WorldWideScience

Sample records for weigh in motion scales

  1. Weigh - in - motion (WIM)

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović Neven B.; Subotić Marko M.

    2014-01-01

    The biggest wealth of every country lies in its transportation infrastructure so the protection of negative impacts on infrastructure must be provided. The progress of sensor technology proposes today several types of weigh-in-motion systems, which have been tested for their efficiency, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Technologies of piezoelectric sensors, bending plates and load cells are used for a number of applications comprising weigh enforcement, traffic data collection, bridge and tol...

  2. Static Scale Conversion Weigh-In-Motion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshears, D.L.

    2001-05-18

    In support of the Air Mobility Battle Lab (AMBL), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Advanced Logistics Program and the U. S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM), the ultimate objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a full-scale prototype static scale conversion weigh-in-motion/Profilometry (SSC-WIM/P) system to measure and record dimensional and weight information for the Department of Defense (DoD) equipment and cargo. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), along with the AMBL, and Intercomp, Inc. have developed a long-range plan for developing a dual-use system which can be used as a standard static scale or an accurate weigh-in-motion system. AMBL will work to define requirements for additional activities with U.S. Transportation Command, Air Mobility Command, and the Joint Warfighting Battle Lab for both the SSC-WIM/P and a portable Weigh-in-Motion System for individual units. The funding goal is to fully fund the development of two prototype test articles (a SSC-WIM kit, and a laser profilometer) and have at least one fully operational system by the early 2002 timeframe. The objective of this portion of the project will be to develop a SSC-WIM system, which at a later date can be fully integrated with a profilometry system; to fully characterize DOD wheeled vehicles and cargo (individual axle weights, total vehicle weight, center of balance, height, width and length measurements). The program will be completed in phases with the initial AMBL/DARPA funding being used to initiate the efforts while AMBL/USTC obtains funding to complete the first generation system effort. At the completion of an initial effort, the interface hardware and the data acquisition/analysis hardware will be developed, fabricated, and system principles and basic functionality evaluated, tested, and demonstrated. Additional funding, when made available, will allow the successful completion of a first generation prototype system. This effort will be

  3. Weigh - in - motion (WIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Neven B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biggest wealth of every country lies in its transportation infrastructure so the protection of negative impacts on infrastructure must be provided. The progress of sensor technology proposes today several types of weigh-in-motion systems, which have been tested for their efficiency, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Technologies of piezoelectric sensors, bending plates and load cells are used for a number of applications comprising weigh enforcement, traffic data collection, bridge and toll control systems and so on. Advantages of using WIM technology are various and its benefits affects all road users (transport companies, public, public transport authorities. Potential of WIM application has been recognized in the leading EU countries, so the existence of the numerous WIM projects.

  4. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  5. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  6. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  7. Weigh-in-motion and smart bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Leon L.

    1997-05-01

    The bridge Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system uses bridge structures as weigh scales to measure axle and gross vehicle weights and vehicle configurations without stopping or detouring the vehicles. Because the system is mobile and is almost invisible to the truck drivers, it can be used to collect unbiased traffic data for transportation and loadometer study. The WIM + RESPONSE system, which is an expansion of the original WIM system, was developed to collect additional bridge response data and perform bridge structural evaluation. These additional bridge response data provide bridge engineers with information necessary for improving bridge design and evaluation procedures. Bridge health monitoring and damage detection may also be conducted with long term installation of the WIM + RESPONSE system. This paper discusses what has been achieved by the WIM + RESPONSE system and how the system can be further improved to enhance its functions in a smart bridge.

  8. Contactless Bridge Weigh-in-Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Ojio, T.; Carey, Ciaran; O'Brien, Eugene J.; Doherty, C; Taylor, S E

    2016-01-01

    Bridge weigh-in-motion (WIM) uses existing bridges to find the weights of vehicles that pass overhead. Contactless bridge weigh-in-motion (cBWIM) uses bridges to weigh vehicles without the need for any sensors to be attached to the bridge. A camera is mounted on the back of a telescope, which magnifies the image to the extent that submillimeter bridge deflections can be measured accurately. A second camera is used to monitor traffic and to determine axle spacings. The two cameras are synchron...

  9. Method and appartus for converting static in-ground vehicle scales into weigh-in-motion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenior City, TN); Scudiere, Matthew B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for converting in-ground static weighing scales for vehicles to weigh-in-motion systems. The apparatus upon conversion includes the existing in-ground static scale, peripheral switches and an electronic module for automatic computation of the weight. By monitoring the velocity, tire position, axle spacing, and real time output from existing static scales as a vehicle drives over the scales, the system determines when an axle of a vehicle is on the scale at a given time, monitors the combined weight output from any given axle combination on the scale(s) at any given time, and from these measurements automatically computes the weight of each individual axle and gross vehicle weight by an integration, integration approximation, and/or signal averaging technique.

  10. Error Reduction for Weigh-In-Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Scudiere, Matthew B [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Federal and State agencies need certifiable vehicle weights for various applications, such as highway inspections, border security, check points, and port entries. ORNL weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology was previously unable to provide certifiable weights, due to natural oscillations, such as vehicle bouncing and rocking. Recent ORNL work demonstrated a novel filter to remove these oscillations. This work shows further filtering improvements to enable certifiable weight measurements (error < 0.1%) for a higher traffic volume with less effort (elimination of redundant weighing).

  11. Prototype Weigh-In-Motion Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Beshears, David L [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Scudiere, Matthew B [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2006-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed and patented methods to weigh slowly moving vehicles. We have used this technology to produce a portable weigh-in-motion system that is robust and accurate. This report documents the performance of the second-generation portable weigh-in-motion prototype (WIM Gen II). The results of three modes of weight determination are compared in this report: WIM Gen II dynamic mode, WIM Gen II stop-and-go mode, and static (parked) mode on in-ground, static scales. The WIM dynamic mode measures axle weights as the vehicle passes over the system at speeds of 3 to 7 miles per hour (1.3 to 3.1 meters/second). The WIM stop-and-go mode measures the weight of each axle of the vehicle as the axles are successively positioned on a side-by-side pair of WIM measurement pads. In both measurement modes the center of balance (CB) and the total weight are obtained by a straight-forward calculation from axle weights and axle spacings. The performance metric is measurement error (in percent), which is defined as 100 x (sample standard deviation)/(average); see Appendix A for details. We have insufficient data to show that this metric is predictive. This report details the results of weight measurements performed in May 2005 at two sites using different types of vehicles at each site. In addition to the weight measurements, the testing enabled refinements to the test methodology and facilitated an assessment of the influence of vehicle speed on the dynamic-mode measurements. The initial test at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, TN, involved measurements of passenger and light-duty commercial vehicles. A subsequent test at the Arrival/Departure Airfield Control Group (A/DACG) facility in Ft. Bragg, NC, involved military vehicles with gross weights between 3,000 and 75,000 pounds (1,356 to 33,900 kilograms) with a 20,000-pound (9,040 kilograms) limit per axle. For each vehicle, four or more separate measurements were done

  12. Thermal Property Analysis of Axle Load Sensors for Weighing Vehicles in Weigh-in-Motion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Burnos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems which permit the weighing of vehicles in motion are called dynamic Weigh-in-Motion scales. In such systems, axle load sensors are embedded in the pavement. Among the influencing factors that negatively affect weighing accuracy is the pavement temperature. This paper presents a detailed analysis of this phenomenon and describes the properties of polymer, quartz and bending plate load sensors. The studies were conducted in two ways: at roadside Weigh-in-Motion sites and at a laboratory using a climate chamber. For accuracy assessment of roadside systems, the reference vehicle method was used. The pavement temperature influence on the weighing error was experimentally investigated as well as a non-uniform temperature distribution along and across the Weigh-in-Motion site. Tests carried out in the climatic chamber allowed the influence of temperature on the sensor intrinsic error to be determined. The results presented clearly show that all kinds of sensors are temperature sensitive. This is a new finding, as up to now the quartz and bending plate sensors were considered insensitive to this factor.

  13. Thermal Property Analysis of Axle Load Sensors for Weighing Vehicles in Weigh-in-Motion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnos, Piotr; Gajda, Janusz

    2016-12-15

    Systems which permit the weighing of vehicles in motion are called dynamic Weigh-in-Motion scales. In such systems, axle load sensors are embedded in the pavement. Among the influencing factors that negatively affect weighing accuracy is the pavement temperature. This paper presents a detailed analysis of this phenomenon and describes the properties of polymer, quartz and bending plate load sensors. The studies were conducted in two ways: at roadside Weigh-in-Motion sites and at a laboratory using a climate chamber. For accuracy assessment of roadside systems, the reference vehicle method was used. The pavement temperature influence on the weighing error was experimentally investigated as well as a non-uniform temperature distribution along and across the Weigh-in-Motion site. Tests carried out in the climatic chamber allowed the influence of temperature on the sensor intrinsic error to be determined. The results presented clearly show that all kinds of sensors are temperature sensitive. This is a new finding, as up to now the quartz and bending plate sensors were considered insensitive to this factor.

  14. Large-scale hybrid Bayesian network for traffic load modeling from weigh-in-motion system data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Nápoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic load plays an important role not only in the design of new bridges but also in the reliability assessment of existing structures. Weigh-in-motion systems are used to collect data to determine traffic loads. In this paper, the potential of hybrid nonparametric Bayesian networks (BNs) is

  15. Weigh in Motion Based on Parameters Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-feng; CAI Ping; CHEN Ri-xing

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic tire forces are the main factor affecting the measurement accuracy of the axle weight of moving vehicle. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the influence of the dynamic tire forces on the weighing accuracy. On the basis of analyzing the characteristic of the dynamic tire forces, the objective optimization equation is constructed. The optimization algorithm is presented to get the optimal estimations of the objective parameters. According to the estimations of the parameters, the dynamic tire forces are separated from the axle weigh signal. The results of simulation and field experiments prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Advanced weigh-in-motion system for weighing vehicles at high speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshears, D.L.; Muhs, J.D.; Scudiere, M.B. [and others

    1998-02-01

    A state-of-the-art, Advanced Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system has been designed, installed, and tested on the west bound side of Interstate I-75/I-40 near the Knox County Weigh Station. The project is a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Road Dynamics, Inc. (IRD) sponsored by the Office of Uranium Programs, Facility and Technology Management Division of the Department of Energy under CRADA No. ORNL95-0364. ORNL, IRD, the Federal Highway Administration, the Tennessee Department of Safety and the Tennessee Department of Transportation have developed a National High Speed WIM Test Facility for test and evaluation of high-speed WIM systems. The WIM system under evaluation includes a Single Load Cell WIM scale system supplied and installed by IRD. ORNL developed a stand-alone, custom data acquisition system, which acquires the raw signals from IRD`s in-ground single load cell transducers. Under a separate contract with the Federal Highway Administration, ORNL designed and constructed a laboratory scale house for data collection, analysis and algorithm development. An initial advanced weight-determining algorithm has been developed. The new advanced WIM system provides improved accuracy and can reduce overall system variability by up to 30% over the existing high accuracy commercial WIM system.

  17. WAVE - A European Research Project on Weigh-in-Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Bernard; O'Brien, Eugene J.

    1996-01-01

    WAVE (Weigh-in-motion of Axles and Vehicles for Europe) is a research project, part-funded by the European Commission, with the objective of improving the accuracy and performance of Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) technology. It has a budget of the order of $ 2 million and will run from mid 1996 to mid 1998. It has close links and a substantial overlap of membership with COST323, a pan-European group with representatives from about 20 countries which coordinates nationally funded activi...

  18. I-65 Seymour Weigh Station - Indiana's First Mainline Weigh-in-Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Jim; Shattuck, Brian

    2017-01-01

    In 2014 INDOT selected CDM Smith to design the replacement of an abandoned truck weigh station on I-65 in Seymour. Due to site physical constraints, prescreening of trucks with weigh-in-motion (WIM) must take place on the mainline as opposed to a screening lane—the first such design in Indiana. Construction will be completed spring 2017, and the design team will participate in final testing of the entire WIM and weight enforcement system. Join us to hear more about this project.

  19. Use of FBG sensors for weigh in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardis, S.; Caponero, Michele A.; Felli, F.; Rocco, F.

    2005-05-01

    Techniques able to perform weighing of road vehicles not requiring any lowering of their cruise speed are of great interest for a large amount of applications. Many of such applications are traditionally related to determining custom duties, toll-way fares and cost of paying freight, but new applications often concerned with high-speed travelling vehicles are arising, as for instance the smart management of highway lorry traffic. In this paper we present preliminary results for the development of a weigh-in-motion technique based on Fibre Bragg Grating sensors. The proposed technique is intended for the production of a weigh-in-motion station suitable for high-speed road vehicle and high load resolution.

  20. Low-cost fiber optic weigh-in-motion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaai-Jazi, A.; Ardekani, S. A.; Mehdikhani, M.

    1990-11-01

    A design for a fiber optic weigh in motion (WIM) sensor is proposed. A prototype of the proposed sensor is designed, manufactured, and tested in the laboratory for different load frequency combinations using a material testing system (MTS) machine. Statistical analysis of data are performed to assess the response of the sensor under varying load frequencies for comparison.

  1. An Innovative Nanosensor for Weigh-In-Motion Applications

    OpenAIRE

    GHADDAB, Boutheina; Gaudefroy, Vincent; Michelis, Fulvio; Ruiz Hitzky, Eduardo; Aranda,Pilar; Ruiz-García, Cristina; Lebental, Bérengère

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This study deals with the development of an innovative weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensor. An electrically conductive nanocomposite material based on a mixture of graphene supported on sepiolite and carbon nanotubes was developed. Deposited on bituminous mix with copper electrodes, it is used as a force sensor. We detail the sensor fabrication process and study its sensitivity to a compressive force.

  2. Improving truck safety: Potential of weigh-in-motion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jacob

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Trucks exceeding the legal mass limits increase the risk of traffic accidents and damage to the infrastructure. They also result in unfair competition between transport modes and companies. It is therefore important to ensure truck compliance to weight regulation. New technologies are being developed for more efficient overload screening and enforcement. Weigh-in-Motion (WIM technologies allow trucks to be weighed in the traffic flow, without any disruption to operations. Much progress has been made recently to improve and implement WIM systems, which can contribute to safer and more efficient operation of trucks.

  3. Weigh-In-Motion Data Checking and Imputation

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Ting; Fricker, Jon D.

    2003-01-01

    There are about 46 weigh-in-motion (WIM) stations in Indiana. When operating properly, they provide valuable information on traffic volumes, vehicle classifications, and axle weights. Because there are great amounts of WIM data collected everyday, the quality of these data should be monitor without further delay. The first objective of this study is to develop effective and efficient methods to identify missing or erroneous WIM data. The second objective is to develop a data imputation method...

  4. Pavement management and weigh-in-motion. Transportation research record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cation, K.A.; Shahin, M.Y.; Scullion, T.; Lytton, R.L.; Butt, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The 15 papers in the report deal with the following areas: development of a preventive maintenance algorithm for use in pavement-management systems; pavement-performance prediction model using the Markov Process; roadway modeling and data conversion for a transportation-facilities information system; development of a methodology to estimate pavement maintenance and repair costs for different ranges of pavement-condition index; new techniques for modeling pavement deterioration; pavement management at the local government level; a comprehensive ranking system for local-agency pavement management; expert system as a part of pavement management; MAPCON: a pavement-evaluation data-analysis computer system; a microcomputer procedure to analyze axle load limits and pavement damage responsibility; selected results from the first three years of the Oregon automatic monitoring demonstration project; automated acquisition of truck-tire pressure data; calibration and accuracy testing of weigh-in-motion systems; accuracy and tolerances of weigh-in-motion systems; on-site calibration of weigh-in-motion systems.

  5. Bridge Damage Detection Using Weigh-In-Motion Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cantero, Daniel; González, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new level I damage detection technique for short to medium span road bridges using weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology. The technique is based on the input provided by two different WIM systems: (a) a pavement-based WIM station located prior to the bridge (which gives vehicle weight estimates without the influence of the bridge) and (b) a bridge-based WIM system which estimates vehicle weights based on the deformation of the bridge. It is shown that the ratio of estimations...

  6. Probability Model of Hangzhou Bay Bridge Vehicle Loads Using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Dezhang; Wang, Xu; Chen, Bin; Sun, Baitao

    2015-01-01

    ... of weigh-in-motion data from the site. The results showed that when all the vehicle samples were included in the statistical analysis, the histogram of the vehicles exhibited a multimodal distribution, which could not be fitted...

  7. Fiber optic weigh in motion: looking back and ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teral, Stephane R.

    1998-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the fiber optic weight- in-motion (WIM) smart sensor situation. Based on the interrelationship between technology and needs, the analysis is divided into three parts. The first part reflects WIM equipment development, such as piezo-electric sensors, and some of the pitfalls encountered in WIM measurements that led to fiber optic sensor utilization. With a chronological approach, the second part reviews the various optical principles that have been developed to measure dynamic weight. Since 1986, three techniques have been fully tested on actual highways. On the one hand, the simplest one based on light attenuation in multimode fibers as suitable for counting. On the other hand, speckle analysis at the end of a multimode fiber allowed a better strain and deformation determination. Finally, the sophisticated polarimetric configuration seemed to be more powerful and led to impressive findings such as dynamic phenomenon observation. The third and last part of this paper reviews some of the future needs for WIM systems, and the ongoing developments in the intelligent transportation system (ITS) field. Then, the factual report derived from this analysis shows that despite their tremendous potential, fiber optic sensors are almost nonexistent in current ITS worldwide developments.

  8. Results of a portable fiber-optic weigh-in-motion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhs, J.D.; Jordan, J.K.; Scudiere, M.B.; Tobin, K.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results on a portable, low speed fiber-optic weigh-in motion system are described that demonstrate the applicability of fiber-optic-based sensors in transportation, defense, and law enforcement applications where accurate weight determination of moving vehicles is necessary. Results are given on the systems' dynamic range (0.1--30 metric tons), velocity range (up to 5 km/h), accuracy error (0.5--3.0%), and repeatability. Also included in the paper is a discussion of the sources of error associated with low-speed weigh-in-motion systems and methods of minimizing these errors for practical deployment.

  9. Results of a portable fiber optic weigh-in-motion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Jordan, John K.; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Tobin, Kenneth W., Jr.

    1991-12-01

    Experimental results on a portable, low-speed fiber-optic weigh-in-motion system are described that demonstrate the applicability of fiber-optic-based sensors in transportation, defense, and law enforcement applications where accurate weight determination of moving vehicles is necessary. Results are given on the systems' dynamic range (0.1 - 30 metric tons), velocity range (up to 5 km/h), accuracy error (0.5 - 3.0%), and repeatability. Also included in the paper is a discussion of the sources of error associated with low speed weigh-in-motion systems and methods of minimizing these errors for practical deployment.

  10. Results of a portable fiber-optic weigh-in-motion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhs, J.D.; Jordan, J.K.; Scudiere, M.B.; Tobin, K.W. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    Experimental results on a portable, low speed fiber-optic weigh-in motion system are described that demonstrate the applicability of fiber-optic-based sensors in transportation, defense, and law enforcement applications where accurate weight determination of moving vehicles is necessary. Results are given on the systems` dynamic range (0.1--30 metric tons), velocity range (up to 5 km/h), accuracy error (0.5--3.0%), and repeatability. Also included in the paper is a discussion of the sources of error associated with low-speed weigh-in-motion systems and methods of minimizing these errors for practical deployment.

  11. Error Reduction in Portable, Low-Speed Weigh-In-Motion (Sub-0.1 Percent Error)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Scudiere, Matthew B [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    We present breakthrough findings based on significant modifications to the Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) Gen II approach, so-called the modified Gen II. The revisions enable slow speed weight measurements at least as precise as in ground static scales, which are certified to 0.1% error. Concomitant software and hardware revisions reflect a philosophical and practical change that enables an order of magnitude improvement in low-speed weighing precision. This error reduction breakthrough is presented within the context of the complete host of commercial and governmental application rationale including the flexibility to extend information and communication technology for future needs.

  12. Hybrid bayesian networks for traffic load models from weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Nápoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge engineering, in infrastructure monitoring and assessment and inspection and reinforcement strategies. In the Netherlands and some other countries, the video-WIM system was implemented for pre-selection, and

  13. Hybrid bayesian networks for traffic load models from weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Nápoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge engineering, in infrastructure monitoring and assessment and inspection and reinforcement strategies. In the Netherlands and some other countries, the video-WIM system was implemented for pre-selection, and

  14. Weigh-in-Motion: Recent Developments in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Bernard; O'Brien, Eugene J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a review of recent European developments in WIM. Pan-European and national projects are reported plus developments in sensor technologies and system design. Recent developments in multiple-sensor WIM systems are given particular attention. The coming of prototype fully-automatic overload systems is discussed and the technologies and legal framework necessary for their success. The commercialisation of Bridge WIM in Europe since the ICWIM3 is considered and the continued d...

  15. A fiber-optic weigh-in-motion sensor using fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wei, Zhanxiong; Chen, Bingquan; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2005-11-01

    In this weigh-in-motion (WIM) research, we introduce a novel design of WIM system based-on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technologies. The novel design comes from the idea using in-service bridge as the weigh scale. While vehicles traveling over the bridge, the weights can be recorded by the strain gauges installed on the bridge abutments. In this system, the bridge beam is replaced by a piece of steel plate which supports the weight of the traveling vehicle. Four steel tubes are attached firmly at the corners of the plate serving as the bridge abutments. All weights will be finally transferred into the tubes where four FBGs are attached and can record the weight-induced strains by shifting their Bragg wavelengths. Compared with other designs of fiber-optic WIM systems, this design is easy and reliable. Especially it's suitable for heavy vehicles because of its large capacity, such as military vehicles, trucks and trailers. Over 40-ton load has been applied on the system and the experimental results show a good repeatability and linearity under such a large load. The system resolution has been achieved as low as 10 kg.

  16. Traffic load model based on weigh in motion measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Morales Napoles, O.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the structural safety of existing bridges and viaducts becomes increasingly important in many countries. Within the actions applied to the bridges, the traffic load is, in general, the most significant variable action to be considered when the ultimate limit states are under

  17. Hidden Markov Modeling for Weigh-In-Motion Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Boone, Shane [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a hidden Markov model to assist in the weight measurement error that arises from complex vehicle oscillations of a system of discrete masses. Present reduction of oscillations is by a smooth, flat, level approach and constant, slow speed in a straight line. The model uses this inherent variability to assist in determining the true total weight and individual axle weights of a vehicle. The weight distribution dynamics of a generic moving vehicle were simulated. The model estimation converged to within 1% of the true mass for simulated data. The computational demands of this method, while much greater than simple averages, took only seconds to run on a desktop computer.

  18. A bridge-style fiber-optic weigh-in-motion sensor for military vehicle monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wei, Zhanxiong; Chen, Bingquan; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2005-05-01

    This paper introduces a novel design of "bridge style" fiber-optic weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensor using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology. Compared with other designs of fiber-optic WIM sensors, the bridge-style design is reliable, sensitive and can bear more loads. With these advantages, the bridge-style WIM sensor is specifically suitable for heavy vehicle dynamic weighing, especially for military vehicles, cargos and equipments. Experiment is conducted and the results show good repeatability and sensitivity under large loads. The minimum achieved resolvable weight is 7.1 kilograms. Finally, WIM sensor on-site installation method is suggested.

  19. Comparison of Two Independently Developed Bridge Weigh-In-Motion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Eugene J.; Znidaric, Ales; Dempsey, Anthony T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment in which 2 independently developed bridge weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems are tested and compared, both for accuracy and durability. The systems, an Irish prototype still under development and a commercially available American system, were tested on a bridge in Slovenia. 11 statically pre-weighted trucks were each driven over the bridge several times at a range of typical highway speeds. Accuracies for axle and gross vehicle weights are presented within the fr...

  20. Real-time weigh-in-motion measurement using fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Palek, Leonard; Strommen, Robert; Worel, Ben; Chen, Genda

    2014-03-01

    Overloading truck loads have long been one of the key reasons for accelerating road damage, especially in rural regions where the design loads are expected to be small and in the cold regions where the wet-and-dry cycle places a significant role. To control the designed traffic loads and further guide the road design in future, periodical weight stations have been implemented for double check of the truck loads. The weight stations give chances for missing measurement of overloaded vehicles, slow down the traffic, and require additional labors. Infrastructure weight-in-motion sensors, on the other hand, keep consistent traffic flow and monitor all types of vehicles on roads. However, traditional electrical weight-in-motion sensors showed high electromagnetic interference (EMI), high dependence on environmental conditions such as moisture, and relatively short life cycle, which are unreliable for long-term weigh-inmotion measurements. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, with unique advantages of compactness, immune to EMI and moisture, capability of quasi-distributed sensing, and long life cycle, will be a perfect candidate for long-term weigh-in-motion measurements. However, the FBG sensors also surfer from their frangible nature of glass materials for a good survive rate during sensor installation. In this study, the FBG based weight-in-motion sensors were packaged by fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials and further validated at MnROAD facility, Minnesota DOT (MnDOT). The design and layout of the FRP-FBG weight-in-motion sensors, their field test setup, data acquisition, and data analysis will be presented. Upon validation, the FRP-FBG sensors can be applied weigh-in-motion measurement to assistant road managements.

  1. Weighing in motion and characterization of the railroad traffic with using the B-WIM technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. DE CARVALHO NETO

    Full Text Available AbstractThe knowledge on the active moving load of a bridge is crucial for the achievement of the information on the behavior of the structure, and thus foresee maintenance, repairs and better definition of the logistics of its active vehicles. This paper presents the development of the algorithms for the application of the Bridge-Weigh In Motion (B-WIM method created by Moses for the weighing of trains during motion and also for the characterization of the rail traffic, allowing the obtainment of information like passage's train velocity and number and spacing of axles, eliminating the dynamic effect. There were implemented algorithms for the determination of the data referring to the geometry of the train and its loads, which were evaluated using a theoretical example, in which it was simulated the passage of the train over a bridge and the loads of its axles were determined with one hundred percent of precision. In addition, it was made a numerical example in finite elements of a reinforced concrete viaduct from the Carajás' Railroad, in which the developed system reached great results on the characterization and weighing of the locomotive when the constitutive equation of the Brazilian Standards was substituted by the one proposed by Collins and Mitchell.

  2. Investigation of the effects of air temperature and speed on performance of piezoelectric weigh-in-motion systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaziri, Shahram Hashemi; Haas, Carl T; Rothenburg, Leo; Haas, Ralph C; Jiang, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems differ in terms of sensing technology, sensing element, installation procedure, structural design, and material, which make them respond differently to equivalent loading conditions...

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Configuration and Data Management Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involvement in the Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) research with both government agencies and private companies dates back to 1989. The discussion here will focus on the US Army's current need for an automated WIM system to weigh and determine the center-of-balance for military wheeled vehicles and cargo and the expanded uses of WIM data. ORNL is addressing configuration and data management issues as they relate to deployments for both military and humanitarian activities. The transition from the previous WIM Gen I to the current Gen II system illustrates a configuration and data management solution that ensures data integration, integrity, coherence and cost effectiveness. Currently, Army units use portable and fixed scales, tape measures, and calculators to determine vehicle axle, total weights and center of balance for vehicles prior to being transshipped via railcar, ship, or airlifted. Manually weighing and measuring all vehicles subject to these transshipment operations is time-consuming, labor-intensive, hazardous and is prone to human errors (e.g., misreading scales and tape measures, calculating centers of balance and wheel, axle, and vehicle weights, recording data, and transferring data from manually prepared work sheets into an electronic data base and aggravated by adverse weather conditions). Additionally, in the context of the military, the timeliness, safety, success, and effectiveness of airborne heavy-drop operations can be significantly improved by the use of an automated system to weigh and determine center of balance of vehicles while they are in motion. The lack of a standardized airlift-weighing system for joint service use also creates redundant weighing requirements at the cost of scarce resources and time. This case study can be judiciously expanded into commercial operations related to safety and enforcement. The WIM program will provide a means for the Army to automatically identify/weigh and monitor

  4. Fiber optic weigh-in-motion sensor: correlation between modeling and practical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teral, Stephane R.; Larcher, Simon J.; Caussignac, Jean-Marie; Barbachi, Mohamed

    1996-05-01

    This paper shows the way to turn a defect inherent to single-mode fiber, namely birefringence, into a prime quality for a powerful and reliable sensor. The latter is entirely devoted to weigh- in-motion (WIM) applications extended to complete active traffic management systems. After a brief description of the sensor and its principle of operation, the theoretical model is developed. Then, a full characterization made in both static and dynamic conditions is presented. The results obtained illustrate how it is difficult to interpret a weight measured in dynamic conditions and correlate the value with the static weight.

  5. Bridge Influence Line Estimation for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System

    OpenAIRE

    Ieng, Sio Song

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that estimates the influence line (IL) of a bridge using data collected when trucks pass over the sensors installed in the bridge. The algorithm is tested with data collected from the Millau Viaduct in France using a bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM) device. The algorithm uses the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and is compared with an old algorithm. The algorithm is more robust because it takes into account many signals for the estimation of the IL.

  6. Accurate and portable weigh-in-motion system for manifesting air cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodine, Robert N.; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Jordan, John K.

    1995-12-01

    An automated and portable weigh-in-motion system has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the purpose of manifesting cargo onto aircraft. The system has an accuracy range of plus or minus 3.0% to plus or minus 6.0% measuring gross vehicle weight and locating the center of balance of moving vehicles at speeds of 1 to 5 mph. This paper reviews the control/user interface system and weight determination algorithm developed to acquire, process, and interpret multiple sensor inputs. The development effort resulted in a self- zeroing, user-friendly system capable of weighing a wide range of vehicles in any random order. The control system is based on the STANDARD (STD) bus and incorporates custom- designed data acquisition and sensor fusion hardware controlled by a personal computer (PC) based single-board computer. The user interface is written in the 'C' language to display number of axles, axle weight, axle spacing, gross weight, and center of balance. The weighing algorithm developed functions with any linear weight sensor and a set of four axle switches per sensor.

  7. Accurate and portable weigh-in-motion system for manifesting air cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodine, R.N.; Scudiere, M.B.; Jordan, J.K.

    1995-12-01

    An automated and portable weigh-in-motion system has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the purpose of manifesting cargo onto aircraft. The system has an accuracv range of {plus_minus} 3.0% to {plus_minus} 6.0% measuring gross vehicle weight and locating the center of balance of moving vehicles at speeds of 1 to 5 mph. This paper reviews the control/user interface system and weight determination algorithm developed to acquire, process, and interpret multiple sensor inputs. The development effort resulted in a self-zeroing, user-friendly system capable of weighing a wide range of vehicles in any random order. The control system is based on the STANDARD (STD) bus and incorporates custom-designed data acquisition and sensor fusion hardware controlled by a personal computer (PC) based single-board computer. The user interface is written in the ``C`` language to display number of axles, axle weight, axle spacing, gross weight, and center of balance. The weighing algorithm developed will function with any linear weight sensor and a set of four axle switches per sensor.

  8. Algorithm for a novel fiber-optic weigh-in-motion sensor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, K.W. Jr.; Muhs, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    Over the past decade, the demand from both government and private industry for small, lightweight, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems has grown substantially. During the 1980s several techniques for weighing vehicles in motion were developed that include piezoelectric cables, capacitive mats, and hydraulic and bending-plate load cells. These different systems have advantages and disadvantages that trade off between accuracy, physical size and system complexity. The smaller portable systems demonstrate medium to poor accuracy and repeatability while the larger more accurate systems are nonportable. A small, lightweight, and portable WIM system based on a fiber-optic pressure transducer has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to meet the demands of government and industry. The algorithm for extracting vehicle weight from the time-dependent sensor response is developed and presented in this report, along with data collected by the system for several classes of vehicles. These results show that the ORNL fiber-optic WIM system is a viable alternative to other commercial systems that are presently available. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  9. A rheology model of soft elastomeric capacitor for Weigh-In-Motion application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Venkata Dharmateja

    As a result of fast growing industry, there is an increase in traffic congestion and deterioration of transportation inventory. Real-time traffic characterisation could be used to amoliorate the efficiency of our transportation system. Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) systems offer the advantages of vehicle classification, speed measurement, in addition to weight measurement while vehicles are moving. In this thesis, state-of-the-art WIM systems are discussed and limitations of current technologies are identified. A Soft Elastomeric Capacitor (SEC) that works as a large scale surface strain gauge is introduced to address the limitations in existing techniques and investigated for its applicability as a WIM sensor. Though the novel SEC has potential advantages, the relationship axial strain-to-stress needs to be modeled to enable its utilization as a WIM sensor. A Zener model is selected and modified by the addition of a slider to characterize the polymer behavior. An overstress approach is used to study the resultant stress-strain response owing to its simplicity and computational benefits. Since the overstress approach is data-driven, an experimental testing scheme is used to identify the model parameters. The tests comprise three types of applied strain loading: multi step relaxation, simple relaxation and cyclic compression. Specimens with varying stiffness are employed for these tests. Numerical simulations for the cyclic compression loading are presented to assess the model performance. The model is found to be capable of reproducing the experimental data with an absolute maximum error value of 0.085 MPa for slow loading rate tests and 0.175 MPa for high loading rate tests. Comparative studies are completed to investigate the impact of patch stiffness on the mechanical behavior of the soft elastomeric capacitor patches. It is observed that as stiffness decreases, the nonlinearity in stress-strain response increases

  10. High-speed weigh-in motion measurement with Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Soo; Cho, Seong-Kyu; Bae, Byung-Woo

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, a high speed fiber optic sensor weigh-in-motion (WIM) system is proposed. Bragg gratings which have several advantages such as good reproducibility and good multiplicity compare to other optical fiber sensors are used for the system. Fabry-Perot filter for the signal process, which cannot be used in the high speed measurement because of the limitation in fast operation of PZT, is excluded. A new signal processing system which employs bandwidth filter is proposed and bridge type new sensor package design is also proposed. The proposed fiber optic WIM system is tested in the laboratory and experimented with actual trucks. The new concept of calibration coefficient "k" is introduced and calculated by the experiments. The calculated calibration coefficients show good approximations to real axial weights regardless tire widths.

  11. Improving the efficiency of weigh in motion systems through optimized allocating truck checking oriented procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an effective procedure is proposed to determine the best location(s for installing Weigh in Motion systems (WIM. The main objective is to determine locations for best performance, defined as the maximum number of once-checked trucks' axle loads and minimizing unnecessary actions. The aforesaid method consists of two main stages, including solving shortest path algorithm and selecting the best location for installing WIM(s. A proper mathematical model has also been developed to achieve objective function. The number of once-checked trucks, unnecessary actions and average installing costs are defined as criteria measures. The proposed procedure was applied in a road network using experimental data, while the results were compared with the usual methods of locating enforcement facilities. Finally, it is concluded that the proposed procedure seems to be more efficient than the traditional methods and local experts' points of view.

  12. Study on weigh-in-motion system based on chirped fiber gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-sheng; Guo, Dan; Li, Wei; Li, Yong-guo; Wu, An; Yao, Kai-fang; Jiang, De-sheng

    2007-11-01

    A novel weigh-in-motion (WIM) system used for high way is developed based on Chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBG) in this paper. The WIM system consists of four CFBG pressure sensors, each of which contains a couple of CFBG. The sensor can directly output optical intensity signal, so the postprocessor instrument is simple and cheap instead of expensive wavelength demodulation apparatus. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that output optical intensity of the sensor is linearly proportional to the pressure, and the linearity and the repeated error can respectively reach to 0.9997 and 0.05%FS. We have also exceeded series experiments with several kinds of automobile with different velocity, and received good results of relative error below 5%.

  13. Road Weigh Stations, Statewide weigh station point layer, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Office of Shared Solutions.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Weigh Stations dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2009. It is described as...

  14. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungkon; Lee, Jungwhee; Park, Min-Seok; Jo, Byung-Wan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM) systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  15. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seok Park

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  16. The Effect of Flexible Pavement Mechanics on the Accuracy of Axle Load Sensors in Vehicle Weigh-in-Motion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnos, Piotr; Rys, Dawid

    2017-09-07

    Weigh-in-Motion systems are tools to prevent road pavements from the adverse phenomena of vehicle overloading. However, the effectiveness of these systems can be significantly increased by improving weighing accuracy, which is now insufficient for direct enforcement of overloaded vehicles. Field tests show that the accuracy of Weigh-in-Motion axle load sensors installed in the flexible (asphalt) pavements depends on pavement temperature and vehicle speeds. Although this is a known phenomenon, it has not been explained yet. The aim of our study is to fill this gap in the knowledge. The explanation of this phenomena which is presented in the paper is based on pavement/sensors mechanics and the application of the multilayer elastic half-space theory. We show that differences in the distribution of vertical and horizontal stresses in the pavement structure are the cause of vehicle weight measurement errors. These studies are important in terms of Weigh-in-Motion systems for direct enforcement and will help to improve the weighing results accuracy.

  17. Using weigh-in-motion data to determine bridge dynamic amplification factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalin Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic component of bridge traffic loading is commonly taken into account with a Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF – the ratio between the maximum dynamic and static load effects on a bridge. In the design codes, this factor is generally higher than in reality. While this is fine for new bridges that must account for various risks during their life-time, it imposes unnecessary conservativism into assessment of the existing well defined bridges. Therefore, analysis of existing bridges should apply more realistic DAF values. One way of obtaining them experimentally is by bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM measurements, which use an existing instrumented bridge or culvert to weigh all crossing vehicles at highway speeds. The B-WIM system had been equipped with two methods of obtaining an approximation to the static response of the. The first method uses the sum of influence lines. This method relies on accurate axle identification, the failure of which can have a large influence on the DAF value. The other method uses a pre-determined low-pass filter to remove the dynamic component of the measured signal; however an expert is needed to set the filter parameters. A new approach that tries to eliminate these two drawbacks has been developed. In this approach the parameters for the filter are determined automatically by fitting the filtered response to the sum of the influence lines. The measurement of DAF on a typical bridge site agrees with experiments performed in the ARCHES [1] project: dynamic amplification decreases as static loading increases.

  18. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian networks based on weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Napoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number ofaxles. Because ofthe nature ofúamc configuration, the quantities measured are

  19. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian networks based on weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Napoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number ofaxles. Because ofthe nature ofúamc configuration, the quantities measured are

  20. Use of Finite Elements Analysis for a Weigh-in-Motion Sensor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Goanta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High speed weigh-in-motion (WIM sensors are utilized as components of complex traffic monitoring and measurement systems. They should be able to determine the weights on wheels, axles and vehicle gross weights, and to help the classification of vehicles (depending on the number of axles. WIM sensors must meet the following main requirements: good accuracy, high endurance, low price and easy installation in the road structure. It is not advisable to use cheap materials in constructing these devices for lower prices, since the sensors are normally working in harsh environmental conditions such as temperatures between –40 °C and +70 °C, dust, temporary water immersion, shocks and vibrations. Consequently, less expensive manufacturing technologies are recommended. Because the installation cost in the road structure is high and proportional to the WIM sensor cross section (especially with its thickness, the device needs to be made as flat as possible. The WIM sensor model presented and analyzed in this paper uses a spring element equipped with strain gages. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA, the authors have attempted to obtain a more sensitive, reliable, lower profile and overall cheaper elastic element for a new WIM sensor.

  1. Use of finite elements analysis for a weigh-in-motion sensor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Rigobert; Goanta, Viorel; Carlescu, Petru; Barsanescu, Paul-Doru; Taranu, Nicolae; Banu, Oana

    2012-01-01

    High speed weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensors are utilized as components of complex traffic monitoring and measurement systems. They should be able to determine the weights on wheels, axles and vehicle gross weights, and to help the classification of vehicles (depending on the number of axles). WIM sensors must meet the following main requirements: good accuracy, high endurance, low price and easy installation in the road structure. It is not advisable to use cheap materials in constructing these devices for lower prices, since the sensors are normally working in harsh environmental conditions such as temperatures between -40 °C and +70 °C, dust, temporary water immersion, shocks and vibrations. Consequently, less expensive manufacturing technologies are recommended. Because the installation cost in the road structure is high and proportional to the WIM sensor cross section (especially with its thickness), the device needs to be made as flat as possible. The WIM sensor model presented and analyzed in this paper uses a spring element equipped with strain gages. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), the authors have attempted to obtain a more sensitive, reliable, lower profile and overall cheaper elastic element for a new WIM sensor.

  2. Probability Model of Hangzhou Bay Bridge Vehicle Loads Using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhang Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the vehicle load characteristics of bay bridges in China, especially truck loads, we performed a statistical analysis of the vehicle loads on Hangzhou Bay Bridge using more than 3 months of weigh-in-motion data from the site. The results showed that when all the vehicle samples were included in the statistical analysis, the histogram of the vehicles exhibited a multimodal distribution, which could not be fitted successfully by a familiar single probability distribution model. When the truck samples were analyzed, a characteristic multiple-peaked distribution with a main peak was obtained. The probability distribution of all vehicles was fitted using a weighting function with five normal distributions and the truck loads were modeled by a single normal distribution. The results demonstrated the good fits with the histogram. The histograms of different time periods were also analyzed. The results showed that the traffic mainly comprised two-axle small vehicles during the rush hours in the morning and the evening, and the histogram could be fitted approximately using three normal distribution functions. And the maximum value distributions of vehicles during the design life of the bay bridge were predicted by maximum value theory.

  3. Probability Based Evaluation of Vehicular Bridge Load using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Nugraha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Load and Resistance Factored Design (LRFD method for designing bridge in Indonesia have been implemented for more than 25 years. LRFD method treating loads and strengths variables as random variables with specific safety factors for different loads and strengths variables type. The nominal loads, load factors, reduction factors, and other criteria for bridge design code can be determined to meet the reliability criteria. Statistical data of weigh-in-motion (WIM vehicular loads measurement in Northern Java highway, Cikampek - Pamanukan, West Java (2011, used in as statistical loads variable. A 25 m simple span bridge with reinforced concrete T-girder is used as a model for structural analysis due to WIM measured and nominal vehicular load based on RSNI T-02-2005, with applied bending moment of girder as the output. The distribution fitting result of applied bending moment due to WIM measured vehicular loads is lognormal. The maximum bending moment due to RSNI T-02-2005 nominal vehicular load is 842.45 kN-m and has probability of exceedance of 5x10-5. It can be concluded, for this study, that the bridge designed using RSNI T-02-2005 is safely designed, since it has reliability index, β of 5.02, higher than target reliability, β ranging from 3.50 or 3.72.

  4. Effectiveness of Vehicle Weight Estimation from Bridge Weigh-in-Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerachai Deesomsuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of vehicle weight estimations from bridge weigh-in-motion system is studied. The measured bending moments of the instrumented bridge under a passage of vehicle are numerically simulated and are used as the input for the vehicle weight estimations. Two weight estimation methods assuming constant magnitudes and time-varying magnitudes of vehicle axle loads are investigated. The appropriate number of bridge elements and sampling frequency are considered. The effectiveness in term of the estimation accuracy is evaluated and compared under various parameters of vehicle-bridge system. The effects of vehicle speed, vehicle configuration, vehicle weight and bridge surface roughness on the accuracy of the estimated vehicle weights are intensively investigated. Based on the obtained results, vehicle speed, surface roughness level and measurement error seem to have stronger effects on the weight estimation accuracy than other parameters. In general, both methods can provide quite accurate weight estimation of the vehicle. Comparing between them, although the weight estimation method assuming constant magnitudes of axle loads is faster, the method assuming time-varying magnitudes of axle loads can provide axle load histories and exhibits more accurate weight estimations of the vehicle for almost of the considered cases.

  5. Non-intrusive schemes for speed and axle identification in bridge-weigh-in-motion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhori, Hamed; Makki Alamdari, Mehrisadat; Zhu, Xinqun; Samali, Bijan; Mustapha, Samir

    2017-02-01

    Bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) is an approach through which the axle and gross weight of trucks travelling at normal highway speed are identified using the response of an instrumented bridge. The vehicle speed, the number of axles, and the axle spacing are crucial parameters, and are required to be determined in the majority of BWIM algorithms. Nothing-on-the-road (NOR) strategy suggests using the strain signals measured at some particular positions underneath the deck or girders of a bridge to obtain this information. The objective of this research is to present a concise overview of the challenges of the current non-intrusive schemes for speed and axle determination through bending-strain and shear-strain based approaches. The problem associated with the global bending-strain responses measured at quarter points of span is discussed and a new sensor arrangement is proposed as an alternative. As for measurement of local responses rather than the global responses, the advantage of shear strains over bending strains is presented. However, it is illustrated that shear strains at quarter points of span can only provide accurate speed estimation but fail to detect the correct number of axles. As a remedy, it is demonstrated that, even for closely-spaced axles, the shear strain at the beginning of the bridge is capable of reliably identifying the number of axles. In order to provide a fully automated speed and axle identification system, appropriate signal processing including low-pass filtering and wavelet transforms are applied to the raw time signals. As case studies, the results of experimental testing in laboratory and on a real bridge are presented.

  6. Researches regarding a pressure pulse generator as a segment of model for a weighing in motion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, I.; Tiţa, I.; Pelin, R. I.

    2016-08-01

    There are many types of weighing in motion systems: with strain gauges, piezoelectric type, with optical fibre, capacitive etc. Although one of them proved to be reliable, many research teams all over the world are interested in finding new types or improving the existing ones. In this paper is presented a hydraulic Weigh-In-Motion sensor composed of a metal vessel filled with hydraulic oil connected to an accumulator through a pipe. Vehicle tires press on the deformable upper wall and pressure pulses generated in this way provides information about the load. In this paper are presented: a structure for an experimental model, the block diagram for numerical simulation, experimental model and some experimental results.

  7. High speed, high-resolution fiber Bragg grating sensing system for monitoring of weigh-in-motion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, D.; Olivero, M.; Perrone, G.; Vallan, A.

    2011-05-01

    We present a fast high-resolution fiber Bragg grating sensing system for weigh-in-motion (WIM) application. The proposed system makes use of standard telecom photonics components operating at high speed and with insufficient resolution; then, using signal processing we artificially improve the accuracy of the system down to 1 μɛ. This way, the proposed architecture overcomes the state of the art of optical systems for WIM, which cannot cope with both high resolution and high frequency requirements. The developed system has been applied to a prototype weigh-in-motion device, which consists of a road speed bump. Structural deformations of the bump when perturbed by a thin-footmark load are well reproduced. Using multiple Bragg grating sensors, it is possible to unambiguously determine position and weight of a moving load on the bump with accuracy of 0.2 - 1.2 kg.

  8. Preliminary research findings on traffic-load forecasting using weigh-in-motion data. Interim research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.E.; Pangburn, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    In order to forecast highway pavement performance and to design adequate pavement structures, detailed traffic loading information is essential. Traffic data collected by two unique weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems located in the southbound lanes of US 50 in east Texas have been analyzed and used to develop a methodology for forecasting future traffic loading patterns. The WIM systems, which have been in service continually since late 1992, have collected such data as the date, time, speed, lateral lane position, axle spacings, and wheel loads for about 7,500 individual vehicles per day. Thermocouples in the air and embedded in the pavement have measured and recorded hourly air and pavement temperatures, respectively.

  9. Self-weighing behaviors in young adults: tipping the scale toward unhealthy eating behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia; Larson, Nicole; Eisenberg, Marla E; Hannan, Peter J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-11-01

    This study examined associations between frequency of self-weighing and healthy weight-control behaviors (WCBs), unhealthy WCBs, muscle-enhancing behaviors (e.g., steroid use, protein powders), and psychological well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depression, body satisfaction) in a community sample of young adults. Data were drawn from Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults), the third wave of a population-based study. Participants included young adults (n = 2,287, mean age = 25.3 years) from the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area. Self-weighing a few times per week or more frequently was reported by 18% of young adult women and 12% of young adult men. Linear regression models, adjusted for body mass index and demographic characteristics, indicated that in both women and men, more frequent self-weighing was associated with a higher prevalence of dieting, both healthy and unhealthy WCBs, and muscle-enhancing behaviors. Additionally, young women who reported more frequent self-weighing were more likely to report binge eating. More frequent self-weighing was also associated with more depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem in women and lower body satisfaction in young men. More frequent self-weighing is associated with healthy and unhealthy weight-control practices, muscle-enhancing behaviors, and poorer psychological well-being in young adults. Young adults engaging in self-weighing behaviors should be screened for these health indicators and counseled as appropriate. Before recommending self-weighing as a weight-monitoring tool, health care providers should ensure that young adults are not at risk for an unhealthy preoccupation with body weight or shape. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites for weigh-in-motion sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rajesh K.; Szary, Patrick J.; Maher, Ali; Safari, Ahmad

    1998-07-01

    Piezoelectric materials produce a voltage proportional to an applied pressure. Using this phenomenon, piezoelectric polymer sensors are already being used for collecting traffic data including weight-in-motion, measuring speeds and counting axles. The polymer sensors are usually in the form of a long tape or cable embedded within long blocks of elastomeric material. These sensor assemblies are then installed into grooves, which are cut into roads perpendicular to the traffic flow. The biggest disadvantage of these sensors is that the piezoelectric output is not uniform with temperature, thus leading to large uncertainty in the data collected. Piezoelectric ceramics have a much more stable response over a large temperature range. However, until now they have not been used for traffic data sensors because of their inherent brittleness. In this research project flexible ceramic/polymer composite strips have been fabricated for use as piezoelectric sensors for measuring large vehicle loads. Here, the ceramic is the active piezoelectric material that is embedded in a flexible non-piezoelectric polymer. After encapsulating these sensors in elastomeric blocks in aluminum channels, the voltage output of the composite for different loads have been determined. Also, these composite sensor assemblies are being installed on a test road in order to perform actual measurements.

  11. Sampling optimization for high-speed weigh-in-motion measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj; Palek, Leonard; Strommen, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) measurement has been widely used for weight enforcement, pavement design, freight management, and intelligent transportation systems to monitor traffic in real-time. However, to use such sensors effectively, vehicles must exit the traffic stream and slow down to match their current capabilities. Hence, agencies need devices with higher vehicle passing speed capabilities to enable continuous weight measurements at mainline speeds. The current practices for data acquisition at such high speeds are fragmented. Deployment configurations and settings depend mainly on the experiences of operation engineers. To assure adequate data, most practitioners use very high frequency measurements that result in redundant samples, thereby diminishing the potential for real-time processing. The larger data memory requirements from higher sample rates also increase storage and processing costs. The field lacks a sampling design or standard to guide appropriate data acquisition of high-speed WIM measurements. This study develops the appropriate sample rate requirements as a function of the vehicle speed. Simulations and field experiments validate the methods developed. The results will serve as guidelines for future high-speed WIM measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors.

