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Sample records for weibel-palade bodies revealed

  1. A unique pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell niche revealed by Weibel-Palade bodies and Griffonia simplicifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songwei; Zhou, Chun; King, Judy A C; Stevens, Troy

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary endothelium displays considerable heterogeneity along the vascular axis, from arteries to capillaries to veins. Griffonia simplicifolia is a lectin that recognizes pulmonary microvascular endothelium with preference over extra-alveolar endothelium in both arteries and veins, yet the precise vascular location where this phenotypic shift occurs is poorly resolved. We gelatin-filled the circulation and agarose-loaded the airways and then labeled the lung with Griffonia lectin to enable visualization of the endothelial transition zone. Endothelium in vessels with internal diameters less than 38 μm were uniformly Griffonia positive, whereas vessels with internal diameters greater than 60 μm were always Griffonia negative. Two populations of endothelium were identified in vessels ranging from 38 to 60 μm in diameter, including some that were positive and others that were negative for binding to G. simplicifolia. To better resolve this endothelial transition zone, we performed morphology studies to measure the distribution of Weibel-Palade bodies (WPbs), since WPbs are present in conduit vessel endothelium and absent in capillary endothelium. WPbs were found in endothelium with vascular dimensions as small as 18 μm in diameter but were not found in capillaries. Thus, we identify with precision that the endothelial phenotype transition from a cell that does not interact with Griffonia lectin to one that does occurs in blood vessels with internal diameters of approximately 38 μm, and we reveal an unappreciated vascular zone, between 18 and 38 μm in diameter, where endothelium both is Griffonia positive and possesses WPbs.

  2. Molecular mechanisms involved in Weibel-Palade body exocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooren, K.W.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial cells form the barrier between the circulating blood and the underlying tissue. Endothelial cells contain specialized organelles called Weibel-Palade bodies that contain proteins involved in blood coagulation and inflammatory processes. In this thesis we describe a studies unraveling the

  3. Weibel-Palade bodies : an exciting way out!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romani de Wit, Thalia

    2003-01-01

    Weibel-Palade bodies are specialized secretory granules found in endothelial cells. These vesicles are able to store a variety of proteins with different biological functions such as the multimeric glycoprotein von Willebrand factor (VWF) that is required for normal haemostasis, the leukocyte

  4. Sphingosine 1-phosphate activates Weibel-Palade body exocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Kenji; Morrell, Craig N.; Lowenstein, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) not only regulates angiogenesis, vascular permeability and vascular tone, but it also promotes vascular inflammation. However, the molecular basis for the proinflammatory effects of S1P is not understood. We now show that S1P activates endothelial cell exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies, releasing vasoactive substances capable of causing vascular thrombosis and inflammation. S1P triggers endothelial exocytosis in part through phospholipase C-γ signal transduction...

  5. Guanine exchange factor RalGDS mediates exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies from endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rondaij, Mariska G.; Bierings, Ruben; van Agtmaal, Ellen L.; Gijzen, Karina A.; Sellink, Erica; Kragt, Astrid; Ferguson, Stephen S. G.; Mertens, Koen; Hannah, Matthew J.; van Mourik, Jan A.; Fernandez-Borja, Mar; Voorberg, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The small GTP-binding protein Ral has been implicated in regulated exocytosis via its interaction with the mammalian exocyst complex. We have previously demonstrated that Ral is involved in exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs). Little is known about intracellular signaling pathways that promote

  6. Efficiency of von Willebrand factor-mediated targeting of interleukin-8 into Weibel-Palade bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierings, R.; van den Biggelaar, M.; Kragt, A.; Mertens, K.; Voorberg, J.; van Mourik, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: After de novo synthesis in endothelial cells, the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) is targeted to endothelial cell-specific storage vesicles, the Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), where it colocalizes with von Willebrand factor (VWF). Objective: In this study we investigated a putative

  7. Characterisation of Weibel-Palade body fusion by amperometry in endothelial cells reveals fusion pore dynamics and the effect of cholesterol on exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Emma A; Conte, Ianina L; Dempster, John; Hannah, Matthew J; Carter, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Regulated secretion from endothelial cells is mediated by Weibel-Palade body (WPB) exocytosis. Plasma membrane cholesterol is implicated in regulating secretory granule exocytosis and fusion pore dynamics; however, its role in modulating WPB exocytosis is not clear. To address this we combined high-resolution electrochemical analysis of WPB fusion pore dynamics, by amperometry, with high-speed optical imaging of WPB exocytosis following cholesterol depletion or supplementation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We identified serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactivity in WPBs, and VMAT1 expression allowing detection of secreted 5-HT as discrete current spikes during exocytosis. A high proportion of spikes (∼75%) had pre-spike foot signals, indicating that WPB fusion proceeds via an initial narrow pore. Cholesterol depletion significantly reduced pre-spike foot signal duration and increased the rate of fusion pore expansion, whereas cholesterol supplementation had broadly the reverse effect. Cholesterol depletion slowed the onset of hormone-evoked WPB exocytosis, whereas its supplementation increased the rate of WPB exocytosis and hormone-evoked proregion secretion. Our results provide the first analysis of WPB fusion pore dynamics and highlight an important role for cholesterol in the regulation of WPB exocytosis.

  8. Dynein-dynactin complex mediates protein kinase A-dependent clustering of Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rondaij, Mariska G.; Bierings, Ruben; Kragt, Astrid; Gijzen, Karina A.; Sellink, Erica; van Mourik, Jan A.; Fernandez-Borja, Mar; Voorberg, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Perinuclear clustering is observed for several different organelles and illustrates dynamic regulation of the secretory pathway and organelle distribution. Previously, we observed that a subset of Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), endothelial cell-specific storage organelles, undergo centralization when

  9. Factor VIII alters tubular organization and functional properties of von Willebrand factor stored in Weibel-Palade bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, Eveline A. M.; Mourik, Marjon J.; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Eikenboom, Jeroen C. J.; Voorberg, Jan; Valentijn, Karine M.; Mertens, Koen

    2011-01-01

    In endothelial cells, von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers are packaged into tubules that direct biogenesis of elongated Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs). WPB release results in unfurling of VWF tubules and assembly into strings that serve to recruit platelets. By confocal microscopy, we have previously

  10. STXBP1 promotes Weibel-Palade body exocytosis through its interaction with the Rab27A effector Slp4-a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breevoort, Dorothee; Snijders, Ambrosius P.; Hellen, Nicola; Weckhuysen, Sarah; van Hooren, Kathinka W. E. M.; Eikenboom, Jeroen; Valentijn, Karine; Fernandez-Borja, Mar; Ceulemans, Berten; de Jonghe, Peter; Voorberg, Jan; Hannah, Matthew; Carter, Tom; Bierings, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells contain unique rod-shaped secretory organelles, called Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), which contain the hemostatic protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) and a cocktail of angiogenic and inflammatory mediators. We have shown that the Rab27A effector synaptotagmin-like protein

  11. Rab35 protein regulates evoked exocytosis of endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesemann, Anja; Gorontzi, Alexandra; Barr, Francis; Gerke, Volker

    2017-07-14

    Weibel-Palade bodies (WPB) are secretory organelles of endothelial cells that undergo evoked exocytosis following intracellular Ca 2+ or cAMP elevation, thereby supplying the vasculature with factors controlling hemostasis. Several cytosolic and membrane-associated proteins, including the Rab family members Rab3, Rab15, and Rab27a, have been implicated in regulating the acute exocytosis of WPB. Here, we carried out a genome-wide screen to identify Rab pathways affecting WPB exocytosis. Overexpression of a specific subset of Rab GTPase-activating proteins (RabGAPs) inhibited histamine-evoked, Ca 2+ -dependent WPB exocytosis, presumably by inactivating the target Rab GTPases. Among these RabGAPs, we concentrated on TBC1D10A and showed that the inhibitory effect depends on its GAP activity. We confirmed that Rab35 was a target Rab of TBC1D10A in human endothelial cells; Rab35 interacted with TBC1D10A, and expression of the GAP-insensitive Rab35(Q67A) mutant rescued the inhibitory effect of TBC1D10A overexpression on WPB exocytosis. Furthermore, knockdown of Rab35 and expression of a dominant-negative Rab35 mutant both inhibited histamine-evoked secretion of the WPB cargos von Willebrand factor and P-selectin. Pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation experiments identified the ArfGAP with coiled-coil, Ank repeat, and pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein ACAP2 as an Rab35 effector in endothelial cells, and depletion as well as overexpression approaches revealed that ACAP2 acts as a negative regulator of WPB exocytosis. Interestingly, a known ACAP2 target, the small GTPase Arf6, supported histamine-evoked WPB exocytosis, as shown by knockdown and overexpression of a dominant-negative Arf6 mutant. Our data identify Rab35 as a novel regulator of WPB exocytosis, most likely acting through the downstream effectors ACAP2 and Arf6. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. The Effect of Shiga Toxin on Weibel-Palade Bodies in Primary Human Endothelial Cells

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    Joyce Geelen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome is associated with the presence of Shiga toxin (Stx1, Stx2 and several variants in the circulation. The aim of this study is to examine the possible triggering effect of Stx1 on the exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies (WPbs. Methods: Cultured human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs and glomerular microvascular endothelial cells (GMVECs were stimulated by thrombin and Stx1 in both static and flowing conditions. The amount of secreted von Willebrand factor (VWF in the supernatant as well as the remaining intracellular fraction was determined. Results: In HUVECs and in 2 out of 4 GMVECs, the stimulation of Stx1 in flow at 1 dyne/cm2 resulted in a decrease of intracellular VWF. This is contrary to the results of Stx1 applied in static conditions. At a higher flow rate of 5 dyne/cm2, no effect in GMVECs was observed. Conclusion: Stx1 can contribute, via an effect on WPbs, to the exocytosis of WPbs in flow conditions in HUVECs and probably in GMVECs. This results in the release of VWF, suggesting an initiating role of the coagulation system in the pathogenesis.

  13. Content delivery to newly forming Weibel-Palade bodies is facilitated by multiple connections with the Golgi apparatus.

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    Mourik, Marjon J; Faas, Frank G A; Zimmermann, Hans; Voorberg, Jan; Koster, Abraham J; Eikenboom, Jeroen

    2015-05-28

    Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) comprise an on-demand storage organelle within vascular endothelial cells. It's major component, the hemostatic protein von Willebrand factor (VWF), is known to assemble into long helical tubules and is hypothesized to drive WPB biogenesis. However, electron micrographs of WPBs at the Golgi apparatus show that these forming WPBs contain very little tubular VWF compared with mature peripheral WPBs, which raises questions on the mechanisms that increase the VWF content and facilitate vesicle growth. Using correlative light and electron microscopy and electron tomography, we investigated WPB biogenesis in time. We reveal that forming WPBs maintain multiple connections to the Golgi apparatus throughout their biogenesis. Also by volume scanning electron microscopy, we confirmed the presence of these connections linking WPBs and the Golgi apparatus. From electron tomograms, we provided evidence that nontubular VWF is added to WPBs, which suggested that tubule formation occurs in the WPB lumen. During this process, the Golgi membrane and clathrin seem to provide a scaffold to align forming VWF tubules. Overall, our data show that multiple connections with the Golgi facilitate content delivery and indicate that the Golgi appears to provide a framework to determine the overall size and dimensions of newly forming WPBs. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. The Epac-Rap1 Signaling Pathway Controls cAMP-mediated Exocytosis of Weibel-Palade Bodies in Endothelial Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooren, Kathinka W. E. M.; van Agtmaal, Ellen L.; Fernandez-Borja, Mar; van Mourik, Jan A.; Voorberg, Jan; Bierings, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial cells contain specialized storage organelles called Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) that release their content into the vascular lumen in response to specific agonists that raise intracellular Ca2+ or cAMP. We have previously shown that cAMP-mediated WPB release is dependent on protein

  15. Storage of factor VIII variants with impaired von Willebrand factor binding in Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells.

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    Maartje van den Biggelaar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Point mutations resulting in reduced factor VIII (FVIII binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF are an important cause of mild/moderate hemophilia A. Treatment includes desmopressin infusion, which concomitantly increases VWF and FVIII plasma levels, apparently from storage pools containing both proteins. The source of these VWF/FVIII co-storage pools and the mechanism of granule biogenesis are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied intracellular trafficking of FVIII variants implicated in mild/moderate hemophilia A together with VWF in HEK293 cells and primary endothelial cells. The role of VWF binding was addressed using FVIII variants displaying reduced VWF interaction. Binding studies using purified FVIII proteins revealed moderate (Arg2150His, Del2201, Pro2300Ser to severe (Tyr1680Phe, Ser2119Tyr VWF binding defects. Expression studies in HEK293 cells and primary endothelial cells revealed that all FVIII variants were present within VWF-containing organelles. Quantitative studies showed that the relative amount of FVIII storage was independent of various mutations. Substantial amounts of FVIII variants are co-stored in VWF-containing storage organelles, presumably by virtue of their ability to interact with VWF at low pH. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the potential of FVIII co-storage with VWF is not affected in mild/moderate hemophilia A caused by reduced FVIII/VWF interaction in the circulation. These data support the hypothesis that Weibel-Palade bodies comprise the desmopressin-releasable FVIII storage pool in vivo.

  16. Interaction between MyRIP and the actin cytoskeleton regulates Weibel-Palade body trafficking and exocytosis.

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    Conte, Ianina L; Hellen, Nicola; Bierings, Ruben; Mashanov, Gregory I; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste; Kiskin, Nikolai I; Hannah, Matthew J; Molloy, Justin E; Carter, Tom

    2016-02-01

    Weibel-Palade body (WPB)-actin interactions are essential for the trafficking and secretion of von Willebrand factor; however, the molecular basis for this interaction remains poorly defined. Myosin Va (MyoVa or MYO5A) is recruited to WPBs by a Rab27A-MyRIP complex and is thought to be the prime mediator of actin binding, but direct MyRIP-actin interactions can also occur. To evaluate the specific contribution of MyRIP-actin and MyRIP-MyoVa binding in WPB trafficking and Ca(2+)-driven exocytosis, we used EGFP-MyRIP point mutants with disrupted MyoVa and/or actin binding and high-speed live-cell fluorescence microscopy. We now show that the ability of MyRIP to restrict WPB movement depends upon its actin-binding rather than its MyoVa-binding properties. We also show that, although the role of MyRIP in Ca(2+)-driven exocytosis requires both MyoVa- and actin-binding potential, it is the latter that plays a dominant role. In view of these results and together with the analysis of actin disruption or stabilisation experiments, we propose that the role of MyRIP in regulating WPB trafficking and exocytosis is mediated largely through its interaction with actin rather than with MyoVa. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. A Unique Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cell Niche Revealed by Weibel-Palade Bodies and Griffonia Simplicifolia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Songwei; Zhou, Chun; King, Judy A. C; Stevens, Troy

    2014-01-01

    .... Griffonia simplicifolia is a lectin that recognizes pulmonary microvascular endothelium with preference over extra-alveolar endothelium in both arteries and veins, yet the precise vascular location...

  18. Tuning the SNAREs that regulate Weibel-Palade body exocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breevoort, A.E.D.

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial cells form the inner lining of the vessel wall and provide a barrier between circulating blood and the underlying tissue. The endothelium participates in maintenance of vascular homeostasis and facilitates rapid responses to environmental changes such as inflammation or vascular damage.

  19. Storage of factor VIII variants with impaired von Willebrand factor binding in Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Bouwens, Eveline A. M.; Voorberg, Jan; Mertens, Koen

    2011-01-01

    Point mutations resulting in reduced factor VIII (FVIII) binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF) are an important cause of mild/moderate hemophilia A. Treatment includes desmopressin infusion, which concomitantly increases VWF and FVIII plasma levels, apparently from storage pools containing both

  20. Requirements for cellular co-trafficking of factor VIII and von Willebrand factor to Weibel-Palade bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Biggelaar, M.; Bierings, R.; Storm, G.; Voorberg, J.; Mertens, K.

    2007-01-01

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) serves a critical role as a carrier of factor (F)VIII in circulation. While it is generally believed that FVIII and VWF assemble in circulation after secretion from different cells, an alternative view is that cells should exist that co-express FVIII and VWF. In this

  1. Factor VIII/V C-domain swaps reveal discrete C-domain roles in factor VIII function and intracellular trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Ebberink, Eduard H T M; Bouwens, Eveline A. M.; Bloem, Esther; Boon-Spijker, Mariëtte; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Voorberg, Jan; Alexander B. Meijer; Mertens, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Factor VIII C-domains are believed to have specific functions in cofactor activity and in interactions with von Willebrand factor. We have previously shown that factor VIII is co-targeted with von Willebrand factor to the Weibel-Palade bodies in blood outgrowth endothelial cells, even when factor VIII carries mutations in the light chain that are associated with defective von Willebrand factor binding. In this study, we addressed the contribution of individual factor VIII C-domains in intrace...

  2. Small GTP-binding protein Ral modulates regulated exocytosis of von Willebrand factor by endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, H. P.; Fernandez-Borja, M.; Reits, E. A.; Romani de Wit, T.; Wijers-Koster, P. M.; Hordijk, P. L.; Neefjes, J.; van Mourik, J. A.; Voorberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Weibel-Palade bodies are endothelial cell-specific organelles, which contain von Willebrand factor (vWF), P-selectin, and several other proteins. Recently, we found that the small GTP-binding protein Ral is present in a subcellular fraction containing Weibel-Palade bodies. In the present study, we

  3. Characterization of Zebrafish von Willebrand Factor Reveals Conservation of Domain Structure, Multimerization, and Intracellular Storage

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    Arunima Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available von Willebrand disease (VWD is the most common inherited human bleeding disorder and is caused by quantitative or qualitative defects in von Willebrand factor (VWF. VWF is a secreted glycoprotein that circulates as large multimers. While reduced VWF is associated with bleeding, elevations in overall level or multimer size are implicated in thrombosis. The zebrafish is a powerful genetic model in which the hemostatic system is well conserved with mammals. The ability of this organism to generate thousands of offspring and its optical transparency make it unique and complementary to mammalian models of hemostasis. Previously, partial clones of zebrafish vwf have been identified, and some functional conservation has been demonstrated. In this paper we clone the complete zebrafish vwf cDNA and show that there is conservation of domain structure. Recombinant zebrafish Vwf forms large multimers and pseudo-Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs in cell culture. Larval expression is in the pharyngeal arches, yolk sac, and intestinal epithelium. These results provide a foundation for continued study of zebrafish Vwf that may further our understanding of the mechanisms of VWD.

  4. Exocytosis of Endothelial Lysosome-Related Organelles Hair-Triggers a Patchy Loss of Glycocalyx at the Onset of Sepsis.

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    Zullo, Joseph A; Fan, Jie; Azar, Tala T; Yen, Wanyi; Zeng, Min; Chen, Jun; Ratliff, Brian B; Song, Jun; Tarbell, John M; Goligorsky, Michael S; Fu, Bingmei M

    2016-02-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory syndrome induced by bacterial infection that can lead to multiorgan failure. Endothelial surface glycocalyx (ESG) decorating the inner wall of blood vessels is a regulator of multiple vascular functions. Here, we tested a hypothesis that patchy degradation of ESG occurs early in sepsis and is a result of exocytosis of lysosome-related organelles. Time-lapse video microscopy revealed that exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies and secretory lysosomes occurred a few minutes after application of lipopolysaccharides to endothelial cells. Two therapeutic maneuvers, a nitric oxide intermediate, NG-hydroxy-l-arginine, and culture media conditioned by endothelial progenitor cells reduced the motility of lysosome-related organelles. Confocal and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy confirmed the patchy loss of ESG simultaneously with the exocytosis of lysosome-related organelles and Weibel-Palade bodies in cultured endothelial cells and mouse aorta. The loss of ESG was blunted by pretreatment with NG-hydroxy-l-arginine or culture media conditioned by endothelial progenitor cells. Moreover, these treatments resulted in a significant reduction in deaths of septic mice. Our data support the hypothesis assigning to stress-induced exocytosis of these organelles the role of a hair-trigger for local degradation of ESG that initiates leukocyte infiltration, increase in vascular permeability, and partially accounts for the later rates of morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lodox reveals the ideal body

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldstein Lara Nicole; Carim Sameer

    2017-01-01

    .... Despite the now well-known risks of ventilator-associated lung injury, patients with higher body mass indices who require ventilation in the emergency department are at increased risk of receiving...

  6. Assembly of multimeric von Willebrand factor directs sorting of P-selectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, C.; Guilliatt, A.; Daly, M.; de Leeuw, H. P.; Brinkman, H. J.; Peake, I. R.; van Mourik, J. A.; Pannekoek, H.

    2000-01-01

    We designed a model system to study the role of von Willebrand factor (vWF) in the sorting of P-selectin and the biogenesis of Weibel-Palade body (WPB)-like organelles. For that purpose, a human epithelial cell line (T24) that synthesizes P-selectin mRNA, but which is devoid of vWF mRNA synthesis

  7. Donor Desmopressin Treatment Does Not Affect Transplant Outcome in the Fischer to Lewis Rat Renal Transplant Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Heiko M; Höger, Simone; Waldherr, Rüdiger; Schnuelle, Peter; Krämer, Bernhard K; Yard, Benito A; Göttmann, Uwe; Benck, Urs

    2016-06-01

    Retrospective studies suggest that donor desmopressin (DDAVP) treatment improves renal transplant outcome. The present study tests the hypothesis that desmopressin neutralizes the graft's endothelium from proinflammatory angiopoietin 2 containing Weibel-Palade bodies in the donor, resulting in reduced Weibel-Palade body release at the time of reperfusion in the recipient. Using rat models, we examined the influence of desmopressin treatment on the expression of vasopressin 2 receptors and adhesion molecules in brain-dead donors, with renal function examined in allogeneic recipients. The influence of desmopressin on the expression of adhesion molecules also was tested in vitro. Vasopressin 2 receptors were restricted to collecting ducts and distal tubules and only scarcely found in the renal vasculature. Vasopressin 2 receptor expression was down-regulated in brain-dead rats by desmopressin. Renal expression of vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 were significantly reduced in these rats. In contrast, angiopoietin 2 did not influence the expression of adhesion molecules in in vitro cultured endothelial cells after tumor necrosis factor ? stimulation. Donor desmopressin treatment improved neither renal function nor histology in allogeneic renal transplant recipients. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the clinically observed salutary effect of desmopressin is mediated by depletion of Weibel-Palade bodies in renal allografts.

  8. Towards revealing the structure of bacterial inclusion bodies.

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    Wang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Protein aggregation is a widely observed phenomenon in human diseases, biopharmaceutical production, and biological research. Protein aggregates are generally classified as highly ordered, such as amyloid fibrils, or amorphous, such as bacterial inclusion bodies. Amyloid fibrils are elongated filaments with diameters of 6-12 nm, they are comprised of residue-specific cross-beta structure, and display characteristic properties, such as binding with amyloid-specific dyes. Amyloid fibrils are associated with dozens of human pathological conditions, including Alzheimer disease and prion diseases. Distinguished from amyloid fibrils, bacterial inclusion bodies display apparent amorphous morphology. Inclusion bodies are formed during high-level recombinant protein production, and formation of inclusion bodies is a major concern in biotechnology. Despite of the distinctive morphological difference, bacterial inclusion bodies have been found to have some amyloid-like properties, suggesting that they might contain structures similar to amyloid-like fibrils. Recent structural data further support this hypothesis, and this review summarizes the latest progress towards revealing the structural details of bacterial inclusion bodies.

  9. Whole-body single-cell sequencing reveals transcriptional domains in the annelid larval body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Kaia; Eling, Nils; Vergara, Hernando Martinez; Bertucci, Paola Yanina; Musser, Jacob; Vopalensky, Pavel; Brunet, Thibaut; Collier, Paul; Benes, Vladimir; Marioni, John C; Arendt, Detlev

    2018-01-24

    Animal bodies comprise diverse arrays of cells. To characterise cellular identities across an entire body, we have compared the transcriptomes of single cells randomly picked from dissociated whole larvae of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We identify five transcriptionally distinct groups of differentiated cells, each expressing a unique set of transcription factors and effector genes that implement cellular phenotypes. Spatial mapping of cells into a cellular expression atlas, and wholemount in situ hybridisation of group-specific genes reveals spatially coherent transcriptional domains in the larval body, comprising e.g. apical sensory-neurosecretory cells vs. neural/epidermal surface cells. These domains represent new, basic subdivisions of the annelid body based entirely on differential gene expression, and are composed of multiple, transcriptionally similar cell types. They do not represent clonal domains, as revealed by developmental lineage analysis. We propose that the transcriptional domains that subdivide the annelid larval body represent families of related cell types that have arisen by evolutionary diversification. Their possible evolutionary conservation makes them a promising tool for evo-devo research. (167/250). © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Mechanism and functional impact of CD40 ligand-induced von Willebrand factor release from endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Kerstin; Adolph, Oliver; Grünow, Jennifer; Elrod, Julia; Popa, Miruna; Ghosh, Subhajit; Schwarz, Manuel; Schwale, Chrysovalandis; Grässle, Sandra; Huck, Volker; Bruehl, Claus; Wieland, Thomas; Schneider, Stefan W; Nobiling, Rainer; Wagner, Andreas H; Hecker, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Co-stimulation via CD154 binding to CD40, pivotal for both innate and adaptive immunity, may also link haemostasis to vascular remodelling. Here we demonstrate that human platelet-bound or recombinant soluble CD154 (sCD154) elicit the release from and tethering of ultra-large (UL) von Willebrand factor (vWF) multimers to the surface of human cultured endothelial cells (ECs) exposed to shear stress. This CD40-mediated ULVWF multimer release from the Weibel-Palade bodies was triggered by consecutive activation of TRAF6, the tyrosine kinase c-Src and phospholipase Cγ1 followed by inositol-1,4,5 trisphosphate-mediated calcium mobilisation. Subsequent exposure to human washed platelets caused ULVWF multimer-platelet string formation on the EC surface in a shear stress-dependent manner. Platelets tethered to these ULVWF multimers exhibited P-selectin on their surface and captured labelled monocytes from the superfusate. When exposed to shear stress and sCD154, native ECs from wild-type but not CD40 or vWF-deficient mice revealed a comparable release of ULVWF multimers to which murine washed platelets rapidly adhered, turning P-selectin-positive and subsequently capturing monocytes from the perfusate. This novel CD154-provoked ULVWF multimer-platelet string formation at normal to fast flow may contribute to vascular remodelling processes requiring the perivascular or intravascular accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages such as arteriogenesis or atherosclerosis.

  11. The multisensory body revealed through its cast shadows

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    Francesco ePavani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One key issue when conceiving the body as a multisensory object is how the cognitive system integrates visible instances of the self and other bodies with one’s own somatosensory processing, to achieve self-recognition and body ownership. Recent research has strongly suggested that shadows cast by our own body have a special status for cognitive processing, directing attention to the body in a fast and highly specific manner. The aim of the present article is to review the most recent scientific contributions addressing how body shadows affect both sensory/perceptual and attentional processes. The review examines three main points: (1 body shadows as a special window to investigate the construction of multisensory body perception; (2 experimental paradigms and related findings; (3 open questions and future trajectories. The reviewed literature suggests that shadows cast by one’s own body promote binding between personal and extrapersonal space and elicit automatic orienting of attention toward the body-part casting the shadow. Future research should address whether the effects exerted by body shadows are similar to those observed when observers are exposed to other visual instances of their body. The results will further clarify the processes underlying the merging of vision and somatosensation when creating body representations.

  12. Visual Coding of Human Bodies: Perceptual Aftereffects Reveal Norm-Based, Opponent Coding of Body Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Boeing, Alexandra; Calder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the discovery of body-selective neural areas in occipitotemporal cortex, little is known about how bodies are visually coded. We used perceptual adaptation to determine how body identity is coded. Brief exposure to a body (e.g., anti-Rose) biased perception toward an identity with opposite properties (Rose). Moreover, the size of this…

  13. Cambrian spiral-plated echinoderms from Gondwana reveal the earliest pentaradial body plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew B; Zamora, Samuel

    2013-08-22

    Echinoderms are unique among animal phyla in having a pentaradial body plan, and their fossil record provides critical data on how this novel organization came about by revealing intermediate stages. Here, we report a spiral-plated animal from the early Cambrian of Morocco that is the most primitive pentaradial echinoderm yet discovered. It is intermediate between helicoplacoids (a bizarre group of spiral-bodied echinoderms) and crown-group pentaradiate echinoderms. By filling an important gap, this fossil reveals the common pattern that underpins the body plans of the two major echinoderm clades (pelmatozoans and eleutherozoans), showing that differential growth played an important role in their divergence. It also adds to the striking disparity of novel body plans appearing in the Cambrian explosion.

  14. When the body reveals the mind: Children's use of others' body orientation to understand their focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus; Murillo, Esther; Sodian, Beate

    2016-08-01

    A considerable amount of research has examined children's ability to rely on explicit social cues such as pointing to understand others' referential intentions. Yet, skillful social interaction also requires reliance on and learning from implicit cues (i.e., cues that are not displayed with the explicit intention to teach or inform someone). From an embodied point of view, orienting movements and body orientation are salient cues that reveal something about a person's intentional relations without being explicit communicative cues. In three experiments, the current study investigated the development of the ability to use body information in a word learning situation. To this end, we presented 2-year-old children, 3.5-year-old children, and adults with movies on an eye-tracking screen in which an actor oriented her upper body to one of two objects while uttering a novel word. The results show that the 3.5-year-old children and adults, but not the 2-year-old children, related the novel word to the referred object (Experiments 1 and 2). Yet, when the actor oriented her body to one object while pointing to the other object, children of both age groups relied on the pointing cue (Experiment 3). This suggests that by 3.5 years children use another's body orientation as an indicator of her intentional relations but that they prioritize explicit social cues over the implicit body posture cues. Overall, the study supports theoretical views that an appreciation of others' intentional relations does not emerge as an all-or-nothing ability but rather emerges gradually during the course of early development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intersubspecific subcongenic mouse strain analysis reveals closely linked QTLs with opposite effects on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollah, Md Bazlur R; Ishikawa, Akira

    2011-06-01

    A previous genome-wide QTL study revealed many QTLs affecting postnatal body weight and growth in an intersubspecific backcross mouse population between the C57BL/6J (B6) strain and wild Mus musculus castaneus mice captured in the Philippines. Subsequently, several closely linked QTLs for body composition traits were revealed in an F(2) intercross population between B6 and B6.Cg-Pbwg1, a congenic strain on the B6 genetic background carrying the growth QTL Pbwg1 on proximal chromosome 2. However, no QTL affecting body weight has been duplicated in the F(2) population, except for mapping an overdominant QTL that causes heterosis of body weight. In this study, we developed 17 intersubspecific subcongenic strains with overlapping and nonoverlapping castaneus regions from the B6.Cg-Pbwg1 congenic strain in order to search for and genetically dissect QTLs affecting body weight into distinct closely linked loci. Phenotypic comparisons of several developed subcongenic strains with the B6 strain revealed that two closely linked but distinct QTLs that regulate body weight, named Pbwg1.11 and Pbwg1.12, are located on an 8.9-Mb region between D2Mit270 and D2Mit472 and on the next 3.6-Mb region between D2Mit205 and D2Mit182, respectively. Further analyses using F(2) segregating populations obtained from intercrosses between B6 and each of the two selected subcongenic strains confirmed the presence of these two body weight QTLs. Pbwg1.11 had an additive effect on body weight at 6, 10, and 13 weeks of age, and its castaneus allele decreased it. In contrast, the castaneus allele at Pbwg1.12 acted in a dominant fashion and surprisingly increased body weight at 6, 10, and 13 weeks of age despite the body weight of wild castaneus mice being 60% of that of B6 mice. These findings illustrate the complex genetic nature of body weight regulation and support the importance of subcongenic mouse analysis to dissect closely linked loci.

  16. Psychophysics reveals a right hemispheric contribution to body image distortions in women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christine; Porter, Gillian; Benton, Christopher P

    2007-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the right cerebral hemisphere contributes to the enhanced body image distortions seen in women when compared to men. Using classical psychophysics, 60 right-handed healthy participants (30 women) were briefly presented with size-distorted pictures of themselves, another person (an experimenter), and a non-corporal, familiar object (a coke bottle) to the central, right, and left visual field. Participants had to decide whether the presented stimulus was fatter or thinner than the real body/object, and thus compare the presented picture with the stored representation of the stimulus from memory. From these data we extracted the amount of image distortion at which participants judged the various stimuli to be veridical. We found that right visual field presentations (initial left hemisphere processing) revealed a general "fatter" bias, which was more evident for bodies than for objects. Crucially, a "fatter" bias with own body presentations in the left visual field (initial right hemisphere processing) was only found for women. Our findings suggest that right visual field presentation results in a general size overestimation, and that this overestimation is more pronounced for bodies than for objects. Moreover, the particular "fatter" bias after own body presentations to the left visual field in women supports the notion of a specific role of the right hemisphere in sex-specific body image distortion.

  17. Fractal branching organizations of Ediacaran rangeomorph fronds reveal a lost Proterozoic body plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyal Cuthill, Jennifer F; Conway Morris, Simon

    2014-09-09

    The branching morphology of Ediacaran rangeomorph fronds has no exact counterpart in other complex macroorganisms. As such, these fossils pose major questions as to growth patterns, functional morphology, modes of feeding, and adaptive optimality. Here, using parametric Lindenmayer systems, a formal model of rangeomorph morphologies reveals a fractal body plan characterized by self-similar, axial, apical, alternate branching. Consequent morphological reconstruction for 11 taxa demonstrates an adaptive radiation based on 3D space-filling strategies. The fractal body plan of rangeomorphs is shown to maximize surface area, consistent with diffusive nutrient uptake from the water column (osmotrophy). The enigmas of rangeomorph morphology, evolution, and extinction are resolved by the realization that they were adaptively optimized for unique ecological and geochemical conditions in the late Proterozoic. Changes in ocean conditions associated with the Cambrian explosion sealed their fate.

  18. Phenotypic factor analysis of psychopathology reveals a new body-related transdiagnostic factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Pezzoli

    Full Text Available Comorbidity challenges the notion of mental disorders as discrete categories. An increasing body of literature shows that symptoms cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries and interact in shaping the latent structure of psychopathology. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we reveal the latent sources of covariation among nine measures of psychopathological functioning in a population-based sample of 13024 Finnish twins and their siblings. By implementing unidimensional, multidimensional, second-order, and bifactor models, we illustrate the relationships between observed variables, specific, and general latent factors. We also provide the first investigation to date of measurement invariance of the bifactor model of psychopathology across gender and age groups. Our main result is the identification of a distinct "Body" factor, alongside the previously identified Internalizing and Externalizing factors. We also report relevant cross-disorder associations, especially between body-related psychopathology and trait anger, as well as substantial sex and age differences in observed and latent means. The findings expand the meta-structure of psychopathology, with implications for empirical and clinical practice, and demonstrate shared mechanisms underlying attitudes towards nutrition, self-image, sexuality and anger, with gender- and age-specific features.

  19. Use of postmortem computed tomography to reveal an intraoral gunshot injuries in a charred body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Rie; Hirawasa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Susumu; Shimada, Takehiro; Awata, Sachiko; Takei, Hiroyuki; Otake, Hidenori; Takahashi, Keiko; Takahashi, Youichiro; Kominato, Yoshihiko

    2011-11-01

    A 53-year-old man was found dead after a fire at his residence had been extinguished. Although a pistol was recovered beside the body, external examination was unable to indicate any gunshot wound because of severe charring of the body. Postmortem computed tomography (CT) scan performed prior to autopsy suggested an entrance gunshot wound in the posterior pharynx with loss of soft tissue and an internal bullet path through the right anterior and posterior parts of the occipital bone. Autopsy revealed an entrance gunshot wound with hemorrhage in the soft tissue of the posterior pharynx, massive contusion of the right occipital lobe, and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right temporal lobe, both occipital lobes and the superior surface of the left cerebellar hemisphere, thus being consistent with the findings of postmortem CT. A carboxyhemoglobin concentration of 5% in blood from the cadaver was consistent with the lack of soot deposition from the larynx to the bronchus. These observations confirmed that death had been caused by an intraoral gunshot resulting in severe brain damage, before the body had been burned. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phenotypic factor analysis of psychopathology reveals a new body-related transdiagnostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Patrizia; Antfolk, Jan; Santtila, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Comorbidity challenges the notion of mental disorders as discrete categories. An increasing body of literature shows that symptoms cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries and interact in shaping the latent structure of psychopathology. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we reveal the latent sources of covariation among nine measures of psychopathological functioning in a population-based sample of 13024 Finnish twins and their siblings. By implementing unidimensional, multidimensional, second-order, and bifactor models, we illustrate the relationships between observed variables, specific, and general latent factors. We also provide the first investigation to date of measurement invariance of the bifactor model of psychopathology across gender and age groups. Our main result is the identification of a distinct "Body" factor, alongside the previously identified Internalizing and Externalizing factors. We also report relevant cross-disorder associations, especially between body-related psychopathology and trait anger, as well as substantial sex and age differences in observed and latent means. The findings expand the meta-structure of psychopathology, with implications for empirical and clinical practice, and demonstrate shared mechanisms underlying attitudes towards nutrition, self-image, sexuality and anger, with gender- and age-specific features.

  1. "My body was my temple": a narrative revealing body image experiences following treatment of a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy; Ditor, David S

    2017-09-01

    This narrative explores the lived experience of a young woman, Rebecca, and her transitioned body image after sustaining and being treated for a spinal cord injury. Data were collected from a single semi-structured in-depth interview. Rebecca disclosed her transitioned body image experiences after sustaining a spinal cord injury and being treated by medical staff immediately following her injury. Before her injury, she described a holistic body experience and named this experience her "temple". During intensive care in the hospital, she explained her body was treated as an object. The disconnected treatment of her body led to a loss of the private self, as she described her sacred body being stripped away - her "temple" lost and in ruins. Body image may be an overlooked component of health following a spinal cord injury. This narrative emphasizes the importance of unveiling body image experiences after the treatment of a spinal cord injury to medical professionals. Lessons of the importance of considering the transitioned body experiences after a spinal cord injury may help prevent body-related depression and other subsequent health impacts. Recommendations for best practice are provided. Implications for Rehabilitation    Spinal Cord Injury   • A spinal cord injury may drastically change a person's body image, thereby significantly impacting psychological health   • More effective screening for body image within the medical/rehabilitation context is needed to help practitioners recognize distress   • Practitioners should be prepared to refer clients to distress hotlines they may need once released from treatment.

  2. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk. PMID:26833246

  3. CD63 is an essential cofactor to leukocyte recruitment by endothelial P-selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Emily L; Ridger, Victoria; Ferraro, Francesco; Turmaine, Mark; Saftig, Paul; Cutler, Daniel F

    2011-10-13

    The activation of endothelial cells is critical to initiating an inflammatory response. Activation induces the fusion of Weibel-Palade Bodies (WPB) with the plasma membrane, thus transferring P-selectin and VWF to the cell surface, where they act in the recruitment of leukocytes and platelets, respectively. CD63 has long been an established component of WPB, but the functional significance of its presence within an organelle that acts in inflammation and hemostasis was unknown. We find that ablating CD63 expression leads to a loss of P-selectin-dependent function: CD63-deficient HUVECs fail to recruit leukocytes, CD63-deficient mice exhibit a significant reduction in both leukocyte rolling and recruitment and we show a failure of leukocyte extravasation in a peritonitis model. Loss of CD63 has a similar phenotype to loss of P-selectin itself, thus CD63 is an essential cofactor to P-selectin.

  4. Enhanced thrust and speed revealed in the forward flight of a butterfly with transient body translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2015-09-01

    A butterfly with broad wings, flapping at a small frequency, flies an erratic trajectory at an inconstant speed. A large variation of speed within a cycle is observed in the forward flight of a butterfly. A self-propulsion model to simulate a butterfly is thus created to investigate the transient translation of the body; the results, which are in accordance with experimental data, show that the shape of the variation of the flight speed is similar to a sinusoidal wave with a maximum (J=0.89) at the beginning of the downstroke, and a decrease to a minimum (J=0.17) during a transition from downstroke to upstroke; the difference between the extrema of the flight speed is enormous in a flapping cycle. At a high speed, a clapping motion of the butterfly wings decreases the generation of drag. At a small speed, a butterfly is able to capture the induced wakes generated in a downstroke, and effectively generates a thrust at the beginning of an upstroke. The wing motion of a butterfly skillfully interacts with its speed so as to enable an increased speed with the same motion. Considering a butterfly to fly in a constant inflow leads to either an underestimate of its speed or an overestimate of its generated lift, which yields an inaccurate interpretation of the insect's flight. Our results reveal the effect of transient translation on a butterfly in forward flight, which is especially important for an insect with a small flapping frequency.

