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Sample records for weevil anthonomus grandis

  1. Toxicity to cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis of a trypsin inhibitor from chickpea seeds.

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    de P G Gomes, Angélica; Dias, Simoni C; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Francislete R; Furtado, José R; Monnerat, Rose G; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Franco, Octávio L

    2005-02-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important agricultural commodity, which is attacked by several pests such as the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. Adult A. grandis feed on fruits and leaf petioles, reducing drastically the crop production. The predominance of boll weevil digestive serine proteinases has motivated inhibitor screenings in order to discover new ones with the capability to reduce the digestion process. The present study describes a novel proteinase inhibitor from chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) and its effects against A. grandis. This inhibitor, named CaTI, was purified by using affinity Red-Sepharose Cl-6B chromatography, followed by reversed-phase HPLC (Vydac C18-TP). SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analyses, showed a unique monomeric protein with a mass of 12,877 Da. Purified CaTI showed significant inhibitory activity against larval cotton boll weevil serine proteinases (78%) and against bovine pancreatic trypsin (73%), when analyzed by fluorimetric assays. Although the molecular mass of CaTI corresponded to alpha-amylase/trypsin bifunctional inhibitors masses, no inhibitory activity against insect and mammalian alpha-amylases was observed. In order to observe CaTI in vivo effects, an inhibitor rich fraction was added to an artificial diet at different concentrations. At 1.5% (w/w), CaTI caused severe development delay, several deformities and a mortality rate of approximately 45%. These results suggested that CaTI could be useful in the production of transgenic cotton plants with enhanced resistance toward cotton boll weevil.

  2. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA interference in insect pests.

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    Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  3. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis and RNA interference in insect pests.

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    Alexandre Augusto Pereira Firmino

    Full Text Available Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  4. Selection of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato isolates as microbial control agents against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in Argentina.

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    Nussenbaum, A L; Lecuona, R E

    2012-05-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main pest of cotton in the Americas. The aim of this work was to evaluate isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato virulent against A. grandis. Screening was performed to evaluate the pathogenicity of 28 isolates of M. anisopliae s.l. and 66 isolates of B. bassiana s.l. against boll weevil adults. To select the isolates, LC(50) values of the most virulent isolates were calculated, and compatibility between the fungi and insecticides was studied. In addition, the effects of these isolates on the feeding behavior of the adults were evaluated. Isolates Ma 50 and Ma 20 were the most virulent against A. grandis and their LC(50) values were 1.13×10(7) and 1.20×10(7) conidia/ml, respectively. In addition, these isolates were compatible with pyrethroid insecticides, but none with endosulfan. On the other hand, infected females reduced the damage caused by feeding on the cotton squares and their weight gain. This shows that entomopathogenic fungi cause mortality in the insects, but also these fungi could influence the feeding behavior of the females. In summary, these results indicate the possibility of the use of M. anisopliae s.l. as a microbiological control agent against boll weevils. Also, this species could be included in an Integrated Pest Management program.

  5. Chitinolitic activity in proteic extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

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    Silva, T.S; Rocha, T.L. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, E.A.R [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Grossi-de-Sa, M.F. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore forming bacteria, which produces Cry proteins toxic towards several insect orders. Bt S 811 strain produces at least three Cry toxins: Cry1Ab, Cry1Ia12, and Cry8, and shown toxicity to insects from Coleoptera order. In order to characterize the production of theses toxins, and check its activity against Boll weevil larvae, proteic extracts from Bt cells and supernatant proteins from the bacterial culture, were obtained at different stages of cell cycle; 8, 16, 24, and 32 hours after inoculation (HAI). Proteins from 32 HAI of the supernatant, and 8 HAI of the cellular fractions, shown highest activity towards the Boll weevil larvae. Western blotting assays using anti-Cry8 and anti-Cry1I were carried out to analyse these toxins in the Bt proteic extracts. The existence of a Cry8 was detected at 8 HAI in the cellular fraction, what allow associate this molecule with the toxicity of this fraction. However, toxicity observed at 32 HAI in the supernatant fraction, was not possible to be associated with Cry8 or Cry1Ia toxins, indicating that there are another protein(s) responsible for the toxicity. A protein homo log to Cry1Ab was identified by 'Peptide Mass Fingerprint' at 32 HAI of the supernatant fraction and a chitin binding protein was identified by 2DE/MS/MS in this same stage and chitinolitic activity was also observed by enzymatic assay. All our data suggest a possible synergism between Cry toxins and a chitinase in the activity of this strain towards Boll weevil.

  6. Evaluation of the Boll Weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suppression program in the state of Goiás, Brazil.

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    de Lima, I S; Degrande, P E; Miranda, J E; dos Santos, W J

    2013-02-01

    The boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the most important cotton pest in Brazil. A large-scale field-testing of a Boll Weevil Suppression Program (BWSP) was implemented to assess its technical and operational feasibility for boll weevil suppression in the state of Goiás, Brazil. The pilot plan focused on 3,608 ha of cotton during the 2006/2007 and 6,011 ha in the 2007/2008 growing seasons; the areas were divided into four inner zones with an outer buffer zone. We analyzed data on boll weevil captures using pheromone traps installed in the BWSP fields, on the detection of the first insect and the first damaged floral bud, greatest damage, and number of insecticide applications. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the differences between presuppression and suppression years. Fourteen pheromone-baited trapping evaluations were used to compare the weevil populations from 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 growing seasons. The BWSP regime reduced in-season boll weevil captures from 15- to 500-fold compared to presuppression levels in the preceding year. The low capture rates were related to delays in infestation and damage by weevils. The smaller population size measured by trapping and field monitoring reduced the number of required insecticide treatments. The BWSP strategy was efficient in suppressing populations of this pest and is a viable program for cotton production in subtropical and tropical regions, with long-term economic and environmental benefits.

  7. Susceptibility of Anthonomus grandis (cotton boll weevil) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) to a cry1ia-type toxin from a Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis strain.

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    Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima; Quezado de Magalhaes, Mariana; Silva, Marilia Santos; Silva, Shirley Margareth Buffon; Dias, Simoni Campos; Nakasu, Erich Yukio Tempel; Brunetta, Patricia Sanglard Felipe; Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Neto, Osmundo Brilhante de Oliveira; Sampaio de Oliveira, Raquel; Soares, Luis Henrique Barros; Ayub, Marco Antonio Zachia; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro Abreu; Figueira, Edson L Z

    2007-09-30

    Different isolates of the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produce multiple crystal (Cry) proteins toxic to a variety of insects, nematodes and protozoans. These insecticidal Cry toxins are known to be active against specific insect orders, being harmless to mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Due to these characteristics, genes encoding several Cry toxins have been engineered in order to be expressed by a variety of crop plants to control insectpests. The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, are the major economically devastating pests of cotton crop in Brazil, causing severe losses, mainly due to their endophytic habit, which results in damages to the cotton boll and floral bud structures. A cry1Ia-type gene, designated cry1Ia12, was isolated and cloned from the Bt S811 strain. Nucleotide sequencing of the cry1Ia12 gene revealed an open reading frame of 2160 bp, encoding a protein of 719 amino acid residues in length, with a predicted molecular mass of 81 kDa. The amino acid sequence of Cry1Ia12 is 99% identical to the known Cry1Ia proteins and differs from them only in one or two amino acid residues positioned along the three domains involved in the insecticidal activity of the toxin. The recombinant Cry1Ia12 protein, corresponding to the cry1Ia12 gene expressed in Escherichia coli cells, showed moderate toxicity towards first instar larvae of both cotton boll weevil and fall armyworm. The highest concentration of the recombinant Cry1Ia12 tested to achieve the maximum toxicities against cotton boll weevil larvae and fall armyworm larvae were 230 microg/mL and 5 microg/mL, respectively. The herein demonstrated insecticidal activity of the recombinant Cry1Ia12 toxin against cotton boll weevil and fall armyworm larvae opens promising perspectives for the genetic engineering of cotton crop resistant to both these devastating pests in Brazil.

  8. Effect of Different Lignocellulosic Diets on Bacterial Microbiota and Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities in the Gut of the Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

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    Ben Guerrero, Emiliano; Soria, Marcelo; Salvador, Ricardo; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A.; Campos, Eleonora; Brodie, Eoin L.; Talia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Cotton boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis, are omnivorous coleopteran that can feed on diets with different compositions, including recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. We characterized the changes in the prokaryotic community structure and the hydrolytic activities of A. grandis larvae fed on different lignocellulosic diets. A. grandis larvae were fed on three different artificial diets: cottonseed meal (CM), Napier grass (NG) and corn stover (CS). Total DNA was extracted from the gut samples for amplification and sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the gut microbiota followed by Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes and a small number of unclassified phyla in CM and NG microbiomes. In the CS feeding group, members of Spirochaetes were the most prevalent, followed by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Bray–Curtis distances showed that the samples from the CS community were clearly separated from those samples of the CM and NG diets. Gut extracts from all three diets exhibited endoglucanase, xylanase, β-glucosidase and pectinase activities. These activities were significantly affected by pH and temperature across different diets. We observed that the larvae reared on a CM showed significantly higher activities than larvae reared on NG and CS. We demonstrated that the intestinal bacterial community structure varies depending on diet composition. Diets with more variable and complex compositions, such as CS, showed higher bacterial diversity and richness than the two other diets. In spite of the detected changes in composition and diversity, we identified a core microbiome shared between the three different lignocellulosic diets. These results suggest that feeding with diets of different lignocellulosic composition could be a viable strategy to discover variants of hemicellulose and cellulose breakdown systems. PMID:28082962

  9. Método de diagnóstico para el monitoreo de resistencia a insecticidas en poblaciones de "picudo del algodonero", Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae A diagnostic test for insecticide resistance monitoring in "cotton boll weevil" Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae populations

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    Teodoro Stadler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El control de las poblaciones de Anthonomus grandis Boheman, por debajo de su umbral de daño económico durante el ciclo del cultivo del algodón, se realiza en forma efectiva hasta el momento, a través de insecticidas de síntesis. La presión selectiva de las aplicaciones extensivas e intensivas de insecticidas hace imperativa la detección temprana de focos de resistencia a los mismos, en función de un correcto manejo del fenómeno. Se desarrolló un método de diagnóstico de resistencia para A. grandis a partir de la técnica "vial test", que fue adaptada en forma de "kit" para el monitoreo rápido y sencillo de los focos de resistencia en el campo. La toxicidad (CL99, para calcular la concentración discriminante (CD del insecticida y la preparación del "kit", se obtiene a partir de bioensayos de laboratorio con una cepa normal susceptible de A. grandis. Se determinó la vida media de los insecticidas dentro de los viales por CIPAC MT 46, para establecer una fecha de vencimiento del "kit". La CD y el método en su conjunto fueron validados a través de ensayos a campo. El "kit", usado en el monitoreo de resistencia en el campo, fue especialmente diseñado para ser utilizado en las condiciones geográficas, económicas y socio-culturales presentes en la región algodonera argentina. La implementación de esta técnica permitirá conseguir la información necesaria, y así obtener una apropiada alternancia de insecticidas. Como consecuencia, se prevé una reducción de impacto ambiental de las prácticas agronómicas en el control de plagas en algodón.The in-season control of the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman is done by insecticide application, which so far is the only effective way to reduce boll weevil populations to levels below economic significance. The extensive and intensive control actions with insecticides cause selective pressure on pest populations. Thus, to achieve an accurate insecticide resistance

  10. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

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    de Oliveira, Raquel S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Moura, Hudson F N; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Lucena, Wagner A; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A; da Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  11. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Cry1Ia12 toxin confer resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda and cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

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    Raquel Sampaio Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized with PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold. Also, a significant reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60% was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda and the Coleopteran (A. grandis insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  12. Between-season attraction of cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae adults by its aggregation pheromone Atração de adultos do bicudo do algodoeiro, Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae por seu feromônio de agregação na entressafra

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    Wedson Desidério Fernandes