  12. Application of adaptive inverse filtering approach in weigh-in-motion of vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinsong; Wu, Jie; Wan, Jiuqing; Li, Xingshan

    2006-11-01

    In this paper an adaptive inverse filter is employed which suppress noise within the bandwidth of the desired signal with the particular aim to improve the accuracy of WIM systems. Within the framework of the FIR filter, the inverse system of WIM system is constructed by using LMS adaptive algorithm as an innovative filter. Moreover, an additional filter, a noise filter, is adopted as well, in order to best improvement the measurement accuracy. The final results processed by cascaded filter combination show a significant improvement in estimation of static weight of moving vehicles.

  13. Glass fiber-reinforced polymer packaged fiber Bragg grating sensors for low-speed weigh-in-motion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tarawneh, Mu'ath; Huang, Ying

    2016-08-01

    The weight of rolling trucks on roads is one of the critical factors for the management of road networks due to the continuous increase in truck weight. Weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensors have been widely used for weight enforcement. A three-dimensional glass fiber-reinforced polymer packaged fiber Bragg grating sensor (3-D GFRP-FBG) is introduced for in-pavement WIM measurement at low vehicle passing speed. A sensitivity study shows that the developed sensor is very sensitive to the sensor installation depth and the longitudinal and transverse locations of the wheel loading position. The developed 3-D GFRP-FBG sensor is applicable for most practical pavements with a panel length larger than 6 ft, and it also shows a very good long-term durability. For the three components in 3-D of the developed sensor, the longitudinal component has the highest sensitivity for WIM measurements, followed by the transverse and vertical components. Field testing validated the sensitivity and repeatability of the developed 3-D GFRP-FBG sensor. The developed sensor provides the transportation agency one alternative solution for WIM measurement, which could significantly improve the measurement efficiency and long-term durability.

  14. Traffic weigh-in-motion (WIM measurements and validation of the Texas perpetual pavement structural design concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubinda F. Walubita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the State of Texas has used perpetual pavement (PP structures on its heavily trafficked highways, where the expected 20-year truck-traffic estimate of 80 kN ESALs (equivalent single axle loads is in excess of 30 million. As a means to validate the Texas PP structural design concept and to make optimal future truck-traffic design recommendations, traffic Weigh In-Motion (WIM measurements were conducted and analyzed for two PP projects. The findings indicated that the initial 80 kN ESAL traffic design estimates for PP were comparable to the projections based on the actual measured WIM traffic data. However, underestimation of the hot mix asphalt layer dynamic moduli resulted in conservative designs for the PP structures. In addition, based on the successful use of the automated WIM data stations for traffic data collection, the paper highlights possible applications and advantages (as compared to conventional manual collection of traffic data of using detailed WIM traffic data information for future analyses of both highway operation and pavement structural design.

  15. Nonparametric factorial analysis of daily weigh-in-motion traffic: implications for the ozone "weekend effect" in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Oliver H.; Holmén, Britt A.; Niemeier, Debbie A.

    The Ozone Weekend Effect (OWE) has become increasingly more frequent and widespread in southern California since the mid-1970s. Although a number of hypotheses have been suggested to explain the effect, there remains uncertainty associated with the root factors contributing to elevated weekend ozone concentrations. Targeting the time window of the 1997 Southern California Ozone Study (SCOS97), this paper examines traffic activity data for 14 vehicle classes at 27 weigh-in-motion (WIM) stations in southern California. Nonparametric factorial analyses of light-duty vehicle (LDV) and heavy-duty truck (HDT) traffic volumes indicate significant differences in daily volumes by day of week and between the weekly patterns of daily LDV and HDT volumes. Across WIM stations, the daily LDV volume was highest on Friday and decreased by 10% on weekends compared to that on midweek days. In contrast, daily HDT volumes showed dramatic weekend drops of 53% on Saturday and 64% on Sunday. As a result, LDV to HDT ratios increased by 145% on weekends. Nonparametric tests also suggest that weekly traffic patterns varied significantly between WIM stations located close to (central) and far from (peripheral) the Los Angeles Metro area. Weekend increases in LDV/HDT ratios were more pronounced at central WIM sites due to greater weekend declines of HDT relative to LDV traffic. The implications of these weekly traffic patterns for the OWE in southern California were investigated by estimating daily WIM traffic on-road running exhaust emissions of total organic gas (TOG) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x) using EMFAC2002 emission factors. The results support the California Air Resource Board's (CARB's) NO x reduction hypothesis that greater weekend NO x reductions relative to volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, in combinations with the VOC-limited ozone system, contribute to the OWE observed in the region. The results from this study can be used to develop weekend on-road mobile emission

  16. Practical on-board weigh-in-motion system for commercial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1997-01-01

    Many commercial carriers are currently operating vehicles which are overweight, creating an unsafe and illegal situation. However, the cost to law enforcement agencies to stop vehicles for roadside weight checks is prohibitive, while the cost to the nation in lost travel time adds shipping costs which are reflected in the price of every product transported by truck. Overweight trucks also become a threat to public safety when, on public highways, solid cargo breaks loose or liquid cargo leaks. The solution is an on-board monitoring system. With such a system, trucks under their legal weight limit would be allowed to travel past state borders and checkpoints without being stopped. THis would save money both in law enforcement and shipping costs to the nation as a whole. A properly designed system would also have the capability to warn both the driver and local safety and enforcement personnel when the truck is loaded beyond capacity or any other unsafe condition. This paper will detail a system that would even in early limited production be cost effective for both the law enforcement agencies and the operators of trucking fleets. In full production the systems would be cost effective even for smaller or owner/operator trucks. This is a safety system that could become standard equipment similar to seat belts, ABS, and airbags. The initial testing of sub-assemblies and sub-systems which could be deployed now for beta test has been completed.

  17. Effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement in a developing country using weigh-in-motion sorting system considering vehicle by-pass and enforcement capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rehan Karim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle overloading has been identified as one of the major contributors to road pavement damage in Malaysia. In this study, the weigh-in-motion (WIM system has been used to function as a vehicle weight sorting tool to complement the exsiting static weigh bridge enforcement station. Data collected from the developed system is used to explore the effectiveness of using WIM system in terms of generating more accurate data for enforcement purposes and at the same time improving safety and reducing the number of vehicle weight violations on the roads. This study specifically focus on the effect of vehicle by-pass and static weigh station enforcement capability on the overall effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement system in a developing country. Results from this study suggest that the WIM system will significantly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the current vehicle weight enforcement, thus generating substantial revenue that would greatly off-set the current road maintenance budget that comes from tax payers money. If there is substantial reduction in overloaded vehicles, the public will still gain through reduction in road maintenance budget, less accident risks involving heavy trucks, and lesser greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions.

  18. The Potential and Beneficial Use of Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Systems Integrated with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems for Characterizing Disposal of Waste Debris to Optimize the Waste Shipping Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Buckner Jr, Dooley [ORNL; Newton, David D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system provides a portable and/or semi-portable means of accurately weighing vehicles and its cargo as each vehicle crosses the scales (while in motion), and determining (1) axle weights and (2) axle spacing for vehicles (for determination of Bridge Formula compliance), (3) total vehicle/cargo weight and (4) longitudinal center of gravity (for safety considerations). The WIM system can also weigh the above statically. Because of the automated nature of the WIM system, it eliminates the introduction of human errors caused by manual computations and data entry, adverse weather conditions, and stress. Individual vehicles can be weighed continuously at low speeds (approximately 3-10 mph) and at intervals of less than one minute. The ORNL WIM system operates and is integrated into the Bethel Jacobs Company Transportation Management and Information System (TMIS, a Radio-Frequency Identification [RFID] enabled information system). The integrated process is as follows: Truck Identification Number and Tare Weight are programmed into a RFID Tag. Handheld RFID devices interact with the RFID Tag, and Electronic Shipping Document is written to the RFID Tag. The RFID tag read by an RFID tower identifies the vehicle and its associated cargo, the specific manifest of radioactive debris for the uniquely identified vehicle. The weight of the cargo (in this case waste debris) is calculated from total vehicle weight information supplied from WIM to TMIS and is further processed into the Information System and kept for historical and archival purposes. The assembled data is the further process in downstream information systems where waste coordination activities at the Y-12 Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) are written to RFID Tag. All cycle time information is monitored by Transportation Operations and Security personnel.

  19. Weighing and Body Monitoring among College Women: The Scale Number as an Emotional Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Awad, Germine H.; Stinson, Rebecca D.; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Coker, Angela D.; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Connelly, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated weighing and body-monitoring behaviors, as well as psychological and behavioral reactions to weighing, among female college students. Weighing and body monitoring were engaged in by the majority of participants. Participants changed food intake and exercise based on weight. About 63% reported that the scale number impacts…

  20. Weighing and Body Monitoring among College Women: The Scale Number as an Emotional Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Awad, Germine H.; Stinson, Rebecca D.; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Coker, Angela D.; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Connelly, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated weighing and body-monitoring behaviors, as well as psychological and behavioral reactions to weighing, among female college students. Weighing and body monitoring were engaged in by the majority of participants. Participants changed food intake and exercise based on weight. About 63% reported that the scale number impacts…

  1. Time scales of representation in the human brain: weighing past information to predict future events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee eHarrison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimates that humans make of statistical dependencies in the environment and therefore their representation of uncertainty crucially depend on the integration of data over time. As such, the extent to which past events are used to represent uncertainty has been postulated to vary over the cortex. For example, primary visual cortex responds to rapid perturbations in the environment, while frontal cortices involved in executive control encode the longer term contexts within which these perturbations occur. Here we tested whether primary and executive regions can be distinguished by the number of past observations they represent. This was based on a decay-dependent model that weights past observations from a Markov process and Bayesian Model Selection (BMS to test the prediction that neuronal responses are characterised by different decay half-lives depending on location in the brain. We show distributions of brain responses for short and long term decay functions in primary and secondary visual and frontal cortices, respectively. We found that visual and parietal responses are released from the burden of the past, enabling an agile response to fluctuations in events as they unfold. In contrast, frontal regions are more concerned with average trends over longer time scales within which local variations are embedded. Specifically, we provide evidence for a temporal gradient for representing context within the prefrontal cortex and possibly beyond to include primary sensory and association areas.

  2. Weighing in on NBC's The Biggest Loser: governmentality and self-concept on the scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readdy, Tucker; Ebbeck, Vicki

    2012-12-01

    Previous analyses (i.e., Bernstein & St. John, 2006; Sender & Sullivan, 2008) of the television show The Biggest Loser have detailed its negative presentation of the obese body, potential consequences for viewers, and its role as a technology of governmentality. However there has been little exploration of how audience members conceptualize and enact the messages communicated in the show within these intricate frameworks. The current research used information from semistructured interviews with 40 dedicated viewers to capture the salient meanings they ascribed to The Biggest Loser within the themes of governmentality and self-concept. Overall, the group experienced the program as a transformative, entertaining, and inspirational event that produced little change in their exercise behavior. Thus, the role of reality television in creating healthy behavior change is potentially limited.

  3. Let's Weigh in on "Deflategate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepker, Terrence

    2016-09-01

    The September 2015 paper "Bouncing Back from `Deflategate'" is a very interesting article from a physics viewpoint. However, we doubt that the National Football League (NFL) officials will bounce footballs and measure the coefficient of restitution to verify that the footballs remain properly inflated. The release of a few pounds per square inch (psi) from a football seems trivial until one reads about the millions of dollars in suspensions, fines, and legal fees that were accrued. What is a possible solution that the NFL might actually use? Weigh the ball! When a small amount of air is deliberately released, causing a change in pressure, the change in mass can be calculated and measured. Note that the change in mass can be measured without making another pressure measurement. This is important because the reinsertion of the needle of the gauge to make another measurement causes a small inadvertent loss of pressure and mass from the ball.

  4. Road Weigh Stations, Permanent weigh stations of North Carolina. These data were manually heads-up digitized using either ESRI Imagery Prime World 1 meter resolution imagery (http://services.arcgisonline.com/v92) and the NC OneMap Express WMS Service as reference. The visual, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Institute for Transportation Research and Education.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Weigh Stations dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2009. It is described as...

  5. Lessons learned from the implementation of remote control for the interoperability standard ISO/IEEE11073-20601 in a standard weighing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón-González, Héctor Gilberto; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Trigo, Jesús Daniel; Led, Santiago; Serrano, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The Point of Care (PoC) version of the interoperability standard ISO/IEEE11073 (X73) provided a mechanism to control remotely agents through documents X73-10201 and X73-20301. The newer version of X73 oriented to Personal Health Devices (PHD) has no mechanisms to do such a thing. The authors are working toward a common proposal with the PHD Working Group (PHD-WG) in order to adapt the remote control capabilities from X73PoC to X73PHD. However, this theoretical adaptation has to be implemented and tested to evaluate whether or not its inclusion entails an acceptable overhead and extra cost. Such proof-of-concept assessment is the main objective of this paper. For the sake of simplicity, a weighing scale with a configurable operation was chosen as use case. First, in a previous stage of the research - the model was defined. Second, the implementation methodology - both in terms of hardware and software - was defined and executed. Third, an evaluation methodology to test the remote control features was defined. Then, a thorough comparison between a weighing scale with and without remote control was performed. The results obtained indicate that, when implementing remote control in a weighing scale, the relative weight of such feature represents an overhead of as much as 53%, whereas the number of Implementation Conformance Statements (ICSs) to be satisfied by the manufacturer represent as much as 34% regarding the implementation without remote control. The new feature facilitates remote control of PHDs but, at the same time, increases overhead and costs, and, therefore, manufacturers need to weigh this trade-off. As a conclusion, this proof-of-concept helps in fostering the evolution of the remote control proposal to extend X73PHD and promotes its inclusion as part of the standard, as well as it illustrates the methodological steps for its extrapolation to other specializations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distributed chaos tuned to large scale coherent motions in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2016-01-01

    It is shown, using direct numerical simulations and laboratory experiments data, that distributed chaos is often tuned to large scale coherent motions in anisotropic inhomogeneous turbulence. The examples considered are: fully developed turbulent boundary layer (range of coherence: $14 < y^{+} < 80$), turbulent thermal convection (in a horizontal cylinder), and Cuette-Taylor flow. Two ways of the tuning have been described: one via fundamental frequency (wavenumber) and another via subharmonic (period doubling). For the second way the large scale coherent motions are a natural component of distributed chaos. In all considered cases spontaneous breaking of space translational symmetry is accompanied by reflexional symmetry breaking.

  7. Soil fertility dynamics in a semiarid basin: impact of scale level in weighing the effect of the landscape variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Navarro, A.; Barbera, G. G.; Albaladejo, J.

    2009-07-01

    Arid and semi-arid Mediterranean soils are particularly sensitive to degradation processes, and soil fertility could play important role in restoration/conservation practices. Our objective was to study the relationships between soil and landscape at different scales in order to understand the main drivers of soil fertility on a semiarid catchment. A stratified sampling plan was carried out to take soil and landscape representative variability. Multivariate statistic techniques were used to elucidate the relationship between both. The results showed that soil fertility are positively related with density of vegetation and topographical conditions favourable to soil moisture at small scale, while negatively with topographical factors that contributed erosion dynamic on ero debility lithologies at medium and large scale. (Author) 8 refs.

  8. Requirements of weighing in legal metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källgren, Håkan; Pendrill, Leslie

    2003-12-01

    A review is given of recent developments in the formulation of requirements of weighing where such measurements are performed in society and industry with legal implications such as safety, fair trade and environmental considerations. Traditional legal metrology in the area of weights and measures has been developed and given an expanded scope in recent years. This reflects, on the one hand, technical and scientific development (computerization of weighing devices, improved weight manufacturing and new methods of magnetism determination, for example), and on the other hand, administrative evolution (global requirements of the market and the Measurement Instrument Directive). Particularly fruitful has been the joint effort by the scientific mass metrology and legal metrology communities in the development in the last decade of international recommendations—especially OIML R111—on weighing. Consensus has been reached in the international weighing forum concerning important areas such as maximum permissible errors for weights, how to calculate measurement uncertainty and how measurement uncertainty should be accounted for in relation to conformity assessment. These international recommendations for weights as mass standards include both tolerances and extensive instructions about various influence quantities that affect the weight result, such as magnetization, surface roughness and volume of weights. Much remains to be done, however: corresponding requirements of weighing devices in particular need to meet the challenges of a rapidly changing technology. The promising collaboration between scientific and legal metrology initiated in the area of weights may act as a model and stimulate similar developments in other areas of metrology, particularly where requirements are generic (for instance uncertainty and conformity) or analogous.

  9. Holographic Brownian motion and time scales in strongly coupled plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmaja, Ardian Nata [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Kompleks PUSPITEK Serpong, Tangerang 15310 (Indonesia); Indonesia Center for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics (ICTMP), Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Boer, Jan de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Shigemori, Masaki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP), Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hakubi Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Ushinomiyacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    We study Brownian motion of a heavy quark in field theory plasma in the AdS/CFT setup and discuss the time scales characterizing the interaction between the Brownian particle and plasma constituents. Based on a simple kinetic theory, we first argue that the mean-free-path time is related to the connected 4-point function of the random force felt by the Brownian particle. Then, by holographically computing the 4-point function and regularizing the IR divergence appearing in the computation, we write down a general formula for the mean-free-path time, and apply it to the STU black hole which corresponds to plasma charged under three U(1)R-charges. The result indicates that the Brownian particle collides with many plasma constituents simultaneously.

  10. A high speed, portable, multi-function, weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensing system and a high performance optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) demodulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Wei, Zhanxiong; Fan, Lingling; Yang, Shangming; Wang, Pengfei; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2010-04-01

    A high speed, portable, multi-function WIM sensing system based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) technology is reported in this paper. This system is developed to measure the total weight, the distribution of weight of vehicle in motion, the distance of wheel axles and the distance between left and right wheels. In this system, a temperature control system and a real-time compensation system are employed to eliminate the drifts of optical fiber Fabry-Pérot tunable filter. Carbon Fiber Laminated Composites are used in the sensor heads to obtain high reliability and sensitivity. The speed of tested vehicles is up to 20 mph, the full scope of measurement is 4000 lbs, and the static resolution of sensor head is 20 lbs. The demodulator has high speed (500 Hz) data collection, and high stability. The demodulator and the light source are packed into a 17'' rack style enclosure. The prototype has been tested respectively at Stevens' campus and Army base. Some experiences of avoiding the pitfalls in developing this system are also presented in this paper.

  11. Bulk Motions in Large-Scale Void Models

    CERN Document Server

    Tomita, K

    1999-01-01

    To explain the puzzling situation in the observed bulk flows on scales $\\sim 150 h^{-1}$ Mpc ($H_0 = 100 h^{-1}$ km sec$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$), we consider the observational behavior of spherically symmetric inhomogeneous cosmological models, which consist of inner and outer homogeneous regions connected by a shell or an intermediate self-similar region. It is assumed that the present matter density parameter in the inner region is smaller than that in the outer region, and the present Hubble parameter in the inner region is larger than that in the outer region. Then galaxies in the inner void-like region can be seen to have a bulk motion relative to matter in the outer region, when we observe them at a point O deviated from the center C of the inner region. Their velocity $v_p$ in the CD direction is equal to the difference of two Hubble parameters multiplied by the distance between C and O. It is found also that the velocity $v_d$ corresponding to CMB dipole anisotropy observed at O is by a factor $\\approx 10$ ...

  12. Weighing the Giants V: Galaxy Cluster Scaling Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn; von der Linden, Anja; Applegate, Douglas E.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Burke, David L.; Donovan, David; Ebeling, Harald

    2016-09-01

    We present constraints on the scaling relations of galaxy cluster X-ray luminosity, temperature and gas mass (and derived quantities) with mass and redshift, employing masses from robust weak gravitational lensing measurements. These are the first such results obtained from an analysis that simultaneously accounts for selection effects and the underlying mass function, and directly incorporates lensing data to constrain total masses. Our constraints on the scaling relations and their intrinsic scatters are in good agreement with previous studies, and reinforce a picture in which departures from self-similar scaling laws are primarily limited to cluster cores. However, the data are beginning to reveal new features that have implications for cluster astrophysics and provide new tests for hydrodynamical simulations. We find a positive correlation in the intrinsic scatters of luminosity and temperature at fixed mass, which is related to the dynamical state of the clusters. While the evolution of the nominal scaling relations over the redshift range 0.0 luminosity and temperature scatters respectively decrease and increase with redshift. Physically, this likely related to the development of cool cores and the rate of major mergers. We also examine the scaling relations of redMaPPer richness and Compton Y from Planck. While the richness-mass relation is in excellent agreement with recent work, the measured Y-mass relation departs strongly from that assumed in the Planck cluster cosmology analysis. The latter result is consistent with earlier comparisons of lensing and Planck scaling-relation-derived masses.

  13. Weighing the giants- V. Galaxy cluster scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn; von der Linden, Anja; Applegate, Douglas E.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Burke, David L.; Donovan, David; Ebeling, Harald

    2016-12-01

    We present constraints on the scaling relations of galaxy cluster X-ray luminosity, temperature and gas mass (and derived quantities) with mass and redshift, employing masses from robust weak gravitational lensing measurements. These are the first such results obtained from an analysis that simultaneously accounts for selection effects and the underlying mass function, and directly incorporates lensing data to constrain total masses. Our constraints on the scaling relations and their intrinsic scatters are in good agreement with previous studies, and reinforce a picture in which departures from self-similar scaling laws are primarily limited to cluster cores. However, the data are beginning to reveal new features that have implications for cluster astrophysics and provide new tests for hydrodynamical simulations. We find a positive correlation in the intrinsic scatters of luminosity and temperature at fixed mass, which is related to the dynamical state of the clusters. While the evolution of the nominal scaling relations over the redshift range 0.0 examine the scaling relations of redMaPPer richness and Compton Y from Planck. While the richness-mass relation is in excellent agreement with recent work, the measured Y-mass relation departs strongly from that assumed in the Planck cluster cosmology analysis. The latter result is consistent with earlier comparisons of lensing and Planck scaling relation-derived masses.

  14. Weighing the Giants V: Galaxy Cluster Scaling Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Mantz, Adam B; Morris, R Glenn; von der Linden, Anja; Applegate, Douglas E; Kelly, Patrick L; Burke, David L; Donovan, David; Ebeling, Harald

    2016-01-01

    We present constraints on the scaling relations of galaxy cluster X-ray luminosity, temperature and gas mass (and derived quantities) with mass and redshift, employing masses from robust weak gravitational lensing measurements. These are the first such results obtained from an analysis that simultaneously accounts for selection effects and the underlying mass function, and directly incorporates lensing data to constrain total masses. Our constraints on the scaling relations and their intrinsic scatters are in good agreement with previous studies, and reinforce a picture in which departures from self-similar scaling laws are primarily limited to cluster cores. However, the data are beginning to reveal new features that have implications for cluster astrophysics and provide new tests for hydrodynamical simulations. We find a positive correlation in the intrinsic scatters of luminosity and temperature at fixed mass, which is related to the dynamical state of the clusters. While the evolution of the nominal scali...

  15. Weighing Photons Using Bathroom Scales: A Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Jay Orear, in his introductory physics text, defined the weight of a person as the reading one gets when standing on a (properly calibrated) bathroom scale. Here we will use Jay's definition of weight in a thought experiment to measure the weight of a photon. The thought experiment uses the results of the Pound-Rebka-Snider experiments, Compton…

  16. 新型智能组合秤称重系统%New lntelligent Weighing System with Combination Scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春友; 吴晓强

    2015-01-01

    To against the shortcomings of traditional weighing system based on combination scales, e. g. , low weighing accuracy for inhomogeneous materials, and poor timeliness, the new intelligent weighing system with combination scales is proposed. This weighing system is composed of multi-scales combination, high precision weighing sensors and high resolution A/D converter. In addition, the photoelectric detection unit and the vibrating mechanism are designed;the dynamic weighing accuracy for inhomogeneous granules is enhanced greatly, the measurement speed is improved significantly by adopting digital filtering algorithm. The simulation data and tests indicate that the design effectively adapts the weighing process of inhomogeneous materials, and increases the weighing accuracy and timeliness, to satisfy the demands for practical production.%针对传统组合秤称重系统在称重不均匀物料时存在精度较低、时效性较差的问题,提出了一款新型智能组合秤称重系统。该称重系统采用了多秤头组合、高精度的称重传感器以及高分辨率A/D转换器。设计的光电检测单元和振动机构大大提高了动态不均匀颗粒称重的精度;利用快速数字滤波算法,极大改善了测量速度。仿真数据和试验表明,该称重系统的设计有效地适应了不均匀物料的称重过程,有效地提高了称重的精度和时效性,满足生产实际的需要。

  17. Daily Self-Weighing to Control Body Weight in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly R. Pacanowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the history of daily self-weighing for weight control, discuss the possibility that self-weighing may cause adverse psychological symptoms, and propose mechanisms that explain how self-weighing facilitates weight control. A systematic forward (citation tracking approach has been employed in this study. In the early literature, experimental tests did not demonstrate a benefit of adding daily self-weighing to traditional behavioral modification for weight loss. More recent studies have shown that daily self-weighing combined with personalized electronic feedback can produce and sustain weight loss with and without a traditional weight loss program. Daily self-weighing appears to be effective in preventing age-related weight gain. Apart from these experimental findings, there is considerable agreement that the frequency of self-weighing correlates with success in losing weight and sustaining the weight loss. The early literature suggested frequent self-weighing may be associated with negative psychological effects. However, more recent experimental trials do not substantiate such a causal relationship. In conclusion, daily self-weighing may be a useful strategy for certain adults to prevent weight gain, lose weight, or prevent weight regain after loss. More research is needed to better understand the role of different types of feedback, who benefits most from self-weighing, and at what frequency.

  18. Method and system for reducing errors in vehicle weighing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Abercrombie, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2010-08-24

    A method and system (10, 23) for determining vehicle weight to a precision of <0.1%, uses a plurality of weight sensing elements (23), a computer (10) for reading in weighing data for a vehicle (25) and produces a dataset representing the total weight of a vehicle via programming (40-53) that is executable by the computer (10) for (a) providing a plurality of mode parameters that characterize each oscillatory mode in the data due to movement of the vehicle during weighing, (b) by determining the oscillatory mode at which there is a minimum error in the weighing data; (c) processing the weighing data to remove that dynamical oscillation from the weighing data; and (d) repeating steps (a)-(c) until the error in the set of weighing data is <0.1% in the vehicle weight.

  19. Self-weighing in weight management: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaguang; Klem, Mary Lou; Sereika, Susan M; Danford, Cynthia A; Ewing, Linda J; Burke, Lora E

    2015-02-01

    Regular self-weighing, which in this article is defined as weighing oneself regularly over a period of time (e.g., daily, weekly), is recommended as a weight loss strategy. However, the published literature lacks a review of the recent evidence provided by prospective, longitudinal studies. Moreover, no paper has reviewed the psychological effects of self-weighing. Therefore, the objective is to review the literature related to longitudinal associations between self-weighing and weight change as well as the psychological outcomes. Electronic literature searches in PubMed, Ovid PsycINFO, and Ebscohost CINAHL were conducted. Keywords included overweight, obesity, self-weighing, etc. Inclusion criteria included trials that were published in the past 25 years in English; participants were adults seeking weight loss treatment; results were based on longitudinal data. The results (N=17 studies) revealed that regular self-weighing was associated with more weight loss and not with adverse psychological outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety). Findings demonstrated that the effect sizes of association between self-weighing and weight change varied across studies and also that the reported frequency of self-weighing varied across studies. The findings from prospective, longitudinal studies provide evidence that regular self-weighing has been associated with weight loss and not with negative psychological outcomes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  20. On the self-sustained nature of large-scale motions in turbulent Couette flow

    CERN Document Server

    Rawat, Subhandu; Hwang, Yongyun; Rincon, François

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale motions in wall-bounded turbulent flows are frequently interpreted as resulting from an aggregation process of smaller-scale structures. Here, we explore the alternative possibility that such large-scale motions are themselves self-sustained and do not draw their energy from smaller-scale turbulent motions activated in buffer layers. To this end, it is first shown that large-scale motions in turbulent Couette flow at Re=2150 self-sustain even when active processes at smaller scales are artificially quenched by increasing the Smagorinsky constant Cs in large eddy simulations. These results are in agreement with earlier results on pressure driven turbulent channels. We further investigate the nature of the large-scale coherent motions by computing upper and lower-branch nonlinear steady solutions of the filtered (LES) equations with a Newton-Krylov solver,and find that they are connected by a saddle-node bifurcation at large values of Cs. Upper branch solutions for the filtered large scale motions a...

  1. The effect of intermediate-scale motions on line formation. [sawtooth and sine motions in solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of LTE and non-LTE line formation in the presence of nonthermal velocity fields with geometric scales between the microscopic and macroscopic limits is investigated in the cases of periodic sinusoidal and sawtooth waves. For a fixed source function (the LTE case), it is shown that time-averaged line profiles progress smoothly from the microscopic to the macroscopic limits as the geometric scale of the motions increases, that the sinusoidal motions produce symmetric time-averaged profiles, and that the sawtooth motions cause a redshift. In several idealized non-LTE cases, it is found that intermediate-scale velocity fields can significantly increase the surface source functions and line-core intensities. Calculations are made for a two-level atom in an isothermal atmosphere for a range of velocity scales and non-LTE coupling parameters and also for a two-level atom and a four-level representation of Na I line formation in the Harvard-Smithsonian Reference Atmosphere (1971) solar model. It is found that intermediate-scale velocity fields in the solar atmosphere could explain the central intensities of the Na I D lines and other strong absorption lines without invoking previously suggested high electron densities.

  2. 9 CFR 201.49 - Requirements regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Animals and Animal Products... regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. (a) Livestock. When... the weigher. (b) Poultry. When live poultry is weighed for the purpose of purchase, sale,...

  3. Scaling Features of Multimode Motions in Coupled Chaotic Oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A.N.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Two different methods (the WTMM- and DFA-approaches) are applied to investigate the scaling properties in the return-time sequences generated by a system of two coupled chaotic oscillators. Transitions from twomode asynchronous dynamics (torus or torus-Chaos) to different states of chaotic phase...... synchronization are found to significantly reduce the degree of multiscality. The influence of external noise on the possibility of distinguishing the various chaotic states is considered....

  4. Analysis of Highway Bridge Trafifc Load by a Weigh-in-Motion Approach%基于动态称重的高速桥梁车辆荷载分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢颖

    2016-01-01

    基于安装在高速某三跨连续梁桥上的动态称重系统(WIM)所记录的车辆荷载数据,对车流量、车重、车速、总轴距和车间距进行了分析,得到其统计特性和分布的一般规律。然后,通过广义极值模型(GEV)计算出最大弯矩极值分布,得出实际车辆荷载,并与规范中所规定的荷载进行比较。结果表明:一天中各时段的总交通流量具有很强的潮汐规律性;从车流构成上看,二轴车辆占绝大多数,其次为六轴及以上车辆;实际运行车辆荷载低于设计车辆荷载,实际荷载对桥梁健康状况危害不大。%Basing on data recorded by the Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) system installed in a three span continuous girder bridge at highway, perform analysis of the vehicle flow, weight, speed, wheelbase and interval, as to discover general discipline of their statistical characteristics and distribution. Then, the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) model is used to calculate the extreme value distribution of maximum bending moment. The actual vehicle load is compared with the load determined by the regulations. The results show that, traffic flow has a strong tidal regularity; from the aspect of flow composition, dual-axle dominates the largest part, and the six-axle or more dominate the secondary. The actual running vehicle load is lower than the designed, thus brings out little harm to bridge healthy status.

  5. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 679 - Performance and Technical Requirements for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of a scale in a facility on land or a vessel that is tied-up to a dock or in dry dock. Subsequent... installation while the vessel is tied up at a dock and is not under power at sea; (3) annual reinspection while the vessel is tied up at a dock and is not under power at sea; and (4) daily at-sea tests of the scale...

  6. Small-scale motions in turbulent boundary-free shear flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiscaletti, D.

    2016-01-01

    The present work is an experimental and numerical investigation of the small-scale motions in turbulent free-shear flows. In the far-field turbulence of a jet at high Reynolds number (Reλ = 350) hot-wire anemometry (HWA) is applied to measure time series of flow velocity. By filtering these time ser

  7. Computer animation of electron motion in nano-meter scale devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel

    1996-01-01

    A discussion is given of a technique to simulate the quantum mechanical motion of electrons in nano-scale devices. The results of the simulation are used to produce digital video's, facilitating the interpretation of the quantum mechanical phenomena. The power and flexibility of the simulation metho

  8. Replication of Non-Trivial Directional Motion in Multi-Scales Observed by the Runs Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Yamada, Kenta; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    Non-trivial autocorrelation in up-down statistics in financial market price fluctuation is revealed by a multi-scale runs test(Wald-Wolfowitz test). We apply two models, a stochastic price model and dealer model to understand this property. In both approaches we successfully reproduce the non-stationary directional price motions consistent with the runs test by tuning parameters in the models. We find that two types of dealers exist in the markets, a short-time-scale trend-follower and an extended-time-scale contrarian who are active in different time periods.

  9. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2013-01-01

    in estimates of total numbers of passengers propagate along train runs. Counting errors in manual and electronic counting systems are typically flow-dependent, making uncertainty a function of volume. This paper presents a new counting technique that exploits the weighing systems installed in most modern...... trains to control braking. This technique makes passenger counting cheaper and ensures a complete sample. The paper compares numbers estimated by this technique with manual counts and counts from an infrared system in trains in urban Copenhagen. It shows that the weighing system provides more accurate...

  10. Small-scale motions in turbulent boundary-free shear flows

    OpenAIRE

    Fiscaletti, D.

    2016-01-01

    The present work is an experimental and numerical investigation of the small-scale motions in turbulent free-shear flows. In the far-field turbulence of a jet at high Reynolds number (Reλ = 350) hot-wire anemometry (HWA) is applied to measure time series of flow velocity. By filtering these time series, large- and small-scale velocity fluctuations are obtained. Both the amplitude and the frequency of the small-scale signals are locally stronger (weaker) for positive (negative) fluctuations of...

  11. Weighing black holes in the universe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xue-bing

    2006-01-01

    The determination of the mass of black holes in our universe is crucial to understand their physics nature but is a great challenge to scientists.In this paper Ⅰ briefly review some methods that are currently used to estimate the mass of black holes,especially those in X-ray binary systems and in galactic nuclei.Our recent progress in improving the mass estimates of supermasssive black holes in active galactic nuclei by involving some empirical relations is presented.Finally Ⅰ point out the similarities and common physics in Galactic black hole X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei,and demonstrate that the black hole mass estimation is very much helpful to understand the accretion physics around black holes.

  12. Plant genetics. A tomato gene weighs in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebley, J

    2000-07-07

    What makes some people big and others small--obviously our genes, but which ones? Working out the complex of genes that control such quantitative traits in animals and plants is one of the big challenges facing geneticists. In his Perspective, Doebley discusses new results that identify the fw2.2 gene as one of the genes determining fruit size in the tomato (Frary et al.).

  13. Ballmer, Barrett weigh in on security

    CERN Multimedia

    Sullivan, T

    2003-01-01

    ORLANDO, Fla. - Speaking in separate sessions Tuesday at the Gartner Symposium/ITxpo, Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer and Intel's chief Craig Barrett discussed the problems of computer/network security (1/2 page).

  14. Weighing Anchor in the "Ragged Times"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tonya B.

    2012-01-01

    In today's middle school classroom, grouping is an essential learning tool that enhances students' ability to collaborate with others and deepen their own thinking. Implementing group work effectively, though, can be a challenge, especially since groups tend to end their work at "ragged" or staggered times. Creating "anchor activities"--respectful…

  15. Analysis weighs issues in divestiture decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallina, J M

    1990-07-01

    Financial managers faced with the task of recommending whether diversified services should be dissolved or continued need a logical means of analysis. Their evaluations should consider not only the venture's financial results but concerns specific to the hospital and its market, as well as related social and legal issues. Failure analysis, a function of business portfolio management, helps put these variables in perspective and provides a framework for decision making.

  16. Vortical Motions of Baryonic Gas in the Cosmic Web: Growth History and Scaling Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Weishan

    2015-01-01

    The vortical motions of the baryonic gas residing in large scale structures are investigated by cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. Proceeding in the formation of the cosmic web, the vortical motions of baryonic matter are pumped up by baroclinity in two stages, i.e., the formation of sheets, and filaments. The mean curl velocity are about $< 1$, 1-10, 10-150, 5-50 km/s in voids, sheets, filaments and knots at $z=0$, respectively. The scaling of the vortical velocity of gas can be well described by the She-Leveque hierarchical turbulence model in the range of $l<0.65(1.50) h^{-1}$ Mpc in simulation of box size 25(100) $h^{-1}$ Mpc. The fractal Hausdorff dimension of vortical motions, $d$, revealed by velocity structure functions, is $\\sim 2.1-2.3$($\\sim 1.8-2.1$). It is slightly larger than the fractal dimension of mass distribution in filaments, $\\textit{D}^f \\sim 1.9-2.2$, and smaller than the fractal dimension of sheets, $\\textit{D}^s \\sim 2.4-2.7$. The vortical kinetic energy of baryonic gas is m...

  17. An Efficient Multi-Scale Modelling Approach for ssDNA Motion in Fluid Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Benke; E.Shapiro; D.Drikakis

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a multi-scale modelling approach for simulating macromolecules in fluid flows. Macromolecule transport at low number densities is frequently encountered in biomedical devices, such as separators, detection and analysis systems. Accurate modelling of this process is challenging due to the wide range of physical scales involved. The continuum approach is not valid for low solute concentrations, but the large timescales of the fluid flow make purely molecular simulations prohibitively expensive. A promising multi-scale modelling strategy is provided by the meta-modelling approach considered in this paper. Meta-models are based on the coupled solution of fluid flow equations and equations of motion for a simplified mechanical model of macromolecules. The approach enables simulation of individual macromolecules at macroscopic time scales. Meta-models often rely on particle-corrector algorithms, which impose length constraints on the mechanical model. Lack of robustness of the particle-corrector algorithm employed can lead to slow convergence and numerical instability. A new FAst Linear COrrector (FALCO) algorithm is introduced in this paper, which significantly improves computational efficiency in comparison with the widely used SHAKE algorithm. Validation of the new particle corrector against a simple analytic solution is performed and improved convergence is demonstrated for ssDNA motion in a lid-driven micro-cavity.

  18. Self-similarity of the large-scale motions in turbulent pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Leo; Marusic, Ivan; Smits, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis assumes the existence of a set of energetic and geometrically self-similar eddies in the logarithmic layer in wall-bounded turbulent flows. These eddies can be completely scaled with the distance from their center to the wall. We performed stereo PIV measurements together with a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis, to address the self-similarity of the energetic motions, or eddies, in fully-developed turbulent pipe flow. The resulting modes/eddies, extracted at Reτ = 2460 , show a self-similar behavior for eddies with wall-normal length scales spanning a decade. This single length scale provides a complete description of the cross-sectional shape of the self-similar eddies. ONR Grant N00014-15-1-2402 and the Australian Research Council.

  19. EFFECTS OF WRIST WEIGHING IN REDUCING UPPER LIMB TREMORS IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBELLAR LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Priya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: An intentional tremor is one of the most untreated causes in patients with cerebellar ataxia. Upper limb tremors decreases the performance of many activities of daily life Thus treatment of patients with tremor probably implies better functional ability. It is one of the major areas of concern to improve functional independence hence, this study proposed to know the effects of wrist weighing in reducing upper limb tremors in cerebellar injury patients. Materials and Methods: A total number of 21 patients with various abnormalities of cerebellum were selected depending on selection criteria. These patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated with wrist weighing by using Velcro weight cuffs for 15 minutes along with conventional physiotherapy for 5 days a week for 2 months & other group is treated with conventional physiotherapy for 5 days in a week for 2 months. The objectives were tested by using tremor rating scale and nine hole peg test. The values are collected before and after the treatment Results: In the group treated with wrist weighing the improvement in the tremor rating scale is very significant (p: 0.0001 and in nine hole peg test is extremely significant (p: 0.0001. In conventional therapy group the improvement in the tremor rating scale is not significant (p: 0.0051 and in nine hole peg test is very significant (p: 0.0002. Conclusion: Incorporation of wrist weighing along with conventional therapy reduced the intensity of upper limb tremors in patients with cerebellar injuries but both the treatments are effective in improving upper limb functions. KEY WORDS: Intentional tremor, Rehabilitation, Wrist weighing

  20. Very-Large-Scale Motions in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Educed by Snapshot Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Stimit; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2014-12-01

    Large-eddy simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) under a wide range of stabilities are conducted to educe very-large-scale motions and then to study their dynamics and how they are influenced by buoyancy. Preliminary flow visualizations suggest that smaller-scale motions that resemble hairpins are embedded in much larger scale streamwise meandering rolls. Using simulations that represent more than 150 h of physical time, many snapshots in the -, - and -planes are then collected to perform snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition and further investigate the large structures. These analyses confirm that large streamwise rolls that share several features with the very-large-scale motions observed in laboratory studies arise as the dominant modes under most stabilities, but the effect of the surface kinematic buoyancy flux on the energy content of these dominant modes is very significant. The first two modes in the -plane in the neutral case contain up to 3 % of the total turbulent kinetic energy; they also have a vertical tilt angle in the -plane of about 0 to 30 due to the turning effect associated with the Coriolis force. Unstable cases also feature streamwise rolls, but in the convective ABL they are strengthened by rising plumes in between them, with two to four rolls spanning the whole domain in the first few modes; the Coriolis effect is much weaker in the unstable ABL. These rolls are no longer the dominant modes under stable conditions where the first mode is observed to contain sheet-like motions with high turbulent kinetic energy. Using these proper orthogonal decomposition modes, we are also able to extract the vertical velocity fields corresponding to individual modes and then to correlate them with the horizontal velocity or temperature fields to obtain the momentum and heat flux carried by individual modes. Structurally, the fluxes are explained by the topology of their corresponding modes. However, the fraction of the fluxes produced by

  1. Scale Relativistic signature in the Brownian motion of micro-spheres in optical traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebohec, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    The development of mechanics of nondifferentiable paths36 suggested by Scale Relativity31,32 results in a foundation of Quantum Mechanics30,37 including Schrödinger’s equation and all the other axioms under the assumption the path nondifferentiability can be described as a Wiener process at the resolution-scale of observation. This naturally brings under question the possibility that the statistics of the dynamics of macroscopic systems fulfilling this hypothesis could fall under a quantum-like description with the Planck constant replaced with some other constant, possibly system specific, and corresponding to a diffusion coefficient. The observation of such a quantum-like dynamics would establish if the Scale Relativistic principle is implemented in macroscopic complex or chaotic systems. This would have major implications for the study of structure formation dynamics in various research fields. In this paper, I investigate the possibility for the detection of such an effect in the Brownian motion of a micro-sphere in an optical trap. I find that, if it exists, the observation of the transition to a quantum-like regime is within reach of modern experiments.

  2. Large-scale Motion of Solar Filaments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavel Ambrož; Alfred Schroll

    2000-09-01

    Precise measurements of heliographic position of solar filaments were used for determination of the proper motion of solar filaments on the time-scale of days. The filaments have a tendency to make a shaking or waving of the external structure and to make a general movement of whole filament body, coinciding with the transport of the magnetic flux in the photosphere. The velocity scatter of individual measured points is about one order higher than the accuracy of measurements.

  3. System identification based approach to dynamic weighing revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiecki, Maciej; Meller, Michał; Pietrzak, Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic weighing, i.e., weighing of objects in motion, without stopping them on the weighing platform, allows one to increase the rate of operation of automatic weighing systems, used in industrial production processes, without compromising their accuracy. Since the classical identification-based approach to dynamic weighing, based on the second-order mass-spring-damper model of the weighing system, does not yield satisfactory results when applied to conveyor belt type checkweighers, several extensions of this technique are examined. Experiments confirm that when appropriately modified the identification-based approach becomes a reliable tool for dynamic mass measurement in checkweighers.

  4. 7 CFR 800.97 - Weighing grain in containers, land carriers, barges, and shiplots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weighing grain in containers, land carriers, barges... (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Weighing Provisions and Procedures § 800.97 Weighing grain in...

  5. The Hipparcos Proper Motions in Support of the Short RR Lyrae Distance Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Popowski, P A; Popowski, Piotr; Gould, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether a misestimate of proper motions could have been a source of substantial systematic errors in the statistical parallax determination of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae stars. In an earlier paper, we showed that the statistical parallax method is extremely robust and rather insensitive to various systematic effects. The main potential problem with this method would therefore arise from systematically bad observational inputs, primarily radial velocities and proper motions. In that paper, we demonstrated that the radial velocities have not been systematically misestimated. Here we turn our attention to proper motions. We compare three different catalogs of proper motions --- Lick, Hipparcos and the one compiled by Wan et al. (WMJ). We find that the WMJ catalog is too heterogeneous to be a reliable source. We analyze the sample of 165 halo RR Lyrae stars with either Lick or Hipparcos proper motions. For the stars with both Lick and Hipparcos proper motions we use the weight...

  6. A Weighing Algorithm for Checking Missing Components in a Pharmaceutical Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silvestri

    2014-11-01

    image. The goal of the present work is the development of an algorithm able to optimize the production line of a pharmaceutical firm. In particular, the proposed weighing procedure allows both checking missing components in packaging and minimizing false rejects of packages by dynamic scales. The main problem is the presence at the same time, in the same package, of different components with different variable weights. The consequence is uncertainty in recognizing the absence of one or more components.

  7. Underdamped scaled Brownian motion: (non-)existence of the overdamped limit in anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodrova, Anna S.; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Safdari, Hadiseh; Sokolov, Igor M.; Metzler, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    It is quite generally assumed that the overdamped Langevin equation provides a quantitative description of the dynamics of a classical Brownian particle in the long time limit. We establish and investigate a paradigm anomalous diffusion process governed by an underdamped Langevin equation with an explicit time dependence of the system temperature and thus the diffusion and damping coefficients. We show that for this underdamped scaled Brownian motion (UDSBM) the overdamped limit fails to describe the long time behaviour of the system and may practically even not exist at all for a certain range of the parameter values. Thus persistent inertial effects play a non-negligible role even at significantly long times. From this study a general questions on the applicability of the overdamped limit to describe the long time motion of an anomalously diffusing particle arises, with profound consequences for the relevance of overdamped anomalous diffusion models. We elucidate our results in view of analytical and simulations results for the anomalous diffusion of particles in free cooling granular gases.

  8. Conditionally Averaged Large-Scale Motions in the Neutral Atmospheric Boundary Layer: Insights for Aeolian Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Chinthaka; Anderson, William

    2016-06-01

    Aeolian erosion of flat, arid landscapes is induced (and sustained) by the aerodynamic surface stress imposed by flow in the atmospheric surface layer. Conceptual models typically indicate that sediment mass flux, Q (via saltation or drift), scales with imposed aerodynamic stress raised to some exponent, n, where n > 1 . This scaling demonstrates the importance of turbulent fluctuations in driving aeolian processes. In order to illustrate the importance of surface-stress intermittency in aeolian processes, and to elucidate the role of turbulence, conditional averaging predicated on aerodynamic surface stress has been used within large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary-layer flow over an arid, flat landscape. The conditional-sampling thresholds are defined based on probability distribution functions of surface stress. The simulations have been performed for a computational domain with ≈ 25 H streamwise extent, where H is the prescribed depth of the neutrally-stratified boundary layer. Thus, the full hierarchy of spatial scales are captured, from surface-layer turbulence to large- and very-large-scale outer-layer coherent motions. Spectrograms are used to support this argument, and also to illustrate how turbulent energy is distributed across wavelengths with elevation. Conditional averaging provides an ensemble-mean visualization of flow structures responsible for erosion `events'. Results indicate that surface-stress peaks are associated with the passage of inclined, high-momentum regions flanked by adjacent low-momentum regions. Fluid in the interfacial shear layers between these adjacent quasi-uniform momentum regions exhibits high streamwise and vertical vorticity.

  9. Conditionally Averaged Large-Scale Motions in the Neutral Atmospheric Boundary Layer: Insights for Aeolian Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Chinthaka; Anderson, William

    2017-01-01

    Aeolian erosion of flat, arid landscapes is induced (and sustained) by the aerodynamic surface stress imposed by flow in the atmospheric surface layer. Conceptual models typically indicate that sediment mass flux, Q (via saltation or drift), scales with imposed aerodynamic stress raised to some exponent, n, where n > 1. This scaling demonstrates the importance of turbulent fluctuations in driving aeolian processes. In order to illustrate the importance of surface-stress intermittency in aeolian processes, and to elucidate the role of turbulence, conditional averaging predicated on aerodynamic surface stress has been used within large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary-layer flow over an arid, flat landscape. The conditional-sampling thresholds are defined based on probability distribution functions of surface stress. The simulations have been performed for a computational domain with ≈ 25 H streamwise extent, where H is the prescribed depth of the neutrally-stratified boundary layer. Thus, the full hierarchy of spatial scales are captured, from surface-layer turbulence to large- and very-large-scale outer-layer coherent motions. Spectrograms are used to support this argument, and also to illustrate how turbulent energy is distributed across wavelengths with elevation. Conditional averaging provides an ensemble-mean visualization of flow structures responsible for erosion `events'. Results indicate that surface-stress peaks are associated with the passage of inclined, high-momentum regions flanked by adjacent low-momentum regions. Fluid in the interfacial shear layers between these adjacent quasi-uniform momentum regions exhibits high streamwise and vertical vorticity.