  5. DGAT2 revealed by the immunogold technique in Arabidopsis thaliana lipid bodies associated with microtubules DGAT2 revealed by the immunogold technique in Arabidopsis thaliana lipid bodies associated with microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kwiatkowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The immunogold technique with anti-diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 antibody revealed in
    A. thaliana embryo and root meristematic cells gold particles manifesting the presence of DGAT2 in ER as well
    as in lipid bodies. This being so, lipid synthesis could take place both in ER and in the lipid bodies. The presence
    of microtubules around the lipid bodies was evidenced under transmission EM. Detection of tubulin around the
    lipid bodies using the immunogold technique with anti-a-tubulin is in agreement with the above observations.
    Connection of lipid bodies with microtubules was also detected by us in other plants where they probably participated
    in lipid synthesis. A similar phenomenon may take place in A. thaliana.The immunogold technique with anti-diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 antibody revealed in
    A. thaliana embryo and root meristematic cells gold particles manifesting the presence of DGAT2 in ER as well
    as in lipid bodies. This being so, lipid synthesis could take place both in ER and in the lipid bodies. The presence
    of microtubules around the lipid bodies was evidenced under transmission EM. Detection of tubulin around the
    lipid bodies using the immunogold technique with anti-a-tubulin is in agreement with the above observations.
    Connection of lipid bodies with microtubules was also detected by us in other plants where they probably participated
    in lipid synthesis. A similar phenomenon may take place in A. thaliana.

  6. P-Body Purification Reveals the Condensation of Repressed mRNA Regulons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubstenberger, Arnaud; Courel, Maïté; Bénard, Marianne; Souquere, Sylvie; Ernoult-Lange, Michèle; Chouaib, Racha; Yi, Zhou; Morlot, Jean-Baptiste; Munier, Annie; Fradet, Magali; Daunesse, Maëlle; Bertrand, Edouard; Pierron, Gérard; Mozziconacci, Julien; Kress, Michel; Weil, Dominique

    2017-10-05

    Within cells, soluble RNPs can switch states to coassemble and condense into liquid or solid bodies. Although these phase transitions have been reconstituted in vitro, for endogenous bodies the diversity of the components, the specificity of the interaction networks, and the function of the coassemblies remain to be characterized. Here, by developing a fluorescence-activated particle sorting (FAPS) method to purify cytosolic processing bodies (P-bodies) from human epithelial cells, we identified hundreds of proteins and thousands of mRNAs that structure a dense network of interactions, separating P-body from non-P-body RNPs. mRNAs segregating into P-bodies are translationally repressed, but not decayed, and this repression explains part of the poor genome-wide correlation between RNA and protein abundance. P-bodies condense thousands of mRNAs that strikingly encode regulatory processes. Thus, we uncovered how P-bodies, by condensing and segregating repressed mRNAs, provide a physical substrate for the coordinated regulation of posttranscriptional mRNA regulons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Dolphins' Body and Brain Measurements with Four Other Groups of Cetaceans Reveals Great Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Sam H; Carlin, Kevin P; Van Alstyne, Kaitlin R; Hanson, Alicia C; Tarpley, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    We compared mature dolphins with 4 other groupings of mature cetaceans. With a large data set, we found great brain diversity among 5 different taxonomic groupings. The dolphins in our data set ranged in body mass from about 40 to 6,750 kg and in brain mass from 0.4 to 9.3 kg. Dolphin body length ranged from 1.3 to 7.6 m. In our combined data set from the 4 other groups of cetaceans, body mass ranged from about 20 to 120,000 kg and brain mass from about 0.2 to 9.2 kg, while body length varied from 1.21 to 26.8 m. Not all cetaceans have large brains relative to their body size. A few dolphins near human body size have human-sized brains. On the other hand, the absolute brain mass of some other cetaceans is only one-sixth as large. We found that brain volume relative to body mass decreases from Delphinidae to a group of Phocoenidae and Monodontidae, to a group of other odontocetes, to Balaenopteroidea, and finally to Balaenidae. We also found the same general trend when we compared brain volume relative to body length, except that the Delphinidae and Phocoenidae-Monodontidae groups do not differ significantly. The Balaenidae have the smallest relative brain mass and the lowest cerebral cortex surface area. Brain parts also vary. Relative to body mass and to body length, dolphins also have the largest cerebellums. Cortex surface area is isometric with brain size when we exclude the Balaenidae. Our data show that the brains of Balaenidae are less convoluted than those of the other cetaceans measured. Large vascular networks inside the cranial vault may help to maintain brain temperature, and these nonbrain tissues increase in volume with body mass and with body length ranging from 8 to 65% of the endocranial volume. Because endocranial vascular networks and other adnexa, such as the tentorium cerebelli, vary so much in different species, brain size measures from endocasts of some extinct cetaceans may be overestimates. Our regression of body length on endocranial

  8. Inversion Reveals Perceptual Asymmetries in the Configural Processing of Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, Daniele; Lucafò, Chiara; Padulo, Caterina; Prete, Giulia; Giacinto, Laura; Tommasi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Ambiguous human bodies performing unimanual/unipedal actions are perceived more frequently as right-handed/footed rather than left-handed/footed, which suggests a perceptual and attentional bias toward the right side of others' body. A bias toward the right arm of human bodies could be adaptive in social life, most social interactions occurring with right-handed individuals, and the implicit knowledge that the dominant hand of humans is usually placed on their right side might also be included in body configural information. Given that inversion disrupts configural processing for human bodies, we investigated whether inversion reduces the bias toward the right side of human bodies. Consistent with our hypothesis, when presented with ambiguous stimuli depicting humans performing lateralized actions or movements, participants perceived a greater proportion of right-handed figures when the stimuli were shown upright than when the stimuli were shown inverted. The present findings seem to confirm our hypothesis that body configural information may include some form of knowledge about the probable handedness of other individuals, although alternative accounts involving the role of experience cannot be ruled out.

  9. Inversion Reveals Perceptual Asymmetries in the Configural Processing of Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Marzoli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguous human bodies performing unimanual/unipedal actions are perceived more frequently as right-handed/footed rather than left-handed/footed, which suggests a perceptual and attentional bias toward the right side of others’ body. A bias toward the right arm of human bodies could be adaptive in social life, most social interactions occurring with right-handed individuals, and the implicit knowledge that the dominant hand of humans is usually placed on their right side might also be included in body configural information. Given that inversion disrupts configural processing for human bodies, we investigated whether inversion reduces the bias toward the right side of human bodies. Consistent with our hypothesis, when presented with ambiguous stimuli depicting humans performing lateralized actions or movements, participants perceived a greater proportion of right-handed figures when the stimuli were shown upright than when the stimuli were shown inverted. The present findings seem to confirm our hypothesis that body configural information may include some form of knowledge about the probable handedness of other individuals, although alternative accounts involving the role of experience cannot be ruled out.

  10. About turn: the visual representation of human body orientation revealed by adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Rebecca P; Clifford, Colin W G; Calder, Andrew J

    2009-03-01

    Body orientation provides an important cue to other individuals' focus of attention, particularly when one is viewing them at a distance. Single-cell recording in macaques has identified cells in the superior temporal sulcus that show a view-selective response to particular body orientations. Whether similar separable coding is found in humans is not known, and there is currently no functional account of the visual representation of seen body orientation. This study addressed this issue using visual adaptation. Experiment 1 demonstrated distinct channels that code left- and right-oriented bodies. Experiment 2 investigated whether the visual representation of body orientation is best accounted for by an opponent-coding system, which has been shown to account for the visual representation of facial identity, or by a multichannel system, which provides the optimal account of coding line orientation and direction of motion. Our results provide evidence for multichannel coding of seen body orientation, with separate channels (or neuronal populations) selectively tuned to different body directions.

  11. [Atypical Lewy body disease revealed by burning mouth syndrome and a pseudo-psychiatric syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvat, J; Thomas-Anterion, C; Decousus, M; Perret-Liaudet, A; Laurent, B

    2010-05-01

    Among the degenerative diseases of the nervous system, Lewy body disease has the most psychiatric symptoms especially hallucinations, delusion and identification disorders. We report a case of Lewy body disease that started with a burning mouth syndrome for three year as the only symptom before the development of a pseudo-psychiatric syndrome (melancholy and Capgras). None of the usual cardinal criteria were present. MRI, cerebrospinal fluid, and DAT scan findings enabled the diagnosis. The dopaminergic hypothesis put forward in some cases of burning mouth syndrome might explain this symptom in Lewy body disease. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The centre of mass of a ‘flying’ body revealed by a computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeão Carvalho, Paulo; José Rodrigues, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    The interpretation of complex trajectories of rigid bodies by the identification of their centre of mass (CM), has a large potential for improving the understanding of the concept of CM at college and university level. Therefore, it is not surprising that there are several techniques described in the literature concerning how to identify the CM of rigid bodies. However, these techniques fail when the CM’s position in the body’s frame of reference changes when the body is at motion. In this work we present a computational model that allows the identification of the CM with very good accuracy, either when the CM’s position changes or is fixed in the body’s frame of reference. This model can be used for a system of bodies moving in a plane, for which the CM of each body coincides with its geometric centre. The effectiveness of this model is tested with experiments using video acquisition and numerical analysis, and can be done in experimental classes under controlled conditions. Students are then able to compare the computed CM with the experimental CM, and investigate why the bodies sometimes present weird trajectories. This property applies in particular to sports, so the model can be also very useful as an educational resource for the explanation of the motion of athletes, namely as a tool for optimizing their performance.

  13. Heart rate reveals torpor at high body temperatures in lowland tropical free-tailed bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, M Teague; Rikker, Sebastian; Wikelski, Martin; Ter Maat, Andries; Pollock, Henry S; Dechmann, Dina K N

    2017-12-01

    Reduction in metabolic rate and body temperature is a common strategy for small endotherms to save energy. The daily reduction in metabolic rate and heterothermy, or torpor, is particularly pronounced in regions with a large variation in daily ambient temperature. This applies most strongly in temperate bat species (order Chiroptera), but it is less clear how tropical bats save energy if ambient temperatures remain high. However, many subtropical and tropical species use some daily heterothermy on cool days. We recorded the heart rate and the body temperature of free-ranging Pallas' mastiff bats ( Molossus molossus ) in Gamboa, Panamá, and showed that these individuals have low field metabolic rates across a wide range of body temperatures that conform to high ambient temperature. Importantly, low metabolic rates in controlled respirometry trials were best predicted by heart rate, and not body temperature . Molossus molossus enter torpor-like states characterized by low metabolic rate and heart rates at body temperatures of 32°C, and thermoconform across a range of temperatures. Flexible metabolic strategies may be far more common in tropical endotherms than currently known.

  14. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Willer, Cristen J.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Monda, Keri L.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jackson, Anne U.; Allen, Hana Lango; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Luan, Jian'an; Maegi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Winkler, Thomas W.; Qi, Lu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Heid, Iris M.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stringham, Heather M.; Weedon, Michael N.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R.; Ferreira, Teresa; Weyant, Robert J.; Segre, Ayellet V.; Estrada, Karol; Liang, Liming; Nemesh, James; Park, Ju-Hyun; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kilpelaenen, Tuomas O.; Yang, Jian; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Esko, Tonu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Mangino, Massimo; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Scherag, Andre; Smith, Albert Vernon; Welch, Ryan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aben, Katja K.; Absher, Devin M.; Amin, Najaf; Dixon, Anna L.; Fisher, Eva; Glazer, Nicole L.; Goddard, Michael E.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Hoesel, Volker; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Ketkar, Shamika; Lamina, Claudia; Li, Shengxu; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Myers, Richard H.; Narisu, Narisu; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Marjolein J.; Preuss, Michael; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; van Wingerden, Sophie; Watanabe, Richard M.; White, Charles C.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Barlassina, Christina; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Jansson, John-Olov; Lawrence, Robert W.; Pellikka, Niina; Prokopenko, Inga; Shi, Jianxin; Thiering, Elisabeth; Alavere, Helene; Alibrandi, Maria T. S.; Almgren, Peter; Arnold, Alice M.; Aspelund, Thor; Atwood, Larry D.; Balkau, Beverley; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Bennett, Amanda J.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Biebermann, Heike; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Boes, Tanja; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Brown, Morris J.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Cavalcanti-Proenca, Christine; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chen, Chih-Mei; Chines, Peter S.; Clarke, Robert; Coin, Lachlan; Connell, John; Day, Ian N. M.; den Heijer, Martin; Duan, Jubao; Ebrahim, Shah; Elliott, Paul; Elosua, Roberto; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Erdos, Michael R.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Facheris, Maurizio F.; Felix, Stephan B.; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Folsom, Aaron R.; Friedrich, Nele; Freimer, Nelson B.; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Gejman, Pablo V.; Geus, Eco J. C.; Gieger, Christian; Gjesing, Anette P.; Goel, Anuj; Goyette, Philippe; Grallert, Harald; Graessler, Juergen; Greenawalt, Danielle M.; Groves, Christopher J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Hall, Alistair S.; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hinney, Anke; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Iribarren, Carlos; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jarick, Ivonne; Jewell, Elizabeth; John, Ulrich; Jorgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kaakinen, Marika; Kajantie, Eero; Kaplan, Lee M.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kettunen, Johannes; Kinnunen, Leena; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Koenig, Inke R.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kraft, Peter; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lanzani, Chiara; Launer, Lenore J.; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lehtimaeki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Liu, Jianjun; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert N.; Ludwig, Barbara; Manunta, Paolo; Marek, Diana; Marre, Michel; Martin, Nicholas G.; McArdle, Wendy L.; McCarthy, Anne; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Melander, Olle; Meyre, David; Midthjell, Kristian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morken, Mario A.; Morris, Andrew P.; Mulic, Rosanda; Ngwa, Julius S.; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Ong, Ken K.; Oostra, Ben; Pare, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N.; Perola, Markus; Pichler, Irene; Pietilaeinen, Kirsi H.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Polasek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Rafelt, Suzanne; Raitakari, Olli; Rayner, Nigel W.; Ridderstrale, Martin; Rief, Winfried; Ruokonen, Aimo; Robertson, Neil R.; Rzehak, Peter; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Sanna, Serena; Saramies, Jouko; Savolainen, Markku J.; Scherag, Susann; Schipf, Sabine; Schreiber, Stefan; Schunkert, Heribert; Silander, Kaisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Siscovick, David S.; Smit, Jan H.; Soranzo, Nicole; Sovio, Ulla; Stephens, Jonathan; Surakka, Ida; Swift, Amy J.; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Teder-Laving, Maris; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thompson, John R.; Thomson, Brian; Toenjes, Anke; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Viikari, Jorma; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Vogel, Carla I. G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G. Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wiegand, Susanna; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Xu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zgaga, Lina; Ziegler, Andreas; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Hebebrand, Johannes; Huikuri, Heikki V.; James, Alan L.; Kaehoenen, Mika; Levinson, Douglas F.; Macciardi, Fabio; Nieminen, Markku S.; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J.; Ridker, Paul M.; Stumvoll, Michael; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boeing, Heiner; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Collins, Francis S.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Smith, George Davey; Erdmann, Jeanette; Froguel, Philippe; Greonberg, Henrik; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hayes, Richard B.; Heinrich, Joachim; Hu, Frank B.; Hveem, Kristian; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kaprio, Jaakko; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krude, Heiko; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Metspalu, Andres; Munroe, Patricia B.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Quertermous, Thomas; Reinehr, Thomas; Rissanen, Aila; Rudan, Igor; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Spector, Timothy D.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, Andre; Valle, Timo T.; Wabitsch, Martin; Waeber, Gerard; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; McCarroll, Steven A.; Purcell, Shaun; Schadt, Eric E.; Visscher, Peter M.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wichmann, H-Erich; Frayling, Timothy M.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Barroso, Ines; Boehnke, Michael; Stefansson, Kari; North, Kari E.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Ingelsson, Erik; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index and similar to 2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals with targeted follow up of

  15. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Willer, Cristen J; Berndt, Sonja I

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index and ~ 2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals with targeted follow up of 42 SN...

  16. Grab a Golgi: Laser trapping of golgi bodies reveals in vivo Interactions with the endoplasmic reticulum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparkes, I.A.; Ketelaar, T.; Ruijter, de N.C.A.; Hawes, C.

    2009-01-01

    In many vacuolate plant cells individual Golgi bodies appear to be attached to tubules of the pleiomorphic cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. Such observations culminated in the controversial mobile secretory unit hypothesis to explain transport of cargo from the ER to Golgi via Golgi

  17. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight

  18. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; de Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; McKenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M. Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P <5 × 10(-8)), of which eight

  19. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8), of which eight

  20. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Lu (Yingchang); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (Po5108), of which

  1. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eigh...

  2. Whole-body MRI reveals high incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littooij, Annemieke S; Kwee, Thomas C; Enríquez, Goya; Verbeke, Jonathan I M L; Granata, Claudio; Beishuizen, Auke; de Lange, Charlotte; Zennaro, Floriana; Bruin, MCA; Nievelstein, Rutger A J

    Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication in patients treated with corticosteroids. The incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown because prospective whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are lacking in this patient population. Paediatric

  3. Serum carotenoid interactions in premenopausal women reveal α-carotene is negatively impacted by body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Emily Taylor; Valentine, Ashley R; Zhang, Zhumin; Lai, HuiChuan Jennifer; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-01-01

    Increasing body mass indices (BMIs) across the globe reflect pandemic shifts towards habitual positive energy imbalances. Excess body fat in individuals is often associated with high-energy and high-fat diets scanty in fresh produce. Carotenoids are fat-soluble pigments plentiful in many fruits and vegetables. They are well-known for provitamin A and antioxidant functions, but little research has been done related to carotenoid-body mass interactions. Serum carotenoids were analyzed relative to body fat to determine correlations between major serum carotenoids, retinol, BMI, fat mass, and lean mass. Healthy women ( n = 76), 19-50 years old, were categorized into two comparison groups determined by percent body fat measured by air displacement plethysomography (BOD POD®), i.e.  0.05). Dietary intake between groups did not differ, including carrot consumption (a high dietary source of α-carotene). These results confirm previous carotenoid-health research and propose the need for further investigation of potential protective roles that α-carotene may perform for optimal health. Serum α-carotene may provide a deeper and clinically relevant purpose, beyond previous suggestions for its use as a biomarker for fruit and vegetable consumption, in that α-carotene may be a biomarker for chronic disease risk frequently linked with obesity. Impact statement Carotenoids are important pigments in fruit and vegetables and found in human serum. This study isolated a negative relationship between serum α-carotene and body fatness. As humans begin to live over a century, determining biomarkers of ultimate health is important. α-Carotene does not have the same distribution in the food supply as β-carotene and therefore is often overlooked in surveys. In part, this is due to the fact that β-carotene provides two molecules of vitamin A, while α-carotene provides one upon central cleavage. This study shows a very clear association between α-carotene and body fatness

  4. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal eighteen new loci associated with body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Willer, Cristen J.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Monda, Keri L.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jackson, Anne U.; Allen, Hana Lango; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Luan, Jian’an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Winkler, Thomas W.; Qi, Lu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Heid, Iris M.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stringham, Heather M.; Weedon, Michael N.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R.; Ferreira, Teresa; Weyant, Robert J.; Segré, Ayellet V.; Estrada, Karol; Liang, Liming; Nemesh, James; Park, Ju-Hyun; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Yang, Jian; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Mangino, Massimo; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Scherag, Andre; Smith, Albert Vernon; Welch, Ryan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aben, Katja K.; Absher, Devin M.; Amin, Najaf; Dixon, Anna L.; Fisher, Eva; Glazer, Nicole L.; Goddard, Michael E.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Hoesel, Volker; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Ketkar, Shamika; Lamina, Claudia; Li, Shengxu; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Myers, Richard H.; Narisu, Narisu; Perry, John R.B.; Peters, Marjolein J.; Preuss, Michael; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; van Wingerden, Sophie; Watanabe, Richard M.; White, Charles C.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Barlassina, Christina; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Jansson, John-Olov; Lawrence, Robert W.; Pellikka, Niina; Prokopenko, Inga; Shi, Jianxin; Thiering, Elisabeth; Alavere, Helene; Alibrandi, Maria T. S.; Almgren, Peter; Arnold, Alice M.; Aspelund, Thor; Atwood, Larry D.; Balkau, Beverley; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Bennett, Amanda J.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Biebermann, Heike; Blakemore, Alexandra I.F.; Boes, Tanja; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Brown, Morris J.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chen, Chih-Mei; Chines, Peter S.; Clarke, Robert; Coin, Lachlan; Connell, John; Day, Ian N.M.; den Heijer, Martin; Duan, Jubao; Ebrahim, Shah; Elliott, Paul; Elosua, Roberto; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Erdos, Michael R.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Facheris, Maurizio F.; Felix, Stephan B.; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Folsom, Aaron R.; Friedrich, Nele; Freimer, Nelson B.; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Gejman, Pablo V.; Geus, Eco J.C.; Gieger, Christian; Gjesing, Anette P.; Goel, Anuj; Goyette, Philippe; Grallert, Harald; Gräßler, Jürgen; Greenawalt, Danielle M.; Groves, Christopher J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Hall, Alistair S.; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hinney, Anke; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Iribarren, Carlos; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jarick, Ivonne; Jewell, Elizabeth; John, Ulrich; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kaakinen, Marika; Kajantie, Eero; Kaplan, Lee M.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kettunen, Johannes; Kinnunen, Leena; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kolcic, Ivana; König, Inke R.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kraft, Peter; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lanzani, Chiara; Launer, Lenore J.; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Liu, Jianjun; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert N.; Ludwig, Barbara; Manunta, Paolo; Marek, Diana; Marre, Michel; Martin, Nicholas G.; McArdle, Wendy L.; McCarthy, Anne; McKnight, Barbara; Meitinger, Thomas; Melander, Olle; Meyre, David; Midthjell, Kristian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morken, Mario A.; Morris, Andrew P.; Mulic, Rosanda; Ngwa, Julius S.; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Ong, Ken K.; Oostra, Ben; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N.; Perola, Markus; Pichler, Irene; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Platou, Carl G.P.; Polasek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Rafelt, Suzanne; Raitakari, Olli; Rayner, Nigel W.; Ridderstråle, Martin; Rief, Winfried; Ruokonen, Aimo; Robertson, Neil R.; Rzehak, Peter; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Sanna, Serena; Saramies, Jouko; Savolainen, Markku J.; Scherag, Susann; Schipf, Sabine; Schreiber, Stefan; Schunkert, Heribert; Silander, Kaisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Siscovick, David S.; Smit, Jan H.; Soranzo, Nicole; Sovio, Ulla; Stephens, Jonathan; Surakka, Ida; Swift, Amy J.; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Teder-Laving, Maris; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thompson, John R.; Thomson, Brian; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; van Meurs, Joyce B.J.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Viikari, Jorma; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Vogel, Carla I. G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G. Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wiegand, Susanna; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Xu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zgaga, Lina; Ziegler, Andreas; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Hebebrand, Johannes; Huikuri, Heikki V.; James, Alan L.; Kähönen, Mika; Levinson, Douglas F.; Macciardi, Fabio; Nieminen, Markku S.; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J.; Ridker, Paul M.; Stumvoll, Michael; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boeing, Heiner; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Collins, Francis S.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Smith, George Davey; Erdmann, Jeanette; Froguel, Philippe; Grönberg, Henrik; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hayes, Richard B.; Heinrich, Joachim; Hu, Frank B.; Hveem, Kristian; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kaprio, Jaakko; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krude, Heiko; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Metspalu, Andres; Munroe, Patricia B.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Quertermous, Thomas; Reinehr, Thomas; Rissanen, Aila; Rudan, Igor; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Spector, Timothy D.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, André; Valle, Timo T.; Wabitsch, Martin; Waeber, Gérard; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; McCarroll, Steven A.; Purcell, Shaun; Schadt, Eric E.; Visscher, Peter M.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Mohlke, Karen L.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Frayling, Timothy M.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Stefansson, Kari; North, Kari E.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Ingelsson, Erik; Loos, Ruth J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but the underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity-susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index (BMI) and ~2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals, with targeted follow-up of 42 SNPs in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity-susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci associated with BMI (P<5×10−8), one of which includes a copy number variant near GPRC5B. Some loci (MC4R, POMC, SH2B1, BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators of energy balance, and one is near GIPR, an incretin receptor. Furthermore, genes in other newly-associated loci may provide novel insights into human body weight regulation. PMID:20935630

  5. Children's responses to the rubber-hand illusion reveal dissociable pathways in body representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Dorothy; Makin, Tamar R; Bremner, Andrew J

    2013-05-01

    The bodily self is constructed from multisensory information. However, little is known of the relation between multisensory development and the emerging sense of self. We investigated this question by measuring the strength of the rubber-hand illusion in young children (4 to 9 years old) and adults. Intermanual pointing showed that children were as sensitive as adults to visual-tactile synchrony cues for hand position, which indicates that a visual-tactile pathway to the bodily self matures by at least 4 years of age. However, regardless of synchrony cues, children's perceived hand position was closer to the rubber hand than adults' perceived hand position was. This indicates a second, later-maturing process based on visual-proprioceptive information. Furthermore, explicit feelings of embodiment were related only to the visual-tactile process. These findings demonstrate two dissociable processes underlying body representation in early life, and they call into question current models of body representation and ownership in adulthood.

  6. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); C.J. Willer (Cristen); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); K.L. Monda (Keri); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A.U. Jackson (Anne); H.L. Allen; C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); J. Luan; R. Mägi (Reedik); J.C. Randall (Joshua); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); T.W. Winkler (Thomas); L. Qi (Lu); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); I.M. Heid (Iris); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); H.M. Stringham (Heather); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); A.R. Wood (Andrew); T. Ferreira (Teresa); R.J. Weyant (Robert); A.V. Segrè (Ayellet); K. Eestrada (Karol); L. Liang (Liming); J. Nemesh (James); J.H. Park; S. Gustafsson (Stefan); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); J. Yang (Joanna); N. Bouatia-Naji (Nabila); T. Eesko (Tõnu); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); M. Mangino (Massimo); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); A. Scherag (Andre); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); R.P. Welch (Ryan); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); K.K.H. Aben (Katja); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); A.L. Dixon (Anna); E. Fisher (Eeva); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); M.E. Goddard (Michael); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); V. Hoesel (Volker); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); A. Johansson (Åsa); T. Johnson (Toby); S. Ketkar (Shamika); C. Lamina (Claudia); S. Li (Shengxu); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); R.H. Myers (Richard); N. Narisu (Narisu); J.R.B. Perry (John); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); M. Preuss (Michael); S. Ripatti (Samuli); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); C. Sandholt (Camilla); L.J. Scott (Laura); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); S. van Wingerden (Sophie); C.C. White (Charles); F. Wiklund (Fredrik); C. Barlassina (Christina); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.N. Cooper (Matthew); J.O. Jansson; R.W. Lawrence (Robert); N. Pellikka (Niina); I. Prokopenko (Inga); J. Shi (Jianxin); E. Thiering (Eelisabeth); H. Alavere (Helene); M.T.S. Alibrandi (Maria); P. Almgren (Peter); A.M. Arnold (Alice); T. Aspelund (Thor); L.D. Atwood (Larry); B. Balkau (Beverley); A.J. Balmforth (Anthony); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); Y. Ben-Shlomo; R.N. Bergman (Richard); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); H. Biebermann (Heike); A.I.F. Blakemore (Alexandra); T. Boes (Tanja); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); M.J. Brown (Morris); T.A. Buchanan (Thomas); F. Busonero; H. Campbell (Harry); F.P. Cappuccio (Francesco); C. Cavalcanti-Proença (Christine); Y.D.I. Chen (Yii-Der Ida); C.-M. Chen (Chih-Mei); P.S. Chines (Peter); R. Clarke; L. Coin (Lachlan); J. Connell (John); I.N.M. Day (Ian); M. den Heijer (Martin); J. Duan (Jubao); S. Eebrahim (Shah); P. Eelliott (Paul); R. Eelosua (Roberto); G. Eeiriksdottir (Gudny); M.R. Eerdos (Micheal); J.G. Eeriksson (Johan); M.F. Facheris (Maurizio); S.B. Felix (Stephan); P. Fischer-Posovszky (Pamela); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); N. Friedrich (Nele); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); M. Fu (Mao); S. Gaget (Stefan); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); E.J. Geus (Eeco); C. Gieger (Christian); A.P. Gjesing (Anette); A. Goel (Anuj); P. Goyette (Philippe); H. Grallert (Harald); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); D. Greenawalt (Danielle); C.J. Groves (Christopher); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); C. Guiducci (Candace); A.L. Hartikainen; N. Hassanali (Neelam); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); C. Hayward (Caroline); A.C. Heath (Andrew); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hinney (Anke); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); J. Hui (Jennie); W. Igl (Wilmar); C. Iribarren (Carlos); B. Isomaa (Bo); K.B. Jacobs (Kevin); I. Jarick (Ivonne); E. Jewell (Eelizabeth); U. John (Ulrich); T. Jørgensen (Torben); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); M. Kaakinen (Marika); E. Kajantie (Eero); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); J. Kettunen (Johannes); L. Kinnunen (Leena); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); I. Kolcic (Ivana); I.R. König (Inke); S. Koskinen (Seppo); P. Kovacs (Peter); J. Kusisto (Johanna); P. Kraft (Peter); K. Kvaløy (Kirsti); J. Laitinen (Jaana); O. Lantieri (Olivier); C. Lanzani (Chiara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); C. Lecoeur (Cécile); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G. Lettre (Guillaume); J. Liu (Jianjun); M.L. Lokki; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); R.N. Luben (Robert); B. Ludwig (Barbara); P. Manunta (Paolo); D. Marek (Diana); M. Marre (Michel); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); B. McKnight (Barbara); T. Meitinger (Thomas); O. Melander (Olle); D. Meyre (David); K. Midthjell (Kristian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); M.A. Morken (Mario); A.D. Morris (Andrew); R. Mulic (Rosanda); J.S. Ngwa; M. Nelis (Mari); M.J. Neville (Matthew); D.R. Nyholt (Dale); C.J. O'Ddonnell (Christopher); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); K. Ong (Ken); B.A. Oostra (Ben); G. Paré (Guillaume); A.N. Parker (Alex); M. Perola (Markus); I. Pichler (Irene); K.H. Pietilainen (Kirsi Hannele); C.P. Platou (Carl); O. Polasek (Ozren); A. Pouta (Anneli); S. Rafelt (Suzanne); O. Raitakari (Olli); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); W. Rief (Winfried); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); N.R. Robertson (Neil); P. Rzehak (Peter); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.R. Sanders (Alan); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); S. Sanna (Serena); J. Saramies (Jouko); M.J. Savolainen (Markku); S. Schipf (Sabine); S. Schreiber (Stefan); H. Schunkert (Heribert); K. Silander (Kaisa); J. Sinisalo (Juha); D.S. Siscovick (David); J.H. Smit (Jan); N. Soranzo (Nicole); U. Sovio (Ulla); J. Stephens (Jonathan); I. Surakka (Ida); A.J. Swift (Amy); M.L. Tammesoo; J.-C. Tardif (Jean-Claude); M. Teder-Laving (Maris); T.M. Teslovich (Tanya); J.R. Thompson (John); B. Thomson (Brian); A. Tönjes (Anke); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); G.J. van OMen; V. Vatin (Vincent); J. Viikari (Jorma); S. Visvikis-Siest (Sophie); V. Vitart (Veronique); C.I. Vogel (Carla); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); L. Waite (Lindsay); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); G.B. Walters (Bragi); E. Widen (Elisabeth); S. Wiegand (Susanna); S.H. Wild (Sarah); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); D.R. Witte (Deniel); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J. Xu (Jianfeng); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); L. Zgaga (Lina); A. Ziegler (Andreas); P. Zitting (Paavo); J.P. Beilby (John); I.S. FarOqi (Ssadaf); J. Hebebrand (Johannes); H.V. Huikuri (Heikki); A. James (Alan); M. Kähönen (Mika); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); F. MacCiardi (Fabio); M.S. Nieminen (Markku); C. Ohlsson (Claes); C. Palmer (Cameron); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); H. Boeing (Heiner); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Caulfield (Mark); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); F.S. Collins (Francis); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); J. Eerdmann (Jeanette); P. Frogue (Philippe); H. Grönberg (Henrik); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); T. Hansen (Torben); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); R.B. Hayes (Richard); J. Heinrich (Joachim); F.B. Hu (Frank); K. Hveem (Kristian); T. Illig (Thomas); M.R. Järvelin; J. Kaprio (Jaakko); F. Karpe (Fredrik); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); H. Krude; M. Laakso (Markku); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); A. Metspalu (Andres); P. Munroe (Patricia); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); O. Pedersen (Oluf); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); T. Quertermous (Thomas); T. Reinehr (Thomas); A. Rissanen (Aila); I. Rudan (Igor); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); T.T. Valle (Timo); M. Wabitsch (Martin); G. Waeber (Gérard); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); J.F. Wilson (James); A.F. Wright (Alan); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); N. ChatterjE (Nilanjan); S.A. McCarroll (Steve); S. Purcell (Shaun); E.E. Schadt (Eric); P.M. Visscher (Peter); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); C.S. Fox (Caroline); L. Groop (Leif); T. Haritunians (Talin); D.J. Hunter (David); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); J.R. O'ConneL (Jeffrey); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. SchleSinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); M. Boehnke (Michael); K. StefanSon (Kari); K.E. North (Kari); M.I. McArthy (Mark); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); E. IngelSon (Erik); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); M.N. Weedon (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObesity is globaLy prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined aSociations betwEn body maS index and ĝ̂1/42.8 miLion SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals with targeted foLow up of

  7. Important role of hypothalamic Y2 receptors in body weight regulation revealed in conditional knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Amanda; Schwarzer, Christoph; Couzens, Michelle; Fetissov, Serguei; Furtinger, Sabine; Jenkins, Arthur; Cox, Helen M; Sperk, Günther; Hökfelt, Tomas; Herzog, Herbert

    2002-06-25

    Neuropeptide Y is implicated in energy homeostasis, and contributes to obesity when hypothalamic levels remain chronically elevated. To investigate the specific role of hypothalamic Y2 receptors in this process, we used a conditional Y2 knockout model, using the Cre-lox system and adenoviral delivery of Cre-recombinase. Hypothalamus-specific Y2-deleted mice showed a significant decrease in body weight and a significant increase in food intake that was associated with increased mRNA levels for the orexigenic NPY and AgRP, as well as the anorexic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the arcuate nucleus. These hypothalamic changes persisted until at least 34 days after Y2 deletion, yet the effect on body weight and food intake subsided within this time. Plasma concentrations of pancreatic polypeptide and corticosterone were 3- to 5-fold increased in hypothalamus-specific Y2 knockout mice. Germ-line Y2 receptor knockout also produced a significant increase in plasma levels of pancreatic polypeptide. However, these mice differed from conditional knockout mice in that they showed a sustained reduction in body weight and adiposity associated with increased NPY and AgRP but decreased POMC and CART mRNA levels in the arcuate nucleus. The transience of the observed effects on food intake and body weight in the hypothalamus-specific Y2 knockout mice, and the difference of this model from germ-line Y2 knockout mice, underline the importance of conditional models of gene deletion, because developmental, secondary, or extrahypothalamic mechanisms may mask such effects in germ-line knockouts.

  8. Evolution of the snake body form reveals homoplasy in amniote Hox gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Jason J; Polly, P David

    2015-04-02

    Hox genes regulate regionalization of the axial skeleton in vertebrates, and changes in their expression have been proposed to be a fundamental mechanism driving the evolution of new body forms. The origin of the snake-like body form, with its deregionalized pre-cloacal axial skeleton, has been explained as either homogenization of Hox gene expression domains, or retention of standard vertebrate Hox domains with alteration of downstream expression that suppresses development of distinct regions. Both models assume a highly regionalized ancestor, but the extent of deregionalization of the primaxial domain (vertebrae, dorsal ribs) of the skeleton in snake-like body forms has never been analysed. Here we combine geometric morphometrics and maximum-likelihood analysis to show that the pre-cloacal primaxial domain of elongate, limb-reduced lizards and snakes is not deregionalized compared with limbed taxa, and that the phylogenetic structure of primaxial morphology in reptiles does not support a loss of regionalization in the evolution of snakes. We demonstrate that morphometric regional boundaries correspond to mapped gene expression domains in snakes, suggesting that their primaxial domain is patterned by a normally functional Hox code. Comparison of primaxial osteology in fossil and modern amniotes with Hox gene distributions within Amniota indicates that a functional, sequentially expressed Hox code patterned a subtle morphological gradient along the anterior-posterior axis in stem members of amniote clades and extant lizards, including snakes. The highly regionalized skeletons of extant archosaurs and mammals result from independent evolution in the Hox code and do not represent ancestral conditions for clades with snake-like body forms. The developmental origin of snakes is best explained by decoupling of the primaxial and abaxial domains and by increases in somite number, not by changes in the function of primaxial Hox genes.

  9. Whole-body MRI reveals high incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littooij, Annemieke S; Kwee, Thomas C; Enríquez, Goya; Verbeke, Jonathan I M L; Granata, Claudio; Beishuizen, Auke; de Lange, Charlotte; Zennaro, Floriana; Bruin, Marrie C A; Nievelstein, Rutger A J

    2017-02-01

    Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication in patients treated with corticosteroids. The incidence of osteonecrosis in children treated for Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown because prospective whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are lacking in this patient population. Paediatric patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated according to a uniform paediatric Hodgkin protocol were eligible for inclusion in this prospective study. Whole-body MRI was performed in all 24 included patients (mean age 15·1 years, 12 girls) both before treatment and after 2 cycles of chemotherapy, and in 16 patients after completion of chemotherapy. Osteonecrosis was identified in 10 patients (41·7%, 95% confidence interval: 22·0-61·4%), with a total of 56 osteonecrotic sites. Osteonecrosis was detected in 8 patients after 2 cycles of OEPA (vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, doxorubicin), and in 2 additional patients after completion of chemotherapy. Epiphyseal involvement of long bones was seen in 4 of 10 children. None of the patients with osteonecrosis had any signs of bone collapse at the times of scanning. Whole-body MRI demonstrates osteonecrosis to be a common finding occurring during therapy response assessment of paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma. Detection of early epiphyseal osteonecrosis could allow for treatment before bone collapse and joint damage may occur. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effe...

  11. A Transcriptomics and Comparative Genomics Analysis Reveals Gene Families with a Role in Body Plan Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Kramer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed tissue-specific transcriptomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and identified 66 gene families with a high frequency of “gradient genes” – genes showing a significant expression gradient between tissues. Gradient gene families include many with roles in hormone and peptide signaling, cell wall synthesis and remodeling, secondary metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and transport between cells. We compared the size of the gradient gene families among the genomes of four plant species with radically different body plans – a single-celled algae, a moss, a eudicot, and a monocot – and found that most of the gradient gene families (58/66 expanded in parallel with the evolution of morphological complexity. A novel measure of tissue diversity was used to show that members of any one gradient gene family tend not to be clustered in a single tissue, but are rather apportioned evenly across the tissues studied. Considered together, our results suggest that the diversification of these gene families supported the diversification of tissue types and the evolution of body plan complexity in plants.