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the attractiveness of boll weevil adults by its aggregation pheromone under winter field conditions. Two experimental fields were utilized at "Casa Branca", SP, Brazil. For each one, three areas were established near the refuge vegetation, sparated 500 m from each other. Each area was divided in three sub-areas or blocks of 100 m² to receive pheromone applications (2.5 g per block. In addition to the pre-application counting, five additional evaluations were carried out after the pheromone applicaton. Ten randomized sampling points per block were considered in each evaluation process. A. grandis adults responded immediately to the pheromone applications, and were captured for 14 days . The highest level of attractiveness was observed 24 hours after application. The application of the boll weevil aggregation pheromone during winter could increase the predation by natural enemies, due to the increase of prey availability. Chemical control can be recommended 24 hours after pheromone applications in small plots as a between-season strategy for the suppression of boll weevil adults.O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a atratividade do bicudo do algodoeiro ao seu feromônio de agregação em período de inverno. Foram utilizados dois campos experimentais no município de Casa Branca, SP. Em cada um destes, foram estabelecidas três áreas separadas de aproximadamente 500 metros, sempre próximas à vegetação de refúgio. Cada área foi dividida em três sub-áreas ou blocos de 100 m² para receber a aplicação do feromônio (2,5 g por bloco. Foi realizada uma contagem de bicudos adultos no solo antes, e mais cinco após a aplicação de feromônio. Em cada bloco, foram observadas dez parcelas aleatórias, para a avaliação dos bicudos. Os adultos de A. grandis foram atraídos imediatamente após a aplicação do feromônio, sendo capturados por mais de 14 dias após. O índice mais

  13. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

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    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: paulina723@hotmail.com, e-mail: sujii@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: cpires@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: eliana@cenargen.embrapa.br; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia], e-mail: irdiniz@unb.br; Medeiros, Maria A. de; Branco, Marina C. [EMBRAPA Hortalicas, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: medeiros@cnph.embrapa.br, e-mail: marina@cnph.embrapa.br; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: mlea@unb.br

    2010-01-15

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  14. Towards Coleoptera-specific high-throughput screening systems for compounds with ecdysone activity: development of EcR reporter assays using weevil (Anthonomus grandis)-derived cell lines and in silico analysis of ligand binding to A. grandis EcR ligand-binding pocket.

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    Soin, Thomas; Iga, Masatoshi; Swevers, Luc; Rougé, Pierre; Janssen, Colin R; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-08-01

    Molting in insects is regulated by ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones. Several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists are on the market as insecticides. These ecdysone agonists are dibenzoylhydrazine (DBH) analogue compounds that manifest their toxicity via interaction with the ecdysone receptor (EcR). Of the four commercial available ecdysone agonists, three (tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide and chromafenozide) are highly lepidopteran specific, one (halofenozide) is used to control coleopteran and lepidopteran insects in turf and ornamentals. However, compared to the very high binding affinity of these DBH analogues to lepidopteran EcRs, halofenozide has a low binding affinity for coleopteran EcRs. For the discovery of ecdysone agonists that target non-lepidopteran insect groups, efficient screening systems that are based on the activation of the EcR are needed. We report here the development and evaluation of two coleopteran-specific reporter-based screening systems to discover and evaluate ecdysone agonists. The screening systems are based on the cell lines BRL-AG-3A and BRL-AG-3C that are derived from the weevil Anthonomus grandis, which can be efficiently transduced with an EcR reporter cassette for evaluation of induction of reporter activity by ecdysone agonists. We also cloned the almost full length coding sequence of EcR expressed in the cell line BRL-AG-3C and used it to make an initial in silico 3D-model of its ligand-binding pocket docked with ponasterone A and tebufenozide.

  15. Infestation of Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on re-sprout of cotton plants

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    José Fernando Jurca Grigolli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of cotton crop residues at the end of the crop cycle is a key strategy for the phytosanitary crop management, since its off-season re-sprout can provide sites for feeding and oviposition of pests such as the boll weevil. This study aimed to evaluate the re-sprout capacity of cotton cultivars, as well as their infestation by Anthonomus grandis. A randomized blocks design, in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three cultivars (FM 910, DeltaOPAL and NuOPAL, two mowing heights (10 cm and 20 cm and four replications, was used. Weekly evaluations were carried out for measuring the percentage of plant re-sprout for both mowing heights, percentage of flower buds infested by the boll weevil and number of adults per re-sprout. Plants mowed at 10 cm presented a lower sprout capacity and consequently less flower buds, reducing the boll weevil population density in the area, while plants mowed at 20 cm showed high re-sprouts rates, seven days after mowing. The FM 910 cultivar had the highest number of re-sprout plants, while the DeltaOPAL cultivar showed the highest number of flower buds and adults per plant, as well as the highest percentage of buds damaged by the boll weevil.

  16. Components of male aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi herbst. (Coleoptera:Curculionidae).

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    Innocenzi, P J; Hall, D R; Cross, J V

    2001-06-01

    The strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi, is a major pest of strawberries in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. As part of a project to develop noninsecticidal control methods, the pheromone system of this species was investigated. Comparison of volatiles produced by field-collected, overwintering individuals of each sex led to identification of three male-specific compounds--(Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (cis)-1-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)cyclobutaneethanol, and 2-(1-methylethenyl)-5-methyl-4-hexen-1-ol (lavandulol)--in amounts of 6.1, 1.2, and 0.82 microg/day/ male. The first two compounds are components of the aggregation pheromone of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, grandlure II and grandlure I, respectively. Grandlure I was the (1R,2S)-(+) enantiomer and lavandulol was a single enantiomer, although the absolute configuration was not determined. Trace amounts of the other two grandlure components (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure III) and (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure IV) were also detected. (E,E)-1-(1-Methylethyl)-4-methylene-8-methyl-2,7-cyclo-decadiene (germacrene-D), a known volatile from strawberry plants, Fragaria ananassa, was collected in increased amounts in the presence of pheromone-producing weevils. Male weevils only produced pheromone on F. ananassa and not on scented mayweed, Matracaria recutita, or cow parsley, Anthriscus sylvestris, although these are known food sources. In field trials using various combinations of synthetic grandlures I, II, III, and IV and lavandulol, significantly more weevils were caught in traps baited with blends containing grandlure I and II and lavandulol than in those baited with blends without lavandulol or unbaited controls. Addition of grandlure III and IV had no significant effect on attractiveness. Horizontal sticky traps were found to be more effective than vertical sticky traps or standard boll weevil traps. In mid-season females

  17. Identification and field evaluation of attractants for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendrei, Zsofia; Averill, Anne; Alborn, Hans; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Studies were conducted to develop an attractant for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus, a pest of blueberry and cranberry flower buds and flowers in the northeastern United States. In previous studies, we showed that cinnamyl alcohol, the most abundant blueberry floral volatile, and the green leaf volatiles (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, emitted from both flowers and flower buds, elicit strong antennal responses from A. musculus. Here, we found that cinnamyl alcohol did not increase capture of A. musculus adults on yellow sticky traps compared with unbaited controls; however, weevils were highly attracted to traps baited with the Anthonomus eugenii Cano aggregation pheromone, indicating that these congeners share common pheromone components. To identify the A. musculus aggregation pheromone, headspace volatiles were collected from adults feeding on blueberry or cranberry flower buds and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three male-specific compounds were identified: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethyl-cyclohexylidene) ethanol (Z grandlure II); (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure III); and (E)-(3,3- dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure IV). A fourth component, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol), was emitted in similar quantities by males and females. The emission rates of these volatiles were about 2.8, 1.8, 1.3, and 0.9 ng/adult/d, respectively. Field experiments in highbush blueberry (New Jersey) and cranberry (Massachusetts) examined the attraction of A. musculus to traps baited with the male-produced compounds and geraniol presented alone and combined with (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, and to traps baited with the pheromones of A. eugenii and A. grandis. In both states and crops, traps baited with the A. musculus male-produced compounds attracted the highest number of adults. Addition of the green leaf volatiles did not affect A. musculus attraction to its pheromone but skewed the sex ratio

  18. Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Cassia Bená

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae. The third instar larva and the pupa of Anthonomus vis Clark, 1992 are described and illustrated, based upon specimens collected in the Serra de São José, Tiradentes, in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The species was previously known from the type series collected in the states of Amapá and Pará. Comparisons with the larva and pupa of A. grandis Boheman, 1843 and A. monostigma Champion, 1903 are included. The larvae of A. vis live as inquilines in the galls induced by a species of momphid moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae in the stems of Leandra aurea (Cham. Cogn. (Melastomataceae.

  19. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Eller, Fred J.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about ...

  20. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Eller, Fred; Palmquist,Debra

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about a...

  1. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Eller, Fred J.; Debra E. Palmquist

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about ...

  2. Spatial Distribution of Adult Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Damage to Cotton Flower Buds Due to Feeding and Oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigolli, J F J; Souza, L A; Fernandes, M G; Busoli, A C

    2016-12-12

    The cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the main pest in cotton crop around the world, directly affecting cotton production. In order to establish a sequential sampling plan, it is crucial to understand the spatial distribution of the pest population and the damage it causes to the crop through the different developmental stages of cotton plants. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of adults in the cultivation area and their oviposition and feeding behavior throughout the development of the cotton plants. The experiment was conducted in Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in an area of 10,000 m(2), planted with the cotton cultivar FM 993. The experimental area was divided into 100 plots of 100 m(2) (10 × 10 m) each, and five plants per plot were sampled weekly throughout the crop cycle. The number of flower buds with feeding and oviposition punctures and of adult A. grandis was recorded throughout the crop cycle in five plants per plot. After determining the aggregation indices (variance/mean ratio, Morisita's index, exponent k of the negative binomial distribution, and Green's coefficient) and adjusting the frequencies observed in the field to the distribution of frequencies (Poisson, negative binomial, and positive binomial) using the chi-squared test, it was observed that flower buds with punctures derived from feeding, oviposition, and feeding + oviposition showed an aggregated distribution in the cultivation area until 85 days after emergence and a random distribution after this stage. The adults of A. grandis presented a random distribution in the cultivation area.

  3. Aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Identification and field activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, F J; Bartelt, R J; Shasha, B S; Schuster, D J; Riley, D G; Stansly, P A; Mueller, T F; Shuler, K D; Johnson, B; Davis, J H; Sutherland, C A

    1994-07-01

    This study describes the identification of an aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii and field trials of a synthetic pheromone blend. Volatile collections and gas chromatography revealed the presence of six male-specific compounds. These compounds were identified using chromatographic and spectral techniques as: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (E)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoic acid (geranic acid), and (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol). The emission rates of these compounds from feeding males were determined to be about: 7.2, 4.8, 0.45, 0.30, 2.0, and 0.30µg/male/day, respectively. Sticky traps baited with a synthetic blend of these compounds captured more pepper weevils (both sexes) than did unbaited control traps or pheromone-baited boll weevil traps. Commercial and laboratory formulations of the synthetic pheromone were both attractive. However, the commercial formulation did not release geranic acid properly, and geranic acid is necessary for full activity. The pheromones of the pepper weevil and the boll weevil are compared. Improvements for increasing trap efficiency and possible uses for the pepper weevil pheromone are discussed. A convenient method for purifying geranic acid is also described.

  4. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Collection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred J. Eller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q, male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on” and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h. Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

  5. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Fred J; Palmquist, Debra E

    2014-11-18

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after "lights on") and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

  6. Susceptibility of pepper weevil (anthonomus eugenii cano) (coleoptera: curculionidae) to seven insecticides in rural areas of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalía Servín Villegas; José. L. García Hernández; Armando Tejas Romero; José L. Martínez Carrillo; M. A. Toapanta

    2008-01-01

    The susceptibility of the pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii), collected from Baja California Sur, Mexico, to seven insecticides was determined. Acontact, residual exposition method was used to obtain the lethal concentrations fifty (LC50) and the diagnostic concentration (LC95) of organophosphates (OF), carbamates (CA), pyrethroids (PIR), and organochlorine (OC) insecticides used to control pepper weevils from two agricultural areas (Los Planes and Todos Santos) in Southern Baja California Pe...

  7. The life history and immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Coleoptera: Curculiondidae) on Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal; M.Tracy Johnson; Paul. Hanson

    2012-01-01

    We describe and illustrate the life history and immature stages of Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Anthonomini). This weevil is a fruit borer in Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae), a Neotropical tree that is invasive in Pacific islands. The larva has three instars, and development from egg to...