  10. First Frequency-Domain Interferometry Observations of Large-Scale Vertical Motion in the Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschinski, Andreas; Chilson, Phillip B.; Kern, Stefan; Nielinger, Jost; Schmidt, Gerhard; Prenosil, Thomas

    1999-05-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution of the vertical velocity at synoptic and subsynoptic scales is key to the patterns of weather and climate on earth. On these scales, the vertical velocity is on the order of one to a few centimeters per second, typically about three orders of magnitude smaller than typical horizontal wind velocities. Because of the smallness of large-scale vertical velocities relative to typical horizontal velocities, a direct observation of the large-scale vertical air velocity is extremely difficult.In a case study on observational material obtained during a 68-h experiment using the SOUSY very high frequency (VHF) radar in the Harz Mountains in Germany, the authors present the first intercomparison between three different sources of physical information that can provide large-scale vertical wind velocities: (i) the Doppler shifts observed with a vertically pointing VHF radar; (ii) the rates of change of the altitudes of refractive-index discontinuities as identified with frequency-domain interferometry (FDI), which is still a relatively unexplored technique in meteorology; and (iii) the output of a regional numerical weather prediction model (NWPM), which has been set up to model the meteorological situation during the observational period.There are several phenomena that have been known to possibly cause significant biases in mean vertical velocities retrieved from the Doppler shifts measured with vertically pointing clear-air VHF radars: (i) stationary or nonstationary gravity waves with vertical-velocity amplitudes up to the order of 1 m s1; (ii) stationary or horizontally advected tilted refractive-index discontinuities that are aspect sensitive in the VHF regime; and (iii) a correlation between the radar-reflectivity fluctuations and the vertical-velocity fluctuations within a vertically propagating gravity wave.On the basis of an intercomparison between the vertical velocities retrieved from (i) `standard Doppler' VHF radar observations, (ii

  11. Daily Self-Weighing to Control Body Weight in Adults: A Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacanowski, Carly R; Bertz, Fredrik C; Levitsky, David A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the history of daily self-weighing for weight control, discuss the possibility that self-weighing may cause adverse psychological symptoms, and propose mechanisms that explain how self-weighing facilitates weight control. A systematic forward (citation) tracking approach has been employed in this study. In the early literature, experimental tests did not demonstrate a benefit of adding daily self-weighing to traditional behavioral modification for weight loss. More recent studies have shown that daily self-weighing combined with personalized electronic feedback can produce and sustain weight loss with and without a traditional weight loss program. Daily self-weighing appears to be effective in preventing age-related weight gain. Apart from these experimental findings, there is considerable agreement that the frequency of self-weighing correlates with success in losing weight and sustaining the weight loss. The early literature suggested frequent self-weighing may be associated with negative psychological effects. However, more recent experimental trials do not substantiate such a causal relationship. In conclusion, daily self-weighing may be a useful strategy for certain adults to prevent weight gain, lose weight, or prevent weight regain after loss. More research is needed to better understand the role of different types of feedback, who benefits most from self-weighing, and at what frequency.

  12. Weighing Scale-Based Pulse Transit Time is a Superior Marker of Blood Pressure than Conventional Pulse Arrival Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie L.-O.; Carek, Andrew M.; Kim, Chang-Sei; Ashouri, Hazar; Inan, Omer T.; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2016-12-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is being widely pursued for cuff-less blood pressure (BP) monitoring. Most efforts have employed the time delay between ECG and finger photoplethysmography (PPG) waveforms as a convenient surrogate of PTT. However, these conventional pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements include the pre-ejection period (PEP) and the time delay through small, muscular arteries and may thus be an unreliable marker of BP. We assessed a bathroom weighing scale-like system for convenient measurement of ballistocardiography and foot PPG waveforms – and thus PTT through larger, more elastic arteries – in terms of its ability to improve tracking of BP in individual subjects. We measured “scale PTT”, conventional PAT, and cuff BP in humans during interventions that increased BP but changed PEP and smooth muscle contraction differently. Scale PTT tracked the diastolic BP changes well, with correlation coefficient of ‑0.80 ± 0.02 (mean ± SE) and root-mean-squared-error of 7.6 ± 0.5 mmHg after a best-case calibration. Conventional PAT was significantly inferior in tracking these changes, with correlation coefficient of ‑0.60 ± 0.04 and root-mean-squared-error of 14.6 ± 1.5 mmHg (p < 0.05). Scale PTT also tracked the systolic BP changes better than conventional PAT but not to an acceptable level. With further development, scale PTT may permit reliable, convenient measurement of BP.

  13. Parallel Motion Simulation of Large-Scale Real-Time Crowd in a Hierarchical Environmental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parallel real-time crowd simulation method based on a hierarchical environmental model. A dynamical model of the complex environment should be constructed to simulate the state transition and propagation of individual motions. By modeling of a virtual environment where virtual crowds reside, we employ different parallel methods on a topological layer, a path layer and a perceptual layer. We propose a parallel motion path matching method based on the path layer and a parallel crowd simulation method based on the perceptual layer. The large-scale real-time crowd simulation becomes possible with these methods. Numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate the methods and results.

  14. Localized diffusive motion on two different time scales in solid alkane nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, S. K.; Mamontov, E.; Bai, M.

    2010-01-01

    High-energy-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering on three complementary spectrometers has been used to investigate molecular diffusive motion in solid nano- to bulk-sized particles of the alkane n-C32H66. The crystalline-to-plastic and plastic-to-fluid phase transition temperatures are obse...

  15. Large-scale streaming motions and microwave background anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Sanz, J.L. (Cantabria Universidad, Santander (Spain))

    1989-12-01

    The minimal microwave background radiation is calculated on each angular scale implied by the existence of large-scale streaming motions. These minimal anisotropies, due to the Sachs-Wolfe effect, are obtained for different experiments, and give quite different results from those found in previous work. They are not in conflict with present theories of galaxy formation. Upper limits are imposed on the scale at which large-scale streaming motions can occur by extrapolating results from present double-beam-switching experiments. 17 refs.

  16. Scaling registration of multiview range scans via motion averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jihua; Zhu, Li; Jiang, Zutao; Li, Zhongyu; Li, Chen; Zhang, Fan

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional modeling of scene or object requires registration of multiple range scans, which are obtained by range sensor from different viewpoints. An approach is proposed for scaling registration of multiview range scans via motion averaging. First, it presents a method to estimate overlap percentages of all scan pairs involved in multiview registration. Then, a variant of iterative closest point algorithm is presented to calculate relative motions (scaling transformations) for these scan pairs, which contain high overlap percentages. Subsequently, the proposed motion averaging algorithm can transform these relative motions into global motions of multiview registration. In addition, it also introduces the parallel computation to increase the efficiency of multiview registration. Furthermore, it presents the error criterion for accuracy evaluation of multiview registration result, which can make it easy to compare results of different multiview registration approaches. Experimental results carried out with public available datasets demonstrate its superiority over related approaches.

  17. Motion Planning of Two Stacker Cranes in a Large-Scale Automated Storage/Retrieval System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Yiheng; Kobayashi, Yoshimasa; Higashi, Toshimitsu; Ota, Jun

    We propose a method for reducing the computational time of motion planning for stacker cranes. Most automated storage/retrieval systems (AS/RSs) are only equipped with one stacker crane. However, this is logistically challenging, and greater work efficiency in warehouses, such as those using two stacker cranes, is required. In this paper, a warehouse with two stacker cranes working simultaneously is proposed. Unlike warehouses with only one crane, trajectory planning in those with two cranes is very difficult. Since there are two cranes working together, a proper trajectory must be considered to avoid collision. However, verifying collisions is complicated and requires a considerable amount of computational time. As transport work in AS/RSs occurs randomly, motion planning cannot be conducted in advance. Planning an appropriate trajectory within a restricted duration would be a difficult task. We thereby address the current problem of motion planning requiring extensive calculation time. As a solution, we propose a “free-step” to simplify the procedure of collision verification and reduce the computational time. On the other hand, we proposed a method to reschedule the order of collision verification in order to find an appropriate trajectory in less time. By the proposed method, we reduce the calculation time to less than 1/300 of that achieved in former research.

  18. Scaling behavior of non-equilibrium phase transitions in spontaneously ordered motion of self-propelled particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, R.; Tarras, I.; Hader, A.; Sbiaai, H.; Mazroui, M.; Boughaleb, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Many animal groups, such as bird flocks, clearly present structural order and appear to move as a single coherent entity. In interest to understand the complex behavior of these systems, many models have been proposed and tested so far. The aim of this work is to study and discuss numerically the scaling behavior in the 2D non-equilibrium phase transitions in spontaneously ordered motion of self-propelled particles in the framework of Vicsek model. This model is an important tool to study the behavior of collective motion of live biological and physical organisms. The calculation of the scaling exponents is effected by using the scaling dynamic method. However, the time evolution of the particles velocity present two different regimes separated by a cross-over time which increases linearly with both applied noise and radius of repulsive zone, but it decreases exponentially with the radius of orientation zone. The results show that the obtained exponents are similar to the growth and roughness ones used in the interfaces growth and to the submonolayer deposition process. The obtained values of these exponents are not dependent on the noises value, which proves their universality characters. Hence the kinetic evolution of the spontaneously ordered motion of self-propelled particles is self-similar. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Large-scale and small-scale plasma motions in the upper ionosphere according to data of the Intercosmos-Bolgaria-1300 satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinin, E.M.; Nikolaeva, N.S.; Podgornyi, I.M.; Balebanov, V.M.; Bankov, L.; Bankov, N.; Kutiev, I.; Marinov, P.; Serafimov, K.; Todorieva, L.

    1983-09-01

    The pattern of large-scale motions at a height of about 900 km, including a two-tier picture of magnetospheric convection, is determined on the basis of plasma-velocity measurements made with the ID-1 instrument on Intercosmos-Bolgaria-1300. The high time and space resolution of the instrument made it possible to detect small-scale structures (1-10 km) in which the plasma attains a velocity of 4.5 km/s. Simultaneous measurements of density with the same instrument indicate the appearance of local troughs accompanying 'jumps' of ion drift velocity. 31 references.

  20. Retinopathy of prematurity in babies weighing <1800 g; with special reference to babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g: An experience from a tertiary care hospital in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kapoor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a disease related to low birth weight, prematurity, oxygen administration, and various other factors, which are yet to be identified. Aims: The aim was to find incidence of ROP and risk factors for causation in babies weighing <1800 g; and in the babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g. Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Neonates weighing ≤1800 g taking birth in our institution from January 2011 to January 2012 for a span of 1 year; were included in the study. The data were analyzed to determine risk factors for ROP causation. Information was collected using the standardized performa which included the maternal risk factors as well. Infants were classified by ophthalmologic examination findings using ICROP revisited. Statistics: Qualitative data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher's exact test and possible risk factors were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 278 subjects was included in the study. Incidence of ROP in babies ≤1800 g was found to be 13.67% (38/278. Incidence of ROP in babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g was 11.64% (17/146. Twenty-one risk factors were significant on univariate analysis in babies weighing ≤1800 g and 18 risk factors in the babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g. Multiple gestations (P < 0.01, blood transfusion (P < 0.01, antepartum hemorrhage (P < 0.01, pregnancy-induced hypertension (P < 0.01, mechanical ventilation (MV (P < 0.01, and APGAR at 1 min (P < 0.01 were found to be independently significant for ROP causation on logistic regression analysis in babies weighing ≤1800 g and MV (P < 0.01 and resuscitation (P < 0.01 were significant for babies weighing 1501-1800 g. Conclusion: It should be considered to incorporate screening of babies ≤1800 g uniformly in developing nations. It is recommended that further studies be done taking representative

  1. The Large-Scale Distribution and Motions of Older Stars in Orion

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, A G A; Blaauw, A; Brown, Anthony G. A.; Walter, Fredrick M.; Blaauw, Adriaan

    1998-01-01

    We review the current knowledge of the population of `older' stars in the Orion OB1 association, specifically those in subgroups 1a and 1b. We briefly outline the history of the subject and then continue with a summary of the present state of knowledge of the early-type stars in Orion OB1. New results from the Hipparcos parallaxes and proper motions will be presented. The main result is that subgroup 1a is located at about 330 pc from the Sun, much closer than the previously determined distance, and about 100 pc distant from the other subgroups of the association and the Orion molecular clouds. Unfortunately, due to the unfavorable kinematics of the association with respect to the Galactic background, Hipparcos proper motions do not allow a clear kinematic separation of the association from the field. For this purpose accurate and homogeneous radial velocities are needed. Traditionally, the massive O and B stars have received most of the attention in the studies of OB associations. However, we will present re...

  2. Spatio-temporal characteristics of large scale motions in a turbulent boundary layer from direct wall shear stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Rommel; Barnard, Casey; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and fluctuating wall shear stress experiments were performed on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL) under zero pressure gradient conditions. The fluctuating wall shear stress was measured using a microelectromechanical 1mm × 1mm floating element capacitive shear stress sensor (CSSS) developed at the University of Florida. The experiments elucidated the imprint of the organized motions in a TBL on the wall shear stress through its direct measurement. Spatial autocorrelation of the streamwise velocity from the PIV snapshots revealed large scale motions that scale on the order of boundary layer thickness. However, the captured inclination angle was lower than that determined using the classic method by means of wall shear stress and hot-wire anemometry (HWA) temporal cross-correlations and a frozen field hypothesis using a convection velocity. The current study suggests the large size of these motions begins to degrade the applicability of the frozen field hypothesis for the time resolved HWA experiments. The simultaneous PIV and CSSS measurements are also used for spatial reconstruction of the velocity field during conditionally sampled intense wall shear stress events. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.

  3. Enzymatically induced motion at nano- and micro-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáspár, Szilveszter

    2014-06-01

    In contrast to adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent motor enzymes, other enzymes are little-known as ``motors'' or ``pumps'', that is, for their ability to induce motion. The enhanced diffusive movement of enzyme molecules, the self-propulsion of enzyme-based nanomotors, and liquid pumping with enzymatic micropumps were indeed only recently reported. Enzymatically induced motion can be achieved in mild conditions and without the use of external fields. It is thus better suited for use in living systems (from single-cell to whole-body) than most other ways to achieve motion at small scales. Enzymatically induced motion is thus not only new but also important. Therefore, the present work reviews the most significant discoveries in enzymatically induced motion. As we will learn, freely diffusing enzymes enhance their diffusive movement by nonreciprocal conformational changes which parallel their catalytic cycles. Meanwhile, enzyme-modified nano- and micro-objects turn chemical energy into kinetic energy through mechanisms such as bubble recoil propulsion, self-electrophoresis, and self-diffusiophoresis. Enzymatically induced motion of small objects ranges from enhanced diffusive movement to directed motion at speeds as high as 1 cm s-1. In spite of the progress made in understanding how the energy of enzyme reactions is turned into motion, most enzymatically powered devices remain inefficient and need improvements before we will witness their application in real world environments.

  4. Descriptions of relationship between the weighing sensor number of divisions and the truck scale number of divisions%简述称重传感器和汽车衡的分度值关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高学民

    2014-01-01

    The weighing accuracy of truck scale is affected by many factors in the course of using the truck scale, which include the relationship between truck scale precision and weighing sensor precision, as well as the relationship between the truck scale maximum number of divisions and the weighing sensor number of divisions in particular. In order to determine the relationship between the weighing sensor maximum number of divisions and the truck scale maximum number of divisions, the relationship between the weighing sensor maximum number of divisions and the truck scale minimum number of divisions is analyzed based on General Verification Regulation for Non-automatic Weighing Instrument (JJG555-1996) and Verification Regulation of Load Cell (JJG699-2003).%在汽车衡的使用中,常常涉及到汽车衡的秤量精度与汽车衡选取的称重传感器的精度的关系,特别是汽车衡的最大分度数和称重传感器的分度数的关系,影响了汽车衡秤量精度的确定。本文从JJG 555-1996非自动秤通用检定规程和JJG 699-2003称重传感器检定规程等规范文件的定义方面,来推论传感器的最大分度数与其组成汽车衡的最小分度值的关系,进而寻找传感器的最大分度数与其组成汽车衡的最大分度数的关系。

  5. Dynamics in protein powders on the nanosecond-picosecond time scale are dominated by localized motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Jonathan D; García Sakai, Victoria; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2013-10-03

    We present analysis of nanosecond-picosecond dynamics of Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) using neutron scattering data obtained on three spectrometers. GFP has a β-barrel structure that differs significantly from the structure of other globular proteins and is thought to result in a more rigid local environment. Despite this difference, our analysis reveals that the dynamics of GFP are similar to dynamics of other globular proteins such as lysozyme and myoglobin. We suggest that the same general concept of protein dynamics may be applicable to all these proteins. The dynamics of dry protein are dominated by methyl group rotations, while hydration facilitates localized diffusion-like motions in the protein. The latter has an extremely broad relaxation spectrum. The nanosecond-picosecond dynamics of both dry and hydrated GFP are localized to distances of ∼1-3.5 Å, in contrast to the longer range diffusion of hydration water.

  6. Large-scale structure and galaxy motions in the Leo/Cancer constellations

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, Igor D; Karachentseva, Valentina E

    2015-01-01

    In the region of the sky limited by the coordinates RA$=7.0^h...12.0^h$, Dec$=0^\\circ...+20^\\circ$ and extending from the Virgo Cluster to the South Pole of the Local Supercluster, we consider the data on the galaxies with radial velocities $V_{LG}\\lesssim 2000$ km/s. For 290 among them, we determine individual distances and peculiar velocities. In this region, known as the local velocity anomaly zone, there are 23 groups and 20 pairs of galaxies for which the estimates of virial/orbital masses are obtained. A nearby group around NGC3379 = Leo I and NGC3627 as well as the Local Group show the motion from the Local Void in the direction of Leo cloud with a characteristic velocity of about 400 km/s. Another rich group of galaxies around NGC3607 reveals peculiar velocity of about -420 km/s in the frame of reference related with the cosmic background radiation. A peculiar scattered association of dwarf galaxies Gemini Flock at a distance of 8 Mpc has the radial velocity dispersion of only 20 km/s and the size of ...

  7. Estimation of small-scale soil erosion in laboratory experiments with Structure from Motion photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer-Puig, Matilde; Marqués-Mateu, Ángel; Lerma, José Luis; Ibáñez-Asensio, Sara

    2017-10-01

    The quantitative estimation of changes in terrain surfaces caused by water erosion can be carried out from precise descriptions of surfaces given by means of digital elevation models (DEMs). Some stages of water erosion research efforts are conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulators and soil boxes with areas less than 1 m2. Under these conditions, erosive processes can lead to very small surface variations and high precision DEMs are needed to account for differences measured in millimetres. In this paper, we used a photogrammetric Structure from Motion (SfM) technique to build DEMs of a 0.5 m2 soil box to monitor several simulated rainfall episodes in the laboratory. The technique of DEM of difference (DoD) was then applied using GIS tools to compute estimates of volumetric changes between each pair of rainfall episodes. The aim was to classify the soil surface into three classes: erosion areas, deposition areas, and unchanged or neutral areas, and quantify the volume of soil that was eroded and deposited. We used a thresholding criterion of changes based on the estimated error of the difference of DEMs, which in turn was obtained from the root mean square error of the individual DEMs. Experimental tests showed that the choice of different threshold values in the DoD can lead to volume differences as large as 60% when compared to the direct volumetric difference. It turns out that the choice of that threshold was a key point in this method. In parallel to photogrammetric work, we collected sediments from each rain episode and obtained a series of corresponding measured sediment yields. The comparison between computed and measured sediment yields was significantly correlated, especially when considering the accumulated value of the five simulations. The computed sediment yield was 13% greater than the measured sediment yield. The procedure presented in this paper proved to be suitable for the determination of sediment yields in rainfall-driven soil

  8. Dynamics of small-scale convective motions

    CERN Document Server

    Lemmerer, Birgit; Muthsam, Herbert; Piantschitsch, Isabell

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have discovered a population of small granules with diameters less than 800 km showing differing physical properties. High resolution simulations and observations of the solar granulation, in combination with automated segmentation and tracking algorithms, allow us to study the evolution of the structural and physical properties of these granules and surrounding vortex motions with high temporal and spatial accuracy. We focus on the dynamics of granules (lifetime, fragmentation, size, position, intensity, vertical velocity) over time and the influence of strong vortex motions. Of special interest are the dynamics of small granules compared to regular-sized granules. We developed a temporal tracking algorithm based on our developed segmentation algorithm for solar granulation. This was applied to radiation hydrodynamics simulations and high resolution observations of the quiet Sun by SUNRISE/IMaX. The dynamics of small granules differ in regard to their diameter, intensity and depth evolution ...

  9. Distance-from-the-wall scaling of turbulent motions in wall-bounded flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya, R.; Philip, J.; Hutchins, N.; Monty, J. P.; Marusic, I.

    2017-02-01

    An assessment of self-similarity in the inertial sublayer is presented by considering the wall-normal velocity, in addition to the streamwise velocity component. The novelty of the current work lies in the inclusion of the second velocity component, made possible by carefully conducted subminiature ×-probe experiments to minimise the errors in measuring the wall-normal velocity. We show that not all turbulent stress quantities approach the self-similar asymptotic state at an equal rate as the Reynolds number is increased, with the Reynolds shear stress approaching faster than the streamwise normal stress. These trends are explained by the contributions from attached eddies. Furthermore, the Reynolds shear stress cospectra, through its scaling with the distance from the wall, are used to assess the wall-normal limits where self-similarity applies within the wall-bounded flow. The results are found to be consistent with the recent prediction from the work of Wei et al. ["Properties of the mean momentum balance in turbulent boundary layer, pipe and channel flows," J. Fluid Mech. 522, 303-327 (2005)], Klewicki ["Reynolds number dependence, scaling, and dynamics of turbulent boundary layers," J. Fluids Eng. 132, 094001 (2010)], and others that the self-similar region starts and ends at z+˜O (√{δ+}) and O (δ+) , respectively. Below the self-similar region, empirical evidence suggests that eddies responsible for turbulent stresses begin to exhibit distance-from-the-wall scaling at a fixed z+ location; however, they are distorted by viscous forces, which remain a leading order contribution in the mean momentum balance in the region z+≲O (√{δ+}) , and thus result in a departure from self-similarity.

  10. Evolution of small-scale magnetic elements in the vicinity of granular-size swirl convective motions

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez, S Vargas; Balmaceda, L; Cabello, I; Domingo, V

    2014-01-01

    Advances in solar instrumentation have led to a widespread usage of time series to study the dynamics of solar features, specially at small spatial scales and at very fast cadences. Physical processes at such scales are determinant as building blocks for many others occurring from the lower to the upper layers of the solar atmosphere and beyond, ultimately for understanding the bigger picture of solar activity. Ground-based (SST) and space-borne (Hinode) high-resolution solar data are analyzed in a quiet Sun region displaying negative polarity small-scale magnetic concentrations and a cluster of bright points observed in G-band and Ca II H images. The studied region is characterized by the presence of two small-scale convective vortex-type plasma motions, one of which appears to be affecting the dynamics of both, magnetic features and bright points in its vicinity and therefore the main target of our investigations. We followed the evolution of bright points, intensity variations at different atmospheric heig...

  11. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY VIA OPTIMIZED CHARGE MOTION AND SLURRY FLOW IN PLANT SCALE SAG MILLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Sravan K. Prathy; Trilokyanath Patra

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. mining industry operates approximately 80 semi-autogenesis grinding mills (SAG) throughout the United States. Depending on the mill size the SAG mills draws between 2 MW and 17 MW. The product from the SAG mill is further reduced in size using pebble crushers and ball mills. Hence, typical gold or copper ore requires between 2.0 and 7.5 kWh per ton of energy to reduce the particle size. Considering a typical mining operation processes 10,000 to 100,000 tons per day the energy expenditure in grinding is 50 percent of the cost of production of the metal. A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, Process Engineering Resources Inc. and others. In the current project, Cortez Gold Mines played a key role in facilitating the 26-ft SAG mill at Cortez as a test mill for this study. According to plant personnel, there were a number of unscheduled shut downs to repair broken liners and the mill throughput fluctuated depending on ore type. The University team had two softwares, Millsoft and FlowMod to tackle the problem. Millsoft is capable of simulating the motion of charge in the mill. FlowMod calculates the slurry flow through the grate and pulp lifters. Based on this data the two models were fine-tuned to fit the Cortez SAG will. In the summer of 2004 a new design of shell lifters were presented to Cortez and in September 2004 these lifters were installed in the SAG mill. By December 2004 Cortez Mines realized that the SAG mill is drawing approximately 236-kW less power than before while maintaining the same level of production. In the first month there was extreme cycling

  12. Stable water isotopes and large-scale vertical motions in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Giuseppe; Ma, Ding; Kuang, Zhiming

    2017-04-01

    A complete understanding of the interaction between convection and the large-scale circulation in the tropics remains an outstanding problem. Although there is evidence that the vertical structure of convective heating has great influence in the large-scale response and that this structure also presents considerable geographical variations, more need to be done. One of the questions that are still unanswered is how the vertical structure of the convective heating, or, similarly, of vertical velocity, varies across the tropical Pacific. Here it is suggested that some light can be shed on this debate by considering stable water isotopes. Because these tend to be progressively less abundant with increasing height, precipitation associated with top heavy profiles should be expected to be more depleted than that associated with bottom heavy profiles. This claim is verified with a variety of data: first, using observations from IAEA/WMO Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation stations; then, using a simple model based on the budget of water isotopes in precipitation; finally, using a more complex isotope-enabled general circulation model. Evidence provided by these sources confirms that different structures of vertical velocities are associated with different isotopic abundances, with top heavy profiles giving rise to more depleted rainfall. Finally, the data from over the Pacific, although scarce, seem to suggest that precipitation in the eastern part is more enriched than in the western, thus hinting at velocity profiles over the East being more bottom heavy than over the West Pacific.

  13. On selection and scaling of ground motions for analysis of seismically isolated structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Deepak R.; Maharjan, Manika

    2016-12-01

    A broader consensus on the number of ground motions to be used and the method of scaling to be adopted for nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) of structures is yet to be reached. Therefore, in this study, the effects of selection and scaling of ground motions on the response of seismically isolated structures, which are routinely designed using nonlinear RHA, are investigated. For this purpose, isolation systems with a range of properties subjected to bidirectional excitation are considered. Benchmark response of the isolation systems is established using large sets of unscaled ground motions systematically categorized into pulse-like, non-pulse-like, and mixed set of motions. Different subsets of seven to 14 ground motions are selected from these large sets using (a) random selection and (b) selection based on the best match of the shape of the response spectrum of ground motions to the target spectrum. Consequences of weighted scaling (also commonly referred to as amplitude scaling or linear scaling) as well as spectral matching are investigated. The ground motion selection and scaling procedures are evaluated from the viewpoint of their accuracy, efficiency, and consistency in predicting the benchmark response. It is confirmed that seven time histories are sufficient for a reliable prediction of isolation system displacement demands, for all ground motion subsets, selection and scaling procedures, and isolation systems considered. If ground motions are selected based on their best match to the shape of the target response spectrum (which should be preferred over randomly selected motions), weighted scaling should be used if pulse-like motions are considered, either of weighted scaling or spectral matching can be used if non-pulse-like motions are considered, and an average of responses from weighted-scaled and spectrum-matched ground motions should be used for a mixed set of motions. On the other hand, the importance of randomly selected motions in

  14. 75 FR 9157 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Scale and Catch Weighing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... requirements address performance standards designed to ensure that all catch delivered to the processor is... series of design criteria. Because of the wide variations in factory layout for inshore processors, NMFS... Community Development Quota Program (CDQ) catcher/processors, American Fisheries Act (AFA)...

  15. Are breaks in daily self-weighing associated with weight gain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina E Helander

    Full Text Available Regular self-weighing is linked to successful weight loss and maintenance. However, an individual's self-weighing frequency typically varies over time. This study examined temporal associations between time differences of consecutive weight measurements and the corresponding weight changes by analysing longitudinal self-weighing data, including 2,838 weight observations from 40 individuals attending a health-promoting programme. The relationship between temporal weighing frequency and corresponding weight change was studied primarily using a linear mixed effects model. Weight change between consecutive weight measurements was associated with the corresponding time difference (β = 0.021% per day, p<0.001. Weight loss took place during periods of daily self-weighing, whereas breaks longer than one month posed a risk of weight gain. The findings emphasize that missing data in weight management studies with a weight-monitoring component may be associated with non-adherence to the weight loss programme and an early sign of weight gain.

  16. Numerical study of heavy-ion stopping in foam targets with one-dimensional subcell-scale hydrodynamic motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Y.; Kondo, K.; Hasegawa, J.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy-ion stopping in foam targets with subcell-scale hydro motions was numerically investigated in relation to ion-driven warm dense matter experiments. To simulate porous foam targets, we employed a simple 1D periodic multilayer model consisting of thin solid slabs and gaps between them. The averaged pore diameter and cell-wall thickness of the foam were represented by the gap width between the slabs and the slab thickness, respectively. The density- and temperature-dependent projectile stopping cross-sections were evaluated using a binary encounter model taking into account the electronic state of target atoms during heating and expansion. We employed a combination of 11Na projectiles and subrange 13Al foam targets with ρ=0.05ρsolid. The hydrodynamic motion of the target was calculated with a 1D code. During homogenization, hot dense spots appeared at the original gap positions, owing to stagnation of the jets. As a result, even after the pores were filled with blow-off materials, the initial inhomogeneity was not completely smeared out, and the total energy loss was still not equal to that in the homogeneous equivalent, especially for large pore sizes.

  17. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPET...

  18. Scaling earthquake ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.; Hamburger, R.O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of alternate ground-motion scaling procedures on the distribution of displacement responses in simplified structural systems is investigated. Recommendations are provided for selecting and scaling ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings. Four scaling methods are studied, namely, (1)geometric-mean scaling of pairs of ground motions, (2)spectrum matching of ground motions, (3)first-mode-period scaling to a target spectral acceleration, and (4)scaling of ground motions per the distribution of spectral demands. Data were developed by nonlinear response-history analysis of a large family of nonlinear single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillators that could represent fixed-base and base-isolated structures. The advantages and disadvantages of each scaling method are discussed. The relationship between spectral shape and a ground-motion randomness parameter, is presented. A scaling procedure that explicitly considers spectral shape is proposed. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  19. Multi-scale structural similarity index for motion detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdel-Salam Nasr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The most recent approach for measuring the image quality is the structural similarity index (SSI. This paper presents a novel algorithm based on the multi-scale structural similarity index for motion detection (MS-SSIM in videos. The MS-SSIM approach is based on modeling of image luminance, contrast and structure at multiple scales. The MS-SSIM has resulted in much better performance than the single scale SSI approach but at the cost of relatively lower processing speed. The major advantages of the presented algorithm are both: the higher detection accuracy and the quasi real-time processing speed.

  20. Simulation of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient in weighing lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate quantification of crop evapotranspiration (ET) is critical in optimizing irrigation water productivity, especially, in the semiarid regions of the world where limited rainfall is supplemented by irrigation for profitable crop production. In this context, cropping system models are potential...

  1. Antibiotic Therapy for Very Low Birth Weigh Newborns in NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed-Abolfazl Afjeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Prolonged empiric antibiotics therapy in neonates results in several adverse consequences including widespread antibiotic resistance, late onset sepsis (LOS, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, prolonged hospital course (HC and increase in mortality rates. Objectives To assess the risk factors and the outcome of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns. Materials and Methods Prospective study in VLBW neonates admitted to NICU and survived > 2 W, from July 2011 - June 2012. All relevant perinatal and postnatal data including duration of antibiotics therapy (Group I 2W and outcome up to the time of discharge or death were documented and compared. Results Out of 145 newborns included in the study, 62 were in group I, and 83 in Group II. Average duration of antibiotic therapy was 14 days (range 3 - 62 days; duration in Group I and Group II was 10 ± 2.3 vs 25.5 ± 10.5 days. Hospital stay was 22.3 ± 11.5 vs 44.3 ± 14.7 days, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed following risk factors as significant for prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy: VLBW especially stage II, 12 (8.3% newborns died. Infant mortality alone and with LOS/NEC was higher in group II as compared to group I (P < 0.002 and < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions Prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy caused increasing rates of LOS, NEC, HC and infant mortality.

  2. "Almost Like Weighing Someone's Soul": Chemistry in Contemporary Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2001-04-01

    Students approaching a chemistry course for the first time do have previous experience with the discipline, at the very least from images in popular media. This paper discusses examples of images from films that can be used to start discussions in general chemistry classes. The examples include scenes from realistic films (i.e., not science fiction) where chemical substances are an important element in a scene or where chemistry is presented as a topic of discussion. The scenes illustrate some of the ways in which people, including students, may think about science.

  3. Weighing the evidence of common beliefs in obesity research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, Krista; Brown, Andrew; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    eating (versus skipping) breakfast; eating close to bedtime; eating more fruits and vegetables; weight cycling (i.e. yo-yo dieting); snacking; built environment; reducing screen time in childhood obesity; portion size; participation in family mealtime; and drinking water as a means of weight...

  4. Unknown Particles to Weigh in at Higher Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    Leonsch Hartwig, Codie

    2007-01-01

    "Sophisticated new analysis at Jefferson Lab. has revealed that the next frontier in particle physics will involve larger particles than physicists previously thought to be the case, according to a newly published study." (1 page)

  5. Countdown to Cairo: U.S. consumption weighs in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Population pressures in the industrialized world affect long-term sustainability. The United States' population comprises only 5% of the world's total, yet it consumes 25% of the world's commercial energy, 27% of the world's aluminum, and over 20% of its tin, copper, and lead. Americans produce twice as much waste per person as most Europeans, and many times more than people in the developing world. Sustainable development is a central theme of the delegates to the UN's Cairo conference on population and development, and efforts to mitigate excessive resource use will undoubtedly be a topic. Delegates are searching for programs to help eradicate poverty; empower and advance women in education, employment, and health; and stabilize population growth. The adoption of policies to alter unsustainable and environmentally damaging patterns of consumption will be equally important. In April, 1994, President Clinton's Council on Sustainable Development set up a special task force to explore US population and consumption issues. US population pressures are becoming ever more visible: increasing traffic congestion, mounting garbage, air pollution, and severe water shortages. The US population, currently at 260 million, is the third highest in the world. The nation adds about 3 million to its population every year. The Census Bureau projects that by the year 2000, the population will reach 275 million. The national total fertility rate has risen to 2.1. In the industrialized world, only Iceland and Ireland, both at 2.2, are higher. The average American's energy use is equivalent to the consumption of 3 Japanese, 6 Mexicans, 12 Chinese, 33 Indians, 147 Bangladeshis, 281 Tanzanians, or 422 Ethiopians. It is uncertain whether metropolitan areas can meet the housing, health, education, and employment needs of millions more Americans. Policies in industrialized nations that reduce pollution and excessive resource use and slow population growth are needed to ensure a quality future

  6. Weighing the impact (factor) of publishing in veterinary journals

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, MM

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The journal in which you publish your research can have a major influence on the perceived value of your work and on your ability to reach certain audiences. The impact factor, a widely used metric of journal quality and prestige, has evolved into a benchmark of quality for institutions and graduate programs and, inappropriately, as a proxy for the quality of individual authors and articles, affecting tenure, promotion, and funding decisions. As a result, despite its many...

  7. Weighing the impact (factor) of publishing in veterinary journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mary M

    2015-06-01

    The journal in which you publish your research can have a major influence on the perceived value of your work and on your ability to reach certain audiences. The impact factor, a widely used metric of journal quality and prestige, has evolved into a benchmark of quality for institutions and graduate programs and, inappropriately, as a proxy for the quality of individual authors and articles, affecting tenure, promotion, and funding decisions. As a result, despite its many limitations, publishing decisions by authors often are based solely on a journal's impact factor. This can disadvantage journals in small disciplines, such as veterinary medicine, and limit the ability of authors to reach key audiences. In this article, factors that can influence the impact factor of a journal and its applicability, including precision, citation practices, article type, editorial policies, and size of the research community will be reviewed. The value and importance of veterinary journals such as the Journal of Veterinary Cardiology for reaching relevant audiences and for helping shape disciplinary specialties and influence clinical practice will also be discussed. Lastly, the efforts underway to develop alternative measures to assess the scientific quality of individual authors and articles, such as article-level metrics, as well as institutional measures of the economic and social impact of biomedical research will be considered. Judicious use of the impact factor and the implementation of new metrics for assessing the quality and societal relevance of veterinary research articles will benefit both authors and journals.

  8. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS AC...

  9. Chronic hemodialysis in children weighing less than 10 kg.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) in infants is usually used when peritoneal dialysis (PD) has failed. We describe our experience with HD, outlining the morbidity, complications, and outcomes for infants weighing less than 10 kg managed with HD for more than 6 months over a 10-year period.

  10. Automated weighing by sequential inference in dynamic environments

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A D

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate sequential mass inference of a suspended bag of milk powder from simulated measurements of the vertical force component at the pivot while the bag is being filled. We compare the predictions of various sequential inference methods both with and without a physics model to capture the system dynamics. We find that non-augmented and augmented-state unscented Kalman filters (UKFs) in conjunction with a physics model of a pendulum of varying mass and length provide rapid and accurate predictions of the milk powder mass as a function of time. The UKFs outperform the other method tested - a particle filter. Moreover, inference methods which incorporate a physics model outperform equivalent algorithms which do not.

  11. Implementation and verification of a four-probe motion error measurement system for a large-scale roll lathe used in hybrid manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Niu, Zengyuan; Matsuura, Daiki; Lee, Jung Chul; Shimizu, Yuki; Gao, Wei; Oh, Jeong Seok; Park, Chun Hong

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a four-probe measurement system is implemented and verified for the carriage slide motion error measurement of a large-scale roll lathe used in hybrid manufacturing where a laser machining probe and a diamond cutting tool are placed on two sides of a roll workpiece for manufacturing. The motion error of the carriage slide of the roll lathe is composed of two straightness motion error components and two parallelism motion error components in the vertical and horizontal planes. Four displacement measurement probes, which are mounted on the carriage slide with respect to four opposing sides of the roll workpiece, are employed for the measurement. Firstly, based on the reversal technique, the four probes are moved by the carriage slide to scan the roll workpiece before and after a 180-degree rotation of the roll workpiece. Taking into consideration the fact that the machining accuracy of the lathe is influenced by not only the carriage slide motion error but also the gravity deformation of the large-scale roll workpiece due to its heavy weight, the vertical motion error is thus characterized relating to the deformed axis of the roll workpiece. The horizontal straightness motion error can also be synchronously obtained based on the reversal technique. In addition, based on an error separation algorithm, the vertical and horizontal parallelism motion error components are identified by scanning the rotating roll workpiece at the start and the end positions of the carriage slide, respectively. The feasibility and reliability of the proposed motion error measurement system are demonstrated by the experimental results and the measurement uncertainty analysis.

  12. Motion scaling for high-performance driving simulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berthoz, A.; Bles, W.; Bülthoff, H.H.; Correia Grácio, B.J.; Feenstra, P.; Filliard, N.; Hühne, R.; Kemeny, A.; Mayrhofer, M.; Mulder, M.; Nusseck, H.G.; Pretto, P.; Reymond, G.; Schlüsselberger, R.; Schwandtner, J.; Teufel, H.; Vailleau, B.; Paassen, M.M.R. van; Vidal, M.; Wentink, M.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced driving simulators aim at rendering the motion of a vehicle with maximum fidelity, which requires increased mechanical travel, size, and cost of the system. Motion cueing algorithms reduce the motion envelope by taking advantage of limitations in human motion perception, and the most common

  13. Avaliação técnica de um sistema de pesagem no carregamento florestal Technical evaluation of a weighing system in log loader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Lopes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar tecnicamente um sistema de pesagem no carregamento de madeira. Os dados foram obtidos em 124 veículos de transporte, em áreas de colheita de madeira de Pinus taeda. A análise técnica englobou um estudo de tempos e movimentos e de produtividade do carregador florestal e determinação da eficiência do sistema de pesagem. Os resultados indicaram que houve aumento no tempo de carregamento devido à necessidade de pausas para estabilização do equipamento. Foi ainda verificado que a diferença média de pesos entre o sistema de pesagem e a balança da fábrica foi de 218 kg, correspondendo a um erro médio de 0,72%. Pelo teste "t", verificou-se que as leituras de pesos obtidos entre o sistema de pesagem e a balança da fábrica não diferiram entre si, comprovando a eficiência do equipamento.The objective of this research was to evaluate a weighing system in log loader. Data was obtained from 124 trucks in areas of Pinus taeda harvesting. The operational analysis included a log loader productivity, time and motion study and weighing efficiency evaluation. The analysis revealed that the mean difference between the weighing system and industry weighing was approximately 218 kg, corresponding to a 0.72% mean error. T-test showed no difference between the weight reading by the weighing system and the industry weighing, proving the equipment efficiency.

  14. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  15. The Large-Scale Distribution and Motions of Older Stars in Orion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, A. G. A.; Walter, F. M.; Blaauw, Adriaan

    1998-01-01

    Abstract: We review the current knowledge of the population of `older' stars in the Orion OB1 association, specifically those in subgroups 1a and 1b. We briefly outline the history of the subject and then continue with a summary of the present state of knowledge of the early-type stars in Orion OB1.

  16. Improving Energy Efficiency Via Optimized Charge Motion and Slurry Flow in Plant Scale Sag Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj K. Rajamani

    2006-07-21

    A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Outokumpu Technology, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, and Process Engineering Resources Inc. At Cortez Gold Operations the shell and pulp lifters of the semiautogenous grinding mill was redesigned. The redesigned shell lifter has been in operation for over three years and the redesigned pulp lifter has been in operation for over nine months now. This report summarizes the dramatic reductions in energy consumption. Even though the energy reductions are very large, it is safe to say that a 20% minimum reduction would be achieved in any future installations of this technology.

  17. Meso- and small-scale vertical motions in the deep Western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haren, Hans van, E-mail: hans.van.haren@nioz.n [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Netherlands)

    2011-01-21

    Acoustic reflections on particles larger than a few mm are compared with optical background data of bioluminescence at the ANTARES neutrino telescope site in the deep North-western Mediterranean Sea. Periodic increases of these data are associated with increases in horizontal and downward vertical currents. The observations provide unique knowledge of some oceanographic processes in the Mediterranean. Several periodicities are distinguished: seasonal, with large increase during spring, 20-day, which is associated with a meandering continental boundary current, 1-17.6 h, evidencing deep internal waves.

  18. On restraining the production of small scales of motion in a turbulent channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, Roel

    2008-01-01

    Since most turbulent flows cannot be computed directly from the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, a dynamically less complex mathematical formulation is sought. In the quest for such a formulation, we consider nonlinear approximations of the convective term that preserve the symmetry and conse

  19. Design and construction of a large weighing lysimeter in an almond orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorite, I. J.; Santos, C.; Testi, L.; Fereres, E.

    2012-11-01

    Effective water management is essential to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The accurate determination of crop water requirements is the first step in this task. This paper describes the building of a one-tree weighing lysimeter (3 × 3 m and 2.15 m depth) located in an almond (Prunus dulcis cv. Guara) orchard, inside the experimental farm “Alameda del Obispo” in Córdoba, Spain, to measure orchard evapotranspiration (ETc). Following a review on lysimetry, the description of the construction of the weighing lysimeter is provided in detail, including considerations relative to system resolution and wind effects on the measurements. Finally, some preliminary results of the evaporation and transpiration of young almond trees are presented demonstrating that lysimetry in orchards provides accurate ETc values needed to determine irrigation water requirements. (Author) 72 refs.

  20. Design and construction of a large weighing lysimeter in an almond orchard

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Effective water management is essential to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The accurate determination of crop water requirements is the first step in this task. This paper describes the building of a one-tree weighing lysimeter (3 × 3 m and 2.15 m depth) located in an almond (Prunus dulcis cv. Guara) orchard, inside the experimental farm "Alameda del Obispo" in Córdoba, Spain, to measure orchard evapotranspiration (ET c). Following a review on lysimetry, the description of...

  1. Weighing Efficiency-Robustness in Supply Chain Disruption by Multi-Objective Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates various supply chain disruptions in terms of scenario planning, including node disruption and chain disruption; namely, disruptions in distribution centers and disruptions between manufacturing centers and distribution centers. Meanwhile, it also focuses on the simultaneous disruption on one node or a number of nodes, simultaneous disruption in one chain or a number of chains and the corresponding mathematical models and exemplification in relation to numerous manufacturing centers and diverse products. Robustness of the design of the supply chain network is examined by weighing efficiency against robustness during supply chain disruptions. Efficiency is represented by operating cost; robustness is indicated by the expected disruption cost and the weighing issue is calculated by the multi-objective firefly algorithm for consistency in the results. It has been shown that the total cost achieved by the optimal target function is lower than that at the most effective time of supply chains. In other words, the decrease of expected disruption cost by improving robustness in supply chains is greater than the increase of operating cost by reducing efficiency, thus leading to cost advantage. Consequently, by approximating the Pareto Front Chart of weighing between efficiency and robustness, enterprises can choose appropriate efficiency and robustness for their longer-term development.

  2. Frequent Self-Weighing and Visual Feedback for Weight Loss in Overweight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly R. Pacanowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has suggested that self-weighing may be beneficial for weight control in adults, but few studies have independently assessed the contribution of this behavior to weight loss. This study experimentally tested daily self-weighing and visual feedback (the Caloric Titration Method (CTM as a weight loss and weight loss maintenance intervention over 2 years. 162 overweight individuals were randomized to the CTM intervention or delayed treatment control group. In year 1, weight change was compared between groups, and in year 2, the control group started using the CTM while the intervention group continued using the CTM for maintenance. A significant difference in weight loss over the first year (CTM n = 70; 2.6 ± 5.9 kg versus control n = 65; 0.5 ± 4.4 kg, p = 0.019 was qualified by a group × gender × time interaction (p = 0.002 such that men lost more weight using the CTM. In year 2, the CTM group maintained their weight and the control group lost an amount similar to the intervention group in year 1. Daily self-weighing and visual feedback facilitated a minimal amount of weight loss and maintenance of this loss. Future research investigating characteristics of those who benefit from this type of self-directed intervention is warranted.

  3. Spatial scale of motion segmentation from speed cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, D. R.; Masson, G. S.; Stone, L. S.

    2001-01-01

    For the accurate perception of multiple, potentially overlapping, surfaces or objects, the visual system must distinguish different local motion vectors and selectively integrate similar motion vectors over space to segment the retinal image properly. We recently showed that large differences in speed are required to yield a percept of motion transparency. In the present study, to investigate the spatial scale of motion segmentation from speed cues alone, we measured the speed-segmentation threshold (the minimum speed difference required for 75% performance accuracy) for 'corrugated' random-dot patterns, i.e. patterns in which dots with two different speeds were alternately placed in adjacent bars of variable width. In a first experiment, we found that, at large bar widths, a smaller speed difference was required to segment and perceive the corrugated pattern of moving dots, while at small bar-widths, a larger speed difference was required to segment the two speeds and perceive two transparent surfaces of moving dots. Both the perceptual and segmentation performance transitions occurred at a bar width of around 0.4 degrees. In a second experiment, speed-segmentation thresholds were found to increase sharply when dots with different speeds were paired within a local pooling area. The critical pairing distance was about 0.2 degrees in the fovea and increased linearly with stimulus eccentricity. However, across the range of eccentricities tested (up to 15 degrees ), the critical pairing distance did not change much and remained close to the receptive field size of neurons within the primate primary visual cortex. In a third experiment, increasing dot density changed the relationship between speed-segmentation thresholds and bar width. Thresholds decreased for large bar widths, but increased for small bar widths. All of these results are well fit by a simple stochastic model, which estimates the probabilities of having identical or different motion vectors within a

  4. Quantfication of longitudinal dispersion by upscaling Brownian motion of tracer displacement in a 3D pore-scale network model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharya, R.C.; Dijke, van M.I.J.; Sorbie, K.S.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Leijnse, A.

    2007-01-01

    We present a 3D network model with particle tracking to upscale 3D Brownian motion of non-reactive tracer particles subjected to a velocity field in the network bonds, representing both local diffusion and convection. At the intersections of the bonds (nodes) various jump conditions are implemented.

  5. Statistical convergence and the effect of large-scale motions on turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a cylindrical domain with 6.3 aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakievich, Philip; Peet, Yulia; Adrian, Ronald

    2016-11-01

    At high Rayleigh numbers in moderate aspect-ratio cylindrical domains turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) exhibits coherent large-scale motions with patterns like some of those found in laminar flow. In this work we show how the patterns of the largest scales in turbulent RBC affect the bias and convergence of the flow statistics at aspect-ratio 6.3 (diameter/ height). Large scale motions influence two of the finite-time statistical mean's inherent properties: 1) the orientation of the patterns changes so slowly that it may appear almost fixed during a finite averaging time interval, thereby imbedding a preferred azimuthal direction in the sampled data; 2) they also have at least two states associated with the occurrence of up and down motions near the center of the convection cell. We will present a novel technique for triggering additional states of RBC in DNS simulations that are targeted for improving the statistical convergence of the flow. This technique gently perturbs the flow so that the new variations of the large scale patterns can be sampled. Funding through U. S. National Science Foundation Grants CBET-1335731, CMMI-1250124 and XSEDE research allocation TG-CTS150039.

  6. Weighing waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. Duncan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available People have been shown to delay decision making to wait for missing noninstrumental attribute information --- information that would not have altered their decision if known at the outset --- with this delay originally attributed to uncertainty obscuring one's true preference (Bastardi and Shafir, 1998. To test this account, relative to an alternative that delay arises from low confidence in one's preference (Tykocinski and Ruffle, 2003, we manipulated information certainty and the magnitude of a penalty for delay, the latter intended to reduce the influence of easily resolved sources of delay and to magnify any influence of uncertainty. Contrary to expectations, the results were largely inconsistent with the uncertainty account in that, under a low penalty, delay did not depend on information certainty; and, under a high penalty, delay rate was actually much lower when information was uncertain. To explain the latter, we propose that people use a strategy for resolving choice under uncertainty that does not require establishing a confident preference for each value of the missing information. These findings are related to others in which choice difficulty has been found to be a major source of delay.

  7. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siddharth Gautam; S Mitra; R Mukhopadhyay

    2008-10-01

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time scales involved in the motion and the geometry of motion can be studied using QENS. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation not only provides insight into the details of the different types of motion possible but also does not suffer limitations of the experimental set-up. Here we report the effect of confinement on molecular dynamics in various restricted geometries as studied by QENS and MD simulations: An example where the QENS technique provided direct evidence of phase transition associated with change in the dynamical behaviour of the molecules is also discussed.

  8. Modulation of energetic coherent motions by large-scale topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wing; Hamed, Ali M.; Troolin, Dan; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2016-11-01

    The distinctive characteristics and dynamics of the large-scale coherent motions induced over 2D and 3D large-scale wavy walls were explored experimentally with time-resolved volumetric PIV, and selected wall-normal high-resolution stereo PIV in a refractive-index-matching channel. The 2D wall consists of a sinusoidal wave in the streamwise direction with amplitude to wavelength ratio a/ λx = 0.05, while the 3D wall has an additional wave in the spanwise direction with a/ λy = 0.1. The ?ow was characterized at Re 8000, based on the bulk velocity and the channel half height. The walls are such that the amplitude to boundary layer thickness ratio is a/ δ99 0.1, which resemble geophysical-like topography. Insight on the dynamics of the coherent motions, Reynolds stress and spatial interaction of sweep and ejection events will be discussed in terms of the wall topography modulation.

  9. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Methods Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. Results 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Conclusions Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of

  10. Emergent Property in Macromolecular Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴嘉麟

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the model of inverse cascade fractal super-blocks along one direction (in the positive or negative) in the 3-dimensional space is developed to describe the self-similar motion in macromolecular system. Microscopically the cohesive and dispersed states of the motion blocks are co-existent states with vastly different probability of occurrence.Experimental results and theoretical analysis show that the microscopic cohesive state energy and dispersed state energy of each motion block are respectively equal to the macroscopic glassy state energy kT8 and molten state energy kTm of the system. This singularity unveils topologically the nonintegrability, mathematically the anholonomy, and macroscopically the emergent property. This singularity also reveals that the glass, viscoelastic and melt states are three distinct emergent properties of macromolecular motion from a macroscopic viewpoint. The fractal concept of excluded volume is introduced to depict the random motion at various scales in the system. The Hausdorff dimensions of the excluded volune and the motion blocks are both found equal to 3/2.

