WorldWideScience

Sample records for weighed plate waste

  1. Determination of plate waste in primary school lunches by weighing and visual estimation methods: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liz Martins, Margarida; Cunha, Luís M; Rodrigues, Sara S P; Rocha, Ada

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the visual estimation method for aggregated plate waste of main dish at Portuguese primary school canteens. For this purpose plate waste at school lunch was measured for 505 individual servings, using weighing individual servings and plate waste and visual estimation method by a 6-point scale, as developed by Comstock et al. (1981). A high variability of initial serving weights was found with serving sizes ranging from 88.9 to 283.3g and with a coefficient of variation ranging from 5.5% to 24.7%. Mean plate waste was 27.5% according to the weighing method. There was a significant bias in the conversion of the visual waste estimations to actual waste, being overestimated by an average of 8.0 g (ranging from -12.9 g to 41.4 g). According to Bland and Altman plot, the mean difference between methods was of 8.0 g and the amplitude interval was 102.6g. The study showed that the visual estimation method is not as accurate as the weighing method in assessing nonselective aggregated plate waste at primary school canteens. Our findings are thus very important on considering plate waste assessment, since the wide variation on initial servings introduces a relevant bias when considering standard portions or a random sample of initial servings. Although, greater convenience, time-saving and the possibility to monitor plate waste of large groups, make the visual estimation method an important method to assess plate waste at school canteens, these results highlighted the need of portions standardization and control of initial servings to allow for its use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Smaller plates, less food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    was to investigate whether the size of the dishware would non-reflectively influence the amount of foods taken from an “ad-libitum” buffet and the resulting amount of waste. Sample consisted of Danish business leaders that took part in a congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. Two buffet tables were set up on two separate......With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailers....... All food waste was collected in designated trash bags (different colour in each floor) and weighted in bulk by students. Smaller plates appear to have decreased food waste by 26% compared to the standard sized plates at a single serving in a self-service eating setting. This pilot study supports...

  3. Plate Waste in School Lunch Programs in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students’ health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted in industrialized countries, and more studies are badly needed in developing countries. In this paper, we report a pilot study on the patterns and causes of plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China, by a combination of physical weighing, questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interview approaches. Our results show that the average amount of food waste generated by school students in Beijing in 2014 was 130 g/cap/meal, accounting for 21% of total food served. Staple food (43% and vegetables (42% were the dominant proportions. Buffet meals resulted in less plate waste than packed meals and set meals. Food supply patterns, the quality of canteen service, and the dietary habit and students’ knowledge of food production were the main influencing factors behind plate waste. To our best knowledge, our pilot study provides a first understanding of the overlooked plate waste in school lunch programs in China, and a good basis for further analysis in this field, and will be helpful in informing policy-making in relevant nutrition and education programs in schools in China.

  4. Plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yao; Cheng, Shengkui; Liu, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    in industrialized countries, and more studies are badly needed in developing countries. In this paper, we report a pilot study on the patterns and causes of plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China, by a combination of physical weighing, questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interview approaches......School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students' health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted...... in China, and a good basis for further analysis in this field, and will be helpful in informing policy-making in relevant nutrition and education programs in schools in China....

  5. A modified method for COD determination of solid waste, using a commercial COD kit and an adapted disposable weighing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, L; Pauss, A; Ribeiro, T

    2017-03-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an essential parameter in waste management, particularly when monitoring wet anaerobic digestion processes. An adapted method to determine COD was developed for solid waste (total solids >15%). This method used commercial COD tubes and did not require sample dilution. A homemade plastic weighing support was used to transfer the solid sample into COD tubes. Potassium hydrogen phthalate and glucose used as standards showed an excellent repeatability. A small underestimation of the theoretical COD value (standard values around 5% lower than theoretical values) was also observed, mainly due to the intrinsic COD of the weighing support and to measurement uncertainties. The adapted COD method was tested using various solid wastes in the range of 1-8 mg COD , determining the COD of dried and ground cellulose, cattle manure, straw and a mixed-substrate sample. This new adapted method could be used to monitor and design dry anaerobic digestion processes.

  6. Plate Waste and Attitudes among High School Lunch Program Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jessica; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) What foods high school students participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) are discarding the most? (2) How much of these foods they are discarding? and (3) What are their perceptions towards school lunch? Methods: Researchers measured plate waste at two high…

  7. Using a visual plate waste study to monitor menu performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Priscilla L; Rozell, Sarah B

    2004-01-01

    Two visual plate waste studies were conducted in 1-week phases over a 1-year period in an acute care hospital. A total of 383 trays were evaluated in the first phase and 467 in the second. Food items were ranked for consumption from a low (1) to high (6) score, with a score of 4.0 set as the benchmark denoting a minimum level of acceptable consumption. In the first phase two entrees, four starches, all of the vegetables, sliced white bread, and skim milk scored below the benchmark. As a result six menu items were replaced and one was modified. In the second phase all entrees scored at or above 4.0, as did seven vegetables, and a dinner roll that replaced sliced white bread. Skim milk continued to score below the benchmark. A visual plate waste study assists in benchmarking performance, planning menu changes, and assessing effectiveness.

  8. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe E. Panizza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR. Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93. Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted. Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA were conducted and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to adjust for multiple comparisons between times (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack on leftover food and leftover food thrown into the trash. The percentage of food leftover and thrown into the trash was highest at lunch. The percentage of protein, grain, vegetables, fruit, and dairy leftover at lunch were unexpectedly low compared to previous studies. The median for percentage of food thrown into the trash at lunch was <5% for all food groups, and was consistently low across the day (<10%. Average energy intake was 436 kcal (±216 at lunch, and 80% of caregivers reported total household income as ≥$70,000. Studies in real-time using technology over full days may better quantify plate waste among adolescents.

  9. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the New Nordic Diet and on packed lunches: A randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare total food intake, total and relative edible plate waste and self-reported food likings between school lunch based on the new Nordic diet (NND) and packed lunch from home. In two 3-month periods in a cluster-randomised controlled unblinded cross......-over study 3rd- and 4th-grade children (n 187) from two municipal schools received lunch meals based on NND principles and their usual packed lunch (control). Food intake and plate waste (n 1558) were calculated after weighing lunch plates before and after the meal for five consecutive days and self...... with the packed lunch period. Self-reported likings were negatively associated with percentage plate waste (P school meal programmes. New strategies with focus on reduction of plate waste, children's likings and nutritious school meals...

  10. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Chloe E.; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Lim, Eunjung; Gandhi, Krupa; Banna, Jinan C.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR). Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93). Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted). Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to adjust for multiple comparisons between times (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack) on leftover food and leftover food thrown into the trash. The percentage of food leftover and thrown into the trash was highest at lunch. The percentage of protein, grain, vegetables, fruit, and dairy leftover at lunch were unexpectedly low compared to previous studies. The median for percentage of food thrown into the trash at lunch was food groups, and was consistently low across the day (waste among adolescents. PMID:28134757

  11. Outcome of Repair of Distal Radial and Ulnar Fractures in Dogs Weighing 4 kg or Less Using a 1.5-mm Locking Adaption Plate or 2.0-mm Limited Contact Dynamic Compression Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Thomas A; Strom, Adam

    2017-11-01

    Objectives  Retrospective evaluation of repairing distal radial and ulnar fractures in small breed dogs with the Synthes 1.5-mm locking Adaption plate system and compare results in a similar group of patients repaired with the Synthes 2.0-mm limited contact-dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP). Methods  Electronic medical records from one specialty referral centre were reviewed from March 21, 2010, to October 9, 2015, for patients weighing less than or equal to 4 kg that had a distal one-third radial and ulnar fracture repaired with a Synthes 1.5-mm locking adaption plate or Synthes 2.0-mm LC-DCP. Further inclusion criteria included application of the plate to the cranial surface of the radius via open reduction and internal fixation. Results  Six 1.5-mm Adaption plates and 7 2.0-mm LC-DCPs were used to repair 13 distal radial and ulnar fractures in 12 dogs. There were three major complications in the 1.5-mm adaption plate group (one plate fracture, one screw pull-out and one fracture through a distal screw hole) and one major complication in the 2.0-mm LC-DCP group due to a re-fracture. All patients without a complication had good or excellent functional outcome. Clinical Significance  The authors recommend that the 1.5-mm Adaption plate be used only when a 2.0-mm LC-DCP would not allow for a minimum of two screws in the distal segment and at the discretion of the surgeon. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  12. Evaluation of factors affecting plate waste of inpatients in different healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Díaz, Antonio; Caracuel García, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Satisfaction of inpatients with served food within a hospital care system still constitutes one of the main attempts to modernize food services. The impact of type of menu, food category, hospital centre and timetable on the meals wastage produced in different Spanish healthcare settings, was evaluated. Meal wastage was measured through a semiquantitative 5-point scale ("nothing on plate"; "¼ on plate"; "half on plate"; "¾ on plate" and "all on plate"). The study was carried out in two periods of three months each in 2010 and 2011. A trained person took charge of measuring plate waste classified into 726 servings belonging to 11 menus. In total 31,392 plates were served to 7,868 inpatients. A Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test (p food categories, 26.78% of the plates corresponded to soups and purées, while pasta and rice, and prepared foods were only distributed in 4-5% of the servings. Desserts were mostly consumed, while cooked vegetables were less accepted by the inpatients evaluated. Other factors such as hospital centre influenced plate waste (p 0.05). Visual inspections of plate waste might be useful to optimize type and quality of menus served. The type of menu served and the food category could have a great influence on food acceptability by the inpatients studied. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the new Nordic diet and on packed lunches: a randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Anne V; Lassen, Anne D; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Christensen, Lene M; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare total food intake, total and relative edible plate waste and self-reported food likings between school lunch based on the new Nordic diet (NND) and packed lunch from home. In two 3-month periods in a cluster-randomised controlled unblinded cross-over study 3rd- and 4th-grade children (n 187) from two municipal schools received lunch meals based on NND principles and their usual packed lunch (control). Food intake and plate waste (n 1558) were calculated after weighing lunch plates before and after the meal for five consecutive days and self-reported likings (n 905) assessed by a web-based questionnaire. Average food intake was 6 % higher for the NND period compared with the packed lunch period. The quantity of NND intake varied with the menu (P self-reported likings. The edible plate waste was 88 (sd 80) g for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P vegetarian days (23 %) compared with the packed lunch period. Self-reported likings were negatively associated with percentage plate waste (P < 0·0001). The study suggests that portion sizes need to be considered in new school meal programmes. New strategies with focus on reduction of plate waste, children's likings and nutritious school meals are crucial from both a nutritional, economic and environmental point of view.

  14. Plate Waste in School Feeding Programs: Individual and Aggregate Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    discarded. For example, banana was weighed without the peels and chicken without the bones. Individual food components were separated from each other as much...radish & onion Mixed Fruit Canned peaches, pineapple , fruit cocktail Fruit Drink Red, orange, green, purple 197.2 d Cookies Six different kinds 14.2...bacon bits, cottage cheese, and salad dressings. Second, cores, seeds, and peels were not separated from the fresh apples and oranges. These

  15. Weigh - in - motion (WIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Neven B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biggest wealth of every country lies in its transportation infrastructure so the protection of negative impacts on infrastructure must be provided. The progress of sensor technology proposes today several types of weigh-in-motion systems, which have been tested for their efficiency, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Technologies of piezoelectric sensors, bending plates and load cells are used for a number of applications comprising weigh enforcement, traffic data collection, bridge and toll control systems and so on. Advantages of using WIM technology are various and its benefits affects all road users (transport companies, public, public transport authorities. Potential of WIM application has been recognized in the leading EU countries, so the existence of the numerous WIM projects.

  16. The weight of unfinished plate: A survey based characterization of restaurant food waste in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-En; Liu, Gang; Liu, Xiaojie; Liu, Yao; Gao, Jun; Zhou, Bin; Gao, Si; Cheng, Shengkui

    2017-08-01

    Consumer food waste has attracted increasing public, academic, and political attention in recent years, due to its adverse resource, environmental, and socioeconomic impacts. The scales and patterns of consumer food waste, especially in developing countries, however, remain poorly understood, which may hinder the global effort of reducing food waste. In this study, based on a direct weighing method and a survey of 3557 tables in 195 restaurants in four case cities, we investigated the amount and patterns of restaurant food waste in China in 2015. Food waste per capita per meal in the four cities was 93g, consisting mainly of vegetables (29%), rice (14%), aquatic products (11%), wheat (10%), and pork (8%). This equals to approximately 11kg/cap/year and is not far from that of western countries, although per capita GDP of China is still much lower. We found also that food waste per capita per meal varies considerably by cities (Chengdu and Lhasa higher than Shanghai and Beijing), consumer groups (tourists higher than local residents), restaurant categories (more waste in larger restaurants), and purposes of meals (friends gathering and business banquet higher than working meal and private dining). Our pilot study provides a first, to our best knowledge, empirically determined scales and patterns of restaurant food waste in Chinese cities, and could help set targeted interventions and benchmark national food waste reduction targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal Property Analysis of Axle Load Sensors for Weighing Vehicles in Weigh-in-Motion System

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Burnos; Janusz Gajda

    2016-01-01

    Systems which permit the weighing of vehicles in motion are called dynamic Weigh-in-Motion scales. In such systems, axle load sensors are embedded in the pavement. Among the influencing factors that negatively affect weighing accuracy is the pavement temperature. This paper presents a detailed analysis of this phenomenon and describes the properties of polymer, quartz and bending plate load sensors. The studies were conducted in two ways: at roadside Weigh-in-Motion sites and at a laboratory ...

  18. Portable weighing system with alignment features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh; Sheldon, Frederick T.

    2012-11-06

    A system for weighing a load is disclosed. The weighing system includes a pad having at least one transducer for weighing a load disposed on the pad. In some embodiments the pad has a plurality of foot members and the weighing system may include a plate that disposed underneath the pad for receiving the plurality of foot member and for aligning the foot members when the weighing system is installed. The weighing system may include a spacer disposed adjacent the pad and in some embodiments, a spacer anchor operatively secures the spacer to a support surface, such as a plate, a railway bed, or a roadway. In some embodiments the spacer anchor operatively secures both the spacer and the pad to a roadway.

  19. Cement plate slab production with the incorporation of glass wool waste ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathany Angélica dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the characteristics of Civil Construction is its ability to absorb a wide range of wastes to produce new products. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of cement plates produced with the addition of ground glass wool waste and in natura, in shredded form. The tensile strength tests in bending and permeability were performed, according to ABNT NBR 15498: 2007 as well as environmental ones according to ABNT NBR 10004: 2004. The plates produced in this study were characterized as being impermeable, with a satisfactory tensile strength in bending and being classified as plates for indoor and outdoor use, and as products that do not offer immediate risk to health and to the environment; however, it should be discarded in landfill.

  20. New school meal regulations increase fruit consumption and do not increase total plate waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Henderson, Kathryn E; Read, Margaret; Danna, Nicole; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-06-01

    The 2010 Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act required the USDA to update the nutrition standards of the National School Lunch Program. New policies were implemented in the 2012-2013 school year. These changes were followed by anecdotal reports of increased food waste. Empirical research is needed to reliably measure student intake and plate waste before and after this policy change. Food consumption and waste was collected annually from a cohort of middle school students in 12 schools in an urban, low-income school district before (spring 2012) and after (spring 2013 and 2014) policy changes. Generalized linear regression was used to compare pre- versus postpolicy selection and consumption of entrées, fruits, vegetables, and milk. Comparing 2012 to 2014, the percentage of students choosing fruit significantly increased from 54% to 66% and fruit consumption remained high at 74%. Student selection of fruit increased by 9% for each additional type of fruit offered with the meal. The proportion of students who chose a vegetable dropped from 68% to 52%, but students selecting vegetables ate nearly 20% more of them, effectively lowering vegetable waste. Entrée consumption increased significantly from 71% to 84%, thereby also decreasing waste. Students responded positively to the new lunches. They consumed more fruit, threw away less of the entrees and vegetables, and consumed the same amount of milk. Overall, the revised meal standards and policies appear to have significantly lowered plate waste in school cafeterias.

  1. Development of steel plate - cast iron hybrid casting process for recycling of low level radioactive metal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H.; Hirabayashi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Akimoto, J.; Takahashi, K.; Shindo, H.; Sakurai, D. [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Almansour, A.; Okane, T.; Umeda, T. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    For the purposes of recycling low-level radioactive waste arising from dismantling of nuclear reactors, applicability of steel plate - cast iron hybrid casting process has been investigated as a measure for producing a waste container using radioactive metal waste. This investigation consists of casting tests and analyses on the solidification and distortion of castings. This paper describes the concept of the casting process, casting test results, and understandings obtained from the analyses. (orig.)

  2. Qualitative evaluation of the menu and plate waste in public day care centers in São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed menu quality and plate waste in public day care centers of São Paulo (SP, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected data from the nurseries of seven day care centers, totaling 366 children aged 12 to 36 months. Each day care center was assessed for three days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Menu quality was assessed by the Qualitative Analysis of Menu Preparations method (Análise Qualitativa das Preparações do Cardápio, adapted for day care centers, which provides nutritional and sensory criteria. Food waste was determined by the Plate Waste-Ingestion Index. RESULTS: The supply of vegetables was inadequate in more than 90% of the days, and the amount of leafy vegetables and high-sulfur foods met the recommended amounts on 50% of the days. The supply of sweets and foods containing trans fatty acids was considerable. The Plate Waste-Ingestion Index for daycare centers varied from 25% to 43%, and the Plate Waste-Ingestion Index for food items varied from 11% to 47%. CONCLUSION: The preparations served and serving sizes clearly need to be reviewed, and new menu creation strategies are needed to control food waste.

  3. Electrochemical decomposition of fluorinated wetting agents in plating industry waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fath, Andreas; Sacher, Frank; McCaskie, John E

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical decomposition of fluorinated surfactants (PFAS, perfluorinated alkyl substances) used in the plating industry was analyzed and the decomposition process parameters optimized at the laboratory scale and production scale of a 500-liter reactor using lead electrodes. The method and system was successfully demonstrated under production conditions to treat PFAS) with up to 99% efficiency in the concentration range of 1,000-20,000 μg/l (1 ppm-20 ppm). The treatment also reduced hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) ions to trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) ions in the wastewater. If the PFAS-containing wastewater is mixed with other wastewater streams, specifically from nickel plating drag out solution or when pH values >5, the treatment process is ineffective. For the short chain PFAS, (perfluorobutylsulfonate) the process was less efficient than C6-C8 PFAS. The process is automated and has safety procedures and controls to prevent hazards. The PFAS were decomposed to hydrogen fluoride (HF) under the strong acid electrochemical operating conditions. Analytical tests showed no evidence of organic waste products remaining from the process. Conventional alternative PFAS removal systems were tested on the waste streams and compared with each other and with the-E-destruct (electrochemical oxidation) process. For example, ion exchange resin (IX resin) treatment of wastewater to complex and remove PFAS was found to be seven times more efficient when compared to the conventional activated carbon absorption (C-treat) process. However, the E-destruct process is higher in capacity, exhibits longer service life and lower operating costs than either IX or C-treat methods for elimination of PFAS from these electroplating waste streams.

  4. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...

  5. Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

  6. Thermal Property Analysis of Axle Load Sensors for Weighing Vehicles in Weigh-in-Motion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Burnos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems which permit the weighing of vehicles in motion are called dynamic Weigh-in-Motion scales. In such systems, axle load sensors are embedded in the pavement. Among the influencing factors that negatively affect weighing accuracy is the pavement temperature. This paper presents a detailed analysis of this phenomenon and describes the properties of polymer, quartz and bending plate load sensors. The studies were conducted in two ways: at roadside Weigh-in-Motion sites and at a laboratory using a climate chamber. For accuracy assessment of roadside systems, the reference vehicle method was used. The pavement temperature influence on the weighing error was experimentally investigated as well as a non-uniform temperature distribution along and across the Weigh-in-Motion site. Tests carried out in the climatic chamber allowed the influence of temperature on the sensor intrinsic error to be determined. The results presented clearly show that all kinds of sensors are temperature sensitive. This is a new finding, as up to now the quartz and bending plate sensors were considered insensitive to this factor.

  7. Thermal Property Analysis of Axle Load Sensors for Weighing Vehicles in Weigh-in-Motion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnos, Piotr; Gajda, Janusz

    2016-12-15

    Systems which permit the weighing of vehicles in motion are called dynamic Weigh-in-Motion scales. In such systems, axle load sensors are embedded in the pavement. Among the influencing factors that negatively affect weighing accuracy is the pavement temperature. This paper presents a detailed analysis of this phenomenon and describes the properties of polymer, quartz and bending plate load sensors. The studies were conducted in two ways: at roadside Weigh-in-Motion sites and at a laboratory using a climate chamber. For accuracy assessment of roadside systems, the reference vehicle method was used. The pavement temperature influence on the weighing error was experimentally investigated as well as a non-uniform temperature distribution along and across the Weigh-in-Motion site. Tests carried out in the climatic chamber allowed the influence of temperature on the sensor intrinsic error to be determined. The results presented clearly show that all kinds of sensors are temperature sensitive. This is a new finding, as up to now the quartz and bending plate sensors were considered insensitive to this factor.

  8. Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weighing rain gauge charts record the amount of precipitation that falls at a given location. The vast majority of the Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts...

  9. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the New Nordic Diet and on packed lunches: A randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

    2015-01-01

    for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P vegetarian days (23 %) compared...

  10. A pilot and feasibility study to assess children's consumption in quick-service restaurants using plate waste methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Roberts, Susan B; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Gamache, Madeleine M G; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Matthews, Emilia; Mueller, Megan P; Sharma, Shanti; Economos, Christina D

    2017-03-15

    Children regularly consume foods from quick-service restaurants (QSR), but little is known about the foods that children order, the calories and nutrients consumed, the accuracy of stated calorie information, or the ability to assess food orders and consumption in QSRs. This study evaluated the feasibility of plate waste collection in QSRs and examined children's orders and consumption of meals from the standard and children's menus. Additional aims were to examine if the meals ordered met healthier standards for children's menu items and determine the accuracy of the QSR-stated energy content of foods. Fifteen QSRs, two malls, and 116 eligible parents were approached to participate in the study in 2015. Among the families recruited, children's meal orders and consumption were analyzed using plate waste methodology, and a subsample of foods was analyzed using bomb calorimetry in 2015. Two individual QSRs and one mall food court with two QSRs agreed to participate, and n = 50 participants (parents with children between the ages of 5-10 years) were recruited. Children consumed on average 519 calories, 5.7 g saturated fat, 957 mg sodium, 3.7 g fiber, and 22.7 g sugar. Children ordered and consumed significantly fewer calories and less sodium and sugar with meals ordered exclusively from the children's menu compared with the standard menu. Overall there were no significant differences between the measured and stated energy contents of the QSR foods. Conducting plate waste research in QSRs is feasible and there is concordance with stated calorie information. Consuming foods exclusively from the children's menu may help limit overconsumption in QSRs.

  11. A pilot and feasibility study to assess children’s consumption in quick-service restaurants using plate waste methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana F. W. Cohen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children regularly consume foods from quick-service restaurants (QSR, but little is known about the foods that children order, the calories and nutrients consumed, the accuracy of stated calorie information, or the ability to assess food orders and consumption in QSRs. This study evaluated the feasibility of plate waste collection in QSRs and examined children’s orders and consumption of meals from the standard and children’s menus. Additional aims were to examine if the meals ordered met healthier standards for children’s menu items and determine the accuracy of the QSR-stated energy content of foods. Methods Fifteen QSRs, two malls, and 116 eligible parents were approached to participate in the study in 2015. Among the families recruited, children’s meal orders and consumption were analyzed using plate waste methodology, and a subsample of foods was analyzed using bomb calorimetry in 2015. Results Two individual QSRs and one mall food court with two QSRs agreed to participate, and n = 50 participants (parents with children between the ages of 5-10 years were recruited. Children consumed on average 519 calories, 5.7 g saturated fat, 957 mg sodium, 3.7 g fiber, and 22.7 g sugar. Children ordered and consumed significantly fewer calories and less sodium and sugar with meals ordered exclusively from the children’s menu compared with the standard menu. Overall there were no significant differences between the measured and stated energy contents of the QSR foods. Conclusions Conducting plate waste research in QSRs is feasible and there is concordance with stated calorie information. Consuming foods exclusively from the children’s menu may help limit overconsumption in QSRs.

  12. Optimization of metals and plastics recovery from electric cable wastes using a plate-type electrostatic separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Gontran; Touhami, Seddik; Zeghloul, Thami; Dascalescu, Lucien

    2017-02-01

    Plate-type electrostatic separators are commonly employed for the selective sorting of conductive and non-conductive granular materials. The aim of this work is to identify the optimal operating conditions of such equipment, when employed for separating copper and plastics from either flexible or rigid electric wire wastes. The experiments are performed according to the response surface methodology, on samples composed of either "calibrated" particles, obtained by manually cutting of electric wires at a predefined length (4mm), or actual machine-grinded scraps, characterized by a relatively-wide size distribution (1-4mm). The results point out the effect of particle size and shape on the effectiveness of the electrostatic separation. Different optimal operating conditions are found for flexible and rigid wires. A separate processing of the two classes of wire wastes is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of possibilities of using tetra - pak waste as a material to plate production for construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Korniejenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tetra-pak is a popular packing material, which is using as aseptic packaging of liquid food products, especially: fruit juice, beverages and milk. After single use a packing are throw out. Carton could not be reuse because the material has contact with food and must be aseptic. The paper describes the way of recycling tetra-pak waste in the world. It is focus on possibilities to optimize the mechanical properties of composite material and modifications of its property depending on the type and amount of added polyethylene and method of manufacture. Main physic-mechanical properties of plate made from tetra – pak waste are presented. This property can be interesting for the construction industry.

  14. Validity and Interrater Reliability of the Visual Quarter-Waste Method for Assessing Food Waste in Middle School and High School Cafeteria Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getts, Katherine M; Quinn, Emilee L; Johnson, Donna B; Otten, Jennifer J

    2017-11-01

    Measuring food waste (ie, plate waste) in school cafeterias is an important tool to evaluate the effectiveness of school nutrition policies and interventions aimed at increasing consumption of healthier meals. Visual assessment methods are frequently applied in plate waste studies because they are more convenient than weighing. The visual quarter-waste method has become a common tool in studies of school meal waste and consumption, but previous studies of its validity and reliability have used correlation coefficients, which measure association but not necessarily agreement. The aims of this study were to determine, using a statistic measuring interrater agreement, whether the visual quarter-waste method is valid and reliable for assessing food waste in a school cafeteria setting when compared with the gold standard of weighed plate waste. To evaluate validity, researchers used the visual quarter-waste method and weighed food waste from 748 trays at four middle schools and five high schools in one school district in Washington State during May 2014. To assess interrater reliability, researcher pairs independently assessed 59 of the same trays using the visual quarter-waste method. Both validity and reliability were assessed using a weighted κ coefficient. For validity, as compared with the measured weight, 45% of foods assessed using the visual quarter-waste method were in almost perfect agreement, 42% of foods were in substantial agreement, 10% were in moderate agreement, and 3% were in slight agreement. For interrater reliability between pairs of visual assessors, 46% of foods were in perfect agreement, 31% were in almost perfect agreement, 15% were in substantial agreement, and 8% were in moderate agreement. These results suggest that the visual quarter-waste method is a valid and reliable tool for measuring plate waste in school cafeteria settings. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A plant to plate pilot: a cold-climate high school garden increased vegetable selection but also waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R

    2015-08-01

    Can high school gardens in cold climates influence vegetable intake in the absence of nutrition education? This study followed a before/after design where student tray-waste data were collected using the quarter-waste method. The study took place March-April 2012 in a high school in upstate New York. The subjects were 370 enrolled high school students that purchased lunch from the school cafeteria. Prior to the introduction of garden greens in the salad, salads were served as usual. On April 24, harvested greens were included in the salad, and changes in selection and plate waste were measured. When the salad bar contained garden produce, the percentage of students selecting salad rose from 2% to 10% (p school gardens increased selection and intake of school-raised produce. Although a third was not eaten, it is promising to see that still more produce was consumed compared to the past. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation Model of Plate Waste to Monitor Food Consumption in Two Different Catering Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccares, Stefano; Scognamiglio, Umberto; Moroni, Catia; Marani, Alessandra; Calcaterra, Veronica; Amendola, Mariano; Civitelli, Giulia; Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia; Ermenegildi, Arianna; Morena, Valeria

    2014-04-17

    An increasing number of people regularly eats lunch away from home, using catering services. In this context, therefore, it is extremely important to improve the meals' quality, remaining faithful to the principles of hygiene, nutritional and organoleptic quality and proper food handling. At the same time, it is necessary to promote food choices, nutritionally correct, by evaluations of appropriateness of menus. The study of food waste allows an evaluation of the nutritional habits of consumers and an important economic consideration of the costs incurred for the implementation of the service. This becomes even more important in some particularly sensitive groups, such as children and elderly. The purpose of this work is to test a model of semi-quantitative evaluation of waste to monitor food consumption in two different catering contexts (educational and business), in order to improve the service for school students and other consumers.

  17. Evaluation model of plate waste to monitor food consumption in two different catering settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Saccares

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of people regularly eats lunch away from home, using catering services. In this context, therefore, it is extremely important to improve the meals’ quality, remaining faithful to the principles of hygiene, nutritional and organoleptic quality and proper food handling. At the same time, it is necessary to promote food choices, nutritionally correct, by evaluations of appropriateness of menus. The study of food waste allows an evaluation of the nutritional habits of consumers and an important economic consideration of the costs incurred for the implementation of the service. This becomes even more important in some particularly sensitive groups, such as children and elderly. The purpose of this work is to test a model of semiquantitative evaluation of waste to monitor food consumption in two different catering contexts (educational and business, in order to improve the service for school students and other consumers.

  18. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  19. 27 CFR 30.44 - Weighing containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Weighing containers. 30.44... Weighing containers. (a) Weighing containers of more than 10 wine gallons. The weight of containers having.... (b) Weighing containers of 10 wine gallons or less. The weight for containers of a capacity of 10...

  20. The first weighing of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-10

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  1. Numerical simulation of gas flow and droplet motion in a wave-plate eliminator of the separator-steam-generator system in the waste-heat-utilisation complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemov, Valerij; Minko, Konstantin; Yankov, Georgij; Ptakhin, Anton; Kondratev, Anton; Milman, Oleg

    2017-10-01

    This paper studied the droplet transport and deposition in the turbulent flow inside a wave-plate eliminator of the waste-heat utilisation complex (WHUC). The Lagrangian discrete particle approach was used to simulate the process of liquid separation from wet steam flow. Two different models for droplet-eddy interaction were tested using data from the available literature. The tested numerical model was used to predict the WHUC performance.

  2. Palladium Nanoparticles Immobilized on Individual Calcium Carbonate Plates Derived from Mussel Shell Waste: An Ecofriendly Catalyst for the Copper-Free Sonogashira Coupling Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetan, Trin; Lertvachirapaiboon, Chutiparn; Ekgasit, Sanong; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit

    2017-09-05

    The conversion of waste into high-value materials is considered an important sustainability strategy in modern chemical industries. A large volume of shell waste is generated globally from mussel cultivation. In this work, mussel shell waste (Perna viridis) is transformed into individual calcium carbonate plates (ICCPs) and is applied as a support for a heterogeneous catalyst. Palladium nanoparticles (3-6 nm) are deposited with an even dispersion on the ICCP surface, as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Using this system, Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions between aryl iodides and terminal acetylenes were accomplished in high yields with the use of 1 % Pd/ICCP in the presence of potassium carbonate without the use of any copper metal or external ligand. The Pd/ICCP catalyst could also be reused up to three times and activity over 90 % was maintained with negligible Pd-metal leaching. This work demonstrates that mussel shell waste can be used as an inexpensive and effective support for metal catalysts in coupling reactions, as demonstrated by the successful performance of the Pd-catalyzed, copper-free Sonogashira cross-coupling process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Two-phase plate-fin heat exchanger modeling for waste heat recovery systems in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; de Jager, B.; Willems, F.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and model validation for a modular two-phase heat exchanger that recovers energy in heavy-duty diesel engines. The model is developed for temperature and vapor quality prediction and for control design of the waste heat recovery system. In the studied waste heat

  4. Removal of chromium from synthetic plating waste by zero-valent iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Saumyen; Bhargava, Puja

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of zero-valent iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for reduction and removal of chromium from synthetic electroplating waste. The zero-valent iron shows promising results as a reductant of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) to trivalent chromium (Cr+3), capable of 100% reduction. The required iron concentration was a function of chromium concentration in the waste stream. Removal of Cr+3 by adsorption or precipitation on iron leads to complete removal of chromium from the waste and was a slower process than the reduction of Cr+6. Presence SRB in a completely mixed batch reactor inhibited the reduction of Cr+6. In a fixed-bed column reactor, SRB enhanced chromium removal and showed promising results for the treatment of wastes with low chromium concentrations. It is proposed that, for waste with high chromium concentration, zero-valent iron is an efficient reductant and can be used for reduction of Cr+6. For low chromium concentrations, a SRB augmented zero-valent iron and sand column is capable of removing chromium completely.

  5. For production of ceramic plates coating using waste kaolin, granite and marble; Caracterizacao de residuos de caulim, granito e marmore para uso em massas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, J.L.; Morais, C.R.S.; Lima, L.M.R.; Altidis, M.E.D., E-mail: josyanne27@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective is to benefit and characterize waste from kaolin, marble and granite studying their thermal properties and spectroscopic in employment perspective on ceramic production of flooring boards. The residues were benefited through the process of dry grinding mill in greyhounds and passed through sieve 0.074 mm (ABNT No. 200), observing their suitability for the formulation of ceramic pastes. Tests were performed physicochemical characterization (particle size analysis, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction) and thermal (differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry). The results showed that these residues showed satisfactory properties for the purpose for which it proposes, and contribute to reducing environmental impacts, allowing the reuse of the production of ceramic plates (author)

  6. Experimental and numerical analyses on a plate heat exchanger with phase change for waste heat recovery at off-design conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Di Battista, Davide; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    This paper analyzes the performances of an evaporator for small scale waste heat recovery applications based on bottoming Organic Rankine Cycles with net output power in the range 2-5 kW. The heat recovery steam generator is a plate heat exchanger with oil as hot stream and an organic fluid on the cold side. An experimental characterization of the heat exchanger was carried out at different operating points measuring temperatures, pressures and flow rates on both sides. The measurement data further allowed to validate a numerical model of the evaporator whereas heat transfer coefficients were evaluated comparing several literature correlations, especially for the phase-change of the organic fluid. With reference to a waste heat recovery application in industrial compressed air systems, multiple off-design conditions were simulated considering the effects of oil mass flow rate and temperature on the superheating of the organic fluid, a key parameter to ensure a proper operation of the expansion machine, thus of the energy recovery process.

  7. Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167159.html Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss Put an end to guesstimating calories with simple ... control is a must when you want to lose weight. "Guesstimating" the size of a chicken breast at ...