  8. Captures of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in relation to trap distance from cotton fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Once populations of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) are suppressed, eradication programs rely on pheromone trap-based monitoring for timely detection of weevil populations in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Delayed detection may increase the costs of remedial treatments, and permit rep...

  9. Roles of host plants in boll weevil range expansion beyond tropical Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    New findings on boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), biology and ecology have had repercussions on the current level of understanding about short- and long-range boll weevil dispersal, and range expansion from its original tropical Mesoamerican habitat. The w...

  10. Attraction of dispersing boll weevils from surrounding habitats relative to simulated pheromone diffusion from traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to detect populations of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), with pheromone traps has contributed significantly in progress toward eradication of the boll weevil. However, new information is needed to aid in the interpretation of trap captures, such as identification of habitats...

  11. Forensic pollen geolocation techniques used to identify the origin of boll weevil reinfestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, entered the United States of America in the early 20th century and became a major pest in cotton, Gossypium spp. Shortly after the passage of Tropical Storm Erin on 16 August 2007 through the South Texas/Winter Garden boll weevil eradication zone, over 150 boll ...

  12. Effect of Hexaflumuron on gustation and reproduction of adult boll weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of hexaflumuron was evaluated in the laboratory against boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, captured in pheromone-baited traps for gustatory response and reproduction of the insect. Hexaflumuron is an insect growth regulator which inhibits chitin synthesis and disrupts inse...

  13. Genetic Profiling to Determine Potential Origins of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Captured in a Texas Eradication Zone: Endemicity, Immigration, or Sabotage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five specimens of adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, were captured nearly simultaneously in pheromone traps clustered near Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains/Caprock eradication zone in late summer 2006. No boll weevils had been captured in this zone or neighboring zones to the north earl...

  14. Genetic diversity of Brazilian natural populations of Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the major cotton pest in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, W F S; Ayres, C F J; Lucena, W A

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five RAPD loci and 6 isozyme loci were studied to characterize the genetic variability of natural populations of Anthonomus grandis from two agroecosystems of Brazil. The random-amplified polymorphic DNA data disclosed a polymorphism that varied from 52 to 84% and a heterozygosity of 0.189 to 0.347. The index of genetic differentiation (GST) among the six populations was 0.258. The analysis of isozymes showed a polymorphism and a heterozygosity ranging from 25 to 100% and 0.174 to 0.277, respectively. The genetic differentiation (FST) among the populations obtained by isozyme data was 0.544. It was possible to observe rare alleles in the populations from the Northeast region. The markers examined allowed us to distinguish populations from large-scale, intensive farming region (cotton belts) versus populations from areas of small-scale farming

  15. Continued pheromone release by boll weevils (Coleoptera: curculionidae) following host removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone traps are a key component of management and eradication programs directed against the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), but trap data remain difficult to interpret because of the day-to-day variability in captures. Our prior observations suggested a substantial proportion of boll...

  16. Molecular diagnostic for boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) based on amplification of three species-specific microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Szendrei, Zsofia; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Mulder, Phillip G; Sappington, Thomas W

    2009-04-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally the traps collect nontarget weevils that can be misidentified by scouts. For example, the congeneric pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, and other superficially similar weevils are attracted to components of the boll weevil lure or trap color. Although morphologically distinguishable by trained personnel, the potential for misidentification is compounded when captured weevils are dismembered or partially consumed by ants or ground beetles that sometimes feed on them in the traps. Because misidentification can have expensive consequences, a molecular diagnostic tool would be of great value to eradication managers. We demonstrate that a cocktail of three primer pairs in a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplify species-specific microsatellites that unambiguously distinguish the boll weevil from three other weevil species tested, including pepper weevil; cranberry weevil, Anthonomus eugenii musculus Say; and pecan weevil, Curculio caryae Horn. However, it does not distinguish the boll weevil from the subspecific "thurberia" weevil. A universal internal transcribed spacer primer pair included in the cocktail cross-amplifies DNA from all species, serving as a positive control. Furthermore, the diagnostic primers amplified the target microsatellites from various boll weevil adult body parts, indicating that the PCR technology using the primer cocktail is sensitive enough to positively identify a boll weevil even when the body is partly degraded.

  17. Five types of olfactory receptor neurons in the strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi: selective responses to inducible host-plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichão, Helena; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Araújo, Jorge; Mustaparta, Hanna

    2005-02-01

    Plants release hundreds of volatiles that are important in the interaction with herbivorous animals, but which odorants are detected by which species? In this study, single receptor neurons on the antenna of the oligophagous strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi were screened for sensitivity to naturally produced plant compounds by the use of gas chromatography linked to electrophysiological recordings from single cells. The narrow tuning of the neurons was demonstrated by responses solely to a few structurally related sesquiterpenes, aromatics or monoterpene hydrocarbons out of hundreds of plant constituents tested. We present five olfactory receptor neuron types, identified according to one primary odorant i.e. the compound to which the neurons are most sensitive. These odorants, (-)-germacrene D, (-)-beta-caryophyllene, methyl salicylate, E-beta-ocimene and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, present in the intact strawberry plant, are induced in higher amounts by weevil feeding. This suggests that these compounds can provide information about the presence of conspecifics. We used protocols especially designed to allow comparison with previously investigated species. Striking similarities, but also differences, are demonstrated between receptor neuron specificity in the strawberry weevil and moths.

  18. Combining 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, the major flower volatile of wild strawberry Fragaria vesca, with the aggregation pheromone of the strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi improves attraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibe, Atle; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin; Cross, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil [Anthonomus rubi Herbst (Col.: Curculionidae)], a 1:4:1 blend of Grandlure I, II and racemic lavadulol, has been available for pest monitoring for several years but shows low attractancy. Attempts to control A.rubi using the pheromone alone...... were also unsuccessful. This paper reports the finding that addition of the major flower volatile from wild strawberry flowers [Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae)], 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (comprising 98% of the volatiles emitted from wild strawberry flowers), to the aggregation pheromone increased trap catches...... by over two fold compared to the pheromone alone. There was no significant difference between the response of overwintered or summer emerged adults. Field trials in 2007-2008 in central and southern Norway, Denmark and southern England used green funnel traps with white cross vanes for the evaluations...

  19. Structure and development of ovaries in the weevil, Anthonomus pomorum (Coleoptera, Polyphaga). II. Germ cells of the trophic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatek, Piotr

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of the germ cell cluster formation in Anthonomus pomorum (Coleoptera, Polyphaga, Curculionidae) has revealed that both linear and branched clones of cystocytes occur in the pupa stage. In the branched clones a poorly developed polyfusome is formed and cystocytes with maximally 3 intercellular bridges were found. In the linear clones the polyfusomes are absent. Further divisions of cystocytes produce exclusively linearly arranged cells. Just after metamorphosis (Imago-A stage), the process of the germ cell membrane reduction starts. Only 2 groups of cells retain cell membranes: i.e the most anteriorly localized group of cystocytes and the posteriorly located presumptive oocytes. The former cells divide mitotically during the summer. As a result an anterior-posterior gradient of the syncytialization process arises in the Imago-B stage (females preparing for hibernation). In the sexually mature females (Imago-C) the trophic chamber consists of a huge syncytial area with numerous nurse cell nuclei embedded in a common cytoplasm, and posteriorly located young oocytes surrounded by prefollicular cells. In the light of recent hypothesis concerning the germ cell cluster formation and telotrophy anagenesis in Polyphaga the significance of the presented results is discussed.

  20. Structure and development of ovaries in the weevil, Anthonomus pomorum (Coleoptera, Polyphaga). I. Somatic tissues of the trophic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatek, P

    2001-01-01

    In developing ovarioles of Anthonomus pomorum (Coleoptera, Polyphaga, Curculionidae) the trophic chambers (tropharia) are relatively large and consist of clusters (clones) of germ cells and various somatic tissues. Each ovariole is enclosed within an outer epithelial sheath (tunica externa). Throughout the pupal phase, the growth of this sheath is accelerated and precedes the development of the rest of the ovariole. As a result, the epithelial sheath proliferates anteriorly and forms an elongated "sleeve" that during the later stages of development becomes gradually filled by the growing tropharium. In the early pupal stage, a few terminal filament cells are observed in contact with the anterior end of the tropharium. These cells are separated from the rest of the trophic chamber by a transverse septum, which maintains continuity with the basal lamina. Beneath the basal lamina there is a layer of inner sheath cells, whereas inside the tropharium there are interstitial cells. These two types of cell differ morphologically in a mature ovary but they retain, until the end of the imago-B stage, a similar ultrastructure testifying to their common origin. At the posterior end of the tropharium, from the imago-B stage on, many young oocytes, surrounded by prefollicular cells, are observed. This is the so-called neck region of the tropharium. Extraction with Triton X-100 detergent showed that in a mature trophic chamber there are only individual microtubules arranged along the projections of interstitial cells. This indicates that the cytoskeleton elements (microfilaments and microtubules) participate only to a very limited extent in the spatial organisation of the tropharium in A. pomorum.

  1. Sublethal effects of malathion on boll weevil (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) fecundity when maintained on cotton squares or artificial diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JOHN SCOTT ARMSTRONG; ALLAN T. SHOWLER; MAMOUDOU SETAMOU; SHOIL GREENBERG

    2006-01-01

    Mated 3-day-old female boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman,reared from field-infested cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) squares were topically treated with an estimated LD50 of malathion (2μg) to assess its effects on fecundity, oviposition, and body fat condition. Two different food sources, cotton squares and artificial diet, were assessed in malathion-treated and nontreated (control) weevils. The LD50 caused ≈ 50%mortality in the square-fed malathion treatment, but the artificial diet-fed malathion-treated weevils were less susceptible. LD50 survivors fed on the squares produced ≥ 9 times more chorionated eggs in the ovaries and oviposited≥ 19-fold more than survivors fed artificial diet, regardless of the malathion treatment. Boll weevils that survived a 2μg LD50 malathion and also fed squares were ≈ 4.5-fold leaner than diet-fed weevils. Our findings demonstrate that non-resistant boll weevils surviving a sublethal dose of malathion will reproduce without any delay or significant loss in fecundity, and the food source for which boll weevils are maintained when conducting these assays will directly affect the results. The significance of these findings and how they are related to the final stages of eradicating the boll weevil from the US are discussed.

  2. A model for long-distance dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John K.; Eyster, Ritchie S.; Allen, Charles T.

    2011-07-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), has been a major insect pest of cotton production in the US, accounting for yield losses and control costs on the order of several billion US dollars since the introduction of the pest in 1892. Boll weevil eradication programs have eliminated reproducing populations in nearly 94%, and progressed toward eradication within the remaining 6%, of cotton production areas. However, the ability of weevils to disperse and reinfest eradicated zones threatens to undermine the previous investment toward eradication of this pest. In this study, the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Simulated weevil dispersal was compared with weekly capture of weevils in pheromone traps along highway trap lines between the LRGV and the South Texas / Winter Garden zone of the Texas Boll Weevil Eradication Program. A logistic regression model was fit to the probability of capturing at least one weevil in individual pheromone traps relative to specific values of simulated weevil dispersal, which resulted in 60.4% concordance, 21.3% discordance, and 18.3% ties in estimating captures and non-captures. During the first full year of active eradication with widespread insecticide applications in 2006, the dispersal model accurately estimated 71.8%, erroneously estimated 12.5%, and tied 15.7% of capture and non-capture events. Model simulations provide a temporal risk assessment over large areas of weevil reinfestation resulting from dispersal by prevailing winds. Eradication program managers can use the model risk assessment information to effectively schedule and target enhanced trapping, crop scouting, and insecticide applications.

  3. Diversity and Distribution of Parasitoids of Anthonomus eugenii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Mexico and Prospects for Biological Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esteban Rodríguez-Leyva; Philip A. Stansly; David J. Schuster; Ernesto Bravo-Mosqueda

    2007-01-01

    Abstract A survey of parasitoids of the pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii Cano), one of the most important pests of peppers in North America, was conducted in Mexico as part of a search for biological control agents of this pest...

  4. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta R. Coelho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitellogenin (Vg, a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest.