  11. 微量药品单元动态称重系统的设计与实现%Design and realization of micro scale capsule dynamic weighing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄育锋; 翟宇

    2013-01-01

    The design method for a micro scale capsule dynamic weighing system is proposed, which can transport and classify capsules in turn and acquire the quality of the capsules. A kind of kinetic model for the dynamic weighing of capsule is established. The model is based on energy conservation principle and considers the influences of sliding chute parameters, sensor parameters and other factors. The movement process of the capsules with different weights is analyzed. MATLAB is adopted to simulate the analysis results. During the process of transporting and classifying the capsules,the weighing transducer is used to measure the weight of the capsule. The A/D converter, which is linked to the weighing transducer, sends the capsule weight data to the subsequent ARM processor. The ARM processor sends data to MCU that controls the movement of the electric motor through serial communication and the observing and controlling process is completed. Meanwhile, a graphic user interface is developed based on miniGUI, with which the ARM processor can display the capsule weight information in real time. The simulation and experiment results indicate that when the threshold of the sensor signal is 0. 195 V and the time interval of the weighing process is 1.46 s, the dynamic capsule weighing process can be realized successfully. The design for capsule weighing unit has completed the process of capsules weighing effectively and improves the reliability and high efficiency of capsule dynamic condition weighing.%提出了一种微量药品单元动态称重系统的设计方法,可依次完成药品单元的传送和分拨,并统计药品单元的质量情况.建立了药品单元动态称重的动力学模型,模型以能量守恒原理为基础,考虑了滑槽截面参数、传感器参数等因素,对不同质量药品单元的运动过程进行了分析,并利用MATLAB对分析结果进行了仿真.系统对药品单元的传送、分拨控制过程是利用称重传感

  12. Antenatal Weight Management: Women’s Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Swift

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy sought to examine women’s self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+ were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10–27 weeks, with 41.5% (n=80 between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n=83 between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n=97 could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m2 did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m2. The majority of women (regardless of BMI did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  13. Antenatal Weight Management: Women's Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, J A; Pearce, J; Jethwa, P H; Taylor, M A; Avery, A; Ellis, S; Langley-Evans, S C; McMullen, S

    2016-01-01

    The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy) sought to examine women's self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+) were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10-27 weeks, with 41.5% (n = 80) between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n = 83) between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n = 97) could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m(2)) did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2). The majority of women (regardless of BMI) did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  14. A comparison between a visual analogue scale and a four point scale as measures of conscious experience of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Manuel; Zehetleitner, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Can participants make use of the large number of response alternatives of visual analogue scales (VAS) when reporting their subjective experience of motion? In a new paradigm, participants adjusted a comparison according to random dot kinematograms with the direction of motion varying between 0° and 360°. After each discrimination response, they reported how clearly they experienced the global motion either using a VAS or a discrete scale with four scale steps. We observed that both scales were internally consistent and were used gradually. The visual analogue scale was more efficient in predicting discrimination error but this effect was mediated by longer report times and was no longer observed when the VAS was discretized into four bins. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that VAS and discrete scales are associated with a comparable degree of metacognitive sensitivity, although the VAS provides a greater amount of information.

  15. Noise in Load Cell Signal in an Automatic Weighing System Based on a Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise in load cell signal in an automatic weighing system based on a belt conveyor has been examined experimentally in time and frequency domains to enhance signal quality. The noise frequency spectrum showed nonlinearly increasing multiple resonance peaks as speed increased. The noise reduction process using noise reduction algorithm, by sharply rejecting peak noise frequency component and afterward forming optimum pulse width ratio through filter slope control using selective switching of 6 LPF stages, was used for enhanced accuracy. The effectiveness of proposed method, controlling both cutoff frequency and slope of LPF, was evaluated by feeding 50 g test mass, and this noise reduction process showed better noise filtering with enhanced accuracy than fixed cutoff frequency control method. The ratio of top to bottom pulse width showed that LPF cutoff frequency above 5 Hz had the ratio above 50% up to 80 m/min speed range.

  16. Nosocomial bacterial sepsis in babies weighing 1000-1499 g in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, D; Haque, M E; Zabidi, M H; Kamaruzzaman, A

    1999-03-01

    From January to December 1992, 92 babies weighing 1000-1499 gm here to referred as very low birth weight (VLBW) were admitted to NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), Hospital University Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Sixty babies were inborn giving a VLBW rate of 7.5 per 1000 live births. Incidence of nosocomial sepsis was 32.6% (30/92) of whom 43.3% (13/30) died. Eighty percent (24/30) of the septic babies had blood culture positive for gram negative organisms of which 40% (12/30) were sensitive only to imipenem. Ventilator support within 24 hours of life was required in 41.3% (38/94) babies of whom 42% (16/38) babies developed nosocomial sepsis. Delayed initiation of feeding was significantly associated with nosocomial sepsis. A strict asepsis policy and early feeding of the VLBW infant are essential components of any strategy to prevent of sepsis due to nosocomial infection.

  17. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    development of the electron microscope, which aimed to exceed the resolving power of diffraction-limited optical microscopes. Since the diffraction limit is proportional to the incident wavelength, the shorter wavelength electron beam allows smaller features to be resolved than optical light. Ernst Ruska shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1986 for his work in developing the transmission electron microscope [5]. The technique continues to provide an invaluable tool in nanotechnology studies, as demonstrated recently by a collaboration of researchers in the US, Singapore and Korea used electron and atomic force microscopy in their investigation of the deposition of gold nanoparticles on graphene and the enhanced conductivity of the doped film [6]. The other half of the 1986 Nobel Prize was awarded jointly to Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer 'for their design of the scanning tunnelling microscope'. The scanning tunnelling microscope offered the first glimpses of atomic scale features, galvanizing research in nanoscale science and technology into a burst of fruitful activity that persists to this day. Instead of using the diffraction and scattering of beams to 'see' nanoscale structures, the atomic force microscope developed by Binnig, Quate and Gerber in the 1980s [1] determines the surface topology 'by touch'. The device uses nanoscale changes in the forces exerted on a tip as it scans the sample surface to generate an image. As might be expected, innovations on the original atomic force microscope have now been developed achieving ever greater sensitivities for imaging soft matter without destroying it. Recent work by collaborators at the University of Bristol and the University of Glasgow used a cigar-shaped nanoparticle held in optical tweezers as the scanning tip. The technique is not diffraction limited, imparts less force on samples than contact scanning probe microscopy techniques, and allows highly curved and strongly scattering samples to be imaged [7]. In this issue

  18. Amplitude scaling for interchange motions of plasma filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kube, R; Garcia, O E

    2016-01-01

    We numerically study the interchange motion of seeded plasma blobs in a reduced two-field fluid model. If we neglect the compression of the electric drift in the model, the maximal radial center-of-mass velocity V of the filament follows the familiar square-root scaling V ~ (\\Delta n/N)^1/2, where \\Delta n is the blob amplitude and N is the background density. When including compression of the electric drift to account for an inhomogeneous magnetic field, the numerical simulations reveal that the maximal blob velocity depends linearly on its initial amplitude, V ~ \\Delta n/N. When the relative initial amplitude of the filament exceeds approximately unity we recover the square root velocity scaling. We explain the observed scaling laws in t erms of the conserved energy integrals of the model equations. The compression term leads to a constraint on the maximum kinetic energy of the blob, which is not present if the drift compression is ignored. If the compression term is included, only approximately half of the...

  19. Effect of small scale motions on dynamo actions generated by the Beltrami-like flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Mingtian, E-mail: mingtian@sdu.edu.cn

    2016-08-12

    The geodynamo and solar dynamo are driven by the turbulent flows which involve motions of various scales. Of particular interest is what role is played by the small scale motions in these dynamos. In this paper, the integral equation approach is employed to investigate the effect of the small scale motions on dynamo actions driven by multiscale Beltrami-like flows in a cylindrical vessel. The result shows that some small scale motions can trigger a transition of a dynamo from a steady to an unsteady state. Our results also show that when the poloidal components of the small and large scale flows share the same direction in the equatorial plane, the small scale flows have more positive or less detrimental effect on the onsets of the dynamo actions in comparison with the case that the poloidal components have different directions. These findings shed light on the effect of the small scale turbulence on dynamo actions. - Highlights: • Dynamo actions driven by multiscale Beltrami-like flows are investigated. • Some small scale motions induce transition of dynamo from steady to unsteady state. • Direction of small scale poloidal flow has a significant effect on dynamo threshold.

  20. Weighing stars: the identification of an Evolved Blue Straggler Star in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Mucciarelli, A; Lanzoni, B; Dalessandro, E; Pallanca, C; Massari, D

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters are known to host peculiar objects, named Blue Straggler Stars (BSSs), significantly heavier than the normal stellar population. While these stars can be easily identified during their core hydrogen-burning phase, they are photometrically indistinguishable from their low-mass sisters in advanced stages of the subsequent evolution. A clear-cut identification of these objects would require the direct measurement of the stellar mass. We used the detailed comparison between chemical abundances derived from neutral and from ionized spectral lines as a powerful stellar "weighing device" to measure stellar mass and to identify an evolved BSS in 47 Tucanae. In particular, high-resolution spectra of three bright stars located slightly above the level of the "canonical" horizontal branch sequence in the color-magnitude diagram of 47 Tucanae, have been obtained with UVES spectrograph. The measurements of iron and titanium abundances performed separately from neutral and ionized lines reveal that two ta...

  1. SYSTEMATIC MOTION OF FINE-SCALE JETS AND SUCCESSIVE RECONNECTION IN SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JET OBSERVED WITH THE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE/HINODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K. [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Isobe, H., E-mail: singh@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Unit for Synergetic Study for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan)

    2012-11-20

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode allows observations with high spatiotemporal resolution and stable image quality. A {lambda}-shaped chromospheric anemone jet was observed in high resolution with SOT/Hinode. We found that several fine-scale jets were launched from one end of the footpoint to the other. These fine-scale jets ({approx}1.5-2.5 Mm) gradually move from one end of the footpoint to the other and finally merge into a single jet. This process occurs recurrently, and as time progresses the jet activity becomes more and more violent. The time evolution of the region below the jet in Ca II H filtergram images taken with SOT shows that various parts (or knots) appear at different positions. These bright knots gradually merge into each other during the maximum phase. The systematic motion of the fine-scale jets is observed when different knots merge into each other. Such morphology would arise due to the emergence of a three-dimensional twisted flux rope in which the axial component (or the guide field) appears in the later stages of the flux rope emergence. The partial appearance of the knots could be due to the azimuthal magnetic field that appears during the early stage of the flux rope emergence. If the guide field is strong and reconnection occurs between the emerging flux rope and an ambient magnetic field, this could explain the typical feature of systematic motion in chromospheric anemone jets.

  2. Non-radial motion in the TeV blazar S5 0716+714. The pc-scale kinematics of a BL Lacertae object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britzen, S.; Kam, V. A.; Witzel, A.; Agudo, I.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Karouzos, M.; Eckart, A.; Zensus, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Flat-spectrum radio sources often show a core-jet structure on pc-scales. Individual jet components reveal predominantly outward directed motion. For the BL Lac object S5 0716+714 conflicting apparent velocities have been reported in the literature. This object is an intra-day variable source and suited to investigate a possible correlation between kinematic properties and flux-density variability on different timescales. Aims: We study the kinematics in the pc-scale jet of S5 0716+714 to determine the apparent speeds of the jet components based on a much improved data set. In addition, we search for correlations between the radio flux-density light curves and the morphological changes detected along the VLBI jet. Methods: We (re-)analyze 50 VLBI observations obtained with the VLBA at 5 different frequencies (5-43 GHz) between 1992.73 and 2006.32. The data have been parameterized using circular Gaussian components. We analyze the jet component motion in detail taking care not only to account for motion in the radial but also in the orthogonal direction. We study the evolution of the jet ridge line and investigate the spectral properties of the individual components. We search for correlations between radio band light curves and the kinematic properties of the jet components. Results: We present an alternative kinematic scenario for jet component motion in S5 0716+714. We present evidence for the apparent stationarity of jet components (with regard to their core separation) with time. Jet components, however, do seem to move significantly non-radially with regard to their position angle and in a direction perpendicular to the major axis of the jet. We discuss a possible correlation between the long-term radio flux-density variability and apparent jet component motions. Conclusions: In S5 0716+714 an alternative motion scenario is proposed. With regard to the core separation, rather stationary components can fit the VLBI observations well. A new model to

  3. Enhanced motion coding in MC-EZBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhua; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Yingkun

    2005-07-01

    Since hierarchical variable size block matching and bidirectional motion compensation are used in the motioncompensated embedded zero block coding (MC-EZBC), the motion information consists of motion vector quadtree map and motion vectors. In the conventional motion coding scheme, the quadtree structure is coded directly, the motion vector modes are coded with Huffman codes, and the motion vector differences are coded by an m-ary arithmetic coder with 0-order models. In this paper we propose a new motion coding scheme which uses an extension of the CABAC algorithm and new context modeling for quadtree structure coding and mode coding. In addition, we use a new scalable motion coding method which scales the motion vector quadtrees according to the rate-distortion slope of the tree nodes. Experimental results show that the new coding scheme increases the efficiency of the motion coding by more than 25%. The performance of the system is improved accordingly, especially in low bit rates. Moreover, with the scalable motion coding, the subjective and objective coding performance is further enhanced in low bit rate scenarios.

  4. Dynamical Gauge Effects and Holographic Scaling of Non-Equilibrium Motion in a Disordered and Dissipative Atomic Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jianshi; Liu, Qi; Jacome, Louis; Gemelke, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    We present a table-top realization of a non-equilibrium quantum system described by a dynamical gauge field propagating on an effectively curved space and time manifold. The system is formed by neutral atoms interacting with both a conservative disordered optical field and a dissipative pumping field. In the presence of a sufficiently dark state, we demonstrate non-equilibrium behavior reminiscent of the information paradox in black hole physics. At a well-defined transition point, the analog of gauge-boson mass is seen to vanish, inducing scale-invariant behavior as a Higgs-like mechanism is removed. The subsequent scaling behavior can be understood using the holographic principle with a tunable analog of the Planck length derived from the scaling of disorder. These effects suggest a range of new phenomena in weakly dissipative quantum systems, including the presence of analog forms of emergent gravitation.

  5. Large scale track analysis for wide area motion imagery surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, C. J.; van Huis, J. R.; Baan, J.

    2016-10-01

    Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) enables image based surveillance of areas that can cover multiple square kilometers. Interpreting and analyzing information from such sources, becomes increasingly time consuming as more data is added from newly developed methods for information extraction. Captured from a moving Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), the high-resolution images allow detection and tracking of moving vehicles, but this is a highly challenging task. By using a chain of computer vision detectors and machine learning techniques, we are capable of producing high quality track information of more than 40 thousand vehicles per five minutes. When faced with such a vast number of vehicular tracks, it is useful for analysts to be able to quickly query information based on region of interest, color, maneuvers or other high-level types of information, to gain insight and find relevant activities in the flood of information. In this paper we propose a set of tools, combined in a graphical user interface, which allows data analysts to survey vehicles in a large observed area. In order to retrieve (parts of) images from the high-resolution data, we developed a multi-scale tile-based video file format that allows to quickly obtain only a part, or a sub-sampling of the original high resolution image. By storing tiles of a still image according to a predefined order, we can quickly retrieve a particular region of the image at any relevant scale, by skipping to the correct frames and reconstructing the image. Location based queries allow a user to select tracks around a particular region of interest such as landmark, building or street. By using an integrated search engine, users can quickly select tracks that are in the vicinity of locations of interest. Another time-reducing method when searching for a particular vehicle, is to filter on color or color intensity. Automatic maneuver detection adds information to the tracks that can be used to find vehicles based on their

  6. Long-term changes in reflectivity and larger scale motions in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    A multi-color, broad-band photographic program for monitoring atmospheric variability of Jupiter and Saturn with the 61-cm, f/75 telescope was continued. The archivial product consists of approximately 20 sequential images on 3 1/4 x 4 1/4 glass plates with a plate scale of 4.53 arc sec/mm. An eleven-step sensitometric wedge, recorded times of acquisition, and fiducial marks which determine the orientation of the plate, are recorded on each individual plate. This allows accurate positional measurements, as well as detailed relative surface brightness determinations. Detailed measurements of the Red Spot are being utilized in a study of zonal velocity variation and the ability to predict the longitude of the Red Spot during the Galileo mission. An ongoing 5-color series of Saturn has been maintained to map the seasonal changes in the belt-zone reflectivity. Digitization of a series of blue images containing the Red Spot and a series of red and blue images excluding the Red Spot are being processed and reduced to normalized surface brightness maps. This data is being utilized to map time-dependent brightness variations of selected features, belts, and ones.

  7. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements of Turbulent Flow Within Outdoor and Indoor Urban Scale Models and Flushing Motions in Urban Canopy Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, Hiroshi; Sato, Ayumu; Barlow, Janet F.; Moriwaki, Ryo; Inagaki, Atsushi; Onomura, Shiho; Kanda, Manabu

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the spatial characteristics of urban-like canopy flow by applying particle image velocimetry (PIV) to atmospheric turbulence. The study site was a Comprehensive Outdoor Scale MOdel (COSMO) experiment for urban climate in Japan. The PIV system captured the two-dimensional flow field within the canopy layer continuously for an hour with a sampling frequency of 30 Hz, thereby providing reliable outdoor turbulence statistics. PIV measurements in a wind-tunnel facility using similar roughness geometry, but with a lower sampling frequency of 4 Hz, were also done for comparison. The turbulent momentum flux from COSMO, and the wind tunnel showed similar values and distributions when scaled using friction velocity. Some different characteristics between outdoor and indoor flow fields were mainly caused by the larger fluctuations in wind direction for the atmospheric turbulence. The focus of the analysis is on a variety of instantaneous turbulent flow structures. One remarkable flow structure is termed `flushing', that is, a large-scale upward motion prevailing across the whole vertical cross-section of a building gap. This is observed intermittently, whereby tracer particles are flushed vertically out from the canopy layer. Flushing phenomena are also observed in the wind tunnel where there is neither thermal stratification nor outer-layer turbulence. It is suggested that flushing phenomena are correlated with the passing of large-scale low-momentum regions above the canopy.

  8. Motion of Fullerenes around Topological Defects on Metals: Implications for the Progress of Molecular Scale Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalraj, Peter; Daly, Ronan; Martin, Nazario; Thompson, Damien

    2017-03-08

    Research on motion of molecules in the presence of thermal noise is central for progress in two-terminal molecular scale electronic devices. However, it is still unclear what influence imperfections in bottom metal electrode surface can have on molecular motion. Here, we report a two-layer crowding study, detailing the early stages of surface motion of fullerene molecules on Au(111) with nanoscale pores in a n-tetradecane chemical environment. The motion of the fullerenes is directed by crowding of the underlying n-tetradecane molecules around the pore fringes at the liquid-solid interface. We observe in real-space the growth of molecular populations around different pore geometries. Supported by atomic-scale modeling, our findings extend the established picture of molecular crowding by revealing that trapped solvent molecules serve as prime nucleation sites at nanopore fringes.

  9. Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Take the mystery out of motion. Our resource gives you everything you need to teach young scientists about motion. Students will learn about linear, accelerating, rotating and oscillating motion, and how these relate to everyday life - and even the solar system. Measuring and graphing motion is easy, and the concepts of speed, velocity and acceleration are clearly explained. Reading passages, comprehension questions, color mini posters and lots of hands-on activities all help teach and reinforce key concepts. Vocabulary and language are simplified in our resource to make them accessible to str

  10. Negotiation in Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    related to interaction, mobility, and transit that focus on notions of the “mobile with,” “negotiation in motion,” “mobile sense making,” and “temporary congregations.” The theoretical approach aims at seeing public transit spaces as sites where cars, pedestrians, mopeds, and bikes on a regular basis...... “negotiate” not only routes in and across the space but also express dynamic flows of interaction in motion. The claim is that what seems like ordinary urban movement patterns are more than this. By moving in the city among buildings, objects, and people, one interacts with the “environment,” making sense...

  11. In situ sensors, weighing lysimeters and COSMOS under vegetated and bare conditions with subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long term weighing lysimeter records may have utility for assessment of climate changes occurring during the period of record. They typically enclose a depth of soil that exceeds the root zone of vegetation normally grown on them and have drainagy systems so that more or less natural hydrologic flux...

  12. Portable pallet weighing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An assembly for use with several like units in weighing the mass of a loaded cargo pallet supported by its trunnions has a bridge frame for positioning the assembly on a transportation frame carrying the pallet while straddling one trunnion of the pallet and its trunnion lock, and a cradle assembly for incrementally raising the trunnion. The mass at the trunnion is carried as a static load by a slidable bracket mounted upon the bridge frame for supporting the cradle assembly. The bracket applies the static loading to an electrical load cell symmetrically positioned between the bridge frame and the bracket. The static loading compresses the load cell, causing a slight deformation and a potential difference at load cell terminals which is proportional in amplitude to the mass of the pallet at the trunnion.

  13. Recent developments in motion planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Motion planning is becoming an important topic in many application areas, ranging from robotics to virtual environments and games. In this paper I review some recent results in motion planning, concentrating on the probabilistic roadmap approach that has proven to be very successful for many motion

  14. Variably-saturated flow in large weighing lysimeters under dry conditions: inverse and predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iden, Sascha; Reineke, Daniela; Koonce, Jeremy; Berli, Markus; Durner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    A reliable quantification of the soil water balance in semi-arid regions requires an accurate determination of bare soil evaporation. Modeling of soil water movement in relatively dry soils and the quantitative prediction of evaporation rates and groundwater recharge pose considerable challenges in these regions. Actual evaporation from dry soil cannot be predicted without detailed knowledge of the complex interplay between liquid, vapor and heat flow and soil hydraulic properties exert a strong influence on evaporation rates during stage-two evaporation. We have analyzed data from the SEPHAS lysimeter facility in Boulder City (NV) which was installed to investigate the near-surface processes of water and energy exchange in desert environments. The scientific instrumentation consists of 152 sensors per Lysimeter which measured soil temperature, soil water content, and soil water potential. Data from three weighing lysimeters (3 m long, surface area 4 m2) were used to identifiy effective soil hydraulic properties of the disturbed soil monoliths by inverse modeling with the Richards equation assuming isothermal flow conditions. Results indicate that the observed soil water content in 8 different soil depths can be well matched for all three lysimeters and that the effective soil hydraulic properties of the three lysimeters agree well. These results could only be obtained with a flexible model of the soil hydraulic properties which guaranteed physical plausibility of water retention towards complete dryness and accounted for capillary, film and isothermal vapor flow. Conversely, flow models using traditional parameterizations of the soil hydraulic properties were not able to match the observed evaporation fluxes and water contents. After identifying the system properties by inverse modeling, we checked the possibility to forecast evaporation rates by running a fully coupled water, heat and vapor flow model which solved the energy balance of the soil surface. In these

  15. Eat More, Weigh Less?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Eat More, Weigh ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español ( ...

  16. Flexible spatial perspective-taking: Conversational partners weigh multiple cues in collaborative tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia eGalati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on spatial perspective-taking often focuses on the cognitive processes of isolated individuals as they adopt or maintain imagined perspectives. Collaborative studies of spatial perspective-taking typically examine speakers’ linguistic choices, while overlooking their underlying processes and representations. We review evidence from two collaborative experiments that examine the contribution of social and representational cues to spatial perspective choices in both language and the organization of spatial memory. Across experiments, speakers organized their memory representations according to the convergence of various cues. When layouts were randomly configured and did not afford intrinsic cues, speakers encoded their partner’s viewpoint in memory, if available, but did not use it as an organizing direction. On the other hand, when the layout afforded an intrinsic structure, speakers organized their spatial memories according to the person-centered perspective reinforced by the layout’s structure. Similarly, in descriptions, speakers considered multiple cues whether available a priori or at the interaction. They used partner-centered expressions more frequently (e.g., to your right when the partner’s viewpoint was misaligned by a small offset or coincided with the layout’s structure. Conversely, they used egocentric expressions more frequently when their own viewpoint coincided with the intrinsic structure or when the partner was misaligned by a computationally difficult, oblique offset. Based on these findings we advocate for a framework for flexible perspective-taking: people weigh multiple cues (including social ones to make attributions about the relative difficulty of perspective-taking for each partner, and adapt behavior to minimize their collective effort. This framework is not specialized for spatial reasoning but instead emerges from the same principles and memory-depended processes that govern perspective-taking in

  17. Large-Scale Domain Motions and Pyridoxal-5'-Phosphate Assisted Radical Catalysis in Coenzyme B12-Dependent Aminomutases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarendra Nath Maity

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lysine 5,6-aminomutase (5,6-LAM and ornithine 4,5-aminomutase (4,5-OAM are two of the rare enzymes that use assistance of two vitamins as cofactors. These enzymes employ radical generating capability of coenzyme B12 (5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, dAdoCbl and ability of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP, vitamin B6 to stabilize high-energy intermediates for performing challenging 1,2-amino rearrangements between adjacent carbons. A large-scale domain movement is required for interconversion between the catalytically inactive open form and the catalytically active closed form. In spite of all the similarities, these enzymes differ in substrate specificities. 4,5-OAM is highly specific for D-ornithine as a substrate while 5,6-LAM can accept D-lysine and L-β-lysine. This review focuses on recent computational, spectroscopic and structural studies of these enzymes and their implications on the related enzymes. Additionally, we also discuss the potential biosynthetic application of 5,6-LAM.

  18. Evaporation in motion

    CERN Document Server

    Machrafi, Hatim; Colinet, Pierre; Dauby, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This work presents fluid dynamics videos obtained via numerical (CFD) calculations using ComSol (finite elements method) software, showing the evaporation of HFE7100 (3M company refrigerant) into a nitrogen gas flow along the liquid interface. The overall temperature evolution and liquid motion, which is caused by surface-tension (Marangoni) and buoyancy (Rayleigh) instability mechanisms, are shown as well. Flow behavior in the liquid caused by the aforementioned instability mechanisms can be nicely seen. Finally, these observations are made for three liquid thicknesses in order to appreciate the qualitative influence of confinement.

  19. Portable weighing system with alignment features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh; Sheldon, Frederick T.

    2012-11-06

    A system for weighing a load is disclosed. The weighing system includes a pad having at least one transducer for weighing a load disposed on the pad. In some embodiments the pad has a plurality of foot members and the weighing system may include a plate that disposed underneath the pad for receiving the plurality of foot member and for aligning the foot members when the weighing system is installed. The weighing system may include a spacer disposed adjacent the pad and in some embodiments, a spacer anchor operatively secures the spacer to a support surface, such as a plate, a railway bed, or a roadway. In some embodiments the spacer anchor operatively secures both the spacer and the pad to a roadway.

  20. Hand in motion reveals mind in motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eFreeman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have measured hand movements en route to choices on a screen to understand the dynamics of a broad range of psychological processes. We review this growing body of research and explain how manual action exposes the real-time unfolding of underlying cognitive processing. We describe how simple hand motions may be used to continuously index participants’ tentative commitments to different choice alternatives during the evolution of a behavioral response. As such, hand-tracking can provide unusually high-fidelity, real-time motor traces of the mind. These motor traces cast novel theoretical and empirical light onto a wide range of phenomena and serve as a potential bridge between far-reaching areas of psychological science—from language, to high-level cognition and learning, to social cognitive processes.

  1. Investigation of anti-motion sickness drugs in the squirrel monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, B. S.; Money, K. E.; Kohl, R. L.; Kinter, L. B.

    1992-01-01

    Early attempts to develop an animal model for anti-motion sickness drugs, using dogs and cats; were unsuccessful. Dogs did not show a beneficial effect of scopolamine (probably the best single anti-motion sickness drug for humans thus far) and the findings in cats were not definitive. The authors have developed an animal model using the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) of the Bolivian phenotype. Unrestrained monkeys in a small lucite cage were tested in an apparatus that induces motion sickness by combining vertical oscillation and horizontal rotation in a visually unrestricted laboratory environment. Signs of motion sickness were scored using a rating scale. Ten susceptible monkeys (weighing 800-1000 g) were given a total of five tests each, to establish the baseline susceptibility level. Based on the anticholinergic activity of scopolamine, the sensitivity of squirrel monkey to scopolamine was investigated, and the appropriate dose of scopolamine for this species was determined. Then various anti-motion sickness preparations were administered in subsequent tests: 100 ug scopolamine per monkey; 140 ug dexedrine; 50 ug scopolamine plus 70 ug dexedrine; 100 ug scopolamine plus 140 ug dexedrine; 3 mg promethazine; 3 mg promethazine plus 3 mg ephedrine. All these preparations were significantly effective in preventing motion sickness in the monkeys. Ephedrine, by itself, which is marginally effective in humans, was ineffective in the monkeys at the doses tried (0.3-6.0 mg). The squirrel monkey appears to be a good animal model for antimotion sickness drugs. Peripherally acting antihistamines such as astemizole and terfenadine were found to be ineffective, whereas flunarizine, and an arginine vasopressin V1 antagonist, showed significant activity in preventing motion sickness.

  2. Landsat 7 Reveals Large-scale Fractal Motion of Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Landsat 7 image of clouds off the Chilean coast near the Juan Fernandez Islands (also known as the Robinson Crusoe Islands) on September 15, 1999, shows a unique pattern called a 'von Karman vortex street.' This pattern has long been studied in the laboratory, where the vortices are created by oil flowing past a cylindrical obstacle, making a string of vortices only several tens of centimeters long. Study of this classic 'flow past a circular cylinder' has been very important in the understanding of laminar and turbulent fluid flow that controls a wide variety of phenomena, from the lift under an aircraft wing to Earth's weather. Here, the cylinder is replaced by Alejandro Selkirk Island (named after the true 'Robinson Crusoe,' who was stranded here for many months in the early 1700s). The island is about 1.5 km in diameter, and rises 1.6 km into a layer of marine stratocumulus clouds. This type of cloud is important for its strong cooling of the Earth's surface, partially counteracting the Greenhouse warming. An extended, steady equatorward wind creates vortices with clockwise flow off the eastern edge and counterclockwise flow off the western edge of the island. The vortices grow as they advect hundreds of kilometers downwind, making a street 10,000 times longer than those made in the laboratory. Observing the same phenomenon extended over such a wide range of sizes dramatizes the 'fractal' nature of atmospheric convection and clouds. Fractals are characteristic of fluid flow and other dynamic systems that exhibit 'chaotic' motions. Both clockwise and counter-clockwise vortices are generated by flow around the island. As the flow separates from the island's leeward (away from the source of the wind) side, the vortices 'swallow' some of the clear air over the island. (Much of the island air is cloudless due to a local 'land breeze' circulation set up by the larger heat capacity of the waters surrounding the island.) The 'swallowed' gulps of clear island air

  3. Estimating sap flux densities in date palm trees using the heat dissipation method and weighing lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Or; Shapira, Or; Cohen, Shabtai; Tripler, Effi; Schwartz, Amnon; Lazarovitch, Naftali

    2012-09-01

    In a world of diminishing water reservoirs and a rising demand for food, the practice and development of water stress indicators and sensors are in rapid progress. The heat dissipation method, originally established by Granier, is herein applied and modified to enable sap flow measurements in date palm trees in the southern Arava desert of Israel. A long and tough sensor was constructed to withstand insertion into the date palm's hard exterior stem. This stem is wide and fibrous, surrounded by an even tougher external non-conducting layer of dead leaf bases. Furthermore, being a monocot species, water flow does not necessarily occur through the outer part of the palm's stem, as in most trees. Therefore, it is highly important to investigate the variations of the sap flux densities and determine the preferable location for sap flow sensing within the stem. Once installed into fully grown date palm trees stationed on weighing lysimeters, sap flow as measured by the modified sensors was compared with the actual transpiration. Sap flow was found to be well correlated with transpiration, especially when using a recent calibration equation rather than the original Granier equation. Furthermore, inducing the axial variability of the sap flux densities was found to be highly important for accurate assessments of transpiration by sap flow measurements. The sensors indicated no transpiration at night, a high increase of transpiration from 06:00 to 09:00, maximum transpiration at 12:00, followed by a moderate reduction until 08:00; when transpiration ceased. These results were reinforced by the lysimeters' output. Reduced sap flux densities were detected at the stem's mantle when compared with its center. These results were reinforced by mechanistic measurements of the stem's specific hydraulic conductivity. Variance on the vertical axis was also observed, indicating an accelerated flow towards the upper parts of the tree and raising a hypothesis concerning dehydrating

  4. Water table effects on measured and simulated fluxes in weighing lysimeters for differently-textured soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegehenkel Martin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Weighing lysimeters can be used for studying the soil water balance and to analyse evapotranspiration (ET. However, not clear was the impact of the bottom boundary condition on lysimeter results and soil water movement. The objective was to analyse bottom boundary effects on the soil water balance. This analysis was carried out for lysimeters filled with fine- and coarse-textured soil monoliths by comparing simulated and measured data for lysimeters with a higher and a lower water table. The eight weighable lysimeters had a 1 m2 grass-covered surface and a depth of 1.5 m. The lysimeters contained four intact monoliths extracted from a sandy soil and four from a soil with a silty-clay texture. For two lysimeters of each soil, constant water tables were imposed at 135 cm and 210 cm depths. Evapotranspiration, change in soil water storage, and groundwater recharge were simulated for a 3-year period (1996 to 1998 using the Hydrus-1D software. Input data consisted of measured weather data and crop model-based simulated evaporation and transpiration. Snow cover and heat transport were simulated based on measured soil temperatures. Soil hydraulic parameter sets were estimated (i from soil core data and (ii based on texture data using ROSETTA pedotransfer approach. Simulated and measured outflow rates from the sandy soil matched for both parameter sets. For the sand lysimeters with the higher water table, only fast peak flow events observed on May 4, 1996 were not simulated adequately mainly because of differences between simulated and measured soil water storage caused by ET-induced soil water storage depletion. For the silty-clay soil, the simulations using the soil hydraulic parameters from retention data (i were matching the lysimeter data except for the observed peak flows on May, 4, 1996, which here probably resulted from preferential flow. The higher water table at the lysimeter bottom resulted in higher drainage in comparison with the lysimeters

  5. The first weighing of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-10

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  6. Controlling Urban Lighting by Human Motion Patterns results from a full Scale Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a full-scale experiment investigating the use of human motion intensities as input for interactive illumination of a town square in the city of Aalborg in Denmark. As illuminators sixteen 3.5 meter high RGB LED lamps were used. The activity on the square was monitored by three...

  7. Nuclear DNA in the determination of weighing factors to estimate exergy from organisms biomass

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The application of ecological exergy as a suitable system-oriented development indicator of ecosystems and the estimation proposals from biomass are revised. DNA contents (C-values) of several groups of organisms are figured, either determined by flow cytometry or taken from literature. The applicability of DNA contents for determination of weighing factors to estimate ecological exergy from the biomass of organisms, as proposed by [Marques, J.C., M.Â. Pardal, S.N. Neilsen, S.E. Jørgensen, 19...

  8. Motion magnification in coronal seismology

    CERN Document Server

    Anfinogentov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new method for the investigation of low-amplitude transverse oscillations of solar plasma non-uniformities, such as coronal loops, individual strands in coronal arcades, jets, prominence fibrils, polar plumes, and other contrast features, observed with imaging instruments. The method is based on the two-dimensional dual tree complex wavelet transform (DT$\\mathbb{C}$WT). It allows us to magnify transverse, in the plane-of-the-sky, quasi-periodic motions of contrast features in image sequences. The tests performed on the artificial data cubes imitating exponentially decaying, multi-periodic and frequency-modulated kink oscillations of coronal loops showed the effectiveness, reliability and robustness of this technique. The algorithm was found to give linear scaling of the magnified amplitudes with the original amplitudes provided they are sufficiently small. Also, the magnification is independent of the oscillation period in a broad range of the periods. The application of this technique to SDO/A...

  9. Spin, slip, and settle: effects of shape on motion for Taylor-scale particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Margaret; Tao, Yiheng; Houghton, Isabel; Variano, Evan

    2014-11-01

    We fabricate hydrogel cylinders of varying aspect ratios and suspend them in homogeneous isotropic turbulence at high Reynolds number. Cylinders are nearly neutrally buoyant and refractive-index-matched to water, with characteristic lengthscales that are close to the Taylor microscale. We simultaneously image these cylinders and the surrounding fluid for stereoscopic PIV measurement, permitting calculation of instantaneous particle slip velocity. We measure the particles' settling velocity in quiescent flow and compare this to both the calculated slip velocities and empirically-predicted settling velocities. Particle rotation is determined via the solid-body rotation equation and compared with fluid-phase properties (vorticity, shear, et al). We find that the aspect ratio of the cylinder has only a weak effect on its expected value of angular velocity magnitude, and further examine the influence of aspect ratio on slip and settling velocities. Lastly, we discuss applications of our results to problems of underwater navigation in aquatic organisms.

  10. Recent developments in motion planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Motion planning is becoming an important topic in many application areas, ranging from robotics to virtual environments and games. In this paper I review some recent results in motion planning, concentrating on the probabilistic roadmap approach that has proven to be very successful for many

  11. Algorithmic Issues in Modeling Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, P. K; Guibas, L. J; Edelsbrunner, H.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a survey of research areas in which motion plays a pivotal role. The aim of the article is to review current approaches to modeling motion together with related data structures and algorithms, and to summarize the challenges that lie ahead in producing a more unified theory...

  12. 23 CFR Appendix to Part 657 - Guidelines To Be Used in Developing Enforcement Plans and Certification Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Personnel C. Practices 1. Proposed schedule of operation of fixed scale locations in general terms 2... practices that produce positive results. It is not considered practicable at this time to establish... 1. Permanent scales 60 veh/hr. 2. Weigh-in-motion scales 100 veh/hr. 3. Semi-portable scales 25 veh...

  13. Entropic forces in Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Nico

    2013-01-01

    The interest in the concept of entropic forces has risen considerably since E. Verlinde proposed to interpret the force in Newton s second law and Gravity as entropic forces. Brownian motion, the motion of a small particle (pollen) driven by random impulses from the surrounding molecules, may be the first example of a stochastic process in which such forces are expected to emerge. In this note it is shown that at least two types of entropic motion can be identified in the case of 3D Brownian motion (or random walk). This yields simple derivations of known results of Brownian motion, Hook s law and, applying an external (nonradial) force, Curie s law and the Langevin-Debye equation.

  14. Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, and hypertension in children weighing more than normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Phatale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension (pre-HT, and hypertension (HT in children weighing more than normal. Materials and Methods: Three- to eighteen-year old children weighing more than normal were included. Pathological short children were excluded. According to Centre for Disease Control (CDC, children are grouped into overweight (OW and obese (OB. Indian B.P. reference tables are used for defining HT and pre-HT. [2] HbA1c by HPLC (BIO RAD method was used to define pre-diabetes and diabetes. [3] Children with HbA1c ≥6.5 were subjected for Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT. C-peptide assay was done to rule out (r/o IDDM. Observations: When we compare this with our earlier presentation at PEDICON 2011, we found that hypertension (HTN (22.9% vs. 23.07% is not significantly different but pre-HTN (28.09% vs. 33.9%, pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM (3.7% vs. 64.3%, and diabetes mellitus (DM (0.35% vs. 3.8% are significantly high in this study. Conclusion: (1 Prevalence of HT (22.90% vs. 23.07% is similar in both groups but pre-HT (33.9% vs. 28.09% is high in this study. (2 Significant rise in prevalence of diabetes (3.84% vs. 0.35% and pre-diabetes (64.33% vs. 3.7% is seen in this study. (3 This change is because of using HbA1c as screening tool in children weighing more than normal.

  15. ORNL Automated-In-Motion Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE) User Training and Testing Materials - U.S. Copyright TXu 1-797-273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The AIMVEE/WIM system electronically retrieves deployment information, identifies vehicle automatically, and determines total weight, individual wheel weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing, and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle in motion. The AIMVEE/WIM system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE/WIM system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide actual weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility. The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) system is an unique enhancement to the AIMVEE/WIM system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale and is included in the AIMVEE computer code base. The material copyrighted is the ORNL Automated-In-Motion Vehicle Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE)/Weigh-In-Motion User Training and Testing material. It includes instructional material in the set-up, operation and tear-down of the AIMVEE/WIM system. It also includes a final exam associated with the training.

  16. Design of a Capacitive Flexible Weighing Sensor for Vehicle WIM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the Highway Transportation and Business Trade, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM technology has become a key technology and trend of measuring traffic loads. In this paper, a novel capacitive flexible weighing sensor which is light weight, smaller volume and easy to carry was applied in the vehicle WIM system. The dynamic behavior of the sensor is modeled using the Maxwell-Kelvin model because the materials of the sensor are rubbers which belong to viscoelasticity. A signal processing method based on the model is presented to overcome effects of rubber mechanical properties on the dynamic weight signal. The results showed that the measurement error is less than ���±10%. All the theoretic analysis and numerical results demonstrated that appliance of this system to weigh in motion is feasible and convenient for traffic inspection.

  17. Validity of hydration non-invasive indices during the weightcutting and official weigh-in for Olympic combat sports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín E Fernández-Elías

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Olympic combat sports, weight cutting is a common practice aimed to take advantage of competing in weight divisions below the athlete's normal weight. Fluid and food restriction in combination with dehydration (sauna and/or exercise induced profuse sweating are common weight cut methods. However, the resultant hypohydration could adversely affect health and performance outcomes. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to determine which of the routinely used non-invasive measures of dehydration best track urine osmolality, the gold standard non-invasive test. METHOD: Immediately prior to the official weigh-in of three National Championships, the hydration status of 345 athletes of Olympic combat sports (i.e., taekwondo, boxing and wrestling was determined using five separate techniques: i urine osmolality (UOSM, ii urine specific gravity (USG, iii urine color (UCOL, iv bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, and v thirst perception scale (TPS. All techniques were correlated with UOSM divided into three groups: euhydrated (G1; UOSM 250-700 mOsm · kg H2O(-1, dehydrated (G2; UOSM 701-1080 mOsm · kg H2O(-1, and severely dehydrated (G3; UOSM 1081-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1. RESULTS: We found a positive high correlation between the UOSM and USG (r = 0.89: p = 0.000, although this relationship lost strength as dehydration increased (G1 r = 0.92; G2 r = 0.73; and G3 r = 0.65; p = 0.000. UCOL showed a moderate although significant correlation when considering the whole sample (r = 0.743: p = 0.000 and G1 (r = 0.702: p = 0.000 but low correlation for the two dehydrated groups (r = 0.498-0.398. TPS and BIA showed very low correlation sizes for all groups assessed. CONCLUSION: In a wide range of pre-competitive hydration status (UOSM 250-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1, USG is highly associated with UOSM while being a more affordable and easy to use technique. UCOL is a suitable tool when USG is not available. However, BIA or TPS are not sensitive enough to

  18. An automatic weighting system for wild animals based in an artificial neural network: how to weigh wild animals without causing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios, Diego Francisco; Rodríguez, Carlos; Barbancho, Julio; Baena, Manuel; Angel, Miguel Leal; Marín, Jesús; León, Carlos; Bustamante, Javier

    2013-02-28

    This paper proposes a novel and autonomous weighing system for wild animals. It allows evaluating changes in the body weight of animals in their natural environment without causing stress. The proposed system comprises a smart scale designed to estimate individual body weights and their temporal evolution in a bird colony. The system is based on computational intelligence, and offers valuable large amount of data to evaluate the relationship between long-term changes in the behavior of individuals and global change. The real deployment of this system has been for monitoring a breeding colony of lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni) in southern Spain. The results show that it is possible to monitor individual weight changes during the breeding season and to compare the weight evolution in males and females.

  19. System and method for identifying, validating, weighing and characterizing moving or stationary vehicles and cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, David L.; Batsell, Stephen G.; Abercrombie, Robert K.; Scudiere, Matthew B.; White, Clifford P.

    2007-12-04

    An asset identification and information infrastructure management (AI3M) device having an automated identification technology system (AIT), a Transportation Coordinators' Automated Information for Movements System II (TC-AIMS II), a weigh-in-motion system (WIM-II), and an Automated Air Load Planning system (AALPS) all in electronic communication for measuring and calculating actual asset characteristics, either statically or in-motion, and further calculating an actual load plan.

  20. Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weighing rain gauge charts record the amount of precipitation that falls at a given location. The vast majority of the Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts...

  1. A new approach to the CZ crystal growth weighing control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimkin, P. V.; Moskovskih, V. A.; Vasiliev, Y. V.; Shlegel, V. N.; Yuferev, V. S.; Vasiliev, M. G.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of a new approach was to improve the robustness of the weighing control of CZ growth especially for semiconductors, for which the “anomalous“ behavior of the apparent weight provokes instability of the servo-loop. In the described method, the periodic reciprocating measuring motion of small amplitude is superposed on the uniform pull-rod movement. The cross-sectional area is determined from the weight sensor responses that are modulated mainly by the forces of hydrostatic pressure. By the example of germanium crystal growth, it is shown that in the control system, based on such a way of the diameter measuring, a simple PI control law provides a good close loop system's stability and dynamics for the materials with the “anomalous” behavior of a weighing signal. The effect of a meniscus on the modulation measuring of a crystal diameter is also discussed.

  2. Non-radial motion in the TeV blazar S5 0716+714 The pc-scale kinematics of a BL Lac Object

    CERN Document Server

    Britzen, S; Witzel, A; Agudo, I; Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Karouzos, M; Eckart, A; Zensus, J A; 10.1051/0004-6361/200810875

    2010-01-01

    For the BL Lac object S5 0716+714 conflicting apparent velocities of jet component motion have been reported in the literature. This object is an intra-day variable source and suited to investigate a possible correlation between kinematic properties and flux-density variability on different timescales. We (re-)analyze 50 VLBI observations obtained with the VLBA at 5 different frequencies (5 to 43 GHz) between 1992.73 and 2006.32. We analyze the jet component motion in detail taking care not only to account for motion in the radial but also in the orthogonal direction. We study the evolution of the jet ridge line and search for correlations between radio band light curves and the kinematic properties of the jet components. We present an alternative kinematic scenario for jet component motion in S5 0716+714 with apparent stationarity of jet components (with regard to their core separation) with time. Jet components, however, do seem to move significantly non-radially with regard to their position angle and in a...

  3. Muon motion in titanium hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, J. R.; Petzinger, K. G.; Kossler, W. J.; Schone, H. E.; Hitti, B. S.; Stronach, C. E.; Adu, N.; Lankford, W. F.; Reilly, J. J.; Seymour, E. F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Motional narrowing of the transverse-field muon spin rotation signal was observed in gamma-TiH(x) for x = 1.83, 1.97, and 1.99. An analysis of the data for TiH1.99 near room temperature indicates that the mechanism responsible for the motion of the muon out of the octahedral site is thermally activated diffusion with an attempt frequency comparable to the optical vibrations of the lattice. Monte Carlo calculations to simulate the effect of muon and proton motion upon the muon field-correlation time were used to interpret the motional narrowing in TiH1.97 near 500 K. The interpretation is dependent upon whether the Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound (BPP) theory or an independent spin-pair relaxation model is used to obtain the vacancy jump rate from proton NMR T1 measurements. Use of BPP theory shows that the field-correction time can be obtained if the rate of motion of the muon with respect to the rate of the motion for the protons is decreased. An independent spin-pair relaxation model indicates that the field-correlation time can be obtained if the rate of motion for the nearest-neighbor protons is decreased.

  4. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  5. Positive weighing of the other's collective narrative among Jewish and Bedouin-Palestinian teachers in Israel and its correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Alon; Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Litvak Hirsch, Tal

    2016-06-01

    Teachers play a pivotal role in the educational discourse around collective narratives, and especially the other's narrative. The study assumed that members of groups entangled in a conflict approach the different modules of the other's narrative distinctively. Jewish and Palestinian teachers, Israeli citizens, answered questionnaires dealing with the narrative of the other, readiness for interethnic contact, negative between-group emotions and preferences for resolutions of the Israeli-Palestinian (I-P) conflict. Positive weighing of the other's narrative among Jewish teachers correlated with high levels of readiness for interethnic contact and low levels of negative between-group emotions, across the various modules of the Palestinian narrative. Preferences for a peaceful resolution of the I-P conflict and rejection of a violent one were noted in two of the modules. Among Palestinian teachers, positive weighing of the other's collective narrative was exclusively noted for the Israeli narrative of the Holocaust, and this stance negatively related to negative between-group emotions and preference for a violent solution of the I-P conflict, and positively related to readiness for interethnic contact and preference of a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Practical implications of these findings for peace education are discussed.

  6. Ground Motion Selection and Scaling for the Seismic Investigation of the Concrete Gravity Dams for Near Fault Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arici, Y.; Bybordiani, M.

    2016-12-01

    The use of time histories for the seismic design and analysis of dams is becoming increasingly common given the state of the art of the computational tools for assessing the seismic demands on these systems. Determination of the ground motions that will be used in time history analysis is a crucial task since the results usually show a wide variability in the required quantity due to the stochastic nature of the applied earthquake record. In order to reduce this variability and predict the "true" demand related to the seismic hazard conditions of the site, the ground motions are usually carefully selected and subjected to scaling procedures. A separate but equally important goal in this regard is to obtain the required demand with a small number of representative motions reducing the considerable analysis workload for these large systems. In this regard, the common ground motion scaling techniques are evaluated in this study in a robust dam-foundation-reservoir interaction (DFRI) setting for determining the efficiency and accuracy of the scaling techniques for predicting the target demands for concrete gravity dams. A large ensemble of ground motions were used on a range of systems with different canyon geometries and moduli ratios in order to consider the effect of the soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the motion selection for concrete gravity dams. The frequency response of different systems and their interaction with the frequency content of the ground motions were henceforth considered. The required number of ground motions for consistent and efficient analyses of such systems was investigated considering different engineering demand parameters on the dam systems. The choice of EDP, and the corresponding effect of the scaling procedure on the analyses were evaluated in order to provide guidelines on the scaling of the ground motions for the seismic analyses of these systems.