  12. Metabolomic Profiles of Body Mass Index in the Framingham Heart Study Reveal Distinct Cardiometabolic Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Ho

    Full Text Available Although obesity and cardiometabolic traits commonly overlap, underlying pathways remain incompletely defined. The association of metabolite profiles across multiple cardiometabolic traits may lend insights into the interaction of obesity and metabolic health. We sought to investigate metabolic signatures of obesity and related cardiometabolic traits in the community using broad-based metabolomic profiling.We evaluated the association of 217 assayed metabolites and cross-sectional as well as longitudinal changes in cardiometabolic traits among 2,383 Framingham Offspring cohort participants. Body mass index (BMI was associated with 69 of 217 metabolites (P<0.00023 for all, including aromatic (tyrosine, phenylalanine and branched chain amino acids (valine, isoleucine, leucine. Additional metabolic pathways associated with BMI included the citric acid cycle (isocitrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, aconitate, the tryptophan pathway (kynurenine, kynurenic acid, and the urea cycle. There was considerable overlap in metabolite profiles between BMI, abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance [IR] and dyslipidemia, modest overlap of metabolite profiles between BMI and hyperglycemia, and little overlap with fasting glucose or elevated blood pressure. Metabolite profiles were associated with longitudinal changes in fasting glucose, but the involved metabolites (ornithine, 5-HIAA, aminoadipic acid, isoleucine, cotinine were distinct from those associated with baseline glucose or other traits. Obesity status appeared to "modify" the association of 9 metabolites with IR. For example, bile acid metabolites were strongly associated with IR among obese but not lean individuals, whereas isoleucine had a stronger association with IR in lean individuals.In this large-scale metabolite profiling study, body mass index was associated with a broad range of metabolic alterations. Metabolite profiling highlighted considerable overlap with abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance

  13. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells derived from human cardiac explants demonstrate angiogenic potential and suitable for design of cell-containing vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, I S; Zhiven', M K; Saaya, Sh B; Shevchenko, A I; Smirnova, A M; Strunov, A; Karpenko, A A; Pokushalov, E A; Ivanova, L N; Makarevich, P I; Parfyonova, Y V; Aboian, E; Zakian, S M

    2017-03-03

    Endothelial and smooth muscle cells are considered promising resources for regenerative medicine and cell replacement therapy. It has been shown that both types of cells are heterogeneous depending on the type of vessels and organs in which they are located. Therefore, isolation of endothelial and smooth muscle cells from tissues relevant to the area of research is necessary for the adequate study of specific pathologies. However, sources of specialized human endothelial and smooth muscle cells are limited, and the search for new sources is still relevant. The main goal of our study is to demonstrate that functional endothelial and smooth muscle cells can be obtained from an available source-post-surgically discarded cardiac tissue from the right atrial appendage and right ventricular myocardium. Heterogeneous primary cell cultures were enzymatically isolated from cardiac explants and then grown in specific endothelial and smooth muscle growth media on collagen IV-coated surfaces. The population of endothelial cells was further enriched by immunomagnetic sorting for CD31, and the culture thus obtained was characterized by immunocytochemistry, ultrastructural analysis and in vitro functional tests. The angiogenic potency of the cells was examined by injecting them, along with Matrigel, into immunodeficient mice. Cells were also seeded on characterized polycaprolactone/chitosan membranes with subsequent analysis of cell proliferation and function. Endothelial cells isolated from cardiac explants expressed CD31, VE-cadherin and VEGFR2 and showed typical properties, namely, cytoplasmic Weibel-Palade bodies, metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoproteins, formation of capillary-like structures in Matrigel, and production of extracellular matrix and angiogenic cytokines. Isolated smooth muscle cells expressed extracellular matrix components as well as α-actin and myosin heavy chain. Vascular cells derived from cardiac explants demonstrated the ability to stimulate

  14. Good vibrations? Vibrotactile self-stimulation reveals anticipation of body-related action effects in motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland; Janczyk, Markus; Gressmann, Marcel; Fournier, Lisa R; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-03-01

    Previous research suggests that motor actions are intentionally generated by recollecting their sensory consequences. Whereas this has been shown to apply to visual or auditory consequences in the environment, surprisingly little is known about the contribution of immediate, body-related consequences, such as proprioceptive and tactile reafferences. Here, we report evidence for a contribution of vibrotactile reafferences to action selection by using a response-effect compatibility paradigm. More precisely, anticipating actions to cause spatially incompatible vibrations delayed responding to a small but reliable degree. Whereas this observation suggests functional equivalence of body-related and environment-related reafferences to action control, the future application of the described experimental procedure might reveal functional peculiarities of specific types of sensory consequences in action control.

  15. Necrobiosis lipoidica: a case with histopathological findings revealed asteroid bodies and was successfully treated with dipyridamole plus intralesional triamcinolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiquan, Song; Khalaf, Ahmad T; Jinquan, Tan; Xiaoming, Liu

    2008-01-01

    The significance of necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) includes its relationship with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, its tendency to break down into painful ulcers, an albeit tenuous association with squamous cell carcinoma and, by no means least, its cosmetic impact, occurring as it does on the shins of young and middle-aged women. Necrobiosis (degeneration of collagen) and granulomous inflammation are well-documented histological findings in NL; however, to see an asteroid body in an area of NL is rare. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one such report of NL described so far. We report the case of a NL patient whose histopathological examination revealed asteroid bodies. The patient had suffered persistent NL for a period of more than 2 years. She was successfully treated with dipyridamole plus intralesional triamcinolone and the lesions healed completely after 2 months of therapy. The patient has remained free of lesions since discontinuing therapy.

  16. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  17. RNA Sequencing Reveals the Alteration of the Expression of Novel Genes in Ethanol-Treated Embryoid Bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchal Mandal

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a collective term representing fetal abnormalities associated with maternal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol exposure and related anomalies are well characterized, but the molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon is not well characterized. In this present study, our aim is to profile important genes that regulate cellular development during fetal development. Human embryonic carcinoma cells (NCCIT are cultured to form embryoid bodies and then treated in the presence and absence of ethanol (50 mM. We employed RNA sequencing to profile differentially expressed genes in the ethanol-treated embryoid bodies from NCCIT vs. EB, NCCIT vs. EB+EtOH and EB vs. EB+EtOH data sets. A total of 632, 205 and 517 differentially expressed genes were identified from NCCIT vs. EB, NCCIT vs. EB+EtOH and EB vs. EB+EtOH, respectively. Functional annotation using bioinformatics tools reveal significant enrichment of differential cellular development and developmental disorders. Furthermore, a group of 42, 15 and 35 transcription factor-encoding genes are screened from all of the differentially expressed genes obtained from NCCIT vs. EB, NCCIT vs. EB+EtOH and EB vs. EB+EtOH, respectively. We validated relative gene expression levels of several transcription factors from these lists by quantitative real-time PCR. We hope that our study substantially contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the pathology of alcohol-mediated anomalies and ease further research.

  18. A whole-body model for glycogen regulation reveals a critical role for substrate cycling in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely, and sometimes rapid, metabolic adaptation to changes in food supply is critical for survival as an organism moves from the fasted to the fed state, and vice versa. These transitions necessitate major metabolic changes to maintain energy homeostasis as the source of blood glucose moves away from ingested carbohydrates, through hepatic glycogen stores, towards gluconeogenesis. The integration of hepatic glycogen regulation with extra-hepatic energetics is a key aspect of these adaptive mechanisms. Here we use computational modeling to explore hepatic glycogen regulation under fed and fasting conditions in the context of a whole-body model. The model was validated against previous experimental results concerning glycogen phosphorylase a (active and glycogen synthase a dynamics. The model qualitatively reproduced physiological changes that occur during transition from the fed to the fasted state. Analysis of the model reveals a critical role for the inhibition of glycogen synthase phosphatase by glycogen phosphorylase a. This negative regulation leads to high levels of glycogen synthase activity during fasting conditions, which in turn increases substrate (futile cycling, priming the system for a rapid response once an external source of glucose is restored. This work demonstrates that a mechanistic understanding of the design principles used by metabolic control circuits to maintain homeostasis can benefit from the incorporation of mathematical descriptions of these networks into "whole-body" contextual models that mimic in vivo conditions.

  19. The Human Embryoid Body Cystic Core Exhibits Architectural Complexity Revealed by use of High Throughput Polymer Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Martin L; Olmsted, Zachary T; Paluh, Janet L

    2015-07-01

    In pluripotent stem cell differentiation, embryoid bodies (EBs) provide a three-dimensional [3D] multicellular precursor in lineage specification. The internal structure of EBs is not well characterized yet is predicted to be an important parameter to differentiation. Here, we use custom SU-8 molds to generate transparent lithography-templated arrays of polydimethylsiloxane (LTA-PDMS) for high throughput analysis of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) EB formation and internal architecture. EBs formed in 200 and 500 μm diameter microarray wells by use of single cells, 2D clusters, or 3D early aggregates were compared. We observe that 200 μm EBs are monocystic versus 500 μm multicystic EBs that contain macro, meso and microsized cysts. In adherent differentiation of 500 μm EBs, the multicystic character impairs the 3D to 2D transition creating non-uniform monolayers. Our findings reveal that EB core structure has a size-dependent character that influences its architecture and cell population uniformity during early differentiation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Quantitative lipidomics reveals age-dependent perturbations of whole-body lipid metabolism in ACBP deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Sandra F; Sprenger, Richard R; Neess, Ditte; Pauling, Josch K; Færgeman, Nils J; Ejsing, Christer S

    2017-02-01

    The acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) plays a key role in chaperoning long-chain acyl-CoAs into lipid metabolic processes and acts as an important regulatory hub in mammalian physiology. This is highlighted by the recent finding that mice devoid of ACBP suffer from a compromised epidermal barrier and delayed weaning, the physiological process where newborns transit from a fat-based milk diet to a carbohydrate-rich diet. To gain insights into how ACBP impinges on weaning and the concomitant remodeling of whole-body lipid metabolism we performed a comparative lipidomics analysis charting the absolute abundance of 613 lipid molecules in liver, muscle and plasma from weaning and adult Acbp knockout and wild type mice. Our results reveal that ACBP deficiency affects primarily lipid metabolism of liver and plasma during weaning. Specifically, we show that ACBP deficient mice have elevated levels of hepatic cholesteryl esters, and that lipids featuring an 18:1 fatty acid moiety are increased in Acbp depleted mice across all tissues investigated. Our results also show that the perturbation of systemic lipid metabolism in Acbp knockout mice is transient and becomes normalized and similar to that of wild type as mice grow older. These findings demonstrate that ACBP serves crucial functions in maintaining lipid metabolic homeostasis in mice during weaning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunohistochemical characterization of the chemosensory pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies in the naked mole-rat reveals a unique adaptive phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pan

    Full Text Available The pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs constitute polymodal airway chemosensors for monitoring and signaling ambient gas concentrations (pO2, pCO2/H+ via complex innervation to the brain stem controlling breathing. NEBs produce the bioactive amine, serotonin (5-HT, and a variety of peptides with multiple effects on lung physiology and other organ systems. NEBs in mammals appear prominent and numerous during fetal and neonatal periods, and decline in the post-natal period suggesting an important role during perinatal adaptation. The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber, has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of living in subterranean burrows in large colonies (up to 300 colony mates. The crowded, unventilated burrows are environments of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, NMRs adjust readily to above ground conditions. The chemosensory NEBs of this species were characterized and compared to those of the conventional Wistar rat (WR to identify similarities and differences that could explain the NMR's adaptability to environments. A multilabel immunohistochemical analysis combined with confocal microscopy revealed that the expression patterns of amine, peptide, neuroendocrine, innervation markers and chemosensor component proteins in NEBs of NMR were similar to that of WR. However, we found the following differences: 1 NEBs in both neonatal and adult NMR lungs were significantly larger and more numerous as compared to WR; 2 NEBs in NMR had a more variable compact cell organization and exhibited significant differences in the expression of adhesion proteins; 3 NMR NEBs showed a significantly greater ratio of 5-HT positive cells with an abundance of 5-HT; 4 NEBs in NMR expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and the neurogenic gene (MASH1 indicating active proliferation and a state of persistent differentiation. Taken together our findings suggest that NEBs in lungs of NMR are in a hyperactive, functional

  2. Survey of 800+ datasets from human tissue and body fluid reveals XenomiRs are likely artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Wenjing; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner; Holm, Anja

    2017-01-01

    -study in the field, surveying the presence and abundances of cross-species miRNAs (xenomiRs) in 824 sequencing datasets from various human tissues and body fluids. We find that xenomiRs are commonly present in tissues (17%) and body fluids (69%), however the abundances are low, comprising 0.001% of host human mi...

  3. Conditional inactivation of Upstream Binding Factor reveals its epigenetic functions and the existence of a somatic nucleolar precursor body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourdine Hamdane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Upstream Binding Factor (UBF is a unique multi-HMGB-box protein first identified as a co-factor in RNA polymerase I (RPI/PolI transcription. However, its poor DNA sequence selectivity and its ability to generate nucleosome-like nucleoprotein complexes suggest a more generalized role in chromatin structure. We previously showed that extensive depletion of UBF reduced the number of actively transcribed ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes, but had little effect on rRNA synthesis rates or cell proliferation, leaving open the question of its requirement for RPI transcription. Using gene deletion in mouse, we now show that UBF is essential for embryo development beyond morula. Conditional deletion in cell cultures reveals that UBF is also essential for transcription of the rRNA genes and that it defines the active chromatin conformation of both gene and enhancer sequences. Loss of UBF prevents formation of the SL1/TIF1B pre-initiation complex and recruitment of the RPI-Rrn3/TIF1A complex. It is also accompanied by recruitment of H3K9me3, canonical histone H1 and HP1α, but not by de novo DNA methylation. Further, genes retain penta-acetyl H4 and H2A.Z, suggesting that even in the absence of UBF the rRNA genes can maintain a potentially active state. In contrast to canonical histone H1, binding of H1.4 is dependent on UBF, strongly suggesting that it plays a positive role in gene activity. Unexpectedly, arrest of rRNA synthesis does not suppress transcription of the 5S, tRNA or snRNA genes, nor expression of the several hundred mRNA genes implicated in ribosome biogenesis. Thus, rRNA gene activity does not coordinate global gene expression for ribosome biogenesis. Loss of UBF also unexpectedly induced the formation in cells of a large sub-nuclear structure resembling the nucleolar precursor body (NPB of oocytes and early embryos. These somatic NPBs contain rRNA synthesis and processing factors but do not associate with the rRNA gene loci (NORs.

  4. Polymorphism rs3123554 in CNR2 reveals gender-specific effects on body weight and affects loss of body weight and cerebral insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterer, Caroline; Heni, Martin; Stingl, Krunoslav; Tschritter, Otto; Linder, Katarzyna; Wagner, Robert; Machicao, Fausto; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Preissl, Hubert; Staiger, Harald; Fritsche, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    The cannabinoid-receptor system is involved in the regulation of food intake. Here, we test whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CNR2, encoding the cannabinoid-receptor 2, are associated with weight in a cross-sectional cohort. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate if the identified hits influence weight loss during lifestyle intervention; and study a potential involvement of cerebral insulin action. 2006 subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus were genotyped for 5 tagging SNPs in the CNR2 locus. All subjects underwent a 75-g OGTT. 345 subjects participated in a lifestyle intervention (TUebingen Lifestyle Intervention Programme). Cerebrocortical insulin sensitivity was measured by magnetoencephalography after intranasal insulin application in 43 subjects. In the cross-sectional cohort, the minor allele of rs3123554 was associated with lower BMI (Padd = 0.01, Prec = 0.004), and this was attributable to its effect in women only. Interestingly, during lifestyle intervention, carriers of the same allele lost less body weight (Padd = 0.03, Prec = 0.008). Moreover, carriers of this minor allele showed lower cerebral insulin sensitivity (Prec = 0.0402). The minor allele of rs3123554 is associated cross-sectionally with lower body weight, whereas during intervention the same allele led to less reduction of body weight. Reduced cerebral insulin sensitivity in carriers of this allele might contribute to these disadvantageous effects during lifestyle intervention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  5. New Haystacks Reveal New Needles: Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Identify Novel Targets for Ameliorating Body Composition Changes during Human Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Wolkow, Catherine A.

    2010-01-01

    Dramatic changes in body composition accompany aging in humans, particularly with respect to adiposity and the musculature. People accumulate fat as they age and lose muscle mass and strength. Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes are small, hermaphroditic soil nematodes that offer a flexible model for studying genetic pathways regulating body composition in humans. While there are significant physiological differences between worms and people, many of the genetic pathways relevant to human lipid ...

  6. Transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals two functionally distinct stages of motor cortex involvement during perception of emotional body language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgomaneri, Sara; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio

    2015-09-01

    Studies indicate that perceiving emotional body language recruits fronto-parietal regions involved in action execution. However, the nature of such motor activation is unclear. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) we provide correlational and causative evidence of two distinct stages of motor cortex engagement during emotion perception. Participants observed pictures of body expressions and categorized them as happy, fearful or neutral while receiving TMS over the left or right motor cortex at 150 and 300 ms after picture onset. In the early phase (150 ms), we observed a reduction of excitability for happy and fearful emotional bodies that was specific to the right hemisphere and correlated with participants' disposition to feel personal distress. This 'orienting' inhibitory response to emotional bodies was also paralleled by a general drop in categorization accuracy when stimulating the right but not the left motor cortex. Conversely, at 300 ms, greater excitability for negative, positive and neutral movements was found in both hemispheres. This later motor facilitation marginally correlated with participants' tendency to assume the psychological perspectives of others and reflected simulation of the movement implied in the neutral and emotional body expressions. These findings highlight the motor system's involvement during perception of emotional bodies. They suggest that fast orienting reactions to emotional cues--reflecting neural processing necessary for visual perception--occur before motor features of the observed emotional expression are simulated in the motor system and that distinct empathic dispositions influence these two neural motor phenomena. Implications for theories of embodied simulation are discussed.

  7. Population-based resequencing of experimentally evolved populations reveals the genetic basis of body size variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Turner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Body size is a classic quantitative trait with evolutionarily significant variation within many species. Locating the alleles responsible for this variation would help understand the maintenance of variation in body size in particular, as well as quantitative traits in general. However, successful genome-wide association of genotype and phenotype may require very large sample sizes if alleles have low population frequencies or modest effects. As a complementary approach, we propose that population-based resequencing of experimentally evolved populations allows for considerable power to map functional variation. Here, we use this technique to investigate the genetic basis of natural variation in body size in Drosophila melanogaster. Significant differentiation of hundreds of loci in replicate selection populations supports the hypothesis that the genetic basis of body size variation is very polygenic in D. melanogaster. Significantly differentiated variants are limited to single genes at some loci, allowing precise hypotheses to be formed regarding causal polymorphisms, while other significant regions are large and contain many genes. By using significantly associated polymorphisms as a priori candidates in follow-up studies, these data are expected to provide considerable power to determine the genetic basis of natural variation in body size.

  8. Untangling intra- and interspecific effects on body size clines reveals divergent processes structuring convergent patterns in Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Martha M; Wegener, Johanna E; Algar, Adam C

    2014-11-01

    Bergmann's rule-the tendency for body size to increase in colder environments-remains controversial today, despite 150 years of research. Considerable debate has revolved around whether the rule applies within or among species. However, this debate has generally not considered that clade-level relationships are caused by both intra- and interspecific effects. In this article, we implement a novel approach that allows for the separation of intra- and interspecific components of trait-environment relationships. We apply this approach to body size clines in two Caribbean clades of Anolis lizards and discover that their similar body size gradients are constructed in very different ways. We find inverse Bergmann's clines-high-elevation lizards are smaller bodied-for both the cybotes clade on Hispaniola and the sagrei clade on Cuba. However, on Hispaniola, the inverse cline is driven by interspecific differences, whereas intraspecific variation is responsible for the inverse cline on Cuba. Our results suggest that similar body size clines can be constructed through differing evolutionary and ecological processes, namely, through local adaptation or phenotypic plasticity (intraspecific clines) and/or size-ordered spatial sorting (interspecific clines). We propose that our approach can help integrate a divided research program by focusing on how the combined effects of intra- and interspecific processes can enhance or erode clade-level relationships at large biogeographic scales.

  9. Body representations in the human brain revealed by kinesthetic illusions and their essential contributions to motor control and corporeal awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Morita, Tomoyo; Amemiya, Kaoru

    2016-03-01

    The human brain can generate a continuously changing postural model of our body. Somatic (proprioceptive) signals from skeletal muscles and joints contribute to the formation of the body representation. Recent neuroimaging studies of proprioceptive bodily illusions have elucidated the importance of three brain systems (motor network, specialized parietal systems, right inferior fronto-parietal network) in the formation of the human body representation. The motor network, especially the primary motor cortex, processes afferent input from skeletal muscles. Such information may contribute to the formation of kinematic/dynamic postural models of limbs, thereby enabling fast online feedback control. Distinct parietal regions appear to play specialized roles in the transformation/integration of information across different coordinate systems, which may subserve the adaptability and flexibility of the body representation. Finally, the right inferior fronto-parietal network, connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, is consistently recruited when an individual experiences various types of bodily illusions and its possible roles relate to corporeal awareness, which is likely elicited through a series of neuronal processes of monitoring and accumulating bodily information and updating the body representation. Because this network is also recruited when identifying one's own features, the network activity could be a neuronal basis for self-consciousness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals two functionally distinct stages of motor cortex involvement during perception of emotional body language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgomaneri, Sara; Gazzola, V.; Avenanti, Alessio

    Studies indicate that perceiving emotional body language recruits fronto-parietal regions involved in action execution. However, the nature of such motor activation is unclear. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) we provide correlational and causative evidence of two distinct stages of

  11. Transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals two functionally distinct stages of motor cortex involvement during perception of emotional body language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgomaneri, S.; Gazzola, V.; Avenanti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate that perceiving emotional body language recruits fronto-parietal regions involved in action execution. However, the nature of such motor activation is unclear. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) we provide correlational and causative evidence of two distinct stages of

  12. Use of Data Mining to Reveal Body Mass Index (BMI): Patterns among Pennsylvania Schoolchildren, Pre-K to Grade 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    YoussefAgha, Ahmed H.; Lohrmann, David K.; Jayawardene, Wasantha P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health eTools for Schools was developed to assist school nurses with routine entries, including height and weight, on student health records, thus providing a readily accessible data base. Data-mining techniques were applied to this database to determine if clinically signi?cant results could be generated. Methods: Body mass index…

  13. Fatty acids and small organic compounds bind to mineralo-organic nanoparticles derived from human body fluids as revealed by metabolomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Jan; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Cheng, Ann-Joy; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Young, John D

    2016-03-14

    Nanoparticles entering the human body instantly become coated with a "protein corona" that influences the effects and distribution of the particles in vivo. Yet, whether nanoparticles may bind to other organic compounds remains unclear. Here we use an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the organic compounds that bind to mineral nanoparticles formed in human body fluids (serum, plasma, saliva, and urine). A wide range of organic compounds is identified, including fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, amino acids, sugars, and amides. Our results reveal that, in addition to the proteins identified previously, nanoparticles harbor an "organic corona" containing several fatty acids which may affect particle-cell interactions in vivo. This study provides a platform to study the organic corona of biological and synthetic nanoparticles found in the human body.

  14. Untangling intra- and interspecific effects on body size clines reveals divergent processes structuring convergent patterns in Anolis lizards

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Martha M.; Wegener, Johanna E.; Algar, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    Bergmann’s rule—the tendency for body size to increase in colder environments—remains controversial today, despite 150 years of research. Considerable debate has revolved around whether the rule applies within or among species. However, this debate has generally not considered that clade-level relationships are caused by both intra- and interspecific effects. In this article, we implement a novel approach that allows for the separation of intra- and interspecific components of trait-environme...

  15. Neuropeptide Y knockout mice reveal a central role of NPY in the coordination of bone mass to body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Baldock

    Full Text Available Changes in whole body energy levels are closely linked to alterations in body weight and bone mass. Here, we show that hypothalamic signals contribute to the regulation of bone mass in a manner consistent with the central perception of energy status. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y (NPY, a well-known orexigenic factor whose hypothalamic expression is increased in fasting, have significantly increased bone mass in association with enhanced osteoblast activity and elevated expression of bone osteogenic transcription factors, Runx2 and Osterix. In contrast, wild type and NPY knockout (NPY (-/- mice in which NPY is specifically over expressed in the hypothalamus (AAV-NPY+ show a significant reduction in bone mass despite developing an obese phenotype. The AAV-NPY+ induced loss of bone mass is consistent with models known to mimic the central effects of fasting, which also show increased hypothalamic NPY levels. Thus these data indicate that, in addition to well characterized responses to body mass, skeletal tissue also responds to the perception of nutritional status by the hypothalamus independently of body weight. In addition, the reduction in bone mass by AAV NPY+ administration does not completely correct the high bone mass phenotype of NPY (-/- mice, indicating the possibility that peripheral NPY may also be an important regulator of bone mass. Indeed, we demonstrate the expression of NPY specifically in osteoblasts. In conclusion, these data identifies NPY as a critical integrator of bone homeostatic signals; increasing bone mass during times of obesity when hypothalamic NPY expression levels are low and reducing bone formation to conserve energy under 'starving' conditions, when hypothalamic NPY expression levels are high.

  16. Fatty acids and small organic compounds bind to mineralo-organic nanoparticles derived from human body fluids as revealed by metabolomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Jan; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Cheng, Ann-Joy; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Young, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles entering the human body instantly become coated with a ``protein corona'' that influences the effects and distribution of the particles in vivo. Yet, whether nanoparticles may bind to other organic compounds remains unclear. Here we use an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the organic compounds that bind to mineral nanoparticles formed in human body fluids (serum, plasma, saliva, and urine). A wide range of organic compounds is identified, including fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, amino acids, sugars, and amides. Our results reveal that, in addition to the proteins identified previously, nanoparticles harbor an ``organic corona'' containing several fatty acids which may affect particle-cell interactions in vivo. This study provides a platform to study the organic corona of biological and synthetic nanoparticles found in the human body.Nanoparticles entering the human body instantly become coated with a ``protein corona'' that influences the effects and distribution of the particles in vivo. Yet, whether nanoparticles may bind to other organic compounds remains unclear. Here we use an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the organic compounds that bind to mineral nanoparticles formed in human body fluids (serum, plasma, saliva, and urine). A wide range of organic compounds is identified, including fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, amino acids, sugars, and amides. Our results reveal that, in addition to the proteins identified previously, nanoparticles harbor an ``organic corona'' containing several fatty acids which may affect particle-cell interactions in vivo. This study provides a platform to study the organic corona of biological and synthetic nanoparticles found in the human body. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See

  17. RAD-QTL Mapping Reveals Both Genome-Level Parallelism and Different Genetic Architecture Underlying the Evolution of Body Shape in Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) Species Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Martin; Rogers, Sean M; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie; Normandeau, Eric; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Dalziel, Anne C; Chebib, Jobran; Bernatchez, Louis

    2015-05-21

    Parallel changes in body shape may evolve in response to similar environmental conditions, but whether such parallel phenotypic changes share a common genetic basis is still debated. The goal of this study was to assess whether parallel phenotypic changes could be explained by genetic parallelism, multiple genetic routes, or both. We first provide evidence for parallelism in fish shape by using geometric morphometrics among 300 fish representing five species pairs of Lake Whitefish. Using a genetic map comprising 3438 restriction site-associated DNA sequencing single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we then identified quantitative trait loci underlying body shape traits in a backcross family reared in the laboratory. A total of 138 body shape quantitative trait loci were identified in this cross, thus revealing a highly polygenic architecture of body shape in Lake Whitefish. Third, we tested for evidence of genetic parallelism among independent wild populations using both a single-locus method (outlier analysis) and a polygenic approach (analysis of covariation among markers). The single-locus approach provided limited evidence for genetic parallelism. However, the polygenic analysis revealed genetic parallelism for three of the five lakes, which differed from the two other lakes. These results provide evidence for both genetic parallelism and multiple genetic routes underlying parallel phenotypic evolution in fish shape among populations occupying similar ecological niches. Copyright © 2015 Laporte et al.

  18. Hydrochemical system analysis of public supply well fields, to reveal water-quality patterns and define groundwater bodies: The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, Igor; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.; Wiersma, Ane P.

    2011-02-01

    Hydrochemical system analysis (HCSA) is used to better understand the individual state of and spatial patterns in groundwater quality, by addressing the spatial distribution of groundwater bodies with specific origins (hydrosomes) and characteristic hydrochemical zones within each hydrosome (facies). The origin is determined by environmental tracers or geomorphological and potentiometric maps, the facies by combining age, redox and alkalinity indices. The HCSA method is applied to all 206 active public supply well fields (PSWFs) in The Netherlands, resulting in the distinction of nine hydrosomes and eleven facies parameters—age (young, intermediate, old), redox ((sub)oxic, anoxic, deep anoxic, mixed) and alkalinity (very low, low, intermediate and high). The resulting classification of PSWFs provides a means to (1) predict their vulnerability; (2) optimize groundwater-quality monitoring programs; and (3) better delineate groundwater bodies, by considering groundwater origin and flow. The HCSA translates complex hydrochemical patterns into easily interpretable maps by showing PSWFs, groundwater bodies and hydrochemical facies. Such maps facilitate communication between researchers, water resources managers and policy makers and can help to solve complex groundwater resources management problems at different scales, ranging from a single well(field) or region to the national or European scale.

  19. Randomized trial reveals that physical activity and energy expenditure are associated with weight and body composition after RYGB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, Elvis Alvarez; Dubis, Gabriel S; Hames, Kazanna C; Jakicic, John M; Houmard, Joseph A; Coen, Paul M; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the associations of both physical activity time (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) with weight and fat mass (FM) loss in patients following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Ninety-six nondiabetic patients were included in this analysis. Post-RYGB patients were randomized in one of two treatments: A 6-month exercise training program (RYBG+EX) or lifestyle educational classes (RYGB). Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Components of PA and EE were quantified by a multisensory device. Dose-response relationships of both PA and EE with weight loss and body composition were explored according to quartiles of change in steps per day. Patients in the highest quartiles of steps per day change lost more FM (3rd = -19.5 kg and 4th = -22.7 kg, P muscle mass (3rd = -3.1 cm2 and 4th = -4.5 cm2 , P weight and FM, while maintaining higher skeletal muscle mass. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  20. In vivo monitoring of mRNA movement in Drosophila body wall muscle cells reveals the presence of myofiber domains.

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    Alice M C van Gemert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In skeletal muscle each muscle cell, commonly called myofiber, is actually a large syncytium containing numerous nuclei. Experiments in fixed myofibers show that mRNAs remain localized around the nuclei in which they are produced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we generated transgenic flies that allowed us to investigate the movement of mRNAs in body wall myofibers of living Drosophila embryos. We determined the dynamic properties of GFP-tagged mRNAs using in vivo confocal imaging and photobleaching techniques and found that the GFP-tagged mRNAs are not free to move throughout myofibers. The restricted movement indicated that body wall myofibers consist of three domains. The exchange of mRNAs between the domains is relatively slow, but the GFP-tagged mRNAs move rapidly within these domains. One domain is located at the centre of the cell and is surrounded by nuclei while the other two domains are located at either end of the fiber. To move between these domains mRNAs have to travel past centrally located nuclei. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that the domains made visible in our experiments result from prolonged interactions with as yet undefined structures close to the nuclei that prevent GFP-tagged mRNAs from rapidly moving between the domains. This could be of significant importance for the treatment of myopathies using regenerative cell-based therapies.

  1. In vivo monitoring of mRNA movement in Drosophila body wall muscle cells reveals the presence of myofiber domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Alice M C; van der Laan, Annelies M A; Pilgram, Gonneke S K; Fradkin, Lee G; Noordermeer, Jasprina N; Tanke, Hans J; Jost, Carolina R

    2009-08-17

    In skeletal muscle each muscle cell, commonly called myofiber, is actually a large syncytium containing numerous nuclei. Experiments in fixed myofibers show that mRNAs remain localized around the nuclei in which they are produced. In this study we generated transgenic flies that allowed us to investigate the movement of mRNAs in body wall myofibers of living Drosophila embryos. We determined the dynamic properties of GFP-tagged mRNAs using in vivo confocal imaging and photobleaching techniques and found that the GFP-tagged mRNAs are not free to move throughout myofibers. The restricted movement indicated that body wall myofibers consist of three domains. The exchange of mRNAs between the domains is relatively slow, but the GFP-tagged mRNAs move rapidly within these domains. One domain is located at the centre of the cell and is surrounded by nuclei while the other two domains are located at either end of the fiber. To move between these domains mRNAs have to travel past centrally located nuclei. These data suggest that the domains made visible in our experiments result from prolonged interactions with as yet undefined structures close to the nuclei that prevent GFP-tagged mRNAs from rapidly moving between the domains. This could be of significant importance for the treatment of myopathies using regenerative cell-based therapies.

  2. New haystacks reveal new needles: using Caenorhabditis elegans to identify novel targets for ameliorating body composition changes during human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkow, Catherine A

    2010-01-01

    Dramatic changes in body composition accompany aging in humans, particularly with respect to adiposity and the musculature. People accumulate fat as they age and lose muscle mass and strength. Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes are small, hermaphroditic soil nematodes that offer a flexible model for studying genetic pathways regulating body composition in humans. While there are significant physiological differences between worms and people, many of the genetic pathways relevant to human lipid and muscle homeostasis are present in worms. Initial studies indicate that adiposity increases in C. elegans during aging, as occurs in humans. Furthermore, substantial evidence demonstrates age-related loss of muscle mass in worms. Possible mechanisms for these changes in C. elegans are presented. Recent studies have highlighted neuroendocrine and environmental signals regulating C. elegans fat metabolism. Potential dysfunction of these pathways during aging could affect overall fat accumulation. By contrast, muscle decline in aging worms results from accumulated damage and 'wear-and-tear' over life span. However, neuroendocrine pathways also regulate muscle mass in response to food availability. Such pathways might provide useful therapeutic approaches for combating muscle loss during aging. From this chapter, readers will develop a deeper understanding of the ways that C.elegans can be used for mechanistic gerontological studies. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Synchrotron soft X-ray imaging and fluorescence microscopy reveal novel features of asbestos body morphology and composition in human lung tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polentarutti Maurizio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational or environmental exposure to asbestos fibres is associated with pleural and parenchymal lung diseases. A histopathologic hallmark of exposure to asbestos is the presence in lung parenchyma of the so-called asbestos bodies. They are the final product of biomineralization processes resulting in deposition of endogenous iron and organic matter (mainly proteins around the inhaled asbestos fibres. For shedding light on the formation mechanisms of asbestos bodies it is of fundamental importance to characterize at the same length scales not only their structural morphology and chemical composition but also to correlate them to the possible alterations in the local composition of the surrounding tissues. Here we report the first correlative morphological and chemical characterization of untreated paraffinated histological lung tissue samples with asbestos bodies by means of soft X-ray imaging and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF microscopy, which reveals new features in the elemental lateral distribution. Results The X-ray absorption and phase contrast images and the simultaneously monitored XRF maps of tissue samples have revealed the location, distribution and elemental composition of asbestos bodies and associated nanometric structures. The observed specific morphology and differences in the local Si, Fe, O and Mg content provide distinct fingerprints characteristic for the core asbestos fibre and the ferruginous body. The highest Si content is found in the asbestos fibre, while the shell and ferruginous bodies are characterized by strongly increased content of Mg, Fe and O compared to the adjacent tissue. The XRF and SEM-EDX analyses of the extracted asbestos bodies confirmed an enhanced Mg deposition in the organic asbestos coating. Conclusions The present report demonstrates the potential of the advanced synchrotron-based X-ray imaging and microspectroscopy techniques for studying the response of the lung tissue to the

  4. Quantitative lipidomics reveals age-dependent perturbations of whole-body lipid metabolism in ACBP deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, Sandra F; Sprenger, Richard R; Neess, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    abundance of 613 lipid molecules in liver, muscle and plasma from weaning and adult Acbp knockout and wild type mice. Our results reveal that ACBP deficiency affects primarily lipid metabolism of liver and plasma during weaning. Specifically, we show that ACBP deficient mice have elevated levels of hepatic...... as mice grow older. These findings demonstrate that ACBP serves crucial functions in maintaining lipid metabolic homeostasis in mice during weaning....

  5. Body-size structure of Central Iberian mammal fauna reveals semidesertic conditions during the middle Miocene Global Cooling Event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Menéndez

    Full Text Available We developed new quantitative palaeoclimatic inference models based on the body-size structure of mammal faunas from the Old World tropics and applied them to the Somosaguas fossil site (middle Miocene, central Iberian Peninsula. Twenty-six mammal species have been described at this site, including proboscideans, ungulates, carnivores, insectivores, lagomorphs and rodents. Our analyses were based on multivariate and bivariate regression models correlating climatic data and body-size structure of 63 modern mammal assemblages from Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent. The results showed an average temperature of the coldest month higher than 26°C for the Somosaguas fossil site, a mean annual thermal amplitude around 10°C, a drought length of 10 months, and an annual total precipitation greater than 200 mm per year, which are climate conditions typical of an ecotonal zone between the savanna and desert biomes. These results are congruent with the aridity peaks described over the middle Aragonian of Spain and particularly in the local biozone E, which includes Somosaguas. The aridity increase detected in this biozone is associated with the Middle Miocene Global Cooling Event. The environment of Somosaguas around 14 Ma was similar to the current environment in the Sahel region of North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the boundary area between the Kalahari and the Namib in Southern Africa, south-central Arabia, or eastern Pakistan and northwestern India. The distribution of modern vegetation in these regions follows a complex mosaic of plant communities, dominated by scattered xerophilous shrublands, semidesert grasslands, and vegetation linked to seasonal watercourses and ponds.

  6. Sympathetic regulation of vascular tone via noradrenaline and serotonin in the rat carotid body as revealed by intracellular calcium imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takuya; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Kusakabe, Tatsumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2015-01-30

    Hypoxia-induced chemosensory activity in the carotid body (CB) may be enhanced by the sympathetic regulation of vascular tone in the CB. In the present study, we recorded cervical sympathetic nerve activity in rats exposed to hypoxia, and examined noradrenaline (NA)- and serotonin (5-HT)-induced intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) responses in smooth muscle cells and pericytes in isolated blood vessels from the CB. Multifiber electrical activity recorded from the cervical sympathetic trunk was increased during the inhalation of hypoxic gas. NA induced [Ca(2+)]i increases in smooth muscle cells in arteriole specimens, whereas 5-HT did not cause any [Ca(2+)]i responses. However, NA did not induce [Ca(2+)]i increases in pericytes in capillaries, whereas 5-HT did and this response was inhibited by the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin. In conclusion, cervical sympathetic nerves enhanced by hypoxia may reduce blood flow in the CB in order to increase chemosensitivity. Thus, hypoxic chemosensitivity in the CB may involve a positive feedback mechanism via sympathetic nerves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell-Type-Specific Transcriptome Analysis in the Drosophila Mushroom Body Reveals Memory-Related Changes in Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Amanda; Guan, Xiao-Juan; Murphy, Coleen T; Murthy, Mala

    2016-05-17

    Learning and memory formation in Drosophila rely on a network of neurons in the mushroom bodies (MBs). Whereas numerous studies have delineated roles for individual cell types within this network in aspects of learning or memory, whether or not these cells can also be distinguished by the genes they express remains unresolved. In addition, the changes in gene expression that accompany long-term memory formation within the MBs have not yet been studied by neuron type. Here, we address both issues by performing RNA sequencing on single cell types (harvested via patch pipets) within the MB. We discover that the expression of genes that encode cell surface receptors is sufficient to identify cell types and that a subset of these genes, required for sensory transduction in peripheral sensory neurons, is not only expressed within individual neurons of the MB in the central brain, but is also critical for memory formation. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Complex network models reveal correlations among network metrics, exercise intensity and role of body changes in the fatigue process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa Helena; Gama, Maria Carolina Traina; Sousa, Filipe Antônio Barros; Lewis, Theodore Gyle; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia Barros

    2015-05-21

    The aims of the present study were analyze the fatigue process at distinct intensity efforts and to investigate its occurrence as interactions at distinct body changes during exercise, using complex network models. For this, participants were submitted to four different running intensities until exhaustion, accomplished in a non-motorized treadmill using a tethered system. The intensities were selected according to critical power model. Mechanical (force, peak power, mean power, velocity and work) and physiological related parameters (heart rate, blood lactate, time until peak blood lactate concentration (lactate time), lean mass, anaerobic and aerobic capacities) and IPAQ score were obtained during exercises and it was used to construction of four complex network models. Such models have both, theoretical and mathematical value, and enables us to perceive new insights that go beyond conventional analysis. From these, we ranked the influences of each node at the fatigue process. Our results shows that nodes, links and network metrics are sensibility according to increase of efforts intensities, been the velocity a key factor to exercise maintenance at models/intensities 1 and 2 (higher time efforts) and force and power at models 3 and 4, highlighting mechanical variables in the exhaustion occurrence and even training prescription applications.

