of stochasticity are intrinsic to the disc. We demonstrate that the divergent behaviour occurs in two different types of code and is indepen...

  10. Low-mass galaxy assembly in simulations: regulation of early star formation by radiation from massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Colin, Pedro; Ceverino, Daniel; Arraki, Kenza; Primack, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent success in forming realistic disc galaxies at redshift zero, simulations still form the bulk of their stars prematurely. We investigate the process of stellar mass assembly in low-mass simulated galaxies, a dwarf and a typical spiral, focusing on the effects of radiation from young stellar clusters. We employ a novel model of star formation in which stars form deterministically with a small efficiency per free-fall time, as observed in molecular clouds. Stellar feedback includes radiation pressure from massive stars and energy from supernova explosions and stellar winds. In galaxies with masses up to those of typical spirals, radiation efficiently suppresses star formation by dispersing and heating high density gas, mostly in the central regions, preventing the formation of a massive bulge. Once the galaxies reach this radiation-regulated growth regime, their global properties are robust to the specific choice of model parameters. Only when radiative feedback is included, do galaxies exhibit co...

  11. Fundamental properties of Fanaroff-Riley II radio galaxies investigated via Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kapińska, Anna D; Kaiser, Christian R

    2012-01-01

    [Abridged] Radio galaxies and quasars are among the largest and most powerful single objects known and are believed to have had a significant impact on the evolving Universe and its large scale structure. We explore the intrinsic and extrinsic properties of the population of FRII objects (kinetic luminosities, lifetimes, and the central densities of their environments). In particular, the radio and kinetic luminosity functions of FRIIs are investigated using the complete, flux limited radio catalogues of 3CRR and Best et al. We construct multidimensional Monte Carlo simulations using semi-analytical models of FRII radio source growth to create artificial samples of radio galaxies. Unlike previous studies, we compare radio luminosity functions found with both the observed and simulated data to explore the fundamental source parameters. We allow the source physical properties to co-evolve with redshift, and we find that all the investigated parameters most likely undergo cosmological evolution. Strikingly, we f...

  12. 3D Simulation of the Gas Dynamics in the Central Parsec of the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, R F

    1998-01-01

    It is thought that many characteristics of the gaseous features within the central parsec of our Galaxy, are associated with the accretion of ambient plasma by a central concentration of mass. Using a 3D hydrodynamical code, we have been simulating this process in order to realistically model the gaseous flows in the center of our Galaxy. In the most recent simulation, we have taken into account the multi-point-like distribution of stellar wind sources, as well as the magnetic heating and radiative cooling of these stellar winds. As expected, we find that the structure of the flow is significantly different from that due to a uniform medium. We also investigate the possibility that Sgr A* is due to a distributed mass concentration instead of the canonical point mass of a black hole. We discuss the physical state of the accreting gas and how our results suggest that Sgr A* is unlikely to be associated with a ``dark cluster''.

  13. The AGORA High-Resolution Galaxy Simulations Comparison Project. II: Isolated Disk Test

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Teyssier, Romain; Butler, Michael J; Ceverino, Daniel; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Feldmann, Robert; Keller, Ben W; Lupi, Alessandro; Quinn, Thomas; Revaz, Yves; Wallace, Spencer; Gnedin, Nickolay Y; Leitner, Samuel N; Shen, Sijing; Smith, Britton D; Thompson, Robert; Turk, Matthew J; Abel, Tom; Arraki, Kenza S; Benincasa, Samantha M; Chakrabarti, Sukanya; DeGraf, Colin; Dekel, Avishai; Goldbaum, Nathan J; Hopkins, Philip F; Hummels, Cameron B; Klypin, Anatoly; Li, Hui; Madau, Piero; Mandelker, Nir; Mayer, Lucio; Nagamine, Kentaro; Nickerson, Sarah; O'Shea, Brian W; Primack, Joel R; Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Semenov, Vadim; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Simpson, Christine M; Todoroki, Keita; Wadsley, James W; Wise, John H

    2016-01-01

    Using an isolated Milky Way-mass galaxy simulation, we compare results from 9 state-of-the-art gravito-hydrodynamics codes widely used in the numerical community. We utilize the infrastructure we have built for the AGORA High-resolution Galaxy Simulations Comparison Project. This includes the common disk initial conditions, common physics models (e.g., radiative cooling and UV background by the standardized package Grackle) and common analysis toolkit yt, all of which are publicly available. Subgrid physics models such as Jeans pressure floor, star formation, supernova feedback energy, and metal production are carefully constrained across code platforms. With numerical accuracy that resolves the disk scale height, we find that the codes overall agree well with one another in many dimensions including: gas and stellar surface densities, rotation curves, velocity dispersions, density and temperature distribution functions, disk vertical heights, stellar clumps, star formation rates, and Kennicutt-Schmidt relati...

  14. Superclusters of galaxies from the 2dF redshift survey. 2. Comparison with simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einasto, Jaan; Einasto, M.; Saar, E.; Tago, E.; Liivamagi, L.J.; Joeveer, M.J; Suhhonenko, I.; Hutsi, G.; /Tartu Observ.; Jaaniste, J.; /Estonian U.; Heinamaki, P.; /Tuorla; Muller, V.; Knebe, A.; /Potsdam, Astrophys. Inst.; Tucker, D.; /Fermilab

    2006-04-01

    We investigate properties of superclusters of galaxies found on the basis of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, and compare them with properties of superclusters from the Millennium Simulation.We study the dependence of various characteristics of superclusters on their distance from the observer, on their total luminosity, and on their multiplicity. The multiplicity is defined by the number of Density Field (DF) clusters in superclusters. Using the multiplicity we divide superclusters into four richness classes: poor, medium, rich and extremely rich.We show that superclusters are asymmetrical and have multi-branching filamentary structure, with the degree of asymmetry and filamentarity being higher for the more luminous and richer superclusters. The comparison of real superclusters with Millennium superclusters shows that most properties of simulated superclusters agree very well with real data, the main differences being in the luminosity and multiplicity distributions.

  15. Direct cosmological simulations of the growth of black holes and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Di Matteo, Tiziana; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; Sijacki, Debora

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the coupled formation and evolution of galaxies and their embedded supermassive black holes using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations of cosmological structure formation. For the first time, we self-consistently follow the dark matter dynamics, radiative gas cooling, star formation, as well as black hole growth and associated feedback processes, starting directly from initial conditions appropriate for the LambdaCDM cosmology. Our modeling of the black hole physics is based on an approach we have developed in simulations of isolated galaxy mergers. Here we examine: (i) the predicted global history of black hole mass assembly (ii) the evolution of the local black hole-host mass correlations and (iii) the conditions that allow rapid growth of the first quasars, and the properties of their hosts and descendants today. We find a total black hole mass density in good agreement with observational estimates. The black hole accretion rate density peaks at lower redshift and evolves more strongly ...

  16. A parsec-resolution simulation of the Antennae galaxies: Formation of star clusters during the merger

    CERN Document Server

    Renaud, Florent; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2014-01-01

    We present a hydrodynamical simulation of an Antennae-like galaxy merger at parsec resolution, including a multi-component model for stellar feedback and reaching numerical convergence in the global star formation rate for the first time. We analyse the properties of the dense stellar objects formed during the different stages of the interaction. Each galactic encounter triggers a starburst activity, but the varying physical conditions change the triggering mechanism of each starburst. During the first two pericenter passages, the starburst is spatially extended and forms many star clusters. However, the starburst associated to the third, final passage is more centrally concentrated: stars form almost exclusively in the galactic nucleus and no new star cluster is formed. The maximum mass of stars clusters in this merger is more than 30 times higher than those in a simulation of an isolated Milky Way-like galaxy. Antennae-like mergers are therefore a formation channel of young massive clusters possibly leading...

  17. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  18. Menopause: Weighing Your Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Menopause Weighing Your Treatment Options Past Issues / Winter 2017 ... What led you to study older women and menopause? I started studying women's health many years ago ...

  19. Simulating cosmic metal enrichment by the first galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallottini, A.; Ferrara, A.; Gallerani, S.; Salvadori, S.; D'Odorico, V.

    2014-01-01

    We study cosmic metal enrichment via adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamical simulations in a (10 Mpc h-1)3 volume following the Population III (PopIII)-PopII transition and for different PopIII initial mass function (IMFs). We have analysed the joint evolution of metal enrichment on galactic and in

  20. Clues to the 'Magellanic Galaxy' from cosmological simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sales, Laura V.; Navarro, Julio F.; Cooper, Andrew P.; White, Simon D. M.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helmi, Amina

    2011-01-01

    We use cosmological simulations from the Aquarius Project to study the orbital history of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and its potential association with other satellites of the Milky Way (MW). We search for dynamical analogues to the LMC and find a subhalo that matches the LMC position and velo

  1. Inferring the photometric and size evolution of galaxies from image simulations. I. Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassou, Sébastien; de Lapparent, Valérie; Bertin, Emmanuel; Le Borgne, Damien

    2017-09-01

    Context. Current constraints on models of galaxy evolution rely on morphometric catalogs extracted from multi-band photometric surveys. However, these catalogs are altered by selection effects that are difficult to model, that correlate in non trivial ways, and that can lead to contradictory predictions if not taken into account carefully. Aims: To address this issue, we have developed a new approach combining parametric Bayesian indirect likelihood (pBIL) techniques and empirical modeling with realistic image simulations that reproduce a large fraction of these selection effects. This allows us to perform a direct comparison between observed and simulated images and to infer robust constraints on model parameters. Methods: We use a semi-empirical forward model to generate a distribution of mock galaxies from a set of physical parameters. These galaxies are passed through an image simulator reproducing the instrumental characteristics of any survey and are then extracted in the same way as the observed data. The discrepancy between the simulated and observed data is quantified, and minimized with a custom sampling process based on adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Results: Using synthetic data matching most of the properties of a Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Deep field, we demonstrate the robustness and internal consistency of our approach by inferring the parameters governing the size and luminosity functions and their evolutions for different realistic populations of galaxies. We also compare the results of our approach with those obtained from the classical spectral energy distribution fitting and photometric redshift approach. Conclusions: Our pipeline infers efficiently the luminosity and size distribution and evolution parameters with a very limited number of observables (three photometric bands). When compared to SED fitting based on the same set of observables, our method yields results that are more accurate and free from

  2. Semi-numerical simulation of reionization with semi-analytical modeling of galaxy formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhou; Qi Guo; Gao-Chao Liu; Bin Yue; Yi-Dong Xu; Xue-Lei Chen

    2013-01-01

    In a semi-numerical model of reionization,the evolution of ionization fraction is approximately simulated by the criterion of ionizing photon to baryon ratio.We incorporate a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation based on the Millennium II N-body simulation into the semi-numerical modeling of reionization.The semianalytical model is used to predict the production of ionizing photons,then we use the semi-numerical method to model the reionization process.Such an approach allows more detailed modeling of the reionization,and also connects observations of galaxies at low and high redshifts to the reionization history.The galaxy formation model we use was designed to match the low-z observations,and it also fits the high redshift luminosity function reasonably well,but its prediction about star formation falls below the observed value,and we find that it also underpredicts the stellar ionizing photon production rate,hence the reionization cannot be completed at z ~ 6.We also consider simple modifications of the model with more top heavy initial mass functions,which can allow the reionization to occur at earlier epochs.The incorporation of the semi-analytical model may also affect the topology of the HI regions during the epoch of reionization,and the neutral regions produced by our simulations with the semi-analytical model,which appeared less poriferous than the simple halo-based models.

  3. The Horizon-AGN simulation: evolution of galaxy properties over cosmic time

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviraj, S; Kimm, T; Devriendt, J E G; Dubois, Y; Pichon, C; Slyz, A; Chisari, E; Peirani, S

    2016-01-01

    We compare the predictions of Horizon-AGN, a hydro-dynamical cosmological simulation that uses an adaptive mesh refinement code, to observational data in the redshift range 0simulation, of quantities that trace the aggregate stellar-mass growth of galaxies over cosmic time: luminosity and stellar-mass functions, the star formation main sequence, rest-frame UV-optical-near infrared colours and the cosmic star-formation history. We show that Horizon-AGN, which is not tuned to reproduce the local Universe, produces good overall agreement with these quantities, from the present day to the epoch when the Universe was 5% of its current age. By comparison to Horizon-noAGN, a twin simulation without AGN feedback, we quantify how feedback from black holes is likely to help shape galaxy stellar-mass growth in the redshift range 0galaxies. Our results demonstrate that Horizon-AGN successfully captures the evolutionary trends of ob...

  4. The Properties of X-ray Cold Fronts in a Statistical Sample of Simulated Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Hallman, Eric J; Jeltema, Tesla E; Smith, Britton D; O'Shea, Brian W; Burns, Jack O; Norman, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    We examine the incidence of cold fronts in a large sample of galaxy clusters extracted from a (512h^-1 Mpc) hydrodynamic/N-body cosmological simulation with adiabatic gas physics computed with the Enzo adaptive mesh refinement code. This simulation contains a sample of roughly 4000 galaxy clusters with M > 10^14 M_sun at z=0. For each simulated galaxy cluster, we have created mock 0.3-8.0 keV X-ray observations and spectroscopic-like temperature maps. We have searched these maps with a new automated algorithm to identify the presence of cold fronts in projection. Using a threshold of a minimum of 10 cold front pixels in our images, corresponding to a total comoving length L_cf > 156h^-1 kpc, we find that roughly 10-12% of all projections in a mass-limited sample would be classified as cold front clusters. Interestingly, the fraction of clusters with extended cold front features in our synthetic maps of a mass-limited sample trends only weakly with redshift out to z=1.0. However, when using different selection...

  5. The Mass Assembly of Fossil Groups of Galaxies in the Millennium Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dariush, Ali; Ponman, Trevor J; Pearce, Frazer; Raychaudhury, Somak; Hartley, Will

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of present-day fossil galaxy groups is studied in the Millennium Simulation. Using the corresponding Millennium gas simulation and semi-analytic galaxy catalogues, we select fossil groups at redshift zero according to the conventional observational criteria, and trace the haloes corresponding to these groups backwards in time, extracting the associated dark matter, gas and galaxy properties. The space density of the fossils from this study is remarkably close to the observed estimates and various possibilities for the remaining discrepancy are discussed. The fraction of X-ray bright systems which are fossils appears to be in reasonable agreement with observation, and the simulations predict that fossil systems will be found in significant numbers (3-4% of the population) even in quite rich clusters. We find that fossils assemble a higher fraction of their mass at high redshift, compared to non-fossil groups, with the ratio of the currently assembled halo mass to final mass, at any epoch, being a...

  6. nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations V: Investigation of the Cluster Infall Region

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, Jake; Gray, Meghan E; Elahi, Pascal J; Knebe, Alexander; Beck, Alexander M; Cui, Weiguang; Cunnama, Daniel; Davé, Romeel; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Katz, Neal; Kay, Scott T; McCarthy, Ian G; Murante, Giuseppe; Perret, Valentin; Power, Chris; Puchwein, Ewald; Saro, Alexandro; Sembolini, Federico; Teyssier, Romain; Yepes, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    We examine the properties of the galaxies and dark matter haloes residing in the cluster infall region surrounding the simulated $\\Lambda$CDM galaxy cluster studied by Elahi et al. (2016) at z=0. The $1.1\\times10^{15}h^{-1}\\text{M}_{\\odot}$ galaxy cluster has been simulated with eight different hydrodynamical codes containing a variety of hydrodynamic solvers and subgrid schemes. All models completed a dark-matter only, non-radiative and full-physics run from the same initial conditions. The simulations contain dark matter and gas with mass resolution $m_{\\text{DM}}=9.01\\times 10^8h^{-1}\\text{M}_{\\odot}$ and $m_{\\text{gas}}=1.9\\times 10^8h^{-1}\\text{M}_{\\odot}$ respectively. We find that the synthetic cluster is surrounded by clear filamentary structures that contain ~60% of haloes in the infall region with mass ~$10^{12.5} - 10^{14} h^{-1}\\text{M}_{\\odot}$, including 2-3 group-sized haloes ($> 10^{13}h^{-1}\\text{M}_{\\odot}$). However, we find that only ~10% of objects in the infall region are subhaloes resid...

  7. The MassiveBlack-II Simulation: The Evolution of Halos and Galaxies to z~0

    CERN Document Server

    Khandai, Nishikanta; Croft, Rupert; Wilkins, Stephen M; Feng, Yu; Tucker, Evan; DeGraf, Colin; Liu, Mao-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged for arXiv)We investigate the properties of halos, galaxies and blackholes to z=0 in the high resolution hydrodynamical simulation MassiveBlack-II (MBII) which evolves a LCDM cosmology in a comoving volume Vbox=100(Mpc/h)^3. MBII is the highest resolution simulation of this size which includes a self-consistent model for star formation, black hole accretion and associated feedback. We provide a simulation browser web application which enables interactive search and tagging of halos, subhalos and their properties and publicly release our galaxy catalogs. Our analysis of the halo mass function (MF) in MBII reveals that baryons have strong effects, with changes in the halo abundance of 20-35% below the knee of the MF (Mhalo =2. At z10^11 Msun) galaxies hosting bright AGNs make significant contributions to the GSMF. The quasar bolometric luminosity function is also largely consistent with observations. We note however that more efficient AGN feedback (beyond simple thermal coupling used here) is likely n...

  8. The EAGLE simulations of galaxy formation: the importance of the hydrodynamics scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A; Furlong, Michelle; McCarthy, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a subset of simulations from the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) suite in which the formulation of the hydrodynamics scheme is varied. We compare simulations that use the same subgrid models without re-calibration of the parameters but employing the standard GADGET flavour of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) instead of the more recent state-of-the-art ANARCHY formulation of SPH that was used in the fiducial EAGLE runs. We find that the properties of most galaxies, including their masses and sizes, are not significantly affected by the details of the hydrodynamics solver. However, the star formation rates of the most massive objects are affected by the lack of phase mixing due to spurious surface tension in the simulation using standard SPH. This affects the efficiency with which AGN activity can quench star formation in these galaxies and it also leads to differences in the intragroup medium that affect the X-ray emission from these objects. The...

  9. The Origin and Evolution of the Mass-Metallicity Relationship of Galaxies: Results from Cosmological N-Body Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, A M; Booth, C M; Willman, B; Gardner, J P; Wadsley, J; Stinson, G; Quinn, T

    2006-01-01

    We examine the origin and evolution of the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relationship for galaxies using high resolution cosmological SPH + N-Body simulations that include a physically motivated description of the effects of supernovae feedback and subsequent metal enrichment. Our simulations allow us to distinguish between two possible sources that contribute to both the origin of the mass-metallicity relationship and to the low chemical yield observed in low galaxy masses: 1) metal loss due to gas outflow, or 2) inefficient star formation at the lowest galaxy masses. Our simulated galaxies are in excellent agreement with the observed M-Z relationship, both at z=0 and z=2. We find that gas mass loss becomes increasingly important at decreasing galaxy masses for our simulations, This mass loss results in a low effective yield for our lowest mass galaxies in good agreement with observational results. By considering all the gas that has ever belonged to a galaxy (back to z=3), we find the metallicity is unchanged from...

  10. Viscosity in cosmological simulations of clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Br"uggen, M

    2005-01-01

    The physics of the intracluster medium, in particular the values for the thermal conductivity and the viscosity are largely unknown and subject to an ongoing debate. Here, we study the effect of viscosity on the thermal state of the intracluster medium using three-dimensional cosmological simulations of structure formation. It is shown that viscosity, provided it is not too far off from the unmagnetised Spitzer value, has a significant effect on cluster profiles. In particular, it aids in heating the cool cores of clusters. The central cooling time of the most massive clusters in our simulation is increased by more than an order of magnitude. In large clusters, viscous heating may help to establish an entropy floor and to prevent a cooling catastrophe.

  11. The no-spin zone: rotation versus dispersion support in observed and simulated dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Coral; Pace, Andrew B.; Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Oñorbe, Jose; Elbert, Oliver D.; Fitts, Alex; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan

    2017-02-01

    We perform a systematic Bayesian analysis of rotation versus dispersion support (vrot/σ) in 40 dwarf galaxies throughout the local volume (LV) over a stellar mass range of 10^{3.5} M_{⊙}sample have vrot/σ ≲ 1.0, while all have vrot/σ ≲ 2.0. These results challenge the traditional view that the stars in gas-rich dwarf irregulars (dIrrs) are distributed in cold, rotationally supported stellar discs, while gas-poor dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) are kinematically distinct in having dispersion-supported stars. We see no clear trend between vrot/σ and distance to the closest L⋆ galaxy, nor between vrot/σ and M⋆ within our mass range. We apply the same Bayesian analysis to four FIRE hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies (10^9 M_{⊙}population of dIrrs and dSphs without the need to subject these dwarfs to any external perturbations or tidal forces. We posit that most dwarf galaxies form as puffy, dispersion-dominated systems, rather than cold, angular-momentum-supported discs. If this is the case, then transforming a dIrr into a dSph may require little more than removing its gas.