  7. An HST Proper-motion Study of the Large-scale Jet of 3C273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Sparks, William B.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Anderson, Jay; van der Marel, Roeland; Biretta, John; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Chiaberge, Marco; Perlman, Eric; Norman, Colin

    2016-02-01

    The radio galaxy 3C 273 hosts one of the nearest and best-studied powerful quasar jets. Having been imaged repeatedly by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) over the past twenty years, it was chosen for an HST program to measure proper motions in the kiloparsec-scale resolved jets of nearby radio-loud active galaxies. The jet in 3C 273 is highly relativistic on sub-parsec scales, with apparent proper motions up to 15c observed by very long baseline interferometry. In contrast, we find that the kiloparsec-scale knots are compatible with being stationary, with a mean speed of -0.2 ± 0.5c over the whole jet. Assuming the knots are packets of moving plasma, an upper limit of 1c implies a bulk Lorentz factor Γ shock features. The second scenario is incompatible with the inverse Compton off the Cosmic Microwave Background (IC/CMB) model for the X-ray emission of these knots, which requires the knots to be in motion, but IC/CMB is also disfavored in the first scenario due to energetic considerations, in agreement with the recent finding of Meyer & Georganopoulos which ruled out the IC/CMB model for the X-ray emission of 3C 273 via gamma-ray upper limits.

  8. Projectile Motion in Special Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Cory J.; Dudley, Scott C.; Haaland, Ryan K.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the motion that occurs when a particle with an initial velocity to the right is acted upon by a constant downward force. Considers what happens when the speed of the particle approaches the speed of light in particular. (WRM)

  9. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumesh P Thampi; Rama Govindarajan

    2015-03-01

    Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling motion for any intermediate shape, and recently obtained a universal curve for the amount of roll as a function of a shape parameter using hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations. In this paper, we discuss the linear relationship which is expected between the Capillary and Bond numbers, and provide detailed confirmation by simulations. We also show that the viscosity of the surrounding medium can qualitatively affect dynamics. Our results provide an answer to a natural question of whether drops roll or slide on a surface and carry implications for various applications where rolling motion may or may not be preferred.

  10. Weighing the costs: Implementing the SLMTA programme in Zimbabwe using internal versus external facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Shumba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (MoHCW adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme as a tool for laboratory quality systems strengthening.Objectives: To evaluate the financial costs of SLMTA implementation using two models (external facilitators; and internal local or MoHCW facilitators from the perspective of the implementing partner and to estimate resources needed to scale up the programme nationally in all 10 provinces.Methods: The average expenditure per laboratory was calculated based on accounting records; calculations included implementing partner expenses but excluded in-kind contributions and salaries of local facilitators and trainees. We also estimated theoretical financial costs, keeping all contextual variables constant across the two models. Resource needs for future national expansion were estimated based on a two-phase implementation plan, in which 12 laboratories in each of five provinces would implement SLMTA per phase; for the internal facilitator model, 20 facilitators would be trained at the beginning of each phase.Results: The average expenditure to implement SLMTA in 11 laboratories using external facilitators was approximately US$5800 per laboratory; expenditure in 19 laboratories using internal facilitators was approximately $6000 per laboratory. The theoretical financial cost of implementing a 12-laboratory SLMTA cohort keeping all contextual variables constant would be approximately $58 000 using external facilitators; or $15 000 using internal facilitators, plus $86 000 to train 20 facilitators. The financial cost for subsequent SLMTA cohorts using the previously-trained internal facilitators would be approximately $15 000, yielding a break-even point of 2 cohorts, at $116 000 for either model. Estimated resources required for national implementation in 120 laboratories would therefore be $580 000 using external facilitators ($58

  11. Motion Magnification in Coronal Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfinogentov, Sergey; Nakariakov, Valery M.

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a new method for the investigation of low-amplitude transverse oscillations of solar plasma non-uniformities, such as coronal loops, individual strands in coronal arcades, jets, prominence fibrils, polar plumes, and other contrast features that have been observed with imaging instruments. The method is based on the two-dimensional dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTℂWT). It allows us to magnify transverse, in the plane-of-the-sky, quasi-periodic motions of contrast features in image sequences. The tests performed on the artificial data cubes that imitated exponentially decaying, multi-periodic and frequency-modulated kink oscillations of coronal loops showed the effectiveness, reliability, and robustness of this technique. The algorithm was found to give linear scaling of the magnified amplitudes with the original amplitudes, provided these are sufficiently small. In addition, the magnification is independent of the oscillation period in a broad range of the periods. The application of this technique to SDO/AIA EUV data cubes of a non-flaring active region allowed for the improved detection of low-amplitude decay-less oscillations in the majority of loops.

  12. An Investigation of Dimensional Scaling Using Cervical Spine Motion Segment Finite Element Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dilaver; Cronin, Duane S

    2017-02-15

    The paucity of experimental data for validating computational models of different statures underscores the need for appropriate scaling methods so that models can be verified and validated using experimental data. Scaling was investigated using 50(th) percentile male (M50) and 5(th) percentile female (F05) cervical spine motion segment (C4-C5) finite element models subject to tension, flexion and extension loading. Two approaches were undertaken: geometric scaling of the models to investigate size effects (volumetric scaling) and scaling of the force-displacement or moment-angle model results (data scaling). Three sets of scale factors were considered: global (body mass), regional (neck dimensions) and local (segment tissue dimensions). Volumetric scaling of the segment models from M50 to F05, and vice-versa, produced correlations that were good or excellent in both tension and flexion (0.825-0.991); however, less agreement was found in extension (0.550-0.569). The reduced correlation in extension was attributed to variations in shape between the models leading to nonlinear effects such as different time to contact for the facet joints and posterior processes. Data scaling of the responses between the M50 and F05 models produced similar trends to volumetric scaling, with marginally greater correlations. Overall, the local tissue level and neck region level scale factors produced better correlations than the traditional global scaling. The scaling methods work well for a given subject, but are limited in applicability between subjects with different morphology, where nonlinear effects may dominate the response.

  13. Multipolar moments of weak lensing signal around clusters. Weighing filaments in harmonic space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, C.; Gavazzi, R.; Codis, S.; Pichon, C.; Peirani, S.; Dubois, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Upcoming weak lensing surveys such as Euclid will provide an unprecedented opportunity to quantify the geometry and topology of the cosmic web, in particular in the vicinity of lensing clusters. Aims: Understanding the connectivity of the cosmic web with unbiased mass tracers, such as weak lensing, is of prime importance to probe the underlying cosmology, seek dynamical signatures of dark matter, and quantify environmental effects on galaxy formation. Methods: Mock catalogues of galaxy clusters are extracted from the N-body PLUS simulation. For each cluster, the aperture multipolar moments of the convergence are calculated in two annuli (inside and outside the virial radius). By stacking their modulus, a statistical estimator is built to characterise the angular mass distribution around clusters. The moments are compared to predictions from perturbation theory and spherical collapse. Results: The main weakly chromatic excess of multipolar power on large scales is understood as arising from the contraction of the primordial cosmic web driven by the growing potential well of the cluster. Besides this boost, the quadrupole prevails in the cluster (ellipsoidal) core, while at the outskirts, harmonic distortions are spread on small angular modes, and trace the non-linear sharpening of the filamentary structures. Predictions for the signal amplitude as a function of the cluster-centric distance, mass, and redshift are presented. The prospects of measuring this signal are estimated for current and future lensing data sets. Conclusions: The Euclid mission should provide all the necessary information for studying the cosmic evolution of the connectivity of the cosmic web around lensing clusters using multipolar moments and probing unique signatures of, for example, baryons and warm dark matter.

  14. An HST Proper-Motion Study of the Large-scale Jet of 3C273

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eileen T; Anderson, Jay; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Chiaberge, Marco; Perlman, Eric; Norman, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The radio galaxy 3C 273 hosts one of the nearest and best-studied powerful quasar jets. Having been imaged repeatedly by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) over the past twenty years, it was chosen for an HST program to measure proper motions in the kiloparsec-scale resolved jets of nearby radio-loud active galaxies. The jet in 3C 273 is highly relativistic on sub-parsec scales, with apparent proper motions up to 15$c$ observed by VLBI (Lister et al., 2013). In contrast, we find that the kpc-scale knots are compatible with being stationary, with a mean speed of $-$0.2$\\pm$0.5$c$ over the whole jet. Assuming the knots are packets of moving plasma, an upper limit of 1c implies a bulk Lorentz factor $\\Gamma<$2.9. This suggests that the jet has either decelerated significantly by the time it reaches the kpc scale, or that the knots in the jet are standing shock features. The second scenario is incompatible with the inverse Compton off the Cosmic Microwave Background (IC/CMB) model for the X-ray emission of these...

  15. AN HST PROPER-MOTION STUDY OF THE LARGE-SCALE JET OF 3C273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Georganopoulos, Markos [University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Sparks, William B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Anderson, Jay; Marel, Roeland van der; Biretta, John; Chiaberge, Marco; Norman, Colin [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Tony Sohn, Sangmo [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Perlman, Eric, E-mail: meyer@stsci.edu [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    The radio galaxy 3C 273 hosts one of the nearest and best-studied powerful quasar jets. Having been imaged repeatedly by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) over the past twenty years, it was chosen for an HST program to measure proper motions in the kiloparsec-scale resolved jets of nearby radio-loud active galaxies. The jet in 3C 273 is highly relativistic on sub-parsec scales, with apparent proper motions up to 15c observed by very long baseline interferometry. In contrast, we find that the kiloparsec-scale knots are compatible with being stationary, with a mean speed of −0.2 ± 0.5c over the whole jet. Assuming the knots are packets of moving plasma, an upper limit of 1c implies a bulk Lorentz factor Γ < 2.9. This suggests that the jet has either decelerated significantly by the time it reaches the kiloparsec scale, or that the knots in the jet are standing shock features. The second scenario is incompatible with the inverse Compton off the Cosmic Microwave Background (IC/CMB) model for the X-ray emission of these knots, which requires the knots to be in motion, but IC/CMB is also disfavored in the first scenario due to energetic considerations, in agreement with the recent finding of Meyer and Georganopoulos which ruled out the IC/CMB model for the X-ray emission of 3C 273 via gamma-ray upper limits.

  16. Research for Corrugated Pipe Weighing in Smoke Box Article Lack Weighing Detection System%基于波纹管称重的烟箱缺条称重检测系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡涌; 袁兴; 朱云霞; 闻平

    2016-01-01

    Along with the market,to the promotion of tobacco products for tobacco enterprise the pursuit to the high level of quality products.In smoke cigarette factories reel package workshop production packing warehousing process, often happened crates lacks the process defect,traditional generally by ray or photoelectric instrument to detect, but because of factors such as error detection and radiation, causing the effect is not very ideal. This paper analyzes in detail a kind of online weighing testing to determine the principle of different brand cigarette box article deficiency, weighing testing no radiation, detection principle is simple and reliable, recognised by the tobacco industry.%随着市场对烟草产品要求的提升,烟草企业不断追求高质量的产品水平。在卷烟厂卷包车间成品烟装箱入库工艺中,时有发生成箱缺条的工艺缺陷,传统一般通过射线或者光电仪器检测,但是因检测误差和射线辐射等因素,导致效果不是很理想。该文详细分析了一种通过在线称重检测来判断不同品牌烟箱缺条的原理,称重检测无辐射,检测原理简单可靠,得到了烟草企业的认可。

  17. Proper Motions of Jets on the Kiloparsec Scale: New Results with HST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen T. Meyer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hubble Space Telescope recently celebrated 25 years of operation. Some of the first images of extragalactic optical jets were taken by HST in the mid-1990s; with time baselines on the order of 20 years and state-of-the-art astrometry techniques, we are now able to reach accuracies in proper-motion measurements on the order of a tenth of a milliarcsecond per year. We present the results of a recent HST program to measure the kiloparsec-scale proper motions of eleven nearby optical jets with Hubble, the first sample of its kind. When paired with VLBI proper-motion measurements on the parsec scale, we are now able to map the full velocity profile of these jets from near the black hole to the final deceleration as they extend out into and beyond the host galaxy. We see convincing evidence that weak-flavor jets (i.e., FR Is have a slowly increasing jet speed up to 100 pc from the core, where superluminal components are first seen.

  18. Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidan Du

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clothes. Because motion can drive clothes attached to the human body loosely or tightly, we adopt a space-time analysis to mine the information across the posture variations. Using this information, we recover the human body, regardless of the effect of clothes, and measure the human body parameters accurately. Experimental results show that our system can perform more accurate parameter estimation on the human body than state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Wave motion in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Graff, Karl F

    1991-01-01

    This highly useful textbook presents comprehensive intermediate-level coverage of nearly all major topics of elastic wave propagation in solids. The subjects range from the elementary theory of waves and vibrations in strings to the three-dimensional theory of waves in thick plates. The book is designed not only for a wide audience of engineering students, but also as a general reference for workers in vibrations and acoustics. Chapters 1-4 cover wave motion in the simple structural shapes, namely strings, longitudinal rod motion, beams and membranes, plates and (cylindrical) shells. Chapter

  20. Motion sensor technologies in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bratitsis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to raise a discussion regarding motion sensor technologies, mainly seen as peripherals of contemporary video game consoles, by examining their exploitation within educational context. An overview of the existing literature is presented, while attempting to categorize the educational approaches which involve motion sensor technologies, in two parts. The first one concerns the education of people with special needs. The utilization of motion sensor technologies, incorporated by game consoles, in the education of such people is examined. The second one refers to various educational approaches in regular education, under which not so many research approaches, but many teaching ideas can be found. The aim of the paper is to serve as a reference point for every individual/group, willing to explore the Sensor-Based Games Based Learning (SBGBL research area, by providing a complete and structured literature review.

  1. Quantification of organ motion based on an adaptive image-based scale invariant feature method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, piazza L. Da Vinci 32, Milano 20133 (Italy); Peroni, Marta [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, piazza L. Da Vinci 32, Milano 20133, Italy and Paul Scherrer Institut, Zentrum für Protonentherapie, WMSA/C15, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Italy); Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, piazza L. Da Vinci 32, Milano 20133, Italy and Bioengineering Unit, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, strada Campeggi 53, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The availability of corresponding landmarks in IGRT image series allows quantifying the inter and intrafractional motion of internal organs. In this study, an approach for the automatic localization of anatomical landmarks is presented, with the aim of describing the nonrigid motion of anatomo-pathological structures in radiotherapy treatments according to local image contrast.Methods: An adaptive scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was developed from the integration of a standard 3D SIFT approach with a local image-based contrast definition. The robustness and invariance of the proposed method to shape-preserving and deformable transforms were analyzed in a CT phantom study. The application of contrast transforms to the phantom images was also tested, in order to verify the variation of the local adaptive measure in relation to the modification of image contrast. The method was also applied to a lung 4D CT dataset, relying on manual feature identification by an expert user as ground truth. The 3D residual distance between matches obtained in adaptive-SIFT was then computed to verify the internal motion quantification with respect to the expert user. Extracted corresponding features in the lungs were used as regularization landmarks in a multistage deformable image registration (DIR) mapping the inhale vs exhale phase. The residual distances between the warped manual landmarks and their reference position in the inhale phase were evaluated, in order to provide a quantitative indication of the registration performed with the three different point sets.Results: The phantom study confirmed the method invariance and robustness properties to shape-preserving and deformable transforms, showing residual matching errors below the voxel dimension. The adapted SIFT algorithm on the 4D CT dataset provided automated and accurate motion detection of peak to peak breathing motion. The proposed method resulted in reduced residual errors with respect to standard SIFT

  2. Biological Motion Perception in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Cusack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing adults can readily recognize human actions, even when conveyed to them via point-like markers placed on the body of the actor (Johansson, 1973. Previous research has suggested that children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD are not equally sensitive to this type of visual information (Blake et al, 2003, but it remains unknown why ASD would impact the ability to perceive biological motion. We present evidence which looks at how adolescents and adults with autism are affected by specific factors which are important in biological motion perception, such as (eg, inter-agent synchronicity, upright/inverted, etc.

  3. Weighed in the balance? The corporation of apothecaries in Bordeaux, 1690-1790.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Angie

    2003-04-01

    Based on a collective biography of apothecaries, surgeons, and physicians in Bordeaux between 1690 and 1790, this article offers a counterbalance to the prevailing view of apothecaries. It suggests that, although numbers may have been falling and corporations failing elsewhere in France, the favourable situation of Bordeaux aided the survival of the corporation of apothecaries in that city. It suggests that apothecaries were important in providing a wide range of goods and services to patients, and traces their involvement in retail, wholesale, and international trade. Control of numbers is shown to be linked to a desire to exploit their monopoly of the market, which led to increases in wealth for individual practitioners. A change in traditional inheritance strategies is linked to a new emphasis on merit, and to knowledge obtained through training outside the confines of the apprenticeship system. The 'secrets of the craft' are seen to be undermined by the public nature of the emerging science of chemistry. The corporation of apothecaries in Bordeaux was transformed through its absorption of three new types of practitioner-entrepreneurs, pharmacists, and scientists-yet it survived due to the substantial and continuing presence of traditional, locally born, and locally trained apothecaries.

  4. Estimation of visual motion in image sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1994-01-01

    The problem of estimation of visual motion from sequences of images has been considered within a framework consisting of three stages of processing. First the extraction of motion invariants, secondly a local measurement of visual motion, and third integration of local measurements in conjunction...... satellite images based on the estimated motion field is shown....

  5. Scientific research in school psychology: Leading researchers weigh in on its past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Martinez, Rebecca S; Ty, Sophie V; McClain, Maryellen B

    2013-06-01

    A survey of established researchers in school psychology was conducted to reflect on the state of the science of school psychology research. A total of 54 members of the Society for the Study of School Psychology shared their perceptions of (a) the most significant findings of the past 25years that have influenced research and practice in school psychology, (b) current, exciting research topics, and (c) topics that are likely to guide the future of research in school psychology. Qualitative analyses revealed 6 major categories and 17 minor categories within the major categories. Four major categories were present across each of the three time periods: (a) Data-Informed Practices and their Implementation, (b) Theory Development, (c) Changing Role and Function, and (d) Biological Bases of Behavior. Additional major categories included Advances in Research Methodology and Psychometrics (found across past and present time periods) and There is Not One Single Most Important Idea (found during only the past time period). Quotations are provided to illustrate these categories and share the respondents' ideas in their own words. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased risk for the development of preeclampsia in obese pregnancies: weighing in on the mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Frank T.; Palei, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder typically presenting as new-onset hypertension and proteinuria. While numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated that obesity increases the risk of PE, the mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated. Growing evidence from animal and human studies implicate placental ischemia in the etiology of this maternal syndrome. It is thought that placental ischemia is brought about by dysfunctional cytotrophoblast migration and invasion into the uterus and subsequent lack of spiral arteriole widening and placental perfusion. Placental ischemia/hypoxia stimulates the release of soluble placental factors into the maternal circulation where they cause endothelial dysfunction, particularly in the kidney, to elicit the clinical manifestations of PE. The most recognized of these factors are the anti-angiogenic sFlt-1 and pro-inflammatory TNF-α and AT1-AA, which promote endothelial dysfunction by reducing levels of the provasodilator nitric oxide and stimulating production of the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 and reactive oxygen species. We hypothesize that obesity-related metabolic factors increase the risk for developing PE by impacting various stages in the pathogenesis of PE, namely, 1) cytotrophoblast migration and placental ischemia; 2) release of soluble placental factors into the maternal circulation; and 3) maternal endothelial and vascular dysfunction. This review will summarize the current experimental evidence supporting the concept that obesity and metabolic factors like lipids, insulin, glucose, and leptin affect placental function and increase the risk for developing hypertension in pregnancy by reducing placental perfusion; enhancing placental release of soluble factors; and by increasing the sensitivity of the maternal vasculature to placental ischemia-induced soluble factors. PMID:26447211

  7. Controlling Urban Lighting by Human Motion Patterns results from a full Scale Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a full-scale experiment investigating the use of human motion intensities as input for interactive illumination of a town square in the city of Aalborg in Denmark. As illuminators sixteen 3.5 meter high RGB LED lamps were used. The activity on the square was monitored by three...... and the immersed persons. The experiment also demonstrated that interactive can give significant power savings. In the current experiment there was a difference of 92% between the most and less energy consuming light scenario...

  8. The influence of scales of atmospheric motion on air pollution over Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo; Mendes, Manuel; Jerez, Sonia; Gouveia, Célia Marina

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is determined by the combination of different factors, namely, emissions, physical constrains, meteorology and chemical processes [1,2,3]. The relative importance of such factors is influenced by their interaction on diverse scales of atmospheric motion. Each scale depicts different meteorological conditions, which, when combined with the different air pollution sources and photochemistry, result in varying ambient concentrations [2]. Identifying the dominant scales of atmospheric motion over a given airshed can be of great importance for many applications such as air pollution and pollen dispersion or wind energy management [2]. Portugal has been affected by numerous air pollution episodes during the last decade. These episodes are often related to peak emissions from local industry or transport, but can also be associated to regional transport from other urban areas or to exceptional emission events, such as forest fires. This research aims to identify the scales of atmospheric motion which contribute to an increase of air pollution. A method is proposed for differentiating between the scales of atmospheric motion that can be applied on a daily basis from data collected at several wind-measuring sites in a given airshed and to reanalysis datasets. The method is based on the daily mean wind recirculation and the mean and standard deviation between sites. The determination of the thresholds between scales is performed empirically following the approach of Levy et al. [2] and also through a automatic statistical approach computed taking into account the tails of the distributions (e.g. 95% and 99% percentile) of the different wind samples. A comparison is made with two objective approaches: 1) daily synoptic classification for the same period over the region [4] and 2) a 3-D backward trajectory approach [5,6] for specific episodes. Furthermore, the outcomes are expected to support the Portuguese authorities on the implementation of strategies for a

  9. Terahertz Generation & Vortex Motion Control in Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco

    2005-03-01

    A grand challenge is to controllably generate electromagnetic waves in layered superconducting compounds because of its Terahertz frequency range. We propose [1] four experimentally realizable devices for generating continuous and pulsed THz radiation in a controllable frequency range. We also describe [2-4] several novel devices for controlling the motion of vortices in superconductors, including a reversible rectifier made of a magnetic-superconducting hybrid structure [4]. Finally, we summarize a study [5] of the friction force felt by moving vortices. 1) S. Savel'ev, V. Yampol'skii, A. Rakhmanov, F. Nori, Tunable Terahertz radiation from Josephson vortices, preprint 2) S. Savel'ev and F. Nori, Experimentally realizable devices for controlling the motion of magnetic flux quanta, Nature Mat. 1, 179 (2002) 3) S. Savel'ev, F. Marchesoni, F. Nori, Manipulating small particles, PRL 92, 160602 (2004); B. Zhu, F. Marchesoni, F. Nori, Controlling the motion of magnetic flux quanta, PRL 92, 180602 (2004) 4) J.E. Villegas, et al., Reversible Rectifier that Controls the Motion of Magnetic Flux Quanta, Science 302, 1188 (2003) 5) A. Maeda, et al., Nano-scale friction: kinetic friction of magnetic flux quanta and charge density waves, preprint

  10. Teaching in Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiedemann, Finn

    Many countries are trying to raise the educational level in the perspective of the knowledge society. The aim of the Danish pedagogical project “Teaching in Motion” is to give young men in their twenties another chance to pass examination of the secondary school so that they can afterwards enter ...

  11. Poetry in motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2012-01-01

    Motivation This study was motivated by an interest in understanding the new opportunities brought to use by App technologies available on mobile devices. In our qualitative analysis of interview data we used the concept of 'appropriation', and in doing so we realized that we needed to address bot...

  12. Hope in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasting, Kevin; Jung, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    Hope has been described by many as a basic, fundamental, and essential part of life. This article introduces a new approach to incorporate hope with clients experiencing a range of difficulties in the general counseling setting. In this framework, three stages are proposed to enable clients to strengthen and solidify their hope. In the first…

  13. Heat Motion in Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, J. G .

    This monograph was written for the Conference on the New Instructional Materials in Physics, held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is designed for college students who are non-physics majors, and is organized in sections of increasing sophistication. Section 1 presents ideas related to the kinetic theory of gases. Section 2…

  14. Teaching in Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiedemann, Finn

    Many countries are trying to raise the educational level in the perspective of the knowledge society. The aim of the Danish pedagogical project “Teaching in Motion” is to give young men in their twenties another chance to pass examination of the secondary school so that they can afterwards enter...... in educational processes. Methodologically, quantitative and qualitative methods have been used. For instance, life-historical interviews have been carried out with selected students, inspired by Horsdal (2012). The theoretical perspectives are inspired by learning theory, hereby life biography theory...

  15. Putting Stories in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Mindi

    2012-01-01

    A very successful preschool project the author did at Ohio State University's Schoenbaum Family Center combined students' interest in storytelling, drama, and multiple literacies. For this particular project, a classic children's fairy tale was used, though the project is easily adaptable for other stories, texts, content, and age levels. In this…

  16. Determination in Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    South African swimmer triumphs in Olympics and Paralympics she carried the flag for her country during the Olympic opening ceremony, testimony to the high esteem in which she is held by her team,her nation and the sporting community. And

  17. Therapy in Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costonis, Maureen Needham, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of articles on the subject of movement therapy. It can be used as a set of supplementary readings for an academic course in dance therapy or a psychiatric residency program. It includes an exhaustive bibliography on this field for students and practioners in this field. Four principal themes have been selected as a…

  18. Poetry in motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2012-01-01

    Motivation This study was motivated by an interest in understanding the new opportunities brought to use by App technologies available on mobile devices. In our qualitative analysis of interview data we used the concept of 'appropriation', and in doing so we realized that we needed to address both...... and in collaboration with others, people make the iPhone and its App-world their own to the extent that they use the phone as a port to exercising personal interests like poetry, Italian novels, planning and cookbooks; hence the title of this paper. A closer look shows that in doing so, the interviewees have expanded...... their scope of what activity is enabled by their iPhone. Research limitations/Implications Despite being an explorative study addressing only Danish users of iPhones and Apps, our findings suggest to take seriously the expansion of users' scope of activity and abandon the idea that use can be predicted...

  19. THE SIMULATION OF FINE SCALE NOCTURNAL BOUNDARY LAYER MOTIONS WITH A MESO-SCALE ATMOSPHERIC MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, D.; Kurzeja, R.; Parker, M.

    2009-04-02

    A field project over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement-Clouds and Radiation Testbed (ARM-CART) site during a period of several nights in September, 2007 was conducted to explore the evolution of the low-level jet (LLJ). Data was collected from a tower and a sodar and analyzed for turbulent behavior. To study the full range of nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) behavior, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was used to simulate the ARM-CART NBL field experiment and validated against the data collected from the site. This model was run at high resolution, and is ideal for calculating the interactions among the various motions within the boundary layer and their influence on the surface. The model reproduces adequately the synoptic situation and the formation and dissolution cycles of the low-level jet, although it suffers from insufficient cloud production and excessive nocturnal cooling. The authors suggest that observed heat flux data may further improve the realism of the simulations both in the cloud formation and in the jet characteristics. In a higher resolution simulation, the NBL experiences motion on a range of timescales as revealed by a wavelet analysis, and these are affected by the presence of the LLJ. The model can therefore be used to provide information on activity throughout the depth of the NBL.

  20. Impeller in Precessing Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Yoshida

    2001-01-01

    destabilizing in the region of negative precessing speed ratio (-0.3<Ω/ω<0, at the design flow rate; (2 At reduced flow rate, the destabilizing fluid force moments occurred at small positive precessing speed ratio (0.2<Ω/ω<0.4; (3 From the comparison of direct measured fluid force moments with those estimated from the unsteady pressure measured on the front and back casing walls, it was found that the destabilizing moments in the backward precession are mainly caused by the fluid forces on the front surface of the present impeller, where there is large clearance between the back shroud and casing.

  1. A Province in Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRANDON; TAYLOR

    2011-01-01

    Northeast Hebei’s Bohai Sea economic zone is set to drive growth and provide another link between China and the rest of the world From technical experts and foreign investors to tourists, Hebei Provinceis trying to draw in a diverse crowd to fuel its development, encourage

  2. The App Squad: SLJ's Advisors Weigh in on Kids' Book Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") advisors talk about book apps for kids. They discuss what they like, what one should look for in discerning the best for kids and teens, and where this all might be headed.

  3. The App Squad: SLJ's Advisors Weigh in on Kids' Book Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") advisors talk about book apps for kids. They discuss what they like, what one should look for in discerning the best for kids and teens, and where this all might be headed.

  4. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chaoying S.; Chen, Jessica S.; Adelman, Ron A.

    2015-01-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature sup...

  5. AN ADVISER IN RESOURCE-MANAGEMENT SITUATIONS - CONFIGURAL WEIGHING OF RECOMMENDATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, S; WILKE, HAM

    1995-01-01

    The major aim of the present study is to investigate how an adviser's recommendations affect the behavior of actors in resource management situations. Some real-life examples of resource management situations are: fishing the seas and water consumption in a period of draught. In previous research (s

  6. Interests in motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrand, Frederik; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Gilje, Øystein

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines youth media from a Scandinavian perspective, based on the results of a recent study about learning paths among young filmmakers in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. We deal specifically with how the film medium as a knowledge domain, or a field of practice, is represented through...... the discourses of young Scandinavian filmmakers. The chapter introduces three filmmakers and their submitted films. The analysis – which uses a social semiotic approach to communication and meaning making – is focused on their enclosed descriptions of a scene they felt satisfied with and their motivations...

  7. Simpler and More Accurate: Weighing the Mercury in Electrolytic Cells by Radiotracer Dilution Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Weight of mercury in electrolytic cell of soda industry is usually measured gravimetrically, which is typical labor work in character. Error sources of the gravimetric method might have come from the fact that some mercury’s are usually trapped in the cell due to complicated structure of electrolytic cell. This cause unknown errors. In addition, formation of amalgam at the cathode may cause a further uncertainty in the measurement. Total error from gravimetric method is 4% on average. Radiotracer dilution method provides advantages either for simplification of procedure and reduction of measurement error. In this experiment radioisotope mercury 203Hg, which was prepared in nuclear reactor was used to examine 13 of 14 electrolytic cells of soda plant. Each electrolytic cell was designed containing approximately 700 kg inactive mercury. Before injection, the radioisotope mercury was mixed with non radioisotope mercury in a bath to obtain a suitable injection aliquots and standard references. Calibration curve, which was derived from two stage dilution processes taken from standard references, was used to examine degree of mixing between radioisotope and non radioisotope mercury and it was also used in weight calculation of non radioisotope mercury in electrolytic cell. Injection was carried out simply by pouring the injection aliquots into the flowing mercury at the inlet side of the cell. Mercury samples from the cells were extracted at regular time intervals and filled into vials for counting. This was done for the primary conformation of the completeness of mixing of the tracer with the non radioisotope mercury in each cell. When complete mixing is achieved, the unknown quantity of mercury in each cell was calculated based on mass balance principle. From the calculation the weight of mercury in each electrolytic cell was not the same and maximum error of measurement obtained from this method is 2.48 %. Compared to gravimetrically error

  8. Social Networks in Later Life: Weighing Positive and Negative Effects on Health and Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Rook, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    Social networks provide a mix of positive and negative experiences. Network members can provide help in times of need and day-to-day companionship, but they can also behave in ways that are inconsiderate, hurtful, or intrusive. Researchers must grapple with these dualities in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of how social network ties affect health and well-being. This article provides an overview of research that has examined the health-related effects of positive and negative ...

  9. Macrophage Polarization in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: Weighing Down our Understanding of Macrophage Function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Kraakman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes are now recognized as chronic pro-inflammatory diseases. In the last decade, the role of the macrophage in particular has become increasingly implicated in their pathogenesis. Abundant literature now establishes that monocytes get recruited to peripheral tissues (ie pancreas, liver and adipose tissue to become resident macrophages and contribute to local inflammation, development of insulin resistance or even pancreatic dysfunction. Furthermore, an accumulation of evidence has established an important role for macrophage polarisation in the development of metabolic diseases. The general view in obesity is that there is an imbalance in the ratio of M1/M2 macrophages, with M1 pro-inflammatory macrophages being enhanced compared with M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages being down-regulated, leading to chronic inflammation and the propagation of metabolic dysfunction. However, there is emerging evidence revealing a more complex scenario with the spectrum of macrophage states exceeding well beyond the M1/M2 binary classification and confused further by human and animal models exhibiting different macrophage profiles. In this review we will discuss the recent findings regarding macrophage polarization in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  10. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaoying S; Chen, Jessica S; Adelman, Ron A

    2015-09-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature supports both the identification of video game addiction as a disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of video games in clinical trials. We show the need for clinicians to be aware of the dangers associated with video game overuse and the need for future studies to examine the risks associated with their health care benefits.

  11. Peri-intraventricular hemorrhage in newborns weighing less than 1500 grams: comparative analysis between 2 institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponte Marinice Duarte da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aims to characterize the peri-intraventricular hemorrhages in the neonatal period in very low birth weight newborns in 2 institutions that provide neonatal tertiary assistance. METHOD: This was a comparative and observational study in 2 neonatal intensive care units, the Maternity Hospital of Campinas and the "Centro de Atenção Integrada à Saúde da Mulher" of the State University of Campinas, from December 01, 1998 to November 30, 1999. We examined 187 newborns for peri-intraventricular hemorrhages, using transfontanel ultrasound (76 and 11 respectively at the first and second unit, and classified them into 4 grades. We observed their gender, intrauterine growth, weight, and gestational age at birth. RESULTS: We diagnosed 34 cases of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages (13 and 21, respectively, and both groups differed as to the birth weight and the adequacy of weight to the gestational age at birth. There was no difference in the prevalence or extent of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages among cases. There was a statistically significant occurrence of lower birth weight at gestational ages of less than 30 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages in our study was compared to that reported in the world literature. Although the cases of the second institution had a smaller mean birth weight, the prevalence of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages was similar to that at the first institution, probably because in the first one, 69% of the gestational ages of the neonates with hemorrhage were less than 30 weeks as compared to 48% in the second one. We stress the importance of the ultrasonographic method for diagnosing peri-intraventricular hemorrhages in very low birth weight newborns.

  12. Agreement Between Doppler and Invasive Blood Pressure Monitoring in Anesthetized Dogs Weighing <5 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Martin J; Barletta, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if Doppler (DOP) blood pressure measurements more closely estimate either invasive systolic or invasive mean arterial blood pressures (ISAP or IMAP, respectively) in small dogs under general anesthesia and to assess the ability of DOP to detect anesthesia-related hypotension in small dogs. Blood pressure measurements (n = 203) were obtained from 10 client-owned dogs. DOP, ISAP, and IMAP were recorded simultaneously, and the data were categorized into two groups: hypotensive (ISAP dogs, suggesting that DOP measures systolic arterial blood pressure in dogs dogs with hypotension, DOP met all of the performance criteria for noninvasive blood pressure monitors recommended by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. DOP is an acceptably accurate and highly specific means of detecting hypotension in small dogs under general anesthesia.

  13. Designing for scale: development of the ReMotion Knee for global emerging markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Samuel R; Narayan, Vinesh G; Donaldson, Krista M

    2013-09-01

    Amputees living in developing countries have a profound need for affordable and reliable lower limb prosthetic devices. The World Health Organization estimates there are approximately 30 million amputees living in low-income countries, with up to 95% lacking access to prosthetic devices. Effective prosthetics can significantly affect the lives of these amputees by increasing opportunity for employment and providing improvements to long-term health and well-being. However, current solutions are inadequate: state-of-the-art solutions from the US and Europe are cost-prohibitive, while low-cost devices have been challenged by poor quality and/or unreliable performance, and have yet to achieve large scale impact. The introduction of new devices is hampered by the lack of a cohesive prosthetics industry in low-income areas; the current network of low-cost prosthetic clinics is informal and loosely organized with significant disparities in geography, patient volume and demographics, device procurement, clinical and logistical infrastructure, and funding. At D-Rev (Design Revolution) we are creating the ReMotion Knee, which is an affordable polycentric prosthetic knee joint that performs on par with devices in more industrialized regions, like the US and Europe. As of September 2012, over 4200 amputees have been fitted with the initial version of the ReMotion Knee through a partnership with the JaipurFoot Organization, with an 79% compliance rate after 2 years. We are currently scaling production of the ReMotion Knee using centralized manufacturing and distribution to serve the existing clinics in low-income countries and increase the availability of devices for amputees without access to appropriate care. At D-Rev, we develop products that target these customers through economically-sustainable models and provide a measurable impact in the lives of the world's amputees.

  14. Weighed scalar averaging in LTB dust models: part II. A formalism of exact perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Roberto A.

    2013-03-01

    We examine the exact perturbations that arise from the q-average formalism that was applied in the preceding article (part I) to Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models. By introducing an initial value parametrization, we show that all LTB scalars that take an FLRW ‘look-alike’ form (frequently used in the literature dealing with LTB models) follow as q-averages of covariant scalars that are common to FLRW models. These q-scalars determine for every averaging domain a unique FLRW background state through Darmois matching conditions at the domain boundary, though the definition of this background does not require an actual matching with an FLRW region (Swiss cheese-type models). Local perturbations describe the deviation from the FLRW background state through the local gradients of covariant scalars at the boundary of every comoving domain, while non-local perturbations do so in terms of the intuitive notion of a ‘contrast’ of local scalars with respect to FLRW reference values that emerge from q-averages assigned to the whole domain or the whole time slice in the asymptotic limit. We derive fluid flow evolution equations that completely determine the dynamics of the models in terms of the q-scalars and both types of perturbations. A rigorous formalism of exact spherical nonlinear perturbations is defined over the FLRW background state associated with the q-scalars, recovering the standard results of linear perturbation theory in the appropriate limit. We examine the notion of the amplitude and illustrate the differences between local and non-local perturbations by qualitative diagrams and through an example of a cosmic density void that follows from the numeric solution of the evolution equations.

  15. 78 FR 43753 - Inspection and Weighing of Grain in Combined and Single Lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... the marketing of U.S. grain shipped for export. DATES: Effective September 20, 2013. FOR FURTHER... inspection system that facilitates the marketing of grain in domestic and international markets. The... comments requesting that a maximum single lot size of 1,500 metric tons be adopted. Commenters also...

  16. 76 FR 45397 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grain Transported in Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ..._homepage/serv_sstd_tablepdf.pdf . The growing market for high quality specialty grain exported in... permanent waiver is consistent with the intent of the USGSA and will allow this market to continue to grow... Sec. 800.18(b) of the USGSA regulations. As the high quality specialty grain market has expanded,...

  17. Weighed down by development: Reflections on early childhood care and education in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dachyshyn Darcey M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on qualitative research undertaken in West Nile Uganda and Coastal Kenya as part of a broader development project. A wide range of stakeholders, including government officials, parents, and early childhood practitioners were involved in sharing their perspectives of what life is like for young children (birth to age 8 in their homes, communities, and institutions. Data gathered were then brought back to community members to solicit action plans. The author brings to the data her reflections and lived experience as a mzungu (white person brought to the region under the guise of development work and the ethical issues that ensued. It was clear that minority world discourses and conceptions of what constitutes a good life for children had permeated the value systems and goals of many adults in this majority world context. However, when challenged to think deeply about the systemic issues affecting their children, participants began to see the importance of finding ways to meld indigenous values, beliefs, and practices with the globalization agenda.

  18. Native- and Non-Native Speaking English Teachers in Vietnam: Weighing the Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, Ian; Duong, Oanh Thi Hoang

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a common belief that learners of English as a foreign language prefer to learn English from native-speaker teachers rather than non-native speakers of English. 50 Vietnamese learners of English evaluated the importance of native-speakerness compared with seven qualities valued in an English language teacher: teaching…

  19. Weighing in on whole grains: A review of evidence linking whole grains to body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. dietary guidelines support the consumption of whole grains in lieu of refined grains. On January 31, 2011, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) were released and the recommendations with respect to grains were for individuals to “Consume at least half of all grains as whole grains” a...

  20. The Leaky Pipe: Lead Pipers Weigh in on WikiLeaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Let’s start off with a little background and context, just in case you haven’t been glued to the news to catch every nuance of the WikiLeaks story. The Guardian has a helpful timeline of the saga to get you (at least partially up to speed, and if you don’t like theirs, there are plenty [...

  1. Weighing the balance: how analgesics used in chronic pain influence sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Miqdad H; Kaushik, Chhavi; Temple, Daniel; Chung, Sharon A; Shapiro, Colin M

    2014-08-01

    Pain and sleep share a bidirectional relationship, with each influencing the other. Several excellent reviews have explored this relationship. In this article, we revisit the evidence and explore existing research on this complex inter-relationship. The primary focus of the article is on the pharmacological treatment of chronic non-malignant pain and the main purpose is to review the effect of various pharmacological agents used in the management of chronic pain on sleep. This has not been comprehensively done before. We explore the clinical use of these agents, their impact on sleep architecture and sleep physiology, the mechanism of action on sleep parameters and sleep disorders associated with these agents. Pharmacological classes reviewed include antidepressants, opioid analgesics, anti-epileptics, cannabinoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, drugs most commonly used to manage chronic pain. The objective is to help health professionals gain better insight into the complex effect that commonly used analgesics have on an individual's sleep and how this could impact on the effectiveness of the drug as an analgesic. We conclude that antidepressants have both positive and negative effects on sleep, so do opioids, but in the latter case the evidence shifts towards the counterproductive side. Some anticonvulsants are sleep sparing and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are sleep neutral. Cannabinoids remain an underexplored and researched group.

  2. Weighed scalar averaging in LTB dust models, part II: a formalism of exact perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Sussman, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    We examine the exact perturbations that arise from the q-average formalism that was applied in the preceding article (part I) to Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models. By introducing an initial value parametrization, we show that all LTB scalars that take a FLRW "look alike" form (frequently used in the literature dealing with LTB models) follow as q-averages of covariant scalars that are common to FLRW models. These q--scalars determine for every averaging domain a unique FLRW background state through Darmois matching conditions at the domain boundary, though the definition of this background does not require an actual matching with a FLRW region (Swiss cheese type models). Local perturbations describe the deviation from the FLRW background state through the local gradients of covariant scalars at the boundary of every comoving domain, while non-local perturbations do so in terms of the intuitive notion of a "contrast" of local scalars with respect to FLRW reference values that emerge from q-averages assigned t...

  3. Weighing the evidence: risks and benefits of participatory documentary in corporatized clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Helena

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the effects of one U.S.-based public psychiatry clinic's shift to a centralized, corporate style of management, in response to pressures to cut expenditures by focusing on "evidence based" treatments. Participant observation research conducted between 2008 and 2012 for a larger study involving 127 interviews with policy makers, clinic managers, clinical practitioners and patients revealed that the shift heralded the decline of arts based therapies in the clinic, and of the social networks that had developed around them. It also inspired a participatory video self-documentary project among art group members, to portray the importance of arts-based therapies and garner public support for such therapies. Group members found a way to take action in the face of unilateral decision making, but experienced subsequent restrictions on clinic activities and discharge of core members from the clinic. The paper ends with a discussion of biopolitics, central legibility through corporate standardization, and the potential and risks of participatory documentaries to resist these trends.

  4. Promoting emergency medical care systems in the developing world: weighing the costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, David R

    2011-01-01

    Despite the global health community's historical focus on providing basic, cost-effective primary health care delivered at the community level, recent trends in the developing world show increasing demand for the implementation of emergency care infrastructures, such as prehospital care systems and emergency departments, as well as specialised training programmes. However, the question remains whether, in a setting of limited global health care resources, it is logical to divert these already-sparse resources into the development of emergency care frameworks. The existing literature overwhelmingly supports the idea that emergency care systems, both community-based and within medical institutions, improve important outcomes, including significant morbidity and mortality. Crucial to the success of any public health or policy intervention, emergency care systems also seem to be strongly desired at the community and governmental levels. Integrating emergency care into existing health care systems will ideally rely on modest, low-cost steps to augment current models of primary health care delivery, focusing on adapting the lessons learned in the developed world to the unique needs and local variability of the rest of the globe.

  5. Weighing worth against uncertain work: the interplay of exhaustion, ambiguity, hope and disappointment in mothers breastfeeding late preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke Demirci, Jill; Happ, Mary Beth; Bogen, Debra L; Albrecht, Susan A; Cohen, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Poor breastfeeding outcomes among late preterm infants (LPIs) have been attributed to inadequate breast milk transfer stemming from physiological immaturities. However, breastfeeding is more than a biological phenomenon, and it is unclear how mothers of LPIs manage other factors that may also impact the breastfeeding course. Using grounded theory methods and incorporating serial post-partum interviews with several novel data collection techniques, we examined breastfeeding establishment over a 6-8-week-period among 10 late preterm mother-infant dyads recruited from a maternity hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. We found that breastfeeding in the LPI population was a fluctuating, cascade-like progression of trial and error, influenced by a host of contextual factors and events and culminating with breastfeeding continuation (with or without future caveats for duration or exclusivity of breastfeeding) or cessation. The trajectory was explained by the basic psychosocial process Weighing Worth against Uncertain Work, which encompassed the tension among breastfeeding motivation, the intensity of breastfeeding work and the ambiguity surrounding infant behaviour and feeding cues. Several sub-processes were also identified: Playing the Game, Letting Him Be the Judge vs. Accommodating Both of Us and Questioning Worth vs. Holding out Hope. If valid, our theoretical model indicates a need for earlier, more extensive and more qualified breastfeeding support for mothers of LPIs that emphasizes the connection between prematurity and observed feeding behaviours.

  6. Weighing the Balance of Science Literacy in Education and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Impey, C.; Johnson, B.

    2015-11-01

    Science literacy is a concern of educators and policy makers in the United States and all over the world. Science literacy is defined by society and includes important knowledge for individuals that varies with culture and local knowledge systems. The technological societies of the western world have delegated the knowledge that underpins their everyday world to mechanics who know how their cars work, technicians who know how their computers work, and policy wonks who know how their individual choices and actions will affect the environment and their health. The scientific principles that frame and sculpt the technological world are invisible and mysterious to most people. A question for debate is whether or not this is a healthy situation or not, and if not, what to do about it. The panelists shared their prospects and challenges of building science literacy with individuals in the United States and with Tibetan monks. As they discussed their efforts working with these different populations, they shared lessons based on common issues and unique solutions based on local knowledge systems and communities of learners.

  7. A case for government ownership of primary care services in New Zealand: weighing the arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Peter; Starfield, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Primary care services provide continuing and coordinating care, cater to most health care needs, and serve as a point of first contact with the health system. This article addresses the issue of government ownership of primary care. Ownership confers governance responsibility (ultimate control) for an organization, and accountability for its actions. Primary care organizations can be classed as government owned and operated or privately owned and operated, the latter with or without community governance. The authors address two policy questions: Does the ownership form of a primary care organization matter? What ownership frameworks should be used to guide policymaking? Arguments for and against government ownership are examined from political and economic perspectives, informed by a governance framework. Government ownership of primary care may solve problems associated with private for-profit ownership that are related to lack of control of strategic assets, lack of direct political accountability, contracting, and market failure, but it may raise potential problems of lack of responsiveness to minority and local needs and capture by interest groups. In response to the problems associated with government ownership, community-governed private nonprofits have an essential role as a vehicle for indigenous self-determination, catering for minority populations, experimenting with policy options, and providing public goods particularly for minority populations. The authors argue that private organizations that lack community governance have a lesser role.

  8. Self-referenced coherent diffraction x-ray movie of Angstrom- and femtosecond-scale atomic motion

    CERN Document Server

    Glownia, J M; Cryan, J P; Hartsock, R; Kozina, M; Minitti, M P; Nelson, S; Robinson, J; Sato, T; van Driel, T; Welch, G; Weninger, C; Zhi, D; Bucksbaum, P H

    2016-01-01

    Time-resolved femtosecond x-ray diffraction patterns from laser-excited molecular iodine are used to create a movie of intramolecular motion with time and space resolution of $30~$fs and $0.3$ \\AA . The high spatial fidelity is due to interference between the moving excitation and the static initial charge distribution. This x-ray interference has not been employed to image internal motion in molecules before. The initial state is used as the local oscillator for heterodyne amplification of the excited charge distribution to retrieve real-space movies of atomic motion on \\AA ngstrom and femtosecond scales. Coherent vibrational motion and dispersion, dissociation, and rotational dephasing are all clearly visible in the data, thereby demonstrating the stunning sensitivity of heterodyne methods.

  9. Defects at the Nanoscale Impact Contact Line Motion at all Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Hugo; Andreotti, Bruno; Lhermerout, Romain; Davitt, Kristina; Rolley, Etienne; Wetting; Nuclation Team; PMMH Team

    2016-11-01

    The contact angle of a liquid drop moving on a real solid surface depends on the speed and direction of motion of the three-phase contact line. Many experiments have demonstrated that pinning on surface defects, thermal activation and viscous dissipation impact contact line dynamics, but so far efforts have failed to disentangle the role of each of these dissipation channels. Here, we propose a unifying multi-scale approach that provides a single quantitative framework. We use this approach to successfully account for the dynamics measured in a classic dip-coating experiment performed over a unprecedentedly wide range of velocity. We show that the full contact line dynamics up to the liquid film entrainment threshold can be parametrized by the size, amplitude and density of nanometer-scale defects. This leads us to reinterpret the contact angle hysteresis as a dynamical cross-over rather than a depinning transition. ANR SMART and REALWET.

  10. Chaotic motion in the Jovian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirraglia, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Strong nonlinear interactions among unstable waves and the mean flow occur in a simplified quasigeostrophic spectral model of the upper troposphere of Jupiter. The upper boundary of the layer inhibits vertical motion while at the lower boundary perturbations of the potential temperature are not permitted. On an infinite beta plane the forced flow of alternating zones of prograde and retrograde zonal winds, decreasing with height, are linearly unstable and it is shown that the nonlinear terms stabilize the flow by bounding the growth of the eddies. Explicit viscosity terms are not needed. This does not imply that energy would not cascade to the small scale flow but suggests that the nature of the large scale flow is independent of the viscosity at small scales. Numerical time integration shows the flow to be chaotic but, in some cases, with transient propagating features and meandering zonal flow.