  8. Evaluation of possibilities of using tetra - pak waste as a material to plate production for construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Korniejenko, K.; S. Kuciel; J. Mikuła

    2010-01-01

    Tetra-pak is a popular packing material, which is using as aseptic packaging of liquid food products, especially: fruit juice, beverages and milk. After single use a packing are throw out. Carton could not be reuse because the material has contact with food and must be aseptic. The paper describes the way of recycling tetra-pak waste in the world. It is focus on possibilities to optimize the mechanical properties of composite material and modifications of its property depending on the type an...

  9. Weighing every day matters: daily weighing improves weight loss and adoption of weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Bennett, Gary G; Askew, Sandy; Tate, Deborah F

    2015-04-01

    Daily weighing is emerging as the recommended self-weighing frequency for weight loss. This is likely because it improves adoption of weight control behaviors. To examine whether weighing every day is associated with greater adoption of weight control behaviors compared with less frequent weighing. Longitudinal analysis of a previously conducted 6-month randomized controlled trial. Overweight men and women in Chapel Hill, NC, participated in the intervention arm (N=47). The intervention focused on daily weighing for weight loss using an e-scale that transmitted weights to a study website, along with weekly e-mailed lessons and tailored feedback on daily weighing adherence and weight loss progress. We gathered objective data on self-weighing frequency from the e-scales. At baseline and 6 months, weight change was measured in the clinic and weight control behaviors (total items=37), dietary strategies, and calorie expenditure from physical activity were assessed via questionnaires. Calorie intake was assessed using an online 24-hour recall tool. We used χ(2) tests to examine variation in discrete weight control behaviors and linear regression models to examine differences in weight, dietary strategies, and calorie intake and expenditure by self-weighing frequency. Fifty-one percent of participants weighed every day (n=24) over 6 months. The average self-weighing frequency among those weighing less than daily (n=23) was 5.4±1.2 days per week. Daily weighers lost significantly more weight compared with those weighing less than daily (mean difference=-6.1 kg; 95% CI -10.2 to -2.1; P=0.004). The total number of weight control behaviors adopted was greater among daily weighers (17.6±7.6 vs 11.2±6.4; P=0.004). There were no differences by self-weighing frequency in dietary strategies, calorie intake, or calorie expenditure. Weighing every day led to greater adoption of weight control behaviors and produced greater weight loss compared with weighing most days of the

  10. The Impact of Competitive Foods on Children’s Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: An Observational Plate Waste Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie W. Cole

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effect of competitive foods on children’s consumption of lunch meals in elementary schools in Mississippi. The objective of this observational study was to examine how competitive food purchases affect entrée, fruit, and vegetable consumption using the quarter-waste method. A total of 862 meals and purchase of competitive foods were observed. Children who purchased ice cream or pudding were 1.6 times more likely to throw away more than 50% of their entrée, 3.5 times more likely to not eat their vegetables, and more than two times more likely to not eat their fruit than children who did not purchase ice cream or pudding. Children who purchased chips were also less likely to consume more than 50% of their entrée. These findings suggest that competitive foods can impact children’s fruit and vegetable consumption.

  11. Error Reduction for Weigh-In-Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Scudiere, Matthew B [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Federal and State agencies need certifiable vehicle weights for various applications, such as highway inspections, border security, check points, and port entries. ORNL weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology was previously unable to provide certifiable weights, due to natural oscillations, such as vehicle bouncing and rocking. Recent ORNL work demonstrated a novel filter to remove these oscillations. This work shows further filtering improvements to enable certifiable weight measurements (error < 0.1%) for a higher traffic volume with less effort (elimination of redundant weighing).

  12. Aluminum Manganese Molten Salt Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    cyanide waste products are generated during all stages of the cadmium plating lifecycle . The cadmium plating process generates spent plating bath and...X Check caustic line and PVC circulation piping for leaks X Verify pH at laboratory X Measure conductivity X Replace rinse...tank, which is then routed to the rinse tank. At the rinse tank, the chemical will be injected via appropriate fittings into to a PVC pipe loop which

  13. System identification based approach to dynamic weighing revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiecki, Maciej; Meller, Michał; Pietrzak, Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic weighing, i.e., weighing of objects in motion, without stopping them on the weighing platform, allows one to increase the rate of operation of automatic weighing systems, used in industrial production processes, without compromising their accuracy. Since the classical identification-based approach to dynamic weighing, based on the second-order mass-spring-damper model of the weighing system, does not yield satisfactory results when applied to conveyor belt type checkweighers, several extensions of this technique are examined. Experiments confirm that when appropriately modified the identification-based approach becomes a reliable tool for dynamic mass measurement in checkweighers.

  14. Creation and Reliability Analysis of Vehicle Dynamic Weighing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ling XU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is modeled by using ADAMS to portable axle load meter of dynamic weighing system, controlling a single variable simulation weighing process, getting the simulation weighing data under the different speed and weight; simultaneously using portable weighing system with the same parameters to achieve the actual measurement, comparative analysis the simulation results under the same conditions, at 30 km/h or less, the simulation value and the measured value do not differ by more than 5 %, it is not only to verify the reliability of dynamic weighing model, but also to create possible for improving algorithm study efficiency by using dynamic weighing model simulation.

  15. Creation and Reliability Analysis of Vehicle Dynamic Weighing Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Ling XU; Pei-Pei Shen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, it is modeled by using ADAMS to portable axle load meter of dynamic weighing system, controlling a single variable simulation weighing process, getting the simulation weighing data under the different speed and weight; simultaneously using portable weighing system with the same parameters to achieve the actual measurement, comparative analysis the simulation results under the same conditions, at 30 km/h or less, the simulation value and the measured value do not differ by more ...

  16. Food Waste in the National School Lunch Program 1978-2015: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Banna, Jinan; Serrano, Elena L

    2017-11-01

    Food waste studies have been used for more than 40 years to assess nutrient intake, dietary quality, menu performance, food acceptability, cost, and effectiveness of nutrition education in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Describe methods used to measure food waste and respective results in the NSLP across time. A systematic review using PubMed, Science Direct, Informaworld, and Institute of Scientific Information Web of Knowledge was conducted using the following search terms: waste, school lunch, plate waste, food waste, kitchen, half method, quarter method, weight, and photography. Studies published through June 2015 were included. The systematic review followed preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses recommendations. The final review included 53 articles. Food waste methodologies included in-person visual estimation (n=11), digital photography (n=11), direct weighing (n=23), and a combination of in-person visual estimation, digital photography, and/or direct weighing (n=8). A majority of studies used a pre-post intervention or cross-sectional design. Fruits and vegetables were the most researched dietary component on the lunch tray and yielded the greatest amount of waste across studies. Food waste is commonly assessed in the NSLP, but the methods are diverse and reporting metrics are variable. Future research should focus on establishing more uniform metrics to measure and report on food waste in the NSLP. Consistent food waste measurement methods will allow for better comparisons between studies. Such measures may facilitate better decision making about NSLP practices, programs, and policies that influence student consumption patterns across settings and interventions. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  18. New laser power sensor using weighing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinot, P.; Silvestri, Z.

    2018-01-01

    We present a set-up using a piece of pyrolytic carbon (PyC) to measure laser power in the range from a few milliwatts to a few watts. The experimental configuration consists in measuring the magnetic repulsion force acting between a piece of PyC placed on a weighing pan and in a magnetic induction generated by a magnet array in a fixed position above the PyC sheet. This involves a repulsion force on the PyC piece which is expressed in terms of mass by the balance display. The quantities affecting the measurement results have been identified. An example of metrological characterization in terms of accuracy, linearity and sensitivity is given. A relative uncertainty of optical power measurement for the first experimental set-up is around 1%. The wavelength and power density dependence on power response of this device has been demonstrated. This PyC-based device presented here in weighing configuration and the other one previously studied in levitation configuration offer a new technique for measuring optical power.

  19. Weighing complex evidence in a democratic society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Heather

    2012-06-01

    Weighing complex sets of evidence (i.e., from multiple disciplines and often divergent in implications) is increasingly central to properly informed decision-making. Determining "where the weight of evidence lies" is essential both for making maximal use of available evidence and figuring out what to make of such evidence. Weighing evidence in this sense requires an approach that can handle a wide range of evidential sources (completeness), that can combine the evidence with rigor, and that can do so in a way other experts can assess and critique (transparency). But the democratic context in need of weight-of-evidence analysis also places additional constraints on the process, including communicability of the process to the general public, the need for an approach that can be used across a broad range of contexts (scope), and timeliness of process (practicality). I will compare qualitative and quantitative approaches with respect to both traditional epistemic criteria and criteria that arise from the democratic context, and argue that a qualitative explanatory approach can best meet the criteria and elucidate how to utilize the other approaches. This should not be surprising, as the approach I argue for is the one that most closely tracks general scientific reasoning.

  20. Prototype Weigh-In-Motion Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Beshears, David L [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Scudiere, Matthew B [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2006-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed and patented methods to weigh slowly moving vehicles. We have used this technology to produce a portable weigh-in-motion system that is robust and accurate. This report documents the performance of the second-generation portable weigh-in-motion prototype (WIM Gen II). The results of three modes of weight determination are compared in this report: WIM Gen II dynamic mode, WIM Gen II stop-and-go mode, and static (parked) mode on in-ground, static scales. The WIM dynamic mode measures axle weights as the vehicle passes over the system at speeds of 3 to 7 miles per hour (1.3 to 3.1 meters/second). The WIM stop-and-go mode measures the weight of each axle of the vehicle as the axles are successively positioned on a side-by-side pair of WIM measurement pads. In both measurement modes the center of balance (CB) and the total weight are obtained by a straight-forward calculation from axle weights and axle spacings. The performance metric is measurement error (in percent), which is defined as 100 x (sample standard deviation)/(average); see Appendix A for details. We have insufficient data to show that this metric is predictive. This report details the results of weight measurements performed in May 2005 at two sites using different types of vehicles at each site. In addition to the weight measurements, the testing enabled refinements to the test methodology and facilitated an assessment of the influence of vehicle speed on the dynamic-mode measurements. The initial test at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, TN, involved measurements of passenger and light-duty commercial vehicles. A subsequent test at the Arrival/Departure Airfield Control Group (A/DACG) facility in Ft. Bragg, NC, involved military vehicles with gross weights between 3,000 and 75,000 pounds (1,356 to 33,900 kilograms) with a 20,000-pound (9,040 kilograms) limit per axle. For each vehicle, four or more separate measurements were done

  1. Daily Self-Weighing to Control Body Weight in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly R. Pacanowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the history of daily self-weighing for weight control, discuss the possibility that self-weighing may cause adverse psychological symptoms, and propose mechanisms that explain how self-weighing facilitates weight control. A systematic forward (citation tracking approach has been employed in this study. In the early literature, experimental tests did not demonstrate a benefit of adding daily self-weighing to traditional behavioral modification for weight loss. More recent studies have shown that daily self-weighing combined with personalized electronic feedback can produce and sustain weight loss with and without a traditional weight loss program. Daily self-weighing appears to be effective in preventing age-related weight gain. Apart from these experimental findings, there is considerable agreement that the frequency of self-weighing correlates with success in losing weight and sustaining the weight loss. The early literature suggested frequent self-weighing may be associated with negative psychological effects. However, more recent experimental trials do not substantiate such a causal relationship. In conclusion, daily self-weighing may be a useful strategy for certain adults to prevent weight gain, lose weight, or prevent weight regain after loss. More research is needed to better understand the role of different types of feedback, who benefits most from self-weighing, and at what frequency.

  2. Online weighing of kiwifruit using impact method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Mir-ahmadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran is one of the main producers of kiwifruit in the world. Unfortunately, the sorting and grading of the kiwifruits are manual, which is a time consuming and labor intensive task. Due to the lack of appropriate devices for sorting and grading of kiwifruit based on the quality parameters, only 10% of total production is exported (Mohammadian & Esehaghi Teymouri, 1999. One of the main quality attribute for evaluating the kiwifruits is weight. Based on the standards, the minimum weight for an excellent kiwifruit is 90 g, while these values for the first and second classes should be 70 and 65 g, respectively (Abedini, 2003. Therefore, developing a device for fast weighing of fruits in the sorting lines can be useful in packaging, storage, exporting and distributing kiwifruit to the consumer markets. In the past, the mechanical-based systems were commonly used for online weighing of the agricultural materials, but they did not lead to the promising accuracy and speed in sorting lines. Today, electrical instruments equipped with the precise load cells are substituted for fast weighing in the sorting lines. The dropping impact method, in which a free falling fruit drops on a load cell, is one of the suitable techniques for this purpose. Different studies have addressed the application of dropping impact for fast weighing of agricultural materials (Rohrbach et al., 1982; Calpe et al., 2002; Gilman & Bailey, 2005; Stropek & Gołacki, 2007; Elbeltagi, 2011. The aim of this study reported here was to develop an on-line system for fast weighing of kiwifruit and compare the accuracy of different methods for extracting the weight predictive models. Materials and Methods: Sample selection: A total of 232 samples with the weight range of 40 to 120 g were selected. Before conducting the main experiments, the weight and dimensions of the sample were measured using a digital balance and caliper, with the precisions of 0.001 g and 0.01 mm

  3. Structure and properties of GMA surfaced armour plates

    OpenAIRE

    A. Klimpel; K. Luksa; Burda, M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the combat vehicles many materials can be used for the armour. Application of the monolithic armour plates in light combat vehicles is limited by the high armour weigh. Introduction of the layered armour plates is a way to limit the vehicle weight. In the paper test results of graded and nanostructural GMA surfaced armour plates are presented.Design/methodology/approach: Metallographic structure, chemical composition and hardness of surfaced layers were investigated in order to ex...

  4. Research on Automotive Dynamic Weighing Method Based on Piezoelectric Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Wei; Li Chun-li; Di Xiao-feng; Chen Mi; Tao Sheng

    2017-01-01

    In order to effectively measure the dynamic axle load of vehicles in motion, the dynamic weighing method of vehicles based on piezoelectric sensor was studied. Firstly, the influencing factors of the measurement accuracy in the dynamic weighing process were analyzed systematically, and the impacts of road irregularities and dynamic weighing system vibration on measurement error were discussed. On the basis of the analysis, the arithmetic mean filter method was used in the software algorithm t...

  5. An integrated dynamic weighing system based on SCADA

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Bazydlo; Roman Szewczyk; Michal Urbanski

    2015-01-01

    A prototyped dynamic weighing system has been presented which integrates together three advanced software environments: MATLAB, LabVIEW and iFIX SCADA. They were used for advanced signal processing, data acquisition, as well as visualization and process control. Dynamic weighing is a constantly developing field of metrology. Because of the highly complicated structure of any electronic weighing module, it is vulnerable to many sources of environmental disturbances. For this reason, there is a...

  6. Mobile equipment for weighing live reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karstein Bye

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The main principle behind the construction is a box hanging in a compound stand. Two tension cells between the box and the stand record weight, and signals pass to an amplifier which shows the weight on a display. The box is made of wood, but the doors at the ends may be of clear material as polyvinyl. The frames are of steel or aluminium. All frames and parts fit into the box. The weighing cells may be replaced by mechanical weights. The accuracy of the cells is ±0.025% within the temperature range of -30 — +70°C. The cabel length between weighing cells and the amplifier may be up to 500 m. The amplifier ought to be operated under stable ambient temperature conditions. The operators of weight and amplifier communicate through a two-way inter-communication system. The equipment has been used and tested several times under both winter and summer conditions and has proved to be convenient and reliable.Mobilt utstyr for veiing av levende reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Hovedprinsippet bak konstruksjonen er en veiekasse som henger i et sammensatt stativ. To veieceller mellom kasse og stativ registrerer vekt, og signaler går videre til en forsterker som viser vekten på en display. Kassen er i tre, men dørene på endene kan være av klart materiale som polyvinyl. Rammer er av stål eller aluminium. Alle rammer og deler får plass inni veiekasscn. Veiecellene kan erstattes med mekaniske vekter. Veiecellene har nøyaktighet ±0.025% innen temperaturområdet -30 — +70°C og forsterkeren bør brukes innen området -4-20 h60°C. Kabellengden mellom veiecellene og forsterkeren kan være opp til 500 m. Forsterkeren bør være plassert i temperaturstabile omgivelser. Operatørene av vekt og forsterker holder kontakt over toveis «intercom». Utstyret har vært brukt en rekke ganger både sommer og vinter, og har værtfunksjonelt og pålitelig.Liikkuvat varusteet elåvien porojen punnitsemisessa.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto

  7. Mechanism isolates load weighing cell during lifting of load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigler, J. S.

    1966-01-01

    Load weighing cell used in conjuction with a hoist is isolated during lifting and manipulation of the load. A simple mechanism, attached to a crane hook, provides a screw adjustment for engaging the load cell during weighing of the load and isolating it from lift forces during hoisting of the load.

  8. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 209 Plate Tectonics A. K. Chaubey National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403 004. chaubey@nio.org Introduction The theory of continental drift, which paved the way for discovery... of plate tectonics, was put forward by Alfred Lother Wegener - a meteorologist from Germany - in 1912. The theory states that continents are not fixed, but have been slowly wandering during the course of Earth’s geological history. Although Wegener...

  9. Statin Side Effects: Weigh the Benefits and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statin side effects: Weigh the benefits and risks Statin side effects can be uncomfortable, making it seem ... medications. By Mayo Clinic Staff Doctors often prescribe statins for people with high cholesterol to lower their ...

  10. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  11. Development of a portable weigh-in-motion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) data is used for a variety of roadway design and safety purposes. In compliance with Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) mandates, many states have installed permanent WIM sites to measure vehicle weight. Expanding current sit...

  12. Weighing Designs to Detect a Single Counterfeit Coin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    is so far available in the published literature in which research-level problems have been posed and ..... representation of a weighing design interprets it as a physical object. the rows i = 1, 2,...,w represent the weighings, the columns j = 1, 2,...,c represent the coins, and the ma- trix element aij = −1 means the j-th coin is put ...

  13. An Integrated Dynamic Weighing System Based on SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bazydło

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototyped dynamic weighing system has been presented which integrates together three advanced software environments: MATLAB, LabVIEW and iFIX SCADA. They were used for advanced signal processing, data acquisition, as well as visualization and process control. Dynamic weighing is a constantly developing field of metrology. Because of the highly complicated structure of any electronic weighing module, it is vulnerable to many sources of environmental disturbances. For this reason, there is a lot of research concerned with weighing signal processing, mechanical matters and functionality of the system. In the paper, some issues connected with dynamic weighing have been presented, and the necessity of implementing signal processing methods has been discussed. Implementation of this feature is impossible in the majority of SCADA systems. The integration of the three environments mentioned above is an attempt to create an industrial system with capabilities to deal with major dynamic weighing problems. It is innovative because it connects the industrial SCADA, laboratory/industrial product LabVIEW and MATLAB. In addition, the algorithms responsible for process control and data exchange are presented. The paper includes a description of the capabilities, performance tests, as well as benefits and drawbacks, of the system. The outcome of the research is a prototyped system and evaluation of its usefulness. (original abstract

  14. Research on Automotive Dynamic Weighing Method Based on Piezoelectric Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively measure the dynamic axle load of vehicles in motion, the dynamic weighing method of vehicles based on piezoelectric sensor was studied. Firstly, the influencing factors of the measurement accuracy in the dynamic weighing process were analyzed systematically, and the impacts of road irregularities and dynamic weighing system vibration on measurement error were discussed. On the basis of the analysis, the arithmetic mean filter method was used in the software algorithm to filter out the periodic interference added in the sensor signal, the most suitable n value was selected to get the better filtering result by simulation comparison. Then, the dynamic axle load calculation model of high speed vehicles was studied deeply, based on the theoretical response curve of the sensor, the dynamic axle load calculation method based on frequency reconstruction was established according to actual measurement signals of sensors and the analysis from time domain and frequency domain, also the least square method was used to realize the identification of temperature correction coefficient. A large amount of data that covered the usual vehicle weighing range was collected by experiment. The results show that the dynamic weighing signal system identification error all controlled within 10% at the same temperature and 60% of the vehicle data error can be controlled within 7%. The temperature correction coefficient and the correction formula at different temperatures ranges are well adapted to ensure that the vehicle temperature error at different temperatures can also be controlled within 10% and 70% of the vehicle data error within 7%. Furthermore, the weighing results remain stable regardless of the speed of the vehicle which meets the requirements for high-speed dynamic weighing.

  15. Pad-weighing test performed with standardized bladder volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, G; Rosenkilde, P; Gammelgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    with a standardized bladder volume (50% of the cystometric bladder capacity). Twenty-five female patients with stress or mixed incontinence underwent two separate tests. Test-retest results were highly correlated (r = 0.97, p less than 0.001). Nonetheless, analysis of test-retest differences revealed a variation up...... to +/- 24 g between two tests. It is concluded that this setup (i.e., standardized bladder volume) of the one-hour pad-weighing test allows for a more reliable assessment of urinary incontinence for quantitative purposes.......The result of the one-hour pad-weighing test proposed by the International Continence Society has been demonstrated to depend on the urine load during the test. To increase reproducibility of the pad-weighing test by minimizing the influence of variation in urine load the test was done...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  17. Generation of organic waste from institutions in Denmark: case study of the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    of this study, two plastic waste bins of 60 L each were placed in the kitchens: organic waste bins and mixed waste bins. Organic waste and mixed waste from these kitchens were collected and weighed separately, on a daily basis, during 133 working days (29 weeks). However, waste was not sampled during weekends...... potential. They also suggest that recycling target for source-segregated organic waste might be achievable with reasonable logistical ease in institution areas....

  18. Improving truck safety: Potential of weigh-in-motion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jacob

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Trucks exceeding the legal mass limits increase the risk of traffic accidents and damage to the infrastructure. They also result in unfair competition between transport modes and companies. It is therefore important to ensure truck compliance to weight regulation. New technologies are being developed for more efficient overload screening and enforcement. Weigh-in-Motion (WIM technologies allow trucks to be weighed in the traffic flow, without any disruption to operations. Much progress has been made recently to improve and implement WIM systems, which can contribute to safer and more efficient operation of trucks.

  19. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2013-01-01

    in estimates of total numbers of passengers propagate along train runs. Counting errors in manual and electronic counting systems are typically flow-dependent, making uncertainty a function of volume. This paper presents a new counting technique that exploits the weighing systems installed in most modern...... trains to control braking. This technique makes passenger counting cheaper and ensures a complete sample. The paper compares numbers estimated by this technique with manual counts and counts from an infrared system in trains in urban Copenhagen. It shows that the weighing system provides more accurate...

  20. The Weighing of Evidence and the Determinants of Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale; Tversky, Amos

    1992-01-01

    Tests the hypotheses that overconfidence occurs when strength is high and weight is low and that underconfidence occurs when weight is high and strength is low in 4 experiments with 153 students. Discusses weighing evidence, overconfidence/underconfidence in intuitive judgments, and item difficulty's effect on overconfidence. Relates the…

  1. 78 FR 51658 - Weighing, Feed, and Swine Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration 9 CFR Part 201 RIN 0580-AA99 Weighing, Feed, and Swine Contractors AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  2. 9 CFR 201.73-1 - Instructions for weighing livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 201.73-1 Section 201.73-1 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.73-1 Instructions for weighing livestock. Stockyard operators, market agencies...

  3. Statistics by Example, Weighing Chances, Teachers' Commentary and Solutions Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Martha; Weisberg, Sanford

    Part I of the teachers' guide for "Weighing Chances" briefly describes the mathematical background necessary for the student, lists the substantive areas touched upon by the problems in the pamphlet, suggests classroom uses for the booklet, and gives background information on the individual chapters. Part II provides complete solutions for the…

  4. A subsurface drip irrigation system for weighing lysimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, precision weighing lysimeters can have accuracies as good as 0.04 mm equivalent depth of water, adequate for hourly and even half-hourly determinations of evapotranspiration (ET) rate from crops. Such data are important for testing and improving simulation models of the complex interactions o...

  5. Weighing Designs to Detect a Single Counterfeit Coin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 2. Weighing Designs to Detect a Single Counterfeit Coin. Jyotirmoy Sarkar Bikas K Sinha. General Article Volume 21 Issue 2 February 2016 pp 125-150. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damveld, Herman [Groningen (Netherlands)

    2003-10-01

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible.

  7. Weighing Evidence: The Design and Comparison of Probability Thought Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Walker and Richara E. T. Leakey discuss the hominid fossils that have recently been discovered in the region east of Lake Turkana in Kenya. These fossils...a belief-function design for the problem. Weighing Evidence 12 The Hominids of East Turkana In the August 1078 issue of Scientific American, Alan...member of the Koobi Fora Forma- tion in East Turkana are of three forms: (I) A "robust" form that had large cheek teeth and massive jaws. These fossils

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pacific Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO ... Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add your food choices. Reset Plate Share Create Your ...

  9. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Growth Plate Fractures Page ( 1 ) The bones of children and adults share many of the same risks for ... also subject to a unique injury called a growth plate fracture. Growth plates are areas of cartilage ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add your food choices. Reset Plate Share Create Your ... your protein. See this list of protein foods . Add a serving of fruit , a serving of dairy ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and ... Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add your ... down the middle of the plate. Then on one side, cut it again so you will have ...

  13. A Practical Probabilistic Graphical Modeling Tool for Weighing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past weight-of-evidence frameworks for adverse ecological effects have provided soft-scoring procedures for judgments based on the quality and measured attributes of evidence. Here, we provide a flexible probabilistic structure for weighing and integrating lines of evidence for ecological risk determinations. Probabilistic approaches can provide both a quantitative weighing of lines of evidence and methods for evaluating risk and uncertainty. The current modeling structure wasdeveloped for propagating uncertainties in measured endpoints and their influence on the plausibility of adverse effects. To illustrate the approach, we apply the model framework to the sediment quality triad using example lines of evidence for sediment chemistry measurements, bioassay results, and in situ infauna diversity of benthic communities using a simplified hypothetical case study. We then combine the three lines evidence and evaluate sensitivity to the input parameters, and show how uncertainties are propagated and how additional information can be incorporated to rapidly update the probability of impacts. The developed network model can be expanded to accommodate additional lines of evidence, variables and states of importance, and different types of uncertainties in the lines of evidence including spatial and temporal as well as measurement errors. We provide a flexible Bayesian network structure for weighing and integrating lines of evidence for ecological risk determinations

  14. Food Waste Auditing at Three Florida Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Ann C. Wilkie; Ryan E. Graunke; Camilo Cornejo

    2015-01-01

    School cafeterias are a significant source of food waste and represent an ideal opportunity for diverting food waste from landfills. In this study, cafeteria waste audits were conducted at three Florida schools. Food waste comprised the largest fraction of school cafeteria waste streams, ranging from 47% to 58%, followed by milk, paper products (tissue, milk cartons, pasteboard, paper plates, and cardboard), and plastics (plastic wrap, packaging, and utensils). Metal and glass comprised the s...

  15. 49 CFR 375.517 - May an individual shipper demand re-weighing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Pick Up... individual shipper may demand a re-weigh. You must base your freight bill charges upon the re-weigh weight. ...

  16. 9 CFR 201.108-1 - Instructions for weighing live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instructions for weighing live poultry... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.108-1 Instructions for weighing live poultry. Live poultry dealers who operate scales on which live poultry is weighed for purposes of purchase, sale...

  17. Weighing and Body Monitoring among College Women: The Scale Number as an Emotional Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Awad, Germine H.; Stinson, Rebecca D.; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Coker, Angela D.; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Connelly, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated weighing and body-monitoring behaviors, as well as psychological and behavioral reactions to weighing, among female college students. Weighing and body monitoring were engaged in by the majority of participants. Participants changed food intake and exercise based on weight. About 63% reported that the scale number impacts…

  18. Current plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Argus, D. F.; Stein, S.

    1990-05-01

    A global plate motion model, named NUVEL-1, which describes current plate motions between 12 rigid plates is described, with special attention given to the method, data, and assumptions used. Tectonic implications of the patterns that emerged from the results are discussed. It is shown that wide plate boundary zones can form not only within the continental lithosphere but also within the oceanic lithosphere; e.g., between the Indian and Australian plates and between the North American and South American plates. Results of the model also suggest small but significant diffuse deformation of the oceanic lithosphere, which may be confined to small awkwardly shaped salients of major plates.

  19. Accuracy estimations of testing of infusion devices using weighing balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, D M

    2002-04-01

    The role of gravimetric balances in the evaluation of infusion devices is considered from a perspective of accuracy for such evaluations and the actual physical and interface characteristics of such balances as specialist measurement devices. In particular, the dynamic properties of weighing balances are discussed in relation to observations of variation of response times and stability settings. This work has identified characteristics, which may influence flow measurement techniques as defined by measurement protocols adopted by relevant standards and those developed independently. While a dominant error is introduced due to balance resolution error, consideration of timing errors associated with data capture is also essential.

  20. An Assessment of Household Solid Waste Disposal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plate 1shows the waste disposed of in the vicinity. Stanley/Andrew/Dania/Sani. 51. Food. Paper. Old Clothes. & Fabrics. Plastics. Others. Type of Waste. 40. 35. 30 .... 2 shows that 61.26% of the respondents perceived that wastes have high potential for farm manure, while 18.02% has potential for recycling. Also 9.91% has.

  1. ALICE: structures weighing several tonnes are moved with millimetric precision

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration has just conducted one of its most spectacular transport operations to date in lifting the dipole of the muon spectrometer and reassembling it on the other side of the huge solenoid magnet. This incredible feat involved lifting no fewer than 900 tonnes of equipment over the red octagonal yoke inherited from the L3 experiment at a height of 18 metres. Following initial assembly and successful testing at the end of last year (see Bulletin No. 4/2005), the dipole was completely dismantled and moved to the other end of the cavern. The yoke was transported as 28 modules, each weighing 30 tonnes. The most spectacular feat of all, though, was undoubtedly the removal of the two 32-tonne coils. The first of these was moved on 18 April, as recorded in the following photos: A special lifting gantry weighing 5 tonnes had to be developed to move and install the coils. Huge clamps, which can be seen at the front, were used to rotate these enormous 32-tonne components. The whole assembly was raised ...

  2. Heart rate detection from an electronic weighing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Landaeta, R; Casas, O; Pallàs-Areny, R

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel technique for heart rate detection on a subject that stands on a common electronic weighing scale. The detection relies on sensing force variations related to the blood acceleration in the aorta, works even if wearing footwear, and does not require any sensors attached to the body. We have applied our method to three different weighing scales, and estimated whether their sensitivity and frequency response suited heart rate detection. Scale sensitivities were from 490 nV/V/N to 1670 nV/V/N, all had an underdamped transient response and their dynamic gain error was below 19% at 10 Hz, which are acceptable values for heart rate estimation. We also designed a pulse detection system based on off-the-shelf integrated circuits, whose gain was about 70x10(3) and able to sense force variations about 240 mN. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the main peaks of the pulse signal detected was higher than 48 dB, which is large enough to estimate the heart rate by simple signal processing methods. To validate the method, the ECG and the force signal were simultaneously recorded on 12 volunteers. The maximal error obtained from heart rates determined from these two signals was +/-0.6 beats/minute.

  3. Waste Management in the Circular Economy. The Case of Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuga, Anca N.

    2016-11-01

    Applying the principles of sustainable development in Romania involves a new approach to ecological waste using basic concepts of circular economy to weigh accurately the proposed projects in this area taking into account existing environmental resources and zero waste objectives. The paper is focused on: quantitative and qualitative measures of waste prevention in Romania, the changing status of the waste by selling it as product, the mechanisms for paying for treatment and / or disposal which discourage waste generation and the use of financial resources obtained from secondary raw materials for the efficiency of waste management.

  4. Simulator for a packing and weighing system of granulated powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto Rodrigues de Oliveira, Rafael; Garcia, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    The development of a simulator for a packing and weighing system (PWS) of granulated powder is described. It employed system identification to obtain the deterministic part of the model and stochastic processes to reproduce disturbances. It reproduces the fluctuations in carton weight observed in real packing systems. Its final use is to evaluate proposed improvements in the PWS, aiming at reducing overweight and underweight. Its performance is satisfactory, as the oscillations observed in the carton weights, due to powder density variability, are close to reality as well as the monetary losses due to overweight and underweight and the power spectral density graphs of the real and simulated weights. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Weighing the black hole via quasi-local energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yuan K.

    2017-08-01

    We set to weigh the black holes at their event horizons in various spacetimes and obtain masses which are substantially higher than their asymptotic values. In each case, the horizon mass of a Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström, or Kerr black hole is found to be twice the irreducible mass observed at infinity. The irreducible mass does not contain electrostatic or rotational energy, leading to the inescapable conclusion that particles with electric charges and spins cannot exist inside a black hole. This is proposed as the External Energy Paradigm. A higher mass at the event horizon and its neighborhood is obligatory for the release of gravitational waves in binary black hole merging. We describe how these horizon mass values are obtained in the quasi-local energy approach and applied to the black holes of the first gravitational waves GW150914.

  6. Isomorphisms on Weighed Banach Spaces of Harmonic and Holomorphic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Jordá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For an arbitrary open subset U⊂ℝd or U⊆ℂd and a continuous function v:U→]0,∞[ we show that the space hv0(U of weighed harmonic functions is almost isometric to a (closed subspace of c0, thus extending a theorem due to Bonet and Wolf for spaces of holomorphic functions Hv0(U on open sets U⊂ℂd. Inspired by recent work of Boyd and Rueda, we characterize in terms of the extremal points of the dual of hv0(U when hv0(U is isometric to a subspace of c0. Some geometric conditions on an open set U⊆ℂd and convexity conditions on a weight v on U are given to ensure that neither Hv0(U nor hv0(U are rotund.

  7. Weighing the evidence of common beliefs in obesity research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, Krista; Brown, Andrew; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    and ten presumptions surrounding the effects of rapid weight loss; setting realistic goals in weight loss therapy; stage of change or readiness to lose weight; physical education classes; breast-feeding; daily self-weighing; genetic contribution to obesity; the "Freshman 15"; food deserts; regularly......Abstract Obesity is a topic on which many views are strongly held in the absence of scientific evidence to support those views, and some views are strongly held despite evidence to contradict those views. We refer to the former as "presumptions" and the latter as "myths". Here we present nine myths...... eating (versus skipping) breakfast; eating close to bedtime; eating more fruits and vegetables; weight cycling (i.e. yo-yo dieting); snacking; built environment; reducing screen time in childhood obesity; portion size; participation in family mealtime; and drinking water as a means of weight...

  8. Growth Plate Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plate injuries includes: Falling down. Competitive sports (like football). Recreational activities. Sometimes growth plate injuries happen when ... knee. For More Info U.S. Food and Drug Administration Toll free: 888-INFO-FDA (888-463-6332) ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this interactive tool. The healthy meal combinations are endless! Ready to try it at home? Just follow ... non-starchy vegetables and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to Give Become a Member Vehicle Donation Planned Giving ... Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for ...