  12. The impact of angular momentum on black hole accretion rates in simulations of galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Rosas-Guevara, Y M; Schaye, J; Furlong, M; Frenk, C S; Booth, C M; Crain, R; Vecchia, C Dalla; Schaller, M; Theuns, T

    2013-01-01

    Feedback from energy liberated by gas accretion onto black holes (BHs) is an attractive mechanism to explain the exponential cut-off at the massive end of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF). Semi-analytic models of galaxy formation in which this form of feedback is assumed to suppress cooling in haloes where the gas cooling time is large compared to the dynamical time do indeed achieve a good match to the observed SMF. Furthermore, hydrodynamic simulations of individual halos in which gas is assumed to accrete onto the central BH at the Bondi rate have shown that a self-regulating regime is established in which the BH grows just enough to liberate an amount of energy comparable to the thermal energy of the halo. However, this process is efficient at suppressing the growth not only of massive galaxies but also of galaxies like the Milky Way, leading to disagreement with the observed SMF. The Bondi accretion rate, however, is inappropriate when the accreting material has angular momentum. We present an impr...

  13. The MICE Grand Challenge lightcone simulation - II. Halo and galaxy catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocce, M.; Castander, F. J.; Gaztañaga, E.; Fosalba, P.; Carretero, J.

    2015-10-01

    This is the second in a series of three papers in which we present an end-to-end simulation from the MICE collaboration, the MICE Grand Challenge (MICE-GC) run. The N-body contains about 70 billion dark-matter particles in a (3 h-1 Gpc)3 comoving volume spanning five orders of magnitude in dynamical range. Here, we introduce the halo and galaxy catalogues built upon it, both in a wide (5000 deg2) and deep (z characteristic scale-dependent bias of ≲6 per cent across the BAO feature for haloes well above M⋆ ˜ 1012 h-1 M⊙ and for luminous red galaxy like galaxies. For haloes well below M⋆ the scale dependence at 100 h-1 Mpc is ≲2 per cent. Lastly, we discuss the validity of the large-scale Kaiser limit across redshift and departures from it towards non-linear scales. We make the current version of the lightcone halo and galaxy catalogue (MICECATv1.0) publicly available through a dedicated web portal to help develop and exploit the new generation of astronomical surveys.

  14. Heavy Dust Obscuration of z = 7 Galaxies in a Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Cen, Renyue

    2013-10-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations with the Wide Field Camera 3/Infrared reveal that galaxies at z ~ 7 have very blue ultraviolet (UV) colors, consistent with these systems being dominated by young stellar populations with moderate or little attenuation by dust. We investigate UV and optical properties of the high-z galaxies in the standard cold dark matter model using a high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. For this purpose, we perform panchromatic three-dimensional dust radiative transfer calculations on 198 galaxies of stellar mass 5 × 108-3 × 1010 M ⊙ with three parameters: the dust-to-metal ratio, the extinction curve, and the fraction of directly escaped light from stars (f esc). Our stellar mass function is found to be in broad agreement with Gonzalez et al., independent of these parameters. We find that our heavily dust-attenuated galaxies (AV ~ 1.8) can also reasonably match modest UV-optical colors, blue UV slopes, as well as UV luminosity functions, provided that a significant fraction (~10%) of light directly escapes from them. The observed UV slope and scatter are better explained with a Small-Magellanic-Cloud-type extinction curve, whereas a Milky-Way-type curve also predicts blue UV colors due to the 2175 Å bump. We expect that upcoming observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array will be able to test this heavily obscured model.

  15. Heavy dust obscuration of z=7 galaxies in a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kimm, Taysun

    2013-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations with Wide Field Camera 3/IR reveal that galaxies at z~7 have very blue ultraviolet (UV) colors, consistent with these systems being dominated by young stellar populations with moderate or little attenuation by dust. We investigate UV and optical properties of the high-z galaxies in the standard cold dark matter model using a high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. For this purpose, we perform panchromatic three-dimensional dust radiative transfer calculations on 198 galaxies of stellar mass 5x10^8-3x10^{10} Msun with three parameters, the dust-to-metal ratio, the extinction curve, and the fraction of directly escaped light from stars (\\fesc). Our stellar mass function is found to be in broad agreement with Gonzalez et al., independent of these parameters. We find that our heavily dust-attenuated galaxies (A_V~1.8) can also reasonably match modest UV-optical colors, blue UV slopes, as well as UV luminosity functions, provided that a sig...

  16. Compaction and Quenching of High-z Galaxies: Blue and Red Nuggets in Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zolotov, Adi; Mandelker, Nir; Tweed, Dylan; Inoue, Shigeki; DeGraf, Colin; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel

    2014-01-01

    We use cosmological simulations to study a characteristic evolution pattern of high redshift galaxies. Early, stream-fed, highly perturbed, gas-rich discs undergo phases of dissipative contraction into compact, star-forming systems (blue nuggets) at z~4-2. The peak of gas compaction marks the onset of central gas depletion and inside-out quenching into compact ellipticals (red nuggets) by z~2. These are sometimes surrounded by gas rings or grow extended dry stellar envelopes. The compaction occurs at a roughly constant specific star-formation rate (SFR), and the quenching occurs at a constant stellar surface density within the inner kpc (Sigma_1). Massive galaxies quench earlier, faster, and at a higher Sigma_1 than lower-mass galaxies, which compactify and attempt to quench more than once. This evolution pattern is consistent with the way galaxies populate the SFR-radius-mass space, and with gradients and scatter across the main sequence. The compaction is triggered by an intense inflow episode, involving me...

  17. Far-Infrared Properties of Lyman Break Galaxies from Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cen, Renyue

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing state-of-the-art, adaptive mesh-refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with ultra-high resolution (114h-1pc) and large sample size (>3300 galaxies of stellar mass >10^9Msun), we show how the stellar light of Lyman Break Galaxies at z=2 is distributed between optical/ultra-violet (UV) and far-infrared (FIR) bands. With a single scalar parameter for dust obscuration we can simultaneously reproduce the observed UV luminosity function for the entire range (3-100 Msun/yr) and extant FIR luminosity function at the bright end (>20Msun/yr). We quantify that galaxies more massive or having higher SFR tend to have larger amounts of dust obscuration mostly due to a trend in column density and in a minor part due to a mass (or SFR)-metallicity relation. It is predicted that the FIR luminosity function in the range SFR=1-100Msun/yr is a powerlaw with a slope about -1.7. We further predict that there is a "galaxy desert" at SFR(FIR) < 0.02 (SFR(UV)/10Msun/yr)^2.1 Msun/yr in the SFR(UV)-SFR(FIR) plane...

  18. Reconciling Dwarf Galaxies with ΛCDM Cosmology: Simulating a Realistic Population of Satellites around a Milky Way-mass Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Andrew R.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kim, Ji-hoon; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-08-01

    Low-mass “dwarf” galaxies represent the most significant challenges to the cold dark matter (CDM) model of cosmological structure formation. Because these faint galaxies are (best) observed within the Local Group (LG) of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31), understanding their formation in such an environment is critical. We present first results from the Latte Project: the Milky Way on Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE). This simulation models the formation of an MW-mass galaxy to z=0 within ΛCDM cosmology, including dark matter, gas, and stars at unprecedented resolution: baryon particle mass of 7070 {M}⊙ with gas kernel/softening that adapts down to 1 {pc} (with a median of 25{--}60 {pc} at z=0). Latte was simulated using the GIZMO code with a mesh-free method for accurate hydrodynamics and the FIRE-2 model for star formation and explicit feedback within a multi-phase interstellar medium. For the first time, Latte self-consistently resolves the spatial scales corresponding to half-light radii of dwarf galaxies that form around an MW-mass host down to {M}{star}≳ {10}5 {M}⊙ . Latte’s population of dwarf galaxies agrees with the LG across a broad range of properties: (1) distributions of stellar masses and stellar velocity dispersions (dynamical masses), including their joint relation; (2) the mass-metallicity relation; and (3) diverse range of star formation histories, including their mass dependence. Thus, Latte produces a realistic population of dwarf galaxies at {M}{star}≳ {10}5 {M}⊙ that does not suffer from the “missing satellites” or “too big to fail” problems of small-scale structure formation. We conclude that baryonic physics can reconcile observed dwarf galaxies with standard ΛCDM cosmology.

  19. Simulating realistic disc galaxies with a novel sub-resolution ISM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murante, Giuseppe; Monaco, Pierluigi; Borgani, Stefano; Tornatore, Luca; Dolag, Klaus; Goz, David

    2015-02-01

    We present results of cosmological simulations of disc galaxies carried out with the GADGET-3 TreePM+SPH code, where star formation and stellar feedback are described using our MUlti Phase Particle Integrator model. This description is based on a simple multiphase model of the interstellar medium at unresolved scales, where mass and energy flows among the components are explicitly followed by solving a system of ordinary differential equations. Thermal energy from supernovae is injected into the local hot phase, so as to avoid that it is promptly radiated away. A kinetic feedback prescription generates the massive outflows needed to avoid the overproduction of stars. We use two sets of zoomed-in initial conditions of isolated cosmological haloes with masses (2-3) × 1012 M⊙, both available at several resolution levels. In all cases we obtain spiral galaxies with small bulge-over-total stellar mass ratios (B/T ˜ 0.2), extended stellar and gas discs, flat rotation curves and realistic values of stellar masses. Gas profiles are relatively flat, molecular gas is found to dominate at the centre of galaxies, with star formation rates following the observed Schmidt-Kennicutt relation. Stars kinematically belonging to the bulge form early, while disc stars show a clear inside-out formation pattern and mostly form after redshift z = 2. However, the baryon conversion efficiencies in our simulations differ from the relation given by Moster et al. at a 3σ level, thus indicating that our stellar discs are still too massive for the dark matter halo in which they reside. Results are found to be remarkably stable against resolution. This further demonstrates the feasibility of carrying out simulations producing a realistic population of galaxies within representative cosmological volumes, at a relatively modest resolution.

  20. The spectral evolution of the first Galaxies. III. Simulated James Webb Space Telescope spectra of reionization-epoch galaxies with Lyman continuum leakage

    CERN Document Server

    Zackrisson, E; Finlator, K; Gnedin, N Y; Paardekooper, J -P; Shimizu, I; Inoue, A K; Jensen, H; Micheva, G; Khochfar, S; Vecchia, C Dalla

    2016-01-01

    Using four different suites of cosmological simulations, we generate synthetic spectra for galaxies with different Lyman continuum escape fractions (fesc) at redshifts z=7-9, in the rest-frame wavelength range relevant for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) NIRSpec instrument. By investigating the effects of realistic star formation histories and metallicity distributions on the EW(Hb)-beta diagram (previously proposed as a tool for identifying galaxies with very high fesc), we find that the neither of these effects are likely to jeopardize the identification of galaxies with extreme Lyman continuum leakage. Based on our models, we expect essentially all z=7-9 galaxies that exhibit rest-frame EW(Hb)0.5. Incorrect assumptions concerning the ionizing fluxes of stellar populations or the dust properties of z>6 galaxies can in principle bias the selection, but substantial model deficiencies of this type will at the same time reveal themselves as an offset between the observed and simulated distribution of z>6 ...

  1. A new GPU-accelerated hydrodynamical code for numerical simulation of interacting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Igor, Kulikov

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new scalable hydrodynamic code GPUPEGAS (GPU-accelerated PErformance Gas Astrophysic Simulation) for simulation of interacting galaxies is proposed. The code is based on combination of Godunov method as well as on the original implementation of FlIC method, specially adapted for GPU-implementation. Fast Fourier Transform is used for Poisson equation solution in GPUPEGAS. Software implementation of the above methods was tested on classical gas dynamics problems, new Aksenov's test and classical gravitational gas dynamics problems. Collisionless hydrodynamic approach was used for modelling of stars and dark matter. The scalability of GPUPEGAS computational accelerators is shown.

  2. Simulating the Toothbrush: Evidence for a triple merger of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggen, M; Rottgering, H J A

    2012-01-01

    The newly discovered galaxy cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214 hosts a 1.9 Mpc long, bright radio relic with a peculiar linear morphology. Using hydrodynamical +N-body AMR simulations of the merger between three initially hydrostatic clusters in an idealised setup, we are able to reconstruct the morphology of the radio relic. Based on our simulation, we can constrain the merger geometry, predict lensing mass measurements and X-ray observations. Comparing such models to X-ray, redshift and lensing data will validate the geometry of this complex merger which helps to constrain the parameters for shock acceleration of electrons that produces the radio relic.

  3. Radial distribution and strong lensing statistics of satellite galaxies and substructure using high resolution LCDM hydrodynamical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Maccio, A V; Stadel, J; Diemand, J; Maccio', Andrea V.; Moore, Ben; Stadel, Joachim; Diemand, Juerg

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the number density and radial distribution of substructures and satellite galaxies using cosmological simulations that follow the gas dynamics of a baryonic component, including shock heating, radiative cooling and star formation within the hierarchical concordance LCDM model. We find that the dissipation of the baryons greatly enhances the survival of subhaloes, expecially in the galaxy core, resulting in a radial distribution of satellite galaxies that closely follows the overall mass distribution. Hydrodynamical simulations are necessary to resolve the adiabatic contraction and dense cores of galaxies, resulting in a total number of satellites a factor of two larger than found in pure dark matter simulation. Convergence tests show that the cored distribution found by previous authors was due to physical overmerging of dark matter only structures. We proceed to use a ray-shooting technique in order to study the impact of these additional substructures on the number of violations of the cusp caust...

  4. Clues to the "Magellanic Galaxy" from Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Sales, Laura V; Cooper, Andrew P; White, Simon D M; Frenk, Carlos S; Helmi, Amina

    2011-01-01

    We use cosmological simulations from the Aquarius Project to study the orbital history of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and its potential association with other satellites of the Milky Way (MW). We search for dynamical analogs to the LMC and find a subhalo that matches the LMC position and velocity at either of its two most recent pericentric passages. This suggests that the LMC is not necessarily on its first approach to the MW, provided that the virial mass of the Milky Way is M_200 ~1.8e12 M_sun. The simulation results yield specific predictions for the position and velocity of systems associated with the LMC prior to infall. If on first approach, most should lie close to the LMC because the Galactic tidal field has not yet had enough time to disperse them. If on second approach, the list of potential associates increases substantially. Interestingly, our analysis rules out an LMC association for Draco and Ursa Minor, two of the dwarf spheroidals suggested by Lynden-Bell & Lynden-Bell to form part o...

  5. PICS: Simulations of Strong Gravitational Lensing in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Nan; Rangel, Esteban M; Florian, Michael K; Bleem, Lindsey E; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Fasel, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational lensing has become one of the most powerful tools available for investigating the 'dark side' of the universe. Cosmological strong gravitational lensing, in particular, probes the properties of the dense cores of dark matter halos over decades in mass and offers the opportunity to study the distant universe at flux levels and spatial resolutions otherwise unavailable. Studies of strongly-lensed variable sources offer yet further scientific opportunities. One of the challenges in realizing the potential of strong lensing is to understand the statistical context of both the individual systems that receive extensive follow-up study, as well as that of the larger samples of strong lenses that are now emerging from survey efforts. Motivated by these challenges, we have developed an image-simulation pipeline, PICS (Pipeline for Images of Cosmological Strong lensing) to generate realistic strong gravitational lensing signals from group and cluster scale lenses. PICS uses a low-noise and unbiased densit...

  6. Ab Initio Simulations of a Supernova-driven Galactic Dynamo in an Isolated Disk Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsky, Iryna; Zrake, Jonathan; Kim, Ji-hoon; Yang, Hung-I.; Abel, Tom

    2017-07-01

    We study the magnetic field evolution of an isolated spiral galaxy, using isolated Milky Way-mass galaxy formation simulations and a novel prescription for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) supernova feedback. Our main result is that a galactic dynamo can be seeded and driven by supernova explosions, resulting in magnetic fields whose strength and morphology are consistent with observations. In our model, supernovae supply thermal energy and a low-level magnetic field along with their ejecta. The thermal expansion drives turbulence, which serves a dual role by efficiently mixing the magnetic field into the interstellar medium and amplifying it by means of a turbulent dynamo. The computational prescription for MHD supernova feedback has been implemented within the publicly available ENZO code and is fully described in this paper. This improves upon ENZO's existing modules for hydrodynamic feedback from stars and active galaxies. We find that the field attains microgauss levels over gigayear timescales throughout the disk. The field also develops a large-scale structure, which appears to be correlated with the disk’s spiral arm density structure. We find that seeding of the galactic dynamo by supernova ejecta predicts a persistent correlation between gas metallicity and magnetic field strength. We also generate all-sky maps of the Faraday rotation measure from the simulation-predicted magnetic field, and we present a direct comparison with observations.

  7. RHAPSODY-G simulations II - Baryonic growth and metal enrichment in massive galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Martizzi, Davide; Wu, Hao-Yi; Evrard, August E; Teyssier, Romain; Wechsler, Risa H

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of the stellar component and the metallicity of both the intracluster medium and of stars in massive ($M_{\\rm vir}\\approx 6\\times 10^{14}$ M$_{\\odot}$) simulated galaxy clusters from the RHAPSODY-G suite in detail and compare them to observational results. The simulations were performed with the AMR code RAMSES and include the effect of AGN feedback at the sub-grid level. AGN feedback is required to produce realistic galaxy and cluster properties and plays a role in mixing material in the central regions and regulating star formation in the central galaxy. In our low resolution runs with fiducial stellar yields, we find that stellar and ICM metallicities are a factor of two lower than in observations, however they tend to converge to the observed values $\\sim 0.3$ Z$_{\\odot}$ as the resolution is increased. We find that cool core clusters exhibit steeper metallicity gradients than non-cool core clusters, in qualitative agreement with observations. We verify that the ICM metallicities me...

  8. Simulations of galaxy formation with radiative transfer: Hydrogen reionisation and radiative feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Petkova, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    We carry out hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation that simultaneously follow radiative transfer of hydrogen-ionising photons, based on the optically-thin variable Eddinton tensor approximation as implemented in the {\\small GADGET} code. We consider only star-forming galaxies as sources and examine to what extent they can yield a reasonable reionisation history and thermal state of the intergalactic medium at redshifts around $z\\sim 3$. This serves as an important benchmark for our self-consistent methodology to simulate galaxy formation and reionisation, and for future improvements through accounting of other sources and other wavelength ranges. We find that star formation alone is sufficient for reionising the Universe by redshift $z\\sim6$. For a suitable choice of the escape fraction and the heating efficiency, our models are approximately able to account at the same time for the one-point function and the power spectrum of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest. The radiation field has an important impact on ...

  9. Simulating the Circumgalactic Medium and the Cycle of Baryons in and Out of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madau, Piero

    2014-10-01

    Studies of the ionization, chemical, thermodynamic, and kinematic state of gaseous material in the circumgalactic medium {CGM} hold clues to understanding the exchange of mass, metals, and energy between galaxies and their surroundings. We propose here a detailed comparison of HST-COS data at low redshifts with results from our suite of extreme-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic "zoom-in" simulations of the CGM of massive spiral and sub-L* galaxies. Our state-of-the-art simulations adopt a feedback prescription that produces hundreds of kpc-scale galactic outflows, metal-dependent radiative cooling, and a model for the diffusion of metals and thermal energy. They have been recently shown to generate interstellar absorption line strengths of Lya, CII, CIV, SiII, and SiIV as a function of impact parameter that are in agreement with those observed in the CGM of star-forming massive galaxies, and to reproduce the observed stellar mass and cold gas content, resolved star formation histories, and metallicities of field dwarfs in the Local Volume. During the duration of this program we will: 1} analyze these simulations and trace the formation of the CGM to z=0; 2} add, in post processing, radiative transfer effects using an updated version of the ray-tracing RADAMESH code developed by one of the co-Is; 3} generate synthetic spectra by drawing sightlines through the simulated CGM, and compare the resulting column densities and equivalent widths of key metal ions as a function of impact parameter with data from the Hubble; 4} make the simulated data available online to the community to enhance the value of past, present, and future observational programs with the HST-COS.