  11. Weighing the Smallest Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    VLT Finds Young, Very Low Mass Objects Are Twice As Heavy As Predicted Summary Thanks to the powerful new high-contrast camera installed at the Very Large Telescope, photos have been obtained of a low-mass companion very close to a star. This has allowed astronomers to measure directly the mass of a young, very low mass object for the first time. The object, more than 100 times fainter than its host star, is still 93 times as massive as Jupiter. And it appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be. This discovery therefore suggests that, due to errors in the models, astronomers may have overestimated the number of young "brown dwarfs" and "free floating" extrasolar planets. PR Photo 03/05: Near-infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion (NACO SDI/VLT) A winning combination A star can be characterised by many parameters. But one is of uttermost importance: its mass. It is the mass of a star that will decide its fate. It is thus no surprise that astronomers are keen to obtain a precise measure of this parameter. This is however not an easy task, especially for the least massive ones, those at the border between stars and brown dwarf objects. Brown dwarfs, or "failed stars", are objects which are up to 75 times more massive than Jupiter, too small for major nuclear fusion processes to have ignited in its interior. To determine the mass of a star, astronomers generally look at the motion of stars in a binary system. And then apply the same method that allows determining the mass of the Earth, knowing the distance of the Moon and the time it takes for its satellite to complete one full orbit (the so-called "Kepler's Third Law"). In the same way, they have also measured the mass of the Sun by knowing the Earth-Sun distance and the time - one year - it takes our planet to make a tour around the Sun. The problem with low-mass objects is that they are very faint and will often be hidden in the glare of the brighter star they orbit, also when viewed

  12. Motional Coherence in Fluid Phospholipid Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Rheinstadter, Maikel C; Flenner, Elijah J; Bruening, Beate; Seydel, Tilo; Kosztin, Ioan

    2008-01-01

    We report a high energy-resolution neutron backscattering study, combined with in-situ diffraction, to investigate slow molecular motions on nanosecond time scales in the fluid phase of phospholipid bilayers of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phoshatidylcholine (DMPC) and DMPC/40% cholesterol (wt/wt). A cooperative structural relaxation process was observed. From the in-plane scattering vector dependence of the relaxation rates in hydrogenated and deuterated samples, combined with results from a 0.1 microsecond long all atom molecular dynamics simulation, it is concluded that correlated dynamics in lipid membranes occurs over several lipid distances, spanning a time interval from pico- to nanoseconds.

  13. Hyperventilation in a motion sickness desensitization program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.; Nooij, S.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In motion sickness desensitization programs, the motion sickness provocative stimulus is often a forward bending of the trunk on a rotating chair, inducing Coriolis effects. Since respiratory relaxation techniques are applied successfully in these courses, we investigated whether these

  14. Menopause: Weighing Your Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Menopause Weighing Your Treatment Options Past Issues / Winter 2017 ... What led you to study older women and menopause? I started studying women's health many years ago ...

  15. Perceptual atoms: proximal motion vector-structures and the perception of object motion in depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershenson Maurice

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A framework is proposed for analyzing the perception of motion in depth produced by simple proximal motion patterns of two to four points. The framework includes input structure, perceptual system constraints, and a depth scaling mechanism. The input is relational stimulation described by two proximal dimensions, orientation and separation, that can change or remain constant over the course of a motion pattern. Combinations of change or no-change in these dimensions yield four basic patterns of proximal stimulation: parallel, circular, perspective, and parallax. These primary patterns initiate automatic processing mechanisms - a unity constraint that treats pairs of points as connected and a rigidity constraint that treats the connection as rigid. When the constraints are activated by perspective or parallax patterns, the rigid connection between the points also appears to move in depth. A scaling mechanism governs the degree to which the objects move in depth in order to maintain the perceived rigidity. Although this framework is sufficient to explain perceptions produced by three- and four-point motion patterns in most cases, some patterns require additional configurational factors to supplement the framework. Nevertheless, perceptual qualities such as shrinking, stretching, bending, and folding emerge from the application of the same processing constraints and depth scaling factors as those that produce the perception of rigid objects moving in depth.

  16. Weighing Ultra-Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Large Ground-Based Telescopes and Hubble Team-Up to Perform First Direct Brown Dwarf Mass Measurement [1] Summary Using ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal and a suite of ground- and space-based telescopes in a four-year long study, an international team of astronomers has measured for the first time the mass of an ultra-cool star and its companion brown dwarf. The two stars form a binary system and orbit each other in about 10 years. The team obtained high-resolution near-infrared images; on the ground, they defeated the blurring effect of the terrestrial atmosphere by means of adaptive optics techniques. By precisely determining the orbit projected on the sky, the astronomers were able to measure the total mass of the stars. Additional data and comparison with stellar models then yield the mass of each of the components. The heavier of the two stars has a mass around 8.5% of the mass of the Sun and its brown dwarf companion is even lighter, only 6% of the solar mass. Both objects are relatively young with an age of about 500-1,000 million years. These observations represent a decisive step towards the still missing calibration of stellar evolution models for very-low mass stars. PR Photo 19a/04: Orbit of the ultra-cool stars in 2MASSW J0746425+2000321. PR Photo 19b/04: Animated Gif of the orbital motion. Telephone number star Even though astronomers have found several hundreds of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs, the fundamental properties of these extreme objects, such as masses and surface temperatures, are still not well known. Within the cosmic zoo, these ultra-cool stars represent a class of "intermediate" objects between giant planets - like Jupiter - and "normal" stars less massive than our Sun, and to understand them well is therefore crucial to the field of stellar astrophysics. The problem with these ultra-cool stars is that contrary to normal stars that burn hydrogen in their central core, no unique relation exists between the luminosity of the

  17. Motion correction in thoracic positron emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Gigengack, Fabian; Dawood, Mohammad; Schäfers, Klaus P

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motion leads to image degradation in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which impairs quantification. In this book, the authors present approaches to motion estimation and motion correction in thoracic PET. The approaches for motion estimation are based on dual gating and mass-preserving image registration (VAMPIRE) and mass-preserving optical flow (MPOF). With mass-preservation, image intensity modulations caused by highly non-rigid cardiac motion are accounted for. Within the image registration framework different data terms, different variants of regularization and parametric and non-parametric motion models are examined. Within the optical flow framework, different data terms and further non-quadratic penalization are also discussed. The approaches for motion correction particularly focus on pipelines in dual gated PET. A quantitative evaluation of the proposed approaches is performed on software phantom data with accompanied ground-truth motion information. Further, clinical appl...

  18. Quantum Darwinism in Quantum Brownian Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2008-12-01

    Quantum Darwinism—the redundant encoding of information about a decohering system in its environment—was proposed to reconcile the quantum nature of our Universe with apparent classicality. We report the first study of the dynamics of quantum Darwinism in a realistic model of decoherence, quantum Brownian motion. Prepared in a highly squeezed state—a macroscopic superposition—the system leaves records whose redundancy increases rapidly with initial delocalization. Redundancy appears rapidly (on the decoherence time scale) and persists for a long time.

  19. [Corporal image and pregnancy: A look at psychometric properties of the French translation of the Pregnancy and Weigh Gain Attitude Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, A; Bouillon, A; Lefebvre, L; Séjourné, N; Denis, A

    2016-08-01

    Body dissatisfaction among pregnant women can provoke behaviors to control weight gain and make them more vulnerable to eating disorders. Body dissatisfaction and strategies to control weight during pregnancy can have many consequences for both the mother and baby. Excessive weight gain may cause complications during childbirth and, reciprocally, a too weak weight gain could be associated with the risk of having a baby with a very low birth weight. Thus, it appears important to have a tool to detect these body image disorders in this population. As far as we know, no French-speaking tool exists, and the objective of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the French translation of the Pregnancy and Weight Gain Attitude Scale (PWGAS), which assesses the attitudes about weight gain during pregnancy. The sample consisted of 553 women (29.32±4.82 years) in their third trimester of pregnancy. Participants were volunteer women recruited in hospitals during obstetric consultation. All participants completed an anamnestic questionnaire, the PWGAS and a questionnaire assessing body dissatisfaction (Body Shape Questionnaire [BSQ]). The PWGAS, in its original version, includes 18 items and consists of four subscales: Positive Pregnancy Body Image; Negative Pregnancy Body Image; Indifference toward Weight Gain and Weight Gain Restrictive Behaviors. The instrument was translated and verified by expert translators. Confirmatory factor analysis of the original version showed fit indices below recommended limits. An exploratory factor analysis on the PWGAS revealed the existence of five factors: "Fear about weight gain" (4 items); "Absence of weight gain preoccupation" (2 items); "Positive attitudes about weight gain" (4 items); "Feeling overwhelmed by weight gain" (3 items); and "Control over weight gain" (3 items). The goodness-of-fit of the five-factor model was satisfactory. The PWGAS (total and factors) is negatively correlated with the BSQ demonstrating

  20. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

  1. Confined chaotic behavior in collective motion for populations of globally coupled chaotic elements

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, N; Nakagawa, Naoko; Komatsu, Teruhisa S.

    1999-01-01

    The Lyapunov exponent for collective motion is defined in order to characterize chaotic properties of collective motion for large populations of chaotic elements. Numerical computations for this quantity suggest that such collective motion is always chaotic, whenever it appears. Chaotic behavior of collective motion is found to be confined within a small scale, whose size is estimated using the value of the Lyapunov exponent. Finally, we conjecture why the collective motion appears low dimensional despite the actual high dimensionality of the dynamics.

  2. Weighing in on NBC's "The Biggest Loser": Governmentality and Self-Concept on the Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readdy, Tucker; Ebbeck, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Previous analyses (i.e., Bernstein & St. John, 2006; Sender & Sullivan, 2008) of the television show "The Biggest Loser" have detailed its negative presentation of the obese body, potential consequences for viewers, and its role as a technology of governmentality. However, there has been little exploration of how audience members…

  3. 49 CFR 375.511 - May I use an alternative method for shipments weighing 3,000 pounds or less?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... weighing 3,000 pounds or less? 375.511 Section 375.511 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... alternative method for shipments weighing 3,000 pounds or less? For shipments weighing 3,000 pounds or less (1,362 kilograms or less), you may weigh the shipment upon a platform or warehouse certified scale...

  4. Wood anatomical classification using iterative character weighing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, P.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the pattern of wood anatomical variation in some groups of Rubiaceae (i.e. Cinchoneae, Rondeletieae and Condamineae) by using a numerical pattern detection method which involves character weighing (Hogeweg 1975). In this method character weights are obtained iteratively

  5. Respiratory Motion Prediction in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedam, Sastry

    Active respiratory motion management has received increasing attention in the past decade as a means to reduce the internal margin (IM) component of the clinical target volume (CTV)—planning target volume (PTV) margin typically added around the gross tumor volume (GTV) during radiation therapy of thoracic and abdominal tumors. Engineering and technical developments in linear accelerator design and respiratory motion monitoring respectively have made the delivery of motion adaptive radiation therapy possible through real-time control of either dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion (gantry based linear accelerator design) or robotic arm motion (robotic arm mounted linear accelerator design).

  6. Micro-Scale Motion Precision Simulation Method for a New-Type 6-DOF Micro-Manipulation Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Xin; ZHANG Zhi-jing; WANG Yu-shu

    2007-01-01

    A new 6-DOF micro-manipulation robot based on 3-PPTTRS parallel mechanisms in combination with flexure hinges is proposed. The design principle of the mechanism is introduced, and the kinematics analysis method based on differentiation is used to get the (inverse) kinematics equations. Then a micro-scale motion precision simulation method is proposed according to finite element analysis (FEA) , and the prediction of robot's motion precision in design phase is realized. The simulation result indicates that the 6-DOF micro-manipulation robot can meet the design specification.

  7. Deficient Biological Motion Perception in Schizophrenia: Results from a Motion Noise Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jejoong eKim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia patients exhibit deficient processing of perceptual and cognitive information. However, it is not well understood how basic perceptual deficits contribute to higher level cognitive problems in this mental disorder. Perception of biological motion, a motion-based cognitive recognition task, relies on both basic visual motion processing and social cognitive processing, thus providing a useful paradigm to evaluate the potentially hierarchical relationship between these two levels of information processing. Methods: In this study, we designed a biological motion paradigm in which basic visual motion signals were manipulated systematically by incorporating different levels of motion noise. We measured the performances of schizophrenia patients (n=21 and healthy controls (n=22 in this biological motion perception task, as well as in coherent motion detection, theory of mind, and a widely used biological motion recognition task. Results: Schizophrenia patients performed the biological motion perception task with significantly lower accuracy than healthy controls when perceptual signals were moderately degraded by noise. A more substantial degradation of perceptual signals, through using additional noise, impaired biological motion perception in both groups. Performance levels on biological motion recognition, coherent motion detection and theory of mind tasks were also reduced in patients. Conclusion: The results from the motion-noise biological motion paradigm indicate that in the presence of visual motion noise, the processing of biological motion information in schizophrenia is deficient. Combined with the results of poor basic visual motion perception (coherent motion task and biological motion recognition, the association between basic motion signals and biological motion perception suggests a need to incorporate the improvement of visual motion perception in social cognitive remediation.

  8. 9 CFR 201.108-1 - Instructions for weighing live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instructions for weighing live poultry... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.108-1 Instructions for weighing live poultry. Live poultry dealers who operate scales on which live poultry is weighed for purposes of purchase,...

  9. Estimation of visual motion in image sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1994-01-01

    The problem of estimation of visual motion from sequences of images has been considered within a framework consisting of three stages of processing. First the extraction of motion invariants, secondly a local measurement of visual motion, and third integration of local measurements in conjunction...... with a priori knowledge. We have surveyed a series of attempts to extract motion invariants. Specifically we have illustrate the use of local Fourier phase. The Fourier phase is shown to define the local shape of the signal, thus accurately localizing an event. Different strategies for local measurement...... satellite images based on the estimated motion field is shown....

  10. Meso-scale controlled motion for a microfluidic drop ejector.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Givler, Richard C.; Pohl, Kenneth Roy; Czaplewski, David A.; Luck, David L.; Braithwaite, Mark J.; Atwood, Clinton L.; Benavides, Gilbert Lawrence

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this LDRD was to develop a uniquely capable, novel droplet solution based manufacturing system built around a new MEMS drop ejector. The development all the working subsystems required was completed, leaving the integration of these subsystems into a working prototype still left to accomplish. This LDRD report will focus on the three main subsystems: (1) MEMS drop ejector--the MEMS ''sideshooter'' effectively ejected 0.25 pl drops at 10 m/s, (2) packaging--a compact ejector package based on a modified EMDIP (Electro-Microfluidic Dual In-line Package--SAND2002-1941) was fabricated, and (3) a vision/stage system allowing precise ejector package positioning in 3 dimensions above a target was developed.

  11. Characterization of the time-dependent strain field at seismogenic depths using first-motion focal mechanisms: Observations of large-scale decadal variations in stress along the San Andrea fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipkin, S.A.; Silver, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a method for summing moment tensors derived from first-motion focal mechanisms to study temporal dependence in features of the subsurface regional strain field. Time-dependent processes are inferred by comparing mechanisms summed over differing time periods. We apply this methodology to seismogenic zones in central and southern California using focal mechanisms produced by the Northern and Southern California Seismograph Networks for events during 1980-1999. We find a consistent pattern in both the style of deformation (strike-slip versus compressional) and seismicity rate across the entire region. If these temporal variations are causally related, it suggests a temporal change in the regional-scale stress field. One change consistent with the observations is a rotation in the regional maximum horizontal compressive stress direction, followed by a reversal to the original direction. Depending upon the dominant style of deformation locally, this change in orientation of the regional stress will tend to either enhance or hinder deformation. The mode of enhanced deformation can range from increased microseismicity and creep to major earthquakes. We hypothesize that these temporal changes in the regional stress field are the result of subtle changes in apparent relative plate motion between the Pacific and North American plates, perhaps due to long-range postseismic stress diffusion. Others have hypothesized that small changes in plate motion over thousands of years, and/or over decades, are responsible for changes in the style of deformation in southern California. We propose that such changes, over the course of just a few years, also affect the style of deformation.

  12. Scale and scaling in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scale is recognized as a central concept in the description of the hierarchical organization of our world. Pressing environmental and societal problems such require an understanding of how processes operate at different scales, and how they can be linked across scales. Soil science as many other dis...

  13. Mass and Motion in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, Luc; Whiting, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    From the infinitesimal scale of particle physics to the cosmic scale of the universe, research is concerned with the nature of mass. While there have been spectacular advances in physics during the past century, mass still remains a mysterious entity at the forefront of current research. Our current perspective on gravitation has arisen over millennia, through the contemplation of falling apples, lift thought experiments and notions of stars spiraling into black holes.  In this volume, the world’s leading scientists offer a multifaceted approach to mass by giving a concise and introductory presentation based on insights from their respective fields of research on gravity. The main theme is mass and its motion within general relativity and other theories of gravity, particularly for compact bodies. Within this framework, all articles are tied together coherently, covering post-Newtonian and related methods as well as the self-force approach to the analysis of motion in curved space-time, closing with an ove...

  14. Noise Reduction Methods for Weighing Lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanical vibration of the grass and crop weighing lysimeters, located at the University of California West Side Field Research and Extension Station at Five Points, CA generated noise in lysimeter mass measurements and reduced the quality of evapotranspiration (ET) data. Two filtering methods for ...

  15. Laparoscopic Versus Open Hysterectomy for Benign Disease in Uteri Weighing >1 kg: A Retrospective Analysis on 258 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccella, Stefano; Morosi, Chiara; Marconi, Nicola; Arrigo, Anna; Gisone, Baldo; Casarin, Jvan; Pinelli, Ciro; Borghi, Camilla; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2017-07-12

    To present a large single-center series of hysterectomies for uteri ≥1 kg and to compare the laparoscopic and open abdominal approach in terms of perioperative outcomes and complications. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). An academic research center. Consecutive women who underwent hysterectomy for uteri ≥1 kg between January 2000 and December 2016. Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of uterine malignancy or suspected uterine malignancy were excluded. The subjects were divided according to the intended initial surgical approach (i.e., open or laparoscopic). The 2 groups were compared in terms of intraoperative data and postoperative outcomes. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify possible independent predictors of overall complications. A subanalysis including only obese women was accomplished. Total laparoscopic versus abdominal hysterectomy (±bilateral adnexectomy). Intra- and postoperative surgical outcomes. A total of 258 patients were included; 55 (21.3%) women were initially approached by open surgery and 203 (78.7%) by laparoscopy. Nine (4.4%) conversions from laparoscopic to open surgery were registered. The median operative time was longer in the laparoscopic group (120 [range, 50-360] vs 85 [range, 35-240] minutes, p = .014). The estimated blood loss (150 [range, 0-1700] vs 200 [50-3000] mL, p = .04), postoperative hemoglobin drop, and hospital stay (1 [range, 1-8] vs 3 [range, 1-8] days, p laparoscopic approach was found to be the only independent predictor of a lower incidence of overall complications (odds ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.9). The overall morbidity of minimally invasive hysterectomy was lower also in the subanalysis concerning only obese patients. In experienced hands and in dedicated centers, laparoscopic hysterectomy for uteri weighing ≥1 kg is feasible and safe. Minimally invasive surgery retains its well

  16. Coherent motions and time scales that control heat and mass transfer at wind-swept water surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Forecast of the heat and chemical budgets of lakes, rivers, and oceans requires improved predictive understanding of air-water interfacial transfer coefficients. Here we present laboratory observations of the coherent motions that occupy the air-water interface at wind speeds (U10) 1.1-8.9 m/s. Spatiotemporal near-surface velocity data and interfacial renewal data are made available by a novel flow tracer method. The relative activity, velocity scales, and time scales of the various coherent interfacial motions are measured, namely for Langmuir circulations, streamwise streaks, nonbreaking wind waves, parasitic capillary waves, nonturbulent breaking wind waves, and turbulence-generating breaking wind waves. Breaking waves exhibit a sudden jump in streamwise interfacial velocity wherein the velocity jumps up to exceed the wave celerity and destroys nearby parasitic capillary waves. Four distinct hydrodynamic regimes are found to exist between U10 = 0 and 8.9 m/s, each with a unique population balance of the various coherent motions. The velocity scales, time scales, and population balance of the different coherent motions are input to a first-principles gas transfer model to explain the waterside transfer coefficient (kw) as well as experimental patterns of temperature and gas concentration. The model mixes concepts from surface renewal and divergence theories and requires surface divergence strength (β), the Lagrangian residence time inside the upwelling zone (tLu), and the total lifetime of new interface before it is downwelled (tLT). The model's output agrees with time-averaged measurements kw, patterns of temperature in infrared photographs, and spatial patterns of gas concentration and kw from direct numerical simulations. Several nondimensional parameters, e.g. βtLu and τstLT where τs is the interfacial shear rate, determine the effectiveness of a particular type of coherent motion for affecting kw.

  17. A MultiFactorial Risk Score to weigh toxicities and co-morbidities relative to costs of antiretrovirals in a cohort of HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tontodonati, M.; Sozio, F; F Vadini; Polilli, E.; Ursini, T; G. Calella; Di Stefano, P.; Mazzotta, E.; Costantini, A.; C D'Amario; Parruti, G

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Considering costs of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for HIV patients is increasingly needed. A simple and comprehensive tool weighing comorbidities and ARV-related toxicities could be useful to judge the appropriateness of use of more expensive drugs. We conceived a MultiFactorial Risk Score (MFRS) to evaluate the appropriateness of ARVs prescription relative to their costs. Methods: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled in 2010-2011. We considered socio-demographic character...

  18. Imaging electron motion in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sagar; Westervelt, Robert M.

    2017-02-01

    A cooled scanning probe microscope (SPM) is an ideal tool to image electronic motion in graphene: the SPM tip acts as a scanning gate, which interacts with the electron gas below. We introduce the technique using our group’s previous work on imaging electron flow from a quantum point contact in a GaAs 2DEG and tuning an InAs quantum dot in an InAs/InP nanowire. Carriers in graphene have very different characteristics: electrons and holes travel at a constant speed with no bandgap, and they pass through potential barriers via Klein tunneling. In this paper, we review the extension of SPM imaging techniques to graphene. We image the cyclotron orbits passing between two narrow contacts in a single-atomic-layer graphene device in a perpendicular magnetic field. Magnetic focusing produces a peak in transmission between the contacts when the cyclotron diameter is equal to the contact spacing. The charged SPM tip deflects electrons passing from one contact to the other, changing the transmission when it interrupts the flow. By displaying the change in transmission as the tip is raster scanned above the sample, an image of flow is obtained. In addition, we have developed a complementary technique to image electronic charge using a cooled scanning capacitance microscope (SCM) that uses a sensitive charge preamplifier near the SPM tip to achieve a charge noise level 0.13 e Hz-1/2 with high spatial resolution 100 nm. The cooled SPM and SCM can be used to probe the motion of electrons on the nanoscale in graphene devices.

  19. Measurement of modulation induced by interaction between bubble motion and liquid-phase motion in the decaying turbulence formed by an oscillating-grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuyuki Nagami; Takayuki Saito

    2013-01-01

    In multiphase flows,dynamical gas-liquid interactions are essential for in-depth understanding of their multi-scale phenomena and complicated structures.The purpose of the present study is to clearly extract the modulation in bubble motion and liquid motion induced by bubble-liquid interaction and to discuss the relations between bubble motion and liquid-phase motion.For this particular purpose,the decaying turbulence formed in a cylindrical acrylic pipe (diameter 149 mm,height 600 mm) by using an oscillatinggrid was employed.Uniform single bubbles were launched from an in-house bubble launching device into the decaying turbulence.By comparing the bubble motion in the stagnant water with that in the oscillating-grid decaying turbulence,the transition of the 2D bubble motion (i.e.,zigzagging motion)to 3D motion was enhanced in the latter.In addition,the initial conditions of the bubble motion that was not influenced by the ambient turbulence were carefully confirmed.In the area where the bubble motion started to translate from 2D motion into 3D motion,the modulation of ambient liquid-phase motion was obtained by PIV/LIF measurement.By combining these results,we quantitatively discussed the modulation of the bubble motion and ambient liquid-phase motion and considered the dominant factor for the enhancement to be the bubble-liquid interaction.

  20. Amoeboid motion in confined geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hao; Hu, Wei-Fan; Farutin, Alexander; Rafaï, Salima; Lai, Ming-Chih; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system, as well as cancer cells, migrating in confined environment of tissues undergo frequent shape changes (described as amoeboid motion) that enable them to move forward through these porous media without the assistance of adhesion sites. In other words, they perform amoeboid swimming (AS) while using extracellular matrices and cells of tissues as support. We introduce a simple model of AS in a confined geometry solved by means of 2D numerical simulations. We find that confinement promotes AS, unless being so strong that it restricts shape change amplitude. A straight AS trajectory in the channel is found to be unstable, and ample lateral excursions of the swimmer prevail. For weak confinement, these excursions are symmetric, while they become asymmetric at stronger confinement, whereby the swimmer is located closer to one of the two walls. This is a spontaneous symmetry-breaking bifurcation. We find that there exists an optimal confinement for migration. We provide numerical results as...

  1. PREDICTIONS OF WAVE INDUCED SHIP MOTIONS AND LOADS BY LARGE-SCALE MODEL MEASUREMENT AT SEA AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Jiao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately predict wave induced motion and load responses of ships, a new experimental methodology is proposed. The new method includes conducting tests with large-scale models under natural environment conditions. The testing technique for large-scale model measurement proposed is quite applicable and general to a wide range of standard hydrodynamics experiments in naval architecture. In this study, a large-scale segmented self-propelling model allowed for investigating seakeeping performance and wave load behaviour as well as the testing systems were designed and experiments performed. A 2-hour voyage trial of the large-scale model aimed to perform a series of simulation exercises was carried out at Huludao harbour in October 2014. During the voyage, onboard systems, operated by crew, were used to measure and record the sea waves and the model responses. The post-voyage analysis of the measurements, both of the sea waves and the model’s responses, were made to predict the ship’s motion and load responses of short-term under the corresponding sea state. Furthermore, numerical analysis of short-term prediction was made by an in-house code and the result was compared with the experiment data. The long-term extreme prediction of motions and loads was also carried out based on the numerical results of short-term prediction.

  2. Baxter elastomeric pumps: Weighing as an alternative to visual inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Ellen L; Ali, Raafi; Sawyer, Michael B; Chambers, Carole R; Tang, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Elastomeric pumps are used to administer 46-hour infusions of 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Baxter suggests patients visually monitor their pumps to ensure that infusions are proceeding correctly. This can be confusing and lead to concerns about under- or over-dosing. Baxter has not considered weighing pumps as a validated method for monitoring. This study aims to validate weighing as a more accurate method for patients and healthcare professionals, and describe real life Baxter Infusor™ variability. Methods Patients who had been started on a 46-hour 5FU infusion returned to the clinic approximately 24 h after starting treatment. The pump was weighed on a StarFrit kitchen scale, and date, time, and weights recorded. Patients were asked if they had a preference for weighing or visually inspecting their pump. Results Pumps ( n = 103) were weighed between 17.25 and 27.5 h after connection. The average weight of a pump was 189 g. Of 103 pumps weighed, 99 weighed less than expected, corresponding to average flow rates of 5.69 mL/h over the elapsed time. The expected flow rate is 5 mL/h with 10% variability. Average flow rates within the 17.25- to 27.5-hour window were 4.561 mL/h, which is 8.78% slower than expected, but within the 10% known variability. Forty-seven percent of patients didn't have a preference for either method, but for those who did have a preference, more than twice as many preferred weighing. Conclusion With proper education, weighing Baxter Infusors at home with kitchen scales can be an accepted and objective alternative to the current recommendation of visual inspection.

  3. Weighing the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Karim, M; Bokhari, A H; Karim, Munawar; Tartaglia, Angelo; Bokhari, Ashfaque H.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an experiment to measure the mass of the Milky Way galaxy. The experiment is based on calculated light travel times along orthogonal directions in the Schwarzschild metric of the Galactic center. We show that the difference is proportional to the Galactic mass. We apply the result to light travel times in a 10cm Michelson type interferometer located on Earth. The mass of the Galactic center is shown to contribute 10^-6 to the flat space component of the metric. An experiment is proposed to measure the effect.

  4. Kids Weigh to Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Mary Jane

    A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…

  5. Perception of biological motion in visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberle, Elisabeth; Rupek, Paul; Lappe, Markus; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, visual processing has been discussed in the context of the dual stream hypothesis consisting of a ventral ("what") and a dorsal ("where") visual information processing pathway. Patients with brain damage of the ventral pathway typically present with signs of visual agnosia, the inability to identify and discriminate objects by visual exploration, but show normal perception of motion perception. A dissociation between the perception of biological motion and non-biological motion has been suggested: perception of biological motion might be impaired when "non-biological" motion perception is intact and vice versa. The impact of object recognition on the perception of biological motion remains unclear. We thus investigated this question in a patient with severe visual agnosia, who showed normal perception of non-biological motion. The data suggested that the patient's perception of biological motion remained largely intact. However, when tested with objects constructed of coherently moving dots ("Shape-from-Motion"), recognition was severely impaired. The results are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms of biological motion perception.

  6. Machine learning in motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine

    1989-01-01

    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  7. Machine learning in motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine

    1989-01-01

    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  8. Motion in images is essential to cause motion sickness symptoms, but not to increase postural sway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubeck, A.J.A.; Bos, J.E.; Stins, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective It is generally assumed that motion in motion images is responsible for increased postural sway as well as for visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). However, this has not yet been tested. To that end, we studied postural sway and VIMS induced by motion and still images. Method

  9. Influence of Visual Motion, Suggestion, and Illusory Motion on Self-Motion Perception in the Horizontal Plane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven David Rosenblatt

    Full Text Available A moving visual field can induce the feeling of self-motion or vection. Illusory motion from static repeated asymmetric patterns creates a compelling visual motion stimulus, but it is unclear if such illusory motion can induce a feeling of self-motion or alter self-motion perception. In these experiments, human subjects reported the perceived direction of self-motion for sway translation and yaw rotation at the end of a period of viewing set visual stimuli coordinated with varying inertial stimuli. This tested the hypothesis that illusory visual motion would influence self-motion perception in the horizontal plane. Trials were arranged into 5 blocks based on stimulus type: moving star field with yaw rotation, moving star field with sway translation, illusory motion with yaw, illusory motion with sway, and static arrows with sway. Static arrows were used to evaluate the effect of cognitive suggestion on self-motion perception. Each trial had a control condition; the illusory motion controls were altered versions of the experimental image, which removed the illusory motion effect. For the moving visual stimulus, controls were carried out in a dark room. With the arrow visual stimulus, controls were a gray screen. In blocks containing a visual stimulus there was an 8s viewing interval with the inertial stimulus occurring over the final 1s. This allowed measurement of the visual illusion perception using objective methods. When no visual stimulus was present, only the 1s motion stimulus was presented. Eight women and five men (mean age 37 participated. To assess for a shift in self-motion perception, the effect of each visual stimulus on the self-motion stimulus (cm/s at which subjects were equally likely to report motion in either direction was measured. Significant effects were seen for moving star fields for both translation (p = 0.001 and rotation (p0.1 for both. Thus, although a true moving visual field can induce self-motion, results of this

  10. Coupled Nosé-Hoover equations of motions without time scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ikuo; Moritsugu, Kei

    2017-01-01

    The Nosé-Hoover (NH) equation of motion is widely used in molecular dynamics simulations. It enables us to set a constant temperature and produce the canonical distribution for a target physical system. For the purpose of investigating the physical system under fluctuating temperature, we have introduced a coupled Nosé-Hoover equation in our previous work (Fukuda and Moritsugu 2015 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48 455001). The coupled NH equation implements a fluctuating heat-bath temperature in the NH equation of the physical system, and also keeps a statistically complete description via an invariant measure of the total system composed of the physical system and a ‘temperature system’. However, a difficulty lies in that the time development of the physical system may not correspond to the realistic physical process, because of the need of a scaled time average to compute thermodynamical quantities. The current work gives a solution by presenting a new scheme, which is free from the scaled time but retains the statistical description. By use of simple model systems, we validate the current scheme and compare with the original scheme. The sampling property of the current scheme is also clarified to investigate the effect of function setting used for the distribution of the total system.

  11. VLT Diffraction Limited Imaging and Spectroscopy in the NIR: Weighing the black hole in Centaurus A with NACO

    CERN Document Server

    Haering-Neumayer, N; Rix, H W; Hartung, M; Prieto, M A; Meisenheimer, K; Lenzen, R

    2005-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution near-infrared spectra and images of the nucleus of Centaurus A (NGC 5128) obtained with NAOS-CONICA at the VLT. The adaptive optics corrected data have a spatial resolution of 0.06" (FWHM) in K- and 0.11" in H-band. The mean velocities and velocity dispersions of the ionized gas ([FeII]) are mapped along four slit positions. The observed gas motions suggest a kinematically hot disk which is orbiting a central object and is oriented nearly perpendicular to the nuclear jet. We model the central rotation and velocity dispersion curves of the [FeII] gas orbiting in the combined potential of the stellar mass and the (dominant) black hole. Our physically most plausible model, a dynamically hot and geometrically thin gas disk, yields a black hole mass of M_bh = (8.6 +/- 0.3) x 10^7 M_sun. As the physical state of the gas is not well understood, we also consider two limiting cases: first a cold disk model, which completely neglects the velocity dispersion, but is in line with many e...

  12. Animal models in motion sickness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  13. Motion parallax in immersive cylindrical display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filliard, N.; Reymond, G.; Kemeny, A.; Berthoz, A.

    2012-03-01

    Motion parallax is a crucial visual cue produced by translations of the observer for the perception of depth and selfmotion. Therefore, tracking the observer viewpoint has become inevitable in immersive virtual (VR) reality systems (cylindrical screens, CAVE, head mounted displays) used e.g. in automotive industry (style reviews, architecture design, ergonomics studies) or in scientific studies of visual perception. The perception of a stable and rigid world requires that this visual cue be coherent with other extra-retinal (e.g. vestibular, kinesthetic) cues signaling ego-motion. Although world stability is never questioned in real world, rendering head coupled viewpoint in VR can lead to the perception of an illusory perception of unstable environments, unless a non-unity scale factor is applied on recorded head movements. Besides, cylindrical screens are usually used with static observers due to image distortions when rendering image for viewpoints different from a sweet spot. We developed a technique to compensate in real-time these non-linear visual distortions, in an industrial VR setup, based on a cylindrical screen projection system. Additionally, to evaluate the amount of discrepancies tolerated without perceptual distortions between visual and extraretinal cues, a "motion parallax gain" between the velocity of the observer's head and that of the virtual camera was introduced in this system. The influence of this artificial gain was measured on the gait stability of free-standing participants. Results indicate that, below unity, gains significantly alter postural control. Conversely, the influence of higher gains remains limited, suggesting a certain tolerance of observers to these conditions. Parallax gain amplification is therefore proposed as a possible solution to provide a wider exploration of space to users of immersive virtual reality systems.

  14. Computer Vision Method in Human Motion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Li; FANG Shuai; XU Xin-he

    2007-01-01

    Human motion detection based on computer vision is a frontier research topic and is causing an increasing attention in the field of computer vision research. The wavelet transform is used to sharpen the ambiguous edges in human motion image. The shadow's effect to the image processing is also removed. The edge extraction can be successfully realized.This is an effective method for the research of human motion analysis system.

  15. Robot motion control in mobile environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iliya V Miroshnik; HUANG Xian-lin(黄显林); HE Jie(贺杰)

    2003-01-01

    With the problem of robot motion control in dynamic environment represented by mobile obstacles,working pieces and external mechanisms considered, a relevant control actions design procedure has been pro-posed to provide coordination of robot motions with respect to the moving external objects so that an extension ofrobot spatial motion techniques and active robotic strategies based on approaches of nonlinear control theory canbe achieved.

  16. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuela Liaci; Michael Bach; Ludger Tebartz Van Elst; Heinrich, Sven P; Jürgen Kornmeier

    2016-01-01

    Background In von Schiller’s Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM) stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio (“AR”, i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances). Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (A...

  17. Apsidal motion in eclipsing binary GG Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilan, E.; Bulut, I.

    2016-03-01

    The study of apsidal motion in binary stars with eccentric orbit is well known as an important source of information for the stellar internal structure as well as the possibility of verification of general relativity. In this study, the apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary GG Ori (P = 6.631 days, e = 0.22) has been analyzed using the times of minimum light taken from the literature and databases and the elements of apsidal motion have been computed. The method described by Giménez and García-Pelayo (1983) has been used for the apsidal motion analysis.

  18. Neutron Star Motion in the Disk Galaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ying-Chun; A.Taani; PAN Yuan-Yue; WANG Jing; CAI Yan; LIU Gao-Chao; LUO A-Li; ZHANG Hong-Bo; ZHAO Yong-Heng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The neutron star motions are based on the undisturbed finitely thick galactic disk gravitational potential model.Two initial conditions,I.e.the locations and velocities,are considered.The Monte Carlo method is employed to separate rich diversities of the orbits of neutron stars into several sorts.The Poincaré section has the potential to play an important role in the diagnosis of the neutron star motion.It has been observed that the increasing ratio of the motion range vertical to the galactic plane to that parallel to the galactic plane results in the irregularity of neutron star motion.

  19. Transient chaotic transport in dissipative drift motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyarzabal, R.S. [Pós-Graduação em Ciências/Física, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Szezech, J.D. [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Batista, A.M., E-mail: antoniomarcosbatista@gmail.com [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Souza, S.L.T. de [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de São João del Rei, 36420-000, Ouro Branco, MG (Brazil); Caldas, I.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sanjuán, M.A.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-22

    Highlights: • We consider a situation for which a chaotic transient is present in the dynamics of the two-wave model with damping. • The damping in plasma models can be a way for study a realistic behavior of confinement due the collisional effect. • The escape time as a function of the damping obey a power-law scaling. • We have made a qualitative transport analysis with a simple model that can be useful for more complete models. • We have shown that the pattern of the basin of attraction depends on the damping parameter. - Abstract: We investigate chaotic particle transport in magnetised plasmas with two electrostatic drift waves. Considering dissipation in the drift motion, we verify that the removed KAM surfaces originate periodic attractors with their corresponding basins of attraction. We show that the properties of the basins depend on the dissipation and the space-averaged escape time decays exponentially when the dissipation increases. We find positive finite time Lyapunov exponents in dissipative drift motion, consequently the trajectories exhibit transient chaotic transport. These features indicate how the transient plasma transport depends on the dissipation.

  20. Perception of biological motion in visual agnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eHuberle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty-five years, visual processing has been discussed in the context of the dual stream hypothesis consisting of a ventral (‘what' and a dorsal ('where' visual information processing pathway. Patients with brain damage of the ventral pathway typically present with signs of visual agnosia, the inability to identify and discriminate objects by visual exploration, but show normal perception of motion perception. A dissociation between the perception of biological motion and non-biological motion has been suggested: Perception of biological motion might be impaired when 'non-biological' motion perception is intact and vice versa. The impact of object recognition on the perception of biological motion remains unclear. We thus investigated this question in a patient with severe visual agnosia, who showed normal perception of non-biological motion. The data suggested that the patient's perception of biological motion remained largely intact. However, when tested with objects constructed of coherently moving dots (‘Shape-from-Motion’, recognition was severely impaired. The results are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms of biological motion perception.

  1. The Hierarchy of Fast Motions in Protein Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, A K

    1998-01-01

    For many biological applications of molecular dynamics (MD) the importance of good sampling in conformational space makes it necessary to eliminate the fastest motions from the system in order to increase the time step. An accurate knowledge of these motions is a necessary prerequisite for such efforts. It is known that harmonic vibrations of bond lengths and bond angles produce the highest frequencies in proteins. There are also fast anharmonic motions, such as inter-atomic collisions, which are probably most important when bond lengths and bond angles are fixed. However, the specific time scales corresponding to all these limitations are not known precisely. In order to clarify the above issue this paper analyses time step limiting factors in a series of numerical tests by using an internal coordinate molecular dynamics approach, which allows chosen internal coordinates to be frozen. It is found that, in proteins, there is a rather complicated hierarchy of fast motions, with both harmonic and anharmonic eff...

  2. Liquid Water and Vapor Flow in Arid Soil: Comparison of Weighing Lysimeter Data with Simulations from a Process-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berli, M.; Dijkema, J.; Koonce, J.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; Van Genuchten, M.

    2015-12-01

    Desert soils account for about a third of the Earth's land surface and are believed to be important players in terrestrial energy balance. However, the mechanisms that govern energy and mass fluxes across the land-atmosphere interface of hot deserts remain poorly understood. This knowledge gap also spills over to our insufficient understanding of the ecology and hydrology of deserts. A recently constructed weighing lysimeter (3 m deep and 2.26 m in diameter) located in Boulder City, NV, provides data of water and energy fluxes across the soil-atmosphere boundary of the Mojave Desert. The lysimeter has been filled with homogenized desert soil from nearby Eldorado Valley, instrumented with a suite of more than 150 sensors at multiple depth between 2.5 and 250 cm and under continuous operation since July 2008. In this study, we report on water content, water potential, and temperature data from one hydrologic year at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The data was used to develop, calibrate and validate a coupled, process-based water flow and storage model using Hydrus-1D. The model simulates liquid water flow, heat flow, and non-isothermal vapor flow along the soil profile. Detailed soil bulk density and porosity profiles are known based on soil mass and volume determined during lysimeter soil installation. Water retention property was determined from concurrent volumetric water content and matric potential measurements. A density-dependent scaling relation was developed to adjust water retention properties to the different soil bulk densities in the profile. The water flux across the soil-atmosphere boundary was determined from high-resolution lysimeter scale data. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was estimated via inverse modeling, using a subset of the soil moisture data. The calibrated model was validated using the remainder of the data set. The model accurately captures the soil temperature dynamics through the year and across the profile. The water

  3. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Choose Less, Weigh Less Portion Size Health Marketing Campaign in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Barragan, Noel C; Robles, Brenda; Leighs, Michael; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of the Choose Less, Weigh Less portion size health marketing campaign. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional evaluation. A quantitative Internet panel survey was administered through an online sampling vendor and qualitative interviews were conducted by street intercept. The panel survey included 796 participants, weighted to represent Los Angeles County. Street intercept interviews were conducted with 50 other participants. The Choose Less, Weigh Less campaign included print media on transit shelters, bus and rail cars, and billboards; radio and online advertising; and Web site content and social media outreach. The panel survey measured self-reported campaign exposure and outcomes, including knowledge of recommended daily calorie limits, attitudes toward portion sizes, and intent to reduce calories and portion size. Intercept interviews assessed campaign appeal, clarity, and utility. Weighted survey data were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the association between campaign exposure and outcomes. Interview data were analyzed for themes. The campaign reached 19.7% of the Los Angeles County population. Significant differences were seen for 2 of the 10 outcomes assessed. Participants who saw the campaign were more likely than those who did not to report fast-food portion sizes as being too large (adjusted odds ratio [Adj. OR]: 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16, 3.07) and intention to choose a smaller portion (Adj. OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.31). Qualitative data revealed three themes about appeal, clarity, and utility. Health marketing efforts targeting portion size can have relatively broad reach and limited but positive impacts on consumer attitudes and intent to select smaller portions.

  4. Fractional motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo I., E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il [Holon Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 305, Holon 58102 (Israel); Shlesinger, Michael F., E-mail: mike.shlesinger@navy.mil [Office of Naval Research, Code 30, 875 N. Randolph St., Arlington, VA 22203 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    Brownian motion is the archetypal model for random transport processes in science and engineering. Brownian motion displays neither wild fluctuations (the “Noah effect”), nor long-range correlations (the “Joseph effect”). The quintessential model for processes displaying the Noah effect is Lévy motion, the quintessential model for processes displaying the Joseph effect is fractional Brownian motion, and the prototypical model for processes displaying both the Noah and Joseph effects is fractional Lévy motion. In this paper we review these four random-motion models–henceforth termed “fractional motions” –via a unified physical setting that is based on Langevin’s equation, the Einstein–Smoluchowski paradigm, and stochastic scaling limits. The unified setting explains the universal macroscopic emergence of fractional motions, and predicts–according to microscopic-level details–which of the four fractional motions will emerge on the macroscopic level. The statistical properties of fractional motions are classified and parametrized by two exponents—a “Noah exponent” governing their fluctuations, and a “Joseph exponent” governing their dispersions and correlations. This self-contained review provides a concise and cohesive introduction to fractional motions.

  5. Catchment-Scale Terrain Modelling with Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry: a replacement for airborne lidar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasington, James; James, Joe; Cook, Simon; Cox, Simon; Lotsari, Eliisa; McColl, Sam; Lehane, Niall; Williams, Richard; Vericat, Damia

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, 3D terrain reconstructions based on Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry have dramatically democratized the availability of high quality topographic data. This approach involves the use of a non-linear bundle adjustment to estimate simultaneously camera position, pose, distortion and 3D model coordinates. In contrast to traditional aerial photogrammetry, the bundle adjustment is typically solved without external constraints and instead ground control is used a posteriori to transform the modelled coordinates to an established datum using a similarity transformation. The limited data requirements, coupled with the ability to self-calibrate compact cameras, has led to a burgeoning of applications using low-cost imagery acquired terrestrially or from low-altitude platforms. To date, most applications have focused on relatively small spatial scales (0.1-5 Ha), where relaxed logistics permit the use of dense ground control networks and high resolution, close-range photography. It is less clear whether this low-cost approach can be successfully upscaled to tackle larger, watershed-scale projects extending over 102-3 km2 where it could offer a competitive alternative to established landscape modelling with airborne lidar. At such scales, compromises over the density of ground control, the speed and height of sensor platform and related image properties are inevitable. In this presentation we provide a systematic assessment of the quality of large-scale SfM terrain products derived for over 80 km2 of the braided Dart River and its catchment in the Southern Alps of NZ. Reference data in the form of airborne and terrestrial lidar are used to quantify the quality of 3D reconstructions derived from helicopter photography and used to establish baseline uncertainty models for geomorphic change detection. Results indicate that camera network design is a key determinant of model quality, and that standard aerial photogrammetric networks based on strips of nadir

  6. Structural principles governing domain motions in proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayward, S

    1999-01-01

    With the use of a recently developed method, twenty-four proteins for which two or more X-ray conformers are known have been analyzed to reveal structural principles that govern domain motions in proteins. In all 24 cases, the domain motion is a rotation about a physical axis created through local i

  7. Structural principles governing domain motions in proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayward, S

    1999-01-01

    With the use of a recently developed method, twenty-four proteins for which two or more X-ray conformers are known have been analyzed to reveal structural principles that govern domain motions in proteins. In all 24 cases, the domain motion is a rotation about a physical axis created through local

  8. Retinopathy of prematurity in Asian Indian babies weighing greater than 1250 grams at birth: Ten year data from a tertiary care center in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinekar Anand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is an important cause of childhood blindness in developing countries. Aim: To report the spectrum of ROP and associated risk factors in babies weighing > 1250 g at birth in a developing country. Setting and Design: Institutional, retrospective, non-randomized, observational clinical case series. Materials and Methods : Retrospective analysis (10 years of 275 eyes (138 babies with ROP. Statistical Analysis: Qualitative data with the Chi-square test. Quantitative data using the unpaired t test or the ANOVA and further tested using multivariate logistic regression. Results: The mean birth weight was 1533.9 g (range 1251 to 2750 g and the mean period of gestation was 30.9 weeks (range 26 to 35. One hundred and twenty-four of 275 eyes (45.1% had threshold or worse ROP. Risk factors for threshold or worse disease were, ′outborn babies′ ( P < 0.001, respiratory distress syndrome ( P = 0.007 and exchange transfusion ( P = 0.003. The sensitivity of the American and British screening guidelines to pick up threshold or worse ROP in our study group was 82.4% and 77.4% respectively. Conclusions : Severe ROP is often encountered in babies weighing greater than 1250 g at birth in developing countries. Western screening guidelines may require modifications before application in developing countries.

  9. Molecular Diffusive Motion in a Monolayer of a Model Lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diama, A.; Criswell, L.; Mo, H.; Taub, H.; Herwig, K. W.; Hansen, F. Y.; Volkmann, U. G.; Dimeo, R.; Neumann, D.

    2003-03-01

    Squalane (C_30H_62), a branched alkane of intermediate length consisting of a tetracosane backbone (n-C_24H_50 or C24) and six symmetrically placed methyl sidegroups, is frequently taken as a model lubricant. We have conducted quasielastic neutron scattering (QNS) experiments to investigate the diffusive motion on different time scales in a squalane monolayer adsorbed on the (0001) surfaces of an exfoliated graphite substrate. Unlike tetracosane, high-energy resolution spectra (time scale ˜0.1 - 4 ns) at temperatures of 215 K and 230 K show the energy width of the QNS to have a maximum near Q = 1.2 ÅThis nonmonotonic Q dependence suggests a more complicated diffusive motion than the simple rotation about the long molecular axis believed to occur in a C24 monolayer at this temperature. Lower-energy-resolution spectra (time scale ˜4 - 40 ps) show evidence of two types of diffusive motion whose rates have opposite temperature dependences. The rate of the faster motion decreases as the monolayer is heated, and we speculate that it is due to hindered rotation of the methyl groups. The rate of the slower motion increases with temperature and may involve both uniaxial rotation and translational diffusion. Our experimental results will be compared with molecular dynamics simulations.

  10. Visual-vestibular interaction in motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, R.J.A.W.; Cardullo, F.M.; Bos, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Correct perception of self motion is of vital importance for both the control of our position and posture when moving around in our environment. With the development of human controlled vehicles as bicycles, cars and aircraft motion perception became of interest for the understanding of vehicle

  11. Visual-vestibular interaction in motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, R.J.A.W.; Cardullo, F.M.; Bos, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Correct perception of self motion is of vital importance for both the control of our position and posture when moving around in our environment. With the development of human controlled vehicles as bicycles, cars and aircraft motion perception became of interest for the understanding of vehicle cont

  12. Motion in gauge theories of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Tresguerres, Romualdo

    2012-01-01

    A description of motion is proposed, adapted to the composite bundle interpretation of Poincar\\'e Gauge Theory. Reference frames, relative positions and time evolution are characterized in gauge-theoretical terms. The approach is illustrated by an appropriate formulation of the familiar example of orbital motion induced by Schwarzschild spacetime.

  13. Compensation of skull motion and breathing motion in CT using data-based and image-based metrics, respectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, H.; Rohkohl, C.; Stierstorfer, K.; Flohr, T.

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel reconstruction for motion correction of non-cardiac organs. With non-cooperative patients or in emergency case, breathing motion or motion of the skull may compromise image quality. Our algorithm is based on the optimization of either motion artefact metrics or data-driven metrics. This approach was successfully applied in cardiac CTA [1]. While motion correction of the coronary vessels requires a local motion model, global motion models are sufficient for organs like the lung or the skull. The parameter vector for the global affine motion is estimated iteratively, using the open source optimization library NLOPT. The image is updated using motion compensated reconstruction in each of the iterations. Evaluation of the metric value, e.g. the image entropy, provides information for the next iteration loop. After reaching the fixed point of the iteration, the final motion parameters are used for a motion-compensated full quality reconstruction. In head imaging the motion model is based on translation and rotation, in thoracic imaging the rotation is replaced by non-isotropic scaling in all three dimensions. We demonstrate the efficiency of the method in thoracic imaging by evaluating PET-CT data from free-breathing patients. In neuro imaging, data from stroke patients showing skull tremor were analyzed. It was shown that motion artefacts can be largely reduced and spatial resolution was restored. In head imaging, similar results can be obtained using motion artefact metrics or data-driven metrics. In case of image-based metrics, the entropy of the image proved to be superior. Breathing motion could also be significantly reduced using entropy metric. However, in this case data driven metrics cannot be applied because the line integrals associated to the ROI of the lung have to be computed using the local ROI mechanism [2] It was shown that the lung signal is corrupted by signals originating from the complement of the lung. Thus a meaningful

  14. Application of Multidimensional Scaling in the Analysis of Spatial Ground Motion%多维标度法在地震动空间特性分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英民; 吴哲骞; 陈辉国

    2012-01-01

    为寻找适于工程应用的空间地震动输入合理性的判定工具,提出了一种将多维标度法(MDS)和动态时间弯曲距离(DTW)相结合揭示空间地震动相关结构的方法.该方法可将多点地震动数据的差异转化在一个低维空间内,从而通过各点地震动在该空间内对应的位置反映空间地震动台阵数据之间的差异.较传统的方法,该方法具有较好的直观性且有利于挖掘地震动数据间的潜在关联,利用该方法在对某次地震的台阵记录以及相应合成人工波的分析中取得了较好的效果.%In order to search for a tool to test whether the earthquakes is reasonable for the design, a method based on multidimensional scaling (MDS) and the dynamic time warping distance (DTW) was proposed, which represents the dissimilarities of earthquake in a low dimensional space in a visualized way and uncovers hidden structure of earthquake. The analysis of record from the seismic array shows that the proposed method can be a powerful tool in detecting the correlation structure of spatial ground motion as well as verifying whether the algorithm is producing properly correlated motions in space.