  9. Complex network models reveal correlations among network metrics, exercise intensity and role of body changes in the fatigue process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa Helena; Gama, Maria Carolina Traina; Sousa, Filipe Antônio Barros; Lewis, Theodore Gyle; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia Barros

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were analyze the fatigue process at distinct intensity efforts and to investigate its occurrence as interactions at distinct body changes during exercise, using complex network models. For this, participants were submitted to four different running intensities until exhaustion, accomplished in a non-motorized treadmill using a tethered system. The intensities were selected according to critical power model. Mechanical (force, peak power, mean power, velocity and work) and physiological related parameters (heart rate, blood lactate, time until peak blood lactate concentration (lactate time), lean mass, anaerobic and aerobic capacities) and IPAQ score were obtained during exercises and it was used to construction of four complex network models. Such models have both, theoretical and mathematical value, and enables us to perceive new insights that go beyond conventional analysis. From these, we ranked the influences of each node at the fatigue process. Our results shows that nodes, links and network metrics are sensibility according to increase of efforts intensities, been the velocity a key factor to exercise maintenance at models/intensities 1 and 2 (higher time efforts) and force and power at models 3 and 4, highlighting mechanical variables in the exhaustion occurrence and even training prescription applications.

  10. Platelet serotonin promotes the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of acute inflammation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suidan, Georgette L.; Demers, Melanie; Herr, Nadine; Carbo, Carla; Brill, Alexander; Cifuni, Stephen M.; Mauler, Maximilian; Cicko, Sanja; Bader, Michael; Idzko, Marco; Bode, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The majority of peripheral serotonin is stored in platelets, which secrete it on activation. Serotonin releases Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) and we asked whether absence of platelet serotonin affects neutrophil recruitment in inflammatory responses. Tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph)1–deficient mice, lacking non-neuronal serotonin, showed mild leukocytosis compared with wild-type (WT), primarily driven by an elevated neutrophil count. Despite this, 50% fewer leukocytes rolled on unstimulated mesenteric venous endothelium of Tph1−/− mice. The velocity of rolling leukocytes was higher in Tph1−/− mice, indicating fewer selectin-mediated interactions with endothelium. Stimulation of endothelium with histamine, a secretagogue of WPBs, or injection of serotonin normalized the rolling in Tph1−/− mice. Diminished rolling in Tph1−/− mice resulted in reduced firm adhesion of leukocytes after lipopolysaccharide treatment. Blocking platelet serotonin uptake with fluoxetine in WT mice reduced serum serotonin by > 80% and similarly reduced leukocyte rolling and adhesion. Four hours after inflammatory stimulation, neutrophil extravasation into lung, peritoneum, and skin wounds was reduced in Tph1−/− mice, whereas in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis was independent of serotonin. Survival of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock was improved in Tph1−/− mice. In conclusion, platelet serotonin promotes the recruitment of neutrophils in acute inflammation, supporting an important role for platelet serotonin in innate immunity. PMID:23243271

  11. Anti-atherogenic effects of statins: Impact on angiopoietin-2 release from endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Tobias; Poth, Jens; Frede, Stilla; Klaschik, Sven; Hoeft, Andreas; Baumgarten, Georg; Knuefermann, Pascal

    2013-11-15

    Beyond lipid lowering, statins are supposed to exert pleiotropic effects positively influencing the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. The development of such lesions is associated with increased release of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), an endothelial cell-specific protein growth factor stored in Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs). The aim of our study was to examine whether statin pretreatment influences the release of Ang-2 from endothelial cells. Stimulation of HUVECs and HMVECs with PMA, thrombin or histamine resulted in significant release of Ang-2, as evidenced by ELISA. Pretreatment with simvastatin and mevastatin suppressed this release to basal level, while pravastatin had no effect. Simvastatin itself increased nitric oxide (NO, EC number 1.14.13.39) synthesis, measured by Griess reaction. Combining the statin pretreatment with the eNOS inhibitor L-NNA as well as bypassing the HMG-CoA reductase (EC number: 1.1.1.34) by adding mevalonic acid or geranyl pyrophosphate restored the exocytotic effect of PMA. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that depletion of WPBs upon PMA stimulation ceased after pretreatment with simvastatin. This study demonstrates a potent suppressive effect of statins on the release of Ang-2 from endothelial cells. Regarding its harmful effects in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, our data provide further insight into the mechanisms of the anti-atherogenic potential of statins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Annexin A8 controls leukocyte recruitment to activated endothelial cells via cell surface delivery of CD63

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeter, Michaela; Brandherm, Ines; Rossaint, Jan; Rosso, Gonzalo; Shahin, Victor; Skryabin, Boris V.; Zarbock, Alexander; Gerke, Volker; Rescher, Ursula

    2014-04-01

    To enable leukocyte adhesion to activated endothelium, the leukocyte receptor P-selectin is released from Weibel-Palade bodies (WPB) to the endothelial cell surface where it is stabilized by CD63. Here we report that loss of annexin A8 (anxA8) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) strongly decreases cell surface presentation of CD63 and P-selectin, with a concomitant reduction in leukocyte rolling and adhesion. We confirm the compromised leukocyte adhesiveness in inflammatory-activated endothelial venules of anxA8-deficient mice. We find that WPB of anxA8-deficient HUVEC contain less CD63, and that this is caused by improper transport of CD63 from late multivesicular endosomes to WPB, with CD63 being retained in intraluminal vesicles. Consequently, reduced CD63 cell surface levels are seen following WPB exocytosis, resulting in enhanced P-selectin re-internalization. Our data support a model in which anxA8 affects leukocyte recruitment to activated endothelial cells by supplying WPB with sufficient amounts of the P-selectin regulator CD63.

  13. An update on the coagulopathy of trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maegele, Marc; Schöchl, Herbert; Cohen, Mitchell J

    2014-05-01

    Trauma remains the leading cause of death with bleeding as the primary cause of preventable mortality during the first 24 h following trauma. When death occurs, it happens quickly, typically within the first 6 h after injury. One of four patients to arrive in the emergency department after trauma is already in the state of acute traumatic coagulopathy and shock. The principal drivers of acute traumatic coagulopathy have been characterized by tissue hypoperfusion, inflammation, and the acute activation of the neurohumoral system. Hypoperfusion leads to an activation of protein C with cleavage of activated factors V and VIII and the inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 with subsequent hyperfibrinolysis. Endothelial damage and activation result in Weibel-Palade body degradation and glycocalyx shedding associated with autoheparinization. In contrast, there is an iatrogenic coagulopathy that occurs secondary to uncritical volume therapy leading to acidosis, hypothermia, and hemodilution. This coagulopathy then may be an integral part of the "vicious cycle" when combined with acidosis and hypothermia. The present article summarizes an update on the principal mechanisms and triggers of the coagulopathy of trauma including traumatic brain injury.

  14. Principal component analysis of biometric traits to reveal body confirmation in local hill cattle of Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Verma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the present study, biometric traits (body length [BL], heart girth [HG], paunch girth (PG, forelimb length (FLL, hind limb length (HLL, face length, forehead width, forehead length, height at hump, hump length (HL, hook to hook distance, pin to pin distance, tail length (TL, TL up to switch, horn length, horn circumference, and ear length were studied in 218 adult hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh for phenotypic characterization. Materials and Methods: Morphological and biometrical observations were recorded on 218 hill cattle randomly selected from different districts within the breeding tract. Multivariate statistics and principal component analysis are used to account for the maximum portion of variation present in the original set of variables with a minimum number of composite variables through Statistical software, SAS 9.2. Result: Five components were extracted which accounted for 65.9% of variance. The first component explained general body confirmation and explained 34.7% variation. It was represented by significant loading for BL, HG, PG, FLL, and HLL. Communality estimate ranged from 0.41 (HL to 0.88 (TL. Second, third, fourth, and fifth component had a high loading for tail characteristics, horn characteristics, facial biometrics, and rear body, respectively. Conclusion: The result of component analysis of biometric traits suggested that indigenous hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh are small and compact size cattle with a medium hump, horizontally placed short ears, and a long tail. The study also revealed that factors extracted from the present investigation could be used in breeding programs with sufficient reduction in the number of biometric traits to be recorded to explain the body confirmation.

  15. Analysis of large versus small dogs reveals three genes on the canine X chromosome associated with body weight, muscling and back fat thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassais, Jocelyn; Rimbault, Maud; Williams, Falina J; Davis, Brian W; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2017-03-01

    Domestic dog breeds display significant diversity in both body mass and skeletal size, resulting from intensive selective pressure during the formation and maintenance of modern breeds. While previous studies focused on the identification of alleles that contribute to small skeletal size, little is known about the underlying genetics controlling large size. We first performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Illumina Canine HD 170,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array which compared 165 large-breed dogs from 19 breeds (defined as having a Standard Breed Weight (SBW) >41 kg [90 lb]) to 690 dogs from 69 small breeds (SBW ≤41 kg). We identified two loci on the canine X chromosome that were strongly associated with large body size at 82-84 megabases (Mb) and 101-104 Mb. Analyses of whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from 163 dogs revealed two indels in the Insulin Receptor Substrate 4 (IRS4) gene at 82.2 Mb and two additional mutations, one SNP and one deletion of a single codon, in Immunoglobulin Superfamily member 1 gene (IGSF1) at 102.3 Mb. IRS4 and IGSF1 are members of the GH/IGF1 and thyroid pathways whose roles include determination of body size. We also found one highly associated SNP in the 5'UTR of Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) at 82.9 Mb, a gene which controls the traits of muscling and back fat thickness. We show by analysis of sequencing data from 26 wolves and 959 dogs representing 102 domestic dog breeds that skeletal size and body mass in large dog breeds are strongly associated with variants within IRS4, ACSL4 and IGSF1.

  16. Analysis of large versus small dogs reveals three genes on the canine X chromosome associated with body weight, muscling and back fat thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Plassais

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dog breeds display significant diversity in both body mass and skeletal size, resulting from intensive selective pressure during the formation and maintenance of modern breeds. While previous studies focused on the identification of alleles that contribute to small skeletal size, little is known about the underlying genetics controlling large size. We first performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS using the Illumina Canine HD 170,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array which compared 165 large-breed dogs from 19 breeds (defined as having a Standard Breed Weight (SBW >41 kg [90 lb] to 690 dogs from 69 small breeds (SBW ≤41 kg. We identified two loci on the canine X chromosome that were strongly associated with large body size at 82-84 megabases (Mb and 101-104 Mb. Analyses of whole genome sequencing (WGS data from 163 dogs revealed two indels in the Insulin Receptor Substrate 4 (IRS4 gene at 82.2 Mb and two additional mutations, one SNP and one deletion of a single codon, in Immunoglobulin Superfamily member 1 gene (IGSF1 at 102.3 Mb. IRS4 and IGSF1 are members of the GH/IGF1 and thyroid pathways whose roles include determination of body size. We also found one highly associated SNP in the 5'UTR of Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4 at 82.9 Mb, a gene which controls the traits of muscling and back fat thickness. We show by analysis of sequencing data from 26 wolves and 959 dogs representing 102 domestic dog breeds that skeletal size and body mass in large dog breeds are strongly associated with variants within IRS4, ACSL4 and IGSF1.

  17. Animal-borne imaging reveals novel insights into the foraging behaviors and Diel activity of a large-bodied apex predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Nifong

    Full Text Available Large-bodied, top- and apex predators (e.g., crocodilians, sharks, wolves, killer whales can exert strong top-down effects within ecological communities through their interactions with prey. Due to inherent difficulties while studying the behavior of these often dangerous predatory species, relatively little is known regarding their feeding behaviors and activity patterns, information that is essential to understanding their role in regulating food web dynamics and ecological processes. Here we use animal-borne imaging systems (Crittercam to study the foraging behavior and activity patterns of a cryptic, large-bodied predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis in two estuaries of coastal Florida, USA. Using retrieved video data we examine the variation in foraging behaviors and activity patterns due to abiotic factors. We found the frequency of prey-attacks (mean = 0.49 prey attacks/hour as well as the probability of prey-capture success (mean = 0.52 per attack were significantly affected by time of day. Alligators attempted to capture prey most frequently during the night. Probability of prey-capture success per attack was highest during morning hours and sequentially lower during day, night, and sunset, respectively. Position in the water column also significantly affected prey-capture success, as individuals' experienced two-fold greater success when attacking prey while submerged. These estimates are the first for wild adult American alligators and one of the few examples for any crocodilian species worldwide. More broadly, these results reveal that our understandings of crocodilian foraging behaviors are biased due to previous studies containing limited observations of cryptic and nocturnal foraging interactions. Our results can be used to inform greater understanding regarding the top-down effects of American alligators in estuarine food webs. Additionally, our results highlight the importance and power of using animal

  18. Stratification by Smoking Status Reveals an Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genotype with Body Mass Index in Never Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluharty, Meg E.; Bjorngaard, Johan H.; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Gabrielsen, Maiken E.; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo; Kumari, Meena; Hällfors, Jenni; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.; Skaaby, Tea; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Treur, Jorien L.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dale, Caroline; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Räikkönen, Katri; Kisialiou, Aliaksei; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Paternoster, Lavinia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tyrrell, Jessica; Horwood, John; Fergusson, David M.; Kennedy, Martin A.; Frayling, Tim; Nohr, Ellen A.; Christiansen, Lene; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Kuh, Diana; Watt, Graham; Eriksson, Johan; Whincup, Peter H.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie; Linneberg, Allan; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J. Wouter; Power, Christine; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Preisig, Martin; Borodulin, Katja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H.; Hayward, Caroline; Romundstad, Pål R.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Sattar, Naveed

    2014-01-01

    We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a larger sample we found that this SNP is associated with 0.74% lower body mass index (BMI) per minor allele in current smokers (95% CI -0.97 to -0.51, P = 2.00×10−10), but also unexpectedly found that it was associated with 0.35% higher BMI in never smokers (95% CI +0.18 to +0.52, P = 6.38×10−5). An interaction test confirmed that these estimates differed from each other (P = 4.95×10−13). This difference in effects suggests the variant influences BMI both via pathways unrelated to smoking, and via the weight-reducing effects of smoking. It would therefore be essentially undetectable in an unstratified genome-wide association study of BMI, given the opposite association with BMI in never and current smokers. This demonstrates that novel associations may be obscured by hidden population sub-structure. Stratification on well-characterized environmental factors known to impact on health outcomes may therefore reveal novel genetic associations. PMID:25474695

  19. Stratification by smoking status reveals an association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype with body mass index in never smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Taylor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a larger sample we found that this SNP is associated with 0.74% lower body mass index (BMI per minor allele in current smokers (95% CI -0.97 to -0.51, P = 2.00 × 10(-10, but also unexpectedly found that it was associated with 0.35% higher BMI in never smokers (95% CI +0.18 to +0.52, P = 6.38 × 10(-5. An interaction test confirmed that these estimates differed from each other (P = 4.95 × 10(-13. This difference in effects suggests the variant influences BMI both via pathways unrelated to smoking, and via the weight-reducing effects of smoking. It would therefore be essentially undetectable in an unstratified genome-wide association study of BMI, given the opposite association with BMI in never and current smokers. This demonstrates that novel associations may be obscured by hidden population sub-structure. Stratification on well-characterized environmental factors known to impact on health outcomes may therefore reveal novel genetic associations.

  20. Lymphangiosarcoma in a 3.5-year-old Bullmastiff bitch with vaginal prolapse, primary lymph node fibrosis and other congenital defects : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Williams

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangiosarcoma is an extremely rare tumour in dogs with only 16 cases reported in the literature. Lymphoedema, whichmaybe primary due to defects in the lymphatic system, or secondary to various other pathologies, often precedes malignancy. Of the 16 canine reports, only 1 dog was confirmed as having had prior primary lymphoedema due to aplasia of the popliteal lymph nodes. A case of lymphangiosarcoma is described in a 3.5-year-old purebred, Bullmastiff bitch which presented with vaginal blood 'spotting' for 3 weeks after cessation of oestrus, during which intromission by the male had been unsuccessful. During ovariohysterectomy a large multicystic, proliferative, spongy, fluid-filled, brownish-red mass surrounding the cervix and projecting into the abdominal space was removed with the cervix, and a diagnosis of lymphangiosarcoma made on histological and electron microscopic examination of the tissue. Ultrastructurally, no basement membrane or pericytes were found, only some of the neoplastic endothelial cells were linked by tight junctions while there were gaps between others, and neither micropinocytotic vesicles nor Weibel-Palade bodies occurred in the cells examined.Very few of the endothelial cells lining the many interlinking, tortuous maze of channels, stained slightly positive immunohistochemically for factor VIII-related antigen. The channels were filled mostly with serous fluid, and occasionally mixed leucocytes and some erythrocytes. The endothelium was often associated with underlying blocks of collagenous material, as well as looselyarranged aggregates of lymphocytes, other mononuclear cells and occasional neutrophils in the connective tissue septae and more prominently perivascularly. The bitch was discharged on antibiotic treatment but returned 2 weeks later with apparent prolapsed vagina which failed to reduce over the next week. Laparotomy revealed the tumour to have spread extensively in the caudal abdomen to involve the

  1. The Induction of Recombinant Protein Bodies in Different Subcellular Compartments Reveals a Cryptic Plastid-Targeting Signal in the 27-kDa γ-Zein Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Anna; Peters, Jenny; Arcalis, Elsa; Rademacher, Thomas; Lampel, Johannes; Eudes, François; Vitale, Alessandro; Stoger, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring storage proteins such as zeins are used as fusion partners for recombinant proteins because they induce the formation of ectopic storage organelles known as protein bodies (PBs) where the proteins are stabilized by intermolecular interactions and the formation of disulfide bonds. Endogenous PBs are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we have used different targeting sequences to determine whether ectopic PBs composed of the N-terminal portion of mature 27 kDa γ-zein added to a fluorescent protein could be induced to form elsewhere in the cell. The addition of a transit peptide for targeting to plastids causes PB formation in the stroma, whereas in the absence of any added targeting sequence PBs were typically associated with the plastid envelope, revealing the presence of a cryptic plastid-targeting signal within the γ-zein cysteine-rich domain. The subcellular localization of the PBs influences their morphology and the solubility of the stored recombinant fusion protein. Our results indicate that the biogenesis and budding of PBs does not require ER-specific factors and therefore, confirm that γ-zein is a versatile fusion partner for recombinant proteins offering unique opportunities for the accumulation and bioencapsulation of recombinant proteins in different subcellular compartments.

  2. The induction of recombinant protein bodies in different subcellular compartments reveals a cryptic plastid-targeting signal in the 27 kD γ-zein sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eHofbauer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Naturally-occurring storage proteins such as zeins are used as fusion partners for recombinant proteins because they induce the formation of ectopic storage organelles known as protein bodies (PBs where the proteins are stabilized by intermolecular interactions and the formation of disulfide bonds. Endogenous PBs are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Here we have used different targeting sequences to determine whether ectopic PBs composed of the N-terminal portion of mature 27 kD γ-zein added to a fluorescent protein could be induced to form elsewhere in the cell. The addition of a transit peptide for targeting to plastids causes PB formation in the stroma, whereas in the absence of any added targeting sequence PBs were typically associated with the plastid envelope, revealing the presence of a cryptic plastid targeting signal within the γ-zein cysteine-rich domain. The subcellular localization of the PBs influences their morphology and the solubility of the stored recombinant fusion protein. Our results indicate that the biogenesis and budding of PBs does not require ER-specific factors and therefore confirm that γ-zein is a versatile fusion partner for recombinant proteins offering unique opportunities for the accumulation and bioencapsulation of recombinant proteins in different subcellular compartments.

  3. A Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals That Genes with Functions for Bone Development Are Associated with Body Conformation in Catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xin; Liu, Shikai; Yuan, Zihao; Jiang, Yanliang; Zhi, Degui; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2017-12-01

    Body conformation is of great scientific and commercial interest for aquaculture fish species because it affects biological adaptation of the organism to environments, and is of economic importance to the aquaculture industry considering its direct effect on fillet yield. Catfish is the primary aquaculture species in the USA. Two major species used in the aquaculture industry, channel catfish and blue catfish, differ in body shape and therefore the backcross progenies serve as a good model for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Here, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with hybrid catfish was conducted to identify the QTL for body conformation, including deheaded body length (DBL), body length (BL), body depth (BD), and body breadth (BB), which were all standardized by cubic root of body weight. Overall, the results indicate that the traits are polygenic. For DBL, linkage group (LG) 2 and LG 24 contain significant QTL, and LG 13 and LG 26 contain suggestively associated QTL (-log10(P value) > 4.5). Compared with DBL, additional SNPs were identified to be associated with body length on LG 2, LG 7, and LG 18. Although no significant QTL for body depth was found, three suggestively associated QTLs were identified on LG 5, LG 13, and LG 14. No SNP for body breadth reached the threshold for suggestive association. Genes close to the associated SNPs were determined, many of which are known to be involved in bone development. This work therefore provides the basis for future identification of causal genes for the control of body conformation.

  4. What the Face and Body Reveal: In-Group Emotion Effects and Stereotyping of Emotion in African American and European American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuminello, Elizabeth R.; Davidson, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether 3- to 7-year-old African American and European American children's assessment of emotion in face-only, face + body, and body-only photographic stimuli was affected by in-group emotion recognition effects and racial or gender stereotyping of emotion. Evidence for racial in-group effects was found, with European American…

  5. Gene-centric meta-analyses of 108 912 individuals confirm known body mass index loci and reveal three novel signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Yiran; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Taylor, Kira C.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Lange, Leslie A.; Keating, Brendan J.; Fairfax, Benjamin P.; Elbers, Clara C.; Barnard, John; Farrall, Martin; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Baumert, Jens; Castillo, Berta A.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Gong, Yan; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Romaine, Simon P. R.; Kumari, Meena; Rafelt, Suzanne; Smith, Erin N.; Li, Yun R.; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Toskala, Elina; Zhang, Li; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Bhangale, Tushar R.; Chandrupatla, Hareesh R.; Drenos, Fotios; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Jayanta; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Makino, Seiko; Mangino, Massimo; Meng, Yan; Nelson, Christopher P.; Pankow, James S.; Pankratz, Nathan; Price, Tom S.; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shen, Haiqing; Tischfield, Sam; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Atwood, Larry D.; Bailey, Kristian M.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Basart, Hanneke; Bauer, Florianne; Behr, Elijah R.; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Braund, Peter S.; Burke, Gregory L.; Burkley, Ben; Carty, Cara; Chen, Wei; Clarke, Robert; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Curtis, Sean P.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; de Jong, Jonas S.; Delles, Christian; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Duggan, David; Feldman, Harold I.; Furlong, Clement E.; Gorski, Mathias M.; Gums, John G.; Hardwick, Robert; Hastie, Claire; Heid, Iris M.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Huggins, Gordon S.; Humphries, Steve E.; Kirkland, Susan A.; Kivimaki, Mika; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Knowler, William C.; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Langaee, Taimour Y.; Li, Mingyao; Lyon, Helen N.; Maiwald, Steffi; Marshall, Julieann K.; Mehta, Amar; Meijs, Matthijs F. L.; Melander, Olle; Meyer, Nuala; Mitra, Nandita; Molony, Cliona M.; Morrow, David A.; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Nieto, Javier F.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Palmen, Jutta; Pepine, Carl J.; Ranchalis, Jane; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Scharnagl, Hubert; Schork, Nicholas J.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Shah, Tina; Shashaty, Michael; Shimbo, Daichi; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Thomas, Fridtjof; Tobin, Martin D.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Young, Taylor; Yusuf, Salim; Zafarmand, Mohammad H.; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Anand, Sonia S.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Burton, Paul R.; Cappola, Thomas P.; Casas, Juan P.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Christiani, David C.; Christie, Jason; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Davey-Smith, George; Davidson, Karina W.; Day, Ian N.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Dorn, Gerald W.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Hall, Alistair S.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofker, Marten H.; Hovingh, Kees G.; Illig, Thomas; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Julie A.; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lawlor, Debbie A.; März, Winfried; McCaffery, Jeanne; Mega, Jessica L.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Sarah S.; O'Connell, Jeffery R.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Peters, Annette; Pettinger, Mary; Rader, Daniel J.; Redline, Susan; Reilly, Muredach P.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Schadt, Eric E.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Spector, Tim D.; Taylor, Herman A.; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Fox, Caroline S.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Peter, Inga; Talmud, Philippa J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Wilson, James G.; Knight, Julian C.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Hegele, Robert A.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Monda, Keri L.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Reiner, Alex P.; North, Kari E.; Papanicolaou, George J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent genetic association studies have made progress in uncovering components of the genetic architecture of the body mass index (BMI). We used the ITMAT-Broad-Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) (IBC) array comprising up to 49 320 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across ~2100

  6. Genomic comparison of multi-drug resistant invasive and colonizing Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from diverse human body sites reveals genomic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao William W

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acinetobacter baumannii has recently emerged as a significant global pathogen, with a surprisingly rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance and spread within hospitals and health care institutions. This study examines the genomic content of three A. baumannii strains isolated from distinct body sites. Isolates from blood, peri-anal, and wound sources were examined in an attempt to identify genetic features that could be correlated to each isolation source. Results Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multi-locus sequence typing and antibiotic resistance profiles demonstrated genotypic and phenotypic variation. Each isolate was sequenced to high-quality draft status, which allowed for comparative genomic analyses with existing A. baumannii genomes. A high resolution, whole genome alignment method detailed the phylogenetic relationships of sequenced A. baumannii and found no correlation between phylogeny and body site of isolation. This method identified genomic regions unique to both those isolates found on the surface of the skin or in wounds, termed colonization isolates, and those identified from body fluids, termed invasive isolates; these regions may play a role in the pathogenesis and spread of this important pathogen. A PCR-based screen of 74 A. baumanii isolates demonstrated that these unique genes are not exclusive to either phenotype or isolation source; however, a conserved genomic region exclusive to all sequenced A. baumannii was identified and verified. Conclusions The results of the comparative genome analysis and PCR assay show that A. baumannii is a diverse and genomically variable pathogen that appears to have the potential to cause a range of human disease regardless of the isolation source.

  7. Bigger Is Fitter? Quantitative Genetic Decomposition of Selection Reveals an Adaptive Evolutionary Decline of Body Mass in a Wild Rodent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Timothée; Wandeler, Peter; Camenisch, Glauco; Postma, Erik

    2017-01-01

    In natural populations, quantitative trait dynamics often do not appear to follow evolutionary predictions. Despite abundant examples of natural selection acting on heritable traits, conclusive evidence for contemporary adaptive evolution remains rare for wild vertebrate populations, and phenotypic stasis seems to be the norm. This so-called "stasis paradox" highlights our inability to predict evolutionary change, which is especially concerning within the context of rapid anthropogenic environmental change. While the causes underlying the stasis paradox are hotly debated, comprehensive attempts aiming at a resolution are lacking. Here, we apply a quantitative genetic framework to individual-based long-term data for a wild rodent population and show that despite a positive association between body mass and fitness, there has been a genetic change towards lower body mass. The latter represents an adaptive response to viability selection favouring juveniles growing up to become relatively small adults, i.e., with a low potential adult mass, which presumably complete their development earlier. This selection is particularly strong towards the end of the snow-free season, and it has intensified in recent years, coinciding which a change in snowfall patterns. Importantly, neither the negative evolutionary change, nor the selective pressures that drive it, are apparent on the phenotypic level, where they are masked by phenotypic plasticity and a non causal (i.e., non genetic) positive association between body mass and fitness, respectively. Estimating selection at the genetic level enabled us to uncover adaptive evolution in action and to identify the corresponding phenotypic selective pressure. We thereby demonstrate that natural populations can show a rapid and adaptive evolutionary response to a novel selective pressure, and that explicitly (quantitative) genetic models are able to provide us with an understanding of the causes and consequences of selection that is

  8. Bigger Is Fitter? Quantitative Genetic Decomposition of Selection Reveals an Adaptive Evolutionary Decline of Body Mass in a Wild Rodent Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée Bonnet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In natural populations, quantitative trait dynamics often do not appear to follow evolutionary predictions. Despite abundant examples of natural selection acting on heritable traits, conclusive evidence for contemporary adaptive evolution remains rare for wild vertebrate populations, and phenotypic stasis seems to be the norm. This so-called "stasis paradox" highlights our inability to predict evolutionary change, which is especially concerning within the context of rapid anthropogenic environmental change. While the causes underlying the stasis paradox are hotly debated, comprehensive attempts aiming at a resolution are lacking. Here, we apply a quantitative genetic framework to individual-based long-term data for a wild rodent population and show that despite a positive association between body mass and fitness, there has been a genetic change towards lower body mass. The latter represents an adaptive response to viability selection favouring juveniles growing up to become relatively small adults, i.e., with a low potential adult mass, which presumably complete their development earlier. This selection is particularly strong towards the end of the snow-free season, and it has intensified in recent years, coinciding which a change in snowfall patterns. Importantly, neither the negative evolutionary change, nor the selective pressures that drive it, are apparent on the phenotypic level, where they are masked by phenotypic plasticity and a non causal (i.e., non genetic positive association between body mass and fitness, respectively. Estimating selection at the genetic level enabled us to uncover adaptive evolution in action and to identify the corresponding phenotypic selective pressure. We thereby demonstrate that natural populations can show a rapid and adaptive evolutionary response to a novel selective pressure, and that explicitly (quantitative genetic models are able to provide us with an understanding of the causes and consequences of

  9. Analysis of body composition in individuals with high bone mass reveals a marked increase in fat mass in women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Celia L; Paggiosi, Margaret A; Crabtree, Nicola; Steel, Sue A; McCloskey, Eugene; Duncan, Emma L; Fan, Bo; Shepherd, John A; Fraser, William D; Smith, George Davey; Tobias, Jon H

    2013-02-01

    High bone mass (HBM), detected in 0.2% of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, is characterized by raised body mass index, the basis for which is unclear. To investigate why body mass index is elevated in individuals with HBM, we characterized body composition and examined whether differences could be explained by bone phenotypes, eg, bone mass and/or bone turnover. We conducted a case-control study of 153 cases with unexplained HBM recruited from 4 UK centers by screening 219 088 DXA scans. A total of 138 first-degree relatives (of whom 51 had HBM) and 39 spouses were also recruited. Unaffected individuals served as controls. We measured fat mass, by DXA, and bone turnover markers. Among women, fat mass was inversely related to age in controls (P = .01), but not in HBM cases (P = .96) in whom mean fat mass was 8.9 [95% CI 4.7, 13.0] kg higher compared with controls (fully adjusted mean difference, P fat mass in male HBM cases was less marked (gender interaction P = .03). Compared with controls, lean mass was also increased in female HBM cases (by 3.3 [1.2, 5.4] kg; P fat mass increases, resulting in 4.5% lower percentage lean mass in HBM cases (P fat mass were fully attenuated after hip bone mineral density (BMD) adjustment (P = .52) but unchanged after adjustment for bone turnover (P fat mass adjustment (P fat mass in females, statistically explained by their greater BMD, but not by markers of bone turnover.

  10. Olfactory learning without the mushroom bodies: Spiking neural network models of the honeybee lateral antennal lobe tract reveal its capacities in odour memory tasks of varied complexities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaBouDi, HaDi; Shimazaki, Hideaki; Giurfa, Martin; Chittka, Lars

    2017-06-01

    The honeybee olfactory system is a well-established model for understanding functional mechanisms of learning and memory. Olfactory stimuli are first processed in the antennal lobe, and then transferred to the mushroom body and lateral horn through dual pathways termed medial and lateral antennal lobe tracts (m-ALT and l-ALT). Recent studies reported that honeybees can perform elemental learning by associating an odour with a reward signal even after lesions in m-ALT or blocking the mushroom bodies. To test the hypothesis that the lateral pathway (l-ALT) is sufficient for elemental learning, we modelled local computation within glomeruli in antennal lobes with axons of projection neurons connecting to a decision neuron (LHN) in the lateral horn. We show that inhibitory spike-timing dependent plasticity (modelling non-associative plasticity by exposure to different stimuli) in the synapses from local neurons to projection neurons decorrelates the projection neurons' outputs. The strength of the decorrelations is regulated by global inhibitory feedback within antennal lobes to the projection neurons. By additionally modelling octopaminergic modification of synaptic plasticity among local neurons in the antennal lobes and projection neurons to LHN connections, the model can discriminate and generalize olfactory stimuli. Although positive patterning can be accounted for by the l-ALT model, negative patterning requires further processing and mushroom body circuits. Thus, our model explains several-but not all-types of associative olfactory learning and generalization by a few neural layers of odour processing in the l-ALT. As an outcome of the combination between non-associative and associative learning, the modelling approach allows us to link changes in structural organization of honeybees' antennal lobes with their behavioural performances over the course of their life.

  11. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using...... high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3-5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance...

  12. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3-5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance....... We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains...

  13. Polymorphism rs3123554 in the cannabinoid receptor gene type 2 (CNR2) reveals effects on body weight and insulin resistance in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Aller, Rocio

    2017-10-01

    Few studies assessing the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms in CNR2 and obesity or its related metabolic parameters are available. To investigate the influence of polymorphism rs3123554 in the CNR2 receptor gene on obesity anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance, and adipokines in subjects with obesity. The study population consisted of 1027 obese subjects, who were performed bioelectrical impedance analyses, blood pressure measurements, serial assessments of dietary intake during three days, and biochemical tests. Genotypes GG, GA, and AA were found in 339 (33.0%), 467 (45.5%), and 221 (21.5%) respectively. Body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglyceride and leptin levels were higher in A-allele carriers as compared to non A-allele carriers. No differences were seen in these parameters between the GA and AA genotypes. There were no statistical differences in dietary intake. The main study finding was the association of the minor allele of the SNP rs3123554 in the CNR2 gene with body weight and triglyceride, HOMA-IR, insulin, and leptin levels. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatio-temporal variation in small mammal species richness, relative abundance and body mass reveal changes in a coastal wetland ecosystem in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Benjamin Y; Attuquayefio, Daniel K; Owusu, Erasmus H; Musah, Yahaya; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa

    2016-06-01

    Coastal wetlands in Ghana are under severe threat of anthropogenic drivers of habitat degradation and climate change, thereby increasing the need for assessment and monitoring to inform targeted and effective conservation of these ecosystems. Here, we assess small mammal species richness, relative abundance and body mass in three habitats at the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar site of Ghana, and compare these to baseline data gathered in 1997 to evaluate changes in the wetland ecosystem. Small mammals were live-trapped using Sherman collapsible and pitfall traps. We recorded 84 individuals of 10 species in 1485 trap-nights, whereas the baseline study recorded 45 individuals of seven species in 986 trap-nights. The overall trap-success was therefore greater in the present study (5.66 %) than the baseline study (4.56 %). The species richness increased from one to four in the forest, and from zero to eight in the thicket, but decreased from six to four in the grassland. The total number of individuals increased in all habitats, with the dominant species in the grassland shifting from Lemniscomys striatus to Mastomys erythroleucus. Three species, Malacomys edwardsi, Grammomys poensis and Praomys tullbergi are the first records for the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar site. Generally, the average body mass of individual species in the grassland was lower in the present study. The considerable changes in small mammal community structure suggest changes in the wetland ecosystem. The conservation implications of our findings are discussed.

  15. 2D-electrophoresis and multiplex immunoassay proteomic analysis of different body fluids and cellular components reveal known and novel markers for extended fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelo Chris T

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomic technologies applied for profiling human biofluids and blood cells are considered to reveal new biomarkers of exposure or provide insights into novel mechanisms of adaptation. Methods Both a non-targeted (classical 2D-electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry as well as a targeted proteomic approach (multiplex immunoassay were applied to investigate how fasting for 36 h, as compared to 12 h, affects the proteome of platelets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, plasma, urine and saliva collected from ten healthy volunteers. Results Between-subject variability was highest in the plasma proteome and lowest in the PBMC proteome. Random Forests analysis performed on the entire dataset revealed that changes in the level of the RhoGDI2 protein in PBMC and plasma ApoA4 levels were the two most obvious biomarkers of an extended fasting. Random Forests (RF analysis of the multiplex immunoassay data revealed leptin and MMP-3 as biomarkers for extended fasting. However, high between-subject variability may have masked the extended fasting effects in the proteome of the biofluids and blood cells. Conclusions Identification of significantly changed proteins in biofluids and blood cells using a non-targeted approach, together with the outcome of targeted analysis revealed both known and novel markers for a 36 h fasting period, including the cellular proteins RhoGDI2 and CLIC1, and plasma proteins ApoA4, leptin and MMP-3. The PBMC proteome exhibited the lowest between-subject variability and therefore these cells appear to represent the best biosamples for biomarker discovery in human nutrigenomics.

  16. Stratification by smoking status reveals an association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype with body mass index in never smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Amy E; Morris, Richard W; Fluharty, Meg E

    2014-01-01

    in a larger sample we found that this SNP is associated with 0.74% lower body mass index (BMI) per minor allele in current smokers (95% CI -0.97 to -0.51, P = 2.00 × 10(-10)), but also unexpectedly found that it was associated with 0.35% higher BMI in never smokers (95% CI +0.18 to +0.52, P = 6.38 × 10...... in an unstratified genome-wide association study of BMI, given the opposite association with BMI in never and current smokers. This demonstrates that novel associations may be obscured by hidden population sub-structure. Stratification on well-characterized environmental factors known to impact on health outcomes...

  17. Persistent spatial clusters of high body mass index in a Swiss urban population as revealed by the 5-year GeoCoLaus longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia; Paccaud, Fred; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Chételat, Joël; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Guessous, Idris

    2016-01-01

    Objective Body mass index (BMI) may cluster in space among adults and be spatially dependent. Whether and how BMI clusters evolve over time in a population is currently unknown. We aimed to determine the spatial dependence of BMI and its 5-year evolution in a Swiss general adult urban population, taking into account the neighbourhood-level and individual-level characteristics. Design Cohort study. Setting Swiss general urban population. Participants 6481 georeferenced individuals from the CoLaus cohort at baseline (age range 35–74 years, period=2003–2006) and 4460 at follow-up (period=2009–2012). Outcome measures Body weight and height were measured by trained healthcare professionals with participants standing without shoes in light indoor clothing. BMI was calculated as weight (kg) divided by height squared (m2). Participants were geocoded using their postal address (geographic coordinates of the place of residence). Getis-Ord Gi statistic was used to measure the spatial dependence of BMI values at baseline and its evolution at follow-up. Results BMI was not randomly distributed across the city. At baseline and at follow-up, significant clusters of high versus low BMIs were identified and remained stable during the two periods. These clusters were meaningfully attenuated after adjustment for neighbourhood-level income but not individual-level characteristics. Similar results were observed among participants who showed a significant weight gain. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report longitudinal changes in BMI clusters in adults from a general population. Spatial clusters of high BMI persisted over a 5-year period and were mainly influenced by neighbourhood-level income. PMID:26733572

  18. Characterization of vascular endothelial progenitor cells from chicken bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Chunyu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are a type of stem cell used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and regeneration. At present, most of the EPCs studied are from human and mouse, whereas the study of poultry-derived EPCs has rarely been reported. In the present study, chicken bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated and studied at the cellular level using immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Results We found that the majority of chicken EPCs were spindle shaped. The growth-curves of chicken EPCs at passages (P 1, -5 and -9 were typically “S”-shaped. The viability of chicken EPCs, before and after cryopreservation was 92.2% and 81.1%, respectively. Thus, cryopreservation had no obvious effects on the viability of chicken EPCs. Dil-ac-LDL and FITC-UAE-1 uptake assays and immunofluorescent detection of the cell surface markers CD34, CD133, VEGFR-2 confirmed that the cells obtained in vitro were EPCs. Observation of endothelial-specific Weibel-Palade bodies using transmission electron microscopy further confirmed that the cells were of endothelial lineage. In addition, chicken EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells upon induction with VEGF and PDGF-BB, respectively, suggesting that the chicken EPCs retained multipotency in vitro. Conclusions These results suggest that chicken EPCs not only have strong self-renewal capacity, but also the potential to differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This research provides theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application of endothelial progenitor cells in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and diabetic complications.

  19. Characterization of proximal pulmonary arterial cells from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quarck Rozenn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is associated with proximal pulmonary artery obstruction and vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that pulmonary arterial smooth muscle (PASMC and endothelial cells (PAEC may actively contribute to remodeling of the proximal pulmonary vascular wall in CTEPH. Our present objective was to characterize PASMC and PAEC from large arteries of CTEPH patients and investigate their potential involvement in vascular remodeling. Methods Primary cultures of proximal PAEC and PASMC from patients with CTEPH, with non-thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH and lung donors have been established. PAEC and PASMC have been characterized by immunofluorescence using specific markers. Expression of smooth muscle specific markers within the pulmonary vascular wall has been studied by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Mitogenic activity and migratory capacity of PASMC and PAEC have been investigated in vitro. Results PAEC express CD31 on their surface, von Willebrand factor in Weibel-Palade bodies and take up acetylated LDL. PASMC express various differentiation markers including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, desmin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC. In vascular tissue from CTEPH and non-thromboembolic PH patients, expression of α-SMA and desmin is down-regulated compared to lung donors; desmin expression is also down-regulated in vascular tissue from CTEPH compared to non-thromboembolic PH patients. A low proportion of α-SMA positive cells express desmin and SMMHC in the neointima of proximal pulmonary arteries from CTEPH patients. Serum-induced mitogenic activity of PAEC and PASMC, as well as migratory capacity of PASMC, were increased in CTEPH only. Conclusions Modified proliferative and/or migratory responses of PASMC and PAEC in vitro, associated to a proliferative phenotype of PASMC suggest that PASMC and PAEC could contribute to proximal vascular remodeling in CTEPH.