  10. Physical properties of simulated galaxy populations at z=2 -- II. Effects of physics ingredients other than cooling and outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Haas, Marcel R; Booth, C M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Springel, Volker; Theuns, Tom; Wiersma, Robert P C

    2012-01-01

    We use hydrodynamical simulations from the OWLS project to investigate the dependence of the physical properties of galaxy populations at redshift 2 on the assumed star formation law, the equation of state imposed on the unresolved interstellar medium, the stellar initial mass function, the reionization history, and the assumed cosmology. This work complements that of Paper I, where we studied the effects of varying models for galactic winds driven by star formation and AGN. The normalisation of the matter power spectrum strongly affects the galaxy mass function, but has a relatively small effect on the physical properties of galaxies residing in haloes of a fixed mass. Reionization suppresses the stellar masses and gas fractions of low-mass galaxies, but by z = 2 the results are insensitive to the timing of reionization. The stellar initial mass function mainly determines the physical properties of galaxies through its effect on the efficiency of the feedback, while changes in the recycled mass and metal fra...

  11. Nebular line emission from z > 7 galaxies in cosmological simulations: rest-frame UV to Optical lines

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Ikkoh; Yoshida, Naoki; Okamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We have performed very large and high resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations in order to investigate detectability of nebular lines in the rest-frame UV to optical wavelength range from galaxies at z>7. We use a light-cone output to select galaxies at z~7-10 by the same color and magnitude criteria as real observations (Hubble Ultra Deep Survey). The UV dust attenuation is ~ 0.5 mag for galaxies with H160 10 galaxies will be found with the next generation telescopes such as the JWST, the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Wide-field Imaging Surveyor for High-Redshift (WISH) (11 9 galaxy candidates (MACS1149JD and MACS0647JD1) can be detectable using even the current facilities such as the VLT/X-Shooter and the Keck/MOSFIRE with high probability.

  12. Characterising Strong Lensing Galaxy Clusters using the Millennium-XXL and MOKA simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Giocoli, Carlo; Limousin, Marceau; Meneghetti, Massimo; Moscardini, Lauro; Angulo, Raul E; Despali, Giulia; Jullo, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the strong lensing statistics in galaxy clusters. We extract dark matter haloes from the Millennium-XXL simulation, compute their Einstein radius distribution, and find a very good agreement with Monte Carlo predictions produced with the MOKA code. The distribution of the Einstein radii is well described by a log-normal distribution, with a considerable fraction of the largest systems boosted by different projection effects. We discuss the importance of substructures and triaxiality in shaping the size of the critical lines for cluster size haloes. We then model and interpret the different deviations, accounting for the presence of a Bright Central Galaxy (BCG) and two different stellar mass density profiles. We present scaling relations between weak lensing quantities and the size of the Einstein radii. Finally we discuss how sensible is the distribution of the Einstein radii on the cosmological parameters {\\Omega}_M-{\\sigma}_8 finding that cosmologies with higher {\\Omega}_M and ...

  13. On The Road To More Realistic Galaxy Cluster Simulations: The Effects of Radiative Cooling and Thermal Feedback Prescriptions on the Observational Properties of Simulated Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Skory, Stephen; Burns, Jack O; Skillman, Samuel W; O'Shea, Brian W; Smith, Britton D

    2012-01-01

    Flux limited X-ray surveys of galaxy clusters show that clusters come in two roughly equally proportioned varieties: "cool core" clusters (CCs) and non-"cool core" clusters (NCCs). In previous work, we have demonstrated using cosmological $N$-body + Eulerian hydrodynamic simulations that NCCs are often consistent with early major mergers events that destroy embryonic CCs. In this paper we extend those results and conduct a series of simulationsusing different methods of gas cooling, and of energy and metal feedback from supernovae, where we attempt to produce a population of clusters with realistic central cooling times, entropies, and temperatures. We find that the use of metallicity-dependent gas cooling is essential to prevent early overcooling,and that adjusting the amount of energy and metal feedback can have a significant impact on observable X-ray quantities of the gas. We are able to produce clusters with more realistic central observable quantities than have previously been attained. However, there a...

  14. Towards a more realistic population of bright spiral galaxies in cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumer, Michael; White, Simon D. M.; Naab, Thorsten; Scannapieco, Cecilia

    2013-10-01

    We present an update to the multiphase smoothed particle hydrodynamics galaxy formation code by Scannapieco et al. We include a more elaborate treatment of the production of metals, cooling rates based on individual element abundances and a scheme for the turbulent diffusion of metals. Our supernova feedback model now transfers energy to the interstellar medium (ISM) in kinetic and thermal form, and we include a prescription for the effects of radiation pressure from massive young stars on the ISM. We calibrate our new code on the well-studied Aquarius haloes and then use it to simulate a sample of 16 galaxies with halo masses between 1 × 1011 and 3 × 1012 M⊙. In general, the stellar masses of the sample agree well with the stellar mass to halo mass relation inferred from abundance matching techniques for redshifts z = 0-4. There is however a tendency to overproduce stars at z > 4 and to underproduce them at z metallicities at z = 0-3. Remaining discrepancies can be connected to deviations from predictions for star formation histories from abundance matching. At z = 0, the model galaxies show realistic morphologies, stellar surface density profiles, circular velocity curves and stellar metallicities, but overly flat metallicity gradients. 15 out of 16 of our galaxies contain disc components with kinematic disc fraction ranging between 15 and 65 per cent. The disc fraction depends on the time of the last destructive merger or misaligned infall event. Considering the remaining shortcomings of our simulations we conclude that even higher kinematic disc fractions may be possible for Λ cold dark matter haloes with quiet merger histories, such as the Aquarius haloes.

  15. Physics of a partially ionized gas relevant to galaxy formation simulations -- the ionization potential energy reservoir

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenbroucke, Bert; Schroyen, Joeri; Jachowicz, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Simulation codes for galaxy formation and evolution take on board as many physical processes as possible beyond the standard gravitational and hydrodynamical physics. Most of this extra physics takes place below the resolution level of the simulations and is added in a sub-grid fashion. However, these sub-grid processes affect the macroscopic hydrodynamical properties of the gas and thus couple to the on-grid physics that is explicitly integrated during the simulation. In this paper, we focus on the link between partial ionization and the hydrodynamical equations. We show that the energy stored in ions and free electrons constitutes a potential energy term which breaks the linear dependence of the internal energy on temperature. Correctly taking into account ionization hence requires modifying both the equation of state and the energy-temperature relation. We implemented these changes in the cosmological simulation code Gadget2. As an example of the effects of these changes, we study the propagation of Sedov-...

  16. The M-sigma relation in simulations of isolated and merging disk galaxies with kinetic or thermal AGN feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Barai, Paramita; Murante, Giuseppe; Gaspari, Massimo; Borgani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) We investigate two modes of coupling the feedback energy from a central AGN to the neighboring gas in galaxy simulations: kinetic - velocity boost, and thermal - heating. We formulate kinetic feedback models for energy-driven wind (EDW) and momentum-driven wind (MDW), using two free parameters: feedback efficiency epsilon_f, and AGN wind velocity v_w. A novel numerical algorithm is implemented in the SPH code GADGET-3, to prevent the expansion of a hole in the gas distribution around the BH. We perform simulations of isolated evolution and merger of disk galaxies, of Milky-Way mass as well as lower and higher masses. We find that in the isolated galaxy BH kinetic feedback generates intermittent bipolar jet-like gas outflows. We infer that current prescriptions for BH subgrid physics in galaxy simulations can grow the BH to observed values even in an isolated disk galaxy. The BH growth is enhanced in a galaxy merger. Comparing the [M_BH - sigma_star] relation obtained in our simulations with observa...

  17. Galaxy Properties and UV Escape Fractions during the Epoch of Reionization: Results from the Renaissance Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Wise, John H.; Norman, Michael L.; Ahn, Kyungjin; O'Shea, Brian W.

    2016-12-01

    Cosmic reionization is thought to be primarily fueled by the first generations of galaxies. We examine their stellar and gaseous properties, focusing on the star formation rates and the escape of ionizing photons, as a function of halo mass, redshift, and environment using the full suite of the Renaissance Simulations with an eye to provide better inputs to global reionization simulations. This suite probes overdense, average, and underdense regions of the universe of several hundred comoving Mpc3, each yielding a sample of over 3000 halos in the mass range of 107-109.5 {M}⊙ at their final redshifts of 15, 12.5, and 8, respectively. In the process, we simulate the effects of radiative and supernova feedback from 5000 to 10,000 Population III stars in each simulation. We find that halos as small as 107 {M}⊙ are able to host bursty star formation due to metal-line cooling from earlier enrichment by massive Population III stars. Using our large sample, we find that the galaxy-halo occupation fraction drops from unity at virial masses above 108.5 {M}⊙ to ˜50% at 108 {M}⊙ and ˜10% at 107 {M}⊙ , quite independent of redshift and region. Their average ionizing escape fraction is ˜5% in the mass range of 108-109 {M}⊙ and increases with decreasing halo mass below this range, reaching 40%-60% at 107 {M}⊙ . Interestingly, we find that the escape fraction varies between 10%-20% in halos with virial masses of ˜3 × 109 {M}⊙ . Taken together, our results confirm the importance of the smallest galaxies as sources of ionizing radiation contributing to the reionization of the universe.

  18. Modeling the Dynamics of Interacting Galaxy Pairs - Testing Identikit Using GADGET SPH Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S. Alireza; Lotz, Jennifer; Barnes, Joshua E.

    2015-01-01

    We develop and test an automated technique to model the dynamics of interacting galaxy pairs. We use Identikit (Barnes & Hibbard 2009; Barnes 2011) as a tool for modeling and matching the morphology and kinematics of the interacting pairs of similar-size galaxies. In order to reduce the effect of subjective human interference, we automate the selection of phase-space regions used to match simulations to data, and we explore how selection of these regions affects the random uncertainties of parameters in the best-fit model. In this work, we used an independent set of GADGET SPH simulations as input data, so we determined the systematic bias in the measured encounter parameters based on the known initial conditions of these simulations. We tested both cold gas and young stellar components in the GADGET simulations to explore the effect of choosing HI vs. Hα as the line of sight velocity tracer. We found that we can group the results into tests with good, fair, and poor convergence based on the distribution of parameters of models close enough to the best-fit model. For tests with good and fair convergence, we ruled out large fractions of parameter space and recovered merger stage, eccentricity, viewing angle, and pericentric distance within 2σ of the correct value. All of tests on gaseous component of prograde systems had either good or fair convergence. Retrograde systems and most of tests on young stars had poor convergence and may require constraints from regions other than the tidal tails. In this work we also present WIYN SparsePak IFU data for a few interacting galaxies, and we show the result of applying our method on this data set.

  19. N-Body Galaxy Dynamics Simulations on a Homogeneous Beowulf Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, B.; McBride, W. R.; Kornreich, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    The galactic distribution of dark matter in disk galaxies remains an important problem in astrophysics. Modern methods in determining this distribution rely heavily on N--Body simulations. To this end we have developed a variable time step Piet Hut N--Body simulator, run using MPICH on a homogeneous 12 processor (x86) Beowulf cluster. The Hut Algorithm allows for the efficient, accurate calculation of forces between millions of points in a reasonable time. Additionally, subdividing the space into octants allows for the efficient creation O(N log (N)) of mutual nearest-neighbor data for all points. Such data are necessary for the inclusion of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (gas clouds, etc) as well as for merging the frequent, tightly bound, rapidly rotating, binary systems that decrease performance in this type of simulation. Initial tests have shown strong agreement with exhaustive O(N2) calculation results. Simulating 10,000 points yielded a total relative error of 0.32% with the exhaustive case, executing in 3.3 seconds on the cluster. General system-level tests have also been performed, including determining collapse times for cold and isothermal spherical distributions; all resulting in good agreement with analytical results. Tests on the Kuz'min galactic distribution have also resulted in expected rotational rates. We discuss the oscillatory behavior of such distributions within several constant potentials with the intention of further eliciting the distribution of dark matter within our own galaxy.

  20. Spiral- and bar-driven peculiar velocities in Milky Way-sized galaxy simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Robert J. J.; Bovy, Jo; Kawata, Daisuke; Hunt, Jason A. S.; Famaey, Benoit; Siebert, Arnaud; Monari, Giacomo; Cropper, Mark

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the kinematic signatures induced by spiral and bar structure in a set of simulations of Milky Way-sized spiral disc galaxies. The set includes test particle simulations that follow a quasi-stationary density wave-like scenario with rigidly rotating spiral arms, and N-body simulations that host a bar and transient, corotating spiral arms. From a location similar to that of the Sun, we calculate the radial, tangential and line-of-sight peculiar velocity fields of a patch of the disc and quantify the fluctuations by computing the power spectrum from a two-dimensional Fourier transform. We find that the peculiar velocity power spectrum of the simulation with a bar and transient, corotating spiral arms fits very well to that of APOGEE red clump star data, while the quasi-stationary density wave spiral model without a bar does not. We determine that the power spectrum is sensitive to the number of spiral arms, spiral arm pitch angle and position with respect to the spiral arm. However, it is necessary to go beyond the line-of-sight velocity field in order to distinguish fully between the various spiral models with this method. We compute the power spectrum for different regions of the spiral discs, and discuss the application of this analysis technique to external galaxies.

  1. Simulating galaxy clusters -- I. Thermal and chemical properties of the intra-cluster medium

    CERN Document Server

    Romeo, A D; Portinari, L; Antonuccio-Delogu, V

    2005-01-01

    We have performed a series of N-body/hydrodynamical (TreeSPH) simulations of clusters and groups of galaxies, selected from cosmological N-body simulations within a $\\Lambda$CDM framework: these objects have been re-simulated at higher resolution to $z$=0, in order to follow also the dynamical, thermal and chemical input on to the ICM from stellar populations within galaxies. The simulations include metal dependent radiative cooling, star formation according to different IMFs, energy feedback as strong starburst-driven galactic super-winds, chemical evolution with non-instantaneous recycling of gas and heavy elements, effects of a meta-galactic UV field and thermal conduction in the ICM. In this Paper I of a series of three, we derive results, mainly at $z=0$, on the temperature and entropy profiles of the ICM, its X-ray luminosity, the cluster cold components (cold fraction as well as mass--to--light ratio) and the metal distribution between ICM and stars. In general, models with efficient super-winds, along...

  2. The merger rate of galaxies in the Illustris Simulation: a comparison with observations and semi-empirical models

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Vogelsberger, Mark; Sijacki, Debora; Pillepich, Annalisa; Sales, Laura V; Torrey, Paul; Snyder, Greg; Nelson, Dylan; Springel, Volker; Ma, Chung-Pei; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed merger trees for galaxies in the Illustris Simulation by directly tracking the baryonic content of subhalos. These merger trees are used to calculate the galaxy-galaxy merger rate as a function of descendant stellar mass, progenitor stellar mass ratio, and redshift. We demonstrate that the most appropriate definition for the mass ratio of a galaxy-galaxy merger consists in taking both progenitor masses at the time when the secondary progenitor reaches its maximum stellar mass. Additionally, we avoid effects from `orphaned' galaxies by allowing some objects to `skip' a snapshot when finding a descendant, and by only considering mergers which show a well-defined `infall' moment. Adopting these definitions, we obtain well-converged predictions for the galaxy-galaxy merger rate with the following main features, which are qualitatively similar to the halo-halo merger rate except for the last one: a strong correlation with redshift that evolves as $\\sim (1+z)^{2.4-2.8}$, a power law with respect...

  3. The Redshift-Space Cluster-Galaxy Cross-Correlation Function: I. Modeling Galaxy Infall onto Millennium Simulation Clusters and SDSS Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Zu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The large scale infall of galaxies around massive clusters provides a potentially powerful diagnostic of structure growth, dark energy, and cosmological deviations from General Relativity. We develop and test a method to recover galaxy infall kinematics (GIK) from measurements of the redshift-space cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function \\xi_{cg}(r_p,r_\\pi). Using galaxy and halo samples from the Millennium simulation, we calibrate an analytic model of the galaxy kinematic profiles comprised of a virialized component with an isotropic Gaussian velocity distribution and an infall component described by a skewed 2D t-distribution with a characteristic infall velocity v_r and separate radial and tangential dispersions. We show that convolving the real-space cross-correlation function with this velocity distribution accurately predicts the redshift-space \\xi_{cg}, and we show that measurements of \\xi_{cg} can be inverted to recover the four distinct elements of the GIK profiles. These in turn provide diagnostic...

  4. NIHAO project I: Reproducing the inefficiency of galaxy formation across cosmic time with a large sample of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liang; Stinson, Gregory S; Macciò, Andrea V; Penzo, Camilla; Kang, Xi; Keller, Ben W; Wadsley, James

    2015-01-01

    We introduce project NIHAO (Numerical Investigation of a Hundred Astrophysical Objects), a set of 100 cosmological zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations performed using the GASOLINE code, with an improved implementation of the SPH algorithm. The haloes in our study range from dwarf to Milky Way masses, and represent an unbiased sampling of merger histories, concentrations and spin parameters. The particle masses and force softenings are chosen to resolve the mass profile to below 1% of the virial radius at all masses, ensuring that galaxy half-light radii are well resolved. Using the same treatment of star formation and stellar feedback for every object, the simulated galaxies reproduce the observed inefficiency of galaxy formation across cosmic time as expressed through the stellar mass vs halo mass relation, and the star formation rate vs stellar mass relation. We thus conclude that stellar feedback is the chief piece of physics required to limit the efficiency of star formation in galaxies less massive than t...

  5. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...

  6. Weighing "El Gordo" with a Pecision Scale: Hubble Space Telescope Weak-lensing Analysis of the Merging Galaxy Cluster ACT-CL J0102-4915 at z=0.87

    CERN Document Server

    Jee, M James; Menanteau, Felipe; Sifon, Cristobal; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Barrientos, L Felipe; Infante, Leopoldo; Ng, Karen Y

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) We present a HST weak-lensing study of the merging galaxy cluster "El Gordo" (ACT-CL J0102-4915) at z=0.87 discovered by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope collaboration as the strongest SZ decrement in its ~1000 sq. deg survey. Our weak-lensing analysis confirms that ACT-CL J0102-4915 is indeed an extreme system consisting of two massive (~10^15 Msun each) subclusters with a projected separation of ~0.7 Mpc. This binary mass structure revealed by our lensing study is consistent with the cluster galaxy distribution and the dynamical study carried out with 89 spectroscopic members. We estimate the mass of ACT-CL J0102-4915 by simultaneously fitting two axisymmetric NFW profiles allowing their centers to vary. Our MCMC analysis shows that the masses of the northwestern (NW) and the southeastern (SE) components are M200c=(1.40+-0.31) x 10^15 Msun and (0.75+-0.17) x 10^15 Msun, respectively. The lensing-based velocity dispersions are consistent with their spectroscopic measurements. The centroids of both ...

  7. Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation: Successes and challenges in the era of supercomputers. Ludwig Biermann Award Lecture 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, C.

    2013-06-01

    I use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study the formation and evolution of galaxies similar in mass to the Milky Way. First, I use a set of eight simulations where the haloes have a great variety of merger and formation histories, to investigate how similar or diverse these galaxies are at the present epoch, and how their final properties are related to the particular formation history of the galaxy. I find that rotationally-supported disks are present in 7 of the 8 galaxies at {z˜ 2}-3; however, only half of the galaxies have significant disks at z=0. Both major mergers and the accretion of gas that is misaligned with the preexisting stellar disk contribute to the transfer of material from the disks to the spheroidal components, lowering the disk-to-total ratios during evolution. I also present and discuss recent results of the Aquila Project, which compares the predictions of 13 different numerical codes for the properties of a galaxy in a \\Lambda cold dark matter universe. All simulations use a unique initial condition and are analysed in the exact same way, allowing a fair comparison of results. We find large code-to-code variations in stellar masses, star formation rates, galaxy sizes and morphologies. We also find that the way feedback is implemented is the main cause of the differences, although some differences might also result from the use of different numerical technique. Our results show that state-of-the-art simulations cannot yet uniquely predict the properties of the baryonic component of a galaxy, even when the assembly history of its host halo is fully specified.

  8. Testing X-ray Measurements of Galaxy Cluster Outskirts with Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Avestruz, Camille; Nagai, Daisuke; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The study of galaxy cluster outskirts has emerged as one of the new frontiers in extragalactic astrophysics and cosmology with the advent of new observations in X-ray and microwave. However, the thermodynamic properties and chemical enrichment of this diffuse and azimuthally asymmetric component of the intra-cluster medium are still not well understood. This work, for the first time, systematically explores potential observational biases in these regions. To assess X-ray measurements of galaxy cluster properties at large radii ($>{R}_{500c}$), we use mock Chandra analyses of cosmological galaxy cluster simulations. The pipeline is identical to that used for Chandra observations, but the biases discussed in this paper are relevant for all X-ray observations outside of ${R}_{500c}$. We find the following from our analysis: (1) filament regions can contribute as much as a factor of 3 to the emission measure, (2) X-ray temperatures and metal abundances from model fitted mock X-ray spectra respectively vary to the...