  15. Spinning Particle Motion in a Kerr Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.; Baker, W. M.; Staton, R.

    1999-12-01

    The physics of particle motion in a Kerr geometry has been extensively studied. The case of motion of particles with spin is not as well investigated. We have studied the case of the motion of a spinning particle by applying the Papapetrou equation, which includes a spin-curvature coupling term, and an equation that describes the evolution of the spin of the particle. The motion is considered for a Kerr geometry in the weak field limit. We have obtained numerical solutions to this system of equations. Our results suggest that spin orientation is important for particle trajectories in a manner that is similar to the Stern-Gerlach effect. This could be important for the study of the motion of very low mass neutrinos. Project funded by a grant from the South Carolina Independent Colleges and Universities, and the Furman Advantage Program.

  16. Supersonic Motions of Galaxies in Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Faltenbacher, A; Nagai, D; Gottlöber, S; Faltenbacher, Andreas; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Nagai, Daisuke; Gottloeber, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    We study motions of galaxies in galaxy clusters formed in the concordance LCDM cosmology. We use high-resolution cosmological simulations that follow dynamics of dark matter and gas and include various physical processes critical for galaxy formation: gas cooling, heating and star formation. Analysing motions of galaxies and the properties of intracluster gas in the sample of eight simulated clusters at z=0, we study velocity dispersion profiles of the dark matter, gas, and galaxies. We measure the mean velocity of galaxy motions and gas sound speed as a function of radius and calculate the average Mach number of galaxy motions. The simulations show that galaxies, on average, move supersonically with the average Mach number of ~1.4, approximately independent of the cluster-centric radius. The supersonic motions of galaxies may potentially provide an important source of heating for the intracluster gas by driving weak shocks and via dynamical friction, although these heating processes appear to be inefficient ...

  17. Application of RBF neural network algorithm in dynamic weighing%RBF神经网络算法在动态称重中的应用∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超波; 杨楠

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,focus on the complexity of weighing data in the dynamic detection system of the highway,the different weighing data processing methods to make a comparison,and proposed the use of RBF neural network to deal with the dynamic weighing data.Firstly review introduced the whole vehicle dynamic system,after the radial basis function network topology and the centers of the radial basis function selection are introduced.Finally the test-bed to build a testing platform,through experiments with a two axle vehicle with different speed through the test stand,the dynamic parameters acquisition.Finally,using the data collected,using MATLAB to simulate,verify the radial basis function network to the dynamic weighing data processing show good speed and accuracy.%针对高速公路动态检测系统中称重数据的复杂性,将不同的称重数据处理办法做出对比,并提出利用 RBF神经网络对动态称重数据进行处理。文章首先综述性的介绍了车辆动态系统整体构成,之后对径向基函数网络的拓扑结构以及径向基函数中心的选取进行了介绍,最后利以试验台搭建检测平台,通过实验用两轴小车进行以不同的速度通过试验台,采集其动态参数。最后利用采集到的数据,用 MATLAB 进行仿真,验证了径向基函数网络对动态称重数据的处理表现出良好的速度与精度。

  18. Velocity scaling of cue-induced smooth pursuit acceleration obeys constraints of natural motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladda, Jennifer; Eggert, Thomas; Glasauer, Stefan; Straube, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Information about the future trajectory of a visual target is contained not only in the history of target motion but also in static visual cues, e.g., the street provides information about the car's future trajectory. For most natural moving targets, this information imposes strong constraints on the relation between velocity and acceleration which can be exploited by predictive smooth pursuit mechanisms. We questioned how cue-induced predictive changes in pursuit direction depend on target speed and how cue- and target-induced pursuit interact. Subjects pursued a target entering a +/-90 degrees curve and moving on either a homogeneous background or on a low contrast static band indicating the future trajectory. The cue induced a predictive change of pursuit direction, which occurred before curve onset of the target. The predictive velocity component orthogonal to the initial pursuit direction started later and became faster with increasing target velocity. The predictive eye acceleration increased quadratically with target velocity and was independent of the initial target direction. After curve onset, cue- and target-induced pursuit velocity components were not linearly superimposed. The quadratic increase of eye acceleration with target velocity is consistent with the natural velocity scaling implied by the two-thirds power law, which is a characteristic of biological controlled movements. Comparison with linear pursuit models reveals that the ratio between eye acceleration and actual or expected retinal slip cannot be considered a constant gain factor. To obey a natural velocity scaling, this acceleration gain must linearly increase with target or pursuit velocity. We suggest that gain control mechanisms, which affect target-induced changes of pursuit velocity, act similarly on predictive changes of pursuit induced by static visual cues.

  19. Multiple-stage ambiguity in motion perception reveals global computation of local motion directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Andrew T; Nishida, Shin'ya; Johnston, Alan

    2016-12-01

    The motion of a 1D image feature, such as a line, seen through a small aperture, or the small receptive field of a neural motion sensor, is underconstrained, and it is not possible to derive the true motion direction from a single local measurement. This is referred to as the aperture problem. How the visual system solves the aperture problem is a fundamental question in visual motion research. In the estimation of motion vectors through integration of ambiguous local motion measurements at different positions, conventional theories assume that the object motion is a rigid translation, with motion signals sharing a common motion vector within the spatial region over which the aperture problem is solved. However, this strategy fails for global rotation. Here we show that the human visual system can estimate global rotation directly through spatial pooling of locally ambiguous measurements, without an intervening step that computes local motion vectors. We designed a novel ambiguous global flow stimulus, which is globally as well as locally ambiguous. The global ambiguity implies that the stimulus is simultaneously consistent with both a global rigid translation and an infinite number of global rigid rotations. By the standard view, the motion should always be seen as a global translation, but it appears to shift from translation to rotation as observers shift fixation. This finding indicates that the visual system can estimate local vectors using a global rotation constraint, and suggests that local motion ambiguity may not be resolved until consistencies with multiple global motion patterns are assessed.

  20. Delayed response to animate implied motion in human motion processing areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Kenemans, J.L.; Jellema, T.; Lubbe, R.H.J. van der; Heer, F. de; Wezel, R.J.A. van

    2006-01-01

    Viewing static photographs of objects in motion evokes higher fMRI activation in the human medial temporal complex (MT+) than looking at similar photographs without this implied motion. As MT+ is traditionally thought to be involved in motion perception (and not in form perception), this finding sug

  1. Delayed Response to Animate Implied Motion in Human Motion Processing Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, Jeannette A.M.; Kenemans, J. Leon; Jellema, Tjeerd; Lubbe, van der Rob H.J.; Heer, de Frederiek; Wezel, van Richard J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Viewing static photographs of objects in motion evokes higher fMRI activation in the human medial temporal complex (MT+) than looking at similar photographs without this implied motion. As MT+ is traditionally thought to be involved in motion perception (and not in form perception), this finding sug

  2. Charged particle motion in electromagnetic fields varying moderately rapidly in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagannath, Aukosh; Weitzner, Harold [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Electromagnetic fields are considered which vary on the space scale of the geometric mean of the Larmor radius and the much larger scale length of variation of the magnetic field lines. It is first shown that the magnetic moment is an adiabatic invariant, even though the usual arguments for its existence fail. The motion of the guiding center is then examined. For perpendicular drifts in magnitude comparable with the particle speed, the subsequent motion is dominated by electrostatic effects. The motion of particles along the field lines occurs on a much slower time scale than the perpendicular drift time scale. When the guiding center motion is approximately periodic in time, a second adiabatic invariant exists, the magnetic flux enclosed by the almost periodic orbit. When the perpendicular drift is small compared with the particle speed, the parallel motion and the perpendicular drift occur on the same, slow timescale.

  3. Multi-scale AM-FM motion analysis of ultrasound videos of carotid artery plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Sergio; Murray, Victor; Loizou, C. P.; Pattichis, C. S.; Pattichis, Marios; Barriga, E. Simon

    2012-03-01

    An estimated 82 million American adults have one or more type of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of death (1 of every 3 deaths) in the United States. When considered separately from other CVDs, stroke ranks third among all causes of death behind diseases of the heart and cancer. Stroke accounts for 1 out of every 18 deaths and is the leading cause of serious long-term disability in the United States. Motion estimation of ultrasound videos (US) of carotid artery (CA) plaques provides important information regarding plaque deformation that should be considered for distinguishing between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. In this paper, we present the development of verifiable methods for the estimation of plaque motion. Our methodology is tested on a set of 34 (5 symptomatic and 29 asymptomatic) ultrasound videos of carotid artery plaques. Plaque and wall motion analysis provides information about plaque instability and is used in an attempt to differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. The final goal for motion estimation and analysis is to identify pathological conditions that can be detected from motion changes due to changes in tissue stiffness.

  4. Development of a web-based simulator for estimating motion errors in linear motion stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, G.; Oh, J.-S.; Park, C.-H.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a web-based simulator for estimating 5-DOF motion errors in the linear motion stages. The main calculation modules of the simulator are stored on the server computer. The clients uses the client software to send the input parameters to the server and receive the computed results from the server. By using the simulator, we can predict performances such as 5-DOF motion errors, bearing and table stiffness by entering the design parameters in a design step before fabricating the stages. Motion errors are calculated using the transfer function method from the rail form errors which is the most dominant factor on the motion errors. To verify the simulator, the predicted motion errors are compared to the actually measured motion errors in the linear motion stage.

  5. Analysis of motion in speed skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Yuzo; Nishimura, Tetsu; Watanabe, Naoki; Okamoto, Kousuke; Wada, Yuhei

    1997-03-01

    A motion on sports has been studied by many researchers from the view of the medical, psychological and mechanical fields. Here, we try to analyze a speed skating motion dynamically for an aim of performing the best record. As an official competition of speed skating is performed on the round rink, the skating motion must be studied on the three phases, that is, starting phase, straight and curved course skating phase. It is indispensable to have a visual data of a skating motion in order to analyze kinematically. So we took a several subject's skating motion by 8 mm video cameras in order to obtain three dimensional data. As the first step, the movement of the center of gravity of skater (abbreviate to C. G.) is discussed in this paper, because a skating motion is very complicated. The movement of C. G. will give an information of the reaction force to a skate blade from the surface of ice. We discuss the discrepancy of several skating motion by studied subjects. Our final goal is to suggest the best skating form for getting the finest record.

  6. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Liaci

    Full Text Available In von Schiller's Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio ("AR", i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances. Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1 perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion.We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants' forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames.Increasing the tactile SAM's AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias.Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual strategy of the individual

  7. Motion-sensitive cortex and motion semantics in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Stephen; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Korpics, Franco; Emmorey, Karen

    2012-10-15

    Previous research indicates that motion-sensitive brain regions are engaged when comprehending motion semantics expressed by words or sentences. Using fMRI, we investigated whether such neural modulation can occur when the linguistic signal itself is visually dynamic and motion semantics is expressed by movements of the hands. Deaf and hearing users of American Sign Language (ASL) were presented with signed sentences that conveyed motion semantics ("The deer walked along the hillside.") or were static, conveying little or no motion ("The deer slept along the hillside."); sentences were matched for the amount of visual motion. Motion-sensitive visual areas (MT+) were localized individually in each participant. As a control, the Fusiform Face Area (FFA) was also localized for the deaf participants. The whole-brain analysis revealed static (locative) sentences engaged regions in left parietal cortex more than motion sentences, replicating previous results implicating these regions in comprehending spatial language for sign languages. Greater activation was observed in the functionally defined MT+ ROI for motion than static sentences for both deaf and hearing signers. No modulation of neural activity by sentence type was observed in the FFA. Deafness did not affect modulation of MT+ by motion semantics, but hearing signers exhibited stronger neural activity in MT+ for both sentence types, perhaps due to differences in exposure and/or use of ASL. We conclude that top down modulation of motion-sensitive cortex by linguistic semantics is not disrupted by the visual motion that is present in sign language sentences.

  8. Motion coherence and direction discrimination in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Karin S; Miller, Louisa; Agnew, Hannah C

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual functions change with age, particularly motion perception. With regard to healthy aging, previous studies mostly measured motion coherence thresholds for coarse motion direction discrimination along cardinal axes of motion. Here, we investigated age-related changes in the ability to discriminate between small angular differences in motion directions, which allows for a more specific assessment of age-related decline and its underlying mechanisms. We first assessed older (>60 years) and younger (discriminate coarse horizontal (left/right) and vertical (up/down) motion at 100% coherence and a stimulus duration of 400 ms. In a second step, we determined participants' motion coherence thresholds for vertical and horizontal coarse motion direction discrimination. In a third step, we used the individually determined motion coherence thresholds and tested fine motion direction discrimination for motion clockwise away from horizontal and vertical motion. Older adults performed as well as younger adults for discriminating motion away from vertical. Surprisingly, performance for discriminating motion away from horizontal was strongly decreased. Further analyses, however, showed a relationship between motion coherence thresholds for horizontal coarse motion direction discrimination and fine motion direction discrimination performance in older adults. In a control experiment, using motion coherence above threshold for all conditions, the difference in performance for horizontal and vertical fine motion direction discrimination for older adults disappeared. These results clearly contradict the notion of an overall age-related decline in motion perception, and, most importantly, highlight the importance of taking into account individual differences when assessing age-related changes in perceptual functions.

  9. A Course in Physics of Human Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, J. W.; Eaton, B.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a course in elementary mechanics especially designed for students of athletics and dance. Includes photographs, taken in a gymnasium laboratory, used for analyzing human motion. Student response is described. (Author/CP)

  10. Twisted Radiation by Electrons in Spiral Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Katoh, M; Mirian, N S; Konomi, T; Taira, Y; Kaneyasu, T; Hosaka, M; Yamamoto, N; Mochihashi, A; Takashima, Y; Kuroda, K; Miyamoto, A; Miyamoto, K; Sasaki, S

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically show that a single free electron in circular/spiral motion radiates an electromagnetic wave possessing helical phase structure and carrying orbital angular momentum. We experimentally demonstrate it by double-slit diffraction on radiation from relativistic electrons in spiral motion. We show that twisted photons should be created naturally by cyclotron/synchrotron radiations or Compton scatterings in various situations in astrophysics. We propose promising laboratory vortex photon sources in various wavelengths ranging from radio wave to gamma-rays.

  11. Muscle's Motion in an Overdamped Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Bao-Quan; WANG Xian-Ju; LIU Liang-Gang; M. Nakano; H. Matsuura

    2002-01-01

    Based on the stochastic inclined rods model proposed by H. Matsuura et al., we study the motion of actin myosin system in an overdamped regime. Our model is composed ofan inclined spring (rod), a myosin head and a myosin filament. The results of calculation show that the modelcan convert the random motion to one-directional motion, and the myosin head works as a resonator of random noise, which absorbs the energy through a stochastic resonance. The results show that the inclined rod and the intermolecular potential are very important for the system to move.

  12. 77 FR 59053 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Monitoring and Enforcement Requirements in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Monitoring and Enforcement Requirements in the Bering Sea and... sampled, or carry one observer and use a motion-compensated scale to weigh Pacific cod before it is....S. groundfish fisheries of the exclusive economic zone off Alaska under the Fishery Management...

  13. Unidirectional rotary motion in achiral molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistemaker, Jos C M; Štacko, Peter; Visser, Johan; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-11-01

    Control of the direction of motion is an essential feature of biological rotary motors and results from the intrinsic chirality of the amino acids from which the motors are made. In synthetic autonomous light-driven rotary motors, point chirality is transferred to helical chirality, and this governs their unidirectional rotation. However, achieving directional rotary motion in an achiral molecular system in an autonomous fashion remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we report an achiral molecular motor in which the presence of a pseudo-asymmetric carbon atom proved to be sufficient for exclusive autonomous disrotary motion of two appended rotor moieties. Isomerization around the two double bonds enables both rotors to move in the same direction with respect to their surroundings--like wheels on an axle--demonstrating that autonomous unidirectional rotary motion can be achieved in a symmetric system.

  14. Bulgarian Verbs of Motion: Slavic Verbs in a Balkan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Traci Speed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the motion verb system of Bulgarian, focusing both on the structure of the Bulgarian motion verb itself, and on the information typically encoded in the Bulgarian verb of motion. It then compares the Bulgarian motion verb system with the motion verb systems of two other Slavic languages, Russian and Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian…

  15. Stability of Synchronized Motion in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Tiago

    2011-01-01

    We give a succinct and self-contained description of the synchronized motion on networks of mutually coupled oscillators. Usually, the stability criterion for the stability of synchronized motion is obtained in terms of Lyapunov exponents. We consider the fully diffusive case which is amenable to treatment in terms of uniform contractions. This approach provides a rigorous, yet clear and concise, way to the important results.

  16. Chaotic ion motion in magnetosonic plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvoglis, H.

    1984-01-01

    The motion of test ions in a magnetosonic plasma wave is considered, and the 'stochasticity threshold' of the wave's amplitude for the onset of chaotic motion is estimated. It is shown that for wave amplitudes above the stochasticity threshold, the evolution of an ion distribution can be described by a diffusion equation with a diffusion coefficient D approximately equal to 1/v. Possible applications of this process to ion acceleration in flares and ion beam thermalization are discussed.

  17. Determining Sense Of Motion In Robotic Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri B.

    1990-01-01

    Image-processing algorithms based partly on natural visual/mental processes. Proposed digital image-processing scheme determines sense of motion of object in image along one coordinate axis (left to right or right to left) with respect to background in image. Image encoded by passing it through spatiotemporal filters, including nonlinear contrast function with threshold. Nonlinear response to sums and differences of imagery processed through even and odd spatial filters indicates sense of motion.

  18. Measuring Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings: The Diagnostic Validity of Weighed Blood Loss versus Quantitative Changes in Hemoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cathyln Atukunda

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of blood loss is central to prompt diagnosis and management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH, which remains a leading cause of maternal mortality in low-resource countries. In such settings, blood loss is often estimated visually and subjectively by attending health workers, due to inconsistent availability of laboratory infrastructure. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of weighed blood loss (WBL versus changes in peri-partum hemoglobin to detect PPH.Data from this analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin with misoprostol for PPH (NCT01866241. Blood samples for complete blood count were drawn on admission and again prior to hospital discharge or before blood transfusion. During delivery, women were placed on drapes and had pre-weighed sanitary towels placed around their perineum. Blood was then drained into a calibrated container and the sanitary towels were added to estimate WBL, where each gram of blood was estimated as a milliliter. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (PPVs were calculated at various blood volume loss and time combinations, and we fit receiver-operator curves using blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 hours compared to a reference standard of haemoglobin decrease of >10%.A total of 1,140 women were enrolled in the study, of whom 258 (22.6% developed PPH, defined as a haemoglobin drop >10%, and 262 (23.0% had WBL ≥500mL. WBL generally had a poor sensitivity for detection of PPH (85% in high prevalence settings when WBL exceeds 750mL.WBL has poor sensitivity but high specificity compared to laboratory-based methods of PPH diagnosis. These characteristics correspond to a high PPV in areas with high PPH prevalence. Although WBL is not useful for excluding PPH, this low-cost, simple and reproducible method is promising as a reasonable method to identify significant PPH in such settings where quantifiable red cell indices are unavailable.

  19. Fluid motion and solute distribution around sinking aggregates I : Small-scale fluxes and heterogeneity of nutrients in the pelagic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Ploug, H.; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2001-01-01

    in its wake, where solute concentration is either elevated (leaking substances) or depressed (consumed substances) relative to ambient concentration. Such plumes may impact the nutrition of osmotrophs. For example, based on published solubilization rates of aggregates we describe the amino acid plume...... behind a sinking aggregate (0.1 to 1.0 cm radius). The volume of the plume with amino acid concentrations high enough to significantly affect bacterial uptake rates is ca 100x the volume of the aggregate itself. Thus, sinking aggregates may create significant microniches also for free-living bacteria....

  20. Perception of biological motion in visual agnosia

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth eHuberle; Paul eRupek; Markus eLappe; Hans-Otto eKarnath

    2012-01-01

    Over the past twenty-five years, visual processing has been discussed in the context of the dual stream hypothesis consisting of a ventral (‘what') and a dorsal ('where') visual information processing pathway. Patients with brain damage of the ventral pathway typically present with signs of visual agnosia, the inability to identify and discriminate objects by visual exploration, but show normal perception of motion perception. A dissociation between the perception of biological motion and non...

  1. An asymmetry of translational biological motion perception in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin eHastings

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Biological motion perception is served by a network of regions in the occipital, posterior temporal and parietal lobe, overlapping areas of reduced cortical volume in schizophrenia. The atrophy in these regions is assumed to account for deficits in biological motion perception described in schizophrenia but it is unknown whether the asymmetry of atrophy described in previous studies has a perceptual correlate. Here we look for possible differences in sensitivity to leftwards and rightwards translation of point-light biological motion in data collected for a previous study and explore its underlying neurobiology using functional imaging. Methods n=64 patients with schizophrenia and n=64 controls performed a task requiring the detection of leftward or rightward biological motion using a standard psychophysical staircase procedure. 6 control subjects took part in the functional imaging experiment. Results We found a deficit of leftward but not rightward biological motion (leftward biological motion % accuracy patients = 57.9%±14.3; controls = 63.6%±11.3 p=0.01; rightward biological motion patients = 62.7%±12.4; controls = 64.1%±11.7; p>0.05. The deficit reflected differences in distribution of leftward and rightward accuracy bias in the two populations. Directional bias correlated with functional outcome as measured by the Role Functioning Scale in the patient group when co-varying for negative symptoms (r=-0.272, p=0.016. Cortical regions with preferential activation for leftwards or rightwards translation were identified in both hemispheres suggesting the psychophysical findings could not be accounted for by selective atrophy or functional change in one hemisphere alone. Conclusions The findings point to translational direction as a novel functional probe to help understand the underlying neural mechanisms of wider cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  2. Can walking motions improve visually induced rotational self-motion illusions in virtual reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Bernhard E; Freiberg, Jacob B; Grechkin, Timofey Y

    2015-02-04

    Illusions of self-motion (vection) can provide compelling sensations of moving through virtual environments without the need for complex motion simulators or large tracked physical walking spaces. Here we explore the interaction between biomechanical cues (stepping along a rotating circular treadmill) and visual cues (viewing simulated self-rotation) for providing stationary users a compelling sensation of rotational self-motion (circular vection). When tested individually, biomechanical and visual cues were similarly effective in eliciting self-motion illusions. However, in combination they yielded significantly more intense self-motion illusions. These findings provide the first compelling evidence that walking motions can be used to significantly enhance visually induced rotational self-motion perception in virtual environments (and vice versa) without having to provide for physical self-motion or motion platforms. This is noteworthy, as linear treadmills have been found to actually impair visually induced translational self-motion perception (Ash, Palmisano, Apthorp, & Allison, 2013). Given the predominant focus on linear walking interfaces for virtual-reality locomotion, our findings suggest that investigating circular and curvilinear walking interfaces offers a promising direction for future research and development and can help to enhance self-motion illusions, presence and immersion in virtual-reality systems.

  3. Some scaled limit theorems for an immigration super-Brownian motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Mei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the small time limit behaviors for an immigration super-Brownian motion are studied, where the immigration is determined by Lebesgue measure. We first prove a functional central limit theorem, and then study the large and moderate deviations associated with this central tendency.

  4. Some scaled limit theorems for an immigration super-Brownian motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the small time limit behaviors for an immigration super-Brownian motion are studied,where the immigration is determined by Lebesgue measure.We first prove a functional central limit theorem,and then study the large and moderate deviations associated with this central tendency.

  5. Estimation of caffeine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d weighed diet records based on a food composition database newly developed for Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mai; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies in Western populations have linked caffeine intake with health status. While detailed dietary assessment studies in these populations have shown that the main contributors to caffeine intake are coffee and tea, the wide consumption of Japanese and Chinese teas in Japan suggests that sources of intake in Japan may differ from those in Western populations. Among these teas, moreover, caffeine content varies widely among the different forms consumed (brewed, canned or bottled), suggesting the need for detailed dietary assessment in estimating intake in Japanese populations. Here, because a caffeine composition database or data obtained from detailed dietary assessment have not been available, we developed a database for caffeine content in Japanese foods and beverages, and then used it to estimate intake in a Japanese population. The caffeine food composition database was developed using analytic values from the literature, 16 d weighed diet records were collected, and caffeine intake was estimated from the 16 d weighed diet records. Four areas in Japan, Osaka (Osaka City), Okinawa (Ginowan City), Nagano (Matsumoto City) and Tottori (Kurayoshi City), between November 2002 and September 2003. Two hundred and thirty Japanese adults aged 30-69 years. Mean caffeine intake was 256.2 mg/d for women and 268.3 mg/d for men. The major contributors to intake were Japanese and Chinese teas and coffee (47 % each). Caffeine intake above 400 mg/d, suggested in reviews to possibly have negative health effects, was seen in 11 % of women and 15 % of men. In this Japanese population, caffeine intake was comparable to the estimated values reported in Western populations.

  6. Exit from Synchrony in Joint Improvised Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Assi; Noy, Lior; Hart, Yuval; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Motion synchrony correlates with effective and well-rated human interaction. However, people do not remain locked in synchrony; Instead, they repeatedly enter and exit synchrony. In many important interactions, such as therapy, marriage and parent-infant communication, it is the ability to exit and then re-enter synchrony that is thought to build strong relationship. The phenomenon of entry into zero-phase synchrony is well-studied experimentally and in terms of mathematical modeling. In contrast, exit-from-synchrony is under-studied. Here, we focus on human motion coordination, and examine the exit-from-synchrony phenomenon using experimental data from the mirror game paradigm, in which people perform joint improvised motion, and from human tracking of computer-generated stimuli. We present a mathematical mechanism that captures aspects of exit-from-synchrony in human motion. The mechanism adds a random motion component when the accumulated velocity error between the players is small. We introduce this mechanism to several models for human coordinated motion, including the widely studied HKB model, and the predictor-corrector model of Noy, Dekel and Alon. In all models, the new mechanism produces realistic simulated behavior when compared to experimental data from the mirror game and from tracking of computer generated stimuli, including repeated entry and exit from zero-phase synchrony that generates a complexity of motion similar to that of human players. We hope that these results can inform future research on exit-from-synchrony, to better understand the dynamics of coordinated action of people and to enhance human-computer and human-robot interaction. PMID:27711185

  7. Weighing Evidence: The Design and Comparison of Probability Thought Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    this design is attractive, but a number of experiments, beginning with Alpert and Raiffa in 1969, have reported that the Weighing Evidence 38 initial...Grant N00014-79-C-0077 to the second author. Ia Weighing Evidence 67 References Alpert , M., and Raiffa, H.: 1982, ’A progress report on the training of...C. 20360 Dr. L. Chmura Naval Research Laboratory Larry Olmstead Code 7592 Naval Surface Weapons Center Computer Sciences & Systems NSWC/DL

  8. Bilingual children weigh speaker's referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker's intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wan-Yu; Patrycia, Ferninda; Yow, W Q

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar) or unknown (unfamiliar) to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME) principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-years-old English-Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch), English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch), English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch), or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch). They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects) after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker's point at the familiar object, e.g., "Can you give me the blicket?" Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker's point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers' referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting environment.

  9. Bilingual children weigh speaker’s referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker’s intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu eHung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar or unknown (unfamiliar to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-year-old English-Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch, English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch, English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch, or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch. They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker’s point at the familiar object, e.g., Can you give me the blicket? Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker’s point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers’ referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting

  10. No priming for global motion in crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Andrea; Gall, Martin G; Manassi, Mauro; Greenlee, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    There is psychophysical evidence that low-level priming, e.g., from oriented gratings, as well as high-level semantic priming, survives crowding. We investigated priming for global translational motion in crowded and noncrowded conditions. The results indicated that reliable motion priming occurs in the noncrowded condition, but motion priming does not survive crowding. Crowding persisted despite variations in the direction of the flankers with respect to the prime's direction. Motion priming was still absent under crowding when 85% of the flankers moved in the same direction as the prime. Crowding also persisted despite variations in the speed of the flankers relative to the prime even when the flankers' speed was four times slower than the speed of the prime. However, a priming effect was evident when the prime's spatial location was precued and its distance to the flankers increased, suggesting a release from crowding. These results suggest that transient attention induced by precueing the spatial location of the prime may improve subjects' ability to discriminate its direction. Spatial cueing could act to decrease the integration field, thereby diminishing the influence of nearby distracters. In an additional experiment in which we used fewer flankers, we found a priming effect under conditions in which the interelement distance varied between flankers and prime. Overall, the results suggest that motion priming is strongly affected by crowding, but transient attention can partially retrieve such facilitation.

  11. An Integrated Dynamic Weighing System Based on SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bazydło

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototyped dynamic weighing system has been presented which integrates together three advanced software environments: MATLAB, LabVIEW and iFIX SCADA. They were used for advanced signal processing, data acquisition, as well as visualization and process control. Dynamic weighing is a constantly developing field of metrology. Because of the highly complicated structure of any electronic weighing module, it is vulnerable to many sources of environmental disturbances. For this reason, there is a lot of research concerned with weighing signal processing, mechanical matters and functionality of the system. In the paper, some issues connected with dynamic weighing have been presented, and the necessity of implementing signal processing methods has been discussed. Implementation of this feature is impossible in the majority of SCADA systems. The integration of the three environments mentioned above is an attempt to create an industrial system with capabilities to deal with major dynamic weighing problems. It is innovative because it connects the industrial SCADA, laboratory/industrial product LabVIEW and MATLAB. In addition, the algorithms responsible for process control and data exchange are presented. The paper includes a description of the capabilities, performance tests, as well as benefits and drawbacks, of the system. The outcome of the research is a prototyped system and evaluation of its usefulness. (original abstract

  12. INTERNAL PROPER MOTIONS IN THE ESKIMO NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Gutiérrez, L.; Steffen, W.; López, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Beckman, J., E-mail: tere@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: leonel@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: wsteffen@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jal@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jeb@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-01-10

    We present measurements of internal proper motions at more than 500 positions of NGC 2392, the Eskimo Nebula, based on images acquired with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by 7.695 yr. Comparisons of the two observations clearly show the expansion of the nebula. We measured the amplitude and direction of the motion of local structures in the nebula by determining their relative shift during that interval. In order to assess the potential uncertainties in the determination of proper motions in this object, in general, the measurements were performed using two different methods, used previously in the literature. We compare the results from the two methods, and to perform the scientific analysis of the results we choose one, the cross-correlation method, because it is more reliable. We go on to perform a ''criss-cross'' mapping analysis on the proper motion vectors, which helps in the interpretation of the velocity pattern. By combining our results of the proper motions with radial velocity measurements obtained from high resolution spectroscopic observations, and employing an existing 3D model, we estimate the distance to the nebula to be 1.3 kpc.

  13. Perception of illusory contours enhanced in motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪睿; 王志宏; 吴新年; 汪云九; 李东光

    2003-01-01

    Investigation on illusory contours is important for understanding the mechanisms un-derlying the object recognition of human visual system. Numerous researches have shown that illusory contours formed in motion and stereopsis are generated by the unmatched features. Here we conduct three psychophysical experiments to test if Kanizsa illusory contours are also caused by unmatched information. Different types of motion (including horizontal translation, radial ex-panding and shrinking) are utilized in the experiments. The results show that no matter under what kind of motion, when figures or background move separately illusory contours are perceived stronger, and there is no significant difference between the perceived strength in these two types of motion. However, no such enhancement of perceived strength is found when figures and background move together. It is found that the strengthened unmatched features generate the enhancement effect of illusory contour perception in motion. Thus the results suggest that the process of unmatched information in visual system is a critical step in the formation of illusory contours.

  14. Gauge and motion in perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pound, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Through second order in perturbative general relativity, a small compact object in an external vacuum spacetime obeys a generalized equivalence principle: although it is accelerated with respect to the external background geometry, it is in free fall with respect to a certain \\emph{effective} vacuum geometry. However, this single principle takes very different mathematical forms, with very different behaviors, depending on how one treats perturbed motion. Furthermore, any description of perturbed motion can be altered by a gauge transformation. In this paper, I clarify the relationship between two treatments of perturbed motion and the gauge freedom in each. I first show explicitly how one common treatment, called the Gralla-Wald approximation, can be derived from a second, called the self-consistent approximation. I next present a general treatment of smooth gauge transformations in both approximations, in which I emphasise that the approximations' governing equations can be formulated in an invariant manner...

  15. Fluctuations and time scales for bed-load sediment motion over a smooth bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Ballio n; Alessio Radice

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented for experiments of bed-load sediment transport over a plane, smooth bed. The smooth-bed configuration, though not adequate for mimicking natural streams, enables the effects of bed roughness to be filtered out, thus, highlighting the role of flow turbulence for particle dynamics. Sediments were individually tracked along their paths, measuring position and velocity of the individual grains. A number of analyses were then applied to the data: probability density function, auto-correla-tion, and spectra of the grain velocity. Several Lagrangian time scales of particle motion were obtained and compared to available data for the turbulent flow field to determine a phenomenological inter-pretation of the process.

  16. Equations of motion in Double Field Theory: from classical particles to quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kan, Nahomi; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The equation of motion for a point particle in the background field of double field theory is considered. We find that the motion is described by a geodesic flow in the doubled geometry. Inspired by analysis on the particle motion, we propose a modified model of quantum string cosmology, which includes two scale factors. The report is based on Phys. Rev. D84 (2011) 124049 [arXiv:1108.5795].

  17. Relative motion in a debris cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebe, Fatoumata

    2016-07-01

    After an explosion or collision in space, a hundred or thousands of debris are generated. To be able to study a debris cloud it's necessary to develop new analysis tools. In that sense, we have studied several representations of the relative motion with the parent body's orbit as the reference. Thus, in the case of an explosion the original spacecraft has a circular orbit which will be the reference one in the relative motion's equations while, in the case of a collision, we will take one of the spacecraft's orbit as the reference. We mainly focus on the relative motion method that used the differential elements instead of the Cartesian coordinates as it allows to take into account the main perturbation.

  18. Apparent diffusive motion of centrin foci in living cells: implications for diffusion-based motion in centriole duplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafelski, Susanne M.; Keller, Lani C.; Alberts, Jonathan B.; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2011-04-01

    The degree to which diffusion contributes to positioning cellular structures is an open question. Here we investigate the question of whether diffusive motion of centrin granules would allow them to interact with the mother centriole. The role of centrin granules in centriole duplication remains unclear, but some proposed functions of these granules, for example, in providing pre-assembled centriole subunits, or by acting as unstable 'pre-centrioles' that need to be captured by the mother centriole (La Terra et al 2005 J. Cell Biol. 168 713-22), require the centrin foci to reach the mother. To test whether diffusive motion could permit such interactions in the necessary time scale, we measured the motion of centrin-containing foci in living human U2OS cells. We found that these centrin foci display apparently diffusive undirected motion. Using the apparent diffusion constant obtained from these measurements, we calculated the time scale required for diffusion to capture by the mother centrioles and found that it would greatly exceed the time available in the cell cycle. We conclude that mechanisms invoking centrin foci capture by the mother, whether as a pre-centriole or as a source of components to support later assembly, would require a form of directed motility of centrin foci that has not yet been observed.

  19. Apparent diffusive motion of centrin foci in living cells: implications for diffusion-based motion in centriole duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafelski, Susanne M; Keller, Lani C; Alberts, Jonathan B; Marshall, Wallace F

    2011-04-01

    The degree to which diffusion contributes to positioning cellular structures is an open question. Here we investigate the question of whether diffusive motion of centrin granules would allow them to interact with the mother centriole. The role of centrin granules in centriole duplication remains unclear, but some proposed functions of these granules, for example, in providing pre-assembled centriole subunits, or by acting as unstable 'pre-centrioles' that need to be captured by the mother centriole (La Terra et al 2005 J. Cell Biol. 168 713-22), require the centrin foci to reach the mother. To test whether diffusive motion could permit such interactions in the necessary time scale, we measured the motion of centrin-containing foci in living human U2OS cells. We found that these centrin foci display apparently diffusive undirected motion. Using the apparent diffusion constant obtained from these measurements, we calculated the time scale required for diffusion to capture by the mother centrioles and found that it would greatly exceed the time available in the cell cycle. We conclude that mechanisms invoking centrin foci capture by the mother, whether as a pre-centriole or as a source of components to support later assembly, would require a form of directed motility of centrin foci that has not yet been observed.

  20. Collective motion in populations of colloidal robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Denis; Bricard, Antoine; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Dauchot, Olivier; Desreumaux, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    Could the behavior of bacteria swarms, fish schools, and bird flocks be understood within a unified framework? Can one ignore the very details of the interaction mechanisms at the individual level to elucidate how strikingly similar collective motion emerges at the group level in this broad range of motile systems? These seemingly provocative questions have triggered significant advance in the physics and the biology, communities over the last decade. In the physics language these systems, made of motile individuals, can all be though as different realizations of ``active matter.'' In this talk, I will show how to gain more insight into this vivid field using self-propelled colloids as a proxy for motile organism. I will show how to motorize colloidal particles capable of sensing the orientation of their neighbors. Then, I will demonstrate that these archetypal populations display spontaneous transitions to swarming motion, and to global directed motion with very few density and orientation fluctuations.

  1. Modeling human perceptual thresholds in self-motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente Pais, A.R.; Mulder, M.; Paassen, M.M. van; Wentink, M.; Groen, E.L.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of thresholds for perception of inertial motion is needed for the design of simulator motion filters. Experiments have generally been done to measure these thresholds in isolation, one motion at the time. In vehicle simulation however, several motions occur concurrently. In a flight

  2. Image-guided radiotherapy and motion management in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine

    2015-01-01

    In this review, image guidance and motion management in radiotherapy for lung cancer is discussed. Motion characteristics of lung tumours and image guidance techniques to obtain motion information are elaborated. Possibilities for management of image guidance and motion in the various steps...

  3. Imagined Spaces: Motion Graphics in Performance Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter I introduce the first steps in my work with adjoining and developing concepts relevant to the study and practical design of motion graphics in spatial experience design; performance, event and exhibition design. Based on a presentation of a practical case where motion graphics...... through theories drawn from two different fields. The first is from the field of direct visual perception as explored and described by the American psychologist J. J. Gibson. I supplement this angle by introducing relevant new media theories extracted from writings from L. Manovich. I also briefly...

  4. QUANTUM MECHANICS. Quantum squeezing of motion in a mechanical resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, E E; Lei, C U; Weinstein, A J; Suh, J; Kronwald, A; Marquardt, F; Clerk, A A; Schwab, K C

    2015-08-28

    According to quantum mechanics, a harmonic oscillator can never be completely at rest. Even in the ground state, its position will always have fluctuations, called the zero-point motion. Although the zero-point fluctuations are unavoidable, they can be manipulated. Using microwave frequency radiation pressure, we have manipulated the thermal fluctuations of a micrometer-scale mechanical resonator to produce a stationary quadrature-squeezed state with a minimum variance of 0.80 times that of the ground state. We also performed phase-sensitive, back-action evading measurements of a thermal state squeezed to 1.09 times the zero-point level. Our results are relevant to the quantum engineering of states of matter at large length scales, the study of decoherence of large quantum systems, and for the realization of ultrasensitive sensing of force and motion.

  5. Photon motion in the ECSK theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnino, M.; Levinas, M.

    1988-07-01

    Working within the scheme of the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble Theory (ECSK) we find the trajectory of the photon up to its third order with respect to the velocity of slow motion sources. For the general case, discrepancies from the predictions of General Relativity (GR) are found. We apply the results to a model of polarized spin and find that in this particular case ECSK and GR theories coincide. We also perform a multipole expansion of the gravitational potentials in order to find the motion of photons far away from localized sources.

  6. Elimination of motion and pulsation artifacts using BLADE sequences in shoulder MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavdas, E.; Zaloni, E. [Technological Education Institute of Athens, Greece, Department of Medical Radiological Technologists, Athens (Greece); Vlychou, M.; Vassiou, K.; Fezoulidis, I. [University of Thessaly, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Larissa (Greece); Tsagkalis, A. [IASO Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Larissa (Greece); Dailiana, Z. [University of Thessaly, Department of Orthopedics, Faculty of Medicine, Larissa (Greece)

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate the ability of proton-density with fat-suppression BLADE (proprietary name for periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction in MR systems from Siemens Healthcare, PDFS BLADE) and turbo inversion recovery magnitude-BLADE (TIRM BLADE) sequences to reduce motion and pulsation artifacts in shoulder magnetic resonance examinations. Forty-one consecutive patients who had been routinely scanned for shoulder examination participated in the study. The following pairs of sequences with and without BLADE were compared: (a) Oblique coronal proton-density sequence with fat saturation of 25 patients and (b) oblique sagittal T2 TIRM-weighed sequence of 20 patients. Qualitative analysis was performed by two experienced radiologists. Image motion and pulsation artifacts were also evaluated. In oblique coronal PDFS BLADE sequences, motion artifacts have been significantly eliminated, even in five cases of non-diagnostic value with conventional imaging. Similarly, in oblique sagittal T2 TIRM BLADE sequences, image quality has been improved, even in six cases of non-diagnostic value with conventional imaging. Furthermore, flow artifacts have been improved in more than 80% of all the cases. The use of BLADE sequences is recommended in shoulder imaging, especially in uncooperative patients because it effectively eliminates motion and pulsation artifacts. (orig.)

  7. Non radial motions in a CDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Gambera, M

    1998-01-01

    We show how non-radial motions, originating in the outskirts of clusters of galaxies, may reduce the discrepancy between the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) predicted X-ray temperature distribution function of clusters of galaxies and the observed one and also the discrepancy between the CDM predicted two-point correlation function of clusters of galaxies and that observed. We compare Edge et al. (1990) and Henry & Arnaud (1991) data with the distribution function of X-ray temperature, calculated using Press- Schechter's (1974 - hereafter PS) theory and Evrard's (1990) prescriptions for the mass-temperature relation and taking account of the non-radial motions originating from the gravitational interaction of the quadrupole moment of the protocluster with the tidal field of the matter of the neighboring protostructures. We find that the model produces a reasonable clusters temperature distribution. We compare the two-point cluster correlation function which takes account of the non-radial motions both with that ob...

  8. Molecular Motion in Poly(vinylmethylsiloxane)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Derrick; Crowe-Willoughby, Julie; Genzer, Jan; Clarke, Laura

    2007-11-01

    Responsive surfaces change their physico-chemical characteristics upon the introduction of external stimuli. Modified poly(vinylmethylsiloxane) (PVMS) networks have been shown to exhibit rapid wettability changes due to surface reconstruction upon exposure to water [Crowe, J.A.; Genzer, J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 17610-17611 (2005)]. We aim to correlate the dynamics of the side and backbone motion within the modified PVMS networks to the observed surface chemistry rearrangement. Polymer samples were placed upon interdigitated electrodes and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, as a function of temperature, was conducted. This technique allows us to probe the network and see changes in molecular motion as a function of temperature and network composition. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was also performed and coincided well with the dielectric results. The side chain motion and their effect on the response of the PVMS network will be discussed.

  9. Small scale observation of magnetopause motion: preliminary results of the INTERBALL project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Safrankova

    Full Text Available Two satellites of the INTERBALL project were launched on 3 August 1995. The main goals of the present paper are (1 to give a brief information about the VDP plasma device onboard the INTERBALL-1 satellite, (2 to present the Faradays cup data taken in different magnetospheric regions and (3 to expose first results of the two satellite measurements of the magnetopause motion. The presented data illustrate magnetopause crossings as seen by two satellites when separated by about ~ 1000 km. This separation combined with the Faraday's cup time resolution allows to estimate the velocity of the magnetopause and to reconstruct a possible structure of the boundary. Simultaneous measurement of the magnetic field supports the interpretation of the observed ion fluxes as a signature of the wavy motion of the boundary.

  10. Déjà vu: Motion Prediction in Static Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pintea, S.L.; van Gemert, J.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes motion prediction in single still images by learning it from a set of videos. The building assumption is that similar motion is characterized by similar appearance. The proposed method learns local motion patterns given a specific appearance and adds the predicted motion in a num

  11. Proper motions of embedded protostellar jets in Serpens

    CERN Document Server

    Djupvik, Anlaug Amanda; Zinnecker, Hans; Barzdis, Arturs; Rastorgueva-Foi, Elizaveta; Petersen, Linus R

    2016-01-01

    Context. To investigate the dynamical properties of protostellar jets. Aims. Determine the proper motion of protostellar jets around Class 0 and Class I sources in an active star forming region in Serpens. Methods. Multi-epoch deep images in the 2.122 $\\mu$m line of molecular hydrogen, v=1-0 S(1), obtained with the near-infrared instrument NOTCam over a time-scale of 10 years, are used to determine proper motion of knots and jets. K-band spectroscopy of the brighter knots is used to supply radial velocities, estimate extinction, excitation temperature, and H$_2$ column densities towards these knots. Results. We measure the proper motion of 31 knots over different time scales (2, 4, 6, and 10 years). The typical tangential velocity is around 50 km/s for the 10 year base-line, but for shorter time-scales a maximum tangential velocity up to 300 km/s is found for a few knots. Based on morphology, velocity information and the locations of known protostars, we argue for the existence of at least three partly overla...

  12. Objective measurement of motion in the orbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramoff, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The research described in the thesis had two major aims: to find methods for objective measurement of motion in the orbit, and to determine the clinical use of these methods in patients with orbital disorders. This implied that a number of research questions had to be answered in the fields of both

  13. Evaluation of motion and its effect on brain magnetic resonance image quality in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afacan, Onur; Erem, Burak; Roby, Diona P.; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Warfield, Simon K. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Roth, Noam; Roth, Amir [Robin Medical Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Motion artifacts pose significant problems for the acquisition of MR images in pediatric populations. To evaluate temporal motion metrics in MRI scanners and their effect on image quality in pediatric populations in neuroimaging studies. We report results from a large pediatric brain imaging study that shows the effect of motion on MRI quality. We measured motion metrics in 82 pediatric patients, mean age 13.4 years, in a T1-weighted brain MRI scan. As a result of technical difficulties, 5 scans were not included in the subsequent analyses. A radiologist graded the images using a 4-point scale ranging from clinically non-diagnostic because of motion artifacts to no motion artifacts. We used these grades to correlate motion parameters such as maximum motion, mean displacement from a reference point, and motion-free time with image quality. Our results show that both motion-free time (as a ratio of total scan time) and average displacement from a position at a fixed time (when the center of k-space was acquired) were highly correlated with image quality, whereas maximum displacement was not as good a predictor. Among the 77 patients whose motion was measured successfully, 17 had average displacements of greater than 0.5 mm, and 11 of those (14.3%) resulted in non-diagnostic images. Similarly, 14 patients (18.2%) had less than 90% motion-free time, which also resulted in non-diagnostic images. We report results from a large pediatric study to show how children and young adults move in the MRI scanner and the effect that this motion has on image quality. The results will help the motion-correction community in better understanding motion patterns in pediatric populations and how these patterns affect MR image quality. (orig.)

  14. Brownian motion in AdS/CFT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Hubeny, V.E.; Rangamani, M.; Shigemori, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study Brownian motion and the associated Langevin equation in AdS/CFT. The Brownian particle is realized in the bulk spacetime as a probe fundamental string in an asymptotically AdS black hole background, stretching between the AdS boundary and the horizon. The modes on the string are excited by

  15. What is the psychological impact of self-weighing? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Yael; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Harkin, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Many people self-weigh and many interventions addressing weight-related problems such as obesity promote self-weighing. However, while self-weighing has been associated with weight loss, there is mixed evidence regarding the psychological impact of this behaviour. The present review aimed to quantify the relationship between self-weighing and: (i) affect (e.g., anxiety, depression); (ii) psychological functioning (e.g., self-esteem); (iii) body-related attitudes and (iv) disordered eating. A computerized search of scientific databases in September 2014 and subsequent ancestry and citation searches identified 29 independent tests of the relationship between self-weighing on psychological outcomes. Meta-analysis was used to quantify the size of the association across the tests. Results indicated that there was no association between self-weighing and affect, body-related attitudes or disordered eating. There was, however, a small-sized negative association between self-weighing and psychological functioning. The age of participants, obesity status, the extent of weight loss, duration of self-weighing and study design (RCT versus correlational) were found to influence at least some of the psychological outcomes of self-weighing. The findings suggest that, for the most part, self-weighing is not associated with adverse psychological outcomes. However, in some cases the association between self-weighing and psychological outcomes may be more negative than in others.

  16. Fixed-asset investment in textile industry slows in Q1-Q3 as cubs weigh on economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Fixed asset investment growth in China’s textile industry slowed in the first three quarters this year, mainly resulting from the yuan appreciation, the rising material and labor costs, as well as dismal overseas market hit by the subprime lending crisis. From January to September, the total fixed-assets investment in the textile industry was up 10.15% to RMB 202.269 billion year-on-year,

  17. Antenna motion errors in bistatic SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Yazıcı, Birsen; Cagri Yanik, H.

    2015-06-01

    Antenna trajectory or motion errors are pervasive in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. Motion errors typically result in smearing and positioning errors in SAR images. Understanding the relationship between the trajectory errors and position errors in reconstructed images is essential in forming focused SAR images. Existing studies on the effect of antenna motion errors are limited to certain geometries, trajectory error models or monostatic SAR configuration. In this paper, we present an analysis of position errors in bistatic SAR imagery due to antenna motion errors. Bistatic SAR imagery is becoming increasingly important in the context of passive imaging and multi-sensor imaging. Our analysis provides an explicit quantitative relationship between the trajectory errors and the positioning errors in bistatic SAR images. The analysis is applicable to arbitrary trajectory errors and arbitrary imaging geometries including wide apertures and large scenes. We present extensive numerical simulations to validate the analysis and to illustrate the results in commonly used bistatic configurations and certain trajectory error models.