  20. A new, large-bodied omnivorous bat (Noctilionoidea: Mystacinidae) reveals lost morphological and ecological diversity since the Miocene in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Suzanne J; Beck, Robin M D; Archer, Michael; Simmons, Nancy B; Gunnell, Gregg F; Scofield, R Paul; Tennyson, Alan J D; De Pietri, Vanesa L; Salisbury, Steven W; Worthy, Trevor H

    2018-01-10

    A new genus and species of fossil bat is described from New Zealand's only pre-Pleistocene Cenozoic terrestrial fauna, the early Miocene St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island. Bayesian total evidence phylogenetic analysis places this new Southern Hemisphere taxon among the burrowing bats (mystacinids) of New Zealand and Australia, although its lower dentition also resembles Africa's endemic sucker-footed bats (myzopodids). As the first new bat genus to be added to New Zealand's fauna in more than 150 years, it provides new insight into the original diversity of chiropterans in Australasia. It also underscores the significant decline in morphological diversity that has taken place in the highly distinctive, semi-terrestrial bat family Mystacinidae since the Miocene. This bat was relatively large, with an estimated body mass of ~40 g, and its dentition suggests it had an omnivorous diet. Its striking dental autapomorphies, including development of a large hypocone, signal a shift of diet compared with other mystacinids, and may provide evidence of an adaptive radiation in feeding strategy in this group of noctilionoid bats.

  1. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2016-04-27

    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3-5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested.

  2. In vivo Whole-Cell Recordings Combined with Electron Microscopy Reveal Unexpected Morphological and Physiological Properties in the Lateral Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body in the Auditory Brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Tom P; Smith, Philip H; Joris, Philip X

    2016-01-01

    The lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body (LNTB) is a prominent nucleus in the superior olivary complex in mammals including humans. Its physiology in vivo is poorly understood due to a paucity of recordings. It is thought to provide a glycinergic projection to the medial superior olive (MSO) with an important role in binaural processing and sound localization. We combined in vivo patch clamp recordings with labeling of individual neurons in the Mongolian gerbil. Labeling of the recorded neurons allowed us to relate physiological properties to anatomy at the light and electron microscopic level. We identified a population of quite dorsally located neurons with surprisingly large dendritic trees on which most of the synaptic input impinges. In most neurons, one or more of these dendrites run through and are then medial to the MSO. These neurons were often binaural and could even show sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs) of stimulus fine structure or envelope. Moreover, a subpopulation showed enhanced phase-locking to tones delivered in the tuning curve tail. We propose that these neurons constitute the gerbil main LNTB (mLNTB). In contrast, a smaller sample of neurons was identified that was located more ventrally and that we designate to be in posteroventral LNTB (pvLNTB). These cells receive large somatic excitatory terminals from globular bushy cells. We also identified previously undescribed synaptic inputs from the lateral superior olive. pvLNTB neurons are usually monaural, display a primary-like-with-notch response to ipsilateral short tones at CF and can phase-lock to low frequency tones. We conclude that mLNTB contains a population of neurons with extended dendritic trees where most of the synaptic input is found, that can show enhanced phase-locking and sensitivity to ITD. pvLNTB cells, presumed to provide glycinergic input to the MSO, get large somatic globular bushy synaptic inputs and are typically monaural with short tone responses similar

  3. Transcriptome analysis reveals unique C4-like photosynthesis and oil body formation in an arachidonic acid-rich microalga Myrmecia incisa Reisigl H4301.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Long-Ling; Chen, Si-Hong; Li, Yan; Zhou, Zhi-Gang

    2013-06-13

    Arachidonic acid (ArA) is important for human health because it is one of the major components of mammalian brain membrane phospholipids. The interest in ArA inspired the search for a new sustainable source, and the green microalga Myrmecia incisa Reisigl H4301 has been found a potential ArA-producer due to a high content of intracellular ArA. To gain more molecular information about metabolism pathways, including the biosynthesis of ArA in the non-model microalga, a transcriptomic analysis was performed. The 454 pyrosequencing generated 371,740 high-quality reads, which were assembled into 51,908 unique sequences consisting of 22,749 contigs and 29,159 singletons. A total of 11,873 unique sequences were annotated through BLAST analysis, and 3,733 were assigned to Gene Ontology (GO) categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis uncovered a C4-like photosynthesis pathway in M. incisa. The biosynthesis pathways of lipid particularly those of ArA and triacylglycerol (TAG) were analyzed in detail, and TAG was proposed to be accumulated in oil bodies in the cytosol with the help of caleosin or oil globule-associated proteins. In addition, the carotenoid biosynthesis pathways are discussed. This transcriptomic analysis of M. incisa enabled a global understanding of mechanisms involved in photosynthesis, de novo biosynthesis of ArA, metabolism of carotenoids, and accumulation of TAG in M. incisa. These findings provided a molecular basis for the research and possibly economic exploitation of this ArA-rich microalga.

  4. The disulfide-rich Metridia luciferase refolded from E. coli inclusion bodies reveals the properties of a native folded enzyme produced in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Svetlana V; Larionova, Marina D; Gorbunova, Darya A; Vysotski, Eugene S

    2017-10-01

    The bioluminescence of a marine copepod Metridia longa is determined by a small secreted coelenterazine-dependent luciferase that uses coelenterazine as a substrate of enzymatic reaction to generate light (λmax=480nm). To date, four different isoforms of the luciferase differing in size, sequences, and properties have been cloned by functional screening. All of them contain ten conserved Cys residues that suggests up to five SS intramolecular bonds per luciferase molecule. Whereas the use of copepod luciferases as bioluminescent reporters in biomedical research in vivo is growing from year to year, their application for in vitro assays is still limited by the difficulty in obtaining significant amounts of luciferase. The most cost-effective host for producing recombinant proteins is Escherichia coli. However, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells maintain the reductive environment in cytoplasm that hinders the disulfide bond formation and consequently the proper folding of luciferase. Here we report the expression of the MLuc7 isoform of M. longa luciferase in E. coli cells and the efficient procedure for refolding from inclusion bodies yielding a high-active monomeric protein. Furthermore, in a set of identical experiments we demonstrate that bioluminescent and structural features of MLuc7 produced in bacterial cells are identical to those of MLuc7 isoform produced from culture medium of insect cells. Although the yield of high-purity protein is only 6mg/L, the application of E. coli cells to produce the luciferase is simpler and more cost-effective than the use of insect cells. We expect that the suggested technology of Metridia luciferase production allows obtaining of sufficient amounts of protein both for the development of novel in vitro analytical assays with the use of MLuc7 as a label and for structural studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In Vivo Whole-cell Recordings Combined with Electron Microscopy Reveal Unexpected Morphological and Physiological Properties in the Lateral Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body in the Auditory Brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom P Franken

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body (LNTB is a prominent nucleus in the superior olivary complex in mammals including humans. Its physiology in vivo is poorly understood due to a paucity of recordings. It is thought to provide a glycinergic projection to the medial superior olive (MSO with an important role in binaural processing and sound localization. We combined in vivo patch clamp recordings with labeling of individual neurons in the Mongolian gerbil. Labeling of the recorded neurons allowed us to relate physiological properties to anatomy at the light and electron microscopic level. We identified a population of quite dorsally located neurons with surprisingly large dendritic trees on which most of the synaptic input impinges. In most neurons, one or more of these dendrites run through and are then medial to the MSO. These neurons were often binaural and could even show sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs of stimulus fine structure or envelope. Moreover, a subpopulation showed enhanced phase-locking to tones delivered in the tuning curve tail. We propose that these neurons constitute the gerbil main LNTB (mLNTB, In contrast, a smaller sample of neurons was identified that was located more ventrally and that we designate to be in posteroventral LNTB (pvLNTB. These cells receive large somatic excitatory terminals from globular bushy cells. We also identified previously undescribed synaptic inputs from the lateral superior olive. pvLNTB neurons are usually monaural, display a primary-like-with-notch response to ipsilateral short tones at CF and can phase-lock to low frequency tones. We conclude that mLNTB contains a population of neurons with extended dendritic trees where most of the synaptic input is found, that can show enhanced phase-locking and sensitivity to ITD. pvLNTB cells, presumed to provide glycinergic input to the MSO, get large somatic globular bushy synaptic inputs and are typically monaural with short tone

  6. New insight into the role of the β3 subunit of the GABAA-R in development, behavior, body weight regulation, and anesthesia revealed by conditional gene knockout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hileman Stanley M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The β3 subunit of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA-R has been reported to be important for palate formation, anesthetic action, and normal nervous system function. This subunit has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of Angelman syndrome and autism spectrum disorder. To further investigate involvement of this subunit, we previously produced mice with a global knockout of β3. However, developmental abnormalities, compensation, reduced viability, and numerous behavioral abnormalities limited the usefulness of that murine model. To overcome many of these limitations, a mouse line with a conditionally inactivated β3 gene was engineered. Results Gene targeting and embryonic stem cell technologies were used to create mice in which exon 3 of the β3 subunit was flanked by loxP sites (i.e., floxed. Crossing the floxed β3 mice to a cre general deleter mouse line reproduced the phenotype of the previously described global knockout. Pan-neuronal knockout of β3 was achieved by crossing floxed β3 mice to Synapsin I-cre transgenic mice. Palate development was normal in pan-neuronal β3 knockouts but ~61% died as neonates. Survivors were overtly normal, fertile, and were less sensitive to etomidate. Forebrain selective knockout of β3 was achieved using α CamKII-cre transgenic mice. Palate development was normal in forebrain selective β3 knockout mice. These knockouts survived the neonatal period, but ~30% died between 15–25 days of age. Survivors had reduced reproductive fitness, reduced sensitivity to etomidate, were hyperactive, and some became obese. Conclusion Conditional inactivation of the β3 gene revealed novel insight into the function of this GABAA-R subunit. The floxed β3 knockout mice described here will be very useful for conditional knockout studies to further investigate the role of the β3 subunit in development, ethanol and anesthetic action, normal physiology, and pathophysiologic processes.

  7. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial ... Read on for tips to have a healthy body image. Â Topics About body image When you ...

  8. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... spreads up in a V shape over time. Body hair is normal, and some people think it looks ...

  9. Comprehensive analysis of the fecal microbiota of healthy Japanese adults reveals a new bacterial lineage associated with a phenotype characterized by a high frequency of bowel movements and a lean body type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Kaihei; Toyama, Mutsumi; Banno, Taihei; Chonan, Osamu; Benno, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Koichi

    2016-11-28

    In Japan, a variety of traditional dietary habits and daily routines have developed in many regions. The effects of these behaviors, and the regional differences in the composition of the gut microbiota, are yet to be sufficiently studied. To characterize the Japanese gut microbiota and identify the factors shaping its composition, we conducted 16S metagenomics analysis of fecal samples collected from healthy Japanese adults residing in various regions of Japan. Each participant also completed a 94-question lifestyle questionnaire. We collected fecal samples from 516 healthy Japanese adults (325 females, 191 males; age, 21-88). Heatmap and biplot analyses based on the bacterial family composition of the fecal microbiota showed that subjects' region of residence or gender were not strongly correlated with the general composition of the fecal microbiota. Although clustering analysis for the whole cohort did not reveal any distinct clusters, two enterotype-like clusters were observed in the male, but not the female, subjects. In the whole subject population, the scores for bowel movement frequency were significantly correlated with the abundances of Christensenellaceae, Mogibacteriaceae, and Rikenellaceae in the fecal microbiota (P  30), which is consistent with previously published results. However, a previously reported correlation between BMI and bowel movement frequency was not observed. In addition, the abundances of these three families were positively correlated with each other and comprised a correlative network with 14 other bacterial families. The present study showed that the composition of the fecal microbiota of healthy Japanese adults at the national level was not strongly correlated with subjects' area of residence or gender. In addition, enterotype partitioning was ambiguous in this cohort of healthy Japanese adults. Finally, the results implied that the abundances of Christensenellaceae, Mogibacteriaceae, and Rikenellaceae, along with several

  10. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  11. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... hygiene and by frequently washing parts of the body and hair with soap and clean, running water ( ...

  12. Body Alchemy

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The exhibition "Body Alchemy" centers on the artistic concept of jewelry and metal art, new materials and the relation and dialogue between body and space. It discusses the evolution of contemporary jewelry and metal art from alchemy to casting body, from material aesthetics to conceptual art and from space shaping to body language. (subtracts from invite and event program). \\ud \\ud International contemporary jewelry artists and metal artists are invited to participate in the exhibition next ...

  13. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español About Body Basics KidsHealth / For Parents / About Body Basics Print Remember the biology class you had ... do, lots of new knowledge about how the body works helps us to understand it now better ...

  14. Unusual intraorbital foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangam, Ramesh; Gokhale, Suvarna K; Kulkarni, Adwait Uday; Gadre, Kiran S

    2012-08-13

    A case of a 41-year-old patient presenting late post-trauma with out any major signs or symptoms is presented herewith. On radiological investigation, a peculiar foreign body was identified in the orbital floor. To our surprise the point of entry of the foreign body was not proportionate with the size of it. Moreover, the trajectory and final location of foreign body did not concur with the symptom less presentation of patient. After what was thought to be adequate investigation, the patient was taken under general anaesthesia to reveal an additional foreign body that put most of the preoperative queries to rest. This case in retrospect emphasises the need for ruling out foreign body in the case of any penetrating injury of orbit with the help of not just radiographs and CT scans but also ultrasonography and MRI.

  15. Pseudotumor of Ciliary Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Varghese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital pseudotumor is a benign disease involving the orbital structures. Pseudotumor of the ciliary body is rare. We present a case of a 27-year-old male who presented with gradual visual loss, pain, and redness in his left eye. On examination he was found to have a yellowish white mass at the periphery of anterior chamber in his left eye and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM revealed a ciliary body mass in the same eye. He was treated with systemic steroids, which was tapered over a period of 8 weeks. His symptoms improved and the ciliary body mass disappeared with no recurrence over the next 6 months. UBM is an important diagnostic tool for diagnosing ciliary body mass. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with systemic steroids may help resolve pseudotumor of the ciliary body.

  16. Mapping of rat brain using the Synuclein-1 monoclonal antibody reveals somatodendritic expression of alpha-synuclein in populations of neurons homologous to those vulnerable to Lewy body formation in human synucleopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Gerda; Du, Fu; Chase, Thomas N; Bennett, M Catherine

    2003-10-01

    The neuronal protein alpha-synuclein has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Although many studies report that alpha-synuclein expression is restricted to neuronal presynaptic terminals, this protein aggregates in Lewy bodies in somata that are typically distant from their axon terminals. Few studies have addressed this paradox and there has been no compelling explanation proposed for the apparent discrepancy between the locus of neuronal alpha-synuclein expression and the loci of Lewy bodies in the majority of Parkinson disease cases. We explored this issue by extensively characterizing the monoclonal antibody Synuclein-1 (Syn-1) and using this highly selective antibody to map the distribution of alpha-synuclein throughout rat brain and in human substantia nigra (SN). Additionally, alpha-synuclein expression in rat SN detected by 2 polyclonal antibodies against alpha-synuclein was compared with that detected by the Syn-1 antibody. In contrast with many previous reports, alpha-synuclein was detected by Syn-1 in neuronal somata and dendrites in restricted brain regions, as well as more ubiquitously in axons and terminals. The strongest alpha-synuclein neuronal expression in rat was found in brainstem and cortical regions that are homologous to regions prone to Lewy body formation in humans. The Syn-1 antibody labeled abundant somatodendritic alpha-synuclein in both rat and human SN, a major locus of Lewy body formation and neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease. By contrast, very few immunoreactive somata in the rat SN were labeled by the 2 polyclonal antibodies. We explore possible explanations for the differences in conflicting reports of patterns of alpha-synuclein expression in brain, including differences among antibodies.

  17. Lewy Body Dementia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alzheimer’s pathology. Research now reveals that a genetic variant that increases the risk of developing both early- and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease has been identified to also be a risk factor for Lewy body disorders. Research Update: Cell to ...

  18. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle

    2008-01-01

    Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...... and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based...

  19. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  20. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    Olmsted, Marion P; McFarlane, Traci

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  1. Body mass in comparative primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R J; Jungers, W L

    1997-06-01

    Data are presented on adult body mass for 230 of 249 primate species, based on a review of the literature and previously unpublished data. The issues involved in collecting data on adult body mass are discussed, including the definition of adults, the effects of habitat and pregnancy, the strategy for pooling data on single species from multiple studies, and use of an appropriate number of significant figures. An analysis of variability in body mass indicates that the coefficient of variation for body mass increases with increasing species mean mass. Evaluation of several previous body mass reviews reveals a number of shortcomings with data that have been used often in comparative studies.

  2. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma......In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...

  3. Trans-ethnic fine-mapping of genetic loci for body mass index in the diverse ancestral populations of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study reveals evidence for multiple signals at established loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Gong, Jian; Haessler, Jeffrey; Franceschini, Nora; Graff, Mariaelisa; Nishimura, Katherine K; Wang, Yujie; Highland, Heather M; Yoneyama, Sachiko; Bush, William S; Goodloe, Robert; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Crawford, Dana; Gross, Myron; Fornage, Myriam; Buzkova, Petra; Tao, Ran; Isasi, Carmen; Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Daviglus, Martha; Mackey, Rachel H; Houston, Denise; Gu, C Charles; Ehret, Georg; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung H; Lewis, Cora E; Leppert, Mark; Irvin, Marguerite R; Lim, Unhee; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loic; Schumacher, Fredrick; Wilkens, Lynne; Lu, Yingchang; Bottinger, Erwin P; Loos, Ruth J L; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Guo, Xiuqing; Lee, Wen-Jane; Hai, Yang; Hung, Yi-Jen; Absher, Devin; Wu, I-Chien; Taylor, Kent D; Lee, I-Te; Liu, Yeheng; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Quertermous, Thomas; Juang, Jyh-Ming J; Rotter, Jerome I; Assimes, Themistocles; Hsiung, Chao A; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Prentice, Ross; Kuller, Lewis H; Manson, JoAnn E; Kooperberg, Charles; Smokowski, Paul; Robinson, Whitney R; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Li, Rongling; Hindorff, Lucia; Buyske, Steven; Matise, Tara C; Peters, Ulrike; North, Kari E

    2017-06-01

    Most body mass index (BMI) genetic loci have been identified in studies of primarily European ancestries. The effect of these loci in other racial/ethnic groups is less clear. Thus, we aimed to characterize the generalizability of 170 established BMI variants, or their proxies, to diverse US populations and trans-ethnically fine-map 36 BMI loci using a sample of >102,000 adults of African, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, European and American Indian/Alaskan Native descent from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology Study. We performed linear regression of the natural log of BMI (18.5-70 kg/m2) on the additive single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at BMI loci on the MetaboChip (Illumina, Inc.), adjusting for age, sex, population stratification, study site, or relatedness. We then performed fixed-effect meta-analyses and a Bayesian trans-ethnic meta-analysis to empirically cluster by allele frequency differences. Finally, we approximated conditional and joint associations to test for the presence of secondary signals. We noted directional consistency with the previously reported risk alleles beyond what would have been expected by chance (binomial p < 0.05). Nearly, a quarter of the previously described BMI index SNPs and 29 of 36 densely-genotyped BMI loci on the MetaboChip replicated/generalized in trans-ethnic analyses. We observed multiple signals at nine loci, including the description of seven loci with novel multiple signals. This study supports the generalization of most common genetic loci to diverse ancestral populations and emphasizes the importance of dense multiethnic genomic data in refining the functional variation at genetic loci of interest and describing several loci with multiple underlying genetic variants.

  4. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  5. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    -sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  6. Body lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pubic lice if you have body lice. Treatment To get rid of lice, take the following important steps: Bathe regularly to get rid of lice and their eggs. Change your clothes often. Wash clothes in hot water (at least 130°F/54°C) and machine ...

  7. Body / Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R. Schehr

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Unique object in the exchange-system, the gay body occupies a locus where a phantom identity and an imagined reciprocity define the poles of the subject-object relation. Made of the right stuff, it is an object circulating in a system that tends to reproduce the concept of identity in its search for mirror images of itself. Often rejected by the world, it has recently become a cynosure equated with sickness, pestilence, and death in the age of AIDS. The representations of that object change: no longer perceived as a part of libidinal economy, it has become a mass of symptoms, having changed from being an index of sexuality into being the visible dissipation of the flesh. The gay body in the age of AIDS is the mark of a pariah with the abject nature of the outcast. The body with AIDS takes the form of a text made of many signs and with many ways of reading the checkerboard pattern of the flesh. And the AIDS-narrative turns the body into the limit of the representable.

  8. Body Image Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Figen

    1990-01-01

    Examined body image satisfaction in Turkish adolescents. Findings from 269 female and 286 male secondary school students revealed that males were more satisfied with their bodies than were females, early-maturing males and late-maturing females had higher levels of body image satisfaction, and participants in physical activities were more…

  9. The functional architecture of the human body: assessing body representation by sorting body parts and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bläsing, Bettina; Schack, Thomas; Brugger, Peter

    2010-05-01

    We investigated mental representations of body parts and body-related activities in two subjects with congenitally absent limbs (one with, the other without phantom sensations), a wheelchair sports group of paraplegic participants, and two groups of participants with intact limbs. To analyse mental representation structures, we applied Structure Dimensional Analysis. Verbal labels indicating body parts and related activities were presented in randomized lists that had to be sorted according to a hierarchical splitting paradigm. Participants were required to group the items according to whether or not they were considered related, based on their own body perception. Results of the groups of physically intact and paraplegic participants revealed separate clusters for the lower body, upper body, fingers and head. The participant with congenital phantom limbs also showed a clear separation between upper and lower body (but not between fingers and hands). In the participant without phantom sensations of the absent arms, no such modularity emerged, but the specific practice of his right foot in communication and daily routines was reflected. Sorting verbal labels of body parts and activities appears a useful method to assess body representation in individuals with special body anatomy or function and leads to conclusions largely compatible with other assessment procedures.

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  12. Body Image and Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Maximiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders should be understood in a multidimensional perspective, emphasizing a biopsicossocial context. In these pathologies it`s the body, in the first instance, that reveals the disease, being in this way the target of the conflict, revealing a disturbed body experience and as a consequence a weak conception of their personal body image. The body image is conceptualised as a subjective image that the individuals form in their own mind, about their body, in relation with differ- ent contexts of life. The intent of the studies is to comprehend the level of body image disturbance, which have concluded that in the majority of the cases, significant changes on perceptive capacity of the patients do not exist. In this way it`s important to study in a more effective and qualitative way the affective and personal factors. The authors pretend with this bibliographic revision, make a research of body image assessment to the Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, and to reflect which are the best ones to adapt for Portuguese reality.

  13. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology.

  14. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Computed tomography (CT) of the body uses special ... the Body? What is CT Scanning of the Body? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT ...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to ...

  16. [Body-contouring surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanguy, Ivo

    2003-01-01

    Concepts of beauty have been continuously evolving throughout the history of mankind. The voluptuous figures that were idealized by artists in the past have been substituted by slimmer forms. Medical advances in this century have permitted safe and efficient surgical correction of contour deformities. Until recently, these alterations were mostly hidden under heavy clothing or were reluctantly accepted. Current fashion trends generally promote body-revealing attire. The media frequently encourages the importance of fitness and good health linking these qualities with youthfulness and beauty. The subliminal as well as overt message is that these are necessary and desirable requirements for social acceptance and professional success. On the other hand, current sedentary lifestyle and dietary excesses, associated with factors such as genetic determination, pregnancy and the aging process, contribute to alterations of body contour that result in the loss of the individual's body image. This creates a strong psychological motivation for surgical correction. Localized fat deposits and skin flaccidity are sometimes resistant to the most sincere efforts in weight loss and sport activities. This ever-increasing request for contour surgery has been favorably met by safe and effective anesthesiology as well as efficient surgical techniques, resulting in a high degree of patient satisfaction. It is essential that today's aesthetic surgeon understand the motivations of patients who present with body contour deformities. A request for surgical treatment should be seen as a legitimate desire to achieve a physical form that approximates the individual with his or her ideal self-image. Additionally, the surgeon must always consider the possible benefit of including the participation of a multidisciplinary team approach. Depending on each case, this team should include consultants in endocrinology, dermatology, oculoplastics, pediatrics and other appropriate specialties.

  17. Overlooked retained intraocular foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić-Zečević Antoaneta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The most common cause for litigation against ophthalmologists in a trauma case is a missed intraocular foreign body (IOFB. IOFBs cause internal eye damage, but some will come to rest in the posterior segment of the eye. Case report. We presented a 57-year-old male who was referred to the ophthalmologist due to decreased visual acuity in his left eye. Slit lamp examination of his left eye showed no pathological findings. Goldmann contact lens examination showed IOFB which was lying in the vitreous body in the inferior-temporal region. Retinal rupture was noticed at 7 o’clock. The optical coherence tomography (OCT examination was performed and it showed atrophic macular area as well as decreased peripapillar retinal fiber layers thickness. Ultrasound showed the IOFB in vitreous body cavity. History revealed that the patient had an accidental trauma, 48 years ago, when an old bomb from World War II (WWII exploded. Due to the decrease in visual acuity and fibrosis of the vitreous body surgical intervention was performed on his left eye (phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, pars plana vitrectomy and instrumental extraction of foreign body. Conclusion. The intraocular foreign body (IOFB was asymptomatic for 48 years. Symptoms depend on material and localization of the foreign body and the type of injury.

  18. 3D whole body scanners revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Haar, F.B. ter

    2013-01-01

    An overview of whole body scanners in 1998 (H.A.M. Daanen, G.J. Van De Water. Whole body scanners, Displays 19 (1998) 111-120) shortly after they emerged to the market revealed that the systems were bulky, slow, expensive and low in resolution. This update shows that new developments in sensing and

  19. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Body Dissatisfaction Revisited: On the Importance of Implicit Beliefs about Actual and Ideal Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Heider

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction (i.e., a negative attitude towards one’s own physical appearance is assumed to originate from a perceived discrepancy between the actual physical appearance (i.e., actual body image and the desired ideal state of the body (i.e., ideal body image. We assessed implicit beliefs about these two aspects of the body image independently using two Relational Responding Tasks (RRT in a sample of participants who were either low or high in explicitly reported body dissatisfaction. As hypothesized, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two RRT scores. The implicit belief that one is thin was less pronounced in participants who were strongly dissatisfied with their body relative to participants who were more satisfied with their body. The implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image, in contrast, tended to be more pronounced in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction as compared to participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. Hierarchical regression analyses also revealed that the RRT scores were predictive of self-reported body dissatisfaction, even over and above the predictive validity of some (but not all explicit predictors of body dissatisfaction that were included in the present study. More generally, these findings contribute to the empirical validation of the RRT as a measure of implicit beliefs in the context of body dissatisfaction.

  1. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  2. Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body dementia Overview Lewy body dementia, also known as dementia with Lewy bodies, is the second most common type of progressive dementia after Alzheimer's disease dementia. Protein deposits, ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract ... blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign body ...

  4. Lewy Body Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss ... enough to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ... good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks While foreign body removal procedures are safe and ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves ... and damage to surrounding tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies ... your physician immediately. Treatment will depend on the type of foreign body and nature of the symptoms. ...

  8. Whole Body Counters (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodburn, John H. [Walter Johnson High School, Rockville, MD; Lengemann, Frederick W. [Cornell University

    1967-01-01

    Whole body counters are radiation detecting and measuring instruments that provide information about the human body. This booklet describes different whole body counters, scientific principles that are applied to their design, and ways they are used.

  9. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  10. Hyposplenism revealed by Plasmodium malariae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Benjamin; Galloula, Alexandre; Simon, Anne; Buffet, Pierre

    2013-08-02

    Hyposplenism, due to splenectomy, inherited red blood cell disorders or acquired conditions such as celiac disease, has an important impact on the severity of malaria, especially in non-immune patients. Conversely, that malaria may reveal functional hyposplenism has not been described previously. A 31-year old gardener was diagnosed with an uncomplicated attack of Plasmodium malariae 11 years after leaving the endemic area. In addition to trophozoites and schizonts, thick and thin smears also showed Howell-Jolly bodies, pointing to functional hyposplenism. This was later confirmed by the presence of a calcified spleen in the context of S/β + sickle-cell syndrome in a patient previously unaware of this condition. Malaria may reveal hyposplenism. Although Howell-Jolly bodies are morphologically similar to nuclei of young Plasmodium trophozoite, distinction on smears is based on the absence of cytoplasm and irregular size of Howell-Jolly bodies. In the patient reported here, hyposplenism was revealed by the occurrence of P. malariae infection relatively late in life. Timely diagnosis of hyposplenism resulted in the implementation of appropriate measures to prevent overwhelming infection with capsulated bacteria. This observation highlights the importance of diagnosing hyposplenism in patients with malaria despite the morphological similarities between ring nuclei and Howell-Jolly bodies on thick smears.

  11. Distance to Dark Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    , astronomers measured the microlensing event over several months with both Spitzer in space and the Earth-based telescopes. Careful analysis of the data revealed the time of the peak brightness differed slightly between the two locations. Because astronomers knew the exact distance between Earth and Spitzer and the time lag between the peak-observed brightness, they could determine OGLE-2005-SMC-001's speed. Using trigonometric equations and graphs to do the 'brain's' job, scientists then inferred the dark body's location to be in the outer portion, or halo, of our galaxy. The picture of the Small Magellanic Cloud in this concept is a two-color image from two Digitized Sky Survey 2 observations The Digitized Sky Survey is based at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md.

  12. [Body image and body image distortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ábrahám, Ildikó; Jambrik, Máté; John, Balázs; Németh, Adrienn Réka; Franczia, Nóra; Csenki, Laura

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this literature review is to integrate the results of various studies regarding body image and body image distortion into a unified framework. The concept of body image is complex and can be interpreted from multiple points of view. The first part of the study touches upon different age characteristics, attentional focus on the body, the early and important role of the body in identity formation, specific features in adolescence, gender differences, and the often-observed stability of body image (distortion), which may be present as a (trait) marker throughout the lifespan. The second part focuses on the organization of body image. The results of different studies on cognitive information processing are reviewed, the question of perceptual accuracy is addressed and the concepts of embodiment are examined. The third topic is body image distortion. First, the concept is contextualized along different continua, then discussed in a clinical sense along with the complexity of diagnostic methods, as well as the state and trait aspects of body image distortion. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(19): 723-730.

  13. Adolescence and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  14. Body Image and Transsexualism

    OpenAIRE

    B. Kraemer; Delsignore, A; Schnyder, U.; Hepp, U

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To achieve a detailed view of the body image of transsexual patients, an assessment of perception, attitudes and experiences about one's own body is necessary. To date, research on the body image of transsexual patients has mostly covered body dissatisfaction with respect to body perception. SAMPLING AND METHODS: We investigated 23 preoperative (16 male-to-female and 7 female-to-male transsexual patients) and 22 postoperative (14 male-to-female and 8 female-to-male) transsexual pa...

  15. Body Image and Body Dysmorphic Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Aragones, Lucia; Marron, Servando E

    2016-08-23

    Most people would like to change something about their bodies and the way that they look, but for some it becomes an obsession. A healthy skin plays an important role in a person's physical and mental wellbeing, whereas a disfiguring appearance is associated with body image concerns. Skin diseases such as acne, psoriasis and vitiligo produce cosmetic disfigurement and patients suffering these and other visible skin conditions have an increased risk of depression, anxiety, feelings of stigmatization and self-harm ideation. Body image affects our emotions, thoughts, and behaviours in everyday life, but, above all, it influences our relationships. Furthermore, it has the potential to influence our quality of life. Promotion of positive body image is highly recommended, as it is important in improving people's quality of life, physical health, and health-related behaviors. Dermatologists have a key role in identifying body image concerns and offering patients possible treatment options.

  16. Scaling of adult regional body mass and body composition as a whole to height: Relevance to body shape and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuna, John M; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht(2) ), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht(2) ? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index (BMI). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass [head (MH), trunk, arms, and legs] and whole-body composition [fat, lean soft tissue (LST), and bone mineral content (BMC)] in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 17,126) and Korean NHANES (n = 8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four population groups: regional mass powers, head (∼0.8-1) body composition, LST (∼2.0-2.3) body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and population groups as Ht(∼2) , tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., MH/MB ∝ Ht(-∼1) ) and composition. Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as represented by stature, a finding that reveals a previously unrecognized phenotypic heterogeneity as defined by BMI. These observations provide new pathways for exploring mechanisms governing the interrelations between adult stature, body morphology, biomechanics, and metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  18. A close shave: The taboo on female body hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades body hair has fast become a taboo for women. The empirical data of sociological and medical research reveal that the vast majority of women remove most of their body hair since the beginning of this century. Body hair is typically a marker that polices significant boundaries:

  19. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Section of Positron Emission Tomography, Freiburg (Germany); Korsten-Reck, Ulrike [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Sports Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Mueller, Frank [PET-Institute Rhein-Neckar, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Merk, Stefan [Kantonsspital Basel, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81{+-}15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV{sub LBM}). (orig.)

  20. [Morphometric evaluation of relative adipose tissue content in the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the mathematical models of the human body composition revealed main shortcomings of body mass index (A. Quetelet, 1832). This allowed to offer more accurate body mass index (BMI = M/H3), body build index [BBI = (BMI)1/2] and body fatness index (BFI = M/HC2), where (M), (H) and (C) signified the mass, height and wrist circumference correspondingly.

  1. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  2. Body distortions after massive weight loss: lack of updating of the body schema hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia, D; Metral, M; Pigeyre, M; Bauwens, I; Cottencin, O; Luyat, M

    2013-09-01

    Behavioural therapy and bariatric surgery often produce rapid, massive body weight loss that may impact a patient's ability to gauge his/her new body shape. Although the patient is aware of the weight loss, he/she continues to feel obese, as if there was a conflict between the previous body schema and the new one. Here, we report the case of a 40-year-old woman who developed major body distortions after massive weight loss. Psychometric and behavioural assessments revealed strong disturbances in several tasks involving body representation. In particular, we observed abnormal behaviour in a body-scaled action task. Our findings suggest that the rapidity of our patient's weight loss prevented her central nervous system from correctly updating the body schema.

  3. Virtual Reality Body Swapping: A Tool for Modifying the Allocentric Memory of the Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serino, Silvia; Pedroli, Elisa; Keizer, Anouk; Triberti, Stefano; Dakanalis, Antonios; Pallavicini, Federica; Chirico, Alice; Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    An increasing amount of evidence has shown that embodiment of a virtual body via visuo-tactile stimulation can lead to an altered perception of body and object size. The current study aimed to investigate whether virtual reality (VR) body swapping can be an effective tool for modifying the enduring memory of the body. The experimental sample included 21 female participants who were asked to estimate the width and circumference of different body parts before any kind of stimulation and after two types of body swapping illusions ("synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation" and "asynchronous visuo-tactile stimulation"). Findings revealed that after participants embodied a virtual body with a skinny belly (independently of the type of visuo-tactile stimulation), there was an update of the stored representation of the body: participants reported a decrease in the ratio between estimated and actual body measures for most of the body parts considered. Based on the Allocentric Lock Theory, these findings provide first evidence that VR body swapping is able to induce a change in the memory of the body. This knowledge may be potentially useful for patients suffering from eating and weight disorders.

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding removal procedures. In some cases, it is potentially ... time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks While foreign body ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tests may include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). top of page How is the procedure ... denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to remove one or more foreign objects that have been ingested ... a foreign body or witness a child ingest one or suspect the presence of a soft tissue ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General Ultrasound Contrast Materials Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like ...

  9. Body Changes and Discomforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Body changes and discomforts Everyone expects pregnancy to bring ... do to feel better. Expand all | Collapse all Body aches As your uterus expands, you may feel ...

  10. Body temperature norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal body temperature; Temperature - normal ... Morrison SF. Regulation of body temperature. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 59. Sajadi MM, Mackowiak ...

  11. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...... and surrounds an internal volume of the body, a distance member that is connected to the facing inside the body and extends from the facing and into the internal volume of the body, and at least one reinforcing member that operates in tension for reinforcing the facing against inward deflections...... and that is connected to the facing inside the internal volume of the body at the same side of the profile chord as the connection of the distance member to the facing and to the distance member at a distance from the facing....

  12. Black-Body Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Black-body radiation; thermal radiation; heat; electromagnetic radiation; Stefan's Law; Stefan–Boltzmann Law; Wien's Law; Rayleigh–Jeans Law; black-body spectrum; ultraviolet catastrophe; zero point energy; photon.

  13. Abstract: Body Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Lene

    2012-01-01

    This panel will explore the usefulness of the term ‘body work’ in cultural history. Body work is understood as work focusing on the bodies of others as component in a range of occupations in health and social care, as well as in unpaid work in the family. How can the notion of body work inform...... cultural history of health and illness whether through a micro-social focus on the intercorporeal aspects of work in health and social care, or through clarifying our understanding of the times and spaces of work, or through highlighting the relationship between mundane body work and global processes....... The British sociologist Julia Twigg has introduced and explored the term `bodywork', most recently in Body Work in Health and Social Care - Critical Themes, New Agendas (2011). She extends the term body work from applying to the work that individuals undertake on their own bodies, often as part of regimens...

  14. BAM! Body and Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit BAM! Body and Mind Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . BAM! Body and Mind Diseases Disease Detectives Immune Platoon Learn ...

  15. Lewy Body Dementia Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide an experienced diagnostic team skilled in Lewy body dementia. A thorough dementia diagnostic evaluation includes physical ... a good way to benefit others with Lewy body dementia. Medications Medications are one of the most ...

  16. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Diabetic Retinopathy Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending ... here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts for about ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use an x-ray or ... and push the object farther down. In some cases, prompt removal of the foreign body is necessary. ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... but the foreign body remains trapped in the lung. This typically occurs in children and requires removal ... the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. Common equipment for ...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... probing the wound. Additional tests may include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). top of ... Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General Ultrasound Contrast Materials Anesthesia ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce your chances of suffering an infection or an allergic reaction. Prompt removal of the foreign body will ...

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to remove ... the digestive system. top of page How should I prepare? If you ingest a foreign body or ...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies ... exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General Ultrasound Contrast Materials Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and ...

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foreign body. top of page What does the equipment look like? A variety of x-ray or ultrasound equipment may be used to detect foreign bodies. The equipment typically used for this examination consists of a ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... waves), as well as the type of body structure and composition of body tissue through which the ... such as when it is located near vital structures like nerves and blood vessels, so your physician ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... batteries, small toys or pieces of toys and fish bones. Swallowing of magnets can cause significant problems ... bodies like toothpicks. Small esophageal foreign bodies like fish bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the examination table, the radiologist or sonographer will apply some warm water-based gel on your skin ... foreign bodies remain in the body and to check for the presence of any side effects such ...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... see the foreign body. top of page What does the equipment look like? A variety of x- ... remove the foreign bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use an ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is located near vital structures like nerves and blood vessels, so your physician may choose to leave ... other areas of the body, or enter your blood vessels. Removal of larger foreign bodies will ensure ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like coins and batteries, are radio-opaque, meaning ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to remove ... the foreign body. top of page What does the equipment look like? A variety of x-ray ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without complication, and endoscopic or surgical intervention is required only ... abdomen to locate objects and to identify possible complications of foreign body ingestion, including swelling and perforation ...

  13. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ray, Perihan; Demirkol, Mehmet; Tamam, Lut

    2012-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of mental illness, wherein the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features...

  14. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either...