  9. The MaGICC Baryon Cycle: The Enrichment History of Simulated Disc Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brook, C B; Gibson, B K; Shen, S; Macciò, A V; Wadsley, J; Quinn, T

    2013-01-01

    Using cosmological galaxy formation simulations from the MaGICC project, spanning more than three magnitudes in stellar mass (~10^7-3x10^{10} Msun), we trace the baryonic cycle of infalling gas from the virial radius through to its participation in the star formation process. An emphasis is placed upon the temporal history of chemical enrichment during its passage through the corona and CGM. We derive the distributions of time between gas crossing the virial radius and being accreted to the star forming region (which allows mixing within the corona), as well as the time between gas being accreted to the star forming region and then forming stars (which allows mixing within the disc). Significant numbers of stars are formed from gas that cycles back through the hot halo after first accreting to the star forming region. Gas entering high mass galaxies is pre-enriched in low mass proto-galaxies prior to entering the virial radius of the central progenitor, with only small amounts of primordial gas accreted, even...

  10. Towards simulating star formation in turbulent high-z galaxies with mechanical supernova feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Dubois, Yohan; Slyz, Adrianne

    2015-01-01

    Feedback from supernovae is essential to understanding the self-regulation of star formation in galaxies. However, the efficacy of the process in a cosmological context remains unclear due to excessive radiative losses during the shock propagation. To better understand the impact of SN explosions on the evolution of galaxies, we perform a suite of high-resolution (12 pc), zoom-in cosmological simulations of a Milky Way-like galaxy at z=3 with adaptive mesh refinement. We find that SN explosions can efficiently regulate star formation, leading to the stellar mass and metallicity consistent with the observed mass-metallicity relation and stellar mass-halo mass relation at z~3. This is achieved by making three important changes to the classical feedback scheme: i) the different phases of SN blast waves are modelled directly by injecting radial momentum expected at each stage, ii) the realistic time delay of SNe, commencing at as early as 3 Myr, is required to disperse very dense gas before a runaway collapse set...

  11. Warm Gas in and Around Simulated Galaxy Clusters as Probed by Absorption Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Emerick, Andrew; Putman, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Understanding gas flows into and out of the most massive dark matter structures in our Universe, galaxy clusters, is fundamental to understanding their evolution. Gas in clusters is well studied in the hot ($>$ 10$^{6}$ K) and cold ($<$ 10$^{4}$ K) regimes, but the warm gas component (10$^{4}$ - 10$^{6}$ K) is poorly constrained. It is challenging to observe directly, but can be probed through Ly$\\alpha$ absorption studies. We produce the first systematic study of the warm gas content of galaxy clusters through synthetic Ly$\\alpha$ absorption studies using cosmological simulations of two galaxy clusters produced with Enzo. We explore the spatial and kinematic properties of our cluster absorbers, and show that the majority of the identified absorbers are due to fast moving gas associated with cluster infall from IGM filaments. Towards the center of the clusters, however, the warm IGM filaments are no longer dominant and the absorbers tend to have higher column densities and metallicities, representing strip...

  12. The first weighing of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-10

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  13. nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations - V. Investigation of the cluster infall region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jake; Pearce, Frazer R.; Gray, Meghan E.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Knebe, Alexander; Beck, Alexander M.; Cui, Weiguang; Cunnama, Daniel; Davé, Romeel; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Katz, Neal; Kay, Scott T.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Murante, Giuseppe; Perret, Valentin; Power, Chris; Puchwein, Ewald; Saro, Alexandro; Sembolini, Federico; Teyssier, Romain; Yepes, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    We examine the properties of the galaxies and dark matter haloes residing in the cluster infall region surrounding the simulated Λ cold dark matter galaxy cluster studied by Elahi et al. at z = 0. The 1.1 × 1015 h-1 M⊙ galaxy cluster has been simulated with eight different hydrodynamical codes containing a variety of hydrodynamic solvers and sub-grid schemes. All models completed a dark-matter-only, non-radiative and full-physics run from the same initial conditions. The simulations contain dark matter and gas with mass resolution mDM = 9.01 × 108 h-1 M⊙ and mgas = 1.9 × 108 h-1 M⊙, respectively. We find that the synthetic cluster is surrounded by clear filamentary structures that contain ˜60 per cent of haloes in the infall region with mass ˜1012.5-1014 h-1 M⊙, including 2-3 group-sized haloes (>1013 h-1 M⊙). However, we find that only ˜10 per cent of objects in the infall region are sub-haloes residing in haloes, which may suggest that there is not much ongoing pre-processing occurring in the infall region at z = 0. By examining the baryonic content contained within the haloes, we also show that the code-to-code scatter in stellar fraction across all halo masses is typically ˜2 orders of magnitude between the two most extreme cases, and this is predominantly due to the differences in sub-grid schemes and calibration procedures that each model uses. Models that do not include active galactic nucleus feedback typically produce too high stellar fractions compared to observations by at least ˜1 order of magnitude.

  14. The AGORA High-resolution Galaxy Simulations Comparison Project. II. Isolated Disk Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Agertz, Oscar; Teyssier, Romain; Butler, Michael J.; Ceverino, Daniel; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Feldmann, Robert; Keller, Ben W.; Lupi, Alessandro; Quinn, Thomas; Revaz, Yves; Wallace, Spencer; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Leitner, Samuel N.; Shen, Sijing; Smith, Britton D.; Thompson, Robert; Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom; Arraki, Kenza S.; Benincasa, Samantha M.; Chakrabarti, Sukanya; DeGraf, Colin; Dekel, Avishai; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Hummels, Cameron B.; Klypin, Anatoly; Li, Hui; Madau, Piero; Mandelker, Nir; Mayer, Lucio; Nagamine, Kentaro; Nickerson, Sarah; O'Shea, Brian W.; Primack, Joel R.; Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Semenov, Vadim; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Simpson, Christine M.; Todoroki, Keita; Wadsley, James W.; Wise, John H.; AGORA Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    Using an isolated Milky Way-mass galaxy simulation, we compare results from nine state-of-the-art gravito-hydrodynamics codes widely used in the numerical community. We utilize the infrastructure we have built for the AGORA High-resolution Galaxy Simulations Comparison Project. This includes the common disk initial conditions, common physics models (e.g., radiative cooling and UV background by the standardized package Grackle) and common analysis toolkit yt, all of which are publicly available. Subgrid physics models such as Jeans pressure floor, star formation, supernova feedback energy, and metal production are carefully constrained across code platforms. With numerical accuracy that resolves the disk scale height, we find that the codes overall agree well with one another in many dimensions including: gas and stellar surface densities, rotation curves, velocity dispersions, density and temperature distribution functions, disk vertical heights, stellar clumps, star formation rates, and Kennicutt-Schmidt relations. Quantities such as velocity dispersions are very robust (agreement within a few tens of percent at all radii) while measures like newly formed stellar clump mass functions show more significant variation (difference by up to a factor of ˜3). Systematic differences exist, for example, between mesh-based and particle-based codes in the low-density region, and between more diffusive and less diffusive schemes in the high-density tail of the density distribution. Yet intrinsic code differences are generally small compared to the variations in numerical implementations of the common subgrid physics such as supernova feedback. Our experiment reassures that, if adequately designed in accordance with our proposed common parameters, results of a modern high-resolution galaxy formation simulation are more sensitive to input physics than to intrinsic differences in numerical schemes.

  15. The Argo Simulation: I. Quenching of Massive Galaxies at High Redshift as a Result of Cosmological Starvation

    CERN Document Server

    Feldmann, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Observations show a prevalence of high redshift galaxies with large stellar masses and predominantly passive stellar populations. A variety of processes have been suggested that could reduce the star formation in such galaxies to observed levels, including quasar mode feedback, virial shock heating, or galactic winds driven by stellar feedback. However, the main quenching mechanisms have yet to be identified. Here we study the origin of star formation quenching using Argo, a cosmological zoom-in simulation that follows the evolution of a massive galaxy at $z\\geq{}2$. This simulation adopts the same sub-grid recipes of the Eris simulations, which have been shown to form realistic disk galaxies, and, in one version, adopts also a mass and spatial resolution identical to Eris. The resulting galaxy has properties consistent with those of observed, massive (M_* ~ 1e11 M_sun) galaxies at z~2 and with abundance matching predictions. Our models do not include AGN feedback indicating that supermassive black holes like...

  16. Boosted Tidal Disruption by Massive Black Hole Binaries During Galaxy Mergers from the View of N-Body Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Liu, F. K.; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are productions of the hierarchical galaxy formation model. There are many close connections between a central SMBH and its host galaxy because the former plays very important roles on galaxy formation and evolution. For this reason, the evolution of SMBHBs in merging galaxies is a fundamental challenge. Since there are many discussions about SMBHB evolution in a gas-rich environment, we focus on the quiescent galaxy, using tidal disruption (TD) as a diagnostic tool. Our study is based on a series of numerical, large particle number, direct N-body simulations for dry major mergers. According to the simulation results, the evolution can be divided into three phases. In phase I, the TD rate for two well separated SMBHs in a merging system is similar to that for a single SMBH in an isolated galaxy. After two SMBHs approach close enough to form a bound binary in phase II, the disruption rate can be enhanced by ∼2 orders of magnitude within a short time. This “boosted” disruption stage finishes after the SMBHB evolves to a compact binary system in phase III, corresponding to a reduction in disruption rate back to a level of a few times higher than in phase I. We also discuss how to correctly extrapolate our N-body simulation results to reality, and the implications of our results to observations.

  17. Secondary Models for Radio Mini-Halos in Galaxy Clusters with MHD Simulations of Gas Sloshing

    CERN Document Server

    ZuHone, John; Giacintucci, Simona; Markevitch, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    We present simulations of a radio minihalo in a galaxy cluster core with sloshing cold fronts, under the assumption that the source of the synchrotron-emitting electrons is hadronic interactions between cosmic-ray protons with the thermal intracluster gas. This is an alternative to the hypothesis where the cosmic ray electrons are reaccelerated by the intracluster turbulence, which we have discussed in an earlier work. We follow the evolution of cosmic-ray electron spectra associated with passive tracer particles, taking into account the time-dependent injection of new electrons from the hadronic interactions and energy losses along each particle's trajectory. We then simulate the radio emission from these particles. The drop in radio emission at the cold front surfaces is less prominent than that in our previous simulations, based on electron reacceleration from sloshing-induced turbulence, where the emission is definitively confined to the regions within cold fronts. The result is that the emission is overa...

  18. Structure and Turbulence in Simulated Galaxy Clusters and the Implications for the Formation of Radio Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Hallman, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    We track the histories of massive clusters of galaxies formed within a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. Specifically, we track the time evolution of the energy in random bulk motions of the intracluster medium and X-ray measures of cluster structure and their relationship to cluster mergers. We aim to assess the viability of the turbulent re-acceleration model for the generation of giant radio halos by comparing the level of turbulent kinetic energy in simulated clusters with the observed properties of radio halo clusters, giving particular attention to the association of radio halos to clusters with disturbedX-ray structures. The evolution of X-ray cluster structure and turbulence kinetic energy, k, in simulations can then inform us about the expected lifetime of radio halos and the fraction of clusters as a function of redshift expected to host them. We find strong statistical correlation of disturbed structure measures and the presence of enhancements in k. Specifically, quantitatively "disturbed", ra...

  19. Three-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Buoyant Bubbles in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, S M; Jones, T W

    2009-01-01

    We report results of 3D MHD simulations of the dynamics of buoyant bubbles in magnetized galaxy cluster media. The simulations are three dimensional extensions of two dimensional calculations reported by Jones & De Young (2005). Initially spherical bubbles and briefly inflated spherical bubbles all with radii a few times smaller than the intracluster medium (ICM) scale height were followed as they rose through several ICM scale heights. Such bubbles quickly evolve into a toroidal form that, in the absence of magnetic influences, is stable against fragmentation in our simulations. This ring formation results from (commonly used) initial conditions that cause ICM material below the bubbles to drive upwards through the bubble, creating a vortex ring; that is, hydrostatic bubbles develop into "smoke rings", if they are initially not very much smaller or very much larger than the ICM scale height. Even modest ICM magnetic fields with beta = P_gas/P_mag ~ 10^3 can influence the dynamics of the bubbles, provided...

  20. Simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies formed in dark matter halos with different mass assembly histories

    CERN Document Server

    González-Samaniego, A; Avila-Reese, V; Rodríguez-Puebla, A; Valenzuela, O

    2013-01-01

    We present high-resolution N-body/Hydrodynamics simulations of dwarf galaxies formed in isolated CDM halos with the same virial mass, Mv~2.5x10^10 Msun at z=0, in order to (1) study the mass assembly histories (MAHs) of the halo, stars, and gas components, and (2) explore the effects of the halo MAHs on the stellar/baryonic assembly of the simulated dwarfs and on their z~0 properties. Overall, the simulated dwarfs are roughly consistent with observations. Our main results are: a) The stellar-to-halo mass ratio is ~0.01 and remains roughly constant since z~1 (the stellar MAHs follow closely the halo MAHs), with a smaller value at higher z's for those halos that assemble their mass later. b) The evolution of the galaxy gas fraction, fg, is episodic and higher, most of the time, than the stellar fraction. When fg decreases (increases), the gas fraction in the halo typically increases (decreases), showing that the SN driven outflows play an important role in regulating the gas fractions -and hence the SFR- of the...

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Disk GalaxyFormation: the Magnetization of The Cold and Warm Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Santa Barbara, KITP

    2007-12-18

    Using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we study the formation and early evolution of disk galaxies with a magnetized interstellar medium. For a 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} halo with initial NFW dark matter and gas profiles, we impose a uniform 10{sup -9} G magnetic field and follow its collapse, disk formation and evolution up to 1 Gyr. Comparing to a purely hydrodynamic simulation with the same initial condition, we find that a protogalactic field of this strength does not significantly influence the global disk properties. At the same time, the initial magnetic fields are quickly amplified by the differentially rotating turbulent disk. After the initial rapid amplification lasting {approx} 500 Myr, subsequent field amplification appears self-regulated. As a result, highly magnetized material begin to form above and below the disk. Interestingly, the field strengths in the self-regulated regime agrees well with the observed fields in the Milky Way galaxy both in the warm and the cold HI phase and do not change appreciably with time. Most of the cold phase shows a dispersion of order ten in the magnetic field strength. The global azimuthal magnetic fields reverse at different radii and the amplitude declines as a function of radius of the disk. By comparing the estimated star formation rate (SFR) in hydrodynamic and MHD simulations, we find that after the magnetic field strength saturates, magnetic forces provide further support in the cold gas and lead to a decline of the SFR.

  2. Simulating the effect of AGN feedback on the metal enrichment of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fabjan, D; Tornatore, L; Saro, A; Murante, G; Dolag, K

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the effect of AGN feedback on metal enrichment and thermal properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) in hydrodynamical simulations. The cosmological simulations are performed for a set of clusters using a version of the TreePM-SPH Gadget code that follows chemo-dynamical evolution by accounting for metal enrichment by different stellar populations. Besides runs not including any efficient form of energy feedback, we carry out simulations including: (i) kinetic feedback in the form of galactic winds triggered by supernova explosions; (ii) AGN feedback from gas accretion onto super-massive black holes (BHs); (iii) AGN feedback in which a 'radio mode' is included. We find that AGN feedback is able to quench star formation in the brightest cluster galaxies at z<4 and provides correct temperature profiles in the central regions of galaxy groups. However, its effect is not sufficient to create cool cores in massive clusters. AGN feedback creates a widespread enrichment in the outskirts of...

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Disk GalaxyFormation: the Magnetization of The Cold and Warm Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Santa Barbara, KITP

    2007-12-18

    Using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we study the formation and early evolution of disk galaxies with a magnetized interstellar medium. For a 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} halo with initial NFW dark matter and gas profiles, we impose a uniform 10{sup -9} G magnetic field and follow its collapse, disk formation and evolution up to 1 Gyr. Comparing to a purely hydrodynamic simulation with the same initial condition, we find that a protogalactic field of this strength does not significantly influence the global disk properties. At the same time, the initial magnetic fields are quickly amplified by the differentially rotating turbulent disk. After the initial rapid amplification lasting {approx} 500 Myr, subsequent field amplification appears self-regulated. As a result, highly magnetized material begin to form above and below the disk. Interestingly, the field strengths in the self-regulated regime agrees well with the observed fields in the Milky Way galaxy both in the warm and the cold HI phase and do not change appreciably with time. Most of the cold phase shows a dispersion of order ten in the magnetic field strength. The global azimuthal magnetic fields reverse at different radii and the amplitude declines as a function of radius of the disk. By comparing the estimated star formation rate (SFR) in hydrodynamic and MHD simulations, we find that after the magnetic field strength saturates, magnetic forces provide further support in the cold gas and lead to a decline of the SFR.

  4. Rotation curve fitting and its fatal attraction to cores in realistically simulated galaxy observations

    CERN Document Server

    Pineda, Juan C B; Springel, Volker; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes

    2016-01-01

    We study the role of systematic effects in observational studies of the core/cusp problem under the minimum disc approximation using a suite of high-resolution (25-pc softening length) hydrodynamical simulations of dwarf galaxies. We mimic kinematical observations in a realistic manner at different distances and inclinations, and fit the resulting rotation curves with two analytical models commonly used to differentiate cores from cusps in the dark matter distribution. We find that the cored pseudo-isothermal sphere (P-ISO) model is often strongly favoured by the reduced $\\chi^2_\

  5. The New Numerical Galaxy Catalog (ν2GC): An updated semi-analytic model of galaxy and active galactic nucleus formation with large cosmological N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiya, Ryu; Enoki, Motohiro; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagashima, Masahiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Okoshi, Katsuya; Oogi, Taira; Shirakata, Hikari

    2016-04-01

    We present a new cosmological galaxy formation model, ν2GC, as an updated version of our previous model νGC. We adopt the so-called "semi-analytic" approach, in which the formation history of dark matter halos is computed by N-body simulations, while the baryon physics such as gas cooling, star formation, and supernova feedback are simply modeled by phenomenological equations. Major updates of the model are as follows: (1) the merger trees of dark matter halos are constructed in state-of-the-art N-body simulations, (2) we introduce the formation and evolution process of supermassive black holes and the suppression of gas cooling due to active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, (3) we include heating of the intergalactic gas by the cosmic UV background, and (4) we tune some free parameters related to the astrophysical processes using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Our N-body simulations of dark matter halos have unprecedented box size and mass resolution (the largest simulation contains 550 billion particles in a 1.12 Gpc h-1 box), enabling the study of much smaller and rarer objects. The model was tuned to fit the luminosity functions of local galaxies and mass function of neutral hydrogen. Local observations, such as the Tully-Fisher relation, the size-magnitude relation of spiral galaxies, and the scaling relation between the bulge mass and black hole mass were well reproduced by the model. Moreover, the model also reproduced well the cosmic star formation history and redshift evolution of rest-frame K-band luminosity functions. The numerical catalog of the simulated galaxies and AGNs is publicly available on the web.

  6. Fossil groups in the Millennium simulation. From the brightest to the faintest galaxies during the past 8 Gyr

    CERN Document Server

    Kanagusuku, Maria Jose; Zandivarez, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of bright and faint galaxies in fossil and non-fossil groups. We used mock galaxies constructed based on the Millennium run simulation II. We identified fossil groups at redshift zero according to two different selection criteria, and then built reliable control samples of non-fossil groups that reproduce the fossil virial mass and assembly time distributions. The faint galaxies were defined as having r-band absolute magnitudes in the range [-16,-11]. We analysed the properties of the bright and faint galaxies in fossil and non-fossil groups during the past 8 Gyr. We observed that the brightest galaxy in fossil groups is typically brighter and more massive than their counterparts in control groups. Fossil groups developed their large magnitude gap between the brightest galaxies around 3.5 Gyr ago. The brightest galaxy stellar masses of all groups show a notorious increment at that time. By analysing the behaviour of the magnitude gap between the first and the second, third, and fo...