  16. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  17. Clinicians' practices regarding blind versus open weighing among patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, Kelsie T; Richardson, Jonathan H; Bohrer, Brittany K

    2015-11-01

    Empirically supported treatments for eating disorders, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and family-based treatment, stress the importance of weighing patients during therapy and using this information as part of treatment. However, weighing practices vary widely across eating disorders professionals, including those that purport to provide empirically supported interventions. To characterize clinicians' practices regarding the decision to share (open weighing) or withhold (blind weighing) weight information with patients, a topic that has received limited prior attention. Clinicians (N = 114; 85% female) who regularly treat individuals with an eating disorder completed an online survey to identify factors that might impact their decision to practice blind or open weighing. Approximately half of the clinicians reported generally using open weighing procedures (n = 53; 46.49%). Endorsement of cognitive-behavioral or family-based therapeutic orientation was not significantly associated with open weighing. However, clinicians who endorsed therapeutic modalities that do not specifically encourage open weighing were significantly more likely to engage in blind weighing. Clinicians working with clients with anorexia nervosa were significantly more likely to practice blind weighing, compared to clients with other eating disorder diagnoses, and cognitive or emotional impairment from malnutrition emerged as the strongest predictor of clinicians' decisions to practice blind weighing, controlling for all other variables. Development of specific training modules may be useful for improving adherence to empirically supported protocols that recommend open weighing. More importantly, however, our results highlight the need for future treatment studies to identify whether blind or open weighing is beneficial for improving patient outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy veggies ...

  19. Fixation of metatarsal fracture with bone plate in a dromedary heifer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An oblique fracture of the distal third of the right metatarsus in a three-year-old dromedary heifer weighing about 300 kilograms was immobilized with a 4.5 mm broad-webbed 12-hole dynamic compression bone plate and two interfragmental compression screws. The animal showed slight lameness after 16 weeks of ...

  20. Qualitative evaluation of the menu and plate waste in public day care centers in São Paulo city, Brazil Avaliação qualitativa do cardápio e desperdício de alimentos em creches públicas do município de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed menu quality and plate waste in public day care centers of São Paulo (SP, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected data from the nurseries of seven day care centers, totaling 366 children aged 12 to 36 months. Each day care center was assessed for three days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Menu quality was assessed by the Qualitative Analysis of Menu Preparations method (Análise Qualitativa das Preparações do Cardápio, adapted for day care centers, which provides nutritional and sensory criteria. Food waste was determined by the Plate Waste-Ingestion Index. RESULTS: The supply of vegetables was inadequate in more than 90% of the days, and the amount of leafy vegetables and high-sulfur foods met the recommended amounts on 50% of the days. The supply of sweets and foods containing trans fatty acids was considerable. The Plate Waste-Ingestion Index for daycare centers varied from 25% to 43%, and the Plate Waste-Ingestion Index for food items varied from 11% to 47%. CONCLUSION: The preparations served and serving sizes clearly need to be reviewed, and new menu creation strategies are needed to control food waste.OBJETIVO: Avaliar qualitativamente o cardápio e o desperdício de alimentos em creches públicas de São Paulo (SP. MÉTODOS: Este estudo é transversal e os dados foram coletados nos berçários de 7 creches, que atendiam 366 crianças entre 12 e 36 meses. Cada creche foi avaliada durante 3 dias, totalizando 42 dias e 210 refeições. A qualidade do cardápio foi avaliada segundo o método Análise Qualitativa das Preparações do Cardápio, adaptado à realidade de creches, que estabelece critérios nutricionais e sensoriais. Foi avaliado o desperdício de alimentos pelo Índice de Resto-Ingestão. RESULTADOS: Os resultados refletiram que a oferta de legumes e verduras foi insuficiente em mais de 90% dos dias e, a quantidade de folhosos e alimentos ricos em enxofre foi compatível com o

  1. Geologically current plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Argus, Donald F.

    2010-04-01

    We describe best-fitting angular velocities and MORVEL, a new closure-enforced set of angular velocities for the geologically current motions of 25 tectonic plates that collectively occupy 97 per cent of Earth's surface. Seafloor spreading rates and fault azimuths are used to determine the motions of 19 plates bordered by mid-ocean ridges, including all the major plates. Six smaller plates with little or no connection to the mid-ocean ridges are linked to MORVEL with GPS station velocities and azimuthal data. By design, almost no kinematic information is exchanged between the geologically determined and geodetically constrained subsets of the global circuit-MORVEL thus averages motion over geological intervals for all the major plates. Plate geometry changes relative to NUVEL-1A include the incorporation of Nubia, Lwandle and Somalia plates for the former Africa plate, Capricorn, Australia and Macquarie plates for the former Australia plate, and Sur and South America plates for the former South America plate. MORVEL also includes Amur, Philippine Sea, Sundaland and Yangtze plates, making it more useful than NUVEL-1A for studies of deformation in Asia and the western Pacific. Seafloor spreading rates are estimated over the past 0.78 Myr for intermediate and fast spreading centres and since 3.16 Ma for slow and ultraslow spreading centres. Rates are adjusted downward by 0.6-2.6mmyr-1 to compensate for the several kilometre width of magnetic reversal zones. Nearly all the NUVEL-1A angular velocities differ significantly from the MORVEL angular velocities. The many new data, revised plate geometries, and correction for outward displacement thus significantly modify our knowledge of geologically current plate motions. MORVEL indicates significantly slower 0.78-Myr-average motion across the Nazca-Antarctic and Nazca-Pacific boundaries than does NUVEL-1A, consistent with a progressive slowdown in the eastward component of Nazca plate motion since 3.16 Ma. It also

  2. Self-weighing in weight management interventions: A systematic review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Carol; Knisely, Mitchell R; Clark, Daniel; Carpenter, Janet S

    Self-weighing increases a person's self-awareness of current weight and weight patterns. Increased self-weighing frequency can help an individual prevent weight gain. Literature, however, is limited in describing variability in self-weighing strategies and how the variability is associated with weight management outcomes. This review analyzed self-weighing in weight management interventions and the effects of self-weighing on weight and other outcomes. Twenty-two articles from PubMed, CINAHL, Medline, PsychInfo, and Academic Search Premier were extracted for review. These 22 articles reported findings from 19 intervention trials, mostly on weight loss or weight gain prevention. The majority of the reviewed articles reported interventions that combined self-weighing with other self-monitoring strategies (64%), adopted daily self-weighing frequency (84%), and implemented interventions up to six months (59%). One-half of the articles mentioned that technology-enhanced or regular weight scales were given to study participants. Of the articles that provided efficacy data, 75% of self-weighing-only interventions and 67% of combined interventions demonstrated improved weight outcomes. No negative psychological effects were found. Self-weighing is likely to improve weight outcomes, particularly when performed daily or weekly, without causing untoward adverse effects. Weight management interventions could consider including this strategy. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  4. Weighing the Evidence of Common Beliefs in Obesity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Krista; Brown, Andrew; Astrup, Arne; Bertz, Fredrik; Baum, Charles; Brown, Michelle Bohan; Dawson, John; Durant, Nefertiti; Dutton, Gareth; Fields, David A.; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Levitsky, David; Mehta, Tapan; Menachemi, Nir; Newby, PK; Pate, Russell; Raynor, Hollie; Rolls, Barbara J.; Sen, Bisakha; Smith, Daniel L.; Thomas, Diana; Wansink, Brian; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a topic on which many views are strongly held in the absence of scientific evidence to support those views, and some views are strongly held despite evidence to contradict those views. We refer to the former as “presumptions” and the latter as “myths”. Here we present nine myths and ten presumptions surrounding the effects of rapid weight loss; setting realistic goals in weight loss therapy; stage of change or readiness to lose weight; physical education classes; breast-feeding; daily self-weighing; genetic contribution to obesity; the “Freshman 15”; food deserts; regularly eating (versus skipping) breakfast; eating close to bedtime; eating more fruits and vegetables; weight cycling (i.e. yo-yo dieting); snacking; built environment; reducing screen time in childhood obesity; portion size; participation in family mealtime; and drinking water as a means of weight-loss. For each of these, we describe the belief and present evidence that the belief is widely held or stated, reasons to support the conjecture that the belief might be true, evidence to directly support or refute the belief, and findings from randomized controlled trials, if available. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these determinations, conjecture on why so many myths and presumptions exist, and suggestions for limiting the spread of these and other unsubstantiated beliefs about obesity domain. PMID:24950157

  5. Weighing the Evidence of Common Beliefs in Obesity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Krista; Brown, Andrew; Astrup, Arne; Bertz, Fredrik; Baum, Charles; Brown, Michelle Bohan; Dawson, John; Durant, Nefertiti; Dutton, Gareth; Fields, David A; Fontaine, Kevin R; Heymsfield, Steven; Levitsky, David; Mehta, Tapan; Menachemi, Nir; Newby, P K; Pate, Russell; Raynor, Hollie; Rolls, Barbara J; Sen, Bisakha; Smith, Daniel L; Thomas, Diana; Wansink, Brian; Allison, David B

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a topic on which many views are strongly held in the absence of scientific evidence to support those views, and some views are strongly held despite evidence to contradict those views. We refer to the former as "presumptions" and the latter as "myths." Here, we present nine myths and 10 presumptions surrounding the effects of rapid weight loss; setting realistic goals in weight loss therapy; stage of change or readiness to lose weight; physical education classes; breastfeeding; daily self-weighing; genetic contribution to obesity; the "Freshman 15"; food deserts; regularly eating (versus skipping) breakfast; eating close to bedtime; eating more fruits and vegetables; weight cycling (i.e., yo-yo dieting); snacking; built environment; reducing screen time in childhood obesity; portion size; participation in family mealtime; and drinking water as a means of weight loss. For each of these, we describe the belief and present evidence that the belief is widely held or stated, reasons to support the conjecture that the belief might be true, evidence to directly support or refute the belief, and findings from randomized controlled trials, if available. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these determinations, conjecture on why so many myths and presumptions exist, and suggestions for limiting the spread of these and other unsubstantiated beliefs about the obesity domain.

  6. The Impact of Regular Self-weighing on Weight Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welsh Ericka M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular self-weighing has been a focus of attention recently in the obesity literature. It has received conflicting endorsement in that some researchers and practitioners recommend it as a key behavioral strategy for weight management, while others caution against its use due to its potential to cause negative psychological consequences associated with weight management failure. The evidence on frequent self-weighing, however, has not yet been synthesized. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evidence regarding the use of regular self-weighing for both weight loss and weight maintenance. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted using the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO online databases. Reviewed studies were broken down by sample characteristics, predictors/conditions, dependent measures, findings, and evidence grade. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, but nearly half received low evidence grades in terms of methodological quality. Findings from 11 of the 12 reviewed studies indicated that more frequent self-weighing was associated with greater weight loss or weight gain prevention. Specifically, individuals who reported self-weighing weekly or daily, typically over a period of several months, held a 1 to 3 kg/m2 (current advantage over individuals who did not self-weigh frequently. The effects of self-weighing in experimental studies, especially those where self-weighing behaviors could be isolated, were less clear. Conclusion Based on the consistency of the evidence reviewed, frequent self-weighing, at the very least, seems to be a good predictor of moderate weight loss, less weight regain, or the avoidance of initial weight gain in adults. More targeted research is needed in this area to determine the causal role of frequent self-weighing in weight loss/weight gain prevention programs. Other open questions to be pursued include the optimal dose of self-weighing, as well as the

  7. Fixation of metatarsal fracture with bone plate in a dromedary heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, S A; Siddiqui, M I; Telfah, M N; Hashmi, S

    2013-01-01

    An oblique fracture of the distal third of the right metatarsus in a three-year-old dromedary heifer weighing about 300 kilograms was immobilized with a 4.5 mm broad-webbed 12-hole dynamic compression bone plate and two interfragmental compression screws. The animal showed slight lameness after 16 weeks of surgery that disappeared after removal of the plate. The result was quite encouraging and the fracture healed in 16 weeks without major complications. It is concluded that the fracture of this bone can be successfully handled with bone plating at least in young, light weight animals.

  8. Fixation of metatarsal fracture with bone plate in a dromedary heifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hashmi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An oblique fracture of the distal third of the right metatarsus in a three-year-old dromedary heifer weighing about 300 kilograms was immobilized with a 4.5 mm broad-webbed 12-hole dynamic compression bone plate and two interfragmental compression screws. The animal showed slight lameness after 16 weeks of surgery that disappeared after removal of the plate. The result was quite encouraging and the fracture healed in 16 weeks without major complications. It is concluded that the fracture of this bone can be successfully handled with bone plating at least in young, light weight animals.

  9. Solid non-hazardous waste management on the University of Johannesburg Doornfontein Campus

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Sc. (Environmental Management) The University of Johannesburg (UJ) generates vast quantities of solid waste daily. One of the four campuses, Doornfontein campus, was chosen as study area, to calculate the amounts of waste generated and investigate changes in volume from 2009 to 2013. Waste collected from the campus was separated into recyclables and non-recyclables. The recyclable waste was then further divided into different categories, with each weighed separately. The discourse provid...

  10. 75 FR 9157 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Scale and Catch Weighing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... catch weight, species composition, and location data for every delivery by a catcher vessel or every pot by a catcher/processor. Second, all catch must be weighed accurately using NMFS-approved scales to... Region Scale and Catch Weighing Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  11. 50 CFR 679.63 - Catch weighing requirements for vessels and processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and processors. 679.63 Section 679.63 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... Management Measures § 679.63 Catch weighing requirements for vessels and processors. (a) What are the requirements for listed AFA catcher/processors and AFA motherships?—(1) Catch weighing. All groundfish landed...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.190 - PM-stabilization and weighing environments for gravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environments for gravimetric analysis. 1065.190 Section 1065.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 1065.190 PM-stabilization and weighing environments for gravimetric analysis. (a) This section describes the two environments required to stabilize and weigh PM for gravimetric analysis: the PM...

  13. 75 FR 41693 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grains Transported in Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grains Transported in Containers AGENCY: Grain... quality grain exported in containers ] from the mandatory inspection and weighing requirements of the... for high quality specialty grains exported in containers that was established by a final rule on...

  14. Evidence Based Weighing Policy during the First Week to Prevent Neonatal Hypernatremic Dehydration while Breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, S.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Dommelen, P. van; Unal, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neonatal hypernatremic dehydration is prevented by daily neonatal weight monitoring. We aim to provide evidence-based support of this universally promoted weighing policy and to establish the most crucial days of weighing. Methods. Weight measurements of 2,359 healthy newborns and of 271

  15. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the ... Help Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of Events ...

  17. mill grinding plates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Maize was milled either 'wet' or ''dry'' using locally-manufactured milling plates. Samples of milled maize were taken and analyzed for elemental iron (Fe). Results show that iron particles from milling plates contaminates the milled maize and that the level of contamination increases with the quantity of milled ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday ... Foods donate en -- Limited Time MATCH Offer - limited- ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  1. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  2. FY 1998 report on the result of R and D projects by local consortiums. Rare metal recovery and resourcing of residual slags from metal plating wastes and aluminum dross by continuous thermit reaction (CTR) system; 1998 nendo CTR (Continuous Termit Reaction) System ni yoru aluminium dross to mekki surajji kara no energy less, rare metal kaisei process to sono slag no saishigenka seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D project has been implemented for treating metal plating wastes (sludge) and aluminum dross in a melting furnace operated in a reducing atmosphere, in order to make the wastes harmless and recover the rare metals by the thermit reactions. The theoretical analysis of the powder properties has produced the desired powder pretreatment conditions, such as drying/firing conditions, mixing ratio and composition, forming conditions, and characteristics of the formed articles. For recovering the useful metals, it is confirmed that the thermit reactions proceed efficiently in a high-temperature melting furnace operated in a reducing atmosphere, and the molten metals are easily separated from the molten slag. It is also confirmed that the formed article allows separation of the metals from the residual slag more easily than the mixed powder. For the design of the continuous thermit reaction (CTR) system, it is investigated whether the products and other discharged substances can be safely handled and effectively utilized, and the control/instrumentation systems and others are established after setting the conditions for, e.g., sludge drying/firing in air, powder mixing/crushing, briquette production, and flow of the thermit reactions in a reducing atmosphere. (NEDO)

  3. Industrial Processes to Reduce Generation of Hazardous Waste at DoD Facilities. Phase III Report. Appendix B. Workshop Manual Innovative Hard Chrome Plating, Pensacola Naval Air Rework Facility, Pensacola, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Daniel Bostrom , S pec ial and Reid Dennis, of CH2M HILL, and Mary Savage of PEER. A Vala "VP&- PROJECT OF EXCELLENCE . INNOVATIVE HARD CHROME PLATING...test site, largely because of the contacts developed -" during previous work done at the NARF by NCEL. Contacts: Nick J. Olah, Project Engineer Charles J...COORDINATING PR OGRAM ASSISTANCE AT NAVAIR AND NAVSEA ACTIVITIES. POC AT NCEL IS MR. NICK OLAH, AV 360-4116 OR COMMERCIAL (805) 982-4116. 5. REQUEST ADVISE

  4. Food Waste Auditing at Three Florida Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C. Wilkie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available School cafeterias are a significant source of food waste and represent an ideal opportunity for diverting food waste from landfills. In this study, cafeteria waste audits were conducted at three Florida schools. Food waste comprised the largest fraction of school cafeteria waste streams, ranging from 47% to 58%, followed by milk, paper products (tissue, milk cartons, pasteboard, paper plates, and cardboard, and plastics (plastic wrap, packaging, and utensils. Metal and glass comprised the smallest fraction of the waste stream. Average total waste generation ranged from 50.5 to 137.6 g·student−1·day−1. The mean generation rates for food waste ranged from 24.7 to 64.9 g·student−1·day−1. The overall average for cafeteria waste generation among all three schools was 102.3 g·student−1·day−1, with food waste alone contributing 52.2 g·student−1·day−1. There are two primary approaches to diverting school food waste from landfills: reduction and recycling. Food waste can be reduced through educating students and staff in order to change behaviors that cause food waste. Food waste can be collected and recycled through composting or anaerobic digestion in order to generate beneficial end products, including soil amendments and bioenergy. Over 75% of the cafeteria waste measured in this study could be recycled in this manner.

  5. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  6. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  7. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  8. pilot-plant for energy recovery from tropical waste food materials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1981-03-01

    Mar 1, 1981 ... of the generated biogas. The animal and food wastes used in this work are cow blood, cow rumen, boiled beans, garri and plantains. Five different set ups were used for these. Each waste material was first weighed and those in liquid form such as cow blood were then fed into the digester. Those in large ...

  9. Strategies for the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    Different process strategies for anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) are reviewed weighing high-solids versus low-solids, mesophilic versus thermophilic and single-stage versus multi-stage processes. The influence of different waste characteristics...

  10. An urban lysimeter to assess runoff losses on asphalt concrete plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramier, D.; Berthier, E.; Andrieu, H.

    Hydrological behaviour of roads concerns environmental issues, as pollution by rainwater runoff or urban heat island, and road safety issues. The few studies devoted to the subject concluded that runoff losses are non-negligible and poorly understood. The objective of the study is to better describe runoff losses over asphalt concrete plates of around 0.5 m 2 area. An urban lysimeter has been developed to measure by weighing the partition of rainfall on the plate: storage at the surface and in the pore of the plate, surface runoff, infiltration at the bottom of the plate and evaporation at the surface of the plate. Three plates have been tested outdoor during 5 months each. One of them is a porous asphalt concrete. Results show that runoff losses are significant. They represent 30% of the rain for the traditional plates and 84% of the rain for the porous plate. Losses are mainly due to infiltration (58%) and evaporation (25%) for the porous plate. For traditional plates, evaporation is similar to the one measured for the porous (25% of the rainfall), but infiltration at the bottom is negligible (3%).

  11. Determining the Performance of an Arid Zone Radioactive Waste Site Through Site Characterization, Modeling, and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. L. Dozier; D. G. Levitt; M. J. Sully; and C. F. Lohrstorfer

    1999-03-09

    A strategy of site characterization, modeling, and monitoring are used to evaluate the performance of an interim cover at a low-level radioactive waste management site. The soil water migration papthway must be evaluated to assure the long-term isolation of low-level radioactive waste. Water balance studies using precision weighing lysimeters have been conducted for five years near the radioactive waste site ath the Nevada Test Site. The numerical flow models UNSAT-H and HYDRUS-2D were tested using the weighing lysimeter data and then used to evaluate various cover design issues including cover thickness, presence of vegetation, and monitoring system design.

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths Common Terms Research Resources ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy- ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ... on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. Fill the ...

  17. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. Fill the largest ... home, the office, or somewhere in between, you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Pacific Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion ... dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For cooking, use ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ...

  2. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with ...

  4. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ... Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access to Research Research Resources Practice Resources Ways ...

  5. Montana Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) and Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Strategy Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this project was to review the Montana Department of Transportations (MDTs) permanent Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) and Automated Traffic Recorder (ATR) data collection programs to ensure they are efficiently providing the best possibl...

  6. Wind-powered electrical systems : highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This project considered the use of wind for providing electrical power at Illinois Department of Transportation : (IDOT) highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings. The goal of the project was to determine : the extent to which wi...

  7. Self-weighing behaviors in young adults: tipping the scale toward unhealthy eating behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia; Larson, Nicole; Eisenberg, Marla E; Hannan, Peter J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-11-01

    This study examined associations between frequency of self-weighing and healthy weight-control behaviors (WCBs), unhealthy WCBs, muscle-enhancing behaviors (e.g., steroid use, protein powders), and psychological well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depression, body satisfaction) in a community sample of young adults. Data were drawn from Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults), the third wave of a population-based study. Participants included young adults (n = 2,287, mean age = 25.3 years) from the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area. Self-weighing a few times per week or more frequently was reported by 18% of young adult women and 12% of young adult men. Linear regression models, adjusted for body mass index and demographic characteristics, indicated that in both women and men, more frequent self-weighing was associated with a higher prevalence of dieting, both healthy and unhealthy WCBs, and muscle-enhancing behaviors. Additionally, young women who reported more frequent self-weighing were more likely to report binge eating. More frequent self-weighing was also associated with more depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem in women and lower body satisfaction in young men. More frequent self-weighing is associated with healthy and unhealthy weight-control practices, muscle-enhancing behaviors, and poorer psychological well-being in young adults. Young adults engaging in self-weighing behaviors should be screened for these health indicators and counseled as appropriate. Before recommending self-weighing as a weight-monitoring tool, health care providers should ensure that young adults are not at risk for an unhealthy preoccupation with body weight or shape. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Design of a Capacitive Flexible Weighing Sensor for Vehicle WIM System

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Lu; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Qing

    2007-01-01

    With the development of the Highway Transportation and Business Trade, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology has become a key technology and trend of measuring traffic loads. In this paper, a novel capacitive flexible weighing sensor which is light weight, smaller volume and easy to carry was applied in the vehicle WIM system. The dynamic behavior of the sensor is modeled using the Maxwell-Kelvin model because the materials of the sensor are rubbers which belong to viscoelasticity. A signa...

  9. Occurrence and recalcitrance of polyethylene bag waste in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts to biodegrade polyethylene bag wastes (pure water sachets) weighing 25.2 g each were made by burying them in the soil and subjecting them to acid treatment (0.5 M HNO3) and alkaline treatment (0.5 M NaOH) over a 24 week study period. The experimental polyethylene bags (ED1) were inoculated with a strain ...

  10. Food waste reduction at Restaurant De Pleats: Small steps for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every year, large quantities of food are thrown away in the catering industry. Restaurant De Pleats therefore started a pilot study for twelve days to weigh all discarded carrots, chips and bread in order to determine food waste within the company. The management decided to measure three product groups since measuring ...

  11. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  12. Countdown to Cairo: U.S. consumption weighs in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Population pressures in the industrialized world affect long-term sustainability. The United States' population comprises only 5% of the world's total, yet it consumes 25% of the world's commercial energy, 27% of the world's aluminum, and over 20% of its tin, copper, and lead. Americans produce twice as much waste per person as most Europeans, and many times more than people in the developing world. Sustainable development is a central theme of the delegates to the UN's Cairo conference on population and development, and efforts to mitigate excessive resource use will undoubtedly be a topic. Delegates are searching for programs to help eradicate poverty; empower and advance women in education, employment, and health; and stabilize population growth. The adoption of policies to alter unsustainable and environmentally damaging patterns of consumption will be equally important. In April, 1994, President Clinton's Council on Sustainable Development set up a special task force to explore US population and consumption issues. US population pressures are becoming ever more visible: increasing traffic congestion, mounting garbage, air pollution, and severe water shortages. The US population, currently at 260 million, is the third highest in the world. The nation adds about 3 million to its population every year. The Census Bureau projects that by the year 2000, the population will reach 275 million. The national total fertility rate has risen to 2.1. In the industrialized world, only Iceland and Ireland, both at 2.2, are higher. The average American's energy use is equivalent to the consumption of 3 Japanese, 6 Mexicans, 12 Chinese, 33 Indians, 147 Bangladeshis, 281 Tanzanians, or 422 Ethiopians. It is uncertain whether metropolitan areas can meet the housing, health, education, and employment needs of millions more Americans. Policies in industrialized nations that reduce pollution and excessive resource use and slow population growth are needed to ensure a quality future

  13. Estimating waste transfer station delays using GPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bruce Gordon; Vincent, Julie K

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of on-board global positioning system (GPS) data recorders as a method to collect field data on the movements of solid waste collection vehicles at transfer stations. The movements of five waste collection vehicles using four different transfer facilities were compared over a period of 1 year. The spatial data were analyzed using geofences to determine the amount of time each truck spent on each of four activities: queuing for access to the weigh scale, sitting on the weigh scale, queuing for access to the tipping floor, and unloading waste. The study found that queuing delays can be identified and measured using GPS data. The average time at a facility for all trucks was 16.4 min per visit, with a standard deviation of 14.3 min. Time at the facility ranged between 2 and 111 min per visit and the distribution of time at the facility was positively skewed. Multi-compartment vehicles (co-collection and recycling trucks) spent significantly more time at unloading facilities. There were also significant differences in the length and the location of the queues at different facilities. At one facility, the longest delays were encountered while waiting for the weigh scale, at two facilities trucks experienced delays in obtaining access to the tipping floor, while at the fourth facility no significant delays developed.

  14. Histology of Epiphyseal Plate of Adolescent Rat Stimulated by Laserpuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Selfi; Ramelan, Ari H.; Purwanto, Bambang; Saputra, Koosnadi; Tamtomo, Didik G.

    2017-11-01

    Epiphyseal plate was used for determining longitudinal bone growth. Laserpuncture was believed to stimulate height growth. We used 40 male Wistar rats which aged three weeks old and weighed more than 40 g as subjects. They randomly divided into group A or B and each group evenly divided into four subgroups which were a negative control and others applied with laser on GV20, ST 36 or combination of GV 20+ST 36 respectively. These acupoints were then stimulated using the laser. After treatment, mice were sacrificed, then tibias were taken for histology preparation processes. By light microscope, epiphyseal plate (EP) height (µm) and chondrocytes hypertrophy (CH) height were measured at six equidistant points, and the values were averaged to obtain a final result for each section. Collected data were analyzed using ANOVA test, and the significant value was set up pANOVA showed that there did not differ significantly (p=0.36).

  15. Sarcopenia among patients receiving hemodialysis: weighing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittiskulnam, Piyawan; Carrero, Juan J; Chertow, Glenn M; Kaysen, George A; Delgado, Cynthia; Johansen, Kirsten L

    2017-02-01

    largest according to muscle/BMI (-6.84 kg, 95% CI -8.66 to -5.02, P hemodialysis. Valid detection of sarcopenia among obese patients receiving hemodialysis requires adjustment for body size. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  16. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  17. The weight of plate in early modern inventories and secularization lists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Stielau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Weight was an essential descriptive category for precious metalwork in early modern Europe because it estimated the monetary value that could be extracted in raw material from the formed object. Rather than mere financial information, recorded weights acknowledged precious metal’s transformational potential, which structured the ‘period eye’ for plate. This essay considers recorded weights of plate in inventories from German speaking-lands, in particular secularization lists that documented church treasures about to be liquidated. To better contextualize and interpret them, this essay establishes the metrological framework that underpinned the weighing of gold and silver, as well as the methodological challenges involved in recovering historical measurements. It also explores some applications for weighing and the analysis of recorded weights in art historical methodology, ultimately arguing for a more consistent use of weight by scholars and curators in the study of metalwork.

  18. Automating mouse weighing in group homecages with Raspberry Pi micro-computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorshams, Omid; Boyd, Jamie D; Murphy, Timothy H

    2017-06-15

    Operant training systems make use of water or food restriction and make it necessary to weigh animals to ensure compliance with experimental endpoints. In other applications periodic weighing is necessary to assess drug side-effects, or as an endpoint in feeding experiments. Periodic weighing while essential can disrupt animal circadian rhythms and social structure. Automatic weighing system within paired mouse homecages. Up to 10 mice freely move between two cages (28×18×9cm) which were connected by a weighing chamber mounted on a load cell. Each mouse was identified using an RFID tag placed under the skin of the neck. A single-board computer (Raspberry Pi; RPi) controls the task, logging RFID tag, load cell weights, and time stamps from each RFID detection until the animal leaves the chamber. Collected data were statistically analyzed to estimate mouse weights. We anticipate integration with tasks where automated imaging or behaviour is assessed in homecages. Mice frequently move between the two cages, an average of 42+-16 times/day/mouse at which time we obtained weights. We report accurate determination of mouse weight and long term monitoring over 53days. Comparison with existing methods Although commercial systems are available for automatically weighing rodents, they only work with single animals, or are not open source nor cost effective for specific custom application. This automated system permits automated weighing of mice ∼40 times per day. The system employs inexpensive hardware and open-source Python code. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A REVIEW OF ACID COPPER PLATING BATH LIFE EXTENSION AND COPPER RECOVERY FROM ACID COPPER BATHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large quantities of hazardous waste, most in aqueous solution or sludges, are being produced at numerous metal plating and processing facilities in the U.S. Regulatory pressures, future liability, and limited landfill space have driven the cost of metal waste disposal to level...

  20. An urban lysimeter to assess runoff losses on asphalt concrete plates

    OpenAIRE

    Ramier, D.; E. Berthier; H. Andrieu

    2004-01-01

    Hydrological behaviour of roads concerns environmental issues, as pollution by rainwater runoff or urban heat island, and road safety issues. The few studies devoted to the subject concluded that runoff losses are non-negligible and poorly understood. The objective of the study is to better describe runoff losses over asphalt concrete plates of around 0.5 m2 area. An urban lysimeter has been developed to measure by weighing the partition of rainfall on the plate: storage at the surface and in...

  1. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  2. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods ... your year-end donation today and help fight diabetes. Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help. ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to Give Become a ... glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... Donations Travel bookings completed through Hotels.com give 5% back to the Association. » « Connect With Us Register ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy ... Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  11. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid ... We Can Help - we-can-help.html Chat Online Chat Closed engagement en -- Free Type 2 Education ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  13. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Arazim, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  14. Automotive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigard, Selma E; Shariaty, Pooya; Niknaddaf, Saeid; Lashaki, Masoud Jahandar; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature from 2014 related to automotive wastes is presented. Topics include solid wastes from autobodies and tires as well as vehicle emissions to soil and air as a result of the use of conventional and alternative fuels. Potential toxicological and health risks related to automotive wastes are also discussed.

  15. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. The frequency of weigh-ins, weight intentionality and management, and eating among female collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Bailey P; Petrie, Trent A; Anderson, Carlin M

    2016-12-01

    Female athletes often experience sport-environment pressures about weight, eating, and body composition from within the sport environment. One pressure that may be particularly debilitating is being weighed as a requirement of sport participation. Using 414 female collegiate athletes from weight-sensitive sports, we examined the frequency of weigh-ins, weight intentionality, weight-management practices, and eating and nutritional behaviors. Of the 41% of athletes who were weighed, most were done by athletic trainers in private (82%) and prepared by using at least one weight management strategy (75%). In the entire sample, 22.8% ate athletes, and when mandated was done in a relatively healthy manner, sizable numbers of the athletes wanted to lose weight, ate less than needed for their sport, and received guidance on how to eat healthfully from unqualified sources. Additional research is needed with other sports to establish baseline data for these behaviors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Design of a Capacitive Flexible Weighing Sensor for Vehicle WIM System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Qing

    2007-01-01

    With the development of the Highway Transportation and Business Trade, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology has become a key technology and trend of measuring traffic loads. In this paper, a novel capacitive flexible weighing sensor which is light weight, smaller volume and easy to carry was applied in the vehicle WIM system. The dynamic behavior of the sensor is modeled using the Maxwell-Kelvin model because the materials of the sensor are rubbers which belong to viscoelasticity. A signal processing method based on the model is presented to overcome effects of rubber mechanical properties on the dynamic weight signal. The results showed that the measurement error is less than ±10%. All the theoretic analysis and numerical results demonstrated that appliance of this system to weigh in motion is feasible and convenient for traffic inspection.

  18. Design of a Capacitive Flexible Weighing Sensor for Vehicle WIM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the Highway Transportation and Business Trade, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM technology has become a key technology and trend of measuring traffic loads. In this paper, a novel capacitive flexible weighing sensor which is light weight, smaller volume and easy to carry was applied in the vehicle WIM system. The dynamic behavior of the sensor is modeled using the Maxwell-Kelvin model because the materials of the sensor are rubbers which belong to viscoelasticity. A signal processing method based on the model is presented to overcome effects of rubber mechanical properties on the dynamic weight signal. The results showed that the measurement error is less than ���±10%. All the theoretic analysis and numerical results demonstrated that appliance of this system to weigh in motion is feasible and convenient for traffic inspection.

  19. Potential Utilization of Automatic Cows Weighing for Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Condition of Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Podlahová

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Weight of cows affects a large number of factors. Regular weighing and data processing can detect differences that may indicate disorders requiring nursing interventions, e.g. nutritional deficiencies, incorrect fetal development and health problems. The current weighing systems operate as stationary - the animal is fixed, identified and weighed. However, the procedure is time consuming and operation, and that is way this system is used minimally. That implies the need of complete automation of all activities associated with the weighing, which enables introduction of pass – through weight. The aim of this thesis was to develop a methodology for evaluating health and nutritional status of the herd based on data from an automated system for weighing a live weight of dairy cows. There was used in the weighing unit for milking robots Astronaut A3 (Lely company to obtain weight data of individual cows. There were selected dairy cows with the longest period of lactation or already drying off, and especially dairy cows with various health problems for study. Limiting values of weight changes were established after assembling a general equation of mass curve. In the sphere of the diseases there was manifested only ketosis in the weight curve with a loss of 10.2 kg / day (38% weight loss. Additionally, the completion of growth during the first 2 periodes of lactations and weight gain due to advanced pregnancy were confirmed. The maximum daily weight difference recorded in healthy animals was 7 %, equivalent to 40 - 45 kg. The results of the study will be applied for compiling algorithm that will be implemented in the complete management system of cattle breeding, monitoring the dairy cows every day and highlight possible deviations exceeding of physiological changes in weight.

  20. Agricultural Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  1. A study on reusing of electroless Ni-Cu-P waste solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Lee-Sik [Pukyong National University, Pusan(Korea)

    2001-04-30

    Reusing of electroless Ni-Cu-P waste solution was investigated in the plating time, plating rate, solution composition and deposit. Plating time of nickel-catalytic surface took longer than that of zincated-catalytic surface. Initial solution with 50% waste solution additive at batch type was possible to reusing of waste solution. Plating time of initial solution at continuous type took longer 10 times over than that of batch type. Plating time of 50% waste solution additive at continuous type took longer 3.7 times over than that of batch type. Component change of nickel-copper for electroless deposition was greatly affected by deposited inferiority and larger decreased plating rate. (author). 11 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  2. Inelastic buckling of plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, G.