  15. Phages in the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Ferran; Muniesa, Maite

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have re-emerged as powerful regulators of bacterial populations in natural ecosystems. Phages invade the human body, just as they do other natural environments, to such an extent that they are the most numerous group in the human virome. This was only revealed in recent metagenomic studies, despite the fact that the presence of phages in the human body was reported decades ago. The influence of the presence of phages in humans has yet to be evaluated; but as in marine environments, a clear role in the regulation of bacterial populations could be envisaged, that might have an impact on human health. Moreover, phages are excellent vehicles of genetic transfer, and they contribute to the evolution of bacterial cells in the human body by spreading and acquiring DNA horizontally. The abundance of phages in the human body does not pass unnoticed and the immune system reacts to them, although it is not clear to what extent. Finally, the presence of phages in human samples, which most of the time is not considered, can influence and bias microbiological and molecular results; and, in view of the evidences, some studies suggest that more attention needs to be paid to their interference.

  16. Lewy body dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Korbo, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia share the same pathophysiology. Together they are called Lewy body dementias and are the second most common type of dementia. Lewy body dementias receive little attention, and patients are often misdiagnosed, leading to less than ideal...

  17. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body dysmorphic disorder Overview Body dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder in which you can't stop thinking about one or more perceived defects or ... may avoid many social situations. When you have body dysmorphic disorder, you intensely obsess over your appearance ...

  18. Literacies in the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, the author invites readers to consider the body and its central place in literacy pedagogy, practice and research. She emphasizes two interrelated paths for teachers and researchers interested in literacies to tend to the body: (1) the ways literacies are engaged and cultivated for making sense of bodies, and (2) the literacies…

  19. Locomotor body scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanenko, Y.P.; Dominici, N; Daprati, E; Nico, D; Cappellini, G; Lacquaniti, F

    The concept of body schema has been introduced and widely discussed in the literature to explain various clinical observations and distortions in the body and space representation. Here we address the role of body schema related information in multi-joint limb motion. The processing of

  20. Editorial: Body Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Assuncao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the juxtaposition between physical bodies and the gameworld is ever more fluid. Virtual Reality headsets are available at game stores with more AAA games being created for the format. The release of the Nintendo Switch and its dynamic JoyCon controllers reintroduce haptic movement based controls.  Pokémon GO’s augmented reality took gamers outdoors and has encouraged the Harry Potter franchise to follow in its mobile footsteps. Each development encourages a step further into the digital world. At the same time, the movement of bodies always has political dimensions. We live in a world where walls seem like solutions to the movement of bodies, while the mere meeting of bodies elsewhere – for sex, marriage and other reasons – is still forbidden by many states’ rules. Games and game-like interfaces have shown the ability to bend those rules, and to sometimes project other worlds and rule systems over our world in order to make bodies move and meet. For this special issue on ‘Body Movements’, Press Start invited authors to focus on embodiment, body movements, political bodies, community bodies, virtual bodies, physical bodies, feminine, masculine, trans- bodies, agency or its lack, and anything else in between. The response to this invitation was variegated, and provocative, as outlined here.

  1. Body narratives of me as a teacher: The body after teaching practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Villalba Labrador

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I present a series of images, stories and dissertations to reveal the teacher’s body experience in teaching practices. This approach involves recognizing bodily experience of those who are considered subjects of knowledge and the impact it has on their bodies. For this purpose, I share results of a creation - research strategy about my bodily condition as a teacher in a public education institution. Such condition is expressed on the marks that teaching experience has left on my body and “Corporrelato”, a concept I coined as a methodological inquiry and creation device to write about the body

  2. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  3. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  4. Review Results on Wing-Body Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of results for wing-body interference, obtained by the author for varied wing-body combinations. The lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations are considered. In this paper a discrete vortices method (DVM and 2D potential model for cross-flow around fuselage are used. The circular and elliptical cross-sections of the fuselage and flat wings of various forms are considered. Calculations showed that the value of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations may exceed the same value for an isolated wing. This result confirms an experimental data obtained by other authors earlier. Within a framework of the used mathematical models the investigations to optimize the wing-body combination were carried. The present results of the optimization problem for the wing-body combination allowed to select the optimal geometric characteristics for configuration to maximize the values of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combination. It was revealed that maximums of the lift-curve slopes for the optimal mid-wing configuration with elliptical cross-section body had a sufficiently large relative width of the body (more than 30% of the span wing.

  5. Mysterious Blob Galaxies Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 This image composite shows a giant galactic blob (red, figure 2) and the three merging galaxies NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered within it (yellow, figure 3). Blobs are intensely glowing clouds of hot hydrogen gas that envelop faraway galaxies. They are about 10 times as large as the galaxies they surround. Visible-light images like the one shown in figure 2, reveal the vast extent of blobs, but don't provide much information about their host galaxies. Using its heat-seeking infrared eyes, Spitzer was able to see the dusty galaxies tucked inside one well-known blob located 11 billion light-years away. The findings reveal three monstrously bright galaxies, trillions of times brighter than the Sun, in the process of merging together (figure 3). Spitzer also observed three other blobs located in the same cosmic neighborhood, all of which were found to be glaringly bright. One of these blobs is also known to be a galactic merger, only between two galaxies instead of three. It remains to be seen whether the final two blobs studied also contain mergers. The Spitzer data were acquired by its multiband imaging photometer. The visible-light image was taken by the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile.

  6. Body representation in patients after vascular brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmus, Magdalena

    2017-11-01

    Neuropsychological literature suggests that body representation is a multidimensional concept consisting of various types of representations. Previous studies have demonstrated dissociations between three types of body representation specified by the kind of data and processes, i.e. body schema, body structural description, and body semantics. The aim of the study was to describe the state of body representation in patients after vascular brain injuries and to provide evidence for the different types of body representation. The question about correlations between body representation deficits and neuropsychological dysfunctions was also investigated. Fifty patients after strokes and 50 control individuals participated in the study. They were examined with tasks referring to dynamic representation of body parts positions, topological body map, and lexical and semantic knowledge about the body. Data analysis showed that vascular brain injuries result in deficits of body representation, which may co-occur with cognitive dysfunctions, but the latter are a possible risk factor for body representation deficits rather than sufficient or imperative requisites for them. The study suggests that types of body representation may be separated on the basis not only of their content, but also of their relation with self. Principal component analysis revealed three factors, which explained over 66% of results variance. The factors, which may be interpreted as types or dimensions of mental model of a body, represent different degrees of connection with self. The results indicate another possibility of body representation types classification, which should be verified in future research.

  7. Body image and transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Bernd; Delsignore, Aba; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hepp, Urs

    2008-01-01

    To achieve a detailed view of the body image of transsexual patients, an assessment of perception, attitudes and experiences about one's own body is necessary. To date, research on the body image of transsexual patients has mostly covered body dissatisfaction with respect to body perception. We investigated 23 preoperative (16 male-to-female and 7 female-to-male transsexual patients) and 22 postoperative (14 male-to-female and 8 female-to-male) transsexual patients using a validated psychological measure for body image variables. We found that preoperative transsexual patients were insecure and felt unattractive because of concerns about their body image. However, postoperative transsexual patients scored high on attractiveness and self-confidence. Furthermore, postoperative transsexual patients showed low scores for insecurity and concerns about their body. Our results indicate an improvement of body image concerns for transsexual patients following standards of care for gender identity disorder. Follow-up studies are recommended to confirm the assumed positive outcome of standards of care on body image. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The Athletic Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Andrew

    2016-09-10

    This paper seeks to explore the attraction and the beauty of the contemporary athletic body. It will be suggested that a body shaped through muscular bulk and definition has come to be seen as aesthetically normative. This body differs from the body of athletes from the early and mid-twentieth century. It will be argued that the contemporary body is not merely the result of advances in sports science, but rather that it is expressive of certain meanings and values. The visual similarity of the contemporary athletic body and that of the comic book superhero suggests that both bodies carry a similar potential for narrative story-telling, and that their attraction is bound up with this narrative potential. The superhero and athlete live meaningful lives, pursuing clear and morally unambiguous goals. The aesthetic attraction of the body lies in its capacity to facilitate the articulation of a story of a meaningful life, and to do so in the face of the growing anomie and thus meaninglessness of life as experienced in contemporary society. Athleticism offers an illusion of meaning, serving to reproduce dominant justificatory narratives and social stereotypes. Yet, as an illusion of meaning, it may be challenged and negotiated, not least with respect to its bias towards a certain form of the male body. The female athletic body disrupts the illusion, opening up new existential possibilities, new ways of living and being, and thus new, and potentially disruptive, narratives.

  9. Proximity Interactions among Basal Body Components in Trypanosoma brucei Identify Novel Regulators of Basal Body Biogenesis and Inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Quang Dang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal body shares similar architecture with centrioles in animals and is involved in nucleating flagellar axonemal microtubules in flagellated eukaryotes. The early-branching Trypanosoma brucei possesses a motile flagellum nucleated from the basal body that consists of a mature basal body and an adjacent pro-basal body. Little is known about the basal body proteome and its roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellar axoneme assembly in T. brucei. Here, we report the identification of 14 conserved centriole/basal body protein homologs and 25 trypanosome-specific basal body proteins. These proteins localize to distinct subdomains of the basal body, and several of them form a ring-like structure surrounding the basal body barrel. Functional characterization of representative basal body proteins revealed distinct roles in basal body duplication/separation and flagellar axoneme assembly. Overall, this work identified novel proteins required for basal body duplication and separation and uncovered new functions of conserved basal body proteins in basal body duplication and separation, highlighting an unusual mechanism of basal body biogenesis and inheritance in this early divergent eukaryote.

  10. Body-image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Barata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to analyze the discursive modes, procedures influenced by production conditions , interpreting conditions and speech conditions, on the relationship between the body and the videographic expression. This way we will discuss a path built by poetics of the body, using as languages video, performance, and video installations. Motivated by this trend, we seek a broadening of these concepts and of artistic means of expression to conduct a survey on media analysis. The following questions guide our program of research and study: 1. The relationship between poetics and politics of the bodies; 2. The dialogue between body and camera; 3. Electronic art as preferred field to enhance the body's speech; 4. The "on screen" search of an episteme of the body.

  11. The Semiotic Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    Most bodies in this world do not have brains and the minority of animal species that do have brained bodies are descendents from species with more distributed or decentralized nervous systems. Thus, bodies were here first, and only relatively late in evolution did the bodies of a few species grow...... on to the intracellular world of signal transduction through which the activity of single cells are put to service for bodily needs. The paper further considers the mechanisms behind homeostasis and the semiotics of the psycho-neuro-endocrine integration in the body. The concept of semiotic emergence is introduced...... and a holistic marker hypothesis for why some animals may have an experiential life is suggested. Keywords Body - Self - Experiential life - Semiotic causation - Semiotic emergence - Holistic marker...

  12. Mechanics of deformable bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm

    1950-01-01

    Mechanics of Deformable Bodies: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume II covers topics on the mechanics of deformable bodies. The book discusses the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of deformable bodies; the vortex theory; as well as the theory of waves. The text also describes the flow with given boundaries. Supplementary notes on selected hydrodynamic problems and supplements to the theory of elasticity are provided. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking related courses will find the book useful.

  13. [Body marking in psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliot, Lucie

    Patients with psychosis speak of an uneasy relationship with their body. Between feelings of too little and too much, for them it is a matter of trying to suture an image which is not always unified, a body which they are not always sure they have. The attentive clinician will attempt to support the solutions of each psychotic patient to maintain their body, beyond the death drive which pushes them to tear it apart. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Body-turbulence interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper reviews the area of body-turbulence interaction with particular emphasis upon the influence of the body upon an incident turublent field. Cases considered include two-dimensional (high and low fineness ratio, porous, and impervious) and three-dimensional bodies in-stream, adjacent to, and attached to walls. Particular physics common to several geometric and incident flow configurations include (1) eddy severing at relatively sharp leading edges, (2) production of vorticity of the opposite sense on bluff bodies, and (3) body region production of control vortices which affect the incident turbulence field for the order of 100 boundary-layer thicknesses downstream. The major local effects of the body upon the incident turbulent field include (1) a blocking effect, (2) influence of the body momentum deficit/near wake, (3) distortion due to the body time-averaged flow field, and (4) unsteady body circulation. The review may be of particular interest for turbulence alteration/control using fixed geometry in applications such as drag reduction, separation control, noise reduction, and augmentor optimization.

  15. Body selectivity in occipitotemporal cortex: Causal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Paul E; Peelen, Marius V

    2016-03-01

    Perception of others' bodies provides information that is useful for a number of important social-cognitive processes. Evidence from neuroimaging methods has identified focal cortical regions that are highly selective for perceiving bodies and body parts, including the extrastriate body area (EBA) and fusiform body area (FBA). Our understanding of the functional properties of these regions, and their causal contributions to behavior, has benefitted from the study of neuropsychological patients and particularly from investigations using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We review this evidence, focusing on TMS studies that are revealing of how (and when) activity in EBA contributes to detecting people in natural scenes; to resolving their body shape, movements, actions, individual parts, and identities; and to guiding goal-directed behavior. These findings are considered in reference to a framework for body perception in which the patterns of neural activity in EBA and FBA jointly serve to make explicit the elements of the visual scene that correspond to the body and its parts. These representations are modulated by other sources of information such as prior knowledge, and are shared with wider brain networks involved in many aspects of social cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Few body physics with CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.P. Gilfoyle for the CLAS Collaboration

    2011-02-01

    The study of few-body, nuclear systems with electromagnetic probes is an essential piece of the scientific program at Jefferson Lab. Reactions using real photons and electrons (up to energies of 6 GeV) are measured using the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS) detector in Hall B, a nearly 4π magnetic spectrometer. We focus here on three areas. (1) Short-range correlations (SRCs) probe the high-momentum components of the nuclear wave function. Recent CLAS experiments map out their isospin character and reveal the importance of the tensor part of the nuclear force. (2) Three-body forces are an essential feature of nuclei. We will show results using real photons and 3He and 4He targets that remain largely unexplained. (3) Evidence for the transition to a quark-gluon description of nuclei has been observed with photon beams in CLAS on deuterium and 3-He targets. Alternative explanations reveal the geography of the transition is complex.

  17. Should women be "All About That Bass?": Diverse body-ideal messages and women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Diana E; Ramsey, Laura R

    2017-09-01

    While most body image research emphasizes the thin ideal, a wider variety of body-ideal messages pervade U.S. popular culture today, including those promoting athleticism or curves. Two studies assessed women's reactions to messages conveying thin, athletic, and curvy ideals, compared to a control message that emphasized accepting all body types. Study 1 (N=192) surveyed women's responses to these messages and found they perceived body-acceptance and athletic messages most favorably, curvy messages more negatively, and thin messages most negatively. Further, greatest liking within each message category came from women who identified with that body type. Study 2 (N=189) experimentally manipulated exposure to these messages, then measured self-objectification and body satisfaction. Messages promoting a body-ideal caused more self-objectification than body-acceptance messages. Also, athletic messages caused more body dissatisfaction than thin messages. Together, these findings reveal the complexity of women's responses to diverse messages they receive about ideal bodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Body-Worn Antennas for Body-Centric Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Ôzden, Sinasi ̈

    2014-01-01

    Ear-to-ear (E2E) on-body propagation and on-body antennas for body-centric wireless communications are presented.......Ear-to-ear (E2E) on-body propagation and on-body antennas for body-centric wireless communications are presented....

  19. Body cathexis and clothed body cathexis: is there a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markee, N L; Carey, I L; Pedersen, E L

    1990-06-01

    To investigate the difference between perceptions of the nude body and of the clothed body 29 women were administered the Body Cathexis Scale and a Clothed Body Cathexis Scale. Paired t tests indicated that these working women were significantly more satisfied with their clothed bodies than with their nude bodies.

  20. Tadpole begging reveals high quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, M B; Strickler, S A; Stynoski, J L

    2017-05-01

    Parents can benefit from allocating limited resources nonrandomly among offspring, and offspring solicitation (i.e. begging) is often hypothesized to evolve because it contains information valuable to choosy parents. We tested the predictions of three 'honest begging' hypotheses - Signal of Need, Signal of Quality and Signal of Hunger - in the tadpoles of a terrestrial frog (Oophaga pumilio). In this frog, mothers provision tadpoles with trophic eggs, and when mothers visit, tadpoles perform a putative begging signal by stiffening their bodies and vibrating rapidly. We assessed the information content of intense tadpole begging with an experimental manipulation of tadpole condition (need/quality) and food deprivation (hunger). This experiment revealed patterns consistent with the Signal of Quality hypothesis and directly counter to predictions of Signal of Need and Signal of Hunger. Begging effort and performance were higher in more developed and higher condition tadpoles and declined with food deprivation. Free-living mothers were unlikely to feed tadpoles of a nonbegging species experimentally cross-fostered with their own, and allocated larger meals to more developed tadpoles and those that vibrated at higher speed. Mother O. pumilio favour their high-quality young, and because their concurrent offspring are reared in separate nurseries, must do so by making active allocation decisions. Our results suggest that these maternal choices are based at least in part on offspring signals, indicating that offspring solicitation can evolve to signal high quality. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then listens for the returning echoes from ... prevent a potentially deadly infection of the nervous system. In some ... harmful to remove the foreign body, such as when it is located near vital ...

  2. Inside Your Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolism (how the body makes and uses energy), sexual development, and reproductive function. Hormones are released into the blood and taken to tissues and organs throughout the body. The endocrine system makes sure that there is the right amount of each of the hormones in the ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by probing the wound. Additional tests may include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). top of page How ... Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General Ultrasound Contrast Materials Anesthesia Safety ...

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by probing the wound. Additional tests may include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). top of page ... Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General Ultrasound Contrast Materials Anesthesia Safety ...

  5. Body Mole Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    DETECT Skin Cancer: Body Mole Map Follow these instructions regularly for a thorough skin-exam: 1. Learn what to look for 2. Examine ... taking note of all the spots on your body, from moles to freckles to age spots. Skin ...

  6. The intersectional body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elg, Camilla; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    2012-01-01

    -additive analyses might be managed as the body is by definition non-additive. 2, Considerations about fluidity and changeability might be refocused, as a central characteristic of the body is its intertia. 3, Thinking about power relations might be recast as attention is drawn to how power relations are embodied...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. Common equipment for identifying and removing foreign bodies from the esophagus includes an endoscope, which is a long, thin, flexible or rigid tube with ...

  8. TITLE: OTIC FOREIGN BODIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A.O.A. Ogunleye

    P M Eds. Clinical Otolaryngology. Oxford: Blackwell, 1979; 546 – 552. 6. Ijaduola GT, Okeowo PA, Foreign body in the ear and its importance: the Nigerian experience. Journal of Tropical Paediatrics. 1986; 32: 4 -6. 7. Das SK. Aetiological evaluation of foreign bodies in the ear and nose. J. Laryngol Otol. 1984; 98: 989-991.

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many ... and then place the transducer firmly against your body, moving it back ... until the desired images are captured. There is usually no discomfort from ...

  10. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents - or Other Adults About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Did you ever wonder ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image ... diagnosis far outweighs the risk. top of page What are the ... limitation of an x-ray examination is the potential failure to detect radiolucent ( ...

  12. Body composition and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Roy; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-07-01

    This paper examines the relationship between body composition and wages in the United States. We develop measures of body composition--body fat (BF) and fat-free mass (FFM)--using data on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that are available in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and estimate wage models for respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Previous research uses body size or BMI as measures of obesity despite a growing concern that they do not distinguish between body fat and fat-free body mass or adequately control for non-homogeneity inside the human body. Therefore, measures presented in this paper represent a useful alternative to BMI-based proxies of obesity. Our results indicate that BF is associated with decreased wages for both males and females among whites and blacks. We also present evidence suggesting that FFM is associated with increased wages. We show that these results are not the artifacts of unobserved heterogeneity. Finally, our findings are robust to numerous specification checks and to a large number of alternative BIA prediction equations from which the body composition measures are derived. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Body Weight URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or witness a child ingest one or suspect the presence of a soft tissue foreign body, contact your physician ... remain in the body and to check for the presence of any side effects such as infection. top of ...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other instruments to grasp and remove the foreign bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use an x-ray or ultrasound of the neck, chest and abdomen to locate objects and to identify ... of foreign body ingestion, including swelling and perforation of the ...

  16. [Body image; literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Muyor, José María; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in developed countries there are standards of beauty based on pro-thin models, which are internalized by adolescents and young people especially in the case of women, assuming it as risk factor for developing changes in body image and perception. To analyze the current state of research in relation to body image, the sociodemographic variables that influence it, the relationship between body composition, conducting diets, eating disorders, sports and intervention programs and prevention, and the body image. It was searched in Medline, Isi Web of knowledge and Dialnet as well as a manual search among the references of selected studies and in different libraries. A increased socio-cultural influence is associated with a greater perception of body fat, greater body image dissatisfaction and lower self assessment of overall fitness. This leads to a lot of teenagers and young adults to abuse to the restrictive diets and to suffer eating disorders. Numerous studies have analyzed the relationship between sports practice with body image disturbance; there are conflictive results. Moreover it is necessary to design objective tools to detect changes and enhance the design of prevention and intervention programs in order to avoid distortion of body image, especially in those age ranges where the population is more vulnerable to this phenomenon. The excessive current preoccupation about body image has resulted in the realization of diets and changes as eating disorders. There are other factors that influence body image and perception as the realization of physical exercise, although the results about the relationship between these factors are contradictory. Therefore, further work is needed on the issue by creating tools to detect changes and enhance the design of prevention and intervention programs. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Gypsy pentecostal ascetism and body management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena Cabezas, Ignacio Ramón

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Pentecostal religious beliefs and practices consist of a complex set of strategies of transformation and personal renewal. Among other aspects of their experiences in the Church of Philadelphia, the social construction of Gypsy reality turns on the reform of the body. The present paper lies on aspects such as the body as object and subject of biopolitical and religious practices; the relationships between religious experience and body management; new social and community interactions; and autobiographical discourse as the ideological vehicle of personal conversion and transformation. All these processes reveal how social practices remake and shape bodily behaviour and its meaning. Pentecostal charismatic practices channel and express the community and individual demands of Church of Philadelphia converts, and represent central issues in the Pentecostal management of body and spirit. Our aim in this paper is to analyze the bodily practices which provide for believers´ transformation, and which shape community rituals and the congregation's interactions.

  18. Men's attraction to women's bodies changes seasonally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Humans exhibit seasonal variation in hormone levels, behaviour, and perception. Here we show that men's assessments of women's attractiveness change also seasonally. In five seasons (from winter 2004 to winter 2005) 114 heterosexual men were asked to assess the attractiveness of the same stimuli: photos of a female with three different waist-to-hip ratios; photos of female breasts, and photos of average-looking faces of young women. For each season, the scores given to the stimuli of the same category (body shape, breast, and face) were combined. Friedman's test revealed significant changes for body shape and breast attractiveness assessments across the seasons, but no changes for face ratings. The highest scores for attractiveness were given in winter and the lowest in summer. We suggest that the observed seasonality is related to the well-known 'contrast effect'. More frequent exposure to women's bodies in warmer seasons might increase men's attractiveness criteria for women's body shape and breasts.

  19. Visual adaptation to thin and fat bodies transfers across identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hummel

    Full Text Available Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16 the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant's own body while in the second experiment (n = 16 we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape--especially the thin ideal in Western societies--could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders.

  20. Sociocultural context of women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Marie-Claude; Raine, Kim

    2004-09-01

    In our society, women's bodies are the locus of both increasing rates of obesity and body dissatisfaction. While these trends may seem contradictory or to result from each other, an alternative explanation is that they are both the products of an unfavourable sociocultural environment in the area of food and weight. Both body dissatisfaction and excess weight can seriously impact women's physical and emotional health. The strong cultural value placed on thinness, especially for women, unfortunately may take precedence over health. To effectively address the impact of women's body image dissatisfaction requires an understanding of the multiple contexts of women's lives. This study used a naturalistic paradigm to explore how women's personal and sociocultural context influences their body image. Forty-four non-eating disordered women ranging from 21 to 61 years old were interviewed twice using a semi-structured interview guide. Women's narratives revealed that body image is not a static construct, but is dynamic and fluctuates as women encounter new experiences and re-interpret old ones. The powerful and unconscious impact of the media on body image was mediated by women's internal contexts (self-confident and self-critical) and their relationships with others, such as partners and other women. Body image was not so much influenced by the nature of others' comments but interpretation of their meaning. However, health professionals' comments were typically not reinterpreted due to the health context in which they were given. While some women's narratives expressed their internalized sociocultural norms, others' described acceptance of their bodies following a process of reflection and empowerment. In light of these findings, efforts to improve women's body image, and by extension their health, can no longer only focus on diminishing the tangible power of industry and media, but must include transforming the social ties, practices and conventions in everyday

  1. The body as art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, D J; Barker, M J

    2002-07-01

    For millennia people have altered the appearance of their bodies with cosmetics, jewellery, tattoos, piercings, and other surgical procedures. It would appear that they wish to conform to a perceived 'ideal body', although the actual appearance of such a body is subject to temporal, cultural and geographical change. In contemporary society the media are largely responsible for providing the yardsticks against which individual body shape is measured. Today the desired form is generally young, slim, tanned and blemish-free. Sadly, dissatisfaction with body image can be the source of great unhappiness and may even lead to suicide. Interested scholars have debated the meaning of beauty for centuries but it seems that every human society has its own standards. At the simplest it would appear that youth and symmetry are the most highly prized ingredients. There is no doubt that those who fit the conventional standards of attractiveness are treated better by society. Individuals have an inalienable right to their own body appearance, and to alter it as they see fit, however such modifications may not always be in their own best interests. Practitioners of cosmetic procedures must be alert to clients with histories of weight fluctuation, unrealistic body image, or low self-esteem. Psychological disorders may present with dysmorphophobic symptoms. Doctors providing cosmetic services need to be adept at diagnosing psychological illness.

  2. Minding the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Ioanna Kayiatos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Fall of 2013 we team-taught a disability studies course for a small group of first-year students. The course, Minding the Body, integrated scholarship from disability studies, feminist/queer studies, psychology, and Russian Studies. Originally envisioned and taught independently in the Fall of 2012 by Joan Ostrove and focused entirely on the U.S., Anastasia Kayiatos's arrival in the Department of German and Russian Studies at Macalester College afforded us an opportunity for collaboration and co-instruction that we found invigorating, compelling, and transformative. Grounded from the outset in disability studies, the course asked students to interrogate such questions as: What is a "normal" body? A "beautiful" body? Why do we feel the way we do about our bodies? How are bodies objectified, exploited, and regulated? How and why do we discriminate against people with non-normative bodies? How do people represent the experience of having a disabled body? How can we think critically about the various ways in which people change, regulate, and enhance their bodies? How do sexism, racism, classism, colonialism, homophobia, transphobia and other forms of oppression influence how different bodies are viewed, treated, educated, and experienced? The integration of Russian Studies importantly allowed us to ask how these questions and ideas change when we travel across time and geographical space. In our paper we will reflect on our experience of co-authoring the syllabus (we will include both the solo-taught and co-taught versions of the syllabus in an appendix; outline some of our techniques for team-teaching; and analyze an exemplary assignment and class meeting. We will conclude with a final word about the unique forms of teaching and learning that happened in our class as a consequence of its collaborative and interdisciplinary approach, which opened up new perspectives in disability studies not only for our students but also for us.

  3. Body size and body esteem in women: the mediating role of possible self expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalley, Simon E; Pollet, Thomas V; Vidal, Jose

    2013-06-01

    We predicted that an expectancy of acquiring a feared fat self and an expectancy of acquiring a hoped-for thin self both mediate the impact of body size on women's body esteem. We also predicted that the mediating pathway through the feared fat self would be stronger than that through the hoped-for thin self. A community sample of 251 women reported their age, height, weight, and completed measures of body esteem and expectancy perceptions of acquiring the feared fat and hoped-for thin selves. Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) demonstrated that expectancies about the feared fat self and about the hoped-for thin self mediated the relationship between body size and body esteem. Bayesian SEM also revealed that the pathway through the feared fat self was stronger than that through the hoped-for thin self. Implications for future research and the development of eating pathology are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Materiality, Practice and Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Skovbjerg-Karoff, Helle

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand the interaction between human and technology, the relationship must be emphasized as a triangulation between materiality, body and practice. By introducing play situations from a just finished empirical study in three bigger cities in Denmark, this paper will address...... the interplay from the human‟s point of view, as a body doing a certain practice, which is constantly produced by taking approaches which comes from phenomenology and practice theory. We introduce aspects of play understood as a dynamic between materiality, body and practice with the goal of inspiring not only...

  5. Magnetic human body communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiwoong; Mercier, Patrick P

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new human body communication (HBC) technique that employs magnetic resonance for data transfer in wireless body-area networks (BANs). Unlike electric field HBC (eHBC) links, which do not necessarily travel well through many biological tissues, the proposed magnetic HBC (mHBC) link easily travels through tissue, offering significantly reduced path loss and, as a result, reduced transceiver power consumption. In this paper the proposed mHBC concept is validated via finite element method simulations and measurements. It is demonstrated that path loss across the body under various postures varies from 10-20 dB, which is significantly lower than alternative BAN techniques.

  6. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Cam Ray

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of mental illness, wherein the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features. Although it is a common disease and has been defined in the literature over a century, it is not a well known disease. Chronic, treatment resistant and sometimes delusional nature could result in severe functional impairment. The diagnosis and appropriate therapy of disorder are crucial because of increased suicidality and reduction in life quality. In this article the symptoms, etiology, clinical features and treatment of body dysmorphic disorder are briefly reviewed.

  7. Cortical Lewy Body Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. G. Gibb

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In cortical Lewy body dementia the distribution of Lewy bodies in the nervous system follows that of Parkinson's disease, except for their greater profusion in the cerebral cortex. The cortical tangles and plaques of Alzheimer pathology are often present, the likely explanation being that Alzheimer pathology provokes dementia in many patients. Pure cortical Lewy body dementia without Alzheimer pathology is uncommon. The age of onset reflects that of Parkinson's disease, and clinical features, though not diagnostic, include aphasias, apraxias, agnosias, paranoid delusions and visual hallucinations. Parkinsonism may present before or after the dementia, and survival duration is approximately half that seen in Parkinson's disease without dementia.

  8. Marijuana and body weight

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    ... munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bodies, like coins and batteries, are radio-opaque, meaning that x-rays will not pass through them, ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... limitation of an x-ray examination is the potential failure to detect radiolucent (does not appear on ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taking and allergies, especially to iodinated contrast materials. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. ... blood vessels, so your physician may choose to leave it in place. The majority of foreign bodies ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used ... the scanner by a cord. Some exams may use different transducers (with different capabilities) during a single ...

  13. Body and Hope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjærg, Johanne Stubbe

    In this book, Johanne Stubbe Teglbjærg Kristensen analyses the relationship between body and hope. She critically investigates the eschatologies of Paul Tillich, Jürgen Moltmann and Wolfhart Pannenberg from the perspective of the phenomenology of the body represented by Maurice Merleau......-Ponty. By focusing on the eschatological challenge of the body through a thematization of the issue of continuity, the author constructively interprets the classic eschatological themes of death, resurrection, judgement and the Second Coming. She shows how the classic eschatological issues of the relationship...... between time and eternity, as well as of the relationship between the individual and the community require new conceptions. By taking the phenomenology of the body into consideration, Teglbjærg Kristensen suggests both a new eschatological approach and a new conception of eschatology...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the digestive system. top of page How should I prepare? If you ingest a foreign body or ... percent of cases. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? You will ...

  15. Invisible and scrutinized bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léopold Lambert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The following text will attempt to demonstrate that both processes that aim at making bodies either invisible or, on the contrary, hyper-visible operates through the same mechanisms of a productive politics of visibility.

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... move from the throat into the bronchial branches. This can cause the patient to cough, but the foreign body remains trapped in the lung. This typically occurs in children and requires removal by ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use an x-ray or ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography ( ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the presence of a soft tissue foreign body, contact your physician immediately. Treatment will depend on the ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...

  19. The Mallory body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    , including estimates on the combined light microscopic and immunohistochemical prevalences and kinetics. Emphasis is placed on proper confounder control (in particular, alcohol history), which is highly essential but often inadequate. These conditions include (mean prevalence of Mallory bodies in parentheses...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue, such as a splinter embedded under the skin, you may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or ... that gets embedded in the tissue under the skin. Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and ...

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... expelled through coughing. However, some foreign bodies may move from the throat into the bronchial branches. This ... lie on your left side, your knees drawn up slightly, or you may be seated or asked ...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Foreign bodies are typically dealt with in the emergency room and the x-ray department. Some patients ... the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray tube is connected to ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chances of suffering an infection or an allergic reaction. Prompt removal of the foreign body will ensure ... anesthesia used during rigid esophagoscopy can cause allergic reactions, changes in blood pressure, and other complications. There ...

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... composition of body tissue through which the sound travels. A small amount of gel is put on the skin to allow the sound waves to travel from the transducer to the examined area within ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Foreign Body Retrieval ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic ... procedure, you will sit upright while the physician passes a device from the mouth to the stomach ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... safely through the digestive system. top of page How should I prepare? If you ingest a foreign ... and remove the foreign bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use ...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... esophagus for improved visualization, and images of the inside of the digestive tract can be seen on ... catheter is slowly withdrawn, pulling the foreign body out ahead of it. Esophageal bougienage For this procedure, ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including ... Many foreign bodies, like coins and batteries, are radio-opaque, meaning that x-rays will not pass ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to detect foreign bodies, evaluate the surrounding area and potentially guide removal of the object. Ultrasound ... for the ultrasound signal to return from the area within the patient that is being examined to ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... able to view the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in ... helps dilate, or widen, the esophagus. This helps advance the foreign body into the stomach, from where ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding removal procedures. ... a blood clot. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding foreign body ...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fish bones. Swallowing of magnets can cause significant problems including bowel blockages that may require surgical removal ... about 80 percent of foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed as mercury ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into ... patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), as well as the type of body ...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding removal procedures. In some cases, ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rare cases, the large intestine, causing cramps, bloating, loss of appetite, vomiting, and sometimes fever. A sharp ... like toothpicks. Small esophageal foreign bodies like fish bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You also may need a tetanus shot to prevent a potentially deadly infection of the nervous system. ... the foreign body. You will remain in the recovery room until you are completely awake and ready ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small toys or pieces of toys and fish ... foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed as mercury within the batteries can ...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that have been introduced into the body. Objects may be inhaled into the airway, swallowed or lodged ... it was introduced. If it was swallowed, you may undergo a direct examination of your throat and ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot ... the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves into the body. As the ...

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use an x-ray or ... by probing the wound. Additional tests may include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). top of page ...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you ingest a foreign body or witness a child ingest one or suspect the presence of a ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography ( ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the skin. Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and damage to surrounding tissues. top of page ... if the wound has a high risk of infection. You also may need a tetanus shot to ...

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The physician may also use forceps and other instruments to grasp and remove the foreign bodies. top ... the physician is able to view the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your chances of suffering an infection or an allergic reaction. Prompt removal of the foreign body will ensure ... general anesthesia used during rigid esophagoscopy can cause allergic reactions, changes in blood pressure, and other complications. There ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... especially to iodinated contrast materials. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... relative or friend accompany you and drive you home afterward. Foreign bodies are typically dealt with in ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use an x-ray or ... is under local anesthesia and sedation. See the Safety page for more information about anesthesia. A flexible ...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How is the procedure performed? There are a number of ways to remove foreign bodies or facilitate ... but this should pass. It takes a few hours for the effects of any local anesthetic to ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... damage tissue, nerves and blood vessels, block blood flow or cause a blood clot. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks ...

  10. Bluff Body Fuel Mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Albert K. (Inventor); Hoke, James B. (Inventor); McKinney, Randal G. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A combustor is provided. The combustor may include an axial fuel injection system, and a radial fuel injection system aft of the axial fuel injection system. The axial fuel injection system includes a mixer having a bluff body at an exit port of the mixer, and a fuel injector disposed within the mixer. A fuel and air mixer is also provided and comprises an outer housing with an exit port and a bluff body. The bluff body extends across the exit port of the outer housing. A fuel injection system is also provided. The systems comprise a mixer having a bluff body at an exit port of the mixer and a fuel injector disposed within the mixer.

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may become lodged in the esophagus and cause pain, even though they are able to swallow. Larger ... the stomach or intestines can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the ... skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), as well as the type of body structure ...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or CT scan to locate and remove the object. Tell your ... to locate the object. In some cases, a CT scan may be needed to see the foreign body. ...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... objects pass through the digestive tract by causing muscles to contract and push the object farther down. ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. If the foreign body is ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How is the procedure performed? There are a number of ways to remove foreign bodies or facilitate ... complications. There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many ... medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, size or contour of organs, tissues, and vessels ...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of two snares. The catheter is guided into place just beyond the foreign object using x-ray ... your physician may choose to leave it in place. The majority of foreign bodies pass through the ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... completely awake and ready to return home. At first you may feel lightheaded, but this should pass. ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks While ...

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend on the type of ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  2. Our bodies, ourselves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    ...-first century, and much more. Since its original publication forty years ago, Our Bodies, Ourselves has sold more than 4 million copies worldwide, and resources based on the book are available in twenty five languages, in print...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... rays. Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...

  4. How the Body Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight for Me? What Is an Intellectual Disability? Movie: Endocrine System How the Body Works Main ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed as mercury within the batteries can leak into the bowel ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or CT scan to locate and remove the object. Tell your ... locate the object. In some cases, a CT scan may be needed to see the foreign body. ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or embedded in the soft tissues. About 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most ... surgical intervention is required only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend ...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use an x-ray or ... creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames of the moving pictures are ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. Common ... introduced with gentle pressure as the patient swallows. Air is blown into the esophagus for improved visualization, ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then listens ... and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media ...

  11. [The frightening body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Braunschweig, H

    1992-01-01

    Following a quotation of Marcel Proust about his own body experience, the paper begins with some of the reasons for the--more frequency unconscious than conscious--fears of ones own body and the reasons for its alienation. As a result of unfavourable conditions during development, in particular during the early developmental stages, undifferentiated and more physically dependent emotions are experienced as threatening, since they endanger personal integration. An additional factor is the identification of certain regions of the body with malignant object representations. There follow examples of the application of physical metaphorics in politics and mythology. The present-day role of body-orientated psychotherapy forms and their unconcluded problems are discussed at the end of the paper.

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cramps, bloating, loss of appetite, vomiting, and sometimes fever. A sharp object that pierces the stomach or intestines can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: ...

  13. Gender Attitudes, Feminist Identity, and Body Images among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Thomas F.; Ancis, Julie R.; Strachan, Melissa D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines how women's body-image experiences relate to their own gender attitudes and ideologies. Responses from 122 undergraduate women reveal minimal relationships between body-image attitudes and either feminist identity or adherence to traditional gender beliefs at individual/stereotypic or societal levels. Male-female social interactions…

  14. Adolescent Male Athletes: Body Image, Diet, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Pamela S. McKay; Read, Marsha H.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates and compares football players' (n=44) and cross-country runners' (n=30) body image concerns, attitudes toward eating, and reasons for exercising. Results revealed significant differences. Football players reported a more positive body image, whereas runners indicated a greater concern for weight control and more disordered eating…

  15. Sudden Death: An Uncommon Occurrence in Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.P.; Wilbers, J.; Aerts, M.B.; Leijten, Q.H.; Dijk, J.G. van; Esselink, R.A.; Bloem, B.R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a 75-year-old woman with dementia and parkinsonism who developed severe orthostatic hypotension and eventually died. Autopsy revealed extensive Lewy body formation in the midbrain, limbic system, intermediate spinal cord, and medulla oblongata. Furthermore, a vast amount of Lewy bodies

  16. Interrelationships existing between body weight and egg production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of variance revealed significant effect of body weight on production traits investigated (P0.05). The correlation analysis showed that the body weight was positively and non-significantly (P>0.05) correlated with egg length, egg breadth, shell weight, yolk weight, albumen weight, shell ...

  17. Estimation of genetic parameters for body measurements and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Me

    2014-06-05

    Jun 5, 2014 ... The main objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for body measurement and yearling live bodyweight ... a basis for calculating selection indices for body measurements, as well as revealing their association with yearling bodyweight ..... Performance of three tropical hair sheep breeds.

  18. Privacy of juridical bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Tiujo, Edson Mitsuo; CESUMAR

    2007-01-01

    According to art. 52 of the present Civil Code, juridical bodies may be titular to personality rights. The legal provision, however, has not defined what are personality rights attributable to juridical bodies, leaving the interpretation to the judges. Among personality rights, there is the right to privacy, which unfolds in other types such as the right to intimacy, to private life and to secrecy, from which juridical dobies have granted a privacy sphere (right to secrecy), from which third ...