  7. COSMOLOGICAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTER RADIO RELICS: INSIGHTS AND WARNINGS FOR OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skillman, Samuel W.; Hallman, Eric J.; Burns, Jack O. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Xu, Hao; Li, Hui; Collins, David C. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); O' Shea, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Norman, Michael L., E-mail: samuel.skillman@colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Non-thermal radio emission from cosmic-ray electrons in the vicinity of merging galaxy clusters is an important tracer of cluster merger activity, and is the result of complex physical processes that involve magnetic fields, particle acceleration, gas dynamics, and radiation. In particular, objects known as radio relics are thought to be the result of shock-accelerated electrons that, when embedded in a magnetic field, emit synchrotron radiation in the radio wavelengths. In order to properly model this emission, we utilize the adaptive mesh refinement simulation of the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a galaxy cluster from cosmological initial conditions. We locate shock fronts and apply models of cosmic-ray electron acceleration that are then input into radio emission models. We have determined the thermodynamic properties of this radio-emitting plasma and constructed synthetic radio observations to compare observed galaxy clusters. We find a significant dependence of the observed morphology and radio relic properties on the viewing angle of the cluster, raising concerns regarding the interpretation of observed radio features in clusters. We also find that a given shock should not be characterized by a single Mach number. We find that the bulk of the radio emission comes from gas with T > 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K, {rho} {approx} 10{sup -28}-10{sup -27} g cm{sup -3}, with magnetic field strengths of 0.1-1.0 {mu}G, and shock Mach numbers of M {approx} 3-6. We present an analysis of the radio spectral index which suggests that the spatial variation of the spectral index can mimic synchrotron aging. Finally, we examine the polarization fraction and position angle of the simulated radio features, and compare to observations.

  8. Numerical Simulations Challenged on the Prediction of Massive Subhalo Abundance in Galaxy Clusters: The Case of Abell 2142

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, E.; Grillo, C.; De Lucia, G.; Biviano, A.; Annunziatella, M.; Borgani, S.; Lombardi, M.; Mercurio, A.; Rosati, P.

    2016-08-01

    In this Letter we compare the abundance of the member galaxies of a rich, nearby (z = 0.09) galaxy cluster, Abell 2142, with that of halos of comparable virial mass extracted from sets of state-of-the-art numerical simulations, both collisionless at different resolutions and with the inclusion of baryonic physics in the form of cooling, star formation, and feedback by active galactic nuclei. We also use two semi-analytical models to account for the presence of orphan galaxies. The photometric and spectroscopic information, taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12 database, allows us to estimate the stellar velocity dispersion of member galaxies of Abell 2142. This quantity is used as proxy for the total mass of secure cluster members and is properly compared with that of subhalos in simulations. We find that simulated halos have a statistically significant (≳ 7 sigma confidence level) smaller amount of massive (circular velocity above 200 {km} {{{s}}}-1) subhalos, even before accounting for the possible incompleteness of observations. These results corroborate the findings from a recent strong lensing study of the Hubble Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416 and suggest that the observed difference is already present at the level of dark matter (DM) subhalos and is not solved by introducing baryonic physics. A deeper understanding of this discrepancy between observations and simulations will provide valuable insights into the impact of the physical properties of DM particles and the effect of baryons on the formation and evolution of cosmological structures.

  9. The formation of the brightest cluster galaxies in cosmological simulations: the case for AGN feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Martizzi, Davide; Moore, Ben

    2011-01-01

    We use 500 pc resolution cosmological simulations of a Virgo-like galaxy cluster to study the properties of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) that forms at the center of the halo. We compared two simulations; one incorporating only supernovae feedback and a second that also includes prescriptions for black hole growth and the resulting AGN feedback from gas accretion. As previous work has shown, with supernovae feedback alone we are unable to reproduce any of the observed properties of massive cluster ellipticals. The resulting BCG is rotating quickly, has a high Sersic index, a strong mass excess in the center and a total central density profile falling more steeply than isothermal. Furthermore, it is far too efficient at converting most of the available baryons into stars which is strongly constrained by abundance matching. With a treatment of black hole dynamics and AGN feedback the BCG properties are in good agreement with data: they rotate slowly, have a cored surface density profile, a flat or rising v...

  10. Pairing and sinking of binary SMBHs in sub-pc resolution simulations of galaxy mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Chapon, Damien; Teyssier, Romain

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary and the shrinking of the separation of the two holes to sub-pc scales starting from a realistic major merger between two gas-rich spiral galaxies with mass comparable to our Milky Way. The simulations are the first of this kind carried out with an Adaptive Mesh refinement (AMR) code (here RAMSES), and the first capable to resolve separations as small as 0.1 pc. The collision of the two galaxies produces a gravo-turbulent rotating nuclear disk with mass (\\sim 10^9 Msun) and size (\\sim 60 pc) in excellent agreement with previous SPH simulations with particle splitting that used a similar setup (Mayer et al. 2007) but were limited to separations of a few parsecs. The AMR results confirm that the two black holes sink rapidly as a result of dynamical friction onto the gaseous background, reaching a separation of 1 pc in less than 10^7 yr. We show that the dynamical friction wake is well resolved by our model and we find good agreement with analytica...

  11. Snap, crackle, pop: sub-grid supernova feedback in AMR simulations of disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosdahl, Joakim; Schaye, Joop; Dubois, Yohan; Kimm, Taysun; Teyssier, Romain

    2017-04-01

    We compare five sub-grid models for supernova (SN) feedback in adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulations of isolated dwarf and L-star disc galaxies with 20-40 pc resolution. The models are thermal dump, stochastic thermal, 'mechanical' (injecting energy or momentum depending on the resolution), kinetic and delayed cooling feedback. We focus on the ability of each model to suppress star formation and generate outflows. Our highest resolution runs marginally resolve the adiabatic phase of the feedback events, which correspond to 40 SN explosions, and the first three models yield nearly identical results, possibly indicating that kinetic and delayed cooling feedback converge to wrong results. At lower resolution all models differ, with thermal dump feedback becoming inefficient. Thermal dump, stochastic and mechanical feedback generate multiphase outflows with mass loading factors β ≪ 1, which is much lower than observed. For the case of stochastic feedback, we compare to published SPH simulations, and find much lower outflow rates. Kinetic feedback yields fast, hot outflows with β ∼ 1, but only if the wind is in effect hydrodynamically decoupled from the disc using a large bubble radius. Delayed cooling generates cold, dense and slow winds with β > 1, but large amounts of gas occupy regions of temperature-density space with short cooling times. We conclude that either our resolution is too low to warrant physically motivated models for SN feedback, that feedback mechanisms other than SNe are important or that other aspects of galaxy evolution, such as star formation, require better treatment.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Disk Galaxy Formation: the Magnetization of The Cold and Warm Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng

    2007-01-01

    Using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we study the formation and early evolution of disk galaxies with a magnetized interstellar medium. For a $10^{10}$ \\msun halo with initial NFW dark matter and gas profiles, we impose a uniform $10^{-9}$ G magnetic field and follow its collapse, disk formation and evolution up to 1 Gyr. Comparing to a purely hydrodynamic simulation with the same initial condition, we find that a protogalactic field of this strength does not significantly influence the global disk properties. At the same time, the initial magnetic fields are quickly amplified by the differentially rotating turbulent disk. After the initial rapid amplification lasting $\\sim500$ Myr, subsequent field amplification appears self-regulated. As a result, highly magnetized material begin to form above and below the disk. Interestingly, the field strengths in the self-regulated regime agrees well with the observed fields in the Milky Way galaxy both in the warm and the cold HI phase ...

  13. Stellar haloes of simulated Milky Way-like galaxies: Chemical and kinematic properties

    CERN Document Server

    Tissera, P B; Beers, T; Carollo, C

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the chemical and kinematic properties of the diffuse stellar haloes of six simulated Milky Way-like galaxies from the Aquarius Project. Binding energy criteria are adopted to defined two dynamically distinct stellar populations: the diffuse inner and outer haloes, which comprise different stellar sub-populations with particular chemical and kinematic characteristics. Our simulated inner- and outer-halo stellar populations have received contributions from debris stars (formed in sub-galactic systems while they were outside the virial radius of the main progenitor galaxies) and endo-debris stars (those formed in gas-rich sub-galactic systems inside the dark matter haloes). The inner haloes possess an additional contribution from disc-heated stars in the range $\\sim 3 - 30 %$, with a mean of $\\sim 20% $. Disc-heated stars can exhibit signatures of kinematical support, in particular among the youngest ones. Endo-debris plus disc-heated stars define the so-called \\insitu stellar populations. In both...

  14. Giant Clumps in Simulated High-z Galaxies: Properties, Evolution and Dependence on Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelker, Nir; Ceverino, Daniel; DeGraf, Colin; Guo, Yicheng; Primack, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of giant clumps in high-z disc galaxies using AMR cosmological simulations at redshifts z=6-1. Our sample consists of 34 galaxies, of halo masses 10^{11}-10^{12}M_s at z=2, run with and without radiation pressure (RP) feedback from young stars. While RP has little effect on the sizes and global stability of discs, it reduces the amount of star-forming gas by a factor of ~2, leading to a decrease in stellar mass by a similar factor by z~2. Both samples undergo violent disc instability (VDI) and form giant clumps of masses 10^7-10^9M_s at a similar rate, though RP significantly reduces the number of long-lived clumps. When RP is (not) included, clumps with circular velocity <40(20)km/s, baryonic surface density <200(100)M_s/pc^2 and baryonic mass <10^{8.2}(10^{7.3})M_s are short-lived, disrupted in a few free-fall times. The more massive and dense clumps survive and migrate toward the disc centre over a few disc orbital times. In the RP simulations, the distribution of clump mass...

  15. Modelling CO emission from hydrodynamic simulations of nearby spirals, starbursting mergers, and high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bournaud, F; Weiss, A; Renaud, F; Mastropietro, C; Teyssier, R

    2014-01-01

    We model the intensity of emission lines from the CO molecule, based on hydrodynamic simulations of spirals, mergers, and high-redshift galaxies with very high resolutions (3pc and 10^3 Msun) and detailed models for the phase-space structure of the interstellar gas including shock heating, stellar feedback processes and galactic winds. The simulations are analyzed with a Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) model to compute the local emission in various molecular lines in each resolution element, radiation transfer and opacity effects, and the intensity emerging from galaxies, to generate synthetic spectra for various transitions of the CO molecule. This model reproduces the known properties of CO spectra and CO-to-H2 conversion factors in nearby spirals and starbursting major mergers. The high excitation of CO lines in mergers is dominated by an excess of high-density gas, and the high turbulent velocities and compression that create this dense gas excess result in broad linewidths and low CO intensity-to-H2 mass r...

  16. Snap, Crackle, Pop: sub-grid supernova feedback in AMR simulations of disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rosdahl, Joakim; Dubois, Yohan; Kimm, Taysun; Teyssier, Romain

    2016-01-01

    We compare 5 sub-grid models for supernova (SN) feedback in adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulations of isolated dwarf and L-star disk galaxies with 20-40 pc resolution. The models are thermal dump, stochastic thermal, 'mechanical' (injecting energy or momentum depending on the resolution), kinetic, and delayed cooling feedback. We focus on the ability of each model to suppress star formation and generate outflows. Our highest-resolution runs marginally resolve the adiabatic phase of the feedback events, which correspond to 40 SN explosions, and the first three models yield nearly identical results, possibly indicating that kinetic and delayed cooling feedback converge to wrong results. At lower resolution all models differ, with thermal dump feedback becoming inefficient. Thermal dump, stochastic, and mechanical feedback generate multiphase outflows with mass loading factors $\\beta \\ll 1$, which is much lower than observed. For the case of stochastic feedback we compare to published SPH simulations, and fi...

  17. nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations I: dark matter & non-radiative models

    CERN Document Server

    Sembolini, Federico; Pearce, Frazer R; Knebe, Alexander; Kay, Scott T; Power, Chris; Cui, Weiguang; Beck, Alexander M; Borgani, Stefano; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Davé, Romeel; Elahi, Pascal Jahan; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Hobbs, Alex; Katz, Neal; Lau, Erwin; McCarthy, Ian G; Murante, Giuseppe; Nagai, Daisuke; Nelson, Kaylea; Newton, Richard D A; Puchwein, Ewald; Read, Justin I; Saro, Alexandro; Schaye, Joop; Thacker, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    We have simulated the formation of a galaxy cluster in a $\\Lambda$CDM universe using twelve different codes modeling only gravity and non-radiative hydrodynamics (\\art, \\arepo, \\hydra\\ and 9 incarnations of GADGET). This range of codes includes particle based, moving and fixed mesh codes as well as both Eulerian and Lagrangian fluid schemes. The various GADGET implementations span traditional and advanced smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) schemes. The goal of this comparison is to assess the reliability of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of clusters in the simplest astrophysically relevant case, that in which the gas is assumed to be non-radiative. We compare images of the cluster at $z=0$, global properties such as mass, and radial profiles of various dynamical and thermodynamical quantities. The underlying gravitational framework can be aligned very accurately for all the codes allowing a detailed investigation of the differences that develop due to the various gas physics implementations employ...

  18. Simulating the toothbrush: evidence for a triple merger of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggen, M.; van Weeren, R. J.; Röttgering, H. J. A.

    2012-09-01

    The newly discovered galaxy cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214 hosts a 1.9 Mpc long, bright radio relic with a peculiar linear morphology. Using hydrodynamical N-body adaptive mesh refinement simulations of the merger between three initially hydrostatic clusters in an idealized set-up, we are able to reconstruct the morphology of the radio relic. Based on our simulation, we can constrain the merger geometry, predict lensing mass measurements and X-ray observations. Comparing such models to X-ray, redshift and lensing data will validate the geometry of this complex merger which helps in constraining the parameters for shock acceleration of electrons that produces the radio relic.

  19. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the absence of stellar mass segregation in galaxy groups and consistent predictions from GALFORM and EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, P. R.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Lagos, C. del P.; Davies, L. J.; Moffett, A. J.; Driver, S. P.; Andrews, S. K.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Cortese, L.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Finnegan, R.; Hopkins, A. M.; Loveday, J.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the contentious issue of the presence, or lack thereof, of satellites mass segregation in galaxy groups using the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, the GALFORM semi-analytic, and the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation catalogues of galaxy groups. We select groups with halo mass 12 ≤ log (Mhalo/h-1 M⊙) study shows negligible mass segregation in galaxy group environments with absolute gradients of ≲0.08 dex and also shows a lack of any redshift evolution. Moreover, we find that our results at least for the GAMA data are robust to different halo mass and group centre estimates. Furthermore, the EAGLE data allows us to probe much fainter luminosities (r-band magnitude of 22) as well as investigate the three-dimensional spatial distribution with intrinsic halo properties, beyond what the current observational data can offer. In both cases we find that the fainter EAGLE data show a very mild spatial mass segregation at z ≤ 0.22, which is again not apparent at higher redshift. Interestingly, our results are in contrast to some earlier findings using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We investigate the source of the disagreement and suggest that subtle differences between the group-finding algorithms could be the root cause.

  20. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): The absence of stellar mass segregation in galaxy groups and consistent predictions from GALFORM and EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kafle, P R; Lagos, C del P; Davies, L J; Moffett, A J; Driver, S P; Andrews, S K; Baldry, I K; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Cortese, L; Drinkwater, M J; Finnegan, R; Hopkins, A M; Loveday, J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the contentious issue of the presence, or lack thereof, of satellites mass segregation in galaxy groups using the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, the GALFORM semi-analytic and the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation catalogues of galaxy groups. We select groups with halo mass $12 \\leqslant \\log(M_{\\text{halo}}/h^{-1}M_\\odot) <14.5$ and redshift $z \\leqslant 0.32$ and probe the radial distribution of stellar mass out to twice the group virial radius. All the samples are carefully constructed to be complete in stellar mass at each redshift range and efforts are made to regularise the analysis for all the data. Our study shows negligible mass segregation in galaxy group environments with absolute gradients of $\\lesssim0.08$ dex and also shows a lack of any redshift evolution. Moreover, we find that our results at least for the GAMA data are robust to different halo mass and group centre estimates. Furthermore, the EAGLE data allows us to probe much fainter luminosities ($r$-ban...

  1. Dark-ages Reionization & Galaxy Formation Simulation VIII. Suppressed growth of dark matter halos during the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Angel, Paul W.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate how the hydrostatic suppression of baryonic accretion affects the growth rate of dark matter halos during the Epoch of Reionization. By comparing halo properties in a simplistic hydrodynamic simulation in which gas only cools adiabatically, with its collisionless equivalent, we find that halo growth is slowed as hydrostatic forces prevent gas from collapsing. In our simulations, at the high redshifts relevant for reionization (between ˜6 and ˜11), halos that host dwarf galaxies (≲ 109M⊙) can be reduced by up to a factor of 2 in mass due to the hydrostatic pressure of baryons. Consequently, the inclusion of baryonic effects reduces the amplitude of the low mass tail of the halo mass function by factors of 2 to 4. In addition, we find that the fraction of baryons in dark matter halos hosting dwarf galaxies at high redshift never exceeds ˜90% of the cosmic baryon fraction. When implementing baryonic processes, including cooling, star formation, supernova feedback and reionization, the suppression effects become more significant with further reductions of ˜30% to 60%. Although convergence tests suggest that the suppression may become weaker in higher resolution simulations, this suppressed growth will be important for semi-analytic models of galaxy formation, in which the halo mass inherited from an underlying N-body simulation directly determines galaxy properties. Based on the adiabatic simulation, we provide tables to account for these effects in N-body simulations, and present a modification of the halo mass function along with explanatory analytic calculations.

  2. High Resolution Simulations for Hierarchical Formation of Dark Matter Halos Hosting Galaxies and AGNs at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2015-08-01

    We present the evolution of dark matter halos in six large cosmological N-body simulations, called the ν2GC (New Numerical Galaxy Catalog) simulations on the basis of the LCDM cosmology consistent with observational results obtained by the Planck satellite. The largest simulation consists of 81923 (550 billion) dark matter particles in a box of 1.12h-1Gpc (a mass resolution of 2.20×108 h-1M⊙). Among simulations utilizing boxes larger than 1h-1Gpc, our simulation yields the highest resolution simulation that has ever been achieved. Compared with the Millennium simulation (Springel et al. 2005), our simulation offers the advantages of a mass resolution that is four times better and a spatial volume that is 11 times larger. A ν2GC simulation with the smallest box consists of eight billions particles in a box of 70h-1Mpc (a mass resolution of 3.44×106 -1M⊙). These simulations can follow the evolution of halos over masses of eight orders of magnitude, from small dwarf galaxies to massive clusters. Using the unprecedentedly high resolution and powerful statistics of the ν2GC simulations, we provide statistical results of the halo mass function, mass accretion rate, formation redshift, and merger statistics, and present accurate fitting functions for the Planck cosmology, from redshift 10 to 0. By combining the ν2GC simulations with our new semi-analytic galaxy formation model, we are able to prepare mock catalogs of galaxies and active galactic nuclei, which will be made publicly available in the near future.

  3. Galaxy Properties and UV Escape Fractions During Epoch of Reionization: Results from the Renaissance Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L; Ahn, Kyungjin; O'Shea, Brian W

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic reionization is thought to be primarily fueled by the first generations of galaxies. We examine their stellar and gaseous properties, focusing on the star formation rates and the escape of ionizing photons, as a function of halo mass, redshift, and environment using the full suite of the {\\it Renaissance Simulations} with an eye to provide better inputs to global reionization simulations. This suite, carried out with the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo, is unprecedented in terms of their size and physical ingredients. The simulations probe overdense, average, and underdense regions of the universe of several hundred comoving Mpc$^3$, each yielding a sample of over 3,000 halos in the mass range $10^7 - 10^{9.5}~\\Ms$ at their final redshifts of 15, 12.5, and 8, respectively. In the process, we simulate the effects of radiative and supernova feedback from 5,000 to 10,000 metal-free (Population III) stars in each simulation. We find that halos as small as $10^7~\\Ms$ are able to form stars due to metal-l...

  4. TOWARD A COMPLETE ACCOUNTING OF ENERGY AND MOMENTUM FROM STELLAR FEEDBACK IN GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agertz, Oscar; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Leitner, Samuel N.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics and Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    We investigate the momentum and energy budget of stellar feedback during different stages of stellar evolution, and study its impact on the interstellar medium (ISM) using simulations of local star-forming regions and galactic disks at the resolution affordable in modern cosmological zoom-in simulations. In particular, we present a novel subgrid model for the momentum injection due to radiation pressure and stellar winds from massive stars during early, pre-supernova (pre-SN) evolutionary stages of young star clusters. Early injection of momentum acts to clear out dense gas in star-forming regions, hence limiting star formation. The reduced gas density mitigates radiative losses of thermal feedback energy from subsequent SN explosions. The detailed impact of stellar feedback depends sensitively on the implementation and choice of parameters. Somewhat encouragingly, we find that implementations in which feedback is efficient lead to approximate self-regulation of the global star formation efficiency. We compare simulation results using our feedback implementation to other phenomenological feedback methods, where thermal feedback energy is allowed to dissipate over timescales longer than the formal gas cooling time. We find that simulations with maximal momentum injection suppress star formation to a similar degree as is found in simulations adopting adiabatic thermal feedback. However, different feedback schemes are found to produce significant differences in the density and thermodynamic structure of the ISM, and are hence expected to have a qualitatively different impact on galaxy evolution.