    This paper concerns the inelastic stability of a thin plate under in-plane loading. In Love-Kirchhoffs approximation, using Hencky's relations and the Von Mises criterion, yield the particular stress distribution across the plate thickness for elastic and elastic-plastic prestress fields. The principle of virtual work is used to study the equilibrium of the bifurcated solution. This leads to the energy relations where explicit dependence between the stability equation coefficients and the solution is carried out. In the equilibrium equation, two nonquadratic additional terms are obtained which are neglected in the classical equation. Some applications are made using Ramberg-Osgood's formula to show the importance of the additional terms.

  3. 7 CFR 800.75 - Kinds of official inspection and weighing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or with one or more other services. Approval of the stowage space is required for official sample-lot... the stowage space is required for any weighing services performed on all outbound land carriers. (g... reverification service. This service consists of official personnel (1) comparing the weight of elevator test...

  4. Weighing the Issues and Consequences of Federal Program Termination: Administration on Aging Support for Career Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Bruce M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes policy decisions that have acted upon the 1982 Fiscal Year budget and funding priorities of the Administration on Aging's Gerontology Career Preparation Program, and projects the probable consequences of the policy option now being weighed to eliminate all future funding. (University of Texas Press, Box 7819, Austin, TX 78712). (NJ)

  5. 78 FR 2627 - Fees for Official Inspection and Official Weighing Services Under the United States Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... an Onsite FGIS Laboratory Proposed fees Proposed fees Proposed fees Proposed fees Proposed fees... Applicant's Facility in an FGIS Laboratory Original Inspection and Weighing (Class X Services) Stationary... $11.70 Sunflower oil (per test).... $10.00 $10.50 $10.80 $11.10 $11.40 $11.70 Waxy corn (per test...

  6. Greenhouse gas credits trade versus biomass trade – weighing (Workshop Summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Robertson, K.; Woes-Gallasch, S.; Schlamadinger, B.

    2006-01-01

    A workshop entitled ‘Greenhouse gas credits trade versus biomass trade – weighing the benefits’, jointly organised by IEA Bioenergy Tasks 38 (GHG Balances of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems) and 40 (Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand), and ENOVA, took place in

  7. 76 FR 318 - Designation of Minot Grain Inspection, Inc. To Provide Official Class X Weighing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation of Minot Grain Inspection, Inc. To Provide Official Class X Weighing Services AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration...: 7 U.S.C. 71-87k. J. Dudley Butler, Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  8. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.82 Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer and live...

  9. 78 FR 51138 - Designation of Muncie (IN) To Provide Class X or Class Y Weighing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation of Muncie (IN) To Provide Class X or Class Y Weighing Services AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION..., Acting Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. BILLING CODE 3410-KD-P ...

  10. Chronic hemodialysis in children weighing less than 10 kg.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) in infants is usually used when peritoneal dialysis (PD) has failed. We describe our experience with HD, outlining the morbidity, complications, and outcomes for infants weighing less than 10 kg managed with HD for more than 6 months over a 10-year period.

  11. Hybrid bayesian networks for traffic load models from weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Nápoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge engineering, in infrastructure monitoring and assessment and inspection and reinforcement strategies. In the Netherlands and some other countries, the video-WIM system was implemented for pre-selection, and

  12. 40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Successive mass determinations of each reference PM sample media (e.g., filter) must return the same value... individual test media (e.g., filter) mass readings occurring between the successive reference media (e.g., filter) mass determinations. You may reweigh these media (e.g., filter) in another weighing session. If...

  13. A Dual-Range Strain Gage Weighing Transducer Employing Automatic Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger A. Arola

    1968-01-01

    Describes a dual-range strain gage transducer which has proven to be an excellent weight-sensing device for weighing trees and tree-length logs; discusses basic principals of the design and operation; and shows that a single transducer having two sensitivity ranges with automatic internal switching can sense weight with good repeatability and that one calibration curve...

  14. A Practical Probabilistic Graphical Modeling Tool for Weighing Ecological Risk-Based Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past weight-of-evidence frameworks for adverse ecological effects have provided soft-scoring procedures for judgments based on the quality and measured attributes of evidence. Here, we provide a flexible probabilistic structure for weighing and integrating lines of evidence for e...

  15. Statistical analysis of heavy truck loads using Wisconsin weigh-in-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This study involved statistical evaluation of heavy truck loads that were recorded in 2007 using Weigh-In-Motion : stations located throughout the State of Wisconsin. The heaviest 5% of all trucks in each class and axle groupings were : selected for ...

  16. Isoleucine requirement of pigs weighing 8 to 18 kg fed blood cell–free diets1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Shresta, Aruna; Krogh, Uffe

    2013-01-01

    . The other indispensable AA were supplied according to requirements. Representative samples from the 5 diets were analyzed in 4 replicates at 3 different laboratories. The pigs were fed ad libitum and individually housed in 7 identical rooms during a 21-d period. At d 0, 7, 14, and 21, the pigs were weighed...

  17. Weighing frequency among working adults: Cross-sectional analysis of two community samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara L. Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: While self-weighing outcomes and associations with obesity prevention and weight loss are still under investigation, these results may help in improving obesity intervention planning and informing worksite weight management programs by identifying how often working adults naturally engage in this behavior prior to weight loss interventions.

  18. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  19. Weighing Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, William J.; Jimerson, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    The Umbridge School District's hot lunch program was hemorrhaging red ink. Each year, the school district poured more money down the sinkhole. At the same time, parents complained about the quality of the school lunches. The food services director always had excuses and nothing really changed. When no headway was evident, the superintendent said…

  20. Weighing Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    This article talks about the Academy of the Sierras, a new private school which is billed as the US' first weight-loss school for obese teenagers. Students must be at least 30 pounds overweight for two years to attend this yearlong boarding school, which offers mandatory exercise, behavioral therapy, college-prep classes, and a healthy food…

  1. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  2. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  3. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  4. 49 CFR 375.515 - May an individual shipper waive his/her right to observe each weighing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May an individual shipper waive his/her right to observe each weighing? 375.515 Section 375.515 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... waive his/her right to observe each weighing? (a) If an individual shipper elects not to observe a...

  5. Design and validation of a low cost, high-capacity weighing device for wheelchair users and bariatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Brandon A; Dew, Dustin A; Rogers, Rebecca; Rimmer, James H; Eberhardt, Alan W

    2017-01-01

    Accessible high-capacity weighing scales are scarce in healthcare facilities, in part due to high device cost and weight. This shortage impairs weight monitoring and health maintenance for people with disabilities and/or morbid obesity. We conducted this study to design and validate a lighter, lower cost, high-capacity accessible weighing device. A prototype featuring 360 kg (800 lbs) of weight capacity, a wheelchair-accessible ramp, and wireless data transmission was fabricated. Forty-five participants (20 standing, 20 manual wheelchair users, and five power wheelchair users) were weighed using the prototype and a calibrated scale. Participants were surveyed to assess perception of each weighing device and the weighing procedure. Weight measurements between devices demonstrated a strong linear correlation (R(2) = 0.997) with absolute differences of 1.4 ± 2.0% (mean±SD). Participant preference ratings showed no difference between devices. The prototype weighed 11 kg (38%) less than the next lightest high-capacity commercial device found by author survey. The prototype's estimated commercial price range, $500-$600, is approximately half the price of the least expensive commercial device found by author survey. Such low cost weighing devices may improve access to weighing instrumentation, which may in turn help eliminate current health disparities. Future work is needed to determine the feasibility of market transition.

  6. Plate tectonics and sedimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yasuji

    1988-05-20

    The theory of continental drift which German meteorologist, Wegener had proposed was denied by the experts at that time and disappeared from the academy. However, scholars of UK measured palaeomagnetism at several parts of the world in 1950's and from this standpoint, the continental drift theory revived. Furthermore, the conditions of the ocean beds started to be discovered due to the development of oceanographic observations in 1950's and in the end of 1960's, the principle of plate tectonics was firmly established changing totally and dramatically then conventional solid earth science based upon the substantially immovable continents and ocean floors. Consequently, the geology up to that time was obliged to be reexamined in its entire fields. This article provides the general information on the above history up to the present time, states about where the sedimentary basins which formed strata do occupy its positions on the earth, and explains the concrete relationship between the geological facts which have been revealed and plate tectonics. (16 figs, 49 refs)

  7. On-demand weighing of single dry biological particles over a 5-order-of-magnitude dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Bin-Da; Icoz, Kutay; Huang, Wanfeng; Chang, Chun-Li; Savran, Cagri A

    2014-11-07

    We report a simple and highly versatile system to select and weigh individual dry biological particles. The system is composed of a microtweezer to pick and place individual particles and a cantilever-based resonator to weigh them. The system can weigh entities that vary from a red blood cell (~10(-11) g) to the eye-brain complex of an insect (~10(-6) g), covering a 5-order-of-magnitude mass range. Due to its versatility and ease of use, this weighing method is highly compatible with established laboratory practices. The system can provide complementary mass information for a wide variety of individual particles imaged using scanning electron microscopy and determine comparative weights of individual biological entities that are attached to microparticles as well as weigh fractions of individual biological entities that have been subjected to focused ion beam milling.

  8. Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Various Industrial Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Şahin Dündar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Important part of the environmetal pollution consists of waste water and water pollution. The water polluted by anthropogenical, industrial, and agricultural originated sources are defined as waste waters which are the main pollution sources for reservoirs, rivers, lakes, and seas. In this work, waste waters of leather, textile, automotive side, and metal plating industries were used to determine the levels of Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Ni by using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. As a result, highest mean levels of copper in supernatants of plating and textile industries were observed as 377,18 ng ml-1, respectively 103 ng ml-1 lead and 963,6 ng ml-1 nickel in plating industry, 1068,2 ng ml-1 zinc and 14557,1 ng ml-1 chromium in plating and leather industries were determined.

  9. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  10. Flexible plate and foundation modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Hosking, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    In the most common mathematical model for a moving load on a continuously- supported flexible plate, the plate is assumed thin and elastic. An exception is the inclusion of viscoelasticity in the theory for the response of a floating ice plate, where the deflexion at the critical load speed corresponding to the minimum phase speed of hybrid flexural-gravity waves consequently approaches a steady state. This is in contrast to the elastic theory, where the response is predi...

  11. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...... of nail row, edge distance, fixed nail-plate, bending direction, unloading, and grain direction, plate and load direction on the load-displacement curves are analysed. Mean load-displacement curves from all the tests are given....

  12. A Weighing Algorithm for Checking Missing Components in a Pharmaceutical Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silvestri

    2014-11-01

    image. The goal of the present work is the development of an algorithm able to optimize the production line of a pharmaceutical firm. In particular, the proposed weighing procedure allows both checking missing components in packaging and minimizing false rejects of packages by dynamic scales. The main problem is the presence at the same time, in the same package, of different components with different variable weights. The consequence is uncertainty in recognizing the absence of one or more components.

  13. Intermittent plate tectonics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Paul G; Behn, Mark D

    2008-01-04

    Although it is commonly assumed that subduction has operated continuously on Earth without interruption, subduction zones are routinely terminated by ocean closure and supercontinent assembly. Under certain circumstances, this could lead to a dramatic loss of subduction, globally. Closure of a Pacific-type basin, for example, would eliminate most subduction, unless this loss were compensated for by comparable subduction initiation elsewhere. Given the evidence for Pacific-type closure in Earth's past, the absence of a direct mechanism for termination/initiation compensation, and recent data supporting a minimum in subduction flux in the Mesoproterozoic, we hypothesize that dramatic reductions or temporary cessations of subduction have occurred in Earth's history. Such deviations in the continuity of plate tectonics have important consequences for Earth's thermal and continental evolution.

  14. VISAS AND GREEN PLATES

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    From 3 April 2000, all questions relating to visa requests for Switzerland, France, or Russia for a member of the personnel must be addressed to Ms. Agnita Querrou (telephone 72838, office 5-2-019, e-mail Agnita.Querrou@cern.ch).The Users' Office continues to deal with requests for letters of invitation and questions concerning visas for users in EP Division.Questions relating to removals, requests for green plates, to privileges of members of the personnel and to the importation of vehicles are still dealt with by Ms Zuzana Miller (telephone 79257, office 33-1-017, e-mail Zuzana.Muller@cern.ch) and Ms Joëlle Belleman (telephone 73962, office 33-1-019, e-mail Joelle.Belleman@cern.ch).

  15. A novel cell weighing method based on the minimum immobilization pressure for biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qili [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Shirinzadeh, Bijan [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Cui, Maosheng [Biotechnology Lab of Animal Reproduction, Tianjin Animal Sciences, Tianjin 300112 (China); Sun, Mingzhu; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Xin, E-mail: zhaoxin@nankai.edu.cn [Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-07-28

    A novel weighing method for cells with spherical and other regular shapes is proposed in this paper. In this method, the relationship between the cell mass and the minimum aspiration pressure to immobilize the cell (referred to as minimum immobilization pressure) is derived for the first time according to static theory. Based on this relationship, a robotic cell weighing process is established using a traditional micro-injection system. Experimental results on porcine oocytes demonstrate that the proposed method is able to weigh cells at an average speed of 16.3 s/cell and with a success rate of more than 90%. The derived cell mass and density are in accordance with those reported in other published results. The experimental results also demonstrated that this method is able to detect less than 1% variation of the porcine oocyte mass quantitatively. It can be conducted by a pair of traditional micropipettes and a commercial pneumatic micro-injection system, and is expected to perform robotic operation on batch cells. At present, the minimum resolution of the proposed method for measuring the cell mass can be 1.25 × 10{sup −15 }kg. Above advantages make it very appropriate for quantifying the amount of the materials injected into or moved out of the cells in the biological applications, such as nuclear enucleations and embryo microinjections.

  16. Weighing in motion and characterization of the railroad traffic with using the B-WIM technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. DE CARVALHO NETO

    Full Text Available AbstractThe knowledge on the active moving load of a bridge is crucial for the achievement of the information on the behavior of the structure, and thus foresee maintenance, repairs and better definition of the logistics of its active vehicles. This paper presents the development of the algorithms for the application of the Bridge-Weigh In Motion (B-WIM method created by Moses for the weighing of trains during motion and also for the characterization of the rail traffic, allowing the obtainment of information like passage's train velocity and number and spacing of axles, eliminating the dynamic effect. There were implemented algorithms for the determination of the data referring to the geometry of the train and its loads, which were evaluated using a theoretical example, in which it was simulated the passage of the train over a bridge and the loads of its axles were determined with one hundred percent of precision. In addition, it was made a numerical example in finite elements of a reinforced concrete viaduct from the Carajás' Railroad, in which the developed system reached great results on the characterization and weighing of the locomotive when the constitutive equation of the Brazilian Standards was substituted by the one proposed by Collins and Mitchell.

  17. Weighing Efficiency-Robustness in Supply Chain Disruption by Multi-Objective Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates various supply chain disruptions in terms of scenario planning, including node disruption and chain disruption; namely, disruptions in distribution centers and disruptions between manufacturing centers and distribution centers. Meanwhile, it also focuses on the simultaneous disruption on one node or a number of nodes, simultaneous disruption in one chain or a number of chains and the corresponding mathematical models and exemplification in relation to numerous manufacturing centers and diverse products. Robustness of the design of the supply chain network is examined by weighing efficiency against robustness during supply chain disruptions. Efficiency is represented by operating cost; robustness is indicated by the expected disruption cost and the weighing issue is calculated by the multi-objective firefly algorithm for consistency in the results. It has been shown that the total cost achieved by the optimal target function is lower than that at the most effective time of supply chains. In other words, the decrease of expected disruption cost by improving robustness in supply chains is greater than the increase of operating cost by reducing efficiency, thus leading to cost advantage. Consequently, by approximating the Pareto Front Chart of weighing between efficiency and robustness, enterprises can choose appropriate efficiency and robustness for their longer-term development.

  18. Construction and calibration of weighing lysimeters with an automated drainage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur C. Sanches

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Quantification of the drained volume is one of the difficulties involved in using weighing lysimeters. Typically, this volume is measured by accessing a moat at the base of a lysimeter. However, it is not feasible to install the moat in small devices. Thus, the aim of this study involves developing, installing, calibrating, and checking the efficiency of small weighing lysimeters with automated drainage systems to test their functionality in field conditions. Each lysimeter is composed of a round PVC water tank with a diameter of 1.22 m and a depth of 0.58 m that is placed over a metal frame with three electronic load cells with the nominal capacity of each cell corresponding to 500 kg. The drainage system is composed of a small reservoir with a volume of 10 L, a weighing structure composed of a load cell with a nominal capacity of 30 kg, and an automatic solenoid valve driven by a device coupled to a data logger that records the data from the lysimeter and from the drainage system. Two calibrations are performed for the lysimeter as well as the drainage system to obtain equations with significant correlations (R2 > 0.9999. The drainage system was activated several times during the tests after receiving approximately 63.4 L of water from rainfall, and this in turn indicated a good performance.

  19. Weighing Clinical Evidence Using Patient Preferences: An Application of Probabilistic Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Henk; IJzerman, Maarten J; Hauber, A Brett; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M

    2017-03-01

    The need for patient engagement has been recognized by regulatory agencies, but there is no consensus about how to operationalize this. One approach is the formal elicitation and use of patient preferences for weighing clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to demonstrate how patient preferences can be used to weigh clinical outcomes when both preferences and clinical outcomes are uncertain by applying a probabilistic value-based multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method. Probability distributions were used to model random variation and parameter uncertainty in preferences, and parameter uncertainty in clinical outcomes. The posterior value distributions and rank probabilities for each treatment were obtained using Monte-Carlo simulations. The probability of achieving the first rank is the probability that a treatment represents the highest value to patients. We illustrated our methodology for a simplified case on six HIV treatments. Preferences were modeled with normal distributions and clinical outcomes were modeled with beta distributions. The treatment value distributions showed the rank order of treatments according to patients and illustrate the remaining decision uncertainty. This study demonstrated how patient preference data can be used to weigh clinical evidence using MCDA. The model takes into account uncertainty in preferences and clinical outcomes. The model can support decision makers during the aggregation step of the MCDA process and provides a first step toward preference-based personalized medicine, yet requires further testing regarding its appropriate use in real-world settings.

  20. Accurate and portable weigh-in-motion system for manifesting air cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodine, R.N.; Scudiere, M.B.; Jordan, J.K.

    1995-12-01

    An automated and portable weigh-in-motion system has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the purpose of manifesting cargo onto aircraft. The system has an accuracv range of {plus_minus} 3.0% to {plus_minus} 6.0% measuring gross vehicle weight and locating the center of balance of moving vehicles at speeds of 1 to 5 mph. This paper reviews the control/user interface system and weight determination algorithm developed to acquire, process, and interpret multiple sensor inputs. The development effort resulted in a self-zeroing, user-friendly system capable of weighing a wide range of vehicles in any random order. The control system is based on the STANDARD (STD) bus and incorporates custom-designed data acquisition and sensor fusion hardware controlled by a personal computer (PC) based single-board computer. The user interface is written in the ``C`` language to display number of axles, axle weight, axle spacing, gross weight, and center of balance. The weighing algorithm developed will function with any linear weight sensor and a set of four axle switches per sensor.

  1. Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time

  2. Waste Plastic-Modified Bitumen: Rheological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abdel-Goad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitumen blends were prepared for road applications by the introduction of 9% of waste Polyethylene by weight (9 wt%. The relaxation stress, relaxation and retardation spectrum and viscosity of bitumen blends were studied at different temperatures and compared to those of the original pure bitumen. These properties were tested using an ARESRheometer (Rheometric Scientific, Co. equipment. The measurements were performed in the dynamic mode, plate-plate geometry of 8 mm diameter over the temperature range from -10 to 60°C and angular frequency (ω varied from 10-1 to 102 radian/s. The relaxation stress and viscosity were modified by the addition of waste PE. The results also indicate that the incorporation of the waste PE enhances stability of the bitumen blends.

  3. Modeling particulate removal in plate-plate and wire-plate electrostatic precipitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramechecandane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the modeling of electrically charged particles in a model plate-plate and a single wire-plate electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The particle concentration distributions for both a plate-plate and a wire-plate ESP are calculated using a modified drift flux model. Numerical investigations are performed using the modified drift flux model for particle number concentration, in addition to the RNG k - ε model for the mean turbulent flow field and the Poisson equation for the electric field. The proposed model and the outlined methodology for coupling the flow field, electric field, charging kinetics and particle concentration is applied to two model precipitators that are truly representative of a wide class of commercialized ESPs. The present investigation is quite different from the earlier studies as it does not make assumptions like a homogeneous electric field or an infinite turbulent diffusivity. The electric field calculated is a strong function of position and controls the migration velocity of particles. Hence, the proposed model can be implemented in a flow solver to obtain a full-fledged solution for any kind of ESP with no limitations on the particle number concentration, as encountered in a Lagrangian approach. The effect of turbulent diffusivity on particle number concentration in a plate-plate ESP is investigated in detail and the results obtained are compared with available experimental data. Similarly, the effect of particle size/diameter and applied electric potential on the accumulative collection performance in the case of a wire-plate ESP is studied and the results obtained are compared with available numerical data. The numerical results obtained using the modified drift flux model for both the plate-plate and wire-plate ESP are in close agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  4. Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Ricard, Yanick

    2014-04-24

    The initiation of plate tectonics on Earth is a critical event in our planet's history. The time lag between the first proto-subduction (about 4 billion years ago) and global tectonics (approximately 3 billion years ago) suggests that plates and plate boundaries became widespread over a period of 1 billion years. The reason for this time lag is unknown but fundamental to understanding the origin of plate tectonics. Here we suggest that when sufficient lithospheric damage (which promotes shear localization and long-lived weak zones) combines with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, it leads to the accumulation of weak plate boundaries and eventually to fully formed tectonic plates driven by subduction alone. We simulate this process using a grain evolution and damage mechanism with a composite rheology (which is compatible with field and laboratory observations of polycrystalline rocks), coupled to an idealized model of pressure-driven lithospheric flow in which a low-pressure zone is equivalent to the suction of convective downwellings. In the simplest case, for Earth-like conditions, a few successive rotations of the driving pressure field yield relic damaged weak zones that are inherited by the lithospheric flow to form a nearly perfect plate, with passive spreading and strike-slip margins that persist and localize further, even though flow is driven only by subduction. But for hotter surface conditions, such as those on Venus, accumulation and inheritance of damage is negligible; hence only subduction zones survive and plate tectonics does not spread, which corresponds to observations. After plates have developed, continued changes in driving forces, combined with inherited damage and weak zones, promote increased tectonic complexity, such as oblique subduction, strike-slip boundaries that are subparallel to plate motion, and spalling of minor plates.

  5. Biomedical waste in laboratory medicine: Audit and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitnis V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology, microbiology, blood bank and other diagnostic laboratories generate sizable amount of biomedical waste (BMW. The audit of the BMW is required for planning proper strategies. The audit in our laboratory revealed 8 kgs anatomical waste, 600 kgs microbiology waste, 220 kgs waste sharps, 15 kgs soiled waste, 111 kgs solid waste, 480 litres liquid waste along with 33000 litres per month liquid waste generated from labware washing and laboratory cleaning and 162 litres of chemical waste per month. Section wise details are described in the text. Needle sharps are collected in puncture proof containers and the needles autoclaved before sending to needle pit. The glass forms the major sharp category and is disinfected with hypochlorite before washing/recycling. All microbiology waste along with containers/plates/tubes are autoclaved before recycling/disposal. The problem of formalin fixed anatomical waste as histology specimens is pointed out. The formalin containing tissues cannot be sent for incineration for the fear of toxic gas release and the guidelines by the Biomedical waste rule makers need to be amended for the issue. The discarded/infected blood units in blood bank need to be autoclaved before disposal since chemical treatments are difficult or inefficient. The liquid waste management needs more attention and effluent treatment facility needs to be viewed seriously for hospital in general. The segregation of waste at source is the key step and reduction, reuse and recycling should be considered in proper perspectives.

  6. Waste Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset was developed from the Vermont DEC's list of certified solid waste facilities. It includes facility name, contact information, and the materials...

  7. Overeat today, skip the scale tomorrow: An examination of caloric intake predicting nonadherence to daily self-weighing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Molly L; Ross, Kathryn M; Wing, Rena R

    2016-11-01

    Daily self-weighing is an effective weight loss strategy. Little is known about "micro" factors influencing nonadherence to self-weighing (e.g., daily overeating). It was hypothesized that increased caloric intake on a given day would increase odds of not self-weighing the following day. Daily self-reports of weight and caloric intake were collected from 74 adults with overweight and obesity (mean BMI = 31.2 ± 4.5 kg/m2 , age = 50.6 ± 10 years, 69% female, 87% Caucasian) throughout a 12-week Internet-based weight management intervention. Multilevel logistic regression investigated odds of nonadherence to self-weighing on a given day based on the previous day's caloric intake. Self-monitoring adherence was high (weights: 87%; calories: 85%); adherence was associated with greater 12-week weight loss (weighing: r = -0.24, P = 0.04; calories: r = -0.26, P = 0.04). Increased caloric intake on a given day, relative to the individual's average intake, was associated with increased odds of nonadherence to self-weighing the next day (F(1,5106)  = 12.66, P = 0.0004, β = 0.001). For example, following a day of eating 300 calories more than usual, odds of not self-weighing increased by 1.33. Odds of nonadherence to self-weighing increased following a day with higher-than-usual caloric intake. Weight management interventions collecting daily self-monitoring data could provide support to participants who report increased caloric intake to prevent self-weighing nonadherence. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  8. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, I A

    2008-12-01

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.

  9. Flexural waves on narrow plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Andrew N

    2003-05-01

    Flexural wave speeds on beams or plates depend upon the bending stiffnesses which differ by the well-known factor (1 - nu2). A quantitative analysis of a plate of finite lateral width displays the plate-to-beam transition, and permits asymptotic analysis that shows the leading order dependence on the width. Orthotropic plates are analyzed using both the Kirchhoff and Kirchhoff-Rayleigh theories, and isotropic plates are considered for Mindlin's theory with and without rotational inertia. A frequency-dependent Young's modulus for beams or strips of finite width is suggested, although the form of the correction to the modulus is not unique and depends on the theory used. The sign of the correction for the Kirchhoff theory is opposite to that for the Mindlin theory. These results indicate that the different plate and beam theories can produce quite distinct behavior. This divergence in predictions is further illustrated by comparison of the speeds for antisymmetric flexural, or torsional, modes on narrow plates. The four classical theories predict limiting wave speeds as the plate width vanishes, but the values are different in each case. The deviations can be understood in terms of torsional waves and how each theory succeeds, or fails, in approximating the effect of torsion. Dispersion equations are also derived, some for the first time, for the flexural edge wave in each of the four "engineering" theories.

  10. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth / For Teens / MyPlate Food Guide What's ... and other sugary drinks. Avoid large portions . Five Food Groups Different food groups have different nutrients and ...

  11. Micro-channel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  12. Aseptic laboratory techniques: plating methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Erin R

    2012-05-11

    Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak-plating

  13. Mapping Of Construction Waste Illegal Dumping Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainun, Noor Yasmin; Rahman, Ismail Abdul; Azwana Rothman, Rosfazreen

    2016-11-01

    Illegal dumping of solid waste not only affecting the environment but also social life of communities, hence authorities should have an effective system to cater this problem. Malaysia is experiencing extensive physical developments and this has led to an increase of construction waste illegal dumping. However, due to the lack of proper data collection, the actual figure for construction waste illegal dumping in Malaysia are not available. This paper presents a mapping of construction waste illegal dumping in Kluang district, Johor using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Information of the dumped waste such as coordinate, photos, types of material and quantity of waste were gathered manually through site observation for three months period. For quantifying the dumped waste, two methods were used which are the first method is based on shape of the waste (pyramids or squares) while the second method is based weighing approach. All information regarding the waste was assigned to the GIS for the mapping process. Results indicated a total of 12 types of construction waste which are concrete, tiles, wood, gypsum board, mixed construction waste, brick and concrete, bricks, sand, iron, glass, pavement and tiles, and concrete at 64 points locations of illegal dumping on construction waste in Kluang. These wastes were accounted to an estimated volume of 427.2636 m3. Hopefully, this established map will assist Kluang authority to improve their solid waste management system in Kluang.

  14. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  15. Tribal Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.

  16. 78 FR 13014 - Designation of West Lafayette (IN) To Provide Class X or Class Y Weighing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation of West Lafayette (IN) To Provide Class X or Class Y Weighing Services AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration..., Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. BILLING CODE 3410-KD-P ...

  17. Centre of mass determination based on an optical weighing machine using fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui; Roriz, Paulo; Marques, Manuel B.; Frazão, Orlando

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present work was to construct a weighing machine based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) for the location of the 2D coordinates of the center of gravity (COG) of objects with complex geometry and density distribution. The apparatus consisted of a rigid equilateral triangular platform mounted on three supports at its vertices, two of them having cantilevers instrumented with FBGs. As an example, two femur bone models, one with and one without a hip stem prosthesis, are used to discuss the changing of the COM caused by the implementation of the prosthesis.

  18. Inference in Belief Network using Logic Sampling and Likelihood Weighing algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. JASMINE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the time in computational history, belief networks have become an increasingly popular mechanism for dealing with uncertainty in systems. It is known that identifying the probability values of belief network nodes given a set of evidence is not amenable in general. Many different simulation algorithms for approximating solution to this problem have been proposed and implemented. This paper details the implementation of such algorithms, in particular the two algorithms of the belief networks namely Logic sampling and the likelihood weighing are discussed. A detailed description of the algorithm is given with observed results. These algorithms play crucial roles in dynamic decision making in any situation of uncertainty.

  19. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  20. Imaging of growth plate injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanaguizawa, Matiko; Taberner, Gustavo Sobreira; Aihara, Andre Yui; Yamaguchi, Cleudia Kazue; Guimaraes, Maria Carolina; Rosenfeld, Andre [Diagnosticos da America, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: matikoyan@uol.com.br; Fernandes, Joao Luiz [Image Memorial, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa [ Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Imaging Diagnosis

    2008-05-15

    The structures responsible for the growth of bones include the physis (also called growth plate) and the epiphysis. Affections involving patients with immature skeletons, i.e., with a still open growth plate, may affect the bone growth, resulting in complications such as growth arrest, limb shortening and angular deformities. Traumatic conditions, many times resulting in epiphyseal fractures, are the most frequent cause of growth plate injuries. A careful evaluation of these patients by means of currently available imaging methods, especially radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, allows an early diagnosis of the involvement of structures related to the bone growth, besides an appropriate management, reducing the probability of secondary complications. (author)

  1. Construction and demolition waste generation rates for high-rise buildings in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Chooi Mei; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Ho, Chin Siong

    2016-12-01

    Construction and demolition waste continues to sharply increase in step with the economic growth of less developed countries. Though the construction industry is large, it is composed of small firms with individual waste management practices, often leading to the deleterious environmental outcomes. Quantifying construction and demolition waste generation allows policy makers and stakeholders to understand the true internal and external costs of construction, providing a necessary foundation for waste management planning that may overcome deleterious environmental outcomes and may be both economically and environmentally optimal. This study offers a theoretical method for estimating the construction and demolition project waste generation rate by utilising available data, including waste disposal truck size and number, and waste volume and composition. This method is proposed as a less burdensome and more broadly applicable alternative, in contrast to waste estimation by on-site hand sorting and weighing. The developed method is applied to 11 projects across Malaysia as the case study. This study quantifies waste generation rate and illustrates the construction method in influencing the waste generation rate, estimating that the conventional construction method has a waste generation rate of 9.88 t 100 m -2 , the mixed-construction method has a waste generation rate of 3.29 t 100 m -2 , and demolition projects have a waste generation rate of 104.28 t 100 m -2 . © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. TEXTILE IMPACT PLATES FOR NANOPARTICLES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    VISILEANU Emilia; DUMITRESCU Iuliana; VARZARU Elena; MITRAN Cornelia; CHIRIAC Laura

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents textile materials with destination impact plates, having different surface architectures and active treatments for functionalization, with influence upon the aging process of nano-Ag and nano-CeO2...

  3. corn-mill grinding plates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manufactured corn-mill grinding plates to investigate the possible causes of their early wear and failure. Three different samples selected from the same local manufacturer were tested for chemical composition and micro- structural, as well as wear ...

  4. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  5. Report of safety of the characterizing system of radioactive waste; Informe de seguridad del sistema caracterizador de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Jimenez D, J.; Reyes L, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-09-15

    Report of safety of the system of radioactive waste of the ININ: Installation, participant personnel, selection of the place, description of the installation, equipment. Proposed activities: operations with radioactive material, calibration in energy, calibration in efficiency, types of waste. Maintenance: handling of radioactive waste, physical safety. Organization: radiological protection, armor-plating, personal dosemeter, risks and emergency plan, environmental impact, medical exams. (Author)

  6. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  7. Titanium microgram weight low to 50 mg and measurement based on exchange weighing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoping; Dong, Lei; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-03-01

    The microgram weights have wide applications in the mechanical testing of nano- and bio-material sensors. They are increasing the requirement of small force and mass below 1 mg among the researchers, industry and bio-pharmaceutical manufacturing. In this paper, the current research status is presented, both from the measurement method and manufacture of microgram weights. The commonly used material for micro-weights is stainless steel and aluminum. Now NIM has developed another kind of microgram weights with titanium alloy. For the reason that it has smaller size than normal material like aluminum, special designed exchange weighing pan was used in measurement, which solved the problems that the weighing hooks cannot carry up and down the wire shape microgram weight. Then this kind of microgram weights was tested in subdivision measurement on an automatic mass comparator. It showed good performance in the experiment, which extends the choice for the industrial and metrological user. The uncertainty evaluation of micro-weight values range from 0.05 mg to 0.5 mg with standard uncertainty between 0.2 g and 0.1 μg.

  8. Uncertainty contribution on the density of liquids due to unknown sinker temperature in hydrostatic weighing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebl, M.; Zelenka, Z.; Buchner, C.; Pohl, R.; Steindl, D.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the influence of the unknown sinker temperature on the measured density of liquids is evaluated. Generally, due to the intrinsic temperature instability of the heat bath temperature controller, the system will never reach thermal equilibrium but instead will oscillate around a mean temperature. The sinker temperature follows this temperature oscillation with a certain time lag. Since the sinker temperature is not measured directly in a hydrostatic weighing apparatus, the temperature of the sinker, and thus in turn the volume of the sinker, is not known exactly. As a consequence, this leads to uncertainty in the value of the density of the liquid. From an analysis of the volume relaxation of the sinker immersed into a heat bath with time-dependent temperature characteristics, the heat transfer coefficient can be estimated, and thus a characteristic time constant for achieving quasi thermal equilibrium for a hydrostatic weighing apparatus is proposed. Additionally, from a theoretical analysis of the transient behavior of the sinker volume, the systematic deviation of the theoretical to the actual measured liquid density is calculated.