  5. Reproductive potential of field-collected overwintering boll weevils (Coleoptera" Curculionidae) fed on pollen in the laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Greenberg; G.D.Jones; J.J.Adamczyk, Jr.; F.Eischen; J.S.Armstrong; R.J.Coleman; M.Sétamou; Tong-Xian Liu

    2009-01-01

    The reproductive potential of overwintering boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Bobeman), females collected from pheromone traps in September, November and January, fed for 1, 3, and 5 weeks on plant pollens, and then provided cotton squares, was determined in the laboratory at 27 ± 1℃, 65% RH, and a photoperiod 13 : 11 (L : D) h.Duration of pollen feeding by overwintering boll weevils did not significantly influence egg and feeding punctures, or puncture ratios (egg to total punctures) for any of the three months of parent weevil collections when provided cotton squares on a daily basis.However, punctures and puncture ratios are significantly different when comparing mean data between months of boll weevil collections. When boll weevils were provided with cotton squares daily, the pre-ovipositional periods of female parents captured in September, November and January were 5, 9 and 14 days, respectively. The rate of eggs by females was significantly lower during November and January than September. Female parents collected in September produced a significantly higher percentage of eggs yielding adult progeny than those collected in November and January. Life table parameters indicated that net reproductive rate (R_o) of boll weevil females collected in September was 1.2-fold higher than those collected in November and 10.7-fold higher than those collected in January. Except for testes size, no differences in male reproductive parameters were observed during the cotton-free period compared with males captured during mid-cotton (June). The number of oocytes in the ovarioles and the number of oocytes containing yolk were significantly lower during September, November and January compared with June. The reproductive potential of overwintering boll weevil females collected in different months is an important consideration in determining the success of any control strategy.

  6. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Cry1Ia12 toxin confer resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Sampaio Oliveira; Osmundo Brilhante Oliveira-Neto; Hudson Fernando Moura; Leonardo Lima Pepino de Macedo; Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro Arraes; Wagner Alexandre Lucena; Isabela Tristan Lourenço-Tessuti; Aulus Estevão Anjos de Deus Barbosa; Maria Cristina Mattar Silva; Maria Fátima eGrossi de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (throu...

  7. Rational Practices to Manage Boll Weevils Colonization and Population Growth on Family Farms in the Semiárido Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério C. S. Neves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, we tested the use of kaolin sprays to disrupt plant colonization through visual cue interference, combined with removal of fallen fruiting bodies to restrain boll weevil population growth after colonization. Kaolin spray under non-choice trials resulted in 2.2×, 4.4×, and 8.6× fewer weevils, oviposition and feeding punctures on kaolin-treated plants, respectively, despite demonstrating no statistical differences for colonization and population growth. Early season sprays in 2010 occurred during a period of rainfall, and hence, under our fixed spraying schedule no significant differences in boll weevil colonization were detected. In 2011, when kaolin sprays were not washed out by rain, delayed boll weevil colonization and reduction on attacked fruiting bodies were observed in eight out of 12 evaluations, and kaolin-treated plots had 2.7× fewer damaged fruiting bodies compared to untreated plots. Adoption of simple measures such as removal of fallen fruiting bodies and prompt reapplication of kaolin sprays after rainfall show promise in reducing boll weevil infestation.

  8. Survival of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)adults after feeding on pollens from various sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHOIL M. GREENBERG; GRETCHEN D. JONES; FRANK EISCHEN; RANDY J.COLEMAN; JOHN J. ADAMCZYK, JR; TONG-XIAN LIU; MAMOUDOU SETAMOU

    2007-01-01

    The survival of overwintering boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis (Boheman),adults on non-cotton hosts in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas was examined from 2001 to 2006. The success of the Boll Weevil Eradication Program, which was reintroduced into the LRGV in 2005, depends on controlling overwintering boll weevil populations. Laboratory studies were conducted using boll weevil adults that were captured in pheromone traps from September through March. The number of adults captured per trap declined significantly in the field from fall to the beginning of spring (3.5-7.0-fold). The proportion of trapped males and females did not differ significantly. The mean weight of boll weevil adults captured in September was 13.3 mg, while those of captured adults from November to February were significantly lower and ranged from 6.7 to 7.8 mg. Our results show that boll weevil adults can feed on different plant pollens. The highest longevity occurred when adults were fed almond pollen or mixed pollens (72.6 days and 69.2 days, respectively)and the lowest when they fed on citrus pollen or a non-food source (9.7 days or 7.4 days,respectively). The highest adult survival occurred on almond and mixed pollens [88.0%-97.6% after 1st feeding period (10 days), 78.0%-90.8% after 3rd feeding period (10 days), 55.0%-83.6% after 5th feeding period (10 days), and 15.2%-32.4% after 10th feeding period (10days)]. The lowest adult survival occurred on citrus pollen [52.0%-56.0% after 1st feeding period (10 days), 13.3% after 3rd and 5th feeding periods (10 days), and 0 after 6th feeding period (10 days)]. Pollen feeding is not a behavior restricted to adult boll weevils of a specific sex or physiological state. Understanding how boll weevil adults survive in the absence of cotton is important to ensure ultimate success of eradicating this pest in the subtropics.

  9. Using an Electronic Nose to Rapidly Assess Grandlure Content in Boll Weevil Pheromone Lures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles P.-C. Suh; Ningye Ding; Yubin Lan

    2011-01-01

    Samples of pheromone lures used in boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis (Boheman),eradication programs are routinely analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) to ensure lures are adequately dosed with grandlure,the synthetic aggregation pheromone produced by male weevils.However,preparation of GC samples is tedious,time consuming,and requires a moderate level of experience.We examined the use of a commercially-available electronic nose (e-nose) for rapidly assessing the grandlure contents of lures.The e-nose was trained to recognize headspace collections of grandlure emitted from new lures and after lures were aged under field conditions for 4 d,7 d,10 d,and 14 d.Based on cross-validation of the training set,the e-nose was 82%accurate in discriminating among the different age classes of lures.Upon sampling headspace collections of pheromone from a different set of field-aged lures,the e-nose was <50% accurate in discriminating 4 d,7 d,and 10 d aged lures from the other ageclasses of lures.However,the e-nose identified new and 14 d aged lure samples with 100% accuracy.In light of these findings,e-nose technology shows considerable promise as an alternative approach for rapidly assessing the initial grandlure contents of lures used in boll weevil eradication programs.

  10. Three Boll Weevil Diapause Myths in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonmus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), originated in Mesoamerica but its contemporary distribution extends from the United States Cotton Belt to Argentina, throughout which it is a serious pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. While research on the boll weev...

  11. Mutantes morfológicos de algodoeiro herbáceo como fonte de resistência ao bicudo Morphological mutants of upland cotton as source of boll weevil resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco das Chagas Vidal Neto

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de três características morfológicas mutantes de linhagens de algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch., isoladas ou combinadas no mesmo genótipo, como fonte de resistência ao bicudo, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, sob infestação natural, com delineamento de blocos ao acaso e arranjo fatorial 2´3 com um tratamento adicional, com quatro repetições. Em teste com chance de escolha, a característica bráctea frego foi a que apresentou maior redução no dano de oviposição pelo bicudo (34,71%, em relação ao equivalente normal. A folha "okra" reduziu o dano apenas quando associada à bráctea frego (40%. A combinação das três características mutantes na mesma planta proporcionou a menor porcentagem de botões com dano de oviposição (23,13%.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of three morphological mutants of upland cotton lines (Gossypium hirsutm L. r. latifolium Hutch., isolated or in combination in the same cotton genotype, as a source of resistance to boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. The experiment was carried out in the field, under natural infestation, with a completely randomized block design arranged in a factorial 2´3 plus an additional treatment, with four replications. In a multiple choice test, the character mutant frego bract presented the higher reduction on boll weevil oviposition damage (34.71%, in relation to the normal equivalent. The okra leaf reduced the boll weevil damage only when associated with frego bract (40%. The combination of the three mutant characters in the same plant presented the least square percent with oviposition damage (23.13%.

  12. Pepper weevil attraction to volatiles from host and nonhost plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addesso, Karla M; McAuslane, Heather J

    2009-02-01

    The location of wild and cultivated host plants by pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii Cano) may be aided by visual cues, the male-produced aggregation pheromone, herbivore-induced, or constitutive host plant volatiles. The attractiveness of constitutive plant volatiles to pioneer weevils is important in understanding, and perhaps controlling, dispersal of this insect between wild and cultivated hosts. Ten-day-old male and 2- and 10-day-old female weevils were tested in short-range Y-tube assays. Ten-day-old male and female weevils were attracted to the volatiles released by whole plants of three known oviposition hosts, 'Jalapeno' pepper, American black nightshade, and eggplant, as well as tomato, a congener, which supports feeding but not oviposition. Two-day-old females were attracted to all plants tested, including lima bean, an unrelated, nonhost plant. Fruit volatiles from all three hosts and flower volatiles from nightshade and eggplant were also attractive. In choice tests, weevils showed different preferences for the oviposition hosts, depending on age and sex. Upwind response of 10-day-old male and female weevils to host plant volatiles was also tested in long-range wind tunnel assays. Weevils responded to pepper, nightshade, and eggplant volatiles by moving upwind. There was no difference in the observed upwind response of the weevils to the three host plants under no-choice conditions. Reproductively mature pepper weevils can detect, orient to, and discriminate between the volatile plumes of host plants in the absence of visual cues, conspecific feeding damage, or the presence of their aggregation pheromone.

  13. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Dakshina R. Seal; Martin, Cliff G.

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether ...

  14. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Seal, Dakshina R.; Cliff G. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether ...

  15. Aspectos biológicos de adultos de um parasitóide do bicudo do algodoeiro Biological aspects of a parasitoid of the cotton boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Avelino Araújo

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Bracon sp. é um importante agente de controle biológico de Anthonomus grandis (Boheman. Estudaram-se em laboratório, aspectos biológicos de Bracon sp., utilizando-se como hospedeiro larva do bicudo do algodoeiro, a temperatura de 26 ± 2oC, 70 ± 5% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. O ciclo biológico de Bracon sp. teve duração média de 11,7 dias, o período de incubação de 1 dia, o período médio larval de 3,9 dias, com 4 estádios; a viabilidade larval de 98,7%, o período pré-pupal de 0,6 dia, o período pupal de 6,2 dias, o tempo de pré-oviposição de 4,0 dias. A fêmea colocou, em média, 74 ovos em um período de 27,2 dias, a oviposição média diária de 2,7 ovos/fêmea/dia, o período de pós-oviposição de 3,7 dias e a longevidade de Bracon sp. foi de 34 dias para as fêmeas. A informação da biologia deste braconídeo é necessária para desenvolver estratégias de propagação e colonização do parasitóide.Bracon sp. is an important biological control agent of Anthonomus grandis, the cotton Boll weevil. The objective of this work was to evaluate biological aspects of Bracon sp. using cotton Boll weevil larvae as host, at conditions of 26 ± 2oC, with 70 ± 5% RH and 12h photoperiod. The complete life cycle of Bracon sp. was 11.7 days. The incubation period lasted 1.0 day and the larval period 3.9 days with four stages; the viability of the larvae was 98.7%; prepupal period lasted 0.6 day; and the pupal period lasted 6.2 days. Preoviposition period was 4.0 days, and the females laid an average of 74.0 eggs with in an oviposition period of 27.2 days, while the average daily oviposition rate was 2.7 eggs per female per day, posovipositional lasted 3.7 days, and the longevity of Bracon sp. was 34.0 days in females. The information of the biology of this Braconid is needed to develop parasitoid propagation and colonization strategies.