  19. Giant peritoneal loose bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Zyl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Giant peritoneal loose bodies are rare lesions, originating from auto-amputated appendices epiploicae. They may cause urinary or gastrointestinal obstruction and, should the radiologist not be familiar with the entity, can potentially be confused with malignant or parasitic lesions.Familiarity with their characteristic computed tomographic features is essential to prevent unnecessary surgery in the asymptomatic patient. We present a case of a 70-year-old man diagnosed with two giant peritoneal loose bodies.

  20. Body image in marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Böserová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The Master's Thesis deals with the marketing research of the body image meaning in female and male life style magazines chosen. The main aim is to analyze the advertisement using the quantitative content analysis and to identify the most common elements presented, furthermore to analyse these elements based on the data obtained and to find out the difference of human body presented when female and male are the target groups. The secondary aim is defined as to prepare this analysis for the fro...

  1. Bursting bodies of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls.......A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls....

  2. Esophageal foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudah, A; Daradkeh, S; Abu-Khalaf, M

    1998-05-01

    A retrospective review was performed on 180 patients from 1975 to 1997 to evaluate the diagnosis, and management of esophageal foreign bodies. All patients except two were symptomatic and 145 of them were younger than 14 years of age. Plain films were performed in every patient with a suspected esophageal foreign body (EFB). In all patients, rigid esophagoscopy was done under general anesthesia once the diagnosis of impacted EFB is made. Fifty-five percent of the foreign bodies were coins. In children, the majority of impacted esophageal foreign bodies were located at the level of the cricopharyngeus muscle while in adults the site of impaction was the lower esophageal sphincter. The most common symptoms were vomiting and or regurgitation. Of the 180 EFBs encountered, 169 were extracted endoscopically, five were pushed into the stomach, five were not found, and one patient needed cervicotomy. There were no deaths in this series. Predisposing factors were found in 15 patients. Fifteen patients (8.3%) had benign strictures. In ten patients (5.5%), minor complications were encountered, none of which were esophagoscopically related. Alternative diagnostic and therapeutic modalities are discussed. All patients with a history of suspected foreign body ingestion should have direct endoscopic examination. If the EFB is not detected a thorough radiographic examination, including CT scan, should be performed to detect a possible intra- or extraluminal object. Preservation of the airway is regarded to be the most important consideration in esophageal foreign body management.

  3. Body image and paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Felicity; Freeman, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Paranoia builds upon feelings of vulnerability. Our clinical experience indicates that negative body image, including concerns regarding weight, may be one source of feeling vulnerable and hence raise the risk of paranoia. There has been no empirical test of an association between body image and paranoia. Our aim was to provide the first test of this issue by examining in epidemiologically representative cohorts the cross-sectional associations between paranoia and a proxy measure of body image. This was an initial exploration of a potentially important but overlooked issue. Data were used from 5515 participants in the US National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). To validate the findings, the analyses were replicated with 10,113 participants in the US National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescents (NCS-A). Concerns about weight were associated with paranoia in the NCS-R (OR = 1.48, p = 0.006, CI = 1.123, 1.955) and NCS-A (OR = 1.67, p < 0.001, CI = 1.490, 1.873). The associations remained significant after controlling for gender and body mass index. The results show that negative body image and paranoia are associated in the general population, consistent with the idea that paranoia may build upon feelings of vulnerability arising from body image concerns. Studies are needed to examine whether there is a causal relationship. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Esophageal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal foreign body aspiration is a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For that reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threateining complications. Children most often ingest coins and toys whereas adults commonly tend to have problems with meat and bones. Esophageal foreign bodies are located at the cricopharyngeus muscle level in 70%, the thoracic esophagus in 15% and the gastroesophageal junction in the remaining 15%. Symptoms can vary according to the shape and structure of the ingested object, type of location, patient%u2019s age and complications caused by the foreign body. Delay in treatment, esophageal perforation and an underlying esophageal disease are poor prognostic factors. In treatment, observation, foley catheter, rigid or flexible esophagoscopy and removing the foreign body with a Magill forceps, pushing the foreign body into the stomach, giving intravenous glucagon and surgical treatment methods can be used. Rigid esophagoscopy is an effective and safe procedure for foreign body diagnosis and removal. Improved endoscopic experience and clinical management of thoracic surgeons led to reduced morbidity and mortality in recent years. Most of those emergencies of childhood are preventable. Family education is very important.

  5. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  6. The neural basis of body form and body action agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Valentina; Urgesi, Cosimo; Pernigo, Simone; Lanteri, Paola; Pazzaglia, Mariella; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2008-10-23

    Visual analysis of faces and nonfacial body stimuli brings about neural activity in different cortical areas. Moreover, processing body form and body action relies on distinct neural substrates. Although brain lesion studies show specific face processing deficits, neuropsychological evidence for defective recognition of nonfacial body parts is lacking. By combining psychophysics studies with lesion-mapping techniques, we found that lesions of ventromedial, occipitotemporal areas induce face and body recognition deficits while lesions involving extrastriate body area seem causatively associated with impaired recognition of body but not of face and object stimuli. We also found that body form and body action recognition deficits can be double dissociated and are causatively associated with lesions to extrastriate body area and ventral premotor cortex, respectively. Our study reports two category-specific visual deficits, called body form and body action agnosia, and highlights their neural underpinnings.

  7. Network evolution of body plans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Fujimoto

    Full Text Available One of the major goals in evolutionary developmental biology is to understand the relationship between gene regulatory networks and the diverse morphologies and their functionalities. Are the diversities solely triggered by random events, or are they inevitable outcomes of an interplay between evolving gene networks and natural selection? Segmentation in arthropod embryogenesis represents a well-known example of body plan diversity. Striped patterns of gene expression that lead to the future body segments appear simultaneously or sequentially in long and short germ-band development, respectively. Moreover, a combination of both is found in intermediate germ-band development. Regulatory genes relevant for stripe formation are evolutionarily conserved among arthropods, therefore the differences in the observed traits are thought to have originated from how the genes are wired. To reveal the basic differences in the network structure, we have numerically evolved hundreds of gene regulatory networks that produce striped patterns of gene expression. By analyzing the topologies of the generated networks, we show that the characteristics of stripe formation in long and short germ-band development are determined by Feed-Forward Loops (FFLs and negative Feed-Back Loops (FBLs respectively, and those of intermediate germ-band development are determined by the interconnections between FFL and negative FBL. Network architectures, gene expression patterns and knockout responses exhibited by the artificially evolved networks agree with those reported in the fly Drosophila melanogaster and the beetle Tribolium castaneum. For other arthropod species, principal network architectures that remain largely unknown are predicted. Our results suggest that the emergence of the three modes of body segmentation in arthropods is an inherent property of the evolving networks.

  8. [Body image as a process or object and body satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarek, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    This work focused on categorization of elements of body image viewed as an object or process, as well as on the relationship between body satisfaction and manner of perceiving the body. The study was carried out in 177 subjects aged 19 to 53 years (148 females and 29 males). Body image was measured with the Body Image Questionnaire based on the Body Cathexis Scale of P.F. Secord and S.J. Jourard. Participation was anonymous. The procedure of attributing an element of the body to the function scale or body parts scale was based on the method described by S. Franzoi. Elements of body image recognized as body parts were characterized in the context of appearance (static object), while elements of body image recognized as body functions were considered in the context of operation (dynamic process). This relationship, however, was not symmetrical as elements of the body not characterized as body functions could also be evaluated in the context of operation. The level of body satisfaction was associated with perception of an element of the body in the aspect of appearance or operation, whereas its perception as body part or body function was of lesser importance.

  9. Emotion expression in body action and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dael, Nele; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-10-01

    Emotion communication research strongly focuses on the face and voice as expressive modalities, leaving the rest of the body relatively understudied. Contrary to the early assumption that body movement only indicates emotional intensity, recent studies have shown that body movement and posture also conveys emotion specific information. However, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by a lack of production studies informed by a theoretical framework. In this research we adopted the Body Action and Posture (BAP) coding system to examine the types and patterns of body movement that are employed by 10 professional actors to portray a set of 12 emotions. We investigated to what extent these expression patterns support explicit or implicit predictions from basic emotion theory, bidimensional theory, and componential appraisal theory. The overall results showed partial support for the different theoretical approaches. They revealed that several patterns of body movement systematically occur in portrayals of specific emotions, allowing emotion differentiation. Although a few emotions were prototypically expressed by one particular pattern, most emotions were variably expressed by multiple patterns, many of which can be explained as reflecting functional components of emotion such as modes of appraisal and action readiness. It is concluded that further work in this largely underdeveloped area should be guided by an appropriate theoretical framework to allow a more systematic design of experiments and clear hypothesis testing.

  10. Structure and mechanics of starfish body wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, P

    1989-11-01

    The structure of the dorsal body wall of the starfish Echinaster spinulosus was studied using polarized light microscopy of frozen tissues, scanning electron microscopy and histology. The collagen fibres of the body wall form a three-dimensional orthogonal web. Voids in the web contain ossicles and papulae. The orthogonal web delivers dimensional stability but allows shear necessary for ray torsion. The ossicles and fibres interact to load the fibres in tension and the ossicles in compression. Strain rates of the dorsal body wall were measured on live animals during typical movements. Uniaxial tension tests of the body wall yielded Young's moduli of 267 MPa (longitudinal), 249 MPa (transverse) and 353 MPa (bias); curves were essentially linear. The body wall was approximately linearly viscoelastic and showed hysteresis at 0.01 Hz. Stress relaxation over five decades of time (in seconds) yielded relaxation spectra with peaks in relaxation time at 2.96-3.35, depending on test direction. Stress relaxation caused the connective tissue to soften. The surface of fractured stress-relaxed tissue revealed wispy, dissociated fibril tufts, whereas unrelaxed fractures produced blunt-ended fibre bundles. Neural control was necessary for body wall integrity.

  11. Facilitated processing of visual stimuli associated with the body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise Emma; Kennett, Steffan; Taylor-Clarke, Marisa

    2004-01-01

    Recent work on tactile perception has revealed enhanced tactile acuity and speeded spatial-choice reaction times (RTs) when viewing the stimulated body site as opposed to viewing a neutral object. Here we examine whether this body-view enhancement effect extends to visual targets. Participants...... was projected onto a screen in front of the participants. Thus, participants responded to identical visual targets varying only in their context: on the body or not. Results revealed a large performance advantage for the finger-mounted stimuli: reaction times were substantially reduced, while discrimination...

  12. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a single occasion or ... your health. Here’s how alcohol can affect your body: Brain: Alcohol interferes with the brain’s communication pathways, ...

  13. On galaxy spiral arms' nature as revealed by rotation frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roca-Fabrega, Santi; Valenzuela, Octavio; Figueras, Francesca; Romero-Gomez, Merce; Velazquez, Hector; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Pichardo, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution N-body simulations using different codes and initial condition techniques reveal two different behaviours for the rotation frequency of transient spiral arms like structures. Whereas unbarred discs present spiral arms nearly corotating with disc particles, strong barred models

  14. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  15. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : An extensive body of literature is concerned with obese people, risk, and weight management. However, little is known about weight management among people not belonging to the extreme BMI categories. Management of weight among normal-weight and moderately overweight individuals...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  16. Body Image Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Dibba, Emily; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the socio-demographic, lifestyle and well-being variables that are associated with body image concerns (BIC) and whether these associations differed between female and male students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey; 3,706 undergraduate students...... (2,699 females, 765 males) from seven universities in the UK completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed socio-demographic, lifestyle, well-being and BIC based on the Body Shape Questionnaire developed by Cooper et al. Multifactorial logistic regression analysis examined the odds ratios......, perceived health, depressive symptoms) on the other. RESULTS: More females (35%) than males (8%) reported being moderately or markedly concerned with their body image. For both genders, BIC was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms and to variable extents, with nutrition and year...

  17. Listening to the body?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Based on a single case study of a Danish elite golfer, this article focuses on describing the different ways in which the golfer experiences the physicality of her body during training. The aim of the article is to explore how phenomenological insights concerning self-consciousness can be used...... suggest that the golfer’s experience of the physicality of her body can be considered in relation to three possible dimensions of self-consciousness: a pre-reflective subject-related dimension, a reflective object-directed dimension and a pre-reflective performative dimension. The pre......’ of the moving body. From a methodological perspective, the analysis of the single case study also exemplifies how phenomenological insights might concretely influence the analysis of an actual practice and how the achieved understanding can be important to the further development of elite athletes’ expert...

  18. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Alves

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  19. Lobar atrophy without Pick bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulette, C M; Crain, B J

    1992-01-01

    Four patients from the Kathleen Price Bryan Brain Bank with clinical Pick's syndrome are presented. Thorough neurological evaluation revealed no evidence of a movement disorder. The brains showed marked knife-blade type atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes with relative sparing of the superior temporal gyrus and parietal and occipital lobes. There was marked caudate atrophy in all four. Histologically there was severe neuronal loss and gemistocytic astrocytosis in the involved areas with marked myelin pallor in the deep white matter and subcortical gliosis. There was sometimes marked spongiform change in cortical layer 2. There was severe neuronal loss and gliosis of the caudate nucleus. The gross and microscopic features were characteristic of Pick's disease except that careful search failed to uncover either Pick's bodies or Pick's cells. Review of the literature revealed that fronto-temporal cortical and caudate atrophy with clinical features of Pick's disease has received many different names including Pick's disease type C, Pick's disease type II, progressive subcortical gliosis, presenile glial dystrophy, long duration Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, frontal lobe degeneration, dysphasic dementia, and dementia lacking distinctive histologic features. Nevertheless, the morphologic findings in the present cases so closely resemble Pick's disease that they may well represent endstage Pick's disease. In our experience, such cases account for a significant proportion of non-Alzheimer disease dementia.

  20. Media-portrayed idealized images, body shame, and appearance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Fiona; Huon, Gail

    2005-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of media-portrayed idealized images on young women's body shame and appearance anxiety, and to establish whether the effects depend on advertisement type and on participant self-objectification. Participants were 39 female university students. Twenty-four magazine advertisements comprised 12 body-related and 12 non-body-related products, one half of each with, and the other one half without, idealized images. Preexposure and post exposure body shame and appearance anxiety measures were recorded. Appearance anxiety increased after viewing advertisements featuring idealized images. There was also a significant interaction between self-objectification level and idealized body (presence vs. absence). No differences emerged for body-related compared with non-body-related product advertisements. The only result for body shame was a main effect for time. Participants' body shame increased after exposure to idealized images, irrespective of advertisement type. Although our findings reveal that media-portrayed idealized images detrimentally affect the body image of young women, they highlight the individual differences in vulnerability and the different effects for different components of body image. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the prevention and early intervention of body image and dieting-related disorders. ( Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  1. Biometrics Bodies, Technologies, Biopolitics

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Biometric technologies, such as finger- or facial-scan, are being deployed across a variety of social contexts in order to facilitate and guarantee identity verification and authentication. In the post-9/11 world, biometric technologies have experienced an extraordinary period of growth as concerns about security and screening have increased. This book analyses biometric systems in terms of the application of biopolitical power - corporate, military and governmental - on the human body. It deploys cultural theory in examining the manner in which biometric technologies constitute the body as a

  2. Oblique Axis Body Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takai, Hirokazu; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Schmal, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Anderson type III fractures with a characteristic fracture pattern that we refer to as "oblique type axis body fracture." Results. The female patients aged 90 and 72 years, respectively, were both diagnosed with minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures. Both fractures had a characteristic "oblique...... was uneventful. Conclusions. Oblique type axis body fractures resemble a highly unstable subtype of Anderson type III fractures with the potential of severe secondary deformity following conservative treatment, irrespective of initial grade of displacement. The authors therefore warrant a high index of suspicion...

  3. Human Body Exergy Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mady, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The exergy analysis of the human body is a tool that can provide indicators of health and life quality. To perform the exergy balance it is necessary to calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis, or metabolic exergy, although there is not yet consensus in its calculation procedure. Hence, the aim of this work is to provide a general method to evaluate this physical quantity for human body based on indirect calorimetry data. To calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis it is necessary to d...

  4. Fatal heroin body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetli, C V; Rao, A; Rao, V J

    1997-09-01

    The deaths of 10 heroin body packers are reported and contrasted to those of cocaine body packers. Only one was a woman, and all were traveling to or from Colombia. Drug packets deteriorated in the gastrointestinal tract and caused the deaths of eight victims. Accomplices removed drug packets from two of these smugglers after death occurred. One died of peritonitis stemming from a small-bowel obstruction caused by the drug packets, and one died from the recreational use of heroin (nasally ingested). The heroin recovered was accomplices appear to be more likely to abandon them in a remote location after attempting to remove the drug packets after death has occurred.

  5. Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Prabhakara Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in integrated circuits, wireless networks, and physiological sensing have enabled miniature, lightweight, low power, intelligent monitoring devices to be integrated into a Body Area Network (BAN. This new type of technology hold much promise for future patient health monitoring. BANs promise inexpensive, unobtrusive, and unsupervised ambulatory monitoring during normal daily activities for long periods of time. However, in order for BANs to become ubiquitous and affordable, a number of challenging issues must be resolved, such as integration, standardisation, system design, customisation, security and privacy, and social issues. This paper presents an overview of many of these issues and indeed the background and rationale of body area networks.

  6. Body dysmorphic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Župan

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Body dysmorphic disorder is a common psychiatric disorder, which needs to be addressed by the medical profession and the general public. By searching Medline, we found 577 articles matching »body dysmorphic disorder .The disorder is well known by general public of Western countries, especially USA, but is less known in Slovenia. As patients often pursue cosmetic procedures and aesthetic surgery, it is important that medical staff, especially providers of cosmetic surgical and minimally invasive treatments, are able to identify them and refer them for appropriate mental health care.

  7. Asymptomatic inhaled foreign body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Muhammad U.; Asghar, Asif; Tareen, Irum; Azhar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    It is very rare to have a big foreign body in the lungs without any complications or symptoms for 2 years. A 14-year-old male with episodes of minor hemoptysis for 4 weeks had a history of inhalation of a bullet 2 years earlier. He had asymptomatic for lung complications for 2 years. The bullet was removed by right thoracotomy and non-anatomical wedge stapled resection, and he followed an uneventful recovery. An aspirated foreign body although big can remain asymptomatic for a long time, especially if it has migrated to the periphery. PMID:27652366

  8. Can you feel the body that you see? On the relationship between interoceptive accuracy and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamariola, Giorgia; Cardini, Flavia; Mian, Emanuel; Serino, Andrea; Tsakiris, Manos

    2017-03-01

    Interoception and exteroception for body signals are two different ways of perceiving the self: the first from within, the second from outside. We investigated the relationship between Interoceptive Accuracy (IAcc) and external perception of the body and we tested if seeing the body from an external perspective can affect IAcc. Fifty-two healthy female subjects performed a standard heartbeat perception task to assess the IAcc, before and after the Body Image Revealer (BIR), which is a body perception task designed to assess the different aspects of body-image. The performance of the lower IAcc group in the heartbeat perception task significantly improved after the exteroceptive task. These findings highlight the relations between interoceptive and exteroceptive body-representations, supporting the view that these two kinds of awareness are linked and interact with each other. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EAS Telecommunications Certification Bodies (TCB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — EAS (Equipment Authorization System). A Telecommunication Certification Body (TCB) is an accredited product certification body with the authority to issue Grants of...

  10. The relationship between Instagram selfies and body image in young adult women

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Ester; Sumner, Erin M.; Wagner, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the relations between actual body size, body dissatisfaction, frequency of selfies taken, and number of Instagram selfies posted. Results indicated that actual body size was positively related to body dissatisfaction, and negatively related to the number of selfies taken. Results also revealed a positive relationship between body dissatisfaction and selfies taken. Conversely, no correlations were detected between the frequency of selfies posted to Instagram and either actu...

  11. Integrating body movement into attractiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Weege, Bettina; Neave, Nick; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-01-01

    People judge attractiveness and make trait inferences from the physical appearance of others, and research reveals high agreement among observers making such judgments. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that interest in physical appearance and beauty reflects adaptations that motivate the search for desirable qualities in a potential partner. Although men more than women value the physical appearance of a partner, appearance universally affects social perception in both sexes. Most studies of attractiveness perceptions have focused on third party assessments of static representations of the face and body. Corroborating evidence suggests that body movement, such as dance, also conveys information about mate quality. Here we review evidence that dynamic cues (e.g., gait, dance) also influence perceptions of mate quality, including personality traits, strength, and overall attractiveness. We recommend that attractiveness research considers the informational value of body movement in addition to static cues, to present an integrated perspective on human social perception.

  12. Body image, eating disorders, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents.

  13. An unusual foreign body of esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surinder K Singhal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of an unusually long foreign body (Datun impacted in the esophagus of a 56 year-old gentleman. He was literate, without any psychiatric illness and had been using “Neem” (Azadirachta indica stick for cleaning his teeth for the past twenty years. Neem sticks are used for brushing teeth, perhaps one of the earliest and very effective dental care. On closer questioning he revealed his habit of passing the Neem stick into his throat with the aim of cleaning it too while cleaning his teeth. He presented to our emergency early in the morning with this strange long foreign body impacted in his esophagus which was removed successfully using a Jackson’s adult rigid oesophagoscope. We believe this to be the first case of such an unusually long foreign body to be reported in the literature.

  14. My Body Looks Like That Girl’s: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  15. My Body Looks Like That Girl's: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao; Deng, Xiao; Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  16. Women gaze behaviour in assessing female bodies: the effects of clothing, body size, own body composition and body satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundall, Amelia; Guo, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Often with minimally clothed figures depicting extreme body sizes, previous studies have shown women tend to gaze at evolutionary determinants of attractiveness when viewing female bodies, possibly for self-evaluation purposes, and their gaze distribution is modulated by own body dissatisfaction level. To explore to what extent women's body-viewing gaze behaviour is affected by clothing type, dress size, subjective measurements of regional body satisfaction and objective measurements of own body composition (e.g., chest size, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio), in this self-paced body attractiveness and body size judgement experiment, we compared healthy, young women's gaze distributions when viewing female bodies in tight and loose clothing of different dress sizes. In contrast to tight clothing, loose clothing biased gaze away from the waist-hip to the leg region, and subsequently led to enhanced body attractiveness ratings and body size underestimation for larger female bodies, indicating the important role of clothing in mediating women's body perception. When viewing preferred female bodies, women's higher satisfaction of a specific body region was associated with an increased gaze towards neighbouring body areas, implying satisfaction might reduce the need for comparison of confident body parts; furthermore undesirable body composition measurements were correlated with a gaze avoidance process if the construct was less changeable (i.e. chest size) but a gaze comparison process if the region was more changeable (i.e. body mass index, dress size). Clearly, own body satisfaction and body composition measurements had an evident impact on women's body-viewing gaze allocation, possibly through different cognitive processes.

  17. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  18. Estimation Of Body Weight From Linear Body Measurements In Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of body weight from body girth, keel length and thigh length was studied using one hundred Ross and one hundred Anak Titan broilers. Data were collected on the birds from day-old to 9 weeks of age. Body measurement was regressed against body weight at 9 weeks of age using simple linear and ...

  19. Phenotypic Correlations of Body Weight and Linear Body Traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on 126 Sigmond strain of Japanese quail chicks consisting of 42 each of heavy, medium and low body weight lines were used to estimate phenotypic correlations (rp ) among body weight (BWT) and linear body traits at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age. The linear body traits considered were breast girth (BG), shank length (SL), ...

  20. The "Body Beautiful": English Adolescents' Images of Ideal Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Helga; Lloyd, Barbara; Dugan, Shaun; Halliwell, Emma; Jacobs, Neil; Cramer, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Two studies examine qualities capturing adolescents' images of ideal bodies for both genders. Data from questionnaires and discussions of photographs indicate that body-image ideals are multidimensional, show systematic gender differences, and become more conventional with age. Adolescents' own body mass links systematically to body-image…

  1. "I Have to Listen to This Old Body": Femininity and the Aging Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutagumirwa, Sylivia Karen; Bailey, Ajay

    2017-10-13

    This study explores how older women with low socioeconomic status living in rural Tanzania give meaning to their (aging) body in relation to the ideals of femininity. Ten qualitative in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions (N = 60) were conducted among women aged 60 and older. The findings reveal that older women perceive their aging body as "a burden." This characterization of the body is linked to the inability of the aging body to live up to the women's gendered lives. The conflict between their physical limitations and the desire to perform gendered tasks (internalized feminine habitus) affect the women's process of self-identification. This led to emotional distress and subsequently threatened their survival and well-being. The results suggest that older women need to be supported through interventions that are tailored to their cultural and socioeconomic context.

  2. Body image disturbance and skin bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Christopher A D; McLean, Shua-Kym

    2017-11-01

    This study looks at body image disturbance among Jamaicans who bleach their skin. The hypothesis states that there is a positive relationship between skin bleaching and body image disturbance. The study used a convenience sample of 160 participants with a skin bleaching group (n = 80) and a non-bleaching comparison group (n = 80). The instrument included demographic questions, the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ), and questions about skin bleaching. The results of a t-test revealed that the skin bleaching group (M = 1.5255, SD = 0.42169) was not significantly different from the non-bleaching group (M = 1.4938, SD = 0.74217) in terms of body image disturbance, t(158) = 0.333, p = .740. The participants who bleached did not suffer from body image disturbance. Self-reports revealed that they bleached to acquire beauty, attract a partner, elude the police, and market skin bleaching products. The practice was fashionable and popular and it made some participants feel good, while others were fans of a popular musical artiste who bleached his skin. The majority of participants bleached because of the perceived personal, social, and entrepreneurial benefits of the practice and not because they suffered emotional distress, anxiety, and functional impairment because of their skin colour. However, there was some level of BID among the minority of participants who argued that they bleached because they wanted to be pretty so they were emotionally distressed about there body image and experienced functional impairment. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Introduction: Minds, Bodies, Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Coleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of 19 brings together a selection of essays from an interdisciplinary conference on 'Minds, Bodies, Machines' convened last year by Birkbeck's Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of London, in partnership with the English programme, University of Melbourne and software developers Constraint Technologies International (CTI. The conference explored the relationship between minds, bodies and machines in the long nineteenth century, with a view to understanding the history of our technology-driven, post-human visions. It is in the nineteenth century that the relationship between the human and the machine under post-industrial capitalism becomes a pervasive theme. From Blake on the mills of the mind by which we are enslaved, to Carlyle's and Arnold's denunciation of the machinery of modern life, from Dickens's sooty fictional locomotive Mr Pancks, who 'snorted and sniffed and puffed and blew, like a little labouring steam-engine', and 'shot out […]cinders of principles, as if it were done by mechanical revolvency', to the alienated historical body of the late-nineteenth-century factory worker under Taylorization, whose movements and gestures were timed, regulated and rationalised to maximize efficiency; we find a cultural preoccupation with the mechanisation of the nineteenth-century human body that uncannily resonates with modern dreams and anxieties around technologies of the human.

  4. Written on the Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    shoots, as the models remain in control, not the photographer. Marked by their body modifications, the Suicide Girls (as they call themselves), they actively attempt to subvert the typical pin-up conventions, by transgressing mainstream standards of beauty. In what seems remarkably similar to Judith...

  5. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies

  6. Body dysmorphic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jawad, Mustafa Bashir M; Sjögren, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is defined by a preoccupation of one or more non-existent or slight defects or flaws in the physical appearance. The prevalence is 1.7-2.4% in the general population with a higher incidence rate in women. The rate of suicidal ideation is as high as 80%, and up to 25...

  7. With body and soul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Nikolaj Ilsted

    2002-01-01

    Aktuel Naturvidenskab(4):34-36. 2002 Short description: ?Man, has by evolution, been equipped with different systems of learning. Children and adults alike have a head as well as a body and both parts can be stimulated,? writes Nikolaj Ilsted Bech and Theresa Schilhab in this article from...

  8. The Body Stocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Louise Ravnløkke Munk; Bang, Anne Louise

    2016-01-01

    of the Repertory Grid technique and Wardrobe Studies to frame a tangible dialogue enabling the parents to elaborate on personal preferences of design aesthetics and materials in baby clothing. In the analysis we use the body stocking as a common reference point for learning about reasons for high use frequency...

  9. Brain, body and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2010-01-01

    This essay sketches out a biocultural theory of religion which is based on an expanded view of cognition that is anchored in brain and body (embrained and embodied), deeply dependent on culture (enculturated) and extended and distributed beyond the borders of individual brains. Such an approach...

  10. Biopower in the bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Tejeda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lately, the studies of biopolitics and biopower have risen significantly. It is an old issue, which is present in Greek philosophy and in its reality. It is the old argument of the relationship and the intrusion of politics in the life and the overcoming of the state of nature. The reality of biopolitics is reflected in the dimension that technology acquires and in the siege of the global powers against democracy. The human body as an external and visible entity resists all kinds of interventions and fastenings aimed at the individualization and establishment of a totalitarian reality. Tanatopolitics and Biopolitics are interlaced to manage life and death in a chilling reality where technique introduces the artifice beyond the natural. The human body as a borderline area between the natural and the artificial expresses the scopes of post-humanism. A more balanced physical culture could help to curb the widespread dehumanization, which reduces and degrades the body at the same time, while the powers submit, discriminate, and intervene in the more and more docile bodies.

  11. Translanguaging and the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackledge, Adrian; Creese, Angela

    2017-01-01

    This article reports communicative interactions with a focus on the body as a dimension of the semiotic repertoire. The research context is a four-year, multi-site linguistic ethnography which investigates how people communicate in superdiverse cities in the UK. In the setting of a butcher's stall in a city market we consider three interactions at…

  12. Bodies and Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A wide-ranging collection of essays centred on readings of the body in contemporary literary and socio-anthropological discourse, from slavery and rape to female genital mutilation, from clothing, ocular pornography, voice, deformation and transmutation to the imprisoned, dismembered, remembered,...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the type of foreign body and how it was introduced. If it was swallowed, you may undergo a direct examination ... and esophagus or an x-ray examination. If it is lodged in a soft tissue, such as ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... By measuring these echo waves, it is possible to determine how far away the object is as well as ... MRI) or computed tomography (CT). top of page How is the procedure performed? There are a number of ways to remove foreign bodies or facilitate their exit from ...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and push the object farther down. In some cases, prompt removal of the foreign body is necessary. Common procedures include: Flexible esophagoscopy Flexible esophagoscopy is a common diagnostic examination that enables a safe and detailed visual study of the esophagus while the patient is under ...

  16. Lewy Body Dementia Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SIGN UP FOR NEWSLETTER LinkedIn facebook twitter google youtube stay informed LBDA has his back, but we need your support. At 57, basketball-loving Mike Oliver still schools opponents half his age, and he’s not letting Lewy body dementia dictate ...

  17. Giant peritoneal loose bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-27

    Mar 27, 2015 ... Giant peritoneal loose bodies are rare lesions, originating from auto-amputated appendices epiploicae. They may cause urinary or gastrointestinal obstruction and, should the radiologist not be familiar with the entity, can potentially be confused with malignant or parasitic lesions. Familiarity with their ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign ...

  19. Lewy body-demens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten; Korbo, Lise; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2010-01-01

    Newer estimations indicate a considerable increase in the number of elderly people with dementia and Lewy body dementia (DLB) in Denmark. Simultaneously, the prescription of antipsychotics to elderly patients remains very high in Denmark. This report reflects on the importance of keeping DLB...

  20. Being Better Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Joel Michael

    2017-11-01

    Bioethics has an uneasy relationship with embodiment. Only with vigilance does knowledge of the body as it is lived counterbalance the momentous inertia of knowledge of the body as an object brought about by modern medical sciences. As a field tethered to detached, technical ways of knowing the world, bioethics must toil to treat the body as more than mere material and machine. To be more is, among other things, to be social-to live in the thickets of interdependence and the institutions and practices we build, hone, and defend to facilitate it. I take this tension to define the ultimate stakes of Melinda Hall's The Bioethics of Enhancement: Transhumanism, Disability, and Biopolitics. Hall homes in on transhumanism, the idea that we should embrace technology to vault beyond current human limitations. Yet the work serves as a reminder for all bioethicists and philosophers of how easily one can be led astray by otherwise irreproachable values when they are disconnected from the conditions and realities of human life, including being irremediably interdependent embodied beings. Put more acerbically, the book is a reminder of how thinking goes wrong when divorced from the principal sources out of which human appraisals emerge: our fleshy, messy, social bodies. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  1. Adolescent Development: Body Blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Alayne; Brodkin, Adele M.

    1994-01-01

    When early adolescents equate body image with self-image, they risk eating and exercise disorders, with dangerous results. Interviews with two experts present information to help middle school teachers understand the problem and intervene with students whose preoccupation with appearance or prowess can, taken to the extreme, be fatal. (SM)

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your physician immediately. Treatment will depend on the type of foreign body and nature of the symptoms. You should inform your physician of any medications being taken and if there are any allergies, especially to iodinated contrast materials . Also inform your ...

  3. Implicit beliefs about ideal body image predict body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Niclas eHeider; Adriaan eSpruyt; Jan eDe Houwer

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  4. Bayesian analyses of multiple epistatic QTL models for body weight and body composition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Nengjun; Zinniel, Denise K; Kim, Kyoungmi; Eisen, Eugene J; Bartolucci, Alfred; Allison, David B; Pomp, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    To comprehensively investigate the genetic architecture of growth and obesity, we performed Bayesian analyses of multiple epistatic quantitative trait locus (QTL) models for body weights at five ages (12 days, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks) and body composition traits (weights of two fat pads and five organs) in mice produced from a cross of the F1 between M16i (selected for rapid growth rate) and CAST/Ei (wild-derived strain of small and lean mice) back to M16i. Bayesian model selection revealed a temporally regulated network of multiple QTL for body weight, involving both strong main effects and epistatic effects. No QTL had strong support for both early and late growth, although overlapping combinations of main and epistatic effects were observed at adjacent ages. Most main effects and epistatic interactions had an opposite effect on early and late growth. The contribution of epistasis was more pronounced for body weights at older ages. Body composition traits were also influenced by an interacting network of multiple QTLs. Several main and epistatic effects were shared by the body composition and body weight traits, suggesting that pleiotropy plays an important role in growth and obesity.

  5. Body inversion effect without body sense: insights from deafferentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosbach, Simone; Knoblich, Guenther; Reed, Catherine L; Cole, Jonathan; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Like faces, human bodies are recognized via the configuration of their parts; their recognition is impaired by inversion. Processing of configural relations has been shown to depend on perceptual expertise with certain classes of objects. Because people see their own body and others' bodies frequently, humans are experts in the visual processing of human body postures. In addition, the observer's own on-line, multimodal body representation which heavily relies on current proprioception may play a crucial role in recognizing human body postures. We investigated whether static body posture recognition relied on current proprioceptive inputs or whether visual familiarity and stored body representations were sufficient. IW, who is deafferented (lost cutaneous touch and proprioception from his body), was tested on the recognition of upright and inverted human body postures, faces, and houses. As controls, IW showed an inversion effect for abstract, common, and rare human body postures as well as faces, but not houses. Results rule out a strong contribution of current afferent inputs to the recognition of human postures. The findings are discussed in terms of the role of the body schema in body posture recognition and how other contributions from one's own body may be involved in the visual processing of human bodies.

  6. Body Image Satisfaction among Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; Carton, Thomas W.; Shahien, Amir A.; Andersen, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Satisfaction with body image is a factor related to health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and body size perception in an urban, Black community sample in New Orleans, Louisiana. Only 42.2% of respondents were satisfied with their body image and 44.1% correctly perceived their body…

  7. Body Art: A Panel Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Peter; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Three camp directors discuss their policies regarding body art and body piercing. Only one director reported a strict policy prohibiting tattoos or body art based on standards that the camp portrays to families. However, all directors enforced policies prohibiting clothing or body art that mentions alcohol, tobacco, drug use, or inappropriate…

  8. Shape-assisted body reorientation enhances trafficability through cluttered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Pullin, Andrew; Haldane, Duncan; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Many birds and fishes have slender, streamlined bodies that reduce fluid dynamic drag and allow fast and efficient locomotion. Similarly, numerous terrestrial animals run through cluttered terrain where 3-D, multi-component obstacles like grass, bushes, trees, walls, doors, and pillars also resist motion, but it is unknown whether their body shape plays a major role. Here, we challenged discoid cockroaches that possess a rounded, thin, nearly ellipsoidal body to run through tall, narrowly spaced, grass-like beams. The animals primarily rolled their body to the side to maneuver through the obstacle gaps. Reduction of body roundness by artificial shells inhibited this side roll maneuver, resulting in a lower traversal probability and a longer traversal time (P robot of a nearly cuboidal body. The rounded shell enabled the robot to use passive side rolling to maneuver through beams. To explain the mechanism, we developed a simple physics model to construct an energy landscape of the body-terrain interaction, which allowed estimation of body forces and torques exerted by the beams. Our model revealed that, by passive interaction with the terrain, a rounded body (ellipsoid) rolled more easily than an angular body (cuboid) to access energy valleys between energy barriers caused by obstacles. Our study is the first to demonstrate that a terradynamically ``streamlined'' shape can reduce terrain resistance and enhance trafficability by assisting body reorientation.

  9. Body Praxis and Networks of Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Helle

    2007-12-01

    Departing from what has in medical anthropology been termed the individual body, the social body and body politics, actor-networks in medical pluralism are investigated on the basis of a study of complementary and alternative forms of medicine (CAM) in Denmark, including participant-observation in 12 clinics of reflexology, biopathy and kinesiology, as well as interviews and informal conversations with more than 40 alternative practitioners and 300 patients of CAM clinics. In this study, several actor-networks that connect metaphorical models of the body, clinical technology, social relations and political structures of the Danish society are revealed: a technocrat network, a social-democratic consultancy network and a neo-liberal network. The co-existence of several actor-networks has phenomenological as well as structural implications. The implications for patients using several forms of therapy is important insofar as the patients' move between different actor-networks of healing implies switches between different experiences of body and self. Each of the actor-networks at the same time implies different positions in relation to the public healthcare system, and some actor-networks appear to be more compatible than others with the generalized and technical properties of public healthcare.

  10. Interconnected cavernous structure of bacterial fruiting bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron W Harvey

    Full Text Available The formation of spore-filled fruiting bodies by myxobacteria is a fascinating case of multicellular self-organization by bacteria. The organization of Myxococcus xanthus into fruiting bodies has long been studied not only as an important example of collective motion of bacteria, but also as a simplified model for developmental morphogenesis. Sporulation within the nascent fruiting body requires signaling between moving cells in order that the rod-shaped self-propelled cells differentiate into spores at the appropriate time. Probing the three-dimensional structure of myxobacteria fruiting bodies has previously presented a challenge due to limitations of different imaging methods. A new technique using Infrared Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT revealed previously unknown details of the internal structure of M. xanthus fruiting bodies consisting of interconnected pockets of relative high and low spore density regions. To make sense of the experimentally observed structure, modeling and computer simulations were used to test a hypothesized mechanism that could produce high-density pockets of spores. The mechanism consists of self-propelled cells aligning with each other and signaling by end-to-end contact to coordinate the process of differentiation resulting in a pattern of clusters observed in the experiment. The integration of novel OCT experimental techniques with computational simulations can provide new insight into the mechanisms that can give rise to the pattern formation seen in other biological systems such as dictyostelids, social amoeba known to form multicellular aggregates observed as slugs under starvation conditions.

  11. The Body: The Key Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Questions around 'the body' are central to social theory. Our changing understanding of the body now challenges the ways we conceive power, ideology, subjectivity and social and cultural process. The Body: the key concepts highlights and analyses the debates which make the body central to current sociological, psychological, cultural and feminist thinking. Today, questions around the body are intrinsic to a wide range of debates - from technological developments in media and communications, t...

  12. Bodies at sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    and heritage studies (Candlin 2004), reflecting a more profound ‘blind spot’ regarding bodies in social theory (Crossley 2006). While tourism studies, following Veijola and Jokinen’s paper on the absence of bodies in tourist studies, have seen an upsurge in interest in theories and approaches relating...... in tourism. Drawing in particular on performance based readings of heritage consumption and tourism (Haldrup and Larsen 2010; Waterton and Watson 2014; Haldrup and Bærenholdt 2015) as well as developments in non-representational theory and affect theory (Anderson and Harrison 2010; Massumi 2014; Timm Knudsen...... and Stage 2015) this article explores more broadly the role (and interplay) of embodied sensations in heritage communication. It does so by considering the role of sailing and rowing as a way of exploring, enacting and experiencing Viking culture and life worlds at the Viking Ship Museum, Roskilde, Denmark...