  9. Optimal flexible laryngeal mask airway size in children weighing 10 to 20 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K Z; Liu, T J; Li, W X; Shen, X

    2016-09-01

    This prospective, randomised study was conducted to assess the effect of flexible laryngeal mask airway (FLMA) size on oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) in children at the recommended intracuff pressure. A total of 120 children undergoing elective ophthalmic surgery were randomly assigned to the size 2 FLMA group or size 2.5 FLMA group. The primary measurement was OLP at an intracuff pressure of 40 cmH 2 O. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of OLP insertion time, successful first-attempt insertion rate, fibreoptic view grade and pharyngolaryngeal adverse events. The median OLP was comparable for the size 2 and size 2.5 FLMA (18 cmH 2 O versus 18 cmH 2 O, P =0.38). However, the size 2 FLMA group had a higher incidence of OLP children 16-20 kg. We conclude that at a 40 cmH 2 O intracuff pressure, the OLP with the size 2 and size 2.5 FLMA was similar in children weighing 10-15.9 kg. However, in children weighing 16-20 kg, size 2 devices had a higher incidence of low OLP and insufficient ventilation, so a 2.5 FLMA may be preferable in this subgroup.

  10. Assessment of iodine intake in vegans: weighed dietary record vs duplicate portion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowler, H J; Davies, G J

    2002-08-01

    To compare iodine intakes estimated from weighed dietary records with iodine intakes obtained by direct analysis of duplicate diets in a group of vegans. Cross-sectional study. London and the south-east of England. Thirty-three vegans consuming their habitual diet were recruited through the UK Vegan Society; 26 subjects (11 males, 15 females), age 21-84 y, completed the study. Iodine intakes were estimated from 4 day weighed dietary records and compared with iodine intakes obtained by direct analysis of concurrent 4 day duplicate diets. There was wide variation in iodine intakes. Mean daily iodine intake in males was significantly lower (Pvegan consumption, in food composition tables and the variability in iodine content of seaweed. The use of current food tables to estimate iodine intake in vegans is limited. It is not always practical to determine iodine intake using the duplicate portion technique, therefore more reliable information on iodine content of foods, incorporating the variation within foods, is needed.

  11. Hemodialysis in children weighing less than 15 kg: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalski, Yael; Cleper, Roxana; Krause, Irit; Davidovits, Miriam

    2007-12-01

    Despite significant technical improvements, hemodialysis in infants with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The files of patients weighing less than 15 kg with ESRD who were treated with hemodialysis at our institute between 1995 and 2005 were reviewed for background and treatment characteristics, morbidity and outcome. The study group included 11 patients aged 7-75 months (mean 34.2 months) weighing 7.2-14.9 kg (mean 10.9 kg). Mean duration of dialysis was 11.3 months. Vascular access posed the major problem. Ten patients were dialyzed through a central venous cuffed catheter and one through an arteriovenous fistula. An average of three different vascular accesses was required per patient (range 1-9). Mechanical difficulties were the most common cause of central-line removal (56.5%), followed by infections (15.6%). Major complications causing significant morbidity were intradialytic hemodynamic instability, hyperkalemia, coagulation within the dialysis set, anemia, hypertension, inadequate fluid removal, and recurrent hospitalizations. Analysis of outcome revealed that eight patients underwent successful transplantation, one returned for hemodialysis after 4.5 years due to graft failure, and two died. Hemodialysis is a suitable option for low-weight pediatric patients with ESRD awaiting transplantation when performed in highly qualified centers.

  12. How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Clinton P; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina

    2002-10-04

    The gravitational pull of subducted slabs is thought to drive the motions of Earth's tectonic plates, but the coupling between slabs and plates is not well established. If a slab is mechanically attached to a subducting plate, it can exert a direct pull on the plate. Alternatively, a detached slab may drive a plate by exciting flow in the mantle that exerts a shear traction on the base of the plate. From the geologic history of subduction, we estimated the relative importance of "pull" versus "suction" for the present-day plates. Observed plate motions are best predicted if slabs in the upper mantle are attached to plates and generate slab pull forces that account for about half of the total driving force on plates. Slabs in the lower mantle are supported by viscous mantle forces and drive plates through slab suction.

  13. Scenario Of Solid Waste Management In Hetauda Municipality, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigyan Neupane

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to enlighten the solid waste management of Hetauda Municipality in Makwanpur district of an area of 44.5 sq. km. The total human population of the municipality is 84,671 (CBS 2011. Out of 11 wards, 5 wards (1, 2, 3, 4 and 10 were selected for the present study. In total 50 households, 10 institutions and 10 commercial sectors were selected from studied wards from which samples of different types of wastes were collected, segregated and weighed. Weight was calculated using a digital spring balance and a bag 0.043 m3 was used for the estimation of volume. Organic wastes were found to be dominant in the household (51.73% and commercial sectors (61.70% whereas in institutions, plastic (50.36% and papers (38.19% were prevailing. The findings revealed that per capita 155.4 gm/person/day household waste was generated in Hetauda Municipality. The residents are also aware of the harmful effects of the wastes, and demand an effective solid waste management services. Though they are aware about the sustainable management of wastes, due to erratic collection of wastes, some of them throw the wastes in the open lands - The local people also participate in the awareness campaigns organized by local NGOs and municipal. Solid waste management strategies are timely need for an effective management of anthropogenic wastes. Regular waste collection, improvement of dumping sites and sufficient number of composting plants are recommended in the municipality. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 105-114 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9214

  14. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  15. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  16. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  17. Dairy Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the dairy industry covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) government regulations; (2) ion-plant control of dairy effluents; (3) dairy effluent treatment methods; and (4) research on dairy effluents. A list of 26 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package Misload Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alsaed

    2005-07-28

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the probability of misloading a commercial spent nuclear fuel waste package with a fuel assembly(s) that has a reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) outside the waste package design. The waste package designs are based on the expected commercial spent nuclear fuel assemblies and previous analyses (Macheret, P. 2001, Section 4.1 and Table 1). For this calculation, a misloaded waste package is defined as a waste package that has a fuel assembly(s) loaded into it with an enrichment and/or burnup outside the waste package design. An example of this type of misload is a fuel assembly designated for the 21-PWR Control Rod waste package being incorrectly loaded into a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. This constitutes a misloaded 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package, because the reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) of a 21-PWR Control Rod waste package fuel assembly is outside the design of a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. These types of misloads (i.e., fuel assembly with enrichment and/or burnup outside waste package design) are the only types that are evaluated in this calculation. This calculation utilizes information from ''Frequency of SNF Misload for Uncanistered Fuel Waste Package'' (CRWMS M&O 1998) as the starting point. The scope of this calculation is limited to the information available. The information is based on the whole population of fuel assemblies and the whole population of waste packages, because there is no information about the arrival of the waste stream at this time. The scope of this calculation deviates from that specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Risk and Criticality Department'' (BSC 2002a, Section 2.1.30) in that only waste package misload is evaluated. The remaining issues identified (i.e., flooding and geometry reconfiguration) will be addressed elsewhere. The intended use of the calculation is to provide information and inputs to

  19. Shielding analysis of the IEM cell offset adapter plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, R.L.

    1995-01-13

    The adapter plate for the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell ten foot ceiling valve was modified so that the penetration through the valve is offset to the north side of the steel plate. The modifications required that the shielding effectiveness be evaluated for several operating conditions. The highest gamma ray dose rate (51 mrem/hr) occurs when a Core Component Container (CCC) with six high burn-up driver fuel assemblies is transferred into or out of Solid Waste Cask (SWC). The neutron dose rate at the same source location is 2.5 mrem/hr. The total dose rate during the transfer is less than the 200 mrem/hr limit. If the ten foot ceiling valve is closed, the dose rate with twelve DFA in the cell will be less than 0.1 mrem/hr. However, with the ceiling valve open the dose rate will be as high as 12 mrem/hr. The latter condition will require controlled access to the area around the offset adapter plate when the ceiling valve is open. It was found that gaps in the shield block around the SWC floor valve will allow contact dose rates as high as 350 mrem/hr during the transfer of a fully loaded CCC. Although this situation does not pertain to the offset adapter plate, it will require controlled access around the SWC valve during the transfer of a fully loaded CCC.

  20. Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D P

    1970-04-18

    The seismicity and fault plane solutions in the Mediterranean area show that two small rapidly moving plates exist in the Eastern Mediterranean, and such plates may be a common feature of contracting ocean basins. The results show that the concepts of plate tectonics apply to instantaneous motions across continental plate boundaries.

  1. Delamination, upper plate extension, and plate margin complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kosuke; Gerya, Taras; Willett, Sean

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the syn- and post-subduction margin evolution with respect to extension, lithospheric removal, and magmatic and topographic consequences by employing 3D geodynamic models. In all experiments, regions of extended partial melting are overlain by up to 3 km high plateaus. There is complex geometric entanglement between upper mantle, partially molten rocks, and lithosphere, which is thermally eroded, over hundreds of kilometers across the plate contact. A complex lithosphere-asthenosphere-boundary features elongated anomalies at scales of few tens to hundred kilometers. First-order, synthetic seismic anomaly patterns, based on thermodynamic velocities which are tabulated for model p,T conditions, are accordingly complex. Passive margin geometry variations in the lower plate effect consistent and inherited differences in dynamic evolution. Promontories along the margin tend to trigger three stages of evolution: 1) a magmatic arc; 2) a lower plate, eduction-like exhumation of buried continental crust in domal patterns of few tens of km wavelength; and subsequently, 3) the formation of extended zones on the upper plate which lack a lithospheric mantle, undergo partial extension, and feature lower crustal melting. Slab break-off is consistently favoured in locations where the lower plate margin is relatively recessed. Concerning the classical removal mechanisms, transitions and co-evolution between delamination, convective thinning, and upper-plate extension are gradual and these modes are not mutually exclusive. Almost complete mixed-mode removal and extension can be compared to the Aegean. Slab window formation by margin geometry variation produces characteristic uplift patterns that are comparable to the Apennines, where higher uplift rates could be a consequence of incipient necking of the slab below central Calabria.

  2. Beyond plate tectonics - Looking at plate deformation with space geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The requirements that must be met by space-geodetic systems in order to constrain the horizontal secular motions associated with the geological deformation of the earth's surface are explored. It is suggested that in order to improve existing plate-motion models, the tangential components of relative velocities on interplate baselines must be resolved to an accuracy of less than 3 mm/yr. Results indicate that measuring the velocities between crustal blocks to + or - 5 mm/yr on 100-km to 1000-km scales can produce geologically significant constraints on the integrated deformation rates across continental plate-boundary zones such as the western United States.

  3. The Effect of Flexible Pavement Mechanics on the Accuracy of Axle Load Sensors in Vehicle Weigh-in-Motion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnos, Piotr; Rys, Dawid

    2017-09-07

    Weigh-in-Motion systems are tools to prevent road pavements from the adverse phenomena of vehicle overloading. However, the effectiveness of these systems can be significantly increased by improving weighing accuracy, which is now insufficient for direct enforcement of overloaded vehicles. Field tests show that the accuracy of Weigh-in-Motion axle load sensors installed in the flexible (asphalt) pavements depends on pavement temperature and vehicle speeds. Although this is a known phenomenon, it has not been explained yet. The aim of our study is to fill this gap in the knowledge. The explanation of this phenomena which is presented in the paper is based on pavement/sensors mechanics and the application of the multilayer elastic half-space theory. We show that differences in the distribution of vertical and horizontal stresses in the pavement structure are the cause of vehicle weight measurement errors. These studies are important in terms of Weigh-in-Motion systems for direct enforcement and will help to improve the weighing results accuracy.

  4. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungkon; Lee, Jungwhee; Park, Min-Seok; Jo, Byung-Wan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM) systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  5. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seok Park

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  6. System and method for weighing and characterizing moving or stationary vehicles and cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Scudiere, Matthew B [Oak Ridge, TN; White, Clifford P [Seymour, TN

    2008-05-20

    A weigh-in-motion device and method having at least one transducer pad, each transducer pad having at least one transducer group with transducers positioned essentially perpendicular to the direction of travel. At least one pad microcomputer is provided on each transducer pad having a means for calculating first output signal indicative of weight, second output signal indicative of time, and third output signal indicative of speed. At least one host microcomputer is in electronic communication with each pad microcomputer, and having a means for calculating at least one unknown selected from the group consisting of individual tire weight, individual axle weight, axle spacing, speed profile, longitudinal center of balance, and transverse center of balance.

  7. Weighing a single atom using a coupled plasmon–carbon nanotube system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jin Li and Ka-Di Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an optical weighing technique with a sensitivity down to a single atom, using a surface plasmon and a doubly clamped carbon nanotube resonator. The mass of a single atom is determined via the vibrational frequency shift of the carbon nanotube while the atom attaches to the nanotube surface. Owing to the ultralight mass and high quality factor of the carbon nanotube, and the spectral enhancement by the use of surface plasmon, this method results in a narrow linewidth (kHz and high sensitivity (2.3×10−28 Hzcenterdot g−1, which is five orders of magnitude more sensitive than traditional electrical mass detection techniques.

  8. Resonance Micro-Weighing of Sub-Picogram Mass with the Use of Adaptive Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romashko Roman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass of macroscopic object is easily measured by a suitable balance. However, this approach becomes inapplicable if mass of microscopic object is to be determined. Alternative approach for mass measurement is based on using the micromechanical resonator as an inertial balance where oscillation frequency is shifted by small quantities of adsorbed mass. In this work we present experimental results of applying an adaptive interferometry technique based on dynamic hologram recorded in photorefractive CdTe crystal for measuring picogram mass adsorbed on micromechanical resonators with dimensions 215×40×15 μm3. It is also shown that the resonance micro-weighing system based on adaptive interferometer has potential for reducing the threshold of mass detection down to 10-17 g in the case of using a resonator with sub-micron dimensions

  9. Improving the efficiency of weigh in motion systems through optimized allocating truck checking oriented procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an effective procedure is proposed to determine the best location(s for installing Weigh in Motion systems (WIM. The main objective is to determine locations for best performance, defined as the maximum number of once-checked trucks' axle loads and minimizing unnecessary actions. The aforesaid method consists of two main stages, including solving shortest path algorithm and selecting the best location for installing WIM(s. A proper mathematical model has also been developed to achieve objective function. The number of once-checked trucks, unnecessary actions and average installing costs are defined as criteria measures. The proposed procedure was applied in a road network using experimental data, while the results were compared with the usual methods of locating enforcement facilities. Finally, it is concluded that the proposed procedure seems to be more efficient than the traditional methods and local experts' points of view.

  10. Optimisiation of The Total Weighed Holding Time in A P2P Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naors Y Anad Alsaleem

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of working out of mathematical model in networks of peer-to-peer communication is that the formulation of a problem of optimisation of the total weighed holding time must be given. Optimization of the mathematical model constructed оn the theory of schedules. The common system decision is received, allowing to optimise a P2P network holding time. The practical importance is the described models and methods of the theory of schedules allow to display adequately the structure and the function of a P2P network and to consider their dynamics, restriction of previous information, shifts, interruptions and other typical technological decisions that can be used to increase the productivity of a network and quality of granting of services QoS, QoE

  11. Noise in Load Cell Signal in an Automatic Weighing System Based on a Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise in load cell signal in an automatic weighing system based on a belt conveyor has been examined experimentally in time and frequency domains to enhance signal quality. The noise frequency spectrum showed nonlinearly increasing multiple resonance peaks as speed increased. The noise reduction process using noise reduction algorithm, by sharply rejecting peak noise frequency component and afterward forming optimum pulse width ratio through filter slope control using selective switching of 6 LPF stages, was used for enhanced accuracy. The effectiveness of proposed method, controlling both cutoff frequency and slope of LPF, was evaluated by feeding 50 g test mass, and this noise reduction process showed better noise filtering with enhanced accuracy than fixed cutoff frequency control method. The ratio of top to bottom pulse width showed that LPF cutoff frequency above 5 Hz had the ratio above 50% up to 80 m/min speed range.

  12. Optimal head position during transesophageal echocardiographic probe insertion for pediatric patients weighing up to 10 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Christopher R; Rosen, Kerry L

    2009-05-01

    No data exists for the optimal head position during transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probe insertion in children. Turning the head to the side closes the ipsilateral pyriform sinus and dilates the contralateral pyriform sinus, theoretically making probe insertion safer and easier. In this study, 94 children (weight, 5 kg), II (weight, 4-5 kg), and III (weight, <4 kg). The difference was statistically significant only for subgroup III (p = 0.0001). Insertion failed in four children with the head in the midline position but was successful when the head was turned leftward. Children undergoing TEE who weigh less than 10 kg should have the head positioned to the side rather than in the midline position during probe insertion. If insertion is unsuccessful or difficult with the head in the midline position, the authors recommend turning the head to the side and reattempting probe insertion.

  13. Continuous renal replacement therapy in neonates weighing less than 3 kg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Young Bae; Paik, Kyung Hoon; Cho, Hee Yeon; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sung Won; Kim, Eun Sun; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won-Soon; Choi, Yoon-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is becoming the treatment of choice for supporting critically ill pediatric patients. However, a few studies present have reported CRRT use and outcome in neonates weighing less than 3 kg. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical application, outcome, and complications of CRRT in small neonates. Methods A retrospective review was performed in 8 neonatal patients who underwent at least 24 hours of pumped venovenous CRRT at the Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea, between March 2007 and July 2010. Data, including demographic characteristics, diagnosis, vital signs, medications, laboratory, and CRRT parameters were recorded. Results The data of 8 patients were analyzed. At the initiation of CRRT, the median age was 5 days (corrected age, 38+2 weeks to 23 days), and the median body weight was 2.73 kg (range, 2.60 to 2.98 kg). Sixty-two patient-days of therapy were reviewed; the median time for CRRT in each patient was 7.8 days (range, 1 to 37 days). Adverse events included electrolyte disturbances, catheter-related complications, and CRRT-related hypotension. The mean circuit functional survival was 13.9±8.6 hours. Overall, 4 patients (50%) survived; the other 4 patients, who developed multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, died. Conclusion The complications of CRRT in newborns are relatively high. However, the results of this study suggest that venovenous CRRT is feasible and effective in neonates weighing less than 3 kg under elaborate supportive care. Furthermore, for using potential benefit of CRRT in neonates, efforts are required for prolonging filter survival. PMID:22977441

  14. Continuous renal replacement therapy in neonates weighing less than 3 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bae Sohn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is becoming the treatment of choice for supporting critically ill pediatric patients. However, a few studies present have reported CRRT use and outcome in neonates weighing less than 3 kg. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical application, outcome, and complications of CRRT in small neonates. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; A retrospective review was performed in 8 neonatal patients who underwent at least 24 hours of pumped venovenous CRRT at the Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea, between March 2007 and July 2010. Data, including demographic characteristics, diagnosis, vital signs, medications, laboratory, and CRRT parameters were recorded. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The data of 8 patients were analyzed. At the initiation of CRRT, the median age was 5 days (corrected age, 38&lt;sup&gt;+2&lt;/sup&gt; weeks to 23 days, and the median body weight was 2.73 kg (range, 2.60 to 2.98 kg. Sixty-two patient-days of therapy were reviewed; the median time for CRRT in each patient was 7.8 days (range, 1 to 37 days. Adverse events included electrolyte disturbances, catheter-related complications, and CRRTrelated hypotension. The mean circuit functional survival was 13.9±8.6 hours. Overall, 4 patients (50% survived; the other 4 patients, who developed multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, died. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The complications of CRRT in newborns are relatively high. However, the results of this study suggest that venovenous CRRT is feasible and effective in neonates weighing less than 3 kg under elaborate supportive care. Furthermore, for using potential benefit of CRRT in neonates, efforts are required for prolonging filter survival.

  15. Using weigh-in-motion data to determine bridge dynamic amplification factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalin Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic component of bridge traffic loading is commonly taken into account with a Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF – the ratio between the maximum dynamic and static load effects on a bridge. In the design codes, this factor is generally higher than in reality. While this is fine for new bridges that must account for various risks during their life-time, it imposes unnecessary conservativism into assessment of the existing well defined bridges. Therefore, analysis of existing bridges should apply more realistic DAF values. One way of obtaining them experimentally is by bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM measurements, which use an existing instrumented bridge or culvert to weigh all crossing vehicles at highway speeds. The B-WIM system had been equipped with two methods of obtaining an approximation to the static response of the. The first method uses the sum of influence lines. This method relies on accurate axle identification, the failure of which can have a large influence on the DAF value. The other method uses a pre-determined low-pass filter to remove the dynamic component of the measured signal; however an expert is needed to set the filter parameters. A new approach that tries to eliminate these two drawbacks has been developed. In this approach the parameters for the filter are determined automatically by fitting the filtered response to the sum of the influence lines. The measurement of DAF on a typical bridge site agrees with experiments performed in the ARCHES [1] project: dynamic amplification decreases as static loading increases.

  16. Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.

    2003-01-01

    in the frequency domain. The second-order vertical displacements induced by the membrane forces are calculated by the von Karman plate theory. The results show that the membrane contribution both in terms of the axial stresses and the effect on the bending stresses can be important......The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method...

  17. Orifice plates and venturi tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Reader-Harris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book gives the background to differential-pressure flow measurement and goes through the requirements explaining the reason for them. For those who want to use an orifice plate or a Venturi tube the standard ISO 5167 and its associated Technical Reports give the instructions required.  However, they rarely tell the users why they should follow certain instructions.  This book helps users of the ISO standards for orifice plates and Venturi tubes to understand the reasons why the standards are as they are, to apply them effectively, and to understand the consequences of deviations from the standards.

  18. Space geodetic constraints on plate rigidity and global plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Giovanni Federico

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has emerged over the last 10 years as the premier space geodetic technique for geologic observation with the benefits of both accuracy and economy. GPS data from more than 260 stations were processed utilizing GIPSY-OASIS software, and all available RINEX files for these stations beginning on January 1, 1993. The uniform processing strategy, combined with a rigorous independent error estimate of site velocities and the broad geographical distribution of these sites resulted in a global high-precision surface velocity data set. This data set has been used to: (1) compare the effects of different GPS antenna and monument types on data noise; (2) examine in detail the rigidity of the North America plate; (3) constrain the rate of deformation in the northern Gulf of Mexico; (4) define a model for Recent (Holocene) time global plate motions. The weighted root mean square scatter about the best fit line through the daily position estimates are used to assess the effects of different antenna and monument types on North America. The data set is sensitive to glacial isostatic adjustment as indicated by the decrease in chinu 2 from 1.3 to 1.0 by excluding those sites on rigid North America within a radius of 1,800 km of Hudson Bay. The resulting 64 site solution for the angular velocity of North America give a mean rate residual of 1 mm/yr. GULFNET, a regional GPS network created in 1997 in the northern Gulf Coast to measure strain across this active "passive margin" is described. Preliminary results suggest that deformation is occurring as predicted by the regional paradigm for deformation, i.e. Gulfward motion along normal faults. A new model for Recent global plate velocities (REVEL) describes the relative velocities of 14 plates. For several plate pairs, statistically significant differences are observed between the geodetically and geologically determined velocities reflecting changes in plate velocity through time. Some of the rate

  19. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  20. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste.......In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...

  1. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  2. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weisheng; Yuan, Hongping; Li, Jingru; Hao, Jane J L; Mi, Xuming; Ding, Zhikun

    2011-04-01

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C&D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m(2) and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C&D waste management in China. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension. 1. Introduction. Plate boundaries are the zones where most earth dynamics are focussed. The complexity of tectonic boundaries draws attention to them as the largest earthquakes are felt in these areas and they elicit the natural hazard of ...

  4. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... tested using the coherence of time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link orientations at the plate boundary conditions indicate that causal triggering seems to be localized along a major fault, as a stress transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension.

  5. [Biodynamics of the epiphyseal plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallek, M; Jungbluth, K H

    1984-02-01

    The architecture of the collagenous fibers in epiphyseal plates of infantile long bones is ordered in a manner that tensile load is able to be transformed in compressive stress and reverse. This system can be classify in the theory of the formation of the sustentacular tissue by mechanical forces of Roux, Benninghoff and Pauwels.

  6. Comment on "Intermittent plate tectonics?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2008-06-06

    Silver and Behn (Reports, 4 January 2008, p. 85) proposed that intermittent plate tectonics may resolve a long-standing paradox in Earth's thermal evolution. However, their analysis misses one important term, which subsequently brings their main conclusion into question. In addition, the Phanerozoic eustasy record indicates that the claimed effect of intermittency is probably weak.

  7. TUBULARIZED INCISED PLATE (TIP) URETHROPLASTY:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Recently, tubularized incised plate. (TIP) urethroplasty (Snodgrass repair) has gained popularity for the primary repair of distal and proximal hypospadias. This study was carried out to evaluate TIP urethro- plasty in the repair of failed and compli- cated hypospadias cases. Patients and Methods: This study was ...

  8. Shaker slip-plate adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, O. S.

    1969-01-01

    Magnesium adapter ties in all of the attachment bosses on a horizontal slip table and makes a rigid coupling which terminates in a single row of attachment bosses at the edge of the horizontal plate. This eliminates ineffective dissipation of the driving force in vibration tests.

  9. TUBULARIZED INCISED PLATE (TIP) URETHROPLASTY:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Churchill BM, van Savage JG, Khoury AE, McLorie. GA. The dartos flap as an adjunct in preventing urethrocutaneous fistulas in repeat hypospadias surgery. J Urol1996, 15612047. Cooper CS, Noh PH, Snyder HM 3"'. Preservation of urethral plate spongiosurn1 technique to reduce hypospadias fistulas. Urology 2001 ...

  10. Recovery of mineral oil from waste emulsion using electrocoagulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Mohd Najib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research to recover mineral oil from industrial waste emulsion. This research also evaluates the standard of water produced after the oil recovery. The ecosystem could be polluted if this waste is not treated prior to discharge. The equipment needed for this experiment is power supply (generator, connecting wire and metal plate for providing the coagulant. The chosen plates were aluminium and iron plate. The power supply will be connected to the plate producing anode (positive terminal and cathode (negative terminal. Both plates are immersed into a beaker containing waste emulsion. The charge supplied by the current will cause the aluminium or ferum to dissisipate and became ions. These ions will attract the oil to flock together and float at the surface. The water will then filter by using filter paper. Electrocoagulation was done without addition of chemical thus can prevent the hazard from the chemicals. The samples was sent for oil and grease test. The optimum time needed for recovery of oil was 3 hours. The percentage recovery reach constant trend of 95% afterwards. When the power consumption increases, the percentage recovery also increases. However, the current should be lower than 0.5 ampere as it is the limit that human body can withstand. Thus, power consumption of 27.5 Watt was chosen as optimum value. The oil recovery of at power consumption at 27.5W is 96%. The best plate in the process was the aluminium pair which can recover more than ferum plate. The present work concludes the promising future for waste water treatment by usage of electrocoagulation technique.

  11. Composition, Production Rate and Management of Dental Solid Waste in 2017 in Birjand, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibe Momeni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of toxic and pathogenic agents in the dental waste products has made it to be classified as “hazardous waste.” Objective: To assess dental waste production rate and composition and approaches used to manage these waste products in 2017 in Birjand, Iran. Methods: 48 dental clinics were evaluated in two months of 2017. Sampling was performed from each clinic 3 times a week. Samples were manually divided into 5 categories of chemical-pharmaceutical, infectious, semi-household, sharp and cutting materials, and toxic waste products, and weighed. A checklist containing 25 questions was used to evaluate the aspects of waste management in dental clinics. Results: The total amount of waste products generated in dental clinics was 7848.02 kg/ year in which semi-household waste had the highest quantity (4263.411 kg/year and toxic waste had the lowest quantity (9.275 kg/year. Components with the highest amounts in dentistry waste products were nylon gloves (16.7%, paper and cardboard (13.4%, latex gloves (10.8%, and pharmaceuticals (10.2%. Waste separation was restricted to sharp and cutting waste. More than half (57% of dental units were equipped with amalgam filter. Fixing solutions were directly discharged to sewage in 48.6% of clinics. There was no program to reduce waste generation in 54% of the clinics. Autoclave was the main tool for sterilizing dental instruments. Conclusion: This study showed a remarkable share of recyclable materials in the composition of dental waste and lack of special approach to manage waste in dental clinics. It is necessary to plan for minimizing generation of, separating, and recycling waste at source.

  12. Waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-01-17

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  13. Operational test of bonded magnetocaloric plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian; Navickaité, Kristina; Neves Bez, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Bonded plates made by hot pressing La0.85Ce0.15Fe11.25Mn0.25Si1.5Hy particles and resin have been tested as active magnetic regenerators in a small scale magnetocaloric device. Firstly the plates were carefully characterised magnetically and thermally. The plates were prepared with 5 wt% resin......, and from density measurements it was found that the volume ratio of the magnetocaloric material in the plates was 0.53, due to the resin and porosity. The best operating conditions for the plate regenerator were determined at which a temperature span of 6.4 K was measured along the plates....

  14. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Larchar, Steven W.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Problem Introduction: 1. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Space Shuttle. 1a. The number of cold plate problems had increased from an average of 16.5 per/year between 1990 through 2000, to an average of 39.6 per year between 2001through 2005. 1b. Each complete set of 80 cold plates cost approximately $29 million, an average of $362,500 per cold plate. 1c It takes four months to produce a single cold plate. 2. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Future Space Vehicles.

  15. Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method...... for determination of the structures pre-stresses is used. A parametric investigation is performed to determine a more optimized form of the plate based tensegrity structure. Conclusions of the use of plate based tensegrity in civil engineering and further research areas are discussed....

  16. Waste Reduction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help solid waste planners and organizations track/report GHG emissions reductions from various waste management practices. To assist in calculating GHG emissions of baseline and alternative waste management practices and provide the history of WARM.

  17. Hazardous Waste Generators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The HazWaste database contains generator (companies and/or individuals) site and mailing address information, waste generation, the amount of waste generated etc. of...

  18. The temporality of waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Jordt Jørgensen, Nanna; Læssøe, Jeppe

    Waste is, indisputably, one of the key issues of environmental concerns of our times. In an environment and sustainability education perspective, waste offers concrete entry points to issues of consumption, sustainability and citizenship. Still, waste education has received relatively little...

  19. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  20. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  1. Informative document packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten JM; Nagelhout D; Duvoort GL; Weerd M de

    1989-01-01

    This "informative document packaging waste" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Direcotrate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  2. Municipal Solid Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Ajaykumar; Patil, Deepak; Argade, Kuldeep

    2016-01-01

    Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...

  3. Supermarket food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Food waste occurs along the entire food supply chain and gives rise to great financial losses and waste of natural resources. The retail stage of the supply chain contributes significant masses of waste. Causes of this waste need to be identified before potential waste reduction measures can be designed, tested and evaluated. Therefore this thesis quantified retail food waste and evaluated selected prevention and valorisation measures, in order to determine how the carbon footprint of food ca...

  4. Los Alamos Transuranic Waste Size Reduction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.; Warren, J.

    1987-06-01

    The Los Alamos Transuranic (TRU) Waste Size Reduction Facility (SRF) is a production oriented prototype. The facility is operated to remotely cut and repackage TRU contaminated metallic wastes (e.g., glove boxes, ducting and pipes) for eventual disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The resulting flat sections are packaged into a tested Department of Transportation Type 7A metal container. To date, the facility has successfully processed stainless steel glove boxes (with and without lead shielding construction) and retention tanks. We have found that used glove boxes generate more cutting fumes than do unused glove boxes or metal plates - possibly due to deeply embedded chemical residues from years of service. Water used as a secondary fluid with the plasma arc cutting system significantly reduces visible fume generation during the cutting of used glove boxes and lead-lined glove boxes. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. 9 CFR 201.49 - Requirements regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Accounts and Records § 201.49 Requirements... weighed by or on behalf of a stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer, or live poultry dealer where...

  6. Design and realization of the high-precision weighing systems as the gravimetric references in PTB's national water flow standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Rainer; Beyer, Karlheinz; Baade, Hans-Joachim

    2012-07-01

    PTB's ‘Hydrodynamic Test Field’, which represents a high-accuracy water flow calibration facility, serves as the national primary standard for liquid flow measurands. As the core reference device of this flow facility, a gravimetric standard has been incorporated, which comprises three special-design weighing systems: 300 kg, 3 tons and 30 tons. These gravimetric references were realized as a combination of a strain-gauge-based and an electromagnetic-force-compensation load-cell-based balance, each. Special emphasis had to be placed upon the dynamics design of the whole weighing system, due to the high measurement resolution and the dynamic behavior of the weighing systems, which are dynamically affected by mechanical vibrations caused by environmental impacts, flow machinery operation, flow noise in the pipework and induced wave motions in the weigh tanks. Taking into account all the above boundary conditions, the design work for the gravimetric reference resulted in a concrete foundation ‘rock’ of some 300 tons that rests on a number of vibration isolators. In addition to these passively operating vibration isolators, the vibration damping effect is enhanced by applying an electronic level regulation device.

  7. Is Frequent Self-Weighing Associated with Poorer Body Satisfaction? Findings from a Phone-Based Weight Loss Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ericka M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Hotop, Anne Marie; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of self-weighing frequency on weight change and body satisfaction. Design: Observational study based on findings from a 6-month randomized controlled telephone-based weight loss trial. Data collected at baseline and 6 months. Setting: Metropolitan community-based sample. Participants: Sixty-three obese adults. Mean…

  8. Features of the configurations "small particle -plate" and "plate -plate" in the theory of fluctuation electromagnetic interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dedkov, G. V.; Kyasov, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the limiting transition from the geometrical configuration "plate -plate" to configuration "small particle -plate" being frequently used in the theory of Lifshitz -Pitaevskii, is not continually true. On the other hand, the known solution to the problem in the last configuration can be used to verify the generalizations of the theory being worked out in the former configuration.

  9. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  10. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ramli, Siti Fatihah; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert

    2016-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2015 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic granular, aerobic waste treatment, anaerobic granular, anaerobic waste treatment, chemical waste, chemical wastewater, fertilizer waste, fertilizer wastewater, pesticide wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, ozonation. cosmetics waste, groundwater remediation, nutrient removal, nitrification denitrification, membrane biological reactor, and pesticide waste.

  11. Use of finite elements analysis for a weigh-in-motion sensor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Rigobert; Goanta, Viorel; Carlescu, Petru; Barsanescu, Paul-Doru; Taranu, Nicolae; Banu, Oana

    2012-01-01

    High speed weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensors are utilized as components of complex traffic monitoring and measurement systems. They should be able to determine the weights on wheels, axles and vehicle gross weights, and to help the classification of vehicles (depending on the number of axles). WIM sensors must meet the following main requirements: good accuracy, high endurance, low price and easy installation in the road structure. It is not advisable to use cheap materials in constructing these devices for lower prices, since the sensors are normally working in harsh environmental conditions such as temperatures between -40 °C and +70 °C, dust, temporary water immersion, shocks and vibrations. Consequently, less expensive manufacturing technologies are recommended. Because the installation cost in the road structure is high and proportional to the WIM sensor cross section (especially with its thickness), the device needs to be made as flat as possible. The WIM sensor model presented and analyzed in this paper uses a spring element equipped with strain gages. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), the authors have attempted to obtain a more sensitive, reliable, lower profile and overall cheaper elastic element for a new WIM sensor.