  16. ANTHONOMUS RUBI (HERBST, 1795 (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE A NEW DANGEROUS PEST IN THE ECOLOGICAL CROPS OF STRAWBERRY IN THE SOUTHERN REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian MANOLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania mostly of 70% of strawberry ecological plantations were cultivated with specific commercial cultivars like Premial, Red Gauntlet, Dana and Elsanta. In the last years became to be cropped cultivars with increased resistance to various pest insects, specially in the first stages of vegetation period like Honeoye, Elsanta, Camorosa, Marmolada, Chandler, Darselect, Clery and Sonata. On the little individual farms with small surfaces the cultivars Senga Sengana, Marmolada, Elsinore should be the primary source of infestation with Anthonomus rubi.A study of distribution, density and the degree attack of Anthonomus rubi was carried out in the period 2006-2007 in the Vidra and Comana localities, Giurgiu district in the southern part of Romania. The study and observations that was made showed that this species is increased in density in the new ecological plantations of strawberry from some individual farms. The strawberry blossom weevil is not a common pest of strawberry plantations in Romania but some cultivars cropped in ecological system became more sensitive to the weevil attack by increasing in density. Observations and researches were carried out on 4 cultivars and showed that the degree of damage caused by A. rubi depends of cultivar morphological characteristics (small fruits or phenophases (time of ripening and duration of budding and blossoming.

  17. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed.

  18. El picudo del algodonero en la Argentina: Principales resultados e implicancias de los estudios moleculares The cotton boll weevil in Argentina: Main results and implications of the molecular studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía A. Lanteri

    2003-12-01

    the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, in Argentina, the insect arrived in the cotton area of Chaco. Molecular studies on populations from Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, and possible source populations from USA and Mexico, provided helpful information to control the pest. RAPD technique (Random Analysis of Polymorphic DNA and sequencing of Cytochrome Oxidase I and II mitochondrial genes, allowed to differentiate two main lineages: a lineages with scarce or null variability measured by heterocigosis and haplotypic diversity, considered recent colonizers, and associated with xerophytic environments and cotton areas (Formosa province; b lineages with high genetic variability and haplotypic diversity, considered ancestral, and associated with areas of wild vegetation as the subtropical forests of Misiones (Iguazú National Park. Both lineages probably have different origins, adaptations and host preferences, and at present would be hibridizing in ecotonal areas. We propose that the boll weevil probably occurs in South America as a consequence of a natural dispersal associated to wild hosts, mainly of the genera Gossypium and Cienfuegosia, probably since Pleistocene times. On the other hand, there is a possibility of introductions from USA to Brazil, trough the commercial exchange. Extensive cotton cultivation and deforestation, with formation of corridors connecting fragments of forests would explain the rapid dispersal of the pest during the last 20 years, in cotton and/or non cotton areas under environmental impact, such as the Misiones province.

  19. Multidisciplinary Fingerprints: Forensic Reconstruction of an Insect Reinvasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning late August 2007, more than 150 boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis, were unexpectedly captured across an extensive area of the Southern Rolling Plains (SRP) eradication zone of West-Central Texas, which was essentially weevil-free since 2003. This outbreak was detected soon after the passag...

  20. MODIFICACIÓN AL PROCESO DE PRODUCCIÓN MASIVA DE LOS PARASITOIDES Catolaccus grandis Y Catolaccus hunteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Reyes-Rosas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de modificar la tecnología de producción masiva de Catolaccus grandis y Catolaccus hunteri, himenópteros parasitoides de Anthonomus grandis el picudo del algodonero en Tamaulipas, México en el 2002. Se determinó la eficiencia del papel toalla para el secado de manos, en el sellamiento de cápsulas moldeadas en cera de hidrocarburos y poliolefina (LCHP, donde se confina al huésped, y evaluar la efectividad del gorgojo del garbanzo Callosobruchus maculatus como hospedante facticio para la cría de ambos parasitoides. Hubo producción masiva de C. grandis y C. hunteri utilizando C. maculatus como huésped y el papel toalla fue efectivo para sellar los orificios de las cápsulas moldeadas en LCHP. La producción masiva de C. grandis y C. hunteri mediante C. maculatus, contribuyó a incrementar la seguridad y facilidad del proceso, además de una significativa reducción de costos. El papel toalla en el sellado de los orificios de las cápsulas moldeadas en LCHP, redujo en un 50% por m2 los costos del proceso, sin afectar la eficiencia del parasitismo y emergencia de C. grandis.

  1. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-03-04

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation.

  2. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felipe Farias, Davi; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F.; Carvalho, A.F.U.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolutio

  3. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshina R. Seal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peppers (Capsicum spp. are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin “Habanero” was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars “SY” and “SR” were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm. However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation.

  4. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  5. Toxicidad de insecticidas sobre Catolaccus hunteri Crawford (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoide de Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo Hernández, Juan Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Cuando no se puede evitar el uso de insecticidas es recomendable que la propuesta de manejo de sus plagas incluya el efecto de dichos insecticidas sobre los enemigos naturales (EN). En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto de la residualidad y la toxicidad letal y subletal de los insecticidas beta-cyfluthrin, bifenazate, clorantraniliprol, flonicamid, spirotetramat y thiametoxam sobre Catolaccus hunteri, un ectoparasitoide del picudo del chile, Anthonomus eugenii. En las evaluaciones se emp...

  6. Toxicidad de insecticidas sobre Catolaccus hunteri Crawford (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoide de Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo Hernández, Juan Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Cuando no se puede evitar el uso de insecticidas es recomendable que la propuesta de manejo de sus plagas incluya el efecto de dichos insecticidas sobre los enemigos naturales (EN). En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto de la residualidad y la toxicidad letal y subletal de los insecticidas beta-cyfluthrin, bifenazate, clorantraniliprol, flonicamid, spirotetramat y thiametoxam sobre Catolaccus hunteri, un ectoparasitoide del picudo del chile, Anthonomus eugenii. En las evaluaciones se emp...

  7. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  8. Edge effect on weevils and spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, R.; Magura, T.; Péter, G.; B. Tóthmérész

    2002-01-01

    The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest...

  9. Palm Weevil Pheromones - Discovery and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlschlager, A C

    2016-07-01

    Male-produced aggregation pheromones of seven major pest species of weevils in the subfamily Rhynchophorinae have been identified as a closely related set of methyl-branched secondary alcohols. Although the weevils produce only one stereoisomer of these alcohols, no instances of isomeric inhibition have been observed, enabling stereoisomeric mixtures to be used in traps. Addition of fermenting plant material to traps synergizes attraction of weevils to the pheromones. The weevils are large, have long life cycles, and are strong fliers. These characteristics make mass trapping a suitable tactic to add to existing management strategies. When coupled with good phytosanitary practices, mass trapping of Rhynchophorus palmarum at 1 trap/5-ha significantly lowered the incidence of red ring nematode infection vectored by the weevil in commercial oil palm plantations in the Americas. Similarly, trap densities of 1-10 traps/ha have significantly lowered R. ferrugineus infestation of date palm throughout the Middle East. Although management of R. ferrugineus in urban areas is more problematic, trapping is an integral part of most programs aimed at protection of ornamental Canary palms in Europe. Overall, semiochemically-based management of these large weevils is now a mature and usually economically feasible control technology.

  10. FCH_Crenichthys_baileyi grandis_19850927

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Hiko White River springfish (Crenichthys baileyi grandis) occur. "Nevada, Lincoln County. Each of...

  11. FCH_Crenichthys_baileyi grandis_19850927

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Hiko White River springfish (Crenichthys baileyi grandis) occur. "Nevada, Lincoln County. Each of...

  12. A screening method for banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... sordidus Germar) resistance using reference genotypes ... experiments to assess weevil resistance/susceptibility. ..... change into adults. ... management for the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) ... Pest Manage.

  13. Edge effect on weevils and spiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Horváth

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest interior was significantly lower than that of the forest edge and the meadow. The composition of the spider assemblage of the edge was more similar to the forest, while the composition of weevils in the edge was more similar to the meadow. Our results based on two invertebrate groups operating on different trophic levels suggest that there is a significant edge effect for the studied taxa resulting in higher species richness in the edge.

  14. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  15. Biology of the African sweetpotato weevil species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, N.E.J.M.; Huis, van A.

    1999-01-01

    The biology of two African sweetpotato weevil species, Cylas pitncticollis and C. bninnens (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Apionidae), was studied in laboratory experiments carried out at 27 ±1°C, 45 ±5% RH, and a 12 h photophase. Cylns pinicticollis females lived longer than C. brunneus (141 ±10 and 92

  16. Patogenicidade e viabilidade de Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae Var. anisopliae e Metarhizium anisopliae Var. acridium ao Anthonomus grandis (Boheman) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae amplamente distribuídos em todas as regiões do mundo podem ser isolados de insetos, solo e de outros substratos. Essas espécies apresentam variabilidade genética e habilidades sobre diferentes insetos-praga. Patogenicidade e virulência sobre diversos artrópodes têm sido observadas com a variação de atividades enzimáticas e características genéticas dos isolados. A ação desses agentes está relacionada com as condições climáti...

  17. Strade, ferrovie e grandi rischi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scira Menoni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nell’articolo il rapporto tra sistemi di accessibilità (ferroviaria e stradale e grandi rischi viene affrontato da due diverse prospettive. La prima vede tali sistemi come esposti e vulnerabili a diverse forme di pericolosità naturale; la seconda li considera invece quali potenziali fonti di pericolo, indagando in particolare il trasporto di sostanze pericolose. Per quanto riguarda la prima parte dell’articolo, ovvero l’analisi di vulnerabilità delle infrastrutture di trasporto a diversi agenti naturali, verranno esplicitati i fattori di vulnerabilità fisica, sistemica e organizzativa. A sostegno della modellazione proposta, si fa riferimento sia alla letteratura internazionale sia al metodo sviluppato presso il Politecnico di Milano, nei suoi ultimi sviluppi. Interessa infatti presentare un metodo relativamente semplice da utilizzare a scala vasta per poi scendere nel dettaglio necessario laddove le priorità individuata a grande scala ne indichino la necessità. Tra i fattori di vulnerabilità fisica si indicheranno gli elementi maggiormente critici per diversi tipi di sollecitazione (sismica, vulcanica, alluvionale, etc.; per quanto attiene ai fattori di vulnerabilità sistemica si considerano le interdipendenze tra reti e sistemi (inclusi gli altri servizi a rete; per quanto attiene alla vulnerabilità organizzativa si indicheranno le difficoltà nel produrre un sistema integrato di allertamento, che consenta ad esempio di chiudere tratti di strada quando questi vengano segnalati come imminentemente interessati da un dato evento estremo. Infine si indicheranno i danni che il sistema di accessibilità può subire e le ripercussioni di questi sul territorio di interesse. Nella seconda parte viene trattato un particolare tipo di trasporto, quello delle sostanze pericolose, differenziando opportunamente tra ferroviario e stradale. Il ribaltamento del punto di vista comporta la necessità di identificare in modo puntuale i fattori di

  18. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL)...

  19. Micropropagation of Eucalyptus grandis and nitens using tissue culture techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furze, M.J.; Creswell, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments with nodal explants of E. grandis and E. nitens seedlings and E. grandis coppice shoots showed that a large number of plants can be produced from a single explant using micropropagation. The percentage of micropropagated shoots that formed roots was about 90% for E. grandis and 80% for E. nitens. For both species, about 90% of the rooted shoots survived after hardening off. 9 references.

  20. I Grandi Eventi: il caso spagnolo

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Il tema dell’articolo verte sulle trasformazioni urbane e territoriali generate dai grandi eventi in Spagna in relazione all’implementazione/trasformazione dei sistemi di trasporto durante gli stessi. A tale scopo l’articolo analizza i risultati, sia finali che attesi, delle trasformazioni degli ultimi 15 anni in Spagna in occasione di questi eventi straordinari. Nello specifico si analizzano cinque casi-studio: Barcellona ed i Giochi Olimpici del 1992, Siviglia e l’Es...

  1. Genotypic variation for maize weevil resistance in eastern and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ... Resources Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Organization, ... resistance and grain yield, suggesting that breeding for maize weevil resistance can be achieved without compromising grain yield. Key words: Sitophilus zeamais, weevil resistance, Zea mays ..... might be manifested as a result of changes.