  5. NIHAO project II: Halo shape, phase-space density and velocity distribution of dark matter in galaxy formation simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Butsky, Iryna; Dutton, Aaron A; Wang, Liang; Stinson, Greg S; Penzo, Camilla; Kang, Xi; Keller, Ben W; Wadsley, James

    2015-01-01

    We show the effect of galaxy formation on the dark matter (DM) distribution across a wide range of halo masses. We focus on how baryon physics changes the dark matter halo shape, the so called "pseudo phase-space density distribution" and the velocity distribution within the virial radius, Rvir and in the solar neighborhood. This study is based on the NIHAO galaxy formation simulations, a large suite of cosmological zoom-in simulations. The galaxies reproduce key properties of observed galaxies, and hence offer unique insight into how baryons change the dark matter morphology and kinematics. When compared to dark matter only simulations, the NIHAO haloes have similar shapes at Rvir, but are substantially rounder inside ~0.1 Rvir. In DM-only simulations the inner halo has a minor-to-major axis ratio of c/a~0.5. In hydro simulations c/a increases with halo mass and integrated star formation efficiency, reaching ~0.8 at the Milky Way mass, reconciling a long-standing conflict between observations and DM only sim...

  6. Cusps in the center of galaxies: a real conflict with observations or a numerical artefact of cosmological simulations?

    CERN Document Server

    Baushev, A N; Campusano, L E; Escala, A; Muñoz, R R; Palma, G A

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy observations and N-body cosmological simulations produce conflicting dark matter halo density profiles for galaxy central regions. While simulations suggest a cuspy and universal profile (UDP) of this region, the majority of observations favor variable profiles with a core in the center. In this paper, we investigate the convergency of standard N-body simulations, especially in the cusp region, following the approach proposed by (Baushev, 2015). We simulate the well known Hernquist model using the SPH code Gadget-3 and consider the full array of dynamical parameters of the particles. We find that, although the cuspy profile is stable, all integrals of motion characterizing individual particles suffer strong unphysical variations along the whole halo, revealing an effective interaction between the test bodies. This result casts doubts on the reliability of the velocity distribution function obtained in the simulations. Moreover, we find unphysical Fokker-Planck streams of particles in the cusp region. T...

  7. First light: exploring the spectra of high-redshift galaxies in the Renaissance Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Kirk S. S.; Wise, John H.; Norman, Michael L.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Xu, Hao

    2017-08-01

    We present synthetic observations for the first generations of galaxies in the Universe and make predictions for future deep field observations for redshifts greater than 6. Due to the strong impact of nebular emission lines and the relatively compact scale of H ii regions, high-resolution cosmological simulations and a robust suite of analysis tools are required to properly simulate spectra. We created a software pipeline consisting of fsps, hyperion, cloudy and our own tools to generate synthetic IR observations from a fully three-dimensional arrangement of gas, dust, and stars. Our prescription allows us to include emission lines for a complete chemical network and tackle the effect of dust extinction and scattering in the various lines of sight. We provide spectra, 2D binned photon imagery for both HST and JWST IR filters, luminosity relationships, and emission-line strengths for a large sample of high-redshift galaxies in the Renaissance Simulations. Our resulting synthetic spectra show high variability between galactic haloes with a strong dependence on stellar mass, metallicity, gas mass fraction, and formation history. Haloes with the lowest stellar mass have the greatest variability in [O iii]/Hβ, [O iii], and C iii], while haloes with higher masses are seen to show consistency in their spectra and [O iii] equivalent widths between 1 and 10 Å. Viewing angle accounted for threefold difference in flux due to the presence of ionized gas channels in a halo. Furthermore, JWST colour plots show a discernible relationship between redshift, colour, and mean stellar age.

  8. Galaxies in the Illustris simulation as seen by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - II. Size-luminosity relations and the deficit of bulge-dominated galaxies in Illustris at low mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrell, Connor; Torrey, Paul; Simard, Luc; Ellison, Sara L.

    2017-05-01

    The interpretive power of the newest generation of large-volume hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation rests upon their ability to reproduce the observed properties of galaxies. In this second paper in a series, we employ bulge+disc decompositions of realistic dust-free galaxy images from the Illustris simulation in a consistent comparison with galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Examining the size-luminosity relations of each sample, we find that galaxies in Illustris are roughly twice as large and 0.7 mag brighter on average than galaxies in the SDSS. The trend of increasing slope and decreasing normalization of size-luminosity as a function of bulge fraction is qualitatively similar to observations. However, the size-luminosity relations of Illustris galaxies are quantitatively distinguished by higher normalizations and smaller slopes than for real galaxies. We show that this result is linked to a significant deficit of bulge-dominated galaxies in Illustris relative to the SDSS at stellar masses log M_{\\star }/M_{⊙}≲ 11. We investigate this deficit by comparing bulge fraction estimates derived from photometry and internal kinematics. We show that photometric bulge fractions are systematically lower than the kinematic fractions at low masses, but with increasingly good agreement as the stellar mass increases.

  9. Horizon Run 4 Simulation: Coupled Evolution of Galaxies and Large-scale Structures of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Juhan; L'Huillier, Benjamin; Hong, Sungwook E

    2015-01-01

    The Horizon Run 4 is a cosmological $N$-body simulation designed for the study of coupled evolution between galaxies and large-scale structures of the Universe, and for the test of galaxy formation models. Using $6300^3$ gravitating particles in a cubic box of $L_{\\rm box} = 3150 ~h^{-1}{\\rm Mpc}$, we build a dense forest of halo merger trees to trace the halo merger history with a halo mass resolution scale down to $M_s = 2.7 \\times 10^{11} h^{-1}{\\rm M_\\odot}$. We build a set of particle and halo data, which can serve as testbeds for comparison of cosmological models and gravitational theories with observations. We find that the FoF halo mass function shows a substantial deviation from the universal form with tangible redshift evolution of amplitude and shape. At higher redshifts, the amplitude of the mass function is lower, and the functional form is shifted toward larger values of $\\ln (1/\\sigma)$. We also find that the baryonic acoustic oscillation feature in the two-point correlation function of mock ga...

  10. Towards a more realistic population of bright spiral galaxies in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Aumer, Michael; Naab, Thorsten; Scannapieco, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    We present an update to the multiphase SPH galaxy formation code by Scannapieco et al. We include a more elaborate treatment of the production of metals, cooling rates based on individual element abundances, and a scheme for the turbulent diffusion of metals. Our SN feedback model now transfers energy to the ISM in kinetic and thermal form, and we include a prescription for the effects of radiation pressure from massive young stars on the ISM. We calibrate our new code on the well studied Aquarius haloes and then use it to simulate a sample of 16 galaxies with halo masses between 1x10^11 and 3x10^12 M_sun. In general, the stellar masses of the sample agree well with the stellar mass to halo mass relation inferred from abundance matching techniques for redshifts z=0-4. There is however a tendency to overproduce stars at z>4 and to underproduce them at z<0.5 in the least massive haloes. Overly high SFRs at z<1 for the most massive haloes are likely connected to the lack of AGN feedback in our model. The s...

  11. nIFTy Galaxy Cluster simulations IV: Quantifying the Influence of Baryons on Halo Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Weiguang; Knebe, Alexander; Kay, Scott T; Sembolini, Federico; Elahi, Pascal J; Yepes, Gustavo; Pearce, Frazer; Cunnama, Daniel; Beck, Alexander M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Davé, Romeel; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Hobbs, Alex; Katz, Neal; McCarthy, Ian G; Murante, Giuseppe; Perret, Valentin; Puchwein, Ewald; Read, Justin I; Saro, Alexandro; Teyssier, Romain; Thacker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Building on the initial results of the nIFTy simulated galaxy cluster comparison, we compare and contrast the impact of baryonic physics with a single massive galaxy cluster, run with 11 state-of-the-art codes, spanning adaptive mesh, moving mesh, classic and modern SPH approaches. For each code represented we have a dark matter only (DM) and non-radiative (NR) version of the cluster, as well as a full physics (FP) version for a subset of the codes. We compare both radial mass and kinematic profiles, as well as global measures of the cluster (e.g. concentration, spin, shape), in the NR and FP runs with that in the DM runs. Our analysis reveals good consistency (<= 20%) between global properties of the cluster predicted by different codes when integrated quantities are measured within the virial radius R200. However, we see larger differences for quantities within R2500, especially in the FP runs. The radial profiles reveal a diversity, especially in the cluster centre, between the NR runs, which can be und...

  12. Simulating realistic disk galaxies with a novel sub-resolution ISM model

    CERN Document Server

    Murante, Giuseppe; Borgani, Stefano; Tornatore, Luca; Dolag, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    We present results of cosmological simulations of disk galaxies carried out with the GADGET-3 TreePM+SPH code, where star formation and stellar feedback are described using our MUlti Phase Particle Integrator (MUPPI) model. This description is based on simple multi-phase model of the interstellar medium at unresolved scales, where mass and energy flows among the components are explicitly followed by solving a system of ordinary differential equations. Thermal energy from SNe is injected into the local hot phase, so as to avoid that it is promptly radiated away. A kinetic feedback prescription generates the massive outflows needed to avoid the over-production of stars. We use two sets of zoomed-in initial conditions of isolated cosmological halos with masses (2-3) * 10^{12} Msun, both available at several resolution levels. In all cases we obtain spiral galaxies with small bulge-over-total stellar mass ratios (B/T \\approx 0.2), extended stellar and gas disks, flat rotation curves and realistic values of stella...

  13. On the dynamical state of galaxy clusters: insights from cosmological simulations II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiguang; Power, Chris; Borgani, Stefano; Knebe, Alexander; Lewis, Geraint F.; Murante, Giuseppe; Poole, Gregory B.

    2016-10-01

    Using a suite of cosmology simulations of a sample of >120 galaxy clusters with log (MDM, vir) ≤ 14.5. We compare clusters that form in purely dark matter run and their counterparts in hydro runs and investigate 4 independent parameters, that are normally used to classify dynamical state. We find that the virial ratio η in hydro-dynamical runs is ˜10 per cent lower than in the DM run, and there is no clear separation between the relaxed and unrelaxed clusters for any parameter. Further, using the velocity dispersion deviation parameter ζ, which is defined as the ratio between cluster velocity dispersion σ and the theoretical prediction σ _t = √{G M_{total}/R}, we find that there is a linear correlation between the virial ratio η and this ζ parameter. We propose to use this ζ parameter, which can be easily derived from observed galaxy clusters, as a substitute of the η parameter to quantify the cluster dynamical state.

  14. Dissecting simulated disk galaxies I: the structure of mono-age populations

    CERN Document Server

    Martig, Marie; Flynn, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We study seven simulated disk galaxies, three with a quiescent merger history, and four with mergers in their last 9 Gyr of evolution. We compare their structure at z=0 by decomposing them into "mono-age populations" (MAPs) of stars within 500 Myr age bins. All studied galaxies undergo a phase of merging activity at high redshift, so that stars older than 9 Gyr are found in a centrally concentrated component, while younger stars are mostly found in disks. We find that most MAPs have simple exponential radial and vertical density profiles, with a scale-height that typically increases with age. Because a large range of merger histories can create populations with simple structures, this suggests that the simplicity of the structure of mono-abundance populations observed in the Milky Way by Bovy et al. (2012b,c) is not necessarily a direct indicator of a quiescent history for the Milky Way. Similarly, the anti-correlation between scale-length and scale-height does not necessarily imply a merger-free history. How...

  15. Kinematics and simulations of the stellar stream in the halo of the Umbrella Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Caroline; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Martinez-Delgado, David; Zibetti, Stephano; Arnold, Jacob A; Brodie, Jean P; Ciardullo, Robin; GaBany, R Jay; Merrifield, Michael R; Singh, Navtej; Strader, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of faint stellar substructures around the Umbrella Galaxy, NGC 4651, which hosts a dramatic system of streams and shells formed through the tidal disruption of a nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxy. We elucidate the basic characteristics of the system (colours, luminosities, stellar masses) using multi-band Subaru/Suprime-Cam images. The implied stellar mass-ratio of the ongoing merger event is about 1:50. We identify candidate kinematic tracers (globular clusters, planetary nebulae, H ii regions), and follow up a subset with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to obtain velocities. We find that 15 of the tracers are likely associated with halo substructures, including the probable stream progenitor nucleus. These objects delineate a kinematically cold feature in position-velocity phase space. We model the stream using single test-particle orbits, plus a rescaled pre-existing N-body simulation. We infer a very eccentric orbit with a period of roughly 0.35 Gyr and turning points at approximately 2-4 a...

  16. Cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with feedback from active galactic nuclei: profiles and scaling relations

    CERN Document Server

    Pike, Simon R; Newton, Richard D A; Thomas, Peter A; Jenkins, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a new set of 30 cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters, including the effects of radiative cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, black hole growth and AGN feedback. We first demonstrate that our AGN model is capable of reproducing the observed cluster pressure profile at redshift, z~0, once the AGN heating temperature of the targeted particles is made to scale with the final virial temperature of the halo. This allows the ejected gas to reach larger radii in higher-mass clusters than would be possible had a fixed heating temperature been used. Such a model also successfully reduces the star formation rate in brightest cluster galaxies and broadly reproduces a number of other observational properties at low redshift, including baryon, gas and star fractions; entropy profiles outside the core; and the X-ray luminosity-mass relation. Our results are consistent with the notion that the excess entropy is generated via selective removal of the densest material through radiative c...

  17. Effects of Mergers and Dynamical State on Galaxy Clusters in Cosmological Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Katherine L.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological constraints from X-ray and microwave observations of galaxy clusters are subjected to systematic uncertainties. Non-thermal pressure support due to internal gas motions in galaxy clusters is one of the major sources of astrophysical uncertainties, which result in large bias and scatter in the hydrostatic mass estimate. In this work, we analyze a sample of massive galaxy clusters from the Omega500 high-resolution hydrodynamic cosmological simulation to examine the effects of dynamical state on non-thermal pressure. We use the Adaptive Refinement Tree (ART) code, an Eulerian grid-based adaptive refinement mesh code, which is well suited for modeling shock heating of gas and generation of bulk and turbulent motions from cosmic accretion. We examine the effects of cluster mergers on the hydrostatic mass bias and the evolution of non-thermal pressure. We find that during a major merger about a third of the total pressure support in the system is in non-thermal pressure from random gas motions, which leads to a ~30% bias in the hydrostatic mass estimate. Even after the clusters relax, we find a residual 10% bias due to the residual non-thermal pressure sustained by continuous gas accretion and minor mergers in cluster outskirts. However, when the non-thermal pressure support is accounted for in the mass estimates of relaxed clusters, we are able to recover the true mass to within a few percent. Moreover, by accounting for the additional pressure contribution from gas accelerations, we find that the bias in the HSE can be reduced by about half for our whole cluster sample. We also characterize the non-thermal pressure fraction profile and study its dependence on redshift, mass, and mass accretion rate. We find a universal, redshift-independent fitting formula for describing the fractional pressure support due to bulk motions. Within the relation, we find that the mass accretion rate has a systematic effect on the amount of non-thermal pressure in clusters

  18. MHD Simulations of AGN Jets in a Dynamic Galaxy Cluster Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Mendygral, Peter; Dolag, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We present a pair of 3-d magnetohydrodynamical simulations of intermittent jets from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a galaxy cluster extracted from a high resolution cosmological simulation. The selected cluster was chosen as an apparently relatively relaxed system, not having undergone a major merger in almost 7 Gyr. Despite this characterization and history, the intra-cluster medium (ICM) contains quite active "weather". We explore the effects of this ICM weather on the morphological evolution of the AGN jets and lobes. The orientation of the jets is different in the two simulations so that they probe different aspects of the ICM structure and dynamics. We find that even for this cluster that can be characterized as relaxed by an observational standard, the large-scale, bulk ICM motions can significantly distort the jets and lobes. Synthetic X-ray observations of the simulations show that the jets produce complex cavity systems, while synthetic radio observations reveal bending of the jets and l...

  19. Spiral and bar driven peculiar velocities in Milky Way sized galaxy simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Grand, Robert J J; Kawata, Daisuke; Hunt, Jason A S; Famaey, Benoit; Siebert, Arnaud; Monari, Giacomo; Cropper, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the kinematic signatures induced by spiral and bar structure in a set of simulations of Milky Way-sized spiral disc galaxies. The set includes test particle simulations that follow a quasi-stationary density wave-like scenario with rigidly rotating spiral arms, and $N$-body simulations that host a bar and transient, co-rotating spiral arms. From a location similar to that of the Sun, we calculate the radial, tangential and line-of-sight peculiar velocity fields of a patch of the disc and quantify the fluctuations by computing the power spectrum from a two-dimensional Fourier transform. We find that the peculiar velocity power spectrum of the simulation with a bar and transient, co-rotating spiral arms fits very well to that of APOGEE red clump star data, while the quasi-stationary density wave spiral model without a bar does not. We determine that the power spectrum is sensitive to the number of spiral arms, spiral arm pitch angle and position with respect to the spiral arm. However, it is nece...

  20. Characterization of the cosmological nonlinear path of single galaxies in N-body Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder Díaz, Diego Herbin; Rosa, Reinaldo; Clua, Esteban; Campanharo, Andriana

    Turbulent-like behaviour is an important and recent ingredient in the investigation of large scale structure formation in the observable universe [1,2]. Recently, an established statistical method was used to demonstrate the importance of considering chaotic advection (or Lagrange turbulence) in combination with gravitational instabilities in the LambdaCDM simulations performed from the Virgo Consortium (VC). However, the Hubble volumes simulated from GADGET-VC algoritm have some limitations for direct lagrangian data analysis due to the large amount of data and no real time computation for particle kinetic velocity along the dark matter structure evolution. We use our COsmic LAgrangian TUrbulence Simulator (COLATUS) [3], based on GPU/CUDA technology, to perform gravitational Cosmological N-body simulations and tracking the particles paths. In this work we discuss the chaotic advection behavior of tracers galaxies based on the angular velocity fluctuation analysis of single particles during its trajectory to the gravitational collapse of super clusters at low redshifts. [1] Caretta et al., A&A doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20079105 [2] Rosa et al., CCP doi: 10.1016/j.cpc.2008.11.018 [3] Stalder et al., AIP doi: 10.1063/1.4756992

  1. The prevalence of core emission in faint radio galaxies in the SKA Simulated Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittam, I. H.; Jarvis, M. J.; Green, D. A.; Heywood, I.; Riley, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Empirical simulations based on extrapolations from well-established low-frequency (10 GHz) source population; they underpredict the number of observed sources by a factor of 2 below S18GHz = 10 mJy and fail to reproduce the observed spectral index distribution. We suggest that this is because the faint radio galaxies are not modelled correctly in the simulations and show that by adding a flat-spectrum core component to the Fanaroff and Riley type-I (FRI) sources in the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Simulated Skies, the observed 15 GHz source counts can be reproduced. We find that the observations are best matched by assuming that the fraction of the total 1.4 GHz flux density that originates from the core varies with 1.4 GHz luminosity; sources with 1.4 GHz luminosities core fraction ∼0.3, while the more luminous sources require a much smaller core fraction of 5 × 10-4. The low luminosity FRI sources with high core fractions that were not included in the original simulation may be equivalent to the compact 'FR0' sources found in recent studies.

  2. Probing the Truncation of Galaxy Dark Matter Halos in High-Density Environments from Hydrodynamical N-Body Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Marceau; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Milvang-Jensen, Bo

    2009-05-01

    We analyze high-resolution, N-body hydrodynamical simulations of fiducial galaxy clusters to probe tidal stripping of the dark matter subhalos. These simulations include a prescription for star formation allowing us to track the fate of the stellar component as well. We investigate the effect of tidal stripping on cluster galaxies hosted in these dark matter subhalos as a function of projected cluster-centric radius. To quantify the extent of the dark matter halos of cluster galaxies, we introduce the half-mass radius r 1/2 as a diagnostic, and study its evolution with projected cluster-centric distance R as a function of redshift. We find a well-defined trend for (r 1/2, R): the closer the galaxies are to the center of the cluster, the smaller the half-mass radius. Interestingly, this trend is inferred in all redshift frames examined in this work ranging from z = 0 to z = 0.7. At z = 0, galaxy halos in the central regions of clusters are found to be highly truncated, with the most compact half-mass radius of 10 kpc. We also find that r 1/2 depends on luminosity and we present scaling relations of r 1/2 with galaxy luminosity. The corresponding total mass of the cluster galaxies is also found to increase with projected cluster-centric distance and luminosity, but with more scatter than the (r 1/2, R) trend. Comparing the distribution of stellar mass to total mass for cluster galaxies, we find that the dark matter component is preferentially stripped, whereas the stellar component is much less affected by tidal forces. We compare these results with galaxy-galaxy lensing probes of r 1/2 and find qualitative agreement. Future surveys with space-based telescopes such as DUNE and SNAP, that combine wide-field and high-resolution imaging, will be able to probe the predicted (r 1/2, R) relation observationally.