  12. Use of Finite Elements Analysis for a Weigh-in-Motion Sensor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Goanta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High speed weigh-in-motion (WIM sensors are utilized as components of complex traffic monitoring and measurement systems. They should be able to determine the weights on wheels, axles and vehicle gross weights, and to help the classification of vehicles (depending on the number of axles. WIM sensors must meet the following main requirements: good accuracy, high endurance, low price and easy installation in the road structure. It is not advisable to use cheap materials in constructing these devices for lower prices, since the sensors are normally working in harsh environmental conditions such as temperatures between –40 °C and +70 °C, dust, temporary water immersion, shocks and vibrations. Consequently, less expensive manufacturing technologies are recommended. Because the installation cost in the road structure is high and proportional to the WIM sensor cross section (especially with its thickness, the device needs to be made as flat as possible. The WIM sensor model presented and analyzed in this paper uses a spring element equipped with strain gages. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA, the authors have attempted to obtain a more sensitive, reliable, lower profile and overall cheaper elastic element for a new WIM sensor.

  13. Rapidly-Exploring Roadmaps: Weighing Exploration vs. Refinement in Optimal Motion Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterovitz, Ron; Patil, Sachin; Derbakova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Computing globally optimal motion plans requires exploring the configuration space to identify reachable free space regions as well as refining understanding of already explored regions to find better paths. We present the rapidly-exploring roadmap (RRM), a new method for single-query optimal motion planning that allows the user to explicitly consider the trade-off between exploration and refinement. RRM initially explores the configuration space like a rapidly exploring random tree (RRT). Once a path is found, RRM uses a user-specified parameter to weigh whether to explore further or to refine the explored space by adding edges to the current roadmap to find higher quality paths in the explored space. Unlike prior methods, RRM does not focus solely on exploration or refine prematurely. We demonstrate the performance of RRM and the trade-off between exploration and refinement using two examples, a point robot moving in a plane and a concentric tube robot capable of following curved trajectories inside patient anatomy for minimally invasive medical procedures.

  14. Safe staffing for the post anesthesia care unit: weighing the evidence and identifying the gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaril, Myrna E; Sullivan, Ellen; Clifford, Theresa L; Newhouse, Robin; Windle, Pamela E

    2007-12-01

    Postanesthesia nursing care and standards are continually evolving. ASPAN has the professional responsibility to develop standards of nursing practice to promote a safe environment of care. Currently, ASPAN's recommended staffing ratios are based on the best available evidence: expert opinion and consensus. Our Society believes that these nurse-to-patient ratios have served to provide safe, quality patient care. In 2006, the ASPAN Safe Staffing Strategic Work Team was charged with conducting a national PACU Safe Staffing Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) project. The purpose of this EBP staffing project was to search the scientific staffing evidence in an attempt to validate ASPAN's staffing ratios. This expert panel critically weighed the nursing evidence on staffing ratios, workload intensity, patient acuity, nursing-sensitive outcomes, and nursing-sensitive indicators, including appropriate critical care studies because of the scarce number of postanesthesia studies. The outcome of this dynamic initiative revealed the need to develop nursing-sensitive perianesthesia indicators that can provide patient outcomes used to assess the effectiveness of staffing ratios. Finally, research gaps were identified and the next steps in the generation of knowledge needed to build safe staffing evidence were identified in ASPAN's Strategic Research Staffing Plan.

  15. Effect acute of resitive training with weight on hidrostatic weigh, body density and percentage of fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Zinn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify if a session of Resistive training with Weights (TRP seeking Local Muscular Resistance (RML or Increase in Muscle Volume (AVM would cause significant alterations in Hydrostatic Weight (PH, Body Density (DC and Percentage of Body Fat (%G. Nine men between the ages of 17 and 26 years participated in the study, all with a basic level of TRP and who were adapted to water. The study was carried out during three days. On the first day, the subjects performed the 1RM test for the 10 exercises included into the training. Two days later, hydrostatic weighing (pre-trainingwas measured, immediately followed by a TRP session for AVM and by another hydrostatic weighing (post-training measurement. Two days later, the same process was applied to, however this time with a TRP session for RML. The statistical analyses by Student’s-t test showed that there were no significant differences (p>0.05 between pre and post-training results for PH, DC and %G variables. The 2x2 ANOVA interaction for type of training (AVM and RML and the moment of weighing (pre and post-training was not significant, while the results of PH, DC and %G did not depend on the type of training (AVM or RML. Pearson’s linear correlation between the values of the pre and post-training was significant (r≥0.94. It can be concluded that the TRP does not have an effect on the results of PH, DC and %G, regardless of type of training performed, therefore, hydrostatic weighing can be measured either before or after the TRP, without interfering on the results. RESUMO Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar se uma sessão de Treinamento Resistido com Pesos (TRP visando Resistência Muscular Localizada (RML ou objetivando Aumento de Volume Muscular (AVM causariam alterações significativas no Peso Hidrost��tico (PH, Densidade Corporal (DC e Percentual de Gordura (%G. Participaram da amostra nove homens com idade entre 17 e 26 anos que possuíam um n

  16. A low-noise ac-bridge amplifier for ballistocardiogram measurement on an electronic weighing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, O T; Kovacs, G T A

    2010-07-01

    Ballistocardiography is a non-invasive technique for evaluating cardiovascular health. This note presents an ac-bridge amplifier for low-noise ballistocardiogram (BCG) recording from a modified weighing scale. The strain gauges in a commercial scale were excited by an ac source-square or sine wave-and the differential output voltage resulting from the BCG was amplified and demodulated synchronously with the excitation waveform. A standard BCG amplifier, with a simple dc-bridge excitation, was also built and the performance was compared to both the square- and sine-wave excited ac-bridge amplifiers. The total input-referred voltage noise (rms) integrated over the relevant BCG bandwidth of 0.3-10 Hz was found to be 30 nV (square wave source) or 25 nV (sine-wave source) for the ac-bridge amplifier and 52 nV for the standard amplifier: an improvement of 4.8 dB or 6 dB, respectively. These correspond to input-referred force noise (rms) values of 5 mN, 4 mN and 8.3 mN. The improvement in SNR was also observed in recorded waveforms from a seated subject whose BCG signal was measured with both dc- and ac-bridge circuits.

  17. On balance: weighing harms and benefits in fundamental neurological research using nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Gardar; Clausen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    One of the most controversial areas of animal research is the use of nonhuman primates for fundamental research. At the centre of the controversy is the question of whether the benefits of research outweigh the harms. We argue that the evaluation of harms and benefits is highly problematic. We describe some common procedures in neurological research using nonhuman primates and the difficulties in evaluating the harm involved. Even if the harm could be quantified, it is unlikely that it could be meaningfully aggregated over different procedures, let alone different animals. A similar problem arises for evaluating benefits. It is not clear how benefits could be quantified, and even if they could be, values for different aspects of expected benefits cannot be simply added up. Sorting harms and benefits in three or four categories cannot avoid the charge of arbitrariness and runs the risk of imposing its structure on the moral decision. The metaphor of weighing or balancing harms and benefits is inappropriate for the moral decision about whether to use nonhuman primates for research. Arguing that the harms and benefits in this context are incommensurable, we suggest describing the moral consideration of harms and benefits as a coherent trade-off. Such a decision does not require commensurability. It must be well-informed about the suffering involved and the potential benefits, it must be consistent with the legal, regulatory and institutional framework within which it is made, and it must cohere with other judgments in relevant areas.

  18. Evaluation of Microbial Systems for Biotreatment of Textile Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of some microbial species for the decolourization and degradation of textile dye has been investigated. Six microbial strains were isolated from soil contaminated with textile waste effluents using the spread plate technique and the isolates were identified as bacterial isolates (Pseudomonas fluorescence, ...

  19. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  20. The weight of unfinished plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ling-en; Liu, Gang; Liu, Xiaojie

    2017-01-01

    was 93 g, consisting mainly of vegetables (29%), rice (14%), aquatic products (11%), wheat (10%), and pork (8%). This equals to approximately 11 kg/cap/year and is not far from that of western countries, although per capita GDP of China is still much lower. We found also that food waste per capita per...

  1. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  2. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  3. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  4. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of hospital waste in the city of Behshahr-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Yousefi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, the rapid increase in quantity and type of waste has resulted to environmental pollution and health hazards which serve as a major challenge to humans. The level of this waste can be so high that dangerous chemicals and biological contaminants can be found in ordinary household waste. Major sources of waste in every city are mostly from care/health centers. Hence, this study aims to investigate the quantitative and qualitative waste taken from hospitals in the city. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four city hospitals were examined in the city. For this purpose, a questionnaire was designed for quantitative analysis method and weighing scales based on the Ministry of Health questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and for statistical analyses, Excel and Graph Pad Prism 5 were used. Results: According to findings, the total amount of hospital waste comprising infectious waste, sharp and pharmaceutical chemicals were related to Imam Khomeini hospital with values of 44 220 012 and 10 kg per day respectively, with 220 kg per day of general waste related to same hospital. Hence, the total weight of waste produced per capita, for infectious waste, general waste, chemical waste, and sharp - machinery were 2.35 ± 0.25, 0.39 ± 0.075, 1.25 ± 0.66, 0.05 ± 0.028 and 0.021 ± 0.015 kg per day per bed respectively. Conclusion: The data should be more focused on waste management and frequent orientation to hospitalized patients. This evaluation indicates the poor management of hospital wastes in view of collection, separation, infectious waste care, temporary storage station and on-time transmission and health disposal.

  5. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  6. ITRF2014 plate motion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Zuheir; Métivier, Laurent; Rebischung, Paul; Rouby, Hélène; Collilieux, Xavier

    2017-06-01

    For various geodetic and geophysical applications, users need to have access to a plate motion model (PMM) that is consistent with the ITRF2014 frame. This paper describes the approach used for determining a PMM from the horizontal velocities of a subset of the ITRF2014 sites away from plate boundaries, Glacial Isostatic Adjustment regions and other deforming zones. In theory it would be necessary to include in the inversion model a translational motion vector (called in this paper origin rate bias, ORB) that would represent the relative motion between the ITRF2014 origin (long-term averaged centre of mass of the Earth as sensed by SLR) and the centre of tectonic plate motion. We show that in practice, the magnitude of the estimated ORB is strongly dependent on the selection of ITRF2014 sites used for the PMM adjustment. Its Z-component can in particular range between 0 and more than 1 mm yr-1 depending on the station network used, preventing any geophysical interpretation of the estimated value. Relying on rigorous statistical criteria, the site selection finally adopted for the ITRF2014-PMM adjustment leads to a relatively small ORB (0.30 ± 0.18 mm yr-1 in the Z-component), which is statistically insignificant at the 2-sigma level, but also according to an F-ratio test. Therefore we opted for an ITRF2014-PMM without estimating the ORB, which in turn accommodates geodetic applications that require access to the ITRF2014 frame through pure plate rotation poles.

  7. Secure matching of Dutch car license plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunil, A.B.; Erkiny, Z.; Veugenyz, T.

    2016-01-01

    License plate matching plays an important role in applications like law enforcement, traffic management and road pricing, where the plate is first recognized and then compared to a database of authorized vehicle registration plates. Unfortunately, there are several privacy related issues that should

  8. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  9. The critical shear load of rectangular plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydel, Edgar

    1933-01-01

    This report gives formulas for analyzing the critical shear load of a simply supported square, isotropic (simple flat plate), or orthogonal anisotropic plate (a plate in which the rigidity in two directions perpendicular to each other is different, i.e. plywood or corrugated sheet), these formulas, although arrived at by approximation method, seem to agree fairly well with experimental results.

  10. Designing a licence plate for memorability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Dongen, C.J.G. van

    2005-01-01

    Good memorability of licence plates is important in those cases where licence plates are viewed for a brief period of time and the information is essential for police investigations. The purpose of the current study was to design a new Dutch licence plate that could be remembered well. A memory

  11. Episodic plate tectonics on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Studies of impact craters on Venus from the Magellan images have placed important constraints on surface volcanism. Some 840 impact craters have been identified with diameters ranging from 2 to 280 km. Correlations of this impact flux with craters on the Moon, Earth, and Mars indicate a mean surface age of 0.5 +/- 0.3 Ga. Another important observation is that 52 percent of the craters are slightly fractured and only 4.5 percent are embayed by lava flows. These observations led researchers to hypothesize that a pervasive resurfacing event occurred about 500 m.y. ago and that relatively little surface volcanism has occurred since. Other researchers have pointed out that a global resurfacing event that ceased about 500 MYBP is consistent with the results given by a recent study. These authors carried out a series of numerical calculations of mantle convection in Venus yielding thermal evolution results. Their model considered crustal recycling and gave rapid planetary cooling. They, in fact, suggested that prior to 500 MYBP plate tectonics was active in Venus and since 500 MYBP the lithosphere has stabilized and only hot-spot volcanism has reached the surface. We propose an alternative hypothesis for the inferred cessation of surface volcanism on Venus. We hypothesize that plate tectonics on Venus is episodic. Periods of rapid plate tectonics result in high rates of subduction that cool the interior resulting in more sluggish mantle convection.

  12. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  13. Study on behavior of organic substances in waste at landfill waste disposal site. Haikibutsuchu yukibutsu no umetate shobunjonai ni okeru kyodo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H.; Inoue, Y. (Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Science, Osaka (Japan))

    1990-10-29

    The report proposes a method to analyze the stabilization proces of waste based on measurements of the carbon content in waste sampled at a disposal site and in boring core samples. Waste transported to the disposal site is spread over a 50-ton stockyard and stirred by two power shovel cars, and 30-50 kg samples are collected for composition analysis. The waste sampled is weighed, dried and broken down into different components, namely, paper, fiber, wood/grass, plastics, miscellaneous articles, glass/stone, procelains, steel, non-ferrous metals, followed by composition analysis. Boring core samples are taken at every 80 cm depth, subjected to weighing and drying, and broken down in a similar way. Analysis is performed for total carbon content, organic carbon content and inorganic carbon content. Results show that there are significant differences among the three carbon contents, suggesting that this method can serve for rough estimation of the degree of decomposition of waste. It is also indicated that gas generation rate can be roughly estimated from a measured organic carbon content. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Reduced-portion entr?es in a worksite and restaurant setting: impact on food consumption and waste

    OpenAIRE

    Berkowitz, Sarah; Marquart, Len; Mykerezi, Elton; Degeneffe, Dennis; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Large portion sizes in restaurants have been identified as a public health risk. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether customers in two different food-service operator segments (non-commercial worksite cafeteria and commercial upscale restaurant) would select reduced-portion menu items and the impact of selecting reduced-portion menu items on energy and nutrient intakes and plate waste. Design Consumption and plate waste data were collected for 5 weeks before and...

  15. 44-BWR WASTE PACKAGE LOADING CURVE EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Scaglione

    2004-08-25

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 44 BWR waste package configuration as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an application of the methodology presented in ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent (wt%) U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 40 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing BWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results of 100 percent of the current BWR projected waste stream being able to be disposed of in the 44-BWR waste package with Ni-Gd Alloy absorber plates is contingent upon the referenced waste stream being sufficiently similar to the waste stream received for disposal. (3) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials.

  16. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  17. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 2, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1944-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  18. Wheelspace windage cover plate for turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Norman Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Windage cover plates are secured between the wheels and spacer of a turbine rotor to prevent hot flow path gas ingestion into the wheelspace cavities. Each cover plate includes a linear, axially extending body curved circumferentially with a radially outwardly directed wall at one axial end. The wall defines a axially opening recess for receiving a dovetail lug. The cover plate includes an axially extending tongue received in a circumferential groove of the spacer. The cover plate is secured with the tongue in the groove and dovetail lug in the recess. Lap joints between circumferentially adjacent cover plates are provided.

  19. Free vibrations of multilayered composite plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    Summary of some of the results of a recent study of the reliability and range of validity of two-dimensional plate theories in application to low-frequency free vibration analysis of simply supported, bidirectional, multilayered plates consisting of a large number of layers. These results show that for composite plates the error in the predictions of the classical plate theory is strongly dependent on the number and stacking of the layers, in addition to the degree of orthotropy of the individual layers and the thickness ratio of the plate.

  20. Technology Evaluation of Army-Scale Waste-to-Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    day weigh survey, ing, housewares, furniture, toys. and nonwoven synthetics. Leather. rubber Shoes, tires, toys. sity of 147 lb/cu yd (87 kg/m3 ) was...Starved-Airlncinertior While the large pressure drop through the fabric filter increases fan horsepower requirements, the Operation. Starved-air...centrifuge or vacuum filter and inciner- ment. Currently, the Los Angeles Water and Power ated. Waste heat recovery at this point may be eco- Company is

  1. Prospective strategies to delay the evolution of anti-malarial drug resistance: weighing the uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie F Ellis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of drug resistance in malaria parasites highlights a need to identify and evaluate strategies that could extend the useful therapeutic life of anti-malarial drugs. Such strategies are deployed to best effect before resistance has emerged, under conditions of great uncertainty. Methods Here, the emergence and spread of resistance was modelled using a hybrid framework to evaluate prospective strategies, estimate the time to drug failure, and weigh uncertainty. The waiting time to appearance was estimated as the product of low mutation rates, drug pressure, and parasite population sizes during treatment. Stochastic persistence and the waiting time to establishment were simulated as an evolving branching process. The subsequent spread of resistance was simulated in simple epidemiological models. Results Using this framework, the waiting time to the failure of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT for malaria was estimated, and a policy of multiple first-line therapies (MFTs was evaluated. The models quantify the effects of reducing drug pressure in delaying appearance, reducing the chances of establishment, and slowing spread. By using two first-line therapies in a population, it is possible to reduce drug pressure while still treating the full complement of cases. Conclusions At a global scale, because of uncertainty about the time to the emergence of ACT resistance, there was a strong case for MFTs to guard against early failure. Our study recommends developing operationally feasible strategies for implementing MFTs, such as distributing different ACTs at the clinic and for home-based care, or formulating different ACTs for children and adults.

  2. Flexible spatial perspective-taking: conversational partners weigh multiple cues in collaborative tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Alexia; Avraamides, Marios N.

    2013-01-01

    Research on spatial perspective-taking often focuses on the cognitive processes of isolated individuals as they adopt or maintain imagined perspectives. Collaborative studies of spatial perspective-taking typically examine speakers' linguistic choices, while overlooking their underlying processes and representations. We review evidence from two collaborative experiments that examine the contribution of social and representational cues to spatial perspective choices in both language and the organization of spatial memory. Across experiments, speakers organized their memory representations according to the convergence of various cues. When layouts were randomly configured and did not afford intrinsic cues, speakers encoded their partner's viewpoint in memory, if available, but did not use it as an organizing direction. On the other hand, when the layout afforded an intrinsic structure, speakers organized their spatial memories according to the person-centered perspective reinforced by the layout's structure. Similarly, in descriptions, speakers considered multiple cues whether available a priori or at the interaction. They used partner-centered expressions more frequently (e.g., “to your right”) when the partner's viewpoint was misaligned by a small offset or coincided with the layout's structure. Conversely, they used egocentric expressions more frequently when their own viewpoint coincided with the intrinsic structure or when the partner was misaligned by a computationally difficult, oblique offset. Based on these findings we advocate for a framework for flexible perspective-taking: people weigh multiple cues (including social ones) to make attributions about the relative difficulty of perspective-taking for each partner, and adapt behavior to minimize their collective effort. This framework is not specialized for spatial reasoning but instead emerges from the same principles and memory-depended processes that govern perspective-taking in non-spatial tasks

  3. Flexible spatial perspective-taking: Conversational partners weigh multiple cues in collaborative tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia eGalati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on spatial perspective-taking often focuses on the cognitive processes of isolated individuals as they adopt or maintain imagined perspectives. Collaborative studies of spatial perspective-taking typically examine speakers’ linguistic choices, while overlooking their underlying processes and representations. We review evidence from two collaborative experiments that examine the contribution of social and representational cues to spatial perspective choices in both language and the organization of spatial memory. Across experiments, speakers organized their memory representations according to the convergence of various cues. When layouts were randomly configured and did not afford intrinsic cues, speakers encoded their partner’s viewpoint in memory, if available, but did not use it as an organizing direction. On the other hand, when the layout afforded an intrinsic structure, speakers organized their spatial memories according to the person-centered perspective reinforced by the layout’s structure. Similarly, in descriptions, speakers considered multiple cues whether available a priori or at the interaction. They used partner-centered expressions more frequently (e.g., to your right when the partner’s viewpoint was misaligned by a small offset or coincided with the layout’s structure. Conversely, they used egocentric expressions more frequently when their own viewpoint coincided with the intrinsic structure or when the partner was misaligned by a computationally difficult, oblique offset. Based on these findings we advocate for a framework for flexible perspective-taking: people weigh multiple cues (including social ones to make attributions about the relative difficulty of perspective-taking for each partner, and adapt behavior to minimize their collective effort. This framework is not specialized for spatial reasoning but instead emerges from the same principles and memory-depended processes that govern perspective-taking in

  4. Ranking of Storm Water Harvesting Sites Using Heuristic and Non-Heuristic Weighing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shray Pathak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of water is essential as climate change coupled with land use changes influence the distribution of water availability. Stormwater harvesting (SWH is a widely used conservation measure, which reduces pressure on fresh water resources. However, determining the availability of stormwater and identifying the suitable sites for SWH require consideration of various socio-economic and technical factors. Earlier studies use demand, ratio of runoff to demand and weighted demand distance, as the screening criteria. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS based screening methodology is adopted for identifying potential suitable SWH sites in urban areas as a first pass, and then a detailed study is done by applying suitability criteria. Initially, potential hotspots are identified by a concept of accumulated catchments and later the sites are screened and ranked using various screening parameters namely demand, ratio of runoff to demand and weighted demand distance. During this process, the opinion of experts for finalizing the suitable SWH sites brings subjectivity in the methodology. To obviate this, heuristic (Saaty Analytic hierarchy process (AHP and non-heuristic approaches (Entropy weight, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA weighing techniques are adapted for allotting weights to the parameters and applied in the ranking of SWH sites in Melbourne, Australia and Dehradun, India. It is observed that heuristic approach is not effective for the study area as it was affected by the subjectivity in the expert opinion. Results obtained by non-heuristic approach come out to be in a good agreement with the sites finalized for SWH by the water planners of the study area. Hence, the proposed ranking methodology has the potential for application in decision making of suitable storm water harvesting sites.

  5. Non-intrusive schemes for speed and axle identification in bridge-weigh-in-motion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhori, Hamed; Makki Alamdari, Mehrisadat; Zhu, Xinqun; Samali, Bijan; Mustapha, Samir

    2017-02-01

    Bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) is an approach through which the axle and gross weight of trucks travelling at normal highway speed are identified using the response of an instrumented bridge. The vehicle speed, the number of axles, and the axle spacing are crucial parameters, and are required to be determined in the majority of BWIM algorithms. Nothing-on-the-road (NOR) strategy suggests using the strain signals measured at some particular positions underneath the deck or girders of a bridge to obtain this information. The objective of this research is to present a concise overview of the challenges of the current non-intrusive schemes for speed and axle determination through bending-strain and shear-strain based approaches. The problem associated with the global bending-strain responses measured at quarter points of span is discussed and a new sensor arrangement is proposed as an alternative. As for measurement of local responses rather than the global responses, the advantage of shear strains over bending strains is presented. However, it is illustrated that shear strains at quarter points of span can only provide accurate speed estimation but fail to detect the correct number of axles. As a remedy, it is demonstrated that, even for closely-spaced axles, the shear strain at the beginning of the bridge is capable of reliably identifying the number of axles. In order to provide a fully automated speed and axle identification system, appropriate signal processing including low-pass filtering and wavelet transforms are applied to the raw time signals. As case studies, the results of experimental testing in laboratory and on a real bridge are presented.

  6. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  7. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  8. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  9. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ=7.4° ) than for continental

  10. Assessment of Waste Production and Heavy Metal Emission from Energy Production Sector of Zahedan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyere Poormollae

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Due to the lack of accurate statistics on the amount of waste generated in the energy production sector in Zahedan, before any planning, one should identify all waste producing centers associated with the energy sector and also the quantity and quality of their waste in Zahedan. Materials and methods: This research is a cross-sectional descriptive study. It examined the produced wastes in the electrical energy generation sector. A questionnaire was prepared and completed for each unit that possibility produces these wastes. Moreover, in the studied units, the weigh percent per unit was determined by separating production waste, and collecting and weighing them. Results: In gas power plant of Zahedan, production of burned oil was approximately 480 liters and the annual consumption of turbine oil and compressor oil was 40 liters. In the diesel power plant, 2,200 liters of burned oil is produced for each generator after 1,500 hours of work. Concentration of heavy metals of Cr, Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Ni in the burned oil sample of the gas power plant was 43.2, 0.01, 0.20, 1.3, 2.7, 0.2 mg/l, respectively and in the diesel power plant were 36.3, 0.08, 0.09, 0.9, 4.7, 1.1 mg/l. Conclusion: In the studied samples, several cases of heavy metal pollution were identified. Therefore, proper planning for appropriate management of these units is necessary for any possible leakage and environmental pollution transport. Furthermore, in order to minimize the adverse impacts of hazardous wastes on the environment and people in Zahedan, integrated hazardous wastes management should be practices in electrical energy generation plants. Moreover, one must consider the measures required to exposure, transport, and safe maintenance before managing or eliminating this type of waste.

  11. Nuclear waste solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, William J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition.

  12. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  13. TEXTILE IMPACT PLATES FOR NANOPARTICLES

    OpenAIRE

    VISILEANU Emilia; Dumitrescu, Iuliana; Varzaru, Elena; MITRAN Cornelia; CHIRIAC Laura

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents textile materials with destination impact plates, having different surface architectures and active treatments for functionalization, with influence upon the aging process of nano-Ag and nano-CeO2. The woven and knitted samples from 100% cotton, cotton/PES blend and 100% PES were treated by impregnation on the laboratory padding machine, drying and condensing on the machine for drying-condensing-heat setting, with the following recipes: 50g/l RUCOSTAR EEE6+20 ml 5% nano-A...

  14. Quantification of food waste in public catering services - A case study from a Swedish municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mattias; Persson Osowski, Christine; Malefors, Christopher; Björkman, Jesper; Eriksson, Emelie

    2017-03-01

    Food waste is a major problem that must be reduced in order to achieve a sustainable food supply chain. Since food waste valorisation measures, like energy recovery, have limited possibilities to fully recover the resources invested in food production, there is a need to prevent food waste. Prevention is most important at the end of the value chain, where the largest number of sub-processes have already taken place and occur in vain if the food is not used for its intended purpose, i.e. consumption. Catering facilities and households are at the very end of the food supply chain, and in Sweden the public catering sector serves a large number of meals through municipal organisations, including schools, preschools and elderly care homes. Since the first step in waste reduction is to establish a baseline measurement in order to identify problems, this study sought to quantify food waste in schools, preschools and elderly care homes in one municipality in Sweden. The quantification was conducted during three months, spread out over three semesters, and was performed in all 30 public kitchen units in the municipality of Sala. The kitchen staff used kitchen scales to quantify the mass of wasted and served food divided into serving waste (with sub-categories), plate waste and other food waste. The food waste level was quantified as 75g of food waste per portion served, or 23% of the mass of food served. However, there was great variation between kitchens, with the waste level ranging from 33g waste per portion served (13%) to 131g waste per portion served (34%). Wasted food consisted of 64% serving waste, 33% plate waste and 3% other food waste. Preschools had a lower waste level than schools, possibly due to preschool carers eating together with the children. Kitchens that received warm food prepared in another kitchen (satellite kitchens) had a 42% higher waste level than kitchens preparing all food themselves (production units), possibly due to the latter having higher

  15. DRYING KINETICS OF OIL PALM FROND WASTE USING SIMPLE BATCH OVEN DRYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying phenomena of oil palm frond waste as agriculture waste was observed using simple batch oven dryer. The operation temperatures were 50, 80 and 120 °C. The sample of oil palm frond was weighed periodically every 30 minutes. Moisture content, shrinkage phenomena and drying kinetic model were investigated to the difference operation temperature. Experimental result exhibited that temperature influent significantly to the drying rate. The water transport controlled by diffuse mechanism. Shrinkage occurred in radial direction and decreased the size to almost 65% from initial size. In longitudinal direction almost is not change of size.

  16. Enhanced Freshwater Production Using Finned-Plate Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perves Bappy Mohammad Jabed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air Gap membrane distillation (AGMD, a special type of energy efficient membrane distillation process, is a technology for producing freshwater from waste water. Having some benefits over other traditional processes, this method has been able to draw attention of researchers working in the field of freshwater production technologies. In this study, a basic AGMD system with flat coolant plate has been modified using a specially designed channelled coolant plate of portable size to observe its effect over the production rate and performance of the system. Attempt has been made to increase the amount of distillate flux by using the “fin effect” of the channelled coolant plate. A finned plate have been used instead of a flat coolant plate and experiments were conducted to compare the effect. Coolant temperature and feed temperature of the system have been varied from 10°C to 25°C and 40°C to 70°C respectively. Comparing the data, around 50% to 58% distillate enhancement has been observed for channelled coolant plate. Also, it was seen that the enhancement was higher for higher feed temperatures and coolant temperatures. With these findings, a better performing AGMD module has been introduced to mitigate the scarcity of freshwater.

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Suraya Romali, Noor; Fatimah Che Osmi, Siti; Armi Abu Samah, Mohd

    2013-06-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person-1day-1. Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  18. Evaluation of the ability of people with intellectual disabilities to 'weigh up' information in two tests of financial reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P; Bailey, R; Parry, R; Dymond, S

    2010-04-01

    An assessment of mental capacity includes an evaluation of the ability to 'weigh up' information, but how to do this is uncertain. We have previously used a laboratory decision-making task, temporal discounting, which involves a trade-off between the value and the delay of expected rewards. Participants with intellectual disabilities (ID) showed very little evidence of 'weighing up' of information: only a third of participants showed consistent temporal discounting performance, and when present, consistent performance was usually impulsive; and the ability to perform consistently was more strongly related to executive functioning than to IQ. The aim of the present study was to replicate these observations and extend them to a more realistic financial decision-making task. We administered a temporal discounting task and a financial decision-making task, as well as tests of executive functioning and IQ, to 20 participants who attended day services for people with learning disabilities (mean Full-Scale IQ = 59), and to 10 staff members. Performance in both decision-making tasks was related more strongly to executive functioning than to IQ. In both tasks, decisions by service users were made largely on the basis of a single item of information: there was very little evidence in either task that information from two sources was being 'weighed'. The results suggest that difficulty in 'weighing up' information may be a general problem for people with ID, pointing to a need for psycho-educational remediation strategies to address this issue. The importance of executive functioning in decision-making by people with ID is not recognized in the legal test for mental capacity, which in practice includes a possibly irrelevant IQ criterion.

  19. Development of a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion Sensor: Performance Comparison Using Fiber Optic and Electrical Resistance Strain Sensor Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lydon, Myra; Taylor, Su E.; Robinson, Desmond; O'Brien, Eugene J.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problems of effective in situ measurement of the real-time strain for bridge weigh in motion in reinforced concrete bridge structures through the use of optical fiber sensor systems. By undertaking a series of tests, coupled with dynamic loading, the performance of fiber Bragg grating-based sensor systems with various amplification techniques were investigated. In recent years, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems have been developed to monitor bridge deteriorat...

  20. Validity and reliability of Doppler ultrasonography and direct arterial blood pressure measurements in anaesthetized dogs weighing less than 5 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Xavier; Aguilar, Adria; García, Felix; Ferrer, Rosa; Andaluz, Anna

    2017-09-15

    To assess the validity and reliability of Doppler ultrasonography (DOP) as compared with invasive arterial blood pressure measurements in anaesthetized dogs weighing less than 5 kg. Controlled, prospective, clinical study. A total of 41 privately owned dogs weighing less than 5 kg. The dogs were anaesthetized, and an intra-arterial catheter was placed aseptically in the dorsal pedal artery of the pelvic limb to perform invasive blood pressure (IBP) measurement. The contralateral metatarsal surface of the foot was clipped in order to perform DOP. Both techniques were used to record blood pressure measurements every 5 minutes during surgical procedures. The blood pressure measurements were categorized into two groups: hypotensive [mean arterial pressure (MAP) blood pressure (SAP) and MAP of IBP measurements. The closest agreement between the two techniques was found for SAP; the bias was 8.8, and limits of agreement (LOA) were -32.9 and 50.4. Similar results were observed when the IBP technique was categorized. The closest agreement was for SAP in animals categorized as normotensive; the bias was 8.2, and LOAs were -32.8 and 49.2. The level of agreement between DOP and IBP did not meet the ACVIM recommendations. Our results suggest there is poor agreement between DOP and IBP measurements in anaesthetized dogs weighing less than 5 kg. Hence, the use of DOP in these animals could be misleading. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Single cycle to failure in bending of three standard and five locking plates and plate constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, C A; Boudrieau, R J; Torrance, B S; Tacvorian, E K; Cabassu, J B; Gaudette, G R; Kowaleski, M P

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical properties of standard and locking plates in bending. We hypothesised that titanium (Ti) constructs would have the greatest deformation and that String of Pearl (SOP) constructs would have the greatest strength and stiffness, and would behave differently compared to plates alone. Dynamic compression plates (DCP), stainless steel (SS) limited contact (LC)-DCP®, Ti LC-DCP, locking compression plates (LCP), 10 mm and 11 mm advanced locking plate system (ALPS 10 / 11), SOP and Fixin plates were evaluated individually and as constructs applied to a validated bone model simulating a bridging osteosynthesis. Bending stiffness and strength were compared using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey, and unpaired t-test (p <0.05). The SOP plates had significantly greater stiffness than all other plates; Ti LC-DCP, ALPS 10 and Fixin plates had significantly lower stiffness than all other plates. The SOP constructs had the highest mean bending stiffness, and strength that was significantly different from only the Ti LC-DCP, ALPS 10 and Fixin constructs. The ALPS 10 constructs had the lowest mean bending stiffness, and strength that was significantly different from only ALPS 11 and SOP constructs. Comparison of bending structural stiffness of plates versus constructs showed a significant difference in all plate pairs except for the DCP and ALPS 10. Due to differing plate construct properties inherent to these diverse implant systems, identical approaches to fracture management and plate application cannot be applied.

  2. Experimental results for hydrocarbon refrigerant vaporization in brazed plate heat exchangers at high pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Desideri, Adriano; Rhyl Kaern, Martin; Ommen Schmidt, Torben; Wronski, Jorrit; Quoilin, Sylvain; Lemort, Vincent; Haglind, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the interest in small capacity organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems for harvesting low quality waste thermal energy from industrial processes has been steadily growing. Micro ORC systems are normally equipped with brazed plate heat exchangers which allows for efficient heat transfer with a compact design. An accurate prediction of the heat transfer process characterizing these devices is required from the design phase to the development of model- based control strategies....