  2. Field attraction of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus to Kairomones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Bruck, D.J.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Root weevils in the genus Otiorhynchus are cited as one of the most important pests in the major nursery and small fruit production areas throughout the United States, western Canada, and northern Europe. A major problem in combating weevil attack is monitoring and timing of control measures. Becaus

  3. Boron impregnation treatment of Eucalyptus grandis wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodaran, T K; Gnanaharan, R

    2007-08-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is suitable for small timber purposes, but its wood is reported to be non-durable and difficult to treat. Boron compounds being diffusible, and the vacuum-pressure impregnation (VPI) method being more suitable for industrial-scale treatment, the possibility of boron impregnation of partially dry to green timber was investigated using a 6% boric acid equivalent (BAE) solution of boric acid and borax in the ratio 1:1.5 under different treatment schedules. It was found that E. grandis wood, even in green condition, could be pressure treated to desired chemical dry salt retention (DSR) and penetration levels using 6% BAE solution. Up to a thickness of 50mm, in order to achieve a DSR of 5 kg/m(3) boron compounds, the desired DSR level as per the Indian Standard for perishable timbers for indoor use, it was found that neither the moisture content of wood nor the treatment schedule posed any problem as far as the treatability of E. grandis wood was concerned.

  4. Efecto de extractos botánicos sobre el picudo del chile (Anthonomus eugenii Cano). Resultados preliminares.

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Rosa Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo se desarrolló en el Campus de la Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, de El Salvador en el período de mayo de 1995 a febrero de 1996, con el objetivo de encontrar alternativas ecológicas de control contra Anthonomus eugenii. Se evaluaron 35 especies vegetales; a nivel de laboratorio, los extractos acuosos fueron preparados a una dosis de 2,5 g de material vegetal / 20 ml de agua a 80 0C (To de 80 0C) y aplicados a discos foliares de chile dulce (1,7 cm de diámetro), para alim...

  5. Flavonoids in Adaptation of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis Introduced in West Siberia (Novosibirsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova E.A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of flavonoids (flavones and flavonols in leaves of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis plants introduced in Western Siberia (Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk during the growing season in the greenhouse and the open ground were studied for the first time. The ranges of flavonoid fractions and individual flavonoids contents in a favorable environment and during periods of temperature drops and frost were established. Under favorable conditions in the greenhouse and in the open ground B. grandis subsp. grandis leaves were characterized by relatively low content of the sum of flavonoids (up to 10.1 mg/g. During periods of temperature drops in the greenhouse it was decreased (down to 5.2 mg/g, and in conditions of more considerable temperature drops and frost in open ground it was increased by several times (up to 28.3 mg/g. During the period of the action of stress factors content of the sum of flavonoid aglycones in the leaves was increased both in the greenhouse (including quercetin, luteolin and in the open ground (including quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, in the open ground content of major constituent, luteolin 8-C-glucoside (orientin, was increased. The most significant transformations during the growing season were observed in the O-glycosides and free aglycones fractions, their contents of compounds and composition were varied. Four O-glycosides, including isoquercitrin, are detected only in the leaves of open ground plants.

  6. Pharmacognosy of Coccinia grandis:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamilselvan N; Thirumalai T; Elumalai EK; Balaji R; David E

    2011-01-01

    Traditional system of medicine consists of large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances and hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Coccinia grandis belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. It is a rapidly growing, perennial climber or trailing vine. Traditionally different parts of this plant namely the roots, leaves and fruits are used in folklore medicine for several purposes like jaundice, diabetes, wound healing, ulcers, stomach ache, skin disease, fever, asthma, cough. The leaf and its constituents have been reported to possess hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties. This review provides adequate information to develop suitable therapeutics out of these plant parts.

  7. Fossil history of Mesozoic weevils (Coleoptera:Curculionoidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei A.Legalov

    2012-01-01

    The first synopsis of Mesozoic weevils (Curculionoidea: Coleoptera) is presented.Changes of family,genera and species abundance during the Mesozoic revealed three distributional patterns.The Jurassic (Karatau) fauna was dominated by the Nemonychidae.During the Early Cretaceous (beginning at the Jurassic/Cretaceous border),the Ithyceridae was the prevalent group with a significant role played by the Nemonychidae.In the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian and Turonian),the major groups were the Curculionidae and Brentidae.Obviously,the change of weevil fauna during this period was due to the expansion of the angiosperms,which provided multiple niches in their vegetative and reproductive organs for weevil development.

  8. Effects of potassium deficiency, drought and weevils on banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    This paper reports results from a 6-year long-term fertilizer X banana weevil trial for highland banana in ... Soil and foliar analyses, and visual observations (i.e. yellowing of leaves) ... organic amendments, causing further soil fertility decline.

  9. An Insight into Sweet Potato Weevils Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seow-Mun Hue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato is an important food crop that is grown widely in tropical and subtropical regions. Sweet potato weevil is the most disastrous pest affecting sweet potato plantations, causing millions of dollars losses annually. An effective integrated pest management (IPM method will help to prevent economic losses, and it is crucial to understand the factors that contribute to weevil infestation and strategies that are available to overcome them. This review summarizes the (1 mechanisms of action of weevil on sweet potato and (2 contributing factors in weevil infestation, followed by (3 discussion on current IPM practices used in the different regions, including intercropping, entomopathogenic fungi and bacteria, sex pheromones, and pesticides. Lastly, it also focuses on (4 applications of advanced biotechnology and genomics strategies towards reducing weevil’s infestation in sweet potato plantation.

  10. Resistance of maize varieties to the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... as an increasingly important problem in Africa (Markham et al., 1994). Cheap and ... Removal of parent weevils and placement on a fresh seed medium ..... stored maize. An M.Sc. Thesis presented to the School of Graduate.

  11. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis

  12. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  13. How Far Can the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Fly?: Computerized Flight Mill Studies With Field-Captured Weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, M S; Hoddle, C D; Faleiro, J R; El-Shafie, H A F; Jeske, D R; Sallam, A A

    2015-12-01

    Adult Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) captured in pheromone-baited traps in commercial date palm orchards in the Al Ahsaa Directorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were used in computerized flight mill studies to determine the flight characteristics of this highly invasive and destructive palm pest. Flight mill studies were run at three different time periods, winter (December), spring (March), and summer (May). Of the 192 weevils tethered to flight mills ∼30% failed to fly > 1 km. Of those weevils flying > 1 km (n = 139), 55% flew > 10 km, and of these flyers 5% flew > 50 km in 24 h. Flying weevils exhibited an average weight loss of 20-30% and nonflying control weevils lost ∼9-13% body weight in 24 h. Male and female weevils flying in summer (average laboratory temperature was ∼27°C) flew the longest average distances (∼25-35 km), exhibited highest weight reductions (∼30%), and greatest mortality rates (∼80%). Consequently, time of year not weevil sex or color morph had a consistent and significant effect on flight activity, weight loss, and survivorship rates. Flight activity was predominantly diurnal commencing around 5:00 a.m. and peaking between 9-11:00 a.m. before tapering off. The distribution of flight distances combined across season and sex was mesokurtic (i.e., normally distributed).

  14. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides.

  15. Infectivity of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae to larvae and adults of the hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum: Differential virulence and entry routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hazel nut weevil, Curculio nucum, is a major pest of hazel nuts, particularly in Europe; hazel nut weevil is also closely related to other nut-attacking weevils such as pecan weevil (Curculio caryae). In this study, the basis for differential susceptibility of the hazelnut weevil (to entomopatho...

  16. florescimento precoce em eucalyptus grandis1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Silva Domingues

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few available tools in eucalyptus breeding to accelerate the selection of superior genotypes, and one of the main tools to improve this process is the use of molecular markers linked to traits of interest. Using “Bulked Segregant Analysis”, we evaluated 81 RAPD molecular markers in a Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden progeny that segregates for early flowering, and one marker was identified as related to this trait. This RAPD marker was converted into a Sequence-Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR, which was then evaluated in a F1 progeny, and validated in other progenies that presents this trait. The SCAR marker was informative in the progeny in which one of the parental was the donor of the band, with an efficiency of 60%. These results describe the first SCAR marker developed for eucalypt and confirm this technique as a useful molecular tool for forestry breeding which could be employed to locate markers linked to other silvicultural traits.

  17. I Grandi Eventi: il caso spagnolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Giovanna Trifiletti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Il tema dell’articolo verte sulle trasformazioni urbane e territoriali generate dai grandi eventi in Spagna in relazione all’implementazione/trasformazione dei sistemi di trasporto durante gli stessi. A tale scopo l’articolo analizza i risultati, sia finali che attesi, delle trasformazioni degli ultimi 15 anni in Spagna in occasione di questi eventi straordinari. Nello specifico si analizzano cinque casi-studio: Barcellona ed i Giochi Olimpici del 1992, Siviglia e l’Esposizione Universale del 1992, Bilbao e la realizzazione del Museo Guggenheim (landmark architettonico nel 1997, Valencia e la Coppa America del 2007 e infine Saragozza e l’Expo del 2008 dove è stata realizzata una nuova stazione dell’Alta Velocità. Le occasioni, colte al volo dalle città spagnole, hanno modificato il volto dell’intero paese e negli ultimi quindici anni la Spagna si è dotata non solo di un nuovo grande patrimonio architettonico e di nuovi modelli di città, ma principalmente si è dotata di un sistema di trasporto (aeroporti, porti, metropolitane e strade moderno ed efficiente.

  18. In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

    2005-06-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets.

  19. I caratteri tipicizzanti il paesaggio dei grandi laghi lombardi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Busi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I sei grandi laghi lombardi costituiscono un distretto, posto tra l’alta pianura del Po e le Alpi, con spiccate caratteristiche paesistiche. L’ambiente fisico e biologico (ed, in particolare, la vegetazione e l’opera plurisecolare dell’uomo hanno infatti connotato il territorio con componenti la cui organica giustapposizione manifesta paesaggi che, ad un tempo, hanno forte unitarietà territoriale e spinta individualità. I grandi laghi lombardi costituiscono pertanto un importante patrimonio culturale e paesaggistico che necessita, per la sua conservazione e valorizzazione, di adeguata attenzione e sensibilità.

  20. Green light synergistically enhances male sweetpotato weevil sex pheromone response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, commercially grown in over 100 countries, is the 7th most important staple crop in the world. Sweetpotato weevil is a major pest of sweetpotato in most areas of cultivation, the feeding of which induces production in the sweetpotato root of extremely bitter...

  1. Thousand cankers disease: Geosmithia morbida spores isolated from a weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Warmund; Jerry. Van Sambeek

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Geosmithia morbida, the canker-causing fungus associated with thousand cankers disease, was isolated from Stenomimus pallidus weevils found on two stressed black walnut trees in Yellowwood State Forest near Nashville, Indiana. This is the first report of Geosmithia fungus occurring on an insect other than the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis)....

  2. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption stu

  3. Control damage by seedling debarking weevil. Technical note No. 271

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidt, D.C.; Weaver, C.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Technical note describing a method of controlling the damage to seedlings by the seedling debarking weevil by using nematodes. Information is given on the damage involved, the nematodes to be used, treatment methods, planting procedures, benefits and costs, and results of earlier trials.

  4. Effect of radio frequency treatments on cowpea weevil adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried pulses (chickpeas, lentils and dried peas) are valuable export commodities in the US Pacific Northwest. Postharvest infestation by stored product insect pests such as the cowpea weevil may cause importing countries to require phytosanitary treatments before shipment. Typically, chemical fumiga...

  5. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  6. Cafe Grandis kõlab lautomuusika / Anneli Remme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remme, Anneli, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Corelli Musicu salongiõhtutel festivali "Fiesta de la Guitarra" raames esineb trio koosseisus Stewart McCoy (lautomängija), Robert Staak (lautomängija) ja Maria Staak (laulja), esinejatest. Esitatakse renessansiaja autorite lautoduette ja -laule. Kontsert 8. nov. Pärnu hotellis sarjas "Café Grandi muusikasalong"

  7. Soil carbon estimation from eucalyptus grandis using canopy spectra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Gebreslasie

    Algorithms and Systems, Rochester, NY, USA ... infrared, and shortwave infrared (VNIR-SWIR, 400-2500 nm) regions are useful for assessing ... Such sensors are known to produce near-laboratory characteristics ..... stems per hectare in Eucalyptus grandis plantations using discrete-return lidar height data', Forest Ecology.