  18. Structure from Motion vs. the Kinect: Comparisons of River Field Measurements at the 10-2 to 102 meter Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonstad, M. A.; Dietrich, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    At the very smallest spatial scales of fluvial field analysis, measurements made historically in situ are often now supplemented, or even replaced by, remote sensing methods. This is particularly true in the case of topographic and particle size measurement. In the field, the scales of in situ observation usually range from millimeters up to hundreds of meters. Two recent approaches for remote mapping of river environments at the scales of historical in situ observations are (1) camera-based structure from motion (SfM), and (2) active patterned-light measurement with devices such as the Kinect. Even if only carried by hand, these two approaches can produce topographic datasets over three to four orders of magnitude of spatial scale. Which approach is most useful? Previous studies have demonstrated that both SfM and the Kinect are precise and accurate over in situ field measurement scales; we instead turn to alternate comparative metrics to help determine which tools might be best for our river measurement tasks. These metrics might include (1) the ease of field use, (2) which general environments are or are not amenable to measurement, (3) robustness to changing environmental conditions, (4) ease of data processing, and (5) cost. We test these metrics in a variety of bar-scale fluvial field environments, including a large-river cobble bar, a sand-bedded river point bar, and a complex mountain stream bar. The structure from motion approach is field-equipment inexpensive, is viable over a wide range of environmental conditions, and is highly spatially scalable. The approach requires some type of spatial referencing to make the data useful. The Kinect has the advantages of an almost real-time display of collected data, so problems can be detected quickly, being fast and easy to use, and the data are collected with arbitrary but metric coordinates, so absolute referencing isn't needed to use the data for many problems. It has the disadvantages of its light field

  19. Non-rigid Motion Correction in 3D Using Autofocusing with Localized Linear Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Joseph Y.; Alley, Marcus T.; Cunningham, Charles H.; Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Pauly, John M.; Lustig, Michael

    2012-01-01

    MR scans are sensitive to motion effects due to the scan duration. To properly suppress artifacts from non-rigid body motion, complex models with elements such as translation, rotation, shear, and scaling have been incorporated into the reconstruction pipeline. However, these techniques are computationally intensive and difficult to implement for online reconstruction. On a sufficiently small spatial scale, the different types of motion can be well-approximated as simple linear translations. This formulation allows for a practical autofocusing algorithm that locally minimizes a given motion metric – more specifically, the proposed localized gradient-entropy metric. To reduce the vast search space for an optimal solution, possible motion paths are limited to the motion measured from multi-channel navigator data. The novel navigation strategy is based on the so-called “Butterfly” navigators which are modifications to the spin-warp sequence that provide intrinsic translational motion information with negligible overhead. With a 32-channel abdominal coil, sufficient number of motion measurements were found to approximate possible linear motion paths for every image voxel. The correction scheme was applied to free-breathing abdominal patient studies. In these scans, a reduction in artifacts from complex, non-rigid motion was observed. PMID:22307933

  20. Nonrigid motion correction in 3D using autofocusing with localized linear translations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Joseph Y; Alley, Marcus T; Cunningham, Charles H; Vasanawala, Shreyas S; Pauly, John M; Lustig, Michael

    2012-12-01

    MR scans are sensitive to motion effects due to the scan duration. To properly suppress artifacts from nonrigid body motion, complex models with elements such as translation, rotation, shear, and scaling have been incorporated into the reconstruction pipeline. However, these techniques are computationally intensive and difficult to implement for online reconstruction. On a sufficiently small spatial scale, the different types of motion can be well approximated as simple linear translations. This formulation allows for a practical autofocusing algorithm that locally minimizes a given motion metric--more specifically, the proposed localized gradient-entropy metric. To reduce the vast search space for an optimal solution, possible motion paths are limited to the motion measured from multichannel navigator data. The novel navigation strategy is based on the so-called "Butterfly" navigators, which are modifications of the spin-warp sequence that provides intrinsic translational motion information with negligible overhead. With a 32-channel abdominal coil, sufficient number of motion measurements were found to approximate possible linear motion paths for every image voxel. The correction scheme was applied to free-breathing abdominal patient studies. In these scans, a reduction in artifacts from complex, nonrigid motion was observed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Children in hospital in Ireland - what do they eat and what do they weigh: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flinn Aisling

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity is a growing problem in Ireland. Many parents are unaware when their child is overweight or obese. Our objectives were to examine parents’ perceptions of a healthy diet and their children’s BMI; and to evaluate the food offered to children in our paediatric in-patient unit. Findings A retrospective questionnaire was distributed to 95 patients and their families admitted over one month. Seventy-eight had BMI values calculated (42 males, 36 females. Twenty-one children (26.9% were overweight/obese: 14/21 parents (66.7% thought their child had a normal weight. Sixty percent of children served dinner in the hospital were given fried potatoes. Four had fruit/vegetables. Forty-six parents brought food into hospital, of these 14 brought purchased food. Conclusions This study highlights the problem of child obesity in Ireland and parental underestimation of this problem. The nutritional value of food served to children in hospital needs to be improved and hospital admissions used as opportunities to promote healthy eating habits.

  2. Children in hospital in Ireland - what do they eat and what do they weigh: a cross-sectional study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flinn, Aisling

    2012-09-06

    AbstractBackgroundOverweight and obesity is a growing problem in Ireland. Many parents are unaware when their child is overweight or obese. Our objectives were to examine parents’ perceptions of a healthy diet and their children’s BMI; and to evaluate the food offered to children in our paediatric in-patient unit.FindingsA retrospective questionnaire was distributed to 95 patients and their families admitted over one month. Seventy-eight had BMI values calculated (42 males, 36 females). Twenty-one children (26.9%) were overweight\\/obese: 14\\/21 parents (66.7%) thought their child had a normal weight. Sixty percent of children served dinner in the hospital were given fried potatoes. Four had fruit\\/vegetables. Forty-six parents brought food into hospital, of these 14 brought purchased food.ConclusionsThis study highlights the problem of child obesity in Ireland and parental underestimation of this problem. The nutritional value of food served to children in hospital needs to be improved and hospital admissions used as opportunities to promote healthy eating habits.

  3. Gauge and motion in perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Through second order in perturbative general relativity, a small compact object in an external vacuum spacetime obeys a generalized equivalence principle: although it is accelerated with respect to the external background geometry, it is in free fall with respect to a certain effective vacuum geometry. However, this single principle takes very different mathematical forms, with very different behaviors, depending on how one treats perturbed motion. Furthermore, any description of perturbed motion can be altered by a gauge transformation. In this paper, I clarify the relationship between two treatments of perturbed motion and the gauge freedom in each. I first show explicitly how one common treatment, called the Gralla-Wald approximation, can be derived from a second, called the self-consistent approximation. I next present a general treatment of smooth gauge transformations in both approximations, in which I emphasize that the approximations' governing equations can be formulated in an invariant manner. All of these analyses are carried through second perturbative order, but the methods are general enough to go to any order. Furthermore, the tools I develop, and many of the results, should have broad applicability to any description of perturbed motion, including osculating-geodesic and two-timescale descriptions.

  4. Magnetic particle motion in a Poiseuille flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, J.W.; et al, not CWI

    2009-01-01

    The manipulation of magnetic particles in a continuous flow with magnetic fields is central to several biomedical applications, including magnetic cell separation and magnetic drug targeting. A simplified twodimensional 2D equation describing the motion of particles in a planar Poiseuille flow is co

  5. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations.

  6. Cell adhesion during bullet motion in capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger D; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-08-01

    A numerical analysis is presented of cell adhesion in capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. In contrast to a large number of previous efforts on leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, much is still unknown about cell motion in capillaries. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram was obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. We found that bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Acquisition of motion in L2 Estonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liis Nelis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the acquisition of Motion in Estonian by native English speakers. The aim was to determine how English learners of Estonian are influenced by their first language (L1 when describing Motion events in Estonian as their second language (L2. Prior studies have claimed that people develop certain ways of thinking for speaking when learning their first language which affect the acquisition of other languages (e.g. Slobin 1996, Pool, Pajusalu 2012 i.a.. In order to find out how native English speakers are influenced by their L1 when acquiring Motion in Estonian, an experiment was implemented on 22 participants (11 native English speakers and 11 native Estonian speakers in which they were asked to write a short narrative in Estonian based on a picture book by Mayer (1969. The Motion events found in the narratives were analysed one by one. The findings suggest that L1 thinking patterns influence the intermediate learners more than the advanced or beginner learners, thus partly supporting the findings of Cadierno and Ruiz (2006 who reached a similar conclusion.

  8. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of Dideco's paediatric cardiopulmonary circuit for neonates weighing less than five kilograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiara, A S; Eggereide, V; Pedersen, T; Lindberg, H; Fiane, A E

    2010-07-01

    The neonate cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit, including a KIDS D100 oxygenator (The Sorin Group, Mirandola, Italy) and a D130 arterial filter (The Sorin Group), was evaluated in vitro with respect to the removal of free micro gas bubbles. No gas bubbles > 40microm were measured after the arterial filter D130 upon manual introduction of 10 ml of air into the venous line or during the use of vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD). The D130 arterial filter removed 88 % of gas bubbles D100 circuit required significantly less priming volume than the D901 circuit. Postoperative haemoglobin was significantly higher, artificial ventilation time was significantly shorter and postoperative bleeding was significantly less in the D100 group. This neonate CPB circuit effectively removed the gas bubbles and required up to 37% less priming volume and, thus, decreased the need for blood transfusion.

  9. Self versus environment motion in postural control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Dokka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To stabilize our position in space we use visual information as well as non-visual physical motion cues. However, visual cues can be ambiguous: visually perceived motion may be caused by self-movement, movement of the environment, or both. The nervous system must combine the ambiguous visual cues with noisy physical motion cues to resolve this ambiguity and control our body posture. Here we have developed a Bayesian model that formalizes how the nervous system could solve this problem. In this model, the nervous system combines the sensory cues to estimate the movement of the body. We analytically demonstrate that, as long as visual stimulation is fast in comparison to the uncertainty in our perception of body movement, the optimal strategy is to weight visually perceived movement velocities proportional to a power law. We find that this model accounts for the nonlinear influence of experimentally induced visual motion on human postural behavior both in our data and in previously published results.

  10. In control of switching, motion, and organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feringa, B.L.; Delden, R.A.van; Ter Wiel, M.K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Nature's solutions to control organization, switching, and linear and rotary motion are not only extremely elegant, but fascinating if one considers the design and synthesis of artificial molecular systems with such functions in order to add components to the nanotool-box. The synthesis of chiroptic

  11. Motional Spin Relaxation in Large Electric Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Schmid, Riccardo; Filippone, B W

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the precession of spin-polarized Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCN) and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms in uniform and static magnetic and electric fields and calculate the spin relaxation effects from motional $v\\times E$ magnetic fields. Particle motion in an electric field creates a motional $v\\times E$ magnetic field, which when combined with collisions, produces variations of the total magnetic field and results in spin relaxation of neutron and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ samples. The spin relaxation times $T_{1}$ (longitudinal) and $T_{2}$ (transverse) of spin-polarized UCN and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms are important considerations in a new search for the neutron Electric Dipole Moment at the SNS \\emph{nEDM} experiment. We use a Monte Carlo approach to simulate the relaxation of spins due to the motional $v\\times E$ field for UCN and for $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms at temperatures below $600 \\mathrm{mK}$. We find the relaxation times for the neutron due to the $v\\times E$ effect to be long compared to the neutron lifetime, ...

  12. Correlation properties of collective motion in bacterial suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Shawn D.; Sokolov, Andrey; Berlyand, Leonid; Aranson, Igor. S.

    2013-01-01

    The study of collective motion in bacterial suspensions has been of significant recent interest. To better understand the non-trivial spatio-temporal correlations emerging in the course of collective swimming in suspensions of motile bacteria, a simple model is employed: a bacterium is represented as a force dipole with size, through the use of a short-range repelling potential, and shape. The model emphasizes two fundamental mechanisms: dipolar hydrodynamic interactions and short-range bacterial collisions. Using direct particle simulations validated by a dedicated experiment, we show that changing the swimming speed or concentration alters the time scale of sustained collective motion, consistent with experiment. Also, the correlation length in the collective state is almost constant as concentration and swimming speed change even though increasing each greatly increases the input of energy to the system. We demonstrate that the particle shape is critical for the onset of collective effects. In addition, new experimental results are presented illustrating the onset of collective motion with an ultrasound technique. This work exemplifies the delicate balance between various physical mechanisms governing collective motion in bacterial suspensions and provides important insights into its mesoscopic nature. PMID:24391445

  13. A Pursuit Theory Account for the Perception of Common Motion in Motion Parallax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzlaff, Michael; Nawrot, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The visual system uses an extraretinal pursuit eye movement signal to disambiguate the perception of depth from motion parallax. Visual motion in the same direction as the pursuit is perceived nearer in depth while visual motion in the opposite direction as pursuit is perceived farther in depth. This explanation of depth sign applies to either an allocentric frame of reference centered on the fixation point or an egocentric frame of reference centered on the observer. A related problem is that of depth order when two stimuli have a common direction of motion. The first psychophysical study determined whether perception of egocentric depth order is adequately explained by a model employing an allocentric framework, especially when the motion parallax stimuli have common rather than divergent motion. A second study determined whether a reversal in perceived depth order, produced by a reduction in pursuit velocity, is also explained by this model employing this allocentric framework. The results show than an allocentric model can explain both the egocentric perception of depth order with common motion and the perceptual depth order reversal created by a reduction in pursuit velocity. We conclude that an egocentric model is not the only explanation for perceived depth order in these common motion conditions.

  14. Exploring the motion advantage: evaluating the contribution of familiarity and differences in facial motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Natalie; Lander, Karen

    2017-05-01

    Seeing a face move can improve familiar face recognition, face matching, and learning. More specifically, familiarity with a face may facilitate the learning of an individual's "dynamic facial signature". In the outlined research we examine the relationship between participant ratings of familiarity, the distinctiveness of motion, the amount of facial motion, and the recognition of familiar moving faces (Experiment 1) as well as the magnitude of the motion advantage (Experiment 2). Significant positive correlations were found between all factors. Findings suggest that faces rated as moving a lot and in a distinctive manner benefited the most from being seen in motion. Additionally findings indicate that facial motion information becomes a more important cue to recognition the more familiar a face is, suggesting that "dynamic facial signatures" continue to be learnt over time and integrated within the face representation. Results are discussed in relation to theoretical explanations of the moving face advantage.

  15. Spinal sensory circuits in motion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The role of sensory feedback in shaping locomotion has been long debated. Recent advances in genetics and behavior analysis revealed the importance of proprioceptive pathways in spinal circuits. The mechanisms underlying peripheral mechanosensation enabled to unravel the networks that feedback to spinal circuits in order to modulate locomotion. Sensory inputs to the vertebrate spinal cord were long thought to originate from the periphery. Recent studies challenge this ...

  16. Fractional Brownian motion and motion governed by the fractional Langevin equation in confined geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae-Hyung; Metzler, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    Motivated by subdiffusive motion of biomolecules observed in living cells, we study the stochastic properties of a non-Brownian particle whose motion is governed by either fractional Brownian motion or the fractional Langevin equation and restricted to a finite domain. We investigate by analytic calculations and simulations how time-averaged observables (e.g., the time-averaged mean-squared displacement and displacement correlation) are affected by spatial confinement and dimensionality. In particular, we study the degree of weak ergodicity breaking and scatter between different single trajectories for this confined motion in the subdiffusive domain. The general trend is that deviations from ergodicity are decreased with decreasing size of the movement volume and with increasing dimensionality. We define the displacement correlation function and find that this quantity shows distinct features for fractional Brownian motion, fractional Langevin equation, and continuous time subdiffusion, such that it appears an efficient measure to distinguish these different processes based on single-particle trajectory data.

  17. Brownian Motion in Planetary Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Murray-Clay, R A; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Chiang, Eugene I.

    2006-01-01

    A residual planetesimal disk of mass 10-100 Earth masses remained in the outer solar system following the birth of the giant planets, as implied by the existence of the Oort cloud, coagulation requirements for Pluto, and inefficiencies in planet formation. Upon gravitationally scattering planetesimal debris, planets migrate. Orbital migration can lead to resonance capture, as evidenced here in the Kuiper and asteroid belts, and abroad in extra-solar systems. Finite sizes of planetesimals render migration stochastic ("noisy"). At fixed disk mass, larger (fewer) planetesimals generate more noise. Extreme noise defeats resonance capture. We employ order-of-magnitude physics to construct an analytic theory for how a planet's orbital semi-major axis fluctuates in response to random planetesimal scatterings. To retain a body in resonance, the planet's semi-major axis must not random walk a distance greater than the resonant libration width. We translate this criterion into an analytic formula for the retention effi...

  18. Motion perception modelling in flight simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Hosman, R.J.A.W.; Bos, J.E.; Dominicus, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Motion cueing algorithms are indispensable to transform aircraft motions into simulator motions. Usually, such algorithms apply to the whole flight envelope. Since a motion base should stay within its six degrees of freedom workspace, the parameter settings necessarily involve concessions, which may

  19. Creating High Quality DEMs of Large Scale Fluvial Environments Using Structure-from-Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javernick, L. A.; Brasington, J.; Caruso, B. S.; Hicks, M.; Davies, T. R.

    2012-12-01

    During the past decade, advances in survey and sensor technology have generated new opportunities to investigate the structure and dynamics of fluvial systems. Key geomatic technologies include the Global Positioning System (GPS), digital photogrammetry, LiDAR, and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The application of such has resulted in a profound increase in the dimensionality of topographic surveys - from cross-sections to distributed 3d point clouds and digital elevation models (DEMs). Each of these technologies have been used successfully to derive high quality DEMs of fluvial environments; however, they often require specialized and expensive equipment, such as a TLS or large format camera, bespoke platforms such as survey aircraft, and consequently make data acquisition prohibitively expensive or highly labour intensive, thus restricting the extent and frequency of surveys. Recently, advances in computer vision and image analysis have led to development of a novel photogrammetric approach that is fully automated and suitable for use with simple compact (non-metric) cameras. In this paper, we evaluate a new photogrammetric method, Structure-from-Motion (SfM), and demonstrate how this can be used to generate DEMs of comparable quality to airborne LiDAR, using consumer grade cameras at low costs. Using the SfM software PhotoScan (version 0.8.5), high quality DEMs were produced for a 1.6 km reach and a 3.3 km reach of the braided Ahuriri River, New Zealand. Photographs used for DEM creation were acquired from a helicopter flying at 600 m and 800 m above ground level using a consumer grade 10.1mega-pixel, non-metric digital camera, resulting in object space resolution imagery of 0.12 m and 0.16 m respectively. Point clouds for the two study reaches were generated using 147 and 224 photographs respectively, and were extracted automatically in an arbitrary coordinate system; RTK-GPS located ground control points (GCPs) were used to define a 3d non

  20. Nordic Luther Research in Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bo Kristian

    2008-01-01

    Luther research in the Nordic countries is characterised by both continuation and discussion of its own legacy. Finnish Luther studies have a prominent position here, but are by no means the only actors in Nordic Luther research. Giving an overview of Nordic Luther research in the last decade......, the article selects four main topics that have been the focus of special attention: politics and ethics, Communicatio idiomatum  and Luther's view on language, Luther as preacher, and Luther and the gift. The article concludes with some comments on the continuing role of creation theology, so strongly...... emphasised in last century's Scandinavian Luther research....

  1. Statistics of bedload transport over steep slopes: Separation of time scales and collective motion

    CERN Document Server

    Heyman, J; Ma, H B; Ancey, C

    2016-01-01

    Steep slope streams show large fluctuations of sediment discharge across several time scales. These fluctuations may be inherent to the internal dynamics of the sediment transport process. A probabilistic framework thus seems appropriate to analyze such a process. In this letter, we present an experimental study of bedload transport over a steep slope flume for small to moderate Shields numbers. The sampling technique allows the acquisition of high-resolution time series of the solid discharge. The resolved time scales range from $10^{-2}$s up to $10^{5}$s. We show that two distinct time scales can be observed in the probability density function for the waiting time between moving particles. We make the point that the separation of time scales is related to collective dynamics. Proper statistics of a Markov process including collective entrainment are derived. The separation of time scales is recovered theoretically for low entrainment rates.

  2. Polariton condensates put in motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanvitto, D; Amo, A; Vina, L [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Laussy, F P; Tejedor, C [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); LemaItre, A; Bloch, J, E-mail: daniele.sanvitto@uam.es [LPN/CNRS, Route de Nozay, F-91460, Marcoussis (France)

    2010-04-02

    We present several examples of the interesting phenomenology shown by a moving polariton condensate in semiconductor microcavities. The superfluid behavior is probed by colliding the polariton condensate against physical obstacles in the form of natural defects of the sample, demonstrating a clear suppression of scattering when the speed of the flow lies below the critical velocity. At higher velocities Cerenkov-like shock waves around the defect and disruption of the condensate are also observed.

  3. On the recurrence and Lyapunov time scales of the motion near the chaos border

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Ivan I

    2016-01-01

    Conditions for the emergence of a statistical relationship between $T_r$, the chaotic transport (recurrence) time, and $T_L$, the local Lyapunov time (the inverse of the numerically measured largest Lyapunov characteristic exponent), are considered for the motion inside the chaotic layer around the separatrix of a nonlinear resonance. When numerical values of the Lyapunov exponents are measured on a time interval not greater than $T_r$, the relationship is shown to resemble the quadratic one. This tentatively explains numerical results presented in the literature.

  4. Importance of motion in motion-compensated temporal discrete wavelet transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Janusz; Bozinovic, Nikola

    2005-03-01

    Discrete wavelet transforms (DWTs) applied temporally under motion compensation (MC) have recently become a very powerful tool in video compression, especially when implemented through lifting. A recent theoretical analysis has established conditions for perfect reconstruction in the case of transversal MC-DWT, and also for the equivalence of lifted and transversal implementations of MC-DWT. For Haar MC-DWT these conditions state that motion must be invertible, while for higher-order transforms they state that motion composition must be a well-defined operator. Since many popular motion models do not obey these properties, thus inducing errors (prior to compression), it is important to understand what is the impact of motion non-invertibility or quasi-invertibility on the performance of video compression. In this paper, we present new experimental results of a study aiming at a quantitative evaluation of such impact in case of block-based motion. We propose a new metric to measure the degree with which two motion fields are not inverses of each other. Using this metric we investigate several motion inversion schemes, from simple temporal sample-and-hold, through spatial nearest-neighbor, to advanced spline-based inversion, and we compare compression performance of each method to that of independently-estimated forward and backward motion fields. We observe that compression performance monotonically improves with the reduction of the proposed motion inversion error, up to 1-1.5dB for the advanced spline-based inversion. We also generalize the problem of "unconnected" pixels by extending it to both update and prediction steps, as opposed to the update step only used in conventional methods. Initial tests show favorable results compared to previously reported techniques.

  5. Sensing water from subsurface drip irrigation laterals: In situ sensors, weighing lysimeters and COSMOS under vegetated and bare conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of soil water dynamics in the root zone under subsurface drip irrigated (SDI) is complicated by the three dimensional nature of water fluxes from drip emitters plus the fluxes, if any, of water from precipitation. In addition, soil water sensing systems may differ in their operating...

  6. Humans perceive object motion in world coordinates during obstacle avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajen, Brett R; Parade, Melissa S; Matthis, Jonathan S

    2013-07-25

    A fundamental question about locomotion in the presence of moving objects is whether movements are guided based upon perceived object motion in an observer-centered or world-centered reference frame. The former captures object motion relative to the moving observer and depends on both observer and object motion. The latter captures object motion relative to the stationary environment and is independent of observer motion. Subjects walked through a virtual environment (VE) viewed through a head-mounted display and indicated whether they would pass in front of or behind a moving obstacle that was on course to cross their future path. Subjects' movement through the VE was manipulated such that object motion in observer coordinates was affected while object motion in world coordinates was the same. We found that when moving observers choose routes around moving obstacles, they rely on object motion perceived in world coordinates. This entails a process, which has been called flow parsing (Rushton & Warren, 2005; Warren & Rushton, 2009a), that recovers the component of optic flow due to object motion independent of self-motion. We found that when self-motion is real and actively generated, the process by which object motion is recovered relies on both visual and nonvisual information to factor out the influence of self-motion. The remaining component contains information about object motion in world coordinates that is needed to guide locomotion.

  7. An Image Pattern Tracking Algorithm for Time-resolved Measurement of Mini- and Micro-scale Motion of Complex Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Seiner

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An image pattern tracking algorithm is described in this paper for time-resolved measurements of mini- and micro-scale movements of complex objects. This algorithm works with a high-speed digital imaging system, which records thousands of successive image frames in a short time period. The image pattern of the observed object is tracked among successively recorded image frames with a correlation-based algorithm, so that the time histories of the position and displacement of the investigated object in the camera focus plane are determined with high accuracy. The speed, acceleration and harmonic content of the investigated motion are obtained by post processing the position and displacement time histories. The described image pattern tracking algorithm is tested with synthetic image patterns and verified with tests on live insects.

  8. Is sociality required for the evolution of communicative complexity? Evidence weighed against alternative hypotheses in diverse taxonomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, Terry J; Garcia-Porta, Joan

    2012-07-05

    Complex social communication is expected to evolve whenever animals engage in many and varied social interactions; that is, sociality should promote communicative complexity. Yet, informal comparisons among phylogenetically independent taxonomic groups seem to cast doubt on the putative role of social factors in the evolution of complex communication. Here, we provide a formal test of the sociality hypothesis alongside alternative explanations for the evolution of communicative complexity. We compiled data documenting variations in signal complexity among closely related species for several case study groups--ants, frogs, lizards and birds--and used new phylogenetic methods to investigate the factors underlying communication evolution. Social factors were only implicated in the evolution of complex visual signals in lizards. Ecology, and to some degree allometry, were most likely explanations for complexity in the vocal signals of frogs (ecology) and birds (ecology and allometry). There was some evidence for adaptive evolution in the pheromone complexity of ants, although no compelling selection pressure was identified. For most taxa, phylogenetic null models were consistently ranked above adaptive models and, for some taxa, signal complexity seems to have accumulated in species via incremental or random changes over long periods of evolutionary time. Becoming social presumably leads to the origin of social communication in animals, but its subsequent influence on the trajectory of signal evolution has been neither clear-cut nor general among taxonomic groups.

  9. How the past weighs on the present: social representations of history and their role in identity politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James H; Hilton, Denis J

    2005-12-01

    Socially shared representations of history have been important in creating, maintaining and changing a people's identity. Their management and negotiation are central to interethnic and international relations. We present a narrative framework to represent how collectively significant events become (selectively) incorporated in social representations that enable positioning of ethnic, national and supranational identities. This perspective creates diachronic (temporal) links between the functional (e.g. realistic conflict theory), social identity, and cognitive perspectives on intergroup relations. The charters embedded in these representations condition nations with similar interests to adopt different political stances in dealing with current events, and can influence the perceived stability and legitimacy of social orders. They are also instrumental in determining social identity strategies for reacting to negative social comparisons, and can influence the relationships between national and ethnic identities.

  10. Observing Structure and Motion in Molecules with Ultrafast Strong Field and Short Wavelength Laser Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucksbaum, Philip H

    2011-04-13

    The term "molecular movie" has come to describe efforts to track and record Angstrom-scale coherent atomic and electronic motion in a molecule. The relevant time scales for this range cover several orders of magnitude, from sub-femtosecond motion associated with electron-electron correlations, to 100-fs internal vibrations, to multi-picosecond motion associated with the dispersion and quantum revivals of molecular reorientation. Conventional methods of cinematography do not work well in this ultrafast and ultrasmall regime, but stroboscopic "pump and probe" techniques can reveal this motion with high fidelity. This talk will describe some of the methods and recent progress in exciting and controlling this motion, using both laboratory lasers and the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray free electron laser, and will further try to relate the date to the goal of molecular movies.

  11. New approaches in the management of insomnia: weighing the advantages of prolonged-release melatonin and synthetic melatoninergic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Hardeland

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rüdiger HardelandJohann Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Göttingen, GermanyAbstract: Hypnotic effects of melatonin and melatoninergic drugs are mediated via MT1 and MT2 receptors, especially those in the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which acts on the hypothalamic sleep switch. Therefore, they differ fundamentally from GABAergic hypnotics. Melatoninergic agonists primarily favor sleep initiation and reset the circadian clock to phases allowing persistent sleep, as required in circadian rhythm sleep disorders. A major obstacle for the use of melatonin to support sleep maintenance in primary insomnia results from its short half-life in the circulation. Solutions to this problem have been sought by developing prolonged-release formulations of the natural hormone, or melatoninergic drugs of longer half-life, such as ramelteon, tasimelteon and agomelatine. With all these drugs, improvements of sleep are statistically demonstrable, but remain limited, especially in primary chronic insomnia, so that GABAergic drugs may be indicated. Melatoninergic agonists do not cause next-day hangover and withdrawal effects, or dependence. They do not induce behavioral changes, as sometimes observed with z-drugs. Despite otherwise good tolerability, the use of melatoninergic drugs in children, adolescents, and during pregnancy has been a matter of concern, and should be avoided in autoimmune diseases and Parkinsonism. Problems and limits of melatoninergic hypnotics are compared.Keywords: agomelatine, hypnotics, melatonin, prolonged-release, ramelteon, tasimelteon

  12. A Catalog of Proper Motions to Dynamically Measure the Hubble Expansion and the Evolution of Large-Scale Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebenbach, Alexandra; Darling, Jeremiah K.

    2017-01-01

    Objects and structures gravitationally decoupled from the Hubble expansion will appear to shrink in angular size as the universe expands. Observations of extragalactic proper motions can thus directly reveal the cosmic expansion without reliance on canonical cosmological models. Relatively static structures such as galaxies or galaxy clusters will show an apparent fractional angular compression of ~ 15 microarcseconds/yr in the local universe. Pairs of gravitationally bound objects (separations less than ~ 150 Mpc) will also show a deviation from pure cosmic expansion due to the collapse of large-scale structure. We have created a catalog of quasar proper motions to detect and measure these effects through the angular expansion / contraction of quasar pairs rather than with the Doppler method, which relies on cosmological models such as the “distance ladder.” With our catalog, we have confirmed that large separation pairs (600 - 10^4 Mpc comoving) show no net convergence or divergence, 0.18 +/- 0.18 microarcseconds/yr, consistent with Hubble expansion and significantly inconsistent with static structures, as expected. For pairs with comoving separations 150 project will provide a dynamical means to confirm the isotropy of the universe, to measure the Hubble constant, and to measure or constrain the primordial gravitational wave background.

  13. Impact of the Body Mass on Complications and Outcome in Multiple Trauma Patients: What Does the Weight Weigh?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Andruszkow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is known as an independent risk factor for various morbidities. The influence of an increased body mass index (BMI on morbidity and mortality in critically injured patients has been investigated with conflicting results. To verify the impact of weight disorders in multiple traumatized patients, 586 patients with an injury severity score >16 points treated at a level I trauma center between 2005 and 2011 were differentiated according to the BMI and analyzed regarding morbidity and outcome. Plasma levels of interleukin- (IL- 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were measured during clinical course to evaluate the inflammatory response to the “double hit” of weight disorders and multiple trauma. In brief, obesity was the highest risk factor for development of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS (OR 4.209, 95%-CI 1.515–11.692 besides injury severity (OR 1.054, 95%-CI 1.020–1.089 and APACHE II score (OR 1.059, 95%-CI 1.001–1.121. In obese patients as compared to those with overweight, normal weight, and underweight, the highest levels of CRP were continuously present while increased systemic IL-6 levels were found until day 4. In conclusion, an altered posttraumatic inflammatory response in obese patients seems to determine the risk for multiple organ failure after severe trauma.

  14. Impact of the Body Mass on Complications and Outcome in Multiple Trauma Patients: What Does the Weight Weigh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruszkow, Hagen; Mommsen, Philipp; Zeckey, Christian; Frink, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is known as an independent risk factor for various morbidities. The influence of an increased body mass index (BMI) on morbidity and mortality in critically injured patients has been investigated with conflicting results. To verify the impact of weight disorders in multiple traumatized patients, 586 patients with an injury severity score >16 points treated at a level I trauma center between 2005 and 2011 were differentiated according to the BMI and analyzed regarding morbidity and outcome. Plasma levels of interleukin- (IL-) 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured during clinical course to evaluate the inflammatory response to the “double hit” of weight disorders and multiple trauma. In brief, obesity was the highest risk factor for development of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (OR 4.209, 95%-CI 1.515–11.692) besides injury severity (OR 1.054, 95%-CI 1.020–1.089) and APACHE II score (OR 1.059, 95%-CI 1.001–1.121). In obese patients as compared to those with overweight, normal weight, and underweight, the highest levels of CRP were continuously present while increased systemic IL-6 levels were found until day 4. In conclusion, an altered posttraumatic inflammatory response in obese patients seems to determine the risk for multiple organ failure after severe trauma. PMID:24023413

  15. "Weighing" the effects of exercise and intrinsic aerobic capacity: are there beneficial effects independent of changes in weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyfault, John P; Wright, David C

    2016-09-01

    It has been known for centuries that regularly performed exercise has beneficial effects on metabolic health. Owing to its central role in locomotion and the fact that it accounts for a large majority of whole-body glucose disposal and fatty acid oxidation, the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle has been a central focus in exercise physiology research. With this being said it is becoming increasingly well recognized that both adipose tissue and liver metabolism are robustly modified by exercise, especially in conditions of obesity and insulin resistance. One of the difficult questions to address is if the effects of exercise are direct or occur secondary to exercise-induced weight loss. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent work that has attempted to tease out the protective effects of exercise, or intrinsic aerobic capacity, against metabolic and inflammatory challenges as it relates to the treatment and prevention of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies reporting improvements in liver and adipose tissue insulin action following a single bout of exercise will also be discussed. The research highlighted in this review sheds new insight into protective, anti-inflammatory effects of exercise that occur largely independent of changes in adiposity and body weight.

  16. Using the EUV to Weigh a Sun-Grazing Comet as it Disappears in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, William Dean; Schrijiver, Carolus J.; Brown, John C.; Battams, Karl; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Hudson Hugh S.; Lui, Wei

    2012-01-01

    On July 6,2011, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AlA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observed a comet in most of its EUY passbands. The comet disappeared while moving through the solar corona. The comet penetrated to 0.146 solar radii ($\\simapprox.100,000 km) above the photosphere before its EUY faded. Before then, the comet's coma and a tail were observed in absorption and emission, respectively. The material in the variable tail quickly fell behind the nucleus. An estimate of the comet's mass based on this effect, one derived from insolation, and one using the tail's EUY brightness, all yield $\\sim 50$ giga-grams some 10 minutes prior to the end of its visibility. These unique first observations herald a new era in the study of Sun-grazing comets close to their perihelia and of the conditions in the solar corona and solar wind. We will discuss the observations and interpretation of the comet by SDO as well as the coronagraph observations from SOHO and STEREO. A search of the SOHO comet archive for other comets that could be observed in the SDO; AlA EUY channels will be described

  17. On the scaling behavior of hardness with ligament diameter of nanoporous-Au: Constrained motion of dislocations along the ligaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanath, R. N.; Polaki, S. R.; Rajaraman, R.; Abhaya, S.; Chirayath, V. A.; Amarendra, G.; Sundar, C. S. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, TamilNadu (India)

    2014-06-09

    The scaling behavior of hardness with ligament diameter and vacancy defect concentration in nanoporous Au (np-Au) has been investigated using a combination of Vickers Hardness, Scanning electron microscopy, and positron lifetime measurements. It is shown that for np-Au, the hardness scales with the ligament diameter with an exponent of −0.3, that is, at variance with the conventional Hall-Petch exponent of −0.5 for bulk systems, as seen in the controlled experiments on cold worked Au with varying grain size. The hardness of np-Au correlates with the vacancy concentration C{sub V} within the ligaments, as estimated from positron lifetime experiments, and scales as C{sub V}{sup 1/2}, pointing to the interaction of dislocations with vacancies. The distinctive Hall-Petch exponent of −0.3 seen for np-Au, with ligament diameters in the range of 5–150 nm, is rationalized by invoking the constrained motion of dislocations along the ligaments.

  18. Perception of complex motion in humans and pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankoo, Jean-François; Madan, Christopher R; Spetch, Marcia L; Wylie, Douglas R

    2014-06-01

    In the primate visual system, local motion signals are pooled to create a global motion percept. Like primates, many birds are highly dependent on vision for their survival, yet relatively little is known about motion perception in birds. We used random-dot stimuli to investigate pigeons' ability to detect complex motion (radial, rotation, and spiral) compared to humans. Our human participants had a significantly lower threshold for rotational and radial motion when compared to spiral motion. The data from the pigeons, however, showed that the pigeons were most sensitive to rotational motion and least sensitive to radial motion, while sensitivity for spiral motion was intermediate. We followed up the pigeon results with an investigation of the effect of display aperture shape for rotational motion and velocity gradient for radial motion. We found no effect of shape of the aperture on thresholds, but did observe that radial motion containing accelerating dots improved thresholds. However, this improvement did not reach the thresholds levels observed for rotational motion. In sum, our experiments demonstrate that the pooling mechanism in the pigeon motion system is most efficient for rotation.

  19. Directional motion contrast sensitivity in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghuis, Walter L; Ryan, John F

    2006-10-01

    The present study compared the perception of visual motion in two dyslexia classification schemes; the [Boder, E. (1973). Developmental dyslexia: a diagnostic approach based on three atypical reading-spelling patterns. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 15, 663-687.] dyseidetic, dysphonetic and mixed subgroups and [Williams, M. J., Stuart, G. W., Castles, A., & McAnally, K. I. (2003). Contrast sensitivity in subgroups of developmental dyslexia. Vision Research, 43, 467-477.] surface, phonological and mixed subgroups by measuring the contrast sensitivity for drifting gratings at three spatial frequencies (1.0, 4.0, and 8.0 c/deg) and five drift velocities (0.75, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, and 18.0 cyc/s) in a sample of 32 children with dyslexia and 32 matched normal readers. The findings show that there were no differences in motion direction perception between normal readers and the group with dyslexia when dyslexia was taken as a homogeneous group. Motion direction perception was found to be intact in the dyseidetic and surface dyslexia subgroups and significantly lowered in both mixed dyslexia subgroups. The one inconsistency in the findings was that motion direction perception was significantly lowered in the [Boder, E. (1973). Developmental dyslexia: a diagnostic approach based on three atypical reading-spelling patterns. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 15, 663-687.] dysphonetic subgroup and intact in the [Williams, M. J., Stuart, G. W., Castles, A., & McAnally, K. I. (2003). Contrast sensitivity in subgroups of developmental dyslexia. Vision Research, 43, 467-477.] phonological subgroup. The findings also provide evidence for the presence of a disorder in sequential and temporal order processing that appears to reflect a difficulty in retaining sequences of non-meaningful auditory and visual stimuli in short-term working memory in children with dyslexia.

  20. Wavelet features in motion data classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesna, Agnieszka; Świtoński, Adam; Słupik, Janusz; Josiński, Henryk; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the problem of motion data classification based on result of multiresolution analysis implemented in form of quaternion lifting scheme. Scheme processes directly on time series of rotations coded in form of unit quaternion signal. In the work new features derived from wavelet energy and entropy are proposed. To validate the approach gait database containing data of 30 different humans is used. The obtained results are satisfactory. The classification has over than 91% accuracy.

  1. Complex motions and chaos in nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Zhang, Jiazhong

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together 10 chapters on a new stream of research examining complex phenomena in nonlinear systems—including engineering, physics, and social science. Complex Motions and Chaos in Nonlinear Systems provides readers a particular vantage of the nature and nonlinear phenomena in nonlinear dynamics that can develop the corresponding mathematical theory and apply nonlinear design to practical engineering as well as the study of other complex phenomena including those investigated within social science.

  2. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C M; Carson, Henry S; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J; Borerro, Jose C; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  3. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eriksen

    Full Text Available Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013 across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680 and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891. Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove <4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  4. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; Carson, Henry S.; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J.; Borerro, Jose C.; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G.; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove ocean surface. PMID:25494041

  5. Robots arm motion representation in Petri NETS using sequent calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Uzair Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many sort of motion in robots structure. Such as the robot locomotion robot jumps robots picking and so on but all are presented through Petri NETS. The one motion which is also the important one and most worthy motion of the robots is the robots arm motion. Which till yet not represented through Petri NETS. In this paper we are going to represent the motion of the robot arm in different angles and different aspect, such as up, down, circular, back and front moment of the robot arm, through Petri net we can present the complex form of motions into simplex paths.

  6. Orbital Motion in Outer Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J; Klacka, Jozef; Gajdosik, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Motion of a point mass in gravitational fields of the Sun and of the galactic disk is studied. Fundamental features of the motion are found by investigating the time-averaged differential equations for orbital evolution. Several types of possible orbits are mathematically exactly derived in a strictly analytical way. The relation $a^{3} ~ P^{2} = f (e_{0}, i_{0}, \\omega_{0})$ between semimajor axis a and period P of the change of osculating orbital elements is found (the index 0 denotes initial values of the quantities). Due to conservation of energy in potential fields a is a constant. Moreover, the component of angular momentum perpendicular to the galactic plane is conserved. Due to these facts the system of equations reduces to two equations for either (e, $\\omega$), or (i, $\\omega$) (the length of the ascending node does not enter the equations for a, e, i, $\\omega$ and is not solved here).

  7. Collective motion in an active suspension of Escherichia coli bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachelin, J.; Rousselet, A.; Lindner, A.; Clement, E.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate experimentally the emergence of collective motion in the bulk of an active suspension of Escherichia coli bacteria. When increasing the concentration from a dilute to a semi-dilute regime, we observe a continuous crossover from a dynamical cluster regime to a regime of ‘bio-turbulence’ convection patterns. We measure a length scale characterizing the collective motion as a function of the bacteria concentration. For bacteria fully supplied with oxygen, the increase of the correlation length is almost linear with concentration and at the largest concentrations tested, the correlation length could be as large as 24 bacterial body sizes (or 7-8 when including the flagella bundle). In contrast, under conditions of oxygen shortage the correlation length saturates at a value of around 7 body lengths.

  8. Let's Weigh in on "Deflategate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepker, Terrence

    2016-01-01

    The September 2015 paper "Bouncing Back from 'Deflategate'" is a very interesting article from a physics viewpoint. However, we doubt that the National Football League (NFL) officials will bounce footballs and measure the coefficient of restitution to verify that the footballs remain properly inflated. The release of a few pounds per…

  9. Weighing in on the Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Assuming the validity of the Standard Model, or more generally that possible physics beyond it would have only small effects on production cross sections, branching ratios and electroweak radiative corrections, I determine the mass of the Higgs boson to 124.5 +- 0.8 GeV at the 68% CL. This is arrived at by combining electroweak precision data with the results of Higgs boson searches at LEP 2, the Tevatron, and the LHC. The statistical interpretation of the method does not require a look-elsewhere effect correction.

  10. Let's Weigh in on "Deflategate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepker, Terrence

    2016-01-01

    The September 2015 paper "Bouncing Back from 'Deflategate'" is a very interesting article from a physics viewpoint. However, we doubt that the National Football League (NFL) officials will bounce footballs and measure the coefficient of restitution to verify that the footballs remain properly inflated. The release of a few pounds per…

  11. Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167159.html Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss Put an end to guesstimating calories with simple ... of calories a day. And that can slow weight loss to a snail's pace. The answer is to ...

  12. Equations of motion in relativistic gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lämmerzahl, Claus; Schutz, Bernard

    2015-01-01

     The present volume aims to be a comprehensive survey on the derivation of the equations of motion, both in General Relativity as well as in alternative gravity theories. The topics covered range from the description of test bodies, to self-gravitating (heavy) bodies, to current and future observations. Emphasis is put on the coverage of various approximation methods (e.g., multipolar, post-Newtonian, self-force methods) which are extensively used in the context of the relativistic problem of motion. Applications discussed in this volume range from the motion of binary systems -- and the gravitational waves emitted by such systems -- to observations of the galactic center. In particular the impact of choices at a fundamental theoretical level on the interpretation of experiments is highlighted. This book provides a broad and up-do-date status report, which will not only be of value for the experts working in this field, but also may serve as a guideline for students with background in General Relativity who ...

  13. Superluminal Motion Found In Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    and Rodriguez were able to track the movement of the two condensations in the jets of material moving away from the object's core. They found that the core remained stationary, while the approaching condensation was apparently moving at 125 percent of the speed of light. After correcting for relativistic effects, they conclude that the ejected material actually is moving at 92 percent of light speed. Their calculations indicate that the pair of "blobs" they tracked were ejected from the core on March 19, during a period when the object was emitting more X-rays than usual. GRS 1915+105 somewhat resembles a famous astronomical object that was intensively studied in the late 1970s and early 1980s, called SS433. The VLA was used for many observations of SS433, which, astronomers believe, is also a double-star system with a dense, massive star as its centerpiece. SS433 has jets similar to those of GRS 1915+105, but the fastest motions detected in SS433's jets are only 26 percent the speed of light. Comparing it to quasars, which are believed to be phenomena associated with supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies -- objects much larger and more massive than stars -- astronomers have called SS433 a "stellar microquasar." With kinetic energies 40 times those of SS433, GRS 1915+105 "appears to be a scaled up version" of the other object, Mirabel and Rodriguez say.

  14. Microlensing Parallax for Observers in Heliocentric Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Novati, S Calchi

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the ongoing Spitzer observational campaign, and the forecoming K2 one, we revisit, working in an heliocentric reference frame, the geometrical foundation for the analysis of the microlensing parallax, as measured with the simultaneous observation of the same microlensing event from two observers with relative distance of order AU. For the case of observers at rest we discuss the well known fourfold microlensing parallax degeneracy and determine an equation for the degenerate directions of the lens trajectory. For the case of observers in motion, we write down an extension of the Gould (1994) relationship between the microlensing parallax and the observable quantities and, at the same time, we highlight the functional dependence of these same quantities from the timescale of the underlying microlensing event. Furthermore, through a series of examples, we show the importance of taking into account the motion of the observers to correctly recover the parameters of the underlying microlensing event. ...

  15. Geodesic motion in a stationary dihole spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Dubeibe, F L

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the properties of the different exact solutions modeling binary systems, is a necessary step towards the classification of physically suitable solutions and its corresponding limits of applicability. In the present paper, we perform an analysis of the geodesics around two counter--rotating Kerr--Newman black holes endowed with opposite electric charges, which achieve equilibrium by means of a strut between their constituents. We find that bounded and unbounded orbits are possible. However, test particles may cross between the black holes only if their angular momentum equals zero, otherwise, there exist a repulsive potential, which prohibits such orbits. Two important aspects are pointed out for these trajectories: ({\\it i}) the motion of photons is affected once crossing the strut; and ({\\it ii}) massive particles exhibit oscillatory motion, as a first analog of the Sitnikov problem in general relativity. The radius of the innermost stable circular orbit as a function of the physical paramet...

  16. THE HOMOTHETIC MOTIONS IN THE LORENTZ 3-SPACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the properties of the homothetic motions in three-dimensional Lorentz space are investigated. Also, some geometric results between velocity and acceleration vectors of a point in a spatial motion are obtained.

  17. Detecting electron motion in atoms and molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hua-Chieh; Starace, Anthony F

    2010-12-31

    The detection of spatial and temporal electronic motion by scattering of subfemtosecond pulses of 10 keV electrons from coherent superpositions of electronic states of both H and T2(+) is investigated. For the H atom, we predict changes in the diffraction images that reflect the time-dependent effective radius of the electronic charge density. For an aligned T2(+) molecule, the diffraction image changes reflect the time-dependent localization or delocalization of the electronic charge density.

  18. Motion in alternative theories of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito-Farese, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Although general relativity (GR) passes all present experimental tests with flying colors, it remains important to study alternative theories of gravity for several theoretical and phenomenological reasons that we recall in these lecture notes. The various possible ways of modifying GR are presented, and we notably show that the motion of massive bodies may be changed even if one assumes that matter is minimally coupled to the metric as in GR. This is illustrated with the particular case of scalar-tensor theories of gravity, whose Fokker action is discussed, and we also mention the consequences of the no-hair theorem on the motion of black holes. The finite size of the bodies modifies their motion with respect to pointlike particles, and we give a simple argument showing that the corresponding effects are generically much larger in alternative theories than in GR. We also discuss possible modifications of Newtonian dynamics (MOND) at large distances, which have been proposed to avoid the dark matter hypothesi...

  19. Visual motion integration is mediated by directional ambiguities in local motion signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eRocchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The output of primary visual cortex (V1 is a piecemeal representation of the visual scene and the response of any one cell cannot unambiguously guide sensorimotor behavior. It remains unsolved how subsequent stages of cortical processing combine (‘pool’ these early visual signals into a coherent representation. We (Webb et al., 2007, 2011 have shown that responses of human observers on a pooling task employing broadband, random dot motion can be accurately predicted by decoding the maximum likelihood direction from a population of motion-sensitive neurons. Whereas Amano et al. (2009 found that the vector average velocity of arrays of narrowband, two-dimensional (2-d plaids predicts perceived global motion. To reconcile these different results, we designed two experiments in which we used 2-d noise textures moving behind spatially distributed apertures and measured the point of subjective equality between pairs of global noise textures. Textures in the standard stimulus moved rigidly in the same direction, whereas their directions in the comparison stimulus were sampled from a set of probability distributions. Human observers judged which noise texture had a more clockwise global direction. In agreement with Amano and colleagues, observers’ perceived global motion coincided with the vector average stimulus direction. To test if directional ambiguities in local motion signals governed perceived global direction, we manipulated the fidelity of the texture motion within each aperture. A proportion of the apertures contained texture that underwent rigid translation and the remainder contained dynamic (temporally uncorrelated noise to create locally ambiguous motion. Perceived global motion matched the vector average when the majority of apertures contained rigid motion, but with increasing levels of dynamic noise shifted towards the maximum likelihood direction. A class of population decoders utilizing power-law nonlinearities can accommodate

  20. Optimal displacement in apparent motion and quadrature models of motion sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A grating appears to move if it is displaced by some amount between two brief presentations, or between multiple successive presentations. A number of recent experiments have examined the influence of displacement size upon either the sensitivity to motion, or upon the induced motion aftereffect. Several recent motion models are based upon quadrature filters that respond in opposite quadrants in the spatiotemporal frequency plane. Predictions of the quadrature model are derived for both two-frame and multiframe displays. Quadrature models generally predict an optimal displacement of 1/4 cycle for two-frame displays, but in the multiframe case the prediction depends entirely on the frame rate.