  3. Gas velocity patterns in simulated galaxies: Observational diagnostics of spiral structure theories

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, Junichi; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Egusa, Fumi; Kuno, Nario

    2016-01-01

    There are two theories of stellar spiral arms in isolated disc galaxies that model stellar spiral arms with different longevities: quasi-stationary density wave theory, which characterises spirals as rigidly rotating, long-lived patterns (i.e. steady spirals), and dynamic spiral theory, which characterises spirals as differentially rotating, transient, recurrent patterns (i.e. dynamic spirals). In order to discriminate between these two spiral models observationally, we investigated the differences between the gas velocity patterns predicted by these two spiral models in hydrodynamic simulations. We found that the azimuthal phases of the velocity patterns relative to the gas density peaks (i.e. gaseous arms) differ between the two models, as do the gas flows; nevertheless, the velocity patterns themselves are similar for both models. Such similarity suggests that the mere existence of streaming motions does not conclusively confirm the steady spiral model. However, we found that the steady spiral model shows ...

  4. Reconstructing comptonization parameters using simulations of single frequency, dual-beam observations of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    Systematical effects in dual-beam, differential, radio observations of extended objects are discussed in the context of the One Centimeter Receiver Array (OCRA). We use simulated samples of Sunyaev--Zel'dovich (SZ) galaxy clusters at low ($z<0.4$) and intermediate ($0.4

  5. Length Scales and Turbulent Properties of Magnetic Fields in Simulated Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Egan, Hilary; Hallman, Eric; Burns, Jack; Xu, Hao; Collins, David; Li, Hui; Norman, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Additional physics beyond standard hydrodynamics is needed to fully model the intracluster medium (ICM); however, as we move to more sophisticated models, it is important to consider the role of magnetic fields and the way the fluid approximation breaks down. This paper represents a first step towards developing a self-consistent model of the ICM by characterizing the statistical properties of magnetic fields in cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters. We find that plasma conditions are largely homogeneous across a range of cluster masses and relaxation states. We also find that the magnetic field length scales are resolution dependent and not based on any particular physical process. Energy transfer mechanisms and scales are also identified, and imply the existence of small scale dynamo action. The scales of the small scale dynamo are resolution limited and driven by numerical resistivity and viscosity.

  6. The formation of entropy cores in non-radiative galaxy cluster simulations: SPH versus AMR

    CERN Document Server

    Power, C; Hobbs, A

    2013-01-01

    Abridged: We simulate a massive galaxy cluster in a LCDM Universe using three different approaches to solving the equations of non-radiative hydrodynamics: `classic' Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH); a novel SPH with a higher order dissipation switch (SPHS); and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). We find that SPHS and AMR are in excellent agreement, with both forming a well-defined entropy core that rapidly converges with increasing mass and force resolution. By contrast, SPH exhibits rather different behaviour. At low redshift, entropy decreases systematically with decreasing cluster-centric radius, converging on ever lower central values with increasing resolution. At higher redshift, SPH is in better agreement with SPHS and AMR but shows much poorer numerical convergence. We trace these discrepancies to artificial surface tension in SPH at phase boundaries. At early times, the passage of massive substructures close to the cluster centre stirs and shocks gas to build an entropy core. At later times, artif...

  7. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF MILKY WAY TYPE GALAXIES IN THE MILLENNIUM SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. De Rossi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we make use of the Millennium Run, which is at the moment the largest high-resolution simulation of structure formation ever carried out, combined with the semi-analytical model of De Lucia & Blaizot (2007, to follow the chemical evolution of Milky Way type galaxies with the aim at understanding their level of enrich- ment and the dispersion in the mass-metallicity correlation. Our results suggest that Milky Way type systems tend to evolve passively with time without su ering signi cant mass accretion. The chemical e richment of these systems seems to be driven mainly by gas cooling, star formation eFFIciency and for the most massive progenitors by AGN feedback.

  8. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...... of GRB host galaxies is affected by the fact that GRBs appear mainly to happen in low-metallicity galaxies. Solving this problem will make it possible to derive the total cosmic star formation rate more reliably from number counts of GRBs....

  9. Bar-driven evolution and quenching of spiral galaxies in cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoso, Daniele; Bonoli, Silvia; Dotti, Massimo; Mayer, Lucio; Madau, Piero; Bellovary, Jillian

    2017-03-01

    We analyse the outputs of the cosmological 'zoom-in' hydrodynamical simulation ErisBH to study a strong stellar bar which naturally emerges in the late evolution of the simulated Milky Way-type galaxy. We focus on the analysis of the formation and evolution of the bar and on its effects on the galactic structure, the gas distribution and the star formation. A large central region in the ErisBH disc becomes bar unstable after z ∼ 1.4, but a clear bar starts to grow significantly only after z ≃ 0.4, possibly triggered by the interaction with a massive satellite. At z ≃ 0.1, the bar stabilizes and reaches its maximum radial extent of l ≈ 2.2 kpc. As the bar grows, it becomes prone to buckling instability. The actual buckling event, observable at z ≃ 0.1, results in the formation of a boxy-peanut bulge clearly discernible at z = 0. During its early growth, the bar exerts a strong torque on the gas and drives gas inflows that enhance the nuclear star formation on sub-kpc scales. Later on, as the bar reaches its maximum length and strength, the gas within its extent is nearly all consumed into stars, leaving behind a gas-depleted region in the central ∼2 kpc. Observations would more likely identify a prominent, large-scale bar at the stage when the galactic central region has already been gas depleted, giving a hint at the fact that bar-driven quenching may play an important role in the evolution of disc-dominated galaxies.

  10. SImulator of GAlaxy Millimetre/submillimetre Emission (SIGAME): CO emission from massive z=2 main-sequence galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen P.; Greve, Thomas R.; Brinch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    is condensed out of the hot and partly ionized SPH gas. The gas is subjected to far-UV radiation fields and cosmic ray ionization rates which are set to scale with the local star formation rate volume density. Level populations and radiative transport of the CO lines are solved with the 3D radiative transfer.......5 and radius, in agreement with observations of nearby galaxies. Adopting a top-heavy Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) mass spectrum does...

  11. Giant clumps in simulated high- z Galaxies: properties, evolution and dependence on feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelker, Nir; Dekel, Avishai; Ceverino, Daniel; DeGraf, Colin; Guo, Yicheng; Primack, Joel

    2017-01-01

    We study the evolution and properties of giant clumps in high-z disc galaxies using adaptive mesh refinement cosmological simulations at redshifts z ˜ 6-1. Our sample consists of 34 galaxies, of halo masses 1011-1012 M⊙ at z = 2, run with and without radiation pressure (RP) feedback from young stars. While RP has little effect on the sizes and global stability of discs, it reduces the amount of star-forming gas by a factor of ˜2, leading to a similar decrease in stellar mass by z ˜ 2. Both samples undergo extended periods of violent disc instability continuously forming giant clumps of masses 107-109 M⊙ at a similar rate, though RP significantly reduces the number of long-lived clumps (LLCs). When RP is (not) included, clumps with circular velocity ≲ 40 (20) km s- 1, baryonic surface density ≲ 200 (100)M⊙ pc- 2 and baryonic mass ≲ 108.2 (107.3) M⊙ are short-lived, disrupted in a few free-fall times. More massive and dense clumps survive and migrate towards the disc centre over a few disc orbital times. In the RP simulations, the distribution of clump masses and star formation rates (SFRs) normalized to their host disc is similar at all redshifts, exhibiting a truncated power law with a slope slightly shallower than -2. The specific SFR (sSFR) of the LLCs declines with age as they migrate towards the disc centre, producing gradients in mass, stellar age, gas fraction, sSFR and metallicity that distinguish them from the short-lived clumps which tend to populate the outer disc. Ex situ mergers comprise ˜37 per cent of the mass in clumps and ˜29 per cent of the SFR. They are more massive and with older stellar ages than the in situ clumps, especially near the disc edge. Roughly half the galaxies at redshifts z = 4-1 are clumpy, with ˜3-30 per cent of their SFR and ˜0.1-3 per cent of their stellar mass in clumps.

  12. Cooling, AGN Feedback and Star Formation in Simulated Cool-Core Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan; Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Voit, G Mark; O'Shea, Brian W; Donahue, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback in cool-core galaxy clusters have successfully avoided classical cooling flows, but often produce too much cold gas. We perform adaptive mesh simulations that include momentum-driven AGN feedback, self-gravity, star formation and stellar feedback, focusing on the interplay between cooling, AGN heating and star formation in an isolated cool-core cluster. Cold clumps triggered by AGN jets and turbulence form filamentary structures tens of kpc long. This cold gas feeds both star formation and the supermassive black hole (SMBH), triggering an AGN outburst that increases the entropy of the ICM and reduces its cooling rate. Within 1-2 Gyr, star formation completely consumes the cold gas, leading to a brief shutoff of the AGN. The ICM quickly cools and redevelops multiphase gas, followed by another cycle of star formation/AGN outburst. Within 6.5 Gyr, we observe three such cycles. There is good agreement between our simulated cluster and the observations...

  13. Entropy amplification from energy feedback in simulated galaxy groups and clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Borgani, S; Kay, S T; Ponman, T J; Springel, V; Tozzi, P; Voit, G M

    2005-01-01

    We use hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters and groups to study the effect of pre-heating on the entropy structure of the ICM. Our simulations account for non-gravitational heating of the gas either by imposing a minimum entropy floor at redshift z=3, or by considering feedback by galactic winds powered by supernova (SN) energy. In the adiabatic simulations we find that the entropy is increased out to the external regions as a consequence of the transition from clumpy to smooth accretion induced by extra heating. This result is in line with the predictions of the semi-analytical model by Voit et al. However, the introduction of radiative cooling substantially reduces this entropy amplification effect. While galactic winds of increasing strength are effective in regulating star formation, they have a negligible effect on the entropy profile of cluster-sized halos. Only in models where the action of the winds is complemented with diffuse heating corresponding to a pre-collapse entropy do we find a siza...

  14. Kinetic energy from supernova feedback in high-resolution galaxy simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Christine M; Hummels, Cameron; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new method for adding a prescribed amount of kinetic energy to simulated gas modeled on a cartesian grid by directly altering grid cells' mass and velocity in a distributed fashion. The method is explored in the context of supernova feedback in high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation. In idealized tests at varying background densities and resolutions, we show convergence in behavior between models with different initial kinetic energy fractions at low densities and/or at high resolutions. We find that in high density media ($\\gtrsim$ 50 cm$^{-3}$) with coarse resolution ($\\gtrsim 4$ pc per cell), results are sensitive to the initial fraction of kinetic energy due to the early rapid cooling of thermal energy. We describe and test a resolution dependent scheme for adjusting this fraction that approximately replicates our high-resolution tests. We apply the method to a prompt supernova feedback model, meant to mimic Type II supernovae, in a cosmological simulation of a $10^9$ M...

  15. Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Galaxy Formation: Exploring Numerical and Physical Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Hummels, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    We carry out adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) cosmological simulations of Milky-Way mass halos in order to investigate the formation of disk-like galaxies in a {\\Lambda}-dominated Cold Dark Matter model. We evolve a suite of five halos to z = 0 and find gaseous-disk formation in all; however, in agreement with previous SPH simulations (that did not include a subgrid feedback model), the rotation curves of all halos are centrally peaked due to a massive spheroidal component. Our standard model includes radiative cooling and star formation, but no feedback. We further investigate this angular momentum problem by systematically modifying various simulation parameters including: (i) spatial resolution, ranging from 1700 to 212 pc; (ii) an additional pressure component to ensure that the Jeans length is always resolved; (iii) low star formation efficiency, going down to 0.1%; (iv) fixed physical resolution as opposed to comoving resolution; (v) a supernova feedback model which injects thermal energy to the local cel...

  16. On the coherent rotation of diffuse matter in numerical simulations of clusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Anna Silvia; De Petris, Marco; Sembolini, Federico; Yepes, Gustavo; Lamagna, Luca; Rasia, Elena

    2017-03-01

    We present a study on the coherent rotation of the intracluster medium and dark matter components of simulated galaxy clusters extracted from a volume-limited sample of the MUSIC project. The set is re-simulated with three different recipes for the gas physics: (i) non-radiative, (ii) radiative without active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback and (iii) radiative with AGN feedback. Our analysis is based on the 146 most massive clusters identified as relaxed, 57 per cent of the total sample. We classify these objects as rotating and non-rotating according to the gas spin parameter, a quantity that can be related to cluster observations. We find that 4 per cent of the relaxed sample is rotating according to our criterion. By looking at the radial profiles of their specific angular momentum vector, we find that the solid body model is not a suitable description of rotational motions. The radial profiles of the velocity of the dark matter show a prevalence of the random velocity dispersion. Instead, the intracluster medium profiles are characterized by a comparable contribution from the tangential velocity and the dispersion. In general, the dark matter component dominates the dynamics of the clusters, as suggested by the correlation between its angular momentum and the gas one, and by the lack of relevant differences among the three sets of simulations.

  17. The stellar metallicity distribution of disc galaxies and bulges in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Calura, F; Michel-Dansac, L; Stinson, G S; Pilkington, K; House, E L; Brook, C B; Few, C G; Bailin, J; Couchman, H M P; Wadsley, J; .,

    2012-01-01

    By means of high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of Milky Way-like disc galaxies, we conduct an analysis of the associated stellar metallicity distribution functions (MDFs). After undertaking a kinematic decomposition of each simulation into spheroid and disc sub-components, we compare the predicted MDFs to those observed in the solar neighbourhood and the Galactic bulge. The effects of the star formation density threshold are visible in the star formation histories, which show a modulation in their behaviour driven by the threshold. The derived MDFs show median metallicities lower by 0.2-0.3 dex than the MDF observed locally in the disc and in the Galactic bulge. Possible reasons for this apparent discrepancy include the use of low stellar yields and/or centrally-concentrated star formation. The dispersions are larger than the one of the observed MDF; this could be due to simulated discs being kinematically hotter relative to the Milky Way. The fraction of low metallicity stars is largely ...

  18. An observer's view of simulated galaxies: disc-to-total ratios, bars, and (pseudo-)bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Scannapieco, Cecilia; Jonsson, Patrik; White, Simon D M

    2010-01-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of Milky Way mass galaxies to study the relative importance of the main stellar components, discs, bulges, and bars, at z=0. The main aim of this work is to understand if estimates of the structural parameters of these components determined from kinematics (as usually done in simulations) agree well with those obtained using a photometric bulge/disc/bar decomposition (as done in observations). To perform such a comparison, we produced synthetic observations of the simulation outputs with the Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code SUNRISE and used the BUDDA code to make 2D photometric decompositions of the resulting images. We find that the kinematic disc-to-total ratio (D/T) estimates are systematically and significantly lower than the photometric ones. While the maximum D/T ratios obtained with the former method are of the order of 0.2, they are typically >0.4, and can be as high as 0.7, according to the latter. The photometric decomposition shows ...

  19. Simulations of galaxies formed in warm dark matter halos of masses at the filtering scale

    CERN Document Server

    Colin, Pedro; Gonzalez-Samaniego, Alejandro; Velazquez, Hector

    2014-01-01

    We present zoom-in N-body + Hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf central galaxies formed in Warm Dark Matter (WDM) halos with masses at present-day of $2-4\\times 10^{10}$ \\msun. Two different cases are considered, the first one when halo masses are close to the corresponding half-mode filtering scale \\Mhm\\ (\\mwdm =1.2 keV), and the second when they are 20 to 30 times the corresponding \\Mhm\\ (\\mwdm = 3.0 keV). The WDM simulations are compared with the respective Cold Dark Matter (CDM) simulations. The dwarfs formed in halos of masses (20-30)\\Mhm have roughly similar properties and evolution than their CDM counterparts; on the contrary, those formed in halos of masses around \\Mhm, are systematically different from their CDM counterparts. As compared to the CDM dwarfs, they assemble the dark and stellar masses later, having mass-weighted stellar ages 1.4--4.8 Gyr younger; their circular velocity profiles are shallower, with maximal velocities 20--60% lower; their stellar distributions are much less centrally concen...

  20. The low abundance and insignificance of dark discs in simulated Milky Way galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, Matthieu; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F; Oman, Kyle A; Sawala, Till

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the presence and importance of dark matter discs in a sample of 24 simulated Milky Way galaxies in the APOSTLE project, part of the EAGLE programme of hydrodynamic simulations in Lambda-CDM cosmology. It has been suggested that a dark disc in the Milky Way may boost the dark matter density and modify the velocity modulus relative to a smooth halo at the position of the Sun, with ramifications for direct detection experiments. From a kinematic decomposition of the dark matter and a real space analysis of all 24 halos, we find that only one of the simulated Milky Way analogues has a detectable dark disc component. This unique event was caused by a merger at late time with an LMC-mass satellite at very low grazing angle. Considering that even this rare scenario only enhances the dark matter density at the solar radius by 35% and affects the high energy tail of the dark matter velocity distribution by less than 1%, we conclude that the presence of a dark disc in the Milky Way is unlikely, and is ve...

  1. Numerical simulations challenged on the prediction of massive subhalo abundance in galaxy clusters: the case of Abell 2142

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, E; De Lucia, G; Biviano, A; Annunziatella, M; Borgani, S; Lombardi, M; Mercurio, A; Rosati, P

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter we compare the abundance of member galaxies of a rich, nearby ($z=0.09$) galaxy cluster, Abell 2142, with that of halos of comparable virial mass extracted from sets of state-of-the-art numerical simulations, both collisionless at different resolutions and with the inclusion of baryonic physics in the form of cooling, star formation, and feedback by AGN. We also use two semi-analytical models to account for the presence of orphan galaxies. The photometric and spectroscopic information, taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) database, allows us to estimate the stellar velocity dispersion of member galaxies of Abell 2142. This quantity is used as proxy for the total mass of secure cluster members and is properly compared with that of subhalos in simulations. We find that simulated halos have a statistically significant ($\\gtrsim 7$ sigma confidence level) smaller amount of massive (circular velocity above $200\\,{\\rm km\\, s^{-1}}$) subhalos, even before accounting for ...

  2. EVOLUTION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATIONS IN PASSIVE AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES FROM SPH-COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo Velona, A. D.; Gavignaud, I.; Meza, A. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Sommer-Larsen, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Napolitano, N. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Antonuccio-Delogu, V. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, v. S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Cielo, S., E-mail: aro@oact.inaf.it [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-06-20

    We present results from SPH-cosmological simulations, including self-consistent modeling of supernova feedback and chemical evolution, of galaxies belonging to two clusters and 12 groups. We reproduce the mass-metallicity (ZM) relation of galaxies classified in two samples according to their star-forming (SF) activity, as parameterized by their specific star formation rate (sSFR), across a redshift range up to z = 2. The overall ZM relation for the composite population evolves according to a redshift-dependent quadratic functional form that is consistent with other empirical estimates, provided that the highest mass bin of the brightest central galaxies is excluded. Its slope shows irrelevant evolution in the passive sample, being steeper in groups than in clusters. However, the subsample of high-mass passive galaxies only is characterized by a steep increase of the slope with redshift, from which it can be inferred that the bulk of the slope evolution of the ZM relation is driven by the more massive passive objects. The scatter of the passive sample is dominated by low-mass galaxies at all redshifts and keeps constant over cosmic times. The mean metallicity is highest in cluster cores and lowest in normal groups, following the same environmental sequence as that previously found in the red sequence building. The ZM relation for the SF sample reveals an increasing scatter with redshift, indicating that it is still being built at early epochs. The SF galaxies make up a tight sequence in the SFR-M{sub *} plane at high redshift, whose scatter increases with time alongside the consolidation of the passive sequence. We also confirm the anti-correlation between sSFR and stellar mass, pointing at a key role of the former in determining the galaxy downsizing, as the most significant means of diagnostics of the star formation efficiency. Likewise, an anti-correlation between sSFR and metallicity can be established for the SF galaxies, while on the contrary more active

  3. High-resolution re-simulations of massive DM halos and the Fundamental Plane of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzoni, B; Ciotti, L

    2002-01-01

    Pure N-body high-resolution re-simulations of 13 massive dark matter halos in a Lambda-CDM cosmology are presented. The resulting sample is used to investigate the physical origin of the Fundamental Plane, ``Faber-Jackson'', and ``Kormendy'' relations observed for nearby galaxy clusters. In particular, we focus on the role of dissipationless hierarchical merging in establishing or modifying these relations. Contrarily to what found in the case of the Faber-Jackson and Kormendy relations for galaxies (see Londrillo, Nipoti and Ciotti, this conference), dissipationless merging on cluster scales produces scaling relations remarkably similar to the observed ones. This suggests that gas dissipation plays a minor role in the formation of galaxy clusters, and the hierarchical merger scenario is not at odd with the observed regularity of these systems.