  8. Cafe Grandis kõlab lautomuusika / Anneli Remme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remme, Anneli, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Corelli Musicu salongiõhtutel festivali "Fiesta de la Guitarra" raames esineb trio koosseisus Stewart McCoy (lautomängija), Robert Staak (lautomängija) ja Maria Staak (laulja), esinejatest. Esitatakse renessansiaja autorite lautoduette ja -laule. Kontsert 8. nov. Pärnu hotellis sarjas "Café Grandi muusikasalong"

  9. Antibacterial, antioxidant and cell proliferative properties of Coccinia grandis fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Sakharkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Little knowledge is available on the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Coccina grandis fruits and no study has reported on its cell proliferative property. The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cell proliferative property of fruits of C. grandis. Material and Methods: Fruits of C. grandis were extracted using water; ethanol and acetone by cold and hot Soxhlet extraction. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the modified Kirby-Bauer diffusion method and compared against erythromycin. The antioxidant property was determined using Cayman's antioxidant assay; whereas cell proliferation/cytotoxic properties were evaluated using the Cell Titer 96 Aqueous One Solution Cell MTS assay with MDA-MB 321 breast cancer cells. Data were analyzed for correlation and differences using unpaired student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. A p value of Results: Both cold and hot ethanol and acetone extracts of C. grandis fruits showed some degree of bacterial growth inhibition. Acetone extracts exhibited higher antibacterial activity. Both ethanol extracts showed antioxidant property when compared with standard Trolox. In contrary to cytotoxicity, all four extracts showed cell proliferation compared to controls at different concentrations. However, acetone extracts exhibited greater cell proliferation compared to ethanol extracts and cold extracts performed better than the hot extracts. Conclusion: C. grandis fruits exhibited some degree of antimicrobial, antioxidant and cell proliferative properties. Further investigation is warranted to isolate, confirm and characterize phytochemicals that are responsible for the medicinal properties observed.

  10. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We obser

  11. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  12. Experimental Study on Sawing Characteristics of Planted Eucalyptus grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yongdong; JIANG Xiaomei; PIAO Chenghan

    2006-01-01

    To use eucalyptus as solid wood products in value-added way instead of wood chips for pulp and paper, the sawing characteristics of E. grandis was studied, the strain changes in sawing process, bow deformation and end-splits of lumber were analyzed. The results showed that the sawing strain changed in a random way, but the bow deformation had an evident regularity, the lumber near its bark had a big bow deformation. The end-splits had severe influence to lumber recovery, 15% of lumber recovery was influenced by end-splits. The results also indicated that planted E. grandis was a potential wood species as solid wood utilization in the fast-growing plantation.

  13. Effect of drying conditions on triticale seed germination and weevil infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of high protein content and a soft seed coat makes triticale vulnerable to attack by weevils. Drying triticale grain to moisture contents safe for storage can prevent infestation by weevils, but if grain is being stored for seed, high drying temperatures can affect seed germination. ...

  14. Polygalacturonase from Sitophilus oryzae: Possible horizontal transfer of a pectinase gene from fungi to weevils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicheng Shen

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Endo-polygalacturonase, one of the group of enzymes known collectively as pectinases, is widely distributed in bacteria, plants and fungi. The enzyme has also been found in several weevil species and a few other insects, such as aphids, but not in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, or Caenorhabditis elegans or, as far as is known, in any more primitive animal species. What, then, is the genetic origin of the polygalacturonases in weevils? Since some weevil species harbor symbiotic microorganisms, it has been suggested, reasonably, that the symbionts' genomes of both aphids and weevils, rather than the insects' genomes, could encode polygalacturonase. We report here the cloning of a cDNA that encodes endo-polygalacturonase in the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L., and investigations based on the cloned cDNA. Our results, which include analysis of genes in antibiotic-treated rice weevils, indicate that the enzyme is, in fact, encoded by the insect genome. Given the apparent absence of the gene in much of the rest of the animal kingdom, it is therefore likely that the rice weevil polygalacturonase gene was incorporated into the weevil's genome by horizontal transfer, possibly from a fungus.

  15. Attraction of milkweed stem weevils, Rhyssomatus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculiondae), to grandlure

    Science.gov (United States)

    A trapping study was initiated in the spring of 2010 to compare the attraction of boll weevils to standard grandlure (synthesized boll weevil pheromone) and a new experimental formulation of grandlure. Both formulations contained the same four pheromone components, but differed in the proportion of...

  16. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to pheromone traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. A study was conducted in Uganda to determine the effect of mulching on banana (Musa spp. L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), m

  17. Controlling pecan weevil with beneficial fungi: the impact of fungal species and fertilizer regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Prior research indicated the potential for using entomopathogenic fungi to suppress pecan weevil in the soil. We compared the efficacy of two fungal species, Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their a...

  18. Molecular systematics and evolution in an African cycad-weevil interaction: Amorphocerini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae) weevils on Encephalartos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, D A; Donaldson, J S; Oberprieler, R G

    2008-04-01

    Weevils in the tribe Amorphocerini have been implicated in pollination of Encephalartos species in southern Africa. The services they render these plants and the unique attributes of the cycad-weevil interaction make them important from both conservation and evolutionary standpoints. Oberprieler [Oberprieler, R.G., 1996. Systematics and evolution of the tribe Amorphocerini, with a review of the cycad weevils of the world. Ph.D. dissertation, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa], using morphological characters, proposed a tentative hypothesis of relationships among the Amorphocerini which is tested here using DNA sequence data. Sequences from one mitochondrial and three nuclear genes were used to infer phylogenetic relationships, levels of sequence divergence, evolution of host associations, and patterns of speciation in this tribe. The results are reasonably consistent with the morphological hypothesis of relationships and species concepts, though important differences are observed, particularly in relationships among a Porthetes hispidus Boheman species group, which is indicated to have experienced recent divergences. In general, low levels of sequence divergence among species within two of the three genera indicate a recent radiation of this tribe onto African cycads, thus while cycad-insect interactions have often been considered ancient this may not be the case for some extant interactions. A complex pattern of host shifts onto both closely related and more distantly related hosts is suggested.

  19. Actividad antianémica de la Cassia grandis L. The antianemic activity of Cassia grandis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Tillán Capó

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La población de la zona oriental de Cuba refiere los efectos beneficiosos del uso tradicional de la Cassia grandis L. en la anemia, con la utilización del polvo seco obtenido del fruto como un suplemento nutricional. El objetivo fue evaluar dicho efecto en un modelo experimental de anemia ferropénica en ratas, inducido por sucesivas extracciones de sangre y administración de una dieta carente de hierro. Todos los animales fueron sometidos durante 15 días a una dieta semisintética deficiente en hierro y a extracciones de sangre 3 veces por semana hasta lograr concentraciones de hemoglobina en sangre menores de 9 g/dL. Se formaron 3 grupos y se mantuvo la misma dieta: grupo I sin suplementar, grupo II suplementado con 15 mg de hierro/kg de dieta y grupo III la misma cantidad de hierro más 750 mg/kg de peso corporal de polvo seco de Cassia grandis L. durante otros 15 días. Al finalizar se determinaron las concentraciones de hierro, hemoglobina y hematócrito en sangre. Las concentraciones medias de hemoglobina al cabo de los 15 días de tratamiento fueron significativamente diferentes en los 3 grupos experimentales, con resultados mayores en el grupo suplementado con hierro y Cassia grandis L.; también en este grupo se observó un incremento significativo de los valores medios de hierro en plasma en relación con los valores obtenidos en los animales no suplementados y en los animales que recibieron solamente hierro en la dieta. El porcentaje de hematócrito no mostró diferencia significativa entre tratamiento. Los resultados corroboran el uso popular y tradicional de la Cassia grandis L. en los estados anémicos, al mejorar la utilización del hiero y la producción de hemoglobina.The population of the eastern zone of Cuba refers to the benefitial effects of the traditional use of Cassia grandis L. in anemia by using dry powder obtained from the fruit as a nutritional supplement. The objective was to evaluate this effect in an

  20. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-wei SHI; Yan HE; Xiang-hua JI; Ming-xing JIANG; Jia-an CHENG

    2008-01-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Knsehel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest office Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepi-doptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 24 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated nega-tively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice.

  1. Tri-party underground symbiosis between a weevil, bacteria and a desert plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Oren; Helman, Yael; Friedman, Ariel-Leib-Leonid; Behar, Adi; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Inhabitants of arid ecosystems face severe nitrogen and water limitations. Inventive adaptations by organisms occupying such habitats are essential for survival. This study describes a tri-party symbiotic interaction between a plant (Salsola inermis), a beetle (Conorhynchus pistor), and a bacterium (Klebsiella pneumonia). The weevil survives by living within a mud structure affixed to the plant roots, thus benefiting from increased carbon and water, and refuge from predators and parasites. Active nitrogen-fixing bacteria harbored within the weevil's gut mediate this interaction, by supplying nitrogen to the system, which eventually promotes seed development. We studied the correlation between the weevil's existence and (i) root carbon and nitrogen content, (ii) soil water content and (iii) seed weight. Roots hosting weevils contained more nitrogen, heavier seeds and less carbon. In addition, water content was higher around the roots than in open spaces a short distance from the plant stem. Bacterial studies and nitrogen-fixation analyses, including molecular and chemical assays, indicated atmospheric nitrogen fixation in the larval stage and identified the bacterium. The coexistence of weevil and bacterial behavior coinciding with the plant's life cycle was revealed here by a long period of field observations. Out of over 60,000 known weevils, this is the only report of a weevil living most of its life underground without harming plants. The unique tri-party interaction described herein shows the important ecological role of desert plant roots and provides an example of a sustainable consortium of living organisms coping with the challenging desert environment.

  2. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from midgut of the rice water weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang; Kang, Xiaoying; Jiang, Cong; Lou, Binggan; Jiang, Mingxing; Way, Michael O

    2013-10-01

    Gut bacteria are known to play important and often essential roles in the biology of insects. Theoretically, they can be genetically manipulated, then reintroduced into insects to negatively modify specific biological features. The weevil superfamily Curculionoidea is one of the most species-rich and successful animal groups on earth, but currently the overall knowledge of the bacterial communities in weevils and their associations with hosts is still limited. In this study, we isolated and characterized the bacteria in the midgut of an invasive weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, by culturing methods. Female adults of this weevil were collected from four different geographic regions of the United States and mainland China. Sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons demonstrated that the major culturable gut bacteria of rice water weevil are γ-proteobacteria and Bacilli. The gut bacterial composition differs among regions, with many of the bacteria isolated from only a single region while several were detected from more than one region. Overall, the diversity of gut bacteria in rice water weevil is relatively low. The possible origins of certain bacteria are discussed in relation to the weevil, rice plant, and bacteria.

  3. Influence of tillage on adult and immature pea leaf weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) densities in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanavan, Ryan P; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Schotzko, Dennis J; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2010-06-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has been a major pest of pea, Pisum sativum L., in eastern Washington and northern Idaho since its introduction to the region in the early 1970s. Eggs are deposited in the spring on the soil surface and first instars hatch and move to pea root nodules, where larvae feed before they pupate and adults emerge in mid- to late summer. No-tillage practices are known to reduce pea leaf weevil colonization in pea, but the effects of tillage on larval densities and subsequent adult emergence have not been examined. During 2005, 2006, and 2007, we compared densities of colonizing adult and immature pea leaf weevils on pea plots grown using conventional tillage and no-tillage. In 2005 and 2006, emergence of adult pea leaf weevil was monitored in the same plots. Densities of colonizing adult and immature pea leaf weevil were significantly higher in conventional tillage plots. Larvae in conventional tillage were further along in development than larvae in no-tillage plots during June and July. Densities of emerging adult pea leaf weevil were significantly greater from conventional tillage than no-tillage plots. Based on densities of colonizing and subsequent emerging adults, survival of weevils from egg through adult was greater in conventional tillage plots. Soils under no-tillage are cooler, resulting in later emergence of the pea crop and delayed root nodule development, possibly affecting the ability of first-instar pea leaf weevil to locate host plant roots. Our results indicate no-tillage fields are less suitable for pea leaf weevil colonization and survival than conventional tillage fields.