  13. Our filmic body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimann, Katrin; Fingerhut, Joerg

    with a steadicam. Their result support an involvement of the body and its sensorimotor habits in film perception. However, the experiment did not allow to judge if such difference was triggered by an effect of familiarity to the vision presented only (that is a stronger response of the hand regions of the motor...... propose the appearance of a coupled system in which the film at the same time borrows and transforms the body of the perceiver. By exploiting certain existing perceptual habits film is likely to fundamentally carry spectators’ engagement with a movie. Variations to these habits, though, might get...... integrated over time into the repertoire of bodily engagements (see also Fingerhut, 2014) and in this sense allow the emergence of a “cinematic body”. We suggest a research program including precise experimental designs further exploring this in an interdisciplinary framework....

  14. About Body Inertness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Izbreht

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates and further develops the Newton’s hypothesis about the origin of inertial forces. For this purpose the classic interpretation of light aberration phenomenon and the Lorentz — FitzGerald hypothesis — proposed to explain the negative result of the Michelson — Morley experiment — is used and a comparison is made between electromagnetic phenomena — particularly, self-induction and inertial force generated with a change in velocity of a moving physical body. The concepts not only prove that space has physical properties affecting the movement of bodies but that the latter also affect the physical properties of space. Formulas for the mechanics of high velocity and a further development of the Newton’s gravity law were derived based on these fundamental concepts. The findings are applied to cosmology and prove the stationary state of the ideally uniform and isotropic infinite Universe.

  15. Myxobacteria Fruiting Body Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi

    2006-03-01

    Myxobacteria are social bacteria that swarm and glide on surfaces, and feed cooperatively. When starved, tens of thousands of cells change their movement pattern from outward spreading to inward concentration; they form aggregates that become fruiting bodies, inside which cells differentiate into nonmotile, environmentally resistant spores. Traditionally, cell aggregation has been considered to imply chemotaxis, a long-range cell interaction mediated by diffusing chemicals. However, myxobacteria aggregation is the consequence of direct cell-contact interactions. I will review our recent efforts in modeling the fruiting body formation of Myxobacteria, using lattice gas cellular automata models that are based on local cell-cell contact signaling. These models have reproduced the individual phases in Myxobacteria development such as the rippling, streaming, early aggregation and the final sporulation; the models can be unified to simulate the whole developmental process of Myxobacteria.

  16. Measuring body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Louise; Higgins, Dan

    Body temperature is one of the four main vital signs that must be monitored to ensure safe and effective care. Temperature measurement is recommended by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence a part of the initial assessment in acute illness in adults (NICE, 2007) and by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network guidelines for post-operative management in adults (SIGN, 2004). Despite applying in all healthcare environments, wide variations exist on the methods and techniques used to measure body temperature. It is essential to use the most appropriate technique to ensure that temperature is measured accurately. Inaccurate results may influence diagnosis and treatment, lead to a failure to identify patient deterioration and compromise patient safety. This article explains the importance of temperature regulation and compares methods of its measurement.

  17. Body worn camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aishwariya, A.; Pallavi Sudhir, Gulavani; Garg, Nemesa; Karthikeyan, B.

    2017-11-01

    A body worn camera is small video camera worn on the body, typically used by police officers to record arrests, evidence from crime scenes. It helps preventing and resolving complaints brought by members of the public; and strengthening police transparency, performance, and accountability. The main constants of this type of the system are video format, resolution, frames rate, and audio quality. This system records the video in .mp4 format with 1080p resolution and 30 frames per second. One more important aspect to while designing this system is amount of power the system requires as battery management becomes very critical. The main design challenges are Size of the Video, Audio for the video. Combining both audio and video and saving it in .mp4 format, Battery, size that is required for 8 hours of continuous recording, Security. For prototyping this system is implemented using Raspberry Pi model B.

  18. BODIES AND LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Camerablu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Classical times in Western thought Nature and Culture have been conceptualized as dualistic and belonging to separate and distinct domains of reference. Philosophers, scientists and lawyers throughout the ages have considered women’s destiny as being rooted passively in Nature, which was seen as repetitive and predictable. In a similar way they considered that sexuality and gender relations were unchangeable and based on biological elements that were immutable. Only the male could be active and creative at home in the realm of Logos. In Gender Studies this ancient dichotomy has been radically challenged. Numerous historical and cultural contexts have been examined in which both secular and religious powers have imposed determined prohibitions and patterns of behaviour concerning the physical body of men, women and children and the way in which their physicality should be expressed or repressed. This issue presents studies that consider the sphere of the body in its cultural and historical dimension.

  19. Full body restraint system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Susan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A body restraint system (30) allows the user's body (10) to be in the zero gravity neutral posture. The system (30) includes a waist restraint (32) in the form of a curved, padded unit (34) containing a retractable belt (36) coiled on a spring loaded capstan (38) with a buckle (40) extending from front (42) of the unit (34). A second belt (44) is fastened around the user's waist (16). A clasp (46) is configured to engage the buckle (40). The waist restraint (32) is positioned near foot restraints (52). The foot restraints (52) have foot platforms (59) with pads (60) of a suitable two part attaching material, such as the fasteners available from Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company under the trademark Scotchmate Duallock. A mating pad (62) of the material is provided on soles (64) of cotton net shoes (66).

  20. Splintered body image

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Ballén, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Body image presentation, which made painting morevisual in the 20th century, offers visions of splinteredbodies in different versions of its extention in space andin its proyection in time. This splintered vision in visualpainting was structured by diverse factors, such as theearlier development of photography, and later by audiovisual,videography and rising virtual media. Painting´sclose-up shots on corporal action in the middle of the20th century, allowed us to question new paradigms ofcont...

  1. The Human Body Sword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The human body shield problem involves an apparent dilemma for a libertarian, forcing him to choose between his own death and the death of an innocent person. This paper argues that the non-aggression principle permits a forceful response against the property of innocent individuals when a conflict is initiated with that property. In other words, a libertarian may shoot the hostage in order to save himself.

  2. [Body and existence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, C

    1992-03-10

    The intention of this article is to introduce a complement to the natural science paradigm by giving medicine, especially general practice, a dimension of understanding inspired by existential philosophy. The presuppositions of natural science regarding human nature dividing body and soul, subject and object, are discussed and found insufficient for an understanding of what it means to be human. Case studies illustrate that for the patient, the meaning of symptom in existential terms has vast practical consequences for deciding treatment.

  3. Lewy body-demens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten; Korbo, Lise; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2010-01-01

    Newer estimations indicate a considerable increase in the number of elderly people with dementia and Lewy body dementia (DLB) in Denmark. Simultaneously, the prescription of antipsychotics to elderly patients remains very high in Denmark. This report reflects on the importance of keeping DLB...... in mind when physicians encounter elderly demented patients with visual hallucinations, fluctuations and parkinsonism, as 50% of patients with DLB have severe sensitivity to antipsychotics. With new clinical criteria including SPECT of dopaminergic transporters, diagnosis has become sufficiently accurate...

  4. Hyperemesis gravidarum and its relation with maternal body fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosus, Aydin; Eser, Ayla; Kosus, Nermin; Usluogullari, Betul; Hizli, Deniz

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if maternal body fat composition and body mass index were associated with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Healthy pregnant women (n = 30) without nausea and vomiting (control group) and women with HG (n = 54; study group), all with singleton pregnancy at 6-14 weeks gestational age, were included. Body mass index was measured before and during pregnancy. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous fat thickness were measured during pregnancy. Comparison of the groups revealed that VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index but not subcutaneous fat thickness were significantly higher in the HG group versus controls. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index predicted 83.8% and 67.1% of HG cases, respectively. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index were correlated with the development of hyperemesis gravidrum and hence could be considered as predictive markers for HG.

  5. Fashion, Bodies, and Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Fourny

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay is based on the assumption that the body has undergone a process of fragmentation that started with "modern" art and commodity fetishism that is being amplified today by an increasingly fetishistic high fashion industry itself relayed by music videos and a gigantic pornography industry. This article begins with a discussion of fetishism and objectification as they appear in high fashion shows where underwear becomes wear (turning the inside into the outside, thus expanding (or dissolving the traditional notion of pornography because they are both reported in comparable terms by mainstream magazines such as Femmes and less conventional publications such as Penthouse . A comparable phenomenon takes place in the novels of Hervé Guibert where internal organs (that is the inside become literary characters (as "outside" through medical imagery. Finally, an issue of the French New Look magazine is analyzed because it features a high fashion collection next to a pictorial/essay on Issei Sagawa, a.k.a. "the Japanese Cannibal." Here again, the objectification of the dismembered body is taken a step further both by designer Jean-Paul Gaultier and Sagawa. It thus appears that the human body is nowadays being totally invested by commodity fetishism, rendering gender difference obsolete and opening a new space that so far has no name, and announces the final merging of high fashion, literature, pornography, and music videos.

  6. Few-body physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briceno, Raul [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Few-body hadronic observables play an essential role in a wide number of processes relevant for both particle and nuclear physics. In order for Lattice QCD to offer insight into the interpretation of few-body states, a theoretical infrastructure must be developed to map Euclidean-time correlation functions to the desired Minkowski-time few-body observables. In this talk, I will first review the formal challenges associated with the studies of such systems via Lattice QCD, as first introduced by Maiani and Testa, and then review methodology to circumvent said limitations. The first main example of the latter is the formalism of Luscher to analyze elastic scattering and a second is the method of Lellouch & Luscher to analyze weak decays. I will then proceed to discus recent theoretical generalizations of these frameworks that allow for the determination of scattering amplitudes, resonances, transition and elastic form factors. Finally, I will outline outstanding problems, including those that are now beginning to be addressed.

  7. Body image flexibility mediates the effect of body image-related victimization experiences and shame on binge eating and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2016-12-01

    The current study examined a path model testing the indirect effect of negative body-image related memories of being teased and bullied in childhood and adolescence on binge eating severity symptoms, via its effect on current body image shame and body image flexibility. Participants were 853 Portuguese women from the general community who completed a set of self-report measures of body image-related bullying and teasing experiences in childhood and adolescence, current body image shame, body image flexibility, binge eating symptoms, body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms. The path model accounted for 40% of the variance of binge eating symptoms and 14% of the variance of BMI, and revealed a very good fit. Findings corroborated the plausibility of the hypothesized associations suggesting that negative body image-related memories and emotional experiences are significantly associated with binge eating symptoms and BMI, and that body image flexibility is a significant mediator of these associations. The examined relationships were preserved after controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms. The current study's findings contribute to clarify the role that body image-related memories and emotional experiences may play on individuals' difficulties in regulating eating behaviour and weight, and provides preliminary support for the potential effect of body image flexibility as a self-regulatory process that operates in these associations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bayesian Analyses of Multiple Epistatic QTL Models for Body Weight and Body Composition in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Nengjun; Zinniel, Denise K.; Kim, Kyoungmi; Eisen, Eugene J.; Bartolucci, Alfred; Allison, David B.; Pomp, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    To comprehensively investigate the genetic architecture of growth and obesity, we performed Bayesian analyses of multiple epistatic quantitative trait locus (QTL) models for body weights at five ages (12 days, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks) and body composition traits (weights of two fat pads and five organs) in mice produced from a cross of the F1 between M16i (selected for rapid growth rate) and CAST/Ei (wild-derived strain of small and lean mice) back to M16i. Bayesian model selection revealed a te...

  9. Representation of body identity and body actions in extrastriate body area and ventral premotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Candidi, Matteo; Ionta, Silvio; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2007-01-01

    Although inherently linked, body form and body action may be represented in separate neural substrates. Using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy individuals, we show that interference with the extrastriate body area impairs the discrimination of bodily forms, and interference with the ventral premotor cortex impairs the discrimination of bodily actions. This double dissociation suggests that whereas extrastriate body area mainly processes actors' body identity, premotor cortex is crucial for visual discriminations of actions.

  10. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas eHeider

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin. Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.

  11. Application of a Relational Model to Understanding Body Image in College Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Ryan, William J.; Pierce, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Relational cultural theory was examined in relation to body image in two samples of college women (n = 102) and men (n = 78) from a Midwestern university. Participants completed measures of mutuality and body image satisfaction. Results revealed that low mutuality with mothers and fathers predicted body dissatisfaction in both men and women, and…

  12. [Vulvar oedema revealing systemic mastocytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveza, E; Locatelli, F; Girardin, M; Valmary-Degano, S; Daguindau, E; Aubin, F; Humbert, P; Pelletier, F

    2015-11-01

    Systemic mastocytosis is characterised by abnormal proliferation of mast cells in various organs. We report an original case of systemic mastocytosis revealed by vulvar oedema. A 24-year-old patient was examined in the dermatology department for vulvar oedema appearing during sexual intercourse. She presented vasomotor dysfunction of the lower limbs, urticaria on the trunk on exertion, diarrhoea and bone pains. Laboratory tests showed serum tryptase of 29.7μg and plasma histamine at twice the normal value. Myelogram results showed infiltration by dysmorphic mast cells. Screening for c-kit D816V mutation was positive. Duodenal biopsies revealed mast-cell clusters with aggregation involving over 15 mast cells. CD2 staining was inconclusive and CD25 staining could not be done. Trabecular osteopenia was found, and we thus made a diagnosis of indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM variant Ia) as per the WHO 2008 criteria. Symptomatic treatment was initiated (antiH1, H2, antileukotrienes) and clinical and laboratory follow-up was instituted. The cutaneous signs leading to diagnosis in this patient of systemic mastocytosis involving several organs were seemingly minimal signs associated with mastocyte degranulation. This is the third recorded case of mastocytosis revealed by vulvar oedema and the first case revealing systemic involvement. The two previously reported cases of vulvar oedema revealed cutaneous mastocytosis alone. Mastocytosis, whether systemic or cutaneous, must be included among the differential diagnoses considered in the presence of vulvar oedema. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Rotor/body aerodynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzina, M. D.; Smith, C. A.; Shinoda, P.

    1985-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in which independent, steady state aerodynamic forces and moments were measured on a 2.24 m diam. two bladed helicopter rotor and on several different bodies. The mutual interaction effects for variations in velocity, thrust, tip-path-plane angle of attack, body angle of attack, rotor/body position, and body geometry were determined. The results show that the body longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of a rotor and hub, and that the hub interference may be a major part of such interaction. The effects of the body on the rotor performance are presented.

  14. Telomeric DNA mediates de novo PML body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Anneke K; Schimmel, Joost; Wiegant, Joop C A G; Vertegaal, Alfred C O; Tanke, Hans J; Dirks, Roeland W

    2009-11-01

    The cell nucleus harbors a variety of different bodies that vary in number, composition, and size. Although these bodies coordinate important nuclear processes, little is known about how they are formed. Among the most intensively studied bodies in recent years is the PML body. These bodies have been implicated in gene regulation and other cellular processes and are disrupted in cells from patients suffering from acute promyelocytic leukemia. Using live cell imaging microscopy and immunofluorescence, we show in several cell types that PML bodies are formed at telomeric DNA during interphase. Recent studies revealed that both SUMO modification sites and SUMO interaction motifs in the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein are required for PML body formation. We show that SMC5, a component of the SUMO ligase MMS21-containing SMC5/6 complex, localizes temporarily at telomeric DNA during PML body formation, suggesting a possible role for SUMO in the formation of PML bodies at telomeric DNA. Our data identify a novel role of telomeric DNA during PML body formation.

  15. The Odyssey of the Body between Communication and Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Bojenoiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the status of the body as an image and its new forms of cultural coding. The first part analyses, from the historical point of view, the dualism of the relation soul/body marking the essential changes that it had experimented through the history of the occidental thinking. As an example, modern philosophy introduces a change of perspective by representing a soul immanent to a body like an essence immanent to a phenomenon. This gradually leads to the idea that what makes us unique and gives us individual identity is in fact our body since it is the body itself that renders the generically universal consciousness a self-consciousness. The next step analyses the mutation from body-communication to communication-body relation, from the idea of body-language to body-communication witch was possible and could only develop in an environment dedicated to the therapy of interpersonal relationships or, generally speaking, of communication. The last part of the text develops the idea of the Swiss anthropologist Adolf Portmann in which the surface of the body is not a simple protective coat but a special sense organ that functions in the most various ways, primarily to create an appearance defined as what is visible, what is actually being revealed.

  16. Immunization alters body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Body language in courtship

    OpenAIRE

    Trebješanin, Žarko

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this paper is courtship as a pattern of mainly nonverbal behavior a person exibits in order to win the interest, favor, trust, and love of the person who they want as a partner, by using their attractive looks, body posture, gestures, facial expression, and eye contact. The aim of the exchange of love signals in courtship is to attract and keep a desirable, suitable partner, which is of vital importance for an individual and for the human species. Over the last several decades,...

  18. 'Bad boys'' Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skårderud, Finn; Nygren, Pär; Edlund, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    (n= 196) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory ? Child version (EDI-C). The childcare residents also completed an extended questionnaire, including questions regarding the use of anabolic?andro-genic steroids. Our main ?ndings were high scores on EDI-C symptom scales for boys in the childcare...... resident group; few differences between girls in the two samples; and a high frequency of having used anabolic?androgenic steroids among boys in care. Body-image problems among boys have hitherto been given little attention. The results call for increased efforts in describing and detecting patho...

  19. Few-body problems

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjimichael, E

    1986-01-01

    This volume consists of two review articles. E Hadjimichael's contribution, 'The Nuclear Three-Body Systems', concentrates on recent experimental and theoretical progress achieved in the field. Together with a pedagogical survey of the theoretical framework extensive discussion on the 3N system in the continuum and reactions of electromagnetic probes with 3N systems are provided. 'Four-Nucleon Transfer Reactions' by W Oelert reviews many aspects of a-particle transfer studies. A careful and balanced presentation of both theory and experiment is given. Reasonable agreement between the two is ob

  20. Between Bodies and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keylin, Vadim

    the corporeality of both listening and sound-making activity. At the other end, lie artworks that sonify digitally collected social data – like e.g. #tweetscapes by Anselm Venezian Nehls and Tarik Barri, which translated the activities of German Twitter segment into audiovisual experience. #tweetscapes takes...... the bodies out of the equation, working instead with the disembodied – and in a way depersonalized – streams of data, nevertheless generated by the participants. Finally, a middle ground can be found in the augmented reality approaches – like those of Kaffe Matthews Sonic Bike rides or Benoit Maubrey...

  1. Truth, body and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarl-Thure Eriksson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the words of welcome to the symposium on Religion and the Body on 16 June 2010. In a religious context ‘truth’ is like a mantra, a certain imperative to believe in sacred things. The concept of truth and falseness arises, when we as humans compare reality, as we experience it through our senses, with the representation we have in our memory, a comparison of new information with stored information. If we look for the truth, we have to search in the human mind. There we will also find religion.

  2. Rigid Bodies in Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebe, Sarah Maria

    The topic of this thesis is the numerics of rigid body simulation, with focus on the contact force problem. Three contact force models are presented, followed by three contact point determination methods. To solve the contact force problem, six different numerical methods are presented, each......-Seidel (PGS), although computationally more expensive. The NNCG method has been implemented in the physics library Bullet, as of revision r2709, as an alternative to the PGS method. A subspace minimization method is developed to improve convergence of the PGS method, improving the results of large mass ratio...

  3. The Mallory body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    Drawing on data from a previously published literature survey on the clinical and experimental epidemiology of the Mallory body, we discuss current theories on its development in a pro et contra manner. Conclusions have been largely left open to the interpretations of the reader because many...... be found with disease severity or duration in alcoholic liver diseases. The roles of vitamin A deficiency and protein-calorie malnutrition are circumstantial. Drugs known to have calcium-antagonist properties and the physiological characteristics of the stress-response protein ubiquitin support the concept...

  4. Body dysmorphic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jawad, Mustafa Bashir M; Sjögren, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is defined by a preoccupation of one or more non-existent or slight defects or flaws in the physical appearance. The prevalence is 1.7-2.4% in the general population with a higher incidence rate in women. The rate of suicidal ideation is as high as 80%, and up to 25......% of the patients attempt to commit suicide. Comorbidities, such as obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety, are frequent. These patients may seek cosmetic or dermatologic rather than psychological treatment. In the view of the high prevalence and risk of suicide, recognizing this disorder...

  5. Body inversion effect without body sense: Insights from deafferentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosbach, S.; Knoblich, G.K.; Reed, C.L.; Cole, J.; Prinz, W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Like faces, human bodies are recognized via the configuration of their parts; their recognition is impaired by inversion. Processing of configural relations has been shown to depend on perceptual expertise with certain classes of objects. Because people see their own body and others' bodies

  6. Determination of star bodies from p-centroid bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we prove that an origin-symmetric star body is uniquely determined by its -centroid body. Furthermore, using spherical harmonics, we establish a result for non-symmetric star bodies. As an application, we show that there is a unique member of p ⟨ K ⟩ characterized by having larger volume than any other ...

  7. Body Build Satisfaction and the Congruency of Body Build Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Norman E.; Bailey, Roger C.

    1979-01-01

    Females were administered the somatotype rating scale. Satisfied subjects showed greater congruency between their own and wished-for body build, and greater congruency between their own and friend/date body builds, but less congruency between their own body build and the female stereotype. (Author/BEF)

  8. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in previously sedentary adults. Abstract. Objectives. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) training for promoting health- related physical fitness in sedentary adults. Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was ...

  9. Determination of star bodies from p-centroid bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we prove that an origin-symmetric star body is uniquely determined by its p-centroid body. Furthermore, using spherical harmonics, we estab- lish a result for non-symmetric star bodies. As an application, we show that there is a unique member of p〈K〉 characterized by having larger volume than any ...

  10. Observing bodies. Camera surveillance and the significance of the body.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, L.

    2003-01-01

    At the most mundane level, CCTV observes bodies, and as such attaches great importance to the specific features of the human body. At the same time, however, bodies tend to disappear, as they are represented electronically by the camera monitors and, in the case of image recording, by the computer

  11. Over my fake body: body ownership illusions for studying the multisensory basis of own-body perception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kilteni, Konstantina; Maselli, Antonella; Kording, Konrad P; Slater, Mel

    2015-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, experimental findings from body ownership illusions (BOIs), show that under specific multisensory conditions, we can experience artificial body parts or fake bodies as our own body parts or body, respectively...

  12. Body posture and syndromes of back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Janusz; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Brzęk, Anna; Kowalczyk, Anna; Czupryna, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The effects of faulty postures include disturbances of the symmetric distribution of compressive and tensile forces acting on both sides of the body axis and the emergence of harmful shear forces. The torques of antigravity muscles also change unfavourably. This may lead to the development of a repetitive strain syndrome, stenosis of intervertebral foramina, compression of nerve roots and back pain. The development of back pain syndromes is significantly affected by the performance of various work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between back pain syndromes and the quality of body posture, especially in the context of work ergonomics. The study enrolled 125 persons: 39 adults with a childhood history of scoliosis, 39 midwives, and 47 physiotherapists. Body posture was assessed in all participants. In midwives and physiotherapists, body position during the performance of work-related tasks was also evaluated. The frequency and severity of pain was assessed with the Jackson-Moskowitz measure. The study revealed that over 80% of the participants suffered from spinal pain. In most cases, the pain was intermittent and was felt in the lumbar spine. The occurrence of pain among midwives and physiotherapists was not directly dependent on the predominant type of abnormal spinal position assumed during the performance of occupational tasks or the quality of body posture. The complaint was also reported by ca. 85% of persons with a history of scoliosis. An incorrect body posture (especially scoliosis) and performance of work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions increase the probability of back pain.

  13. Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the fight against LBD! Donate Symptoms Lewy body dementia symptoms and diagnostic criteria Every person with LBD ... an umbrella term for two related clinical diagnoses, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia. The ...

  14. Celestial mechanics of elastic bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Beig, Robert; Schmidt, Bernd G.

    2006-01-01

    We construct time independent configurations of two gravitating elastic bodies. These configurations either correspond to the two bodies moving in a circular orbit around their center of mass or strictly static configurations.

  15. FastStats: Body Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Body Measurements Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... 7 MB] Related FastStats Obesity/Overweight Related Links Body Mass Index table CDC Growth Charts National Health ...

  16. Body Odor (For Young Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Body Odor Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 March ... every guy has to deal with. What causes body odor? During puberty, your sweat glands become much ...

  17. Medicine's Life Inside the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Home Page A Medicine's Life Inside the Body By Alison Davis Posted May 1, 2014 Pharmacology is the scientific field that studies how the body reacts to medicines and how medicines affect the ...

  18. Inclusion-Body Myositis: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MDA Blog Donate Search MDA.org Close Inclusion-Body Myositis (IBM) Share print email share facebook twitter ... with other muscle diseases, a doctor diagnoses inclusion-body myositis (IBM) by considering the individual’s personal history, ...

  19. Foreign body in the nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000037.htm Foreign body in the nose To use the sharing features ... in a normal attempt to explore their own bodies. Objects placed in the nose may include food, ...

  20. The effect of viewpoint on body representation in the extrastriate body area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Annie W-Y; Peelen, Marius V; Downing, Paul E

    2004-10-25

    Functional neuroimaging has revealed several brain regions that are selective for the visual appearance of others, in particular the face. More recent evidence points to a lateral temporal region that responds to the visual appearance of the human body (extrastriate body area or EBA). We tested whether this region distinguishes between egocentric and allocentric views of the self and other people. EBA activity increased significantly for allocentric relative to egocentric views in the right hemisphere, but was not influenced by identity. Whole-brain analyses revealed several regions that were influenced by viewpoint or identity. Modulation of EBA activity by viewpoint was modest relative to modulation by stimulus class. We propose that the EBA plays a relatively early role in social vision.

  1. Revealing and Concealing in Antiquity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secrecy and the act of concealing and revealing knowledge effectually segregate the initiated and the uninitiated. The act of sharing or hiding knowledge plays a central role in all human relations private or public, political or religious. This volume explores the concept of secrecy and its impl...

  2. Fatal cocaine intoxication in a body packer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajković Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ‘Body packer’ syndrome with severe intoxication or sudden death may happen in persons who smuggle drugs in their body cavities. In case of lethal outcome when carrying cocaine, it is important, but sometimes difficult to determine whether death was due to intoxication or due to other causes. Therefore, it is necessary not only to quantify cocaine and its metabolites in biological material, but also based on their distribution in body fluids and tissues to conclude whether it is acute intoxication. We described a well-documented case of fatal poisoning in a body packer and post mortem distribution of the drug in biological samples. Case report. A 26-year-old man was brought to hospital with no vital signs. Resuscitation measures started at once, but with no success. Autopsy revealed 66 packets of cocaine in his digestive tract, one of which was ruptured. Hyperemia of the most of all internal organs and pulmonary and brain edema were found. High concentrations of cocaine, its metabolites benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, as well as cocaine adulteration levamisole were proven in the post mortem blood and tissues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MC method with selective-ion monitoring. Conclusion. The ratio of cocaine and its metabolites concentrations in the brain and blood obtained by LC-MS method can be used for forensic confirmation of acute intoxication with cocaine.

  3. Relationships between body size attitudes and body image of 4-year-old boys and girls, and attitudes of their fathers and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Gregg, Karen J; Spiel, Emma C; McLean, Siân A; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Body size attitudes and body image form early in life, and understanding the factors that may be related to the development of such attitudes is important to design effective body dissatisfaction and disordered eating prevention interventions. This study explored how fathers' and mothers' body size attitudes, body dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint are associated with the body size attitudes and body image of their 4-year-old sons and daughters. Participants were 279 4-year-old children (46% boys) and their parents. Children were interviewed and parents completed questionnaires assessing their body size attitudes and related behaviours. Socially prescribed stereotypical body size attitudes were evident in 4-year-old boys and girls; however, prevalence of body dissatisfaction was low in this sample. Correlation analyses revealed that boys' body size attitudes were associated with a number of paternal body image variables. In boys, attributing negative characteristics to larger figures and positive characteristics to thinner figures were associated with fathers having more negative attitudes towards obese persons. Attributing positive characteristics to larger figures by boys was associated with greater levels of paternal dietary restraint. In girls, attributing positive characteristics to thinner figures was only associated with greater maternal dietary restraint. Findings suggest the possibility that fathers' body size attitudes may be particularly important in establishing body size attitudes in their sons. Further research is necessary to better understand the role of fathers in the development of children's body size attitudes.

  4. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS AND BODY WEIGHTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    because of its high meat quality and acceptance by ... respectively. Thus, morphometric traits were recommended by Okon et al. (2010a, b) as good predictors of hatchling weights in. Department of Animal Science, University of Calabar, .... wt = body weight, w = hatchling body shell width, L = hatchling body shell length.

  5. Bodies, embodiment and ubiquitous computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schick, Lea; Malmborg, Lone

    2010-01-01

    This paper advocates the future of the body as a distributed and shared embodiment; an unfolded body that doesn't end at one's skin, but emerges as intercorporeality between bodies and the technological environment. Looking at new tendencies within interaction design and ubiquitous computing to see...

  6. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... guy whose voice is changing or who's growing body hair (or the only guy who isn't) can ... habits — shower regularly; take care of your teeth, hair, and skin; and wear clean clothes. Treating yourself well over time results in a healthier, stronger body — and that contributes to a better body image. ...

  7. Body Image Issues In Lithuanian Magazines Aimed For Children And Adolescents In Relation To Body Mass Index And Body Size Perception Of 16-19 Y. Old Girls During The Last 15 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Tutkuviene,Janina

    2017-01-01

    Mass media plays an important role in forming body image and makes the significant impact on body size perception in children and adolescents. The aim of present study was to reveal trends in depiction of body image cues in Lithuanian magazines aimed for children and adolescents in relation to changes of real body mass index (BMI) and body size perception of 16-19 y. old girls in the year 2000 and the 2015. Three popular journals published both in the year 2000 and the 2015, were chosen for i...

  8. Tarantula Hairs as Corneal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Stagg

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of tarantula hairs found in the cornea and discuss treatment. Case Report: A 16-year-old male presented with a 6-week history of right ocular irritation that began after letting his pet tarantula crawl on his face. Slit-lamp examination of the right eye revealed the presence of approximately 16 dark foreign bodies that had the appearance of small hairs. The foreign bodies were removed from the nasal region of the right cornea using Jewelers forceps, and the patient was prescribed a combination neomycin, polymyxin B, and dexamethasone ointment (Maxitrol®, given 4 times per day. Results: The patient presented for follow-up 2 weeks later, with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion: Effective treatment of keratitis caused by tarantula hairs includes taking a detailed history, conducting a careful slit-lamp examination, removal of any accessible hairs, and initiation of treatment with a topical steroid as determined by the clinical picture.

  9. [Human body structure in Su Wen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shizhe

    2011-05-01

    The ancient medical book Su Wen states that the human is a dual composition of physical and spiritual bodies. Thus, if only physical perspectives were applied to interpret its medical terms, confusion would result because of the misunderstanding of spiritual terms. The descriptions in Su Wen didn't show a complete anatomy system or at least at organ levels. The fragments of its context revealed proofs of gross anatomical studies with measurement in ancient China. Su Wen was not a special work for the circulatory route of the channels, so the anatomy terms used was simple. The anatomy position of the body couldn't be judged. The elementary superficial anatomy system formed, which can be traced from the superficial anatomy locations expounded in the book.

  10. Tool use induces complex and flexible plasticity of human body representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R; Serino, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    Plasticity of body representation fundamentally underpins human tool use. Recent studies have demonstrated remarkably complex plasticity of body representation in humans, showing that such plasticity (1) occurs flexibly across multiple time scales and (2) involves multiple body representations responding differently to tool use. Such findings reveal remarkable sophistication of body plasticity in humans, suggesting that Vaesen may overestimate the similarity of such mechanisms in humans and non-human primates.

  11. bodies and particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver M. O'reilly

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A new treatment of kinematical constraints and potential energies arising in the dynamics of systems of rigid bodies and particles is presented which is suited to Newtonian and Lagrangian formulations. Its novel feature is the imposing of invariance requirements on the constraint functions and potential energy functions. These requirements are extensively used in continuum mechanics and, in the present context, one finds certain generalizations of Newton's third law of motion and an elucidation of the nature of constraint forces and moments. One motivation for such a treatment can be found by considering approaches where invariance requirements are ignored. In contrast to the treatment presented in this paper, it is shown that this may lead to a difficulty in formulating the equations governing the motion of the system.

  12. Markets, Bodies, Rhythms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian; Bondo Hansen, Kristian; Lange, Ann-Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between bodily rhythms and market rhythms in two distinctly different financial market configurations, namely the open-outcry pit (prevalent especially in the early 20th century) and present-day high-frequency trading. Drawing on Henri Lefebvre's rhythmanaly......This article explores the relationship between bodily rhythms and market rhythms in two distinctly different financial market configurations, namely the open-outcry pit (prevalent especially in the early 20th century) and present-day high-frequency trading. Drawing on Henri Lefebvre...... of financial markets, it also suggests that high-frequency trading in particular might produce new types of market rhythms that, contra Lefebvre, do not revolve around traders' bodies....

  13. [Intraorbital foreign body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paya, C; Pinsard, L; Buestel, C; Bocquet, J; Delyfer, M-N; Colin, J

    2010-11-01

    Perforative intraorbital injuries can be potentially serious, and management depends on the type of projectile and its intraorbital trajectory. Medical imaging is an imperative part of the initial assessment. We report the case of a wooden intraorbital foreign body (arrow), with no functional or anatomical consequences, with a remarkable intraorbital trajectory analyzed by CT. The two main risks of these injuries are first mechanical, with possible bulb, nerve, muscle or bone complications, and second infectious. The CT scan or better yet MRI imaging provide a detailed analysis of the projectile's intraorbital trajectory in the orbital cavity. Infectious complications are promoted by the fat cells present in the orbit and must be systematically controlled with wide-spectrum antibiotics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [Body dysmorphic disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Katharina; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Allroggen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common disorder with a point prevalence of 0.7-2.4 %. BDD is characterized by the patient's excessive concern with an imagined or slight defect in physical appearance. BDD usually begins in adolescence. Comorbidity rates and also suicidality rates are high. The course of BDD tends to be chronic. According to the present state of knowledge, cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are valuable options in the therapy of BDD. The case report describes a recent case of BDD with typical clinical and therapy-related characteristics. The aim of this work is to strengthen the awareness of BDD in clinical practice of child and adolescent psychiatry, facilitating an adequate diagnosis and treatment of the affected individuals.

  15. INCLUSION BODY MYOSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Yeni Laksmini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion body myositis (IBM merupakan penyakit inflamasi pada otot yang bersifat progresif dengan penyebab yang tidak diketahui dan tidak menunjukkan respon yang baik terhadap berbagai terapi. Gambaran histopatologi IBM ditandai dengan infiltrat sel-sel limfosit diantara ruangan endomisial, di dalam otot dan di sekitar otot dengan fokus-fokus inklusi di dalam miosit (rimmed vacuole serta beberapa serat otot terlihat atrofi dan nekrosis. Dilaporkan wanita, usia 46 tahun dengan IBM. Keluhan utama pasien berupa kelemahan pada kedua tangan, kaki kanan terasa berat jika diangkat sehingga susah berjalan. Pemeriksaan saraf sensorik ekstremitas dekstra dan sinistra dalam batas normal. Pemeriksaan enzim cretinine kinase meningkat secara dramatik. Pemeriksaan histopatologi dari biospi otot gastrocnemius menunjukkan gambaran yang sesuai untuk IBM dan telah dilakukan penanganan dengan pemberian oral methilprednisolon 3x32 mg dan mecobalmin 1x500ìg intravena, namun tidak menunjukkan respon yang baik terhadap terapi dan akhirnya pasien meninggal. [MEDICINA 2013;44:118-123].

  16. Properties of embryoid bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brickman, Joshua M; Serup, Palle

    2017-01-01

    Embryoid bodies (EBs) have been popular in vitro differentiation models for pluripotent stem cells for more than five decades. Initially, defined as aggregates formed by embryonal carcinoma cells, EBs gained more prominence after the derivation of karyotypically normal embryonic stem cells from...... early mouse blastocysts. In many cases, formation of EBs constitutes an important initial step in directed differentiation protocols aimed at generated specific cell types from undifferentiated stem cells. Indeed state-of-the-art protocols for directed differentiation of cardiomyocytes still rely...... on this initial EB step. Analyses of spontaneous differentiation of embryonic stem cells in EBs have yielded important insights into the molecules that direct primitive endoderm differentiation and many of the lessons we have learned about the signals and transcription factors governing this differentiation event...

  17. The adult body: how age, gender, and body mass index are related to body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algars, Monica; Santtila, Pekka; Varjonen, Markus; Witting, Katarina; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. Body image and perceived attractiveness were examined, and the impact of age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) was analyzed and discussed from an evolutionary and a sociocultural perspective. METHOD. The population-based sample consisted of 11,468 Finnish men and women aged 18 to 49 years. RESULTS. Both age-related decrease and increase in body satisfaction was detected as well as interactions between age and gender. Some effects were nonlinear. Women were generally less satisfied with their bodies than men. BMI had a stronger influence on women's body image than men's. DISCUSSION. It was proposed that it is insufficient to merely study how age affects general body image because adults might become more satisfied with some aspects of their bodies as a function of age and less satisfied with other aspects. Body satisfaction might also fluctuate during different phases of the adult life, and the patterns possibly differ between men and women.

  18. INSAR OF AQUATIC BODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tarikhi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radar remote sensing is a new earth observation technology with promising results and future. InSAR is a sophisticated radar remote sensing technique for combining synthetic aperture radar (SAR single look complex images to form interferogram and utilizing its phase contribution to land topography, surface movement and target velocity. In recent years considerable applications of Interferometric SAR technique have been developed. It is an established technique for precise assessment of land surface movements, and generating high quality digital elevation models (DEM from space-borne and airborne data. InSAR is able to produce DEMs with the precision of a couple of ten meters whereas its movement map results have sub-centimeter precision. The technique has many applications in the context of earth sciences such as topographic mapping, environmental modelling, rainfall-runoff studies, landslide hazard zonation, and seismic source modelling. Nevertheless new developments are taking place in the application of InSAR for aquatic bodies. We have observed that using SAR Interferometry technique for aquatic bodies with the maximum temporal baseline of 16 seconds for image pairs shows considerable results enabling us to determine the direction of sea surface motion in a large area, estimate the sea surface fluctuations in the direction of sensor line-of-the-sight, detect wave pattern and the sea surface disturbance and whether the water motion is bulk and smooth or otherwise. This paper presents our experience and achievements on this new topic through discussing the facts and conditions for the use of InSAR technique. The method has been examined for Haiti, Dominican Republic, Western Chile and Western Turkey coast areas and inland lakes however ground truth data is needed for final verification. This technique scheduled to be applied in some other sites for which the proper data is available.

  19. Implicit body representations and tactile spatial remapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R; Mancini, Flavia; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    To perceive the location of a tactile stimulus in external space (external tactile localisation), information about the location of the stimulus on the skin surface (tactile localisation on the skin) must be combined with proprioceptive information about the spatial location of body parts (position sense)--a process often referred to as 'tactile spatial remapping'. Recent research has revealed that both of these component processes rely on highly distorted implicit body representations. For example, on the dorsal hand surface position sense relies on a squat, wide hand representation. In contrast, tactile localisation on the same skin surface shows large biases towards the knuckles. These distortions can be seen as behavioural 'signatures' of these respective perceptual processes. Here, we investigated the role of implicit body representation in tactile spatial remapping by investigating whether the distortions of each of the two component processes (tactile localisation and position sense) also appear when participants localise the external spatial location of touch. Our study reveals strong distortions characteristic of position sense (i.e., overestimation of distances across vs along the hand) in tactile spatial remapping. In contrast, distortions characteristic of tactile localisation on the skin (i.e., biases towards the knuckles) were not apparent in tactile spatial remapping. These results demonstrate that a common implicit hand representation underlies position sense and external tactile localisation. Furthermore, the present findings imply that tactile spatial remapping does not require mapping the same signals in a frame of reference centred on a specific body part. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dinosaur fossils predict body temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Gillooly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding dinosaurs concerns whether they were endotherms, ectotherms, or some unique intermediate form. Here we present a model that yields estimates of dinosaur body temperature based on ontogenetic growth trajectories obtained from fossil bones. The model predicts that dinosaur body temperatures increased with body mass from approximately 25 degrees C at 12 kg to approximately 41 degrees C at 13,000 kg. The model also successfully predicts observed increases in body temperature with body mass for extant crocodiles. These results provide direct evidence that dinosaurs were reptiles that exhibited inertial homeothermy.