  4. Evolution of the mass-metallicity relations in passive and star-forming galaxies from SPH-cosmological simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velonà, A. D Romeo; Sommer-Larsen, J.; Napolitano, N. R.;

    2013-01-01

    We present results from SPH-cosmological simulations, including self-consistent modeling of supernova feedback and chemical evolution, of galaxies belonging to two clusters and 12 groups. We reproduce the mass-metallicity (ZM) relation of galaxies classified in two samples according to their star......-forming (SF) activity, as parameterized by their specific star formation rate (sSFR), across a redshift range up to z = 2. The overall ZM relation for the composite population evolves according to a redshift-dependent quadratic functional form that is consistent with other empirical estimates, provided...... groups, following the same environmental sequence as that previously found in the red sequence building. The ZM relation for the SF sample reveals an increasing scatter with redshift, indicating that it is still being built at early epochs. The SF galaxies make up a tight sequence in the SFR-M * plane...

  5. Let's Weigh in on "Deflategate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepker, Terrence

    2016-09-01

    The September 2015 paper "Bouncing Back from `Deflategate'" is a very interesting article from a physics viewpoint. However, we doubt that the National Football League (NFL) officials will bounce footballs and measure the coefficient of restitution to verify that the footballs remain properly inflated. The release of a few pounds per square inch (psi) from a football seems trivial until one reads about the millions of dollars in suspensions, fines, and legal fees that were accrued. What is a possible solution that the NFL might actually use? Weigh the ball! When a small amount of air is deliberately released, causing a change in pressure, the change in mass can be calculated and measured. Note that the change in mass can be measured without making another pressure measurement. This is important because the reinsertion of the needle of the gauge to make another measurement causes a small inadvertent loss of pressure and mass from the ball.

  6. Formation and Settling of a Disc Galaxy During the Last 8 Billion Years in a Cosmological Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ceverino, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Kassin, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a high-resolution zoom cosmological simulation of the evolution of a low-mass galaxy with a maximum velocity of V=100 km/s at z=0, using the initial conditions from the AGORA project (Kim et al 2014). The final disc-dominated galaxy matches local disc scaling relations. The galaxy evolves from a compact, dispersion-dominated galaxy into a rotation-dominated but dynamically hot disc in about 0.5 Gyr (from z=1.4 to z=1.2). The disc dynamically cools down for the following 7 Gyr, as the gas velocity dispersion decreases over time, in agreement with observations. The primary cause of this slow evolution of velocity dispersion in this low-mass galaxy is stellar feedback. It is related to the decline in gas fraction, and to the associated gravitational disk instability, as the disc slowly settles from a global Toomre Q>1 turbulent disc to a marginally unstable disc (Q=1).

  7. Cosmic Dawn (CoDa): the First Radiation-Hydrodynamics Simulation of Reionization and Galaxy Formation in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ocvirk, Pierre; Shapiro, Paul R; Aubert, Dominique; Iliev, Ilian T; Teyssier, Romain; Yepes, Gustavo; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Sullivan, David; Knebe, Alexander; Gottloeber, Stefan; D'Aloisio, Anson; Park, Hyunbae; Hoffman, Yehuda; Stranex, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic reionization by starlight from early galaxies affected their evolution, thereby impacting reionization, itself. Star formation suppression, for example, may explain the observed underabundance of Local Group dwarfs relative to N-body predictions for Cold Dark Matter. Reionization modelling requires simulating volumes large enough ~(100 Mpc)^3 to sample reionization "patchiness", while resolving millions of galaxy sources above ~10^8 Msun, combining gravitational and gas dynamics with radiative transfer. Modelling the Local Group requires initial cosmological density fluctuations pre-selected to form the well-known structures of the local universe today. Cosmic Dawn ("CoDa") is the first such fully-coupled, radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of reionization of the local universe. Our new hybrid CPU-GPU code, RAMSES-CUDATON, performs hundreds of radiative transfer and ionization rate-solver timesteps on the GPUs for each hydro-gravity timestep on the CPUs. CoDa simulated (91 Mpc)^3 with 4096^3 particles ...

  8. Projected axis ratios of galaxy clusters in the Horizon-AGN simulation: Impact of baryon physics and comparison with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Daichi; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Kitayama, Tetsu; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Sasaki, Shin; Suto, Yasushi

    2017-02-01

    We characterize the non-sphericity of galaxy clusters by the projected axis ratio of spatial distribution of star, dark matter, and X-ray surface brightness (XSB). We select 40 simulated groups and clusters of galaxies with mass larger than 5 × 1013 M⊙ from the Horizon simulation that fully incorporates the relevant baryon physics, in particular, the active galactic nucleus feedback. We find that the baryonic physics around the central region of galaxy clusters significantly affects the non-sphericity of dark matter distribution even beyond the central region, approximately up to half of the virial radius. Therefore it is very difficult to predict the probability density function (PDF) of the projected axis ratio of XSB from dark-matter-only N-body simulations as attempted in previous studies. Indeed, we find that the PDF derived from our simulated clusters exhibits much better agreement with that from the observed X-ray clusters. This indicates that our present methodology to estimate the non-sphericity directly from the Horizon simulation is useful and promising. Further improvements in both numerical modeling and observational data will establish the non-sphericity of clusters as a cosmological test complementary to more conventional statistics based on spherically averaged quantities.

  9. nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations - IV. Quantifying the influence of baryons on halo properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiguang; Power, Chris; Knebe, Alexander; Kay, Scott T.; Sembolini, Federico; Elahi, Pascal J.; Yepes, Gustavo; Pearce, Frazer; Cunnama, Daniel; Beck, Alexander M.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Davé, Romeel; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Hobbs, Alex; Katz, Neal; McCarthy, Ian G.; Murante, Giuseppe; Perret, Valentin; Puchwein, Ewald; Read, Justin I.; Saro, Alexandro; Teyssier, Romain; Thacker, Robert J.

    2016-06-01

    Building on the initial results of the nIFTy simulated galaxy cluster comparison, we compare and contrast the impact of baryonic physics with a single massive galaxy cluster, run with 11 state-of-the-art codes, spanning adaptive mesh, moving mesh, classic and modern smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) approaches. For each code represented we have a dark-matter-only (DM) and non-radiative (NR) version of the cluster, as well as a full physics (FP) version for a subset of the codes. We compare both radial mass and kinematic profiles, as well as global measures of the cluster (e.g. concentration, spin, shape), in the NR and FP runs with that in the DM runs. Our analysis reveals good consistency ⪅20 per cent) between global properties of the cluster predicted by different codes when integrated quantities are measured within the virial radius R200. However, we see larger differences for quantities within R2500, especially in the FP runs. The radial profiles reveal a diversity, especially in the cluster centre, between the NR runs, which can be understood straightforwardly from the division of codes into classic SPH and non-classic SPH (including the modern SPH, adaptive and moving mesh codes); and between the FP runs, which can also be understood broadly from the division of codes into those that include active galactic nucleus feedback and those that do not. The variation with respect to the median is much larger in the FP runs with different baryonic physics prescriptions than in the NR runs with different hydrodynamics solvers.

  10. Substructure and galaxy formation in the Copernicus Complexio warm dark matter simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sownak; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Jenkins, Adrian; Lovell, Mark R.; Helly, John C.; Li, Baojiu; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Gao, Liang

    2017-02-01

    We use the Copernicus Complexio (COCO) high-resolution N-body simulations to investigate differences in the properties of small-scale structures in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model and in a model with a cutoff in the initial power spectrum of density fluctuations consistent with both a thermally produced warm dark matter (WDM) particle with a rest mass of 3.3 keV and a sterile neutrino with mass 7 keV and leptogenesis parameter L6 = 8.7. The latter corresponds to the `coldest' model with this sterile neutrino mass compatible with the identification of the recently detected 3.5 keV X-ray line as resulting from particle decay. CDM and WDM predict very different number densities of subhaloes with mass ≲ 109 h-1 M⊙ although they predict similar, nearly universal, normalized subhalo radial density distributions. Haloes and subhaloes in both models have cuspy Navarro-Frenk-White profiles, but WDM subhaloes below the cut-off scale in the power spectrum (corresponding to maximum circular velocities Vmaxz = 0 ≤ 50 kms- 1) are less concentrated than their CDM counterparts. We make predictions for observable properties using the GALFORM semi-analytic model of Galaxy formation. Both models predict Milky Way satellite luminosity functions consistent with observations, although the WDM model predicts fewer very faint satellites. This model, however, predicts slightly more UV bright galaxies at redshift z > 7 than CDM, but both are consistent with observations. Gravitational lensing offers the best prospect of distinguishing between the models.

  11. The environmental dependence of H I in galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Antonino; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Bahé, Yannick M.; van der Hulst, Thijs; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G.

    2016-09-01

    We use the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study how the H I content of present-day galaxies depends on their environment. We show that EAGLE reproduces observed H I mass-environment trends very well, while semi-analytic models typically overpredict the average H I masses in dense environments. The environmental processes act primarily as an on/off switch for the H I content of satellites with M* > 109 M⊙. At a fixed M*, the fraction of H I-depleted satellites increase with increasing host halo mass M200 in response to stronger environmental effects, while at a fixed M200 it decreases with increasing satellite M* as the gas is confined by deeper gravitational potentials. H I-depleted satellites reside mostly, but not exclusively, within the virial radius r200 of their host halo. We investigate the origin of these trends by focusing on three environmental mechanisms: ram pressure stripping by the intragroup medium, tidal stripping by the host halo and satellite-satellite encounters. By tracking back in time the evolution of the H I-depleted satellites, we find that the most common cause of H I removal is satellite encounters. The time-scale for H I removal is typically less than 0.5 Gyr. Tidal stripping occurs in haloes of M200 < 1014 M⊙ within 0.5 × r200, while the other processes act also in more massive haloes, generally within r200. Conversely, we find that ram pressure stripping is the most common mechanism that disturbs the H I morphology of galaxies at redshift z = 0. This implies that H I removal due to satellite-satellite interactions occurs on shorter time-scales than the other processes.

  12. Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy Formation Simulation - VIII. Suppressed growth of dark matter haloes during the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Angel, Paul W.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate how the hydrostatic suppression of baryonic accretion affects the growth rate of dark matter haloes during the Epoch of Reionization. By comparing halo properties in a simplistic hydrodynamic simulation in which gas only cools adiabatically, with its collisionless equivalent, we find that halo growth is slowed as hydrostatic forces prevent gas from collapsing. In our simulations, at the high redshifts relevant for reionization (between ˜6 and ˜11), haloes that host dwarf galaxies (≲109 M⊙) can be reduced by up to a factor of 2 in mass due to the hydrostatic pressure of baryons. Consequently, the inclusion of baryonic effects reduces the amplitude of the low-mass tail of the halo mass function by factors of 2-4. In addition, we find that the fraction of baryons in dark matter haloes hosting dwarf galaxies at high redshift never exceeds ˜90 per cent of the cosmic baryon fraction. When implementing baryonic processes, including cooling, star formation, supernova feedback and reionization, the suppression effects become more significant with further reductions of 30-60 per cent. Although convergence tests suggest that the suppression may become weaker in higher resolution simulations, this suppressed growth will be important for semi-analytic models of galaxy formation, in which the halo mass inherited from an underlying N-body simulation directly determines galaxy properties. Based on the adiabatic simulation, we provide tables to account for these effects in N-body simulations and present a modification of the halo mass function along with explanatory analytic calculations.

  13. On the stellar halo metallicity profile of Milky Way-like galaxies in the Auriga simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Monachesi, Antonela; Grand, Robert J J; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker; Frenk, Carlos S

    2015-01-01

    A recent observational study of haloes of nearby Milky Way-like galaxies shows that only half of the current sample exhibits strong negative metallicity ([Fe/H]) gradients. This is at odds with predictions from hydrodynamical simulations where such gradients are ubiquitous. In this Letter, we use high resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study the [Fe/H] distribution of galactic haloes. We find that kinematically selected stellar haloes, including both in-situ and accreted particles, have an oblate [Fe/H] distribution. Spherical [Fe/H] radial profiles show strong negative gradients within 100 kpc, in agreement with previous numerical results. However, the projected median [Fe/H] profiles along the galactic disc minor axis, typically obtained in observations, are significantly flatter. The median [Fe/H] values at a given radius are larger for the spherical profiles than for the minor axis profiles by as much as 0.4 dex within the inner 50 kpc. Similar results are obtained if only the accreted ...

  14. New composition dependent cooling and heating curves for galaxy evolution simulations

    CERN Document Server

    De Rijcke, Sven; Vandenbroucke, Bert; Jachowicz, Natalie; Decroos, Jeroen; Cloet-Osselaer, Annelies; Koleva, Mina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new calculation of composition-dependent radiative cooling and heating curves of low-density gas, intended primarily for use in numerical simulations of galaxy formation and evolution. These curves depend on only five parameters: temperature, density, redshift, [Fe/H], and [Mg/Fe]. They are easily tabulated and can be efficiently interpolated during a simulation. The ionization equilibrium of 14 key elements is determined for temperatures between 10K and 10^9K and densities up to 100 amu/cm^3 taking into account collisional and radiative ionization, by the cosmic UV background and an interstellar radiation field, and by charge-transfer reactions. These elements, ranging from H to Ni, are the ones most abundantly produced and/or released by SNIa, SNII, and intermediate-mass stars. Self-shielding of the gas at high densities by neutral Hydrogen is taken into account in an approximate way by exponentially suppressing the H-ionizing part of the cosmic UV background for HI densities abo...

  15. Investigating the velocity structure and X-ray observable properties of simulated galaxy clusters with PHOX

    CERN Document Server

    Biffi, Veronica; Boehringer, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Non-thermal motions in the intra-cluster medium (ICM) are believed to play a non-negligible role in the pressure support to the total gravitating mass of galaxy clusters. Future X-ray missions, such as ASTRO-H and ATHENA, will eventually allow us to directly detect the signature of these motions from high-resolution spectra of the ICM. In this paper, we present a study on a set of clusters extracted from a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, devoted to explore the role of non-thermal velocity amplitude in characterising the cluster state and the relation between observed X-ray properties. In order to reach this goal, we apply the X-ray virtual telescope PHOX to generate synthetic observations of the simulated clusters with both Chandra and ATHENA, the latter used as an example for the performance of very high-resolution X-ray telescopes. From Chandra spectra we extract global properties, e.g. luminosity and temperature, and from ATHENA spectra we estimate the gas velocity dispersion along the line of sigh...

  16. Kinematic properties of double-barred galaxies: simulations vs. integral-field observations

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Min; Shen, Juntai; Cappellari, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Using high resolution $N$-body simulations, we recently reported that a dynamically cool inner disk embedded in a hotter outer disk can naturally generate a steady double-barred (S2B) structure. Here we study the kinematics of these S2B simulations, and compare them to integral-field observations from ATLAS$^{3D}$ and SAURON. We show that S2B galaxies exhibit several distinct kinematic features, namely: (1) significantly distorted isovelocity contours at the transition region between the two bars, (2) peaks in $\\sigma_\\mathrm{LOS}$ along the minor axis of inner bars, which we term "$\\sigma$-humps", that are often accompanied by ring/spiral-like features of increased $\\sigma_\\mathrm{LOS}$, (3) $h_3-\\bar{v}$ anti-correlations in the region of the inner bar for certain orientations, and (4) rings of positive $h_4$ when viewed at low inclinations. The most impressive of these features are the $\\sigma$-humps, these evolve with the inner bar, oscillating in strength just as the inner bar does as it rotates relative...

  17. nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations - I. Dark matter and non-radiative models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembolini, Federico; Yepes, Gustavo; Pearce, Frazer R.; Knebe, Alexander; Kay, Scott T.; Power, Chris; Cui, Weiguang; Beck, Alexander M.; Borgani, Stefano; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Davé, Romeel; Elahi, Pascal Jahan; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Hobbs, Alex; Katz, Neal; Lau, Erwin; McCarthy, Ian G.; Murante, Guiseppe; Nagai, Daisuke; Nelson, Kaylea; Newton, Richard D. A.; Perret, Valentin; Puchwein, Ewald; Read, Justin I.; Saro, Alexandro; Schaye, Joop; Teyssier, Romain; Thacker, Robert J.

    2016-04-01

    We have simulated the formation of a galaxy cluster in a Λ cold dark matter universe using 13 different codes modelling only gravity and non-radiative hydrodynamics (RAMSES, ART, AREPO, HYDRA and nine incarnations of GADGET). This range of codes includes particle-based, moving and fixed mesh codes as well as both Eulerian and Lagrangian fluid schemes. The various GADGET implementations span classic and modern smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) schemes. The goal of this comparison is to assess the reliability of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of clusters in the simplest astrophysically relevant case, that in which the gas is assumed to be non-radiative. We compare images of the cluster at z = 0, global properties such as mass and radial profiles of various dynamical and thermodynamical quantities. The underlying gravitational framework can be aligned very accurately for all the codes allowing a detailed investigation of the differences that develop due to the various gas physics implementations employed. As expected, the mesh-based codes RAMSES, ART and AREPO form extended entropy cores in the gas with rising central gas temperatures. Those codes employing classic SPH schemes show falling entropy profiles all the way into the very centre with correspondingly rising density profiles and central temperature inversions. We show that methods with modern SPH schemes that allow entropy mixing span the range between these two extremes and the latest SPH variants produce gas entropy profiles that are essentially indistinguishable from those obtained with grid-based methods.

  18. The redshift evolution of massive galaxy clusters in the MACSIS simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, David J; Henson, Monique A; McCarthy, Ian G; Schaye, Joop; Jenkins, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    We present the MAssive ClusterS and Intercluster Structures (MACSIS) project, a suite of 390 clusters simulated with baryonic physics that yields realistic massive galaxy clusters capable of matching a wide range of observed properties. MACSIS extends the recent BAHAMAS simulation to higher masses, enabling robust predictions for the redshift evolution of cluster properties and an assessment of the effect of selecting only the hottest systems. We study the observable-total mass and X-ray luminosity-temperature scaling relations across the complete observed cluster mass range, finding the slope of the scaling relations and the evolution of their normalization with redshift to depart significantly from self-similar predictions. This is driven by the impact of AGN feedback, the presence of non-thermal pressure support and biased X-ray temperatures. For a sample of hot clusters with core-excised temperatures $k_{\\rm{B}}T\\geq5\\,\\rm{keV}$ the normalization and slope of the observable-mass relations and their evolut...

  19. Baryonic and dark matter distribution in cosmological simulations of spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mollitor, Pol; Teyssier, Romain

    2014-01-01

    We study three high resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of Milky Way-sized halos including a comparison with the corresponding DM-only counterparts performed with the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES. We analyse the stellar and the gas distribution and find one of our simulated galaxies with interesting Milky Way-like features with regard to several observational tests. Thanks to consistently tuned star formation rate and supernovae feedback, we manage to obtain an extended disk and a flat rotation curve with a circular velocity and a dark matter density in the solar neighbourhood in agreement with observations. With a careful look at the derivation of the stellar-to-halo mass ratio, we also obtain competitive values for this criterion. Concerning the dark matter distribution, we explicitly show the interaction with the baryons and show how the dark matter is first contracted by star formation and then cored by feedback processes. Analysing the clump spectrum, we find a shift in mass with r...

  20. The scatter and evolution of the global hot gas properties of simulated galaxy cluster populations

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, Amandine M C Le; Schaye, Joop; Ponman, Trevor J

    2016-01-01

    We use the cosmo-OWLS suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the scatter and evolution of the global hot gas properties of large simulated populations of galaxy groups and clusters. Our aim is to compare the predictions of different physical models and to explore the extent to which commonly-adopted assumptions in observational analyses (e.g. self-similar evolution) are violated. We examine the relations between (true) halo mass and the X-ray temperature, X-ray luminosity, gas mass, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) flux, the X-ray analogue of the SZ flux ($Y_X$) and the hydrostatic mass. For the most realistic models, which include AGN feedback, the slopes of the various mass-observable relations deviate substantially from the self-similar ones, particularly at late times and for low-mass clusters. The amplitude of the mass-temperature relation shows negative evolution with respect to the self-similar prediction (i.e. slower than the prediction) for all models, driven by an increase in non-the...