  3. Water table effects on measured and simulated fluxes in weighing lysimeters for differently-textured soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegehenkel Martin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Weighing lysimeters can be used for studying the soil water balance and to analyse evapotranspiration (ET. However, not clear was the impact of the bottom boundary condition on lysimeter results and soil water movement. The objective was to analyse bottom boundary effects on the soil water balance. This analysis was carried out for lysimeters filled with fine- and coarse-textured soil monoliths by comparing simulated and measured data for lysimeters with a higher and a lower water table. The eight weighable lysimeters had a 1 m2 grass-covered surface and a depth of 1.5 m. The lysimeters contained four intact monoliths extracted from a sandy soil and four from a soil with a silty-clay texture. For two lysimeters of each soil, constant water tables were imposed at 135 cm and 210 cm depths. Evapotranspiration, change in soil water storage, and groundwater recharge were simulated for a 3-year period (1996 to 1998 using the Hydrus-1D software. Input data consisted of measured weather data and crop model-based simulated evaporation and transpiration. Snow cover and heat transport were simulated based on measured soil temperatures. Soil hydraulic parameter sets were estimated (i from soil core data and (ii based on texture data using ROSETTA pedotransfer approach. Simulated and measured outflow rates from the sandy soil matched for both parameter sets. For the sand lysimeters with the higher water table, only fast peak flow events observed on May 4, 1996 were not simulated adequately mainly because of differences between simulated and measured soil water storage caused by ET-induced soil water storage depletion. For the silty-clay soil, the simulations using the soil hydraulic parameters from retention data (i were matching the lysimeter data except for the observed peak flows on May, 4, 1996, which here probably resulted from preferential flow. The higher water table at the lysimeter bottom resulted in higher drainage in comparison with the lysimeters

  4. Estimating sap flux densities in date palm trees using the heat dissipation method and weighing lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Or; Shapira, Or; Cohen, Shabtai; Tripler, Effi; Schwartz, Amnon; Lazarovitch, Naftali

    2012-09-01

    In a world of diminishing water reservoirs and a rising demand for food, the practice and development of water stress indicators and sensors are in rapid progress. The heat dissipation method, originally established by Granier, is herein applied and modified to enable sap flow measurements in date palm trees in the southern Arava desert of Israel. A long and tough sensor was constructed to withstand insertion into the date palm's hard exterior stem. This stem is wide and fibrous, surrounded by an even tougher external non-conducting layer of dead leaf bases. Furthermore, being a monocot species, water flow does not necessarily occur through the outer part of the palm's stem, as in most trees. Therefore, it is highly important to investigate the variations of the sap flux densities and determine the preferable location for sap flow sensing within the stem. Once installed into fully grown date palm trees stationed on weighing lysimeters, sap flow as measured by the modified sensors was compared with the actual transpiration. Sap flow was found to be well correlated with transpiration, especially when using a recent calibration equation rather than the original Granier equation. Furthermore, inducing the axial variability of the sap flux densities was found to be highly important for accurate assessments of transpiration by sap flow measurements. The sensors indicated no transpiration at night, a high increase of transpiration from 06:00 to 09:00, maximum transpiration at 12:00, followed by a moderate reduction until 08:00; when transpiration ceased. These results were reinforced by the lysimeters' output. Reduced sap flux densities were detected at the stem's mantle when compared with its center. These results were reinforced by mechanistic measurements of the stem's specific hydraulic conductivity. Variance on the vertical axis was also observed, indicating an accelerated flow towards the upper parts of the tree and raising a hypothesis concerning dehydrating

  5. Monitoring growth in finishers by weighing selected groups of pigs - A dynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygar, A H; Kristensen, A R

    2016-03-01

    Application of BW monitoring methods for the whole batch of pigs is not common in commercial herds. Instead, farm managers may regularly weigh a chosen subset of pigs (observed group) and use the obtained information for monitoring, forecasting, and decision support. The objective of this study was to construct a model for growth monitoring and forecasting in pig fattening herds and use the developed model framework to quantify the value of information on BW. The dynamic process of pig growing was described by means of a dynamic linear model (DLM) with Kalman filtering. For this study, data from 9 fattening cycles with the total registration for 9,800 pigs were used. The variance components were estimated by fitting a mixed-effects linear model on selected BW measurements. The obtained model was evaluated on its performance in forecasting the number of pigs ready to deliver from the whole batch and from a particular pen given the level of information on a reference data set consisting of 2 batches (Batch 3 [B1] and Batch 4 [B2]). Scenarios with a different frequency of observations (only 1 selected week, every second week, or weekly) on individual and aggregated levels for an observed group comprising 1 pen (36 pigs, which constitute 7.5% of pigs in a batch) or 2 pens (15.5% of pigs) were analyzed. Moreover, results with only initial herd information and insertion BW at the batch, pen, and pig level were presented. The model can be used for growth monitoring of the batch and for prediction of the number of pigs ready for slaughter in a given week (i.e., with a BW exceeding a threshold, which, in this study, is set to 105 kg). With an increased level of information, both accuracy (measured by the mean absolute deviation [MAD] of actual number of pigs above 105 kg from predicted number) and precision (measured by CV) of the model continue to improve. When monitoring all pigs at insertion and the observed groups every week (15.5% of pigs) compared with predictions

  6. Weighing costs and losses: A decision making game using probabilistic forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Micha; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Wetterhall, Frederik; Cranston, Michael; van Andel, Schalk-Jan; Pappenberger, Florian; Verkade, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Probabilistic forecasts are increasingly recognised as an effective and reliable tool to communicate uncertainties. The economic value of probabilistic forecasts has been demonstrated by several authors, showing the benefit to using probabilistic forecasts over deterministic forecasts in several sectors, including flood and drought warning, hydropower, and agriculture. Probabilistic forecasting is also central to the emerging concept of risk-based decision making, and underlies emerging paradigms such as impact-based forecasting. Although the economic value of probabilistic forecasts is easily demonstrated in academic works, its evaluation in practice is more complex. The practical use of probabilistic forecasts requires decision makers to weigh the cost of an appropriate response to a probabilistic warning against the projected loss that would occur if the event forecast becomes reality. In this paper, we present the results of a simple game that aims to explore how decision makers are influenced by the costs required for taking a response and the potential losses they face in case the forecast flood event occurs. Participants play the role of one of three possible different shop owners. Each type of shop has losses of quite different magnitude, should a flood event occur. The shop owners are presented with several forecasts, each with a probability of a flood event occurring, which would inundate their shop and lead to those losses. In response, they have to decide if they want to do nothing, raise temporary defences, or relocate their inventory. Each action comes at a cost; and the different shop owners therefore have quite different cost/loss ratios. The game was played on four occasions. Players were attendees of the ensemble hydro-meteorological forecasting session of the 2016 EGU Assembly, professionals participating at two other conferences related to hydrometeorology, and a group of students. All audiences were familiar with the principles of forecasting

  7. Petrologic implications of plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, H S

    1971-07-30

    Petrologists can make significant contributions to the plate tectonic concept. Fixing the stability fields of the principal rock types involved will provide the limits of pressure and temperature of the various environments. Experimental determination of the partition coefficients of the trace elements will be helpful. Studies of the partial melting behavior of possible parental materials in the absence and presence of water, especially the undersaturated region, will contribute to the understanding of magma production. Experimental observations on the rheological properties of the peridotites below and just above the solidus will lead to a better evaluation of the convective mechanism. Measurement of the fundamental properties of rocks, such as the density of solids and liquids at high pressures and temperatures, would contribute to understanding the concepts of diapiric rise, magma segregation, and the low-velocity zone. Broader rock sampling of the oceanic areas of all environments will do much to define the petrologic provinces. The field petrologist specializing in the Paleozoic regions and Precambrian shields can contribute by examining those regions for old plate boundaries and devising new criteria for their recognition.

  8. Wide-Field Plate Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, M. K.; Stavrev, K. Y.; Tsvetkova, K. P.; Semkov, E. H.; Mutatov, A. S.

    The Wide-Field Plate Database (WFPDB) and the possibilities for its application as a research tool in observational astronomy are presented. Currently the WFPDB comprises the descriptive data for 400 000 archival wide field photographic plates obtained with 77 instruments, from a total of 1 850 000 photographs stored in 269 astronomical archives all over the world since the end of last century. The WFPDB is already accessible for the astronomical community, now only in batch mode through user requests sent by e-mail. We are working on on-line interactive access to the data via INTERNET from Sofia and parallel from the Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg. (Initial information can be found on World Wide Web homepage URL http://www.wfpa.acad.bg.) The WFPDB may be useful in studies of a variety of astronomical objects and phenomena, andespecially for long-term investigations of variable objects and for multi-wavelength research. We have analysed the data in the WFPDB in order to derive the overall characteristics of the totality of wide-field observations, such as the sky coverage, the distributions by observation time and date, by spectral band, and by object type. We have also examined the totality of wide-field observations from point of view of their quality, availability and digitisation. The usefulness of the WFPDB is demonstrated by the results of identification and investigation of the photometrical behaviour of optical analogues of gamma-ray bursts.

  9. Chaotic vibrations of heated plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermen-Coker, Muge

    1998-12-01

    In recent years, the investigation of dynamical behavior of plates under thermal loads has become important due to the high temperatures reached on external skin panels of hypersonic vehicles. It has been shown by other researchers that the skin panels may encounter chaotic vibrations about their thermally buckled positions. In this research, the chaotic vibrations of simply supported plates under thermal and sinusoidal excitation is studied in order to predict the vibratory behavior of a representative class of such skin panels. A method for the development of equations of motion, that forms a foundation for further investigation of the response of elastic panels under general thermal, mechanical and aerodynamic loading and various boundary conditions, is presented and discussed. The boundaries of regular and chaotic regions of motion are defined and the sensitivity of these boundaries to changes in design parameters is explored for the purpose of developing useful design criteria. The onset of chaos is predicted through the computation of Lyapunov exponents. The sensitivity of Lyapunov exponent calculations to the choice of numerical method of integration, numerical precision and the magnitude of coefficients as functions of design variables, is discussed. The effects of thermal moment, thermal buckling, amplitude and frequency of excitation, damping, thickness and length to width ratio of panels on the onset of chaos is studied. The results of the research are presented as a contribution to the panel design of hypersonic vehicles.

  10. Waste catalysts for waste polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmiaton, A; Garforth, A

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic cracking of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) over fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts (1:6 ratio) was carried out using a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operating at 450 degrees C. Two fresh and two steam deactivated commercial FCC catalysts with different levels of rare earth oxide (REO) were compared as well as two used FCC catalysts (E-Cats) with different levels of metal poisoning. Also, inert microspheres (MS3) were used as a fluidizing agent to compare with thermal cracking process at BP pilot plant at Grangemouth, Scotland, which used sand as its fluidizing agent. The results of HDPE degradation in terms of yield of volatile hydrocarbon product are fresh FCC catalysts>steamed FCC catalysts approximately used FCC catalysts. The thermal cracking process using MS3 showed that at 450 degrees C, the product distribution gave 46 wt% wax, 14% hydrocarbon gases, 8% gasoline, 0.1% coke and 32% nonvolatile product. In general, the product yields from HDPE cracking showed that the level of metal contamination (nickel and vanadium) did not affect the product stream generated from polymer cracking. This study gives promising results as an alternative technique for the cracking and recycling of polymer waste.

  11. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-07-12

    and operational requirements of the YMP. Four waste package configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology during the licensing process. These four configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor absorber plate waste package (21-PWRAP), the 44-boiling water reactor waste package (44-BWR), the 5 defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal short waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Short), and the naval canistered SNF long waste package (Naval SNF Long). Design work for the other six waste packages will be completed at a later date using the same design methodology. These include the 24-boiling water reactor waste package (24-BWR), the 21-pressurized water reactor control rod waste package (21-PWRCR), the 12-pressurized water reactor waste package (12-PWR), the 5 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal long waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Long), the 2 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal waste package (2-MC012-DHLW), and the naval canistered SNF short waste package (Naval SNF Short). This report is only part of the complete design description. Other reports related to the design include the design reports, the waste package system description documents, manufacturing specifications, and numerous documents for the many detailed calculations. The relationships between this report and other design documents are shown in Figure 1.

  12. Unobtrusive Estimation of Cardiac Contractility and Stroke Volume Changes Using Ballistocardiogram Measurements on a High Bandwidth Force Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazar Ashouri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Unobtrusive and inexpensive technologies for monitoring the cardiovascular health of heart failure (HF patients outside the clinic can potentially improve their continuity of care by enabling therapies to be adjusted dynamically based on the changing needs of the patients. Specifically, cardiac contractility and stroke volume (SV are two key aspects of cardiovascular health that change significantly for HF patients as their condition worsens, yet these parameters are typically measured only in hospital/clinical settings, or with implantable sensors. In this work, we demonstrate accurate measurement of cardiac contractility (based on pre-ejection period, PEP, timings and SV changes in subjects using ballistocardiogram (BCG signals detected via a high bandwidth force plate. The measurement is unobtrusive, as it simply requires the subject to stand still on the force plate while holding electrodes in the hands for simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG detection. Specifically, we aimed to assess whether the high bandwidth force plate can provide accuracy beyond what is achieved using modified weighing scales we have developed in prior studies, based on timing intervals, as well as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR estimates. Our results indicate that the force plate BCG measurement provides more accurate timing information and allows for better estimation of PEP than the scale BCG (r2 = 0.85 vs. r2 = 0.81 during resting conditions. This correlation is stronger during recovery after exercise due to more significant changes in PEP (r2 = 0.92. The improvement in accuracy can be attributed to the wider bandwidth of the force plate. ∆SV (i.e., changes in stroke volume estimations from the force plate BCG resulted in an average error percentage of 5.3% with a standard deviation of ±4.2% across all subjects. Finally, SNR calculations showed slightly better SNR in the force plate measurements among all subjects but the small difference confirmed that SNR is

  13. Wave energy harvesting by piezoelectric flexible plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoele, Kourosh

    2013-11-01

    The ocean tidal currents and waves are very attractive sources of energy for extraction due to their vast availability and very low environmental impacts. Among different technologies, the harvesting of flow energy through the flapping of flexible plates has recently gained attentions. The sustained oscillation of a flexible plate is the result of a fluid-structure interaction occurrence, mainly from two different situations. In the first case, the oscillation is from the fluttering instability of the plate. In the second case, the unsteady flow is presented in the incoming flow either from the oscillatory sources such as surface waves. The mechanical energy is then converted to electricity using piezoelectric patches connected to the plate. In this paper, we discuss the novel approach to extract the wave energy using piezoelectric plates and discuss how parameters of the piezoelectric plate can be adjusted to increase the amount of energy that can be extracted from the current and free-surface waves.

  14. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Zweben

    2011-05-16

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ~10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  15. Metal nano-grid reflective wave plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Y; Gordon, R

    2009-02-16

    We propose an optical wave plate using a metal nano-grid. The wave plate operates in reflection mode. A single-mode truncated modematching theory is presented as a general method to design such nano-grid wave plates with the desired phase difference between the reflected TM and TE polarizations. This analytical theory allows angled incidence calculations as well, and numerical results agree-well with comprehensive finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic simulations. Due to the subwavelength path-length, the reflective wave plate is expected to have improved broad-band functionality over existing zero-order transmissive wave plates, for which an example is provided. The proposed wave plate is simple and compact, and it is amenable to existing nanofabrication techniques. The reflective geometry is especially promising for applications including liquid-crystal displays and laser feedback experiments.

  16. Hazardous Waste: Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Hazardous Waste Contact Us Share Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste Hazardous waste that ... Regulations part 261 . Select a question below to learn more about each step in the hazardous waste ...

  17. Effect of weight-loss program using self-weighing twice a day and feedback in overweight and obese subject: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Yoshitake; Matsuoka, Yukiyo; Sakane, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of self-weighing twice a day with a supportive program installed on a body composition monitor in overweight adults. Sixty adults with BMI > 24 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to either a group that weighed themselves once per day (group 1, n = 30) or a group that weighed themselves twice per day (group 2, n = 30). Group 1 was instructed to self-weigh at the same time once per day and group 2 was instructed to self-weigh immediately after waking up in the morning and immediately before going to bed every day for twelve weeks. In addition, participants in group 2 was received the daily target setting during morning weighing and the difference between the measured weight and the target weight during bedtime weighing. Average weight reduction in group 1 was significantly lower than that in group 2 (1.0 ± 1.4 kg vs. 2.7 ± 2.1 kg, p weight in group 2 was significantly higher than that in group 1 (28.6% vs. 3.6%, p weight loss than once-daily self-measurement. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  19. High performance flat plate solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Reynolds, R.

    1976-01-01

    The potential use of porous construction is presented to achieve efficient heat removal from a power producing solid and is applied to solar air heaters. Analytical solutions are given for the temperature distribution within a gas-cooled porous flat plate having its surface exposed to the sun's energy. The extracted thermal energy is calculated for two different types of plate transparency. Results show the great improvement in performance obtained with porous flat plate collectors as compared with analogous nonporous types.

  20. From Point Defects to Plate Tectonic Faults

    OpenAIRE

    Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Hobbs, Bruce; Yuen, David; Ord, Alison; Zhang, Yanhua; Muhlhaus, Hans Bernd; Morra, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Understanding and explaining emergent constitutive laws in the multi-scale evolution from point defects, dislocations and two-dimensional defects to plate tectonic scales is an arduous challenge in condensed matter physics. The Earth appears to be the only planet known to have developed stable plate tectonics as a means to get rid of its heat. The emergence of plate tectonics out of mantle convection appears to rely intrinsically on the capacity to form extremely weak faul...

  1. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon; Larcher, Steven; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Over the years there have been several occurrences of damage to Space Shuttle Orbiter cold plates during removal and replacement of avionics boxes. Thus a process improvement team was put together to determine ways to prevent these kinds of damage. From this effort there were many solutions including, protective covers, training, and improved operations instructions. The focus of this paper is to explain the cold plate damage problem and the corrective actions for preventing future damage to aerospace avionics cold plate designs.

  2. Evaluation of korzincalloy prepared by Hohman Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hollingshad, A. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-17

    A commercial vendor, Hohman Plating performed contract engineering work to determine the feasibility of producing pin hole free KorZincAlloy bronze material used for zinc gettering. Samples were tested for Sn plating thickness, heat treatability, and chemistry prior to being subjected to a standardized zinc exposure. The samples absorbed zinc and were examined using visual and scanning electron microscopy. Hohman Plating successfully produced KZA that met the target composition, was pin hole free, and was an effective zinc getter.

  3. 431K/CD vehicle number plates

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    The Green Plates Service, which is responsible for issuing the 431K/CD vehicle number plates , wishes to apologise for the delay in processing applications over the past weeks. The delay is outside the Service’s control, as it is due to the recent introduction of new rules governing the vehicle registration process in France. Normal service will be resumed as soon as possible. Thank you for your understanding. GS-SEM-LS – Green Plates Service

  4. Strain resolving method of composite plane plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion FUIOREA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extension of isotropic plates problem to the case of composite plates. In order to perform it, the Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses were “softened” by some additional ones. Considering the constitutive laws for composite materials the stress functions were eliminated by using Cauchy equations. As a result a partial derivative equation in displacements was obtained. Finally the boundary condition formulation was extended for the case of complex composite plates.

  5. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  6. Reliability assessment of different plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in functionally graded plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The importance of elastic wave propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic waves in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided waves especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as functionally graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of wave fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural waves in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in wave number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Locking screw-plate interface stability in carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone proximal humerus plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, David J; Fader, Ryan; Baldini, Todd; Chadayammuri, Vivek B S

    2017-07-13

    Carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plates have recently been introduced for proximal humerus fracture treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the locking screw-plate interface stability in CFR-PEEK versus stainless steel (SS) proximal humerus plates. Locking screw mechanical stability was evaluated independently in proximal and shaft plate holes. Stiffness and load to failure were tested for three conditions: (1) on-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK versus SS plates, (2) on-axis locking screw insertion, removal, and reinsertion in CFR-PEEK plates, and (3) 10-degree off-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK plates. Cantilever bending at a rate of 1 mm/minute was produced by an Instron machine and load-displacement data recorded. Shaft locking screw load to failure was significantly greater in CFR-PEEK plates compared to SS plates (746.4 ± 89.7 N versus 596.5 ± 32.6 N, p PEEK plates (p PEEK plates. The mechanical stability of locking screws in CFR-PEEK plates is comparable or superior to locking screws in SS plates.

  8. MACMA: a Virtual Lab for Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigne, C.; Combes, M.; Tisseau, C.

    2013-12-01

    MACMA (Multi-Agent Convective MAntle) is a tool developed to simulate evolutive plate tectonics and mantle convection in a 2-D cylindrical geometry (Combes et al., 2012). The model relies mainly on a force balance to compute the velocity of each plate, and on empirical rules to determine how plate boundaries move and evolve. It includes first-order features of plate tectonics: (a) all plates on Earth do not have the same size, (b) subduction zones are asymmetric, (c) plates driven by subducting slabs and upper plates do not exhibit the same velocities, and (d) plate boundaries are mobile, can collide, merge and disappear, and new plate boundaries can be created. The MACMA interface was designed to be user-friendly and a simple use of the simulator can be achieved without any prerequisite knowledge in fluid dynamics, mantle rheology, nor in numerical methods. As a preliminary study, the simulator was used by a few students from bachelor's degree to master's degree levels. An initial configuration for plate tectonics has to be created before starting a simulation: the number and types of plate boundaries (ridge, subduction, passive margins) has to be defined and seafloor ages must be given. A simple but interesting exercise consists in letting students build such an initial configuration: they must analyze a map of tectonic plates, choose a 2-D section and examine carefully a map of seafloor ages. Students mentioned that the exercise made them realize that the 3-D spherical structure of plate tectonics does not translate directly in a simple 2-D section, as opposed to what is usually shown in books. Physical parameters: e.g. mantle viscosity, number of layers to consider in the mantle (upper and lower mantle, possible asthenosphere), initial time and mantle temperature, have to be chosen, and students can use this virtual lab to see how different scenarios emerge when parameters are varied. Very importantly, the direct visualization of the mobility of plate

  9. Pulse reversal plating of nickel alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben

    2007-01-01

    Pulse plating has previously been reported to improve the properties of nickel and nickel alloy deposits. Typically, focus has been on properties such as grain size, hardness and smoothness. When pulse plating is to be utilised for microtechnologies such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS......), internal stress and material distribution are even more important. With baths based upon nickel chloride, and nickel and cobalt chlorides, pulse reversal plating of both pure nickel and nickel-cobalt alloys has been used to fabricate tools for microinjection moulding. Pulse reversal plating of ternary soft...

  10. Plate Tectonics: A Paradigm under Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, David

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the challenges confronting plate tectonics. Presents evidence that contradicts continental drift, seafloor spreading, and subduction. Reviews problems posed by vertical tectonic movements. (Contains 242 references.) (DDR)

  11. Modal interaction in postbuckled plates. Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Gaylen A.

    1989-01-01

    Plates can have more than one buckled solution for a fixed set of boundary conditions. The theory for the identification and the computation of multiple solutions in buckled plates is examined. The theory predicts modal interaction (which is also called change in buckle pattern or secondary buckling) in experiments on certain plates with multiple theoretical solutions. A set of coordinate functions is defined for Galerkin's method so that the von Karman plate equations are reduced to a coupled set of cubic equations in generalized coordinates that are uncoupled in the linear terms. An iterative procedure for solving modal interaction problems is suggested based on this cubic form.

  12. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...

  13. Plate electrode arrangement for an electrostatic precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    An electrode plate arrangement for an electrostatic precipitator including a plurality of essentially identical plate assemblies secured in an opposing fashion to the opposite sides of a gridlike mounting frame extending across the interior of the precipitator. The plate assemblies on the upstream side of the frame include an ionizing zone for the dirty gas stream which feeds into serially aligned collecting zones in the opposing assemblies which in turn feed into a deionizing zone in the plate assemblies on the downstream side of the frame.

  14. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates....... The obtained results indicate that the simplified analytical method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding-induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show...

  15. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected...... that the simplified method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show that the procedure has sufficient accuracy for practical...

  16. Line Heat-Source Guarded Hot Plate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The 1-meter guarded hot-plate apparatus measures thermal conductivity of building insulation. This facility provides for absolute measurement of thermal...

  17. Continuum Mechanics of Beam and Plate Flexure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    must be acquainted with the classic beam and plate theories, when reading manuals and using modern software tools such as the finite element method. Each chapter includes supplementary theory and derivations enabling consultation of the notes also at a later stage of study. A preliminary chapter...... analysis of beam structures is presented and includes both upper and lower-bound solution techniques. The remaining chapters are devoted to plates. The classic elastic plate theories are presented. The plastic yield line theory for plates is presented including both upper and lower-bound techniques...

  18. Research on the Influence of Weighing Accuracy Caused by the Position of Tension Wheel on the Electronic Belt-Conveyor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Hu; Song, Qiuzhi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a Single- Idler electronic belt-conveyor scale is the Object of study. The contact force between the belt and the supporting roller is calculated by the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The relationship between the tension distance of the tension wheel and the contact force between the belt and the weighing roller is obtained. The best stretching distance is found through analysis. And the conclusion which is the weighing error is different at the same stretching distance but the different weight of material is obtained. A compensation mechanism is proposed to improve the weighing accuracy.

  19. Akurasi petugas dalam penentuan sisa makanan pasien rawat inap menggunakan metode taksiran visual skala comstock 6 poin

    OpenAIRE

    Susyani Susyani; Endy Paryanto Prawirohartono; Toto Sudargo

    2005-01-01

    Background: bserving plate waste is categorized as a simple way but yet still needs evaluation. When many foods are wasted, a dietitian should quickly respond and know the best way how to overcome the matters. There are three accurate ways to determine plate waste: plate waste weighing, visual estimation, and 24 hours recall. The application of each method really depends on its purposes. According to previous researches there are significant and positive correlations between the visual estima...

  20. TEXTILE IMPACT PLATES FOR NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISILEANU Emilia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents textile materials with destination impact plates, having different surface architectures and active treatments for functionalization, with influence upon the aging process of nano-Ag and nano-CeO2. The woven and knitted samples from 100% cotton, cotton/PES blend and 100% PES were treated by impregnation on the laboratory padding machine, drying and condensing on the machine for drying-condensing-heat setting, with the following recipes: 50g/l RUCOSTAR EEE6+20 ml 5% nano-Ag dispersion, or 10% nano-CeO2 in ethylene glycol, respectively water and 0,5ml acetic acid 60% for products from 100% cotton and PES/cotton and 50g/l NUVA N 2114 liquid with the same percent of nanoparticles but with 1 ml/l acetic acid 60%, in case of 100% PES samples. The samples were treated in 2 steps – hydrophobic/ oleo phobic in the first stage and hydrophobic/ oleo phobic/ functionalization with nano-Ag and nano-CeO2 in the second stage. The complex characterization of both type of materials : hydrophobic and oleo phobic properties, color change, whitening degree, DCS, FT-IR, SEM and microbiology, evidenced through the obtained results the justness of the selection for: the raw materials (100% cotton, cotton/PES, 100% PES, the weave (plain, twill, rib, pique, the fabric tightness and fabric cover etc. These data allowed the elaboration of textile material’s specifications for impact plates.

  1. Surgical treatment of intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus: comparison between flat plate and calcaneal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Almeida da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical results of surgical treatment of intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus, comparing the use of calcaneal plate and flat plate. METHODS: This was a retrospective study assessing the postoperative results of 25 patients between 2013 and 2015. Patients undergoing surgical treatment of intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus without concomitant surgical lesions were included. Patients who did not complete appropriate follow-up after surgery were excluded from the study. RESULTS: The unavailability of calcaneal plates at resource-limited settings, associated with the availability and lower cost of flat plates, may have been a confounding factor in the present study. However, there was no statistical difference between the outcomes of fractures treated with calcaneal plates or flat plates. CONCLUSION: Statistical inference shows that, when calcaneal plates are not available, it is possible to use flat plates with similar clinical outcomes.

  2. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... and has just been landfilled. However, in recent years more focus has been put on C&D waste and data are starting to appear. One reason is that it has been recognized that C&D waste may include many materials that are contaminated either as part of their original design or through their use and therefore...... should be managed accordingly. Another reason is that it has been documented that a large fraction of C&D waste (about 90 %) can be easily recycled and thus can conserve landfill capacity. C&D waste may conveniently be divided into three subcategories: Buildings, roads and excavations. This chapter...

  3. Waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1977-01-01

    A waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes in the form of a solidified glass includes fins supported from the center with the tips of the fins spaced away from the wall to conduct heat away from the center without producing unacceptable hot spots in the canister wall.

  4. Business unusual - Waste Act implementation: solid waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The preamble to the Waste Act (2008) is very clear that, as a result of this legislation, waste management in South Africa will never be the same again. This should send a clear message that ‘business as usual’ will no longer be sufficient....

  5. Biohazardous waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.

    2004-01-01

    This plan describes the process for managing non-medical biohazardous waste at Sandia National Laboratories California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of biohazardous waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to non-medical biohazardous waste.

  6. Medical waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  7. INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Truptimala Patanaik; Ambika Priyadarshini Mishra; Aishariya Durga; Gayatri Avipsa

    2016-01-01

    The towns and cities have become the centres of population growth and require three essential services viz., water supply, waste water treatment and solid wastes disposal. The tremendous increase in population accelerates the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Hence, the solid waste management (SWM) is one of the essential municipal services, to protect the environment, safeguard public health services and improve productivity.   In this context the case study is c...

  8. Solid waste handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  9. Pollution prevention and waste minimization in metal finishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimetz, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    This study was done to identify pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities in the general plating department and the printed circuit board processing department. Recommendations for certain recycle and recovery technologies were mad in order to reduce usage of acids and the volume of heavy metal sludge that is formed at the industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility (IWPF). Some of these technologies discussed were acid purification, electrowinning, and ion exchange. Specific technologies are prescribed for specific processes. Those plating processes where the metals can be recovered are copper, nickel, gold, cadmium, tin, lead, and rhodium.

  10. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  11. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  12. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  13. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  14. Rock & Roll : Waste seperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beunder, L.; Rem, P.C.; Van Den Berg, R.

    2000-01-01

    Five hundred tonnes of glass, 1 million tonnes of plastic,14 million tonnes of building and demolition waste, 7 million tonnes of household waste, 3 million tonnes of packaging, 3.5 million tonnes of paper and board, and 300,000 old cars. All part of the annual harvest of waste materials in the

  15. Waste vs Resource Management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent global waste statistics show that in the order of 70% of all municipal waste generated worldwide is disposed at landfill, 11% is treated in thermal and Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities and the rest (19%) is recycled or treated by mechanical...

  16. Crane Scheduling for a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Odense Steel Shipyard produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. This paper considers the problem of scheduling two cranes that carry out the movements of plates...

  17. Marangoni flow on an inkjet nozzle plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; Reinten, Hans; Wijshoff, H.; Wijshoff, Herman; van den Berg, Marc; Delescen, Koos; van Dongen, Rini; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Versluis, Andreas Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    In piezo inkjet printing, nozzle failures are often caused by an ink layer on the nozzle plate. It is experimentally shown that the ink layer at the nozzle is formed through streamers of ink, emanating from a central ink band on the nozzle plate. The streamers propagate over a wetting nanofilm of

  18. Plate Tectonic Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Plate Tectonics Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) volcanoes (covering formation, distribution, and major volcanic groups); (2) earthquakes (with investigations on wave movements, seismograms and sub-suface earth currents); (3) plate tectonics (providing maps…

  19. 30 CFR 22.10 - Approval plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... manufacturers. (1) Manufacturers shall attach, stamp, or mold an approval plate on each permissible methane detector. The plate shall bear the emblem of the Mines Safety and Health Administration and be inscribed as...

  20. 30 CFR 20.13 - Approval plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... manufacturer shall attach, stamp, or mold an approval plate on the battery container or housing of each permissible lamp. The plate shall bear the emblem of the Mine Safety and Health Administration, and be...

  1. Micromachined silicon plates for sensing molecular interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlen, Edwin; Weinberg, M.S.; Dube, C.E.; Zapata, A.M.; Borenstein, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    A micromachined surface stress sensor based on a thin suspended crystalline silicon circular plate measures differential surface stress changes associated with vapor phase chemisorption of an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer. The isolated face of the suspended silicon plate serves as the sensing

  2. Plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Corroded steel plate; plastic collapse; FEM; rough surface. ... The main aim of present work is to study plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces under tension. Non-linear finite element method ... Department of Ocean Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, 15914 Tehran, Iran ...

  3. 49 CFR 230.46 - Badge plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.46 Badge plates. A metal badge plate showing the allowed steam pressure shall be attached to the boiler backhead in the cab. If boiler backhead is lagged, the lagging and jacket shall be cut away so...

  4. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue

  5. STABILITY ANALYSIS OF SSSS THIN RECTANGULAR PLATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was achieved by truncating the two domain Taylor Maclaurin's series at the seventh term to evolve the general deflection polynomial function for thin rectangular plate continuum. Consequently, the SSSS plate boundary conditions were applied, reducing the polynomial function to four degrees of freedom function.

  6. Tectonics of oblique plate boundary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Brune, Sascha; Leever, Karen A.; Fernández, Carlos; Czeck, Dyanna M.

    2016-12-01

    The relative displacement between lithospheric plates normally results in obliquely deforming plate boundaries. This is simply caused by the fact that, on plate tectonics basis, irregularly shaped plate boundaries are rarely perpendicular or parallel to small-circle rotation paths, which describe plate motion on a sphere (Fig. 1a). Global current relative plate motions estimated from geological data (DeMets et al., 2010; Argus et al., 2011) and GPS measurements (e.g., Kreemer et al., 2003; Argus et al., 2010) provide insight to the prevalent degrees of obliquity on Earth's surface. Based on these global data sets, Philippon and Corti (2016), statistically show that current orthogonal boundaries (obliquity angle smaller than 10°) represent around 8% of the total boundary length whereas strike-slip boundaries (obliquity angle larger than 80°) are encountered in plate boundaries present oblique relative motions. Furthermore, changes in plate kinematics leading to migration or jumps in the rotation poles necessarily cause obliquity along former pure strike-slip or convergent/divergent boundaries (Fig. 1b).

  7. Roll-forming tubes to header plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, K.

    1976-01-01

    Technique has been developed for attaching and sealing tubes to header plates using a unique roll-forming tool. Technique is useful for attaching small tubes which are difficult to roll into conventional grooves in header plate tube holes, and for attaching when welding, brazing, or soldering is not desirable.

  8. Pressure-Letdown Plates for Coal Gasifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Variation of pseudoporous plates used with coal gasifiers in pressure letdown stage of processing minimize clogging. Rotating plates containing variable gap annuli continually change flow path to enable erosionless reduction of gas pressure. Particles that otherwise clog porous plugs pass through gaps.

  9. Growth Plate Chondrocytes' Morphology and Intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Longitudinal bone growth is dependent on the state of the chondrocytes and the extracellular matrix of the growth plate. Hypervitaminosis A is known to result in limb shortening in several models, this anomaly has been related to the early closure of the epiphyseal plate. The specific contribution of the different ...

  10. Novel Algorithms for Astronomical Plate Analyses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Powerful computers and dedicated software allow effective data mining and scientific analyses in astronomical plate archives. We give and discuss examples of newly developed algorithms for astronomical plate analyses, e.g., searches for optical transients, as well as for major spectral and brightness ...

  11. Development and evaluation of a dual purpose bridge health monitoring and weigh-in-motion system for a steel girder bridge : phase two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The primary objective of this second phase is the further development, demonstration : and field evaluation of a permanent dual purpose bridge weigh-in-motion and health monitoring : system over an extended period of time. Calibrated test truck resul...

  12. Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, and hypertension in children weighing more than normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Phatale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension (pre-HT, and hypertension (HT in children weighing more than normal. Materials and Methods: Three- to eighteen-year old children weighing more than normal were included. Pathological short children were excluded. According to Centre for Disease Control (CDC, children are grouped into overweight (OW and obese (OB. Indian B.P. reference tables are used for defining HT and pre-HT. [2] HbA1c by HPLC (BIO RAD method was used to define pre-diabetes and diabetes. [3] Children with HbA1c ≥6.5 were subjected for Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT. C-peptide assay was done to rule out (r/o IDDM. Observations: When we compare this with our earlier presentation at PEDICON 2011, we found that hypertension (HTN (22.9% vs. 23.07% is not significantly different but pre-HTN (28.09% vs. 33.9%, pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM (3.7% vs. 64.3%, and diabetes mellitus (DM (0.35% vs. 3.8% are significantly high in this study. Conclusion: (1 Prevalence of HT (22.90% vs. 23.07% is similar in both groups but pre-HT (33.9% vs. 28.09% is high in this study. (2 Significant rise in prevalence of diabetes (3.84% vs. 0.35% and pre-diabetes (64.33% vs. 3.7% is seen in this study. (3 This change is because of using HbA1c as screening tool in children weighing more than normal.

  13. Evaluation of Sensible Heat Flux and Evapotranspiration Estimates Using a Surface Layer Scintillometer and a Large Weighing Lysimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry E. Moorhead

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET are important for optimal irrigation water management, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Common ET sensing methods include Bowen Ratio, Eddy Covariance (EC, and scintillometers. Large weighing lysimeters are considered the ultimate standard for measurement of ET, however, they are expensive to install and maintain. Although EC and scintillometers are less costly and relatively portable, EC has known energy balance closure discrepancies. Previous scintillometer studies used EC for ground-truthing, but no studies considered weighing lysimeters. In this study, a Surface Layer Scintillometer (SLS was evaluated for accuracy in determining ET as well as sensible and latent heat fluxes, as compared to a large weighing lysimeter in Bushland, TX. The SLS was installed over irrigated grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench for the period 29 July–17 August 2015 and over grain corn (Zea mays L. for the period 23 June–2 October 2016. Results showed poor correlation for sensible heat flux, but much better correlation with ET, with r2 values of 0.83 and 0.87 for hourly and daily ET, respectively. The accuracy of the SLS was comparable to other ET sensing instruments with an RMSE of 0.13 mm·h−1 (31% for hourly ET; however, summing hourly values to a daily time step reduced the ET error to 14% (0.75 mm·d−1. This level of accuracy indicates that potential exists for the SLS to be used in some water management applications. As few studies have been conducted to evaluate the SLS for ET estimation, or in combination with lysimetric data, further evaluations would be beneficial to investigate the applicability of the SLS in water resources management.

  14. Preliminary studies for the development of intranasal nanoemulsion containing CNS agent: emphasizing the utilization of cut and weigh method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amrish; Jain, Sunil Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The selection of excipients and preformulation strategy plays a vital role for the development of nanoemulsion, due to anatomical and physiological challenges posed by nasal cavity. This attempt is focused on the selection and optimization of excipients for the development of a nanoemulsion system for intranasal delivery. Excipients were selected on the basis of solubility of active drug, compatibility interactions and nasal irritancy. Surfactant and co-surfactant combination and their ratio were finalized on the basis of nanoemulsion region obtained from constructed phase diagrams with Capmul MCM as oil phase. A validated cut and weigh method was employed for the optimization of different phase diagrams with respect to nanoemulsion region. The solubility of drug in Capmul MCM, Labrasol, and Transcutol-P was found to be superior with numeric values of 79.50 ± 1.68 mg/ml, 51.10 ± 1.39 mg/ml, and 36.60 ± 0.85 mg/ml, respectively. On the basis of phase diagram analysis, Labrasol and Transcutol-P in 3:1 ratio provides greater nanoemulsion region of 65.28 ± 0.18%. The validation of cut and weigh method revealed that there was no significant statistical difference (P > 0.05) with a %RSD value of 2.38 for intersheet variation. The results of validation studies for cut and weigh method suggests that it can be effectively used as an optimization method for the selection of nanoemulsion composition.

  15. Torsion and transverse bending of cantilever plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissner, Eric; Stein, Manuel

    1951-01-01

    The problem of combined bending and torsion of cantilever plates of variable thickness, such as might be considered for solid thin high-speed airplane or missile wings, is considered in this paper. The deflections of the plate are assumed to vary linearly across the chord; minimization of the potential energy by means of the calculus of variations then leads to two ordinary linear differential equations for the bending deflections and the twist of the plate. Because the cantilever is analyzed as a plate rather than as a beam, the effect of constraint against axial warping in torsion is inherently included. The application of this method to specific problems involving static deflection, vibration, and buckling of cantilever plates is presented. In the static-deflection problems, taper and sweep are considered.

  16. 2017 Bipolar Plate Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopasz, John P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schenck, Deanna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The Bipolar Plate (BP) Workshop was held at USCAR1 in Southfield, Michigan on February 14, 2017 and included 63 participants from industry, government agencies, universities, and national laboratories with expertise in the relevant fields. The objective of the workshop was to identify research and development (R&D) needs, in particular early-stage R&D, for bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for transportation applications. The focus of the workshop was on materials, manufacturing, and design aspects of bipolar plates with the goal of meeting DOE’s 2020 bipolar plate targets. Of special interest was the cost target of ≤$3/kW for the bipolar plate.

  17. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  18. Effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement in a developing country using weigh-in-motion sorting system considering vehicle by-pass and enforcement capability

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Ibrahim, Nik Ibtishamiah; Saifizul, Ahmad Abdullah; Yamanaka, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle overloading has been identified as one of the major contributors to road pavement damage in Malaysia. In this study, the weigh-in-motion (WIM) system has been used to function as a vehicle weight sorting tool to complement the exsiting static weigh bridge enforcement station. Data collected from the developed system is used to explore the effectiveness of using WIM system in terms of generating more accurate data for enforcement purposes and at the same time improving safety and reduc...

  19. Parallel Plate System for Collecting Data Used to Determine Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukler, William (Inventor); Ethridge, Edwin C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A parallel-plate system collects data used to determine viscosity. A first plate is coupled to a translator so that the first plate can be moved along a first direction. A second plate has a pendulum device coupled thereto such that the second plate is suspended above and parallel to the first plate. The pendulum device constrains movement of the second plate to a second direction that is aligned with the first direction and is substantially parallel thereto. A force measuring device is coupled to the second plate for measuring force along the second direction caused by movement of the second plate.

  20. Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio hard x-ray zone plates with HSQ plating molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Mancini, Derrick C.

    2008-08-01

    Fresnel zone plates are important x-ray diffractive optics which offer a focusing resolution approaching the theoretical limit. In hard x-ray region, the refractive indices of all the materials are close to unity, which requests thick zone plate to achieve a reasonable efficiency. It makes high-resolution zone plate extremely difficult to fabricate due to its high aspect ratio. We report a LIGA-like fabrication process employing e-beam resist HSQ as the plating mold material, which is relative simply compared with traditional processes. 1-μm-thick gold zone plates with 80-nm-wide outermost zone have been fabricated with this process.

  1. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  2. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  3. Development of food photographs for use with children aged 18 months to 16 years: Comparison against weighed food diaries - The Young Person's Food Atlas (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Emma; Hawkins, Adrian; Barton, Karen L; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N S; Adamson, Ashley J

    2017-01-01

    Traditional dietary assessment methods, used in the UK, such as weighed food diaries impose a large participant burden, often resulting in difficulty recruiting representative samples and underreporting of energy intakes. One approach to reducing the burden placed on the participant is to use portion size assessment tools to obtain an estimate of the amount of food consumed, removing the need to weigh all foods. An age range specific food atlas was developed for use in assessing children's dietary intakes. The foods selected and portion sizes depicted were derived from intakes recorded during the UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys of children aged 1.5 to 16 years. Estimates of food portion sizes using the food atlas were compared against 4-day weighed intakes along with in-school / nursery observations, by the research team. Interviews were conducted with parents the day after completion of the diary, and for children aged 4 to 16 years, also with the child. Mean estimates of portion size consumed were within 7% of the weight of food recorded in the weighed food diary. The limits of agreement were wide indicating high variability of estimates at the individual level but the precision increased with increasing age. For children 11 years and over, agreement with weighed food diaries, was as good as that of their parents in terms of total weight of food consumed and of intake of energy and key nutrients. The age appropriate food photographs offer an alternative to weighed intakes for dietary assessment with children.

  4. Development of food photographs for use with children aged 18 months to 16 years: Comparison against weighed food diaries – The Young Person’s Food Atlas (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Adrian; Barton, Karen L.; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N. S.; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional dietary assessment methods, used in the UK, such as weighed food diaries impose a large participant burden, often resulting in difficulty recruiting representative samples and underreporting of energy intakes. One approach to reducing the burden placed on the participant is to use portion size assessment tools to obtain an estimate of the amount of food consumed, removing the need to weigh all foods. An age range specific food atlas was developed for use in assessing children’s dietary intakes. The foods selected and portion sizes depicted were derived from intakes recorded during the UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys of children aged 1.5 to 16 years. Estimates of food portion sizes using the food atlas were compared against 4-day weighed intakes along with in-school / nursery observations, by the research team. Interviews were conducted with parents the day after completion of the diary, and for children aged 4 to 16 years, also with the child. Mean estimates of portion size consumed were within 7% of the weight of food recorded in the weighed food diary. The limits of agreement were wide indicating high variability of estimates at the individual level but the precision increased with increasing age. For children 11 years and over, agreement with weighed food diaries, was as good as that of their parents in terms of total weight of food consumed and of intake of energy and key nutrients. The age appropriate food photographs offer an alternative to weighed intakes for dietary assessment with children. PMID:28199319

  5. Influence of Hardness on Perforation Velocity in Steel Armour Plates

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Dikshit

    2000-01-01

    In an earlier investigation3, the influence ofh'ardness on tempered steel armour plates of 20 mm thickness, impacted by. 20 mm diameter steel ogive-shaped projectile at normal , was studied. Additional data is investigated with relation to the perforation velocity of the plates. It is observed that the plate perforation velocity and the plate plugging velocity decrease with increasing plate hardness.

  6. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  7. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited...... and systems can be operated in a way that is environmentally sound, technical feasible, economically efficient and socially acceptable. This applies to all scales of relevance: (1) national surveys of energy use and material flows determining the frame for politically setting goals in waste management, (2......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  8. Current plate velocities relative to the hotspots incorporating the NUVEL-1 global plate motion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripp, Alice E.; Gordon, Richard G.

    1990-01-01

    The NUVEL-1 model of current global relative plate velocities is presently incorporated into HS2-NUVEL1, a global model for plate velocities relative to hotspots; the results thus obtained are compared with those of the AM1-2 model of hotspot-relative plate velocities. While there are places in which plate velocities relative to the hotspots differ between HS2-NUVEL1 and AM1-2 by tens of degrees in direction and 15 mm/yr in speed, the hotspot Euler vectors differ with 95 percent confidence only for the Arabian and Indian plates. Plates attached to subducting slabs move faster relative to the hotspots than do plates without slabs.

  9. Current plate velocities relative to the hotspots incorporating the NUVEL-1 global plate motion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripp, Alice E.; Gordon, Richard G.

    1990-07-01

    The NUVEL-1 model of current global relative plate velocities is presently incorporated into HS2-NUVEL1, a global model for plate velocities relative to hotspots; the results thus obtained are compared with those of the AM1-2 model of hotspot-relative plate velocities. While there are places in which plate velocities relative to the hotspots differ between HS2-NUVEL1 and AM1-2 by tens of degrees in direction and 15 mm/yr in speed, the hotspot Euler vectors differ with 95 percent confidence only for the Arabian and Indian plates. Plates attached to subducting slabs move faster relative to the hotspots than do plates without slabs.

  10. An updated digital model of plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Peter

    2003-03-01

    A global set of present plate boundaries on the Earth is presented in digital form. Most come from sources in the literature. A few boundaries are newly interpreted from topography, volcanism, and/or seismicity, taking into account relative plate velocities from magnetic anomalies, moment tensor solutions, and/or geodesy. In addition to the 14 large plates whose motion was described by the NUVEL-1A poles (Africa, Antarctica, Arabia, Australia, Caribbean, Cocos, Eurasia, India, Juan de Fuca, Nazca, North America, Pacific, Philippine Sea, South America), model PB2002 includes 38 small plates (Okhotsk, Amur, Yangtze, Okinawa, Sunda, Burma, Molucca Sea, Banda Sea, Timor, Birds Head, Maoke, Caroline, Mariana, North Bismarck, Manus, South Bismarck, Solomon Sea, Woodlark, New Hebrides, Conway Reef, Balmoral Reef, Futuna, Niuafo'ou, Tonga, Kermadec, Rivera, Galapagos, Easter, Juan Fernandez, Panama, North Andes, Altiplano, Shetland, Scotia, Sandwich, Aegean Sea, Anatolia, Somalia), for a total of 52 plates. No attempt is made to divide the Alps-Persia-Tibet mountain belt, the Philippine Islands, the Peruvian Andes, the Sierras Pampeanas, or the California-Nevada zone of dextral transtension into plates; instead, they are designated as "orogens" in which this plate model is not expected to be accurate. The cumulative-number/area distribution for this model follows a power law for plates with areas between 0.002 and 1 steradian. Departure from this scaling at the small-plate end suggests that future work is very likely to define more very small plates within the orogens. The model is presented in four digital files: a set of plate boundary segments; a set of plate outlines; a set of outlines of the orogens; and a table of characteristics of each digitization step along plate boundaries, including estimated relative velocity vector and classification into one of 7 types (continental convergence zone, continental transform fault, continental rift, oceanic spreading ridge

  11. Waste minimization study for a printed circuit board manufacturing facility in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Shen-yann; Huang, Hann S.; Peters, R.W.; Tsai, S.Y. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Tsai, Wen-Tien; Shieh, Shih-Shien; Hsieh, Te-Yuan; Hwang, Li-Shyong (CTCI Corp., Taipei (Taiwan)); Liu, Solo; Peng, Chien-Tang (Printed Wire Corp., Ping Chen, Taoyuan (Taiwan)); Wu, Min H. (Waste Minimization Technology International, Inc., Pewaukee, WI (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a demonstration of industrial waste minimization sponsored by the Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan, Republic of China. Waste reduction opportunities are identified and evaluated for a printed circuit board manufacturing facility in Taiwan. Plant audits were conducted on various processes, such as deburring, alkaline etching, black oxidation, desmearing, electroless copper, and copper and tin/lead plating. Specific areas in which the wastes could be minimized, such as reducing the amount of dragout and rinse water requirements in the plating and etchant lines, and on-site treatment and reuse of spent bath solutions were identified, assessed, and implemented. Jar tests on the wastewater were performed, and the results were used to improve the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant for removal of heavy metals and reduction of sludge generation. In addition, administrative controls of hazardous wastes designed to reduce associated health and environmental hazards were recommended. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Glasses obtained from industrial wastes; Vidros obtidos a partir de residuos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoluzzi, D.; Oliveira Fillho, J.; Uggioni, E. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia de Materiais; Bernardin, A.M., E-mail: amb@unesc.ne [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Tijucas, SC (Brazil). Tecnologia em Ceramica

    2009-07-01

    This paper deals with the study of the vitrification mechanism as an inertization method for industrial wastes contaminated with heavy metals. Ashes from coal (thermoelectric), wastes from mining (fluorite and feldspar) and plating residue were used to compose vitreous systems planed by mixture design. The chemical composition of the wastes was determined by XRF and the formulations were melted at 1450 deg C for 2h using 10%wt of CaCO{sub 3} (fluxing agent). The glasses were poured into a mold and annealed (600 deg C). The characteristic temperatures were determined by thermal analysis (DTA, air, 20 deg C/min) and the mechanical behavior by Vickers microhardness. As a result, the melting temperature is strongly dependent on silica content of each glass, and the fluorite residue, being composed mainly by silica, strongly affects Tm. The microhardness of all glasses is mainly affected by the plating residue due to the high iron and zinc content of this waste. (author)

  13. Small Prizes Improve Food Selection in a School Cafeteria Without Increasing Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgens, Michelle E; Barnes, Allison S; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Ellsworth, Samantha C; Beckford, Monna; Siegel, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    We recently demonstrated that small prizes given for a "Power Plate" (plain fat-free milk, entrée, fruit and vegetable) can be used in an elementary school cafeteria to increase healthful food selection by over 300%. The purpose of this study was to measure changes in food waste when the Power Plate (PP) program is implemented. The PP intervention was conducted at an inner-city elementary school. Emoticons were placed next to the preferred foods and children were given a small prize if they selected the PP. Data were obtained by observation and cash register receipts. The trays of 111 students before the intervention and 96 after were examined for content and waste. PP selection increased from 2% to 73% ( P < .001). There was no significant change in waste. We conclude that small prizes as an incentive for better food selection does not lead to an increase food waste.

  14. The analysis of overloaded trucks in indonesia based on weigh in motion data (east of sumatera national road case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihanny Jongga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Overloaded trucks phenomena generally common in developing countries where the traffic control is poor. In Indonesia, the percentage of overloaded trucks can reach more than 60% in the total number of trucks and may be one of the substantial factors that reduce the service life of the road pavements. This paper presents the analysis results of the weigh in motion survey data at East of Sumatera National Road (Jalintim in Indonesia and the impact of overloaded trucks on the pavement. For the analysis the simplified approach was used, the axle loads were converted into representative single-axle loads based on 4th power formula by AASHTO 1993 equation. The vehicle damage factor of vehicles is presented and will be compared with the Highways National Standard to estimate the remaining service life of pavement and IRI value prediction. The analysis showed that the vehicle damage factor that determined from weigh in motion data is extremely greater than vehicle damage factor of the national standard in Indonesia which may lead to accelerated deterioration, reducing the service life of the pavement structures and significantly influence the IRI value.

  15. Developments of Mindlin-Reissner Plate Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Cen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960s, how to develop high-performance plate bending finite elements based on different plate theories has attracted a great deal of attention from finite element researchers, and numerous models have been successfully constructed. Among these elements, the most popular models are usually formulated by two theoretical bases: the Kirchhoff plate theory and the Mindlin-Reissener plate theory. Due to the advantages that only C0 continuity is required and the effect of transverse shear strain can be included, the latter one seems more rational and has obtained more attention. Through abundant works, different types of Mindlin-Reissener plate models emerged in many literatures and have been applied to solve various engineering problems. However, it also brings FEM users a puzzle of how to choose a “right” one. The main purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the development history of the Mindlin-Reissner plate elements, exhibiting the state-of-art in this research field. At the end of the paper, a promising method for developing “shape-free” plate elements is recommended.

  16. Cleaning Up Electronic Waste (E-Waste)

    Science.gov (United States)

    While accurate data on the amount of e-waste being exported from the U.S. are not available, the United States government is concerned that these exports are being mismanaged abroad, causing serious public health and environmental hazards.

  17. Comparing Food Provided and Wasted before and after Implementing Measures against Food Waste in Three Healthcare Food Service Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Strotmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to reduce food waste in a hospital, a hospital cafeteria, and a residential home by applying a participatory approach in which the employees were integrated into the process of developing and implementing measures. Initially, a process analysis was undertaken to identify the processes and structures existing in each institution. This included a 2-week measurement of the quantities of food produced and wasted. After implementing the measures, a second measurement was conducted and the results of the two measurements were compared. The average waste rate in the residential home was significantly reduced from 21.4% to 13.4% and from 19.8% to 12.8% in the cafeteria. In the hospital, the average waste rate remained constant (25.6% and 26.3% during the reference and control measurements. However, quantities of average daily food provided and wasted per person in the hospital declined. Minimizing overproduction, i.e., aligning the quantity of meals produced to that required, is essential to reducing serving losses. Compliance of meal quality and quantity with customer expectations, needs, and preferences, i.e., the individualization of food supply, reduces plate waste. Moreover, establishing an efficient communication structure involving all actors along the food supply chain contributes to decreasing food waste.

  18. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele

    2012-01-01

    understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species...... are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway....

  19. Well-plate freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Rantanen, Jukka; Grohganz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    , cake collapse and reconstitution time. Results: Samples freeze-dried in well-plates had an acceptable visual cake appearance. Solid form analysis by high throughput X-ray powder diffraction indicated comparable polymorphic outcome independent of the container. The expected increase in moisture level...... due to increasing amount of amorphous matter in the samples was observed in both vials and well plates. Cake collapse was found to be representative in well plates and could be effectively quantified using image analysis. Reconstitution time was also found to be equal in all three platforms. Finally...

  20. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.

    2017-06-19

    Most of the world’s earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions are caused by the continuous motions of the many tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s outer shell. The most powerful of these natural hazards occur in subduction zones, where two plates collide and one is thrust beneath another. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) “Reducing Risk Where Tectonic Plates Collide—A USGS Plan to Advance Subduction Zone Science” is a blueprint for building the crucial scientific foundation needed to inform the policies and practices that can make our Nation more resilient to subduction zone-related hazards.

  1. Managing the Navy’s Infectious Medical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-04

    slides, cover salps , glass petri plates, and broken glass potentially contanmated With inkctious meterial. All sharps used associated with healthcare...Navy’s Environmental and Natural Resources Program Manual, specifically prohibits the disposal of potentially infectious medical waste into ocean water...is found on 56 a beach or in the ocean and can be traced to the Navy, there is a tremendous public perception that the Navy is mismanaging medical

  2. The solution of proofing pie for the waste sorting plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braila, Natalya; Kirilkina, Anna; Barinov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    The modern way of establishment of a flat roof is considered in the article. The standard project of the waste sorting plant was adapted under the conditions of the Republic of Karelia. Instead of the traditional roof with a slope from the concrete coupler, provided by the project, the option with the use of heater in the form of wedge-shaped plates was offered.

  3. TSA waste stream and final waste form composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties.

  4. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  5. Catalysts characteristics of Ni/YSZ core-shell according to plating conditions using electroless plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Wook; Jang, Jae-Won; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Jin-Ho; Jeon, Dae-Woo; Lee, Jong-Heun; Hwang, Hae-jin; Lee, Mi-Jai

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to develop an anode catalyst for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using electroless nickel plating. We have proposed a new method for electroless plating of Ni metal on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) particles. We examine the uniformity of the Ni layer on the plated core-shell powder, in addition to the content of Ni and the reproducibility of the plating. We have also evaluated the carbon deposition rate and characteristics of the SOFC anode catalyst. To synthesize Ni-plated YSZ particles, the plated powder is heat-treated at 1200 °C. The resultant particles, which have an average size of 50 μm, were subsequently used in the experiment. The size of the Ni particles and the Ni content both increase with increasing plating temperature and plating time. The X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the growth of Ni particles. After heat-treatment, Ni is oxidized to NiO, leading to the co-existence of Ni and NiO; Ni3P is also observed due to the presence of phosphorous in the plating solution. Following heat treatment for 1 h at 1200 °C, Ni is mostly oxidized to NiO. The carbon deposition rate of the reference YSZ powder is 135%, while that of the Ni-plated YSZ is 1%-6%.

  6. Evaluating the operational risks of biomedical waste using failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chu; Tsai, Pei-Yi

    2017-06-01

    The potential problems and risks of biomedical waste generation have become increasingly apparent in recent years. This study applied a failure mode and effects analysis to evaluate the operational problems and risks of biomedical waste. The microbiological contamination of biomedical waste seldom receives the attention of researchers. In this study, the biomedical waste lifecycle was divided into seven processes: Production, classification, packaging, sterilisation, weighing, storage, and transportation. Twenty main failure modes were identified in these phases and risks were assessed based on their risk priority numbers. The failure modes in the production phase accounted for the highest proportion of the risk priority number score (27.7%). In the packaging phase, the failure mode 'sharp articles not placed in solid containers' had the highest risk priority number score, mainly owing to its high severity rating. The sterilisation process is the main difference in the treatment of infectious and non-infectious biomedical waste. The failure modes in the sterilisation phase were mainly owing to human factors (mostly related to operators). This study increases the understanding of the potential problems and risks associated with biomedical waste, thereby increasing awareness of how to improve the management of biomedical waste to better protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  7. CORROSION AND CHEMICAL WASTE IN SAWBLADES STEEL USED IN WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was to evaluate the chemical waste provoked by the wood on the sheets of steel used in the making of the mountains and cut tools. It was certain the correlationbetween the chemical waste and the extractive soluble in cold water, hot water and in the sequencetoluene and ethanol content. Two types of steel and twenty-seven species different from wood wereused. The corrosive agent, constituted of 50 g of fresh sawdust (moist mixed to 50 ml of distilledwater, it was prepared and placed inside of the plastic box, hermetically closed, on the samples ofsteel, which were totally immersed. The box was placed in a water bath pre-heated to 75°C, that themedium temperature of reaction is considered, that affects the sheet of the sawblade in operation. Thisgroup was operated to 80 rotations per minute (rpm. The time of reaction was of four hours. Afterthat time the corrosive agent was discarded and the samples were washed, dried and weighed. At theend, each sample was processed by a total period of forty hours. The chemical waste was evaluated by the weight difference suffered from beginning at the end of the experiment. For theresults it was observed that the Eucalyptus tradryphloia and the Eucalyptus phaeotricha the speciesthat provoked were, respectively, the largest and smaller chemical waste for the two types of steelappraised. Great variation exists in the chemical waste due to the effect of the species. The corrosionand chemical waste are especially related with the quality of the material solved in ethanol. The 1070steel were more attached than the 6170 steel.

  8. Waste statistics 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-07

    The 2004 reporting to the ISAG comprises 394 plants owned by 256 enterprises. In 2003, reports covered 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. Waste generation in 2004 is compared to targets for 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following summarises waste generation in 2004: 1) In 2004, total reported waste arisings amounted to 13,359,000 tonnes, which is 745,000 tonnes, or 6 per cent, more than in 2003. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2004 were 12,179,000 tonnes, which is a 9 per cent increase from 2003. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2004 amounted to 7,684,000 tonnes, which is 328,000 tonnes, or 4 per cent, more than in 2002. In other words, there has been an increase in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. Waste from the building and construction sector is more sensitive to economic change than most other waste. 4) The total rate of recycling was 65 per cent. The 2008 target for recycling is 65 per cent. The rate of recycling in 2003 was also 65 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2003. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point better than the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. Also in 2003, 8 per cent of the waste was landfilled. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being

  9. Qualitative analysis of the role of self-weighing as a strategy of weight control for weight-loss maintainers in comparison with a normal, stable weight group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, Isabelle; Kruseman, Maaike

    2016-10-01

    Self-weighing seems to have a primary role in weight-loss maintenance. The use of this strategy may help correct even slight weight regain and contribute to long-term weight stability. However, self-weighing has also been associated with negative psychological health consequences in specific subgroups. This study aimed to explore the use and the behavioral and psychological consequences of self-weighing in a group of weight-loss maintainers (WLoMs). We chose a qualitative design to conduct this investigation. Eighteen WLoMs were interviewed and compared to a matched comparison group of 18 participants with a lifelong normal stable weight (NSW). Analyses showed that most WLoMs needed regular self-weighing to be aware of their weight. The weight displayed on the scale helped WLoMs sustain the continuous efforts needed to maintain weight loss and also at times triggered corrective actions that were sometimes drastic. Weight changes generated both negative and positive affect among WLoMs, who could experience anxiety because of self-weighing or have their self-esteem impaired in the case of weight gain. In comparison, the NSW group rarely used self-weighing. They relied on a conscious way of living to control their weight and needed fewer strategies. NSW participants simply went back to their routine when they felt a slight increase in their weight, without experiencing consequences on their mood or self-esteem. Regular self-weighing as a component of weight-loss maintenance should be encouraged to help WLoMs regulate their food and physical activity, provided that potential consequences on psychological well-being, including self-esteem, are screened and addressed when needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Clean Plate Movement and Empowerment of Civil Leadership for Developing Sustainable Life Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang Soo; Kim, Seung Woo; Jung, Sin Yeong; Choi, Byeong Dae; Mun, Sung Joo; Lee, Dong Ho

    This paper describes the backgrounds, process, outcomes, and characteristics of "Clean plate" movement carried out in Korea. That was aimed at the reduction of food waste production as well as developing and disseminating a sustainable life style. Excessive foods are wasted every year in Korea and it reaches to 270 g/day/capita. Clean plate movement was started 2004 and over 1.5 million peoples, which is 3% of the population, did pledge for 15 months. Over one million students participated in the pledge campaign and they became conscious about the importance of food and get sustainable eating habit in which they don't leave any food behind. While the campaign carried out successfully, civil volunteers of a Buddhist NGO EcoBuddha, who were the housewives mainly, were in charge of the whole processes and were trained as civil leaders for sustainable development. They awakened to the interrelationship between human being and the nature, based on a series of Buddhist lectures and self practicing asceticism. Clean plate movement as an educational program for sustainable development has various factors in three pillars of environmental, economical and socio-cultural aspects for EfSD.

  11. 21 CFR 866.4800 - Radial immunodiffusion plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4800 Radial immunodiffusion plate. (a) Identification. A radial immunodiffusion plate for clinical use...

  12. The potential role of aerobic biological waste treatment in regenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, M. L.; Nafis, D.; Sze, E.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to make a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of using aerobic biological waste treatment in closed systems. Issues that are addressed in this paper are: (1) how high a degree of material balance is possible, (2) how much might such a system weigh, and (3) how would system closure and weight be affected if animals were included in the system. A computer model has been developed to calculate for different scenarios the compositions and amounts of the streams entering or leaving the waste treatment system and to estimate the launch weight of such a system. A bench scale apparatus has been built to mimic the proposed waste treatment system; the experiments are used to verify model predictions and to improve model parameter estimations.

  13. Characterization of Tri-lab Tantalum Plate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, Thomas E.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Deibler, Lisa Anne; Chen, Shu-Rong; Michael, Joseph R.

    2014-09-01

    This report provides a detailed characterization Tri-lab Tantalum (Ta) plate jointly purchased from HCStark Inc. by Sandia, Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Data in this report was compiled from series of material and properties characterization experiments carried out at Sandia (SNL) and Los Alamos (LANL) Laboratories through a leveraged effort funded by the C2 campaign. Results include microstructure characterization detailing the crystallographic texture of the material and an increase in grain size near the end of the rolled plate. Mechanical properties evaluations include, compression cylinder, sub-scale tension specimen, micohardness and instrumented indentation testing. The plate was found to have vastly superior uniformity when compare with previously characterized wrought Ta material. Small but measurable variations in microstructure and properties were noted at the end, and at the top and bottom edges of the plate.

  14. Accuracy of MRI in Growth Plate Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Rahbek, Ole; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    was measured and compared to histology. Results. Histology measurements showed a mean growth plate thickness of 467 μm (SD = 82.2). The mean growth plate thickness measured in the 7T MR images was 465 μm (SD = 62.2) and 1325 μm (SD=183.5) on 1.5 MRI measurements. We found a better correlation between...... the growth plate thickness measured on the 7T MRI and histology samples compared to 1.5T, where the accuracy was poor. Conclusion. The growth plate can be identified and measured with high accuracy using 7T MRI. 1.5T MRI can only describe some morphological characteristics; its poor resolution impedes to do...

  15. Polygonal plate modeling of realistic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, E. H.; Alexandropoulos, P.; Walton, E. K.

    1984-07-01

    The effectiveness of method of moments (MM) surface patch modeling for describing realistic structures is demonstrated, as is a technique for analyzing the intersection of several plates or patches. Surface patch MM models consider perfectly conducting surfaces, thus allowing computerized studies of hundreds of modes in terms of a small number of plates. An electric field formulation applicable to both closed and open surfaces is employed with a scale model or drawing of an aircraft structure. Plates intersecting along edges involve continuity of the normal component of current at the juncture. Overlap modes are defined that permit current to flow from one plate to another but do not permit linear dependencies between the modes. Examples are given for radar cross sections of the 747, the Concorde and a rocket and verified with reference to an available data base.

  16. DOES TUBULARIZED INCISED PLATE URETHROPLASTY FIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Objective To evaluate prospectively our ex- perience using tubularized incised plate. (TIP) urethroplasty in primary and repeat penile shaft hypospadias. Patients and Methods Thirty-tvvo boys with penile shaft hypospadias were selected to.

  17. Coloured Rings Produced on Transparent Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Wilfried; Schlichting, H. Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Beautiful colored interference rings can be produced by using transparent plates such as window glass. A simple model explains this effect, which was described by Newton but has almost been forgotten. (Contains 11 figures.)

  18. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  19. Polar Plate Theory for Orthogonal Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michelle D.; Bower, Mark V.

    2000-01-01

    Laminated fiber-reinforced (or filamentary) composites are used today for their high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. However, because of the anisotropic behavior of composites, determining the response on a macroscopic scale is challenging. This is particularly evident in the evaluation of the governing differential equations of a circular disk with the fibers of the lamina oriented with rectilinear orthogonality. This includes any situation involving a composite plate of circular geometry in which out-of-plane displacements due to load are desired, such as fastener pull through loading of a composite plate. Current analysis techniques use numerical methods with rectilinear coordinate systems to solve problems with circular geometry. These analyses over predict plate stiffness by 20% and underpredict failure by 70%. Consequently, there is a need to transform classical composite plate theory to a polar coordinate system. In order to better analyze structures with circular geometries the classical composite plate equations are transformed into the plate equations for a rectilinearly anisotropic composite in polar coordinates. A composite plate is typically a laminate of fibers in rectilinear directions. Subsequent to the lay-tip the necessary geometry is cut out of a rectangular plate. In a similar manner, the derivation of the plate equation starts with the fundamental definitions of strain, displacement and curvature and incorporates the material property angular dependence into the equilibrium equations for a differential polar element. In the transformed state, the stiffness coefficients are no longer constant, adding to the complexity of the governing differential equations. This paper discusses the new derivation and evaluation of the plate equations for a circular composite disk with orthogonal rectilinear anisotropy. The resultant new three partial differential equations, which describe the circular anisotropic plate, can be used to

  20. Array Plate Apparatus Having Tunable Isolation Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dubois, Neil J

    2007-01-01

    ... of vehicle self-noise that travels to an array plate of the undersea vehicle. It is a further object of the present invention to significantly reduce the noise floor at which acoustic transducers operate...