  4. Grandi Eventi: indicatori di classificazione e incidenza sui sistemi urbani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available I grandi eventi sono ritenuti una opportunità per le città in quanto sono uno straordinario catalizzatore di investimenti mirati alla trasformazione della città. L’azione dei grandi eventi non è confinata solo nel periodo di svolgimento dell’evento stesso ma si estende ad un periodo molto più ampio, prima e, soprattutto, dopo il suo termine. Nell’organizzazione delle manifestazioni più recenti le trasformazioni urbane hanno interessato in modo sempre maggiore parti già in precedenza urbanizzate, al punto che l’evento diviene l’occasione per trasformare la città costruita e per modificarne il profilo. Il paper approfondisce l’argomento della classificazione degli eventi e del loro impatto sul sistema urbano sviluppandosi in tre parti. Nella prima si analizzano due tipologie di grandi eventi (le esposizioni internazionali e i giochi olimpici con l’obiettivo di pervenire ad una definizione condivisa. Nella seconda parte si identificano i più importanti fattori ed indicatori per l’analisi di questa specifica categoria di avvenimenti. Infine, nella terza parte, si approfondiscono i fattori connessi all’impatto sul sistema urbano e all’organizzazione della sua mobilità. In particolare, viene approfondito il concetto di “effetto pulsar”, ossia gli effetti moltiplicativi sulla evoluzione urbana dipendenti dalla organizzazione di eventi multipli in parallelo o in sequenza. Uno degli elementi più negativi connessi alla organizzazione di un grande evento è la dispersione nel tempo dei benefici acquisiti grazie ad esso; per evitare ciò è necessario che l’evento sia seguito da politiche strategiche continue in modo da preservare i vantaggi acquisiti.

  5. ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Cunha Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

  6. Iridovirus infection of cell cultures from the Diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Hunter

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We here report the development and viral infection of a Diaprepes root weevil cell culture. Embryonic tissues of the root weevil were used to establish cell cultures for use in screening viral pathogens as potential biological control agents. Tissues were seeded into a prepared solution of insect medium and kept at a temperature of 24°C. The cell culture had primarily fibroblast-like morphology with some epithelial monolayers. Root weevil cells were successfully infected in vitro with a known insect virus, Invertebrate Iridescent Virus 6. Potential uses of insect cell cultures and insect viruses are discussed.

  7. Antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory activities of different extracts from Exocarpium Citri grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kun; Song, Qian; Wang, Lei; Xie, Tianzhu; Wu, Xi; Wang, Ping; Yin, Guo; Ye, Wencai; Wang, Tiejie

    2014-10-28

    Exocarpium Citri grandis (C. grandis, Huajuhong in Chinese), the epicarp of C. grandis 'Tomentosa', is used as an antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory drug for hundreds of years in China. The study was aimed at evaluating the antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory effects of different extracts of C. grandis, providing experimental evidence for its traditional use, and laying a foundation for its further researches. Crude drugs of C. grandis were extracted with four kinds of solvents (water, 50% ethanol, 70% ethanol and 90% ethanol) in reflux conditions, respectively. Solutions were concentrated in reduced pressure and lyophilized in vacuum to yield the aqueous extract, 50% ethanolic extract, 70% ethanolic extract, and 90% ethanolic extract of C. grandis. Antitussive evaluations were carried out with ammonia liquor induced mice cough; expectorant effects were tested with phenol red secretion experiments in mice; anti-inflammatory effects were assessed by murine model of xylene induced ear edema in mice. Only aqueous and 70% ethanolic extracts of C. grandis displayed significant antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory activities. Aqueous extract of C. grandis significantly decreased cough frequency caused by ammonia liquor, increased phenol red secretion and inhibited the development of ear edema in anti-inflammatory assay at the dose of 1005 mg/kg (Pstrong effect of decreasing cough frequency, prolonging cough period, increasing phenol red secretion and decreasing the extent of ear edema at the dose of 493 mg/kg (P<0.001). The low, middle, and high dose (247, 493, and 986 mg/kg) of 70% ethanolic extract of C. grandis showed significant antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory effects in good dose dependant manner. The results supported the folk use of C. grandis (decoction of C. grandis) with scientific evidence, and indicated that the 70% ethanolic extract of C. grandis might have better effects of antitussive, expectorant and anti

  8. [Biological characteristics of the egg phase of citrus root weevils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Jerson V C; Parra, José R P

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study some characteristics of the egg phase of three species of citrus root weevils. The insects were collected from citrus plants in Itapetininga, SP, and brought to the Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, SP, where the species Naupactus cervinus (Boheman), Naupactus versatilis (Hustache) and Parapantomorus fluctuosus (Boheman) were kept. Duration and viability of the egg phase were evaluated, and the lower temperature threshold and thermal constant (K) were calculated for these species. The species of citrus root weevils showed different duration of egg phases. The egg phase ranged from 40.4 to 13.8 N. cervinus, from 38.7 to 20.0 days for N. versatilis, and from 35.0 to 13.8 days for P. fluctuosus, depending upon temperature. The temperature thresholds of this stage were 8.1, 8.3, and 9.9 masculineC at thermal constant was 385.7, 397.7 and 294.1 degree-days, for N. cervinus, N. versatilis and P. fluctuosus respectively. The duration of the egg phases of N. cervinus and N. versatilis were similar at the same temperatures and P. fluctuosus had a faster development than Naupactus spp. in all temperatures tested.

  9. La geoditianMca al servizio delle grandi dighe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    p. CALOI

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available Si richiama, ancora una volta, l'attenzione sull'interesse
    (a volte fondamentale, anche ai flni pratici della costante osservazione
    delle variazioni del campo elastieo, nelle zone in eui un mezzo solido 6 sottoposto
    a continue variazioni di tensione, comunque determinate. L'azione
    di tormento, assoeiata alle variazioni di tensione, si traduce in un decadimento
    del modulo elastieo, testimoniato dal piu o meno sensibile diminuire
    della velocita di propagazione delle onde elastiche. L'osservazione continua
    del campo elastieo in una zona sismica, combinata con la contemporanea
    osservazione della variazione della verticale apparente, puo costituire una
    valida via d'approccio nel problema della previsione dei terremoti: a questo
    proposito, nella zona di Tolmezzo, alcune scosse sismiche sono state sorprese
    nella loro fase di preparazione. Nell'ambito delle grandi diglie, simili
    indagini, sistematicamente perseguite, possono condurre —• come di fatto
    lianno condotto — ad individuare una locale microsismicita, naturale o
    provocata, clie puo riuscire esiziale — nelle sue conseguenze — per l'incolumita
    delle popolazioni a valle dei grandi sbarramenti. 1 tragici eventi,
    veriflcatisi un po' dovunque negli ultimi anni, suggeriscono l'opportunita
    di una pronta estensione di simili osservazioni presso le maggiori diglie del
    mondo.

  10. Behavioral and Reproductive Response of White Pine Weevil (Pissodes strobi to Resistant and Susceptible Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Robert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi, Peck. is a native forest insect pest in the Pacific Northwest of North America that attacks species of spruce (Picea spp. and pine (Pinus spp.. Young Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr.] trees are particularly susceptible to weevil attack. Pockets of naturally occurring Sitka spruce resistance have been identified in high weevil hazard areas in coastal British Columbia. In this study, we characterize behavioral, physiological and reproductive responses of weevils to an extremely resistant Sitka spruce genotype (H898 in comparison to a highly susceptible genotype (Q903. The experiments relied on a large number of three-year-old clonally propagated trees and were therefore restricted to two contrasting Sitka spruce genotypes. When exposed to resistant trees, both male and female weevils were deterred during host selection and mating, females showed delayed or reduced ovary development, and successful reproduction of weevils was prevented on resistant trees.

  11. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele; Kesegofetse Thomas; Seipati Seketeme

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for al...

  12. Pleiotropic impact of endosymbiont load and co-occurrence in the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine A Carvalho

    Full Text Available Individual traits vary among and within populations, and the co-occurrence of different endosymbiont species within a host may take place under varying endosymbiont loads in each individual host. This makes the recognition of the potential impact of such endosymbiont associations in insect species difficult, particularly in insect pest species. The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, a key pest species of stored cereal grains, exhibits associations with two endosymbiotic bacteria: the obligatory endosymbiont SZPE ("Sitophilus zeamais Primary Endosymbiont" and the facultative endosymbiont Wolbachia. The impact of the lack of SZPE in maize weevil physiology is the impairment of nutrient acquisition and energy metabolism, while Wolbachia is an important factor in reproductive incompatibility. However, the role of endosymbiont load and co-occurrence in insect behavior, grain consumption, body mass and subsequent reproductive factors has not yet been explored. Here we report on the impacts of co-occurrence and varying endosymbiont loads achieved via thermal treatment and antibiotic provision via ingested water in the maize weevil. SZPE exhibited strong effects on respiration rate, grain consumption and weevil body mass, with observed effects on weevil behavior, particularly flight activity, and potential consequences for the management of this pest species. Wolbachia directly favored weevil fertility and exhibited only mild indirect effects, usually enhancing the SZPE effect. SZPE suppression delayed weevil emergence, which reduced the insect population growth rate, and the thermal inactivation of both symbionts prevented insect reproduction. Such findings are likely important for strain divergences reported in the maize weevil and their control, aspects still deserving future attention.

  13. Survival and preference of cotton boll weevil adults for alternative food sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pimenta

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants that have potential as alternative food source (floral nectar, pollen and plant tissues to the boll weevil during the intercropping season were evaluated considering the prevalent conditions of Cerrado in the Central Brazil. Initially, we tested the nutritional adequacy for the survival of the insect of flower resource (pollen and nectar provided by eight plant species (fennel, mexican sunflower, castor bean, okra, hibiscus, sorghum, pigeonpea and sunn hemp. Subsequently, we tested if the resources provided by the selected plants continued to be exploited by the boll weevil in the presence of cotton plant, its main food source average longevity of boll weevil adults was significantly longer when they were fed on hibiscus’ flowers (166.6 ± 74.4 and okra flowers (34.7 ± 28.9 than when they fed on flowers of other six species. Subsequently, the preference of the boll weevil in the use of resources was compared between okra or hibiscus and cotton plants, in dual choice experiments. Boll weevils preferred plants of the three species in the reproductive stages than those in vegetative stages. Although the cotton plant in the reproductive stage was the most preferred plant of all, boll weevils preferred flowering okra and hibiscus than cotton at the vegetative stage.

  14. Micromorphology of the elytral cuticle of beetles, with an emphasis on weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Thomas; Riedel, Alexander; Greven, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    The elytral cuticle of 40 beetle species, comprising 14 weevils (Curculionoidea) and 26 representatives of other taxa, is examined. All weevils and 18 other species have an endocuticle with prominent macrofibers, which corresponds to a modified pseudo-orthogonal cuticle. Angles between successive layers of macrofibers range between 30° and 90°, but are constantly less than 60° in weevils. In all Curculionoidea, as well as in one buprestid and one erotylid species exo- and endocuticle are densely interlocked. In the weevil Sitophilus granarius, transmission electron microscopy revealed vertical microfibrils extending from the exocuticle between the macrofibers of the underlaying endocuticle. Vertical microfibrils connecting successive macrofiber layers of the endocuticle were observed in S. granarius and Trigonopterus nasutus. Distinct cuticular characters are traced on a beetle phylogeny: the angles between unidirectional endocuticle layers; the presence and the shape of endocuticular macrofibers; and the interlocking of exo- and endocuticle. While character traits seem to be more or less randomly distributed among Coleoptera, the Curculionoidea have a uniform groundplan: The "weevil-specific" combination of characters includes 1) interlocking of exo- and endocuticle, 2) an endocuticle with distinct ovoid macrofibers embedded in a matrix and 3) comparatively small angles between successive endocuticular layers. Thus, phylogenetic constraints appear equally important to functional factors in the construction of the weevil elytron.

  15. Toxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates from weevil-damaged chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J M; Payne, J A

    1975-10-01

    Aspergillus and Penicillium were among the most common genera of fungi isolated on malt-salt agar from weevil-damaged Chinese chestnut kernels (16.8 and 40.7% occurrence, respectively). Chloroform extracts of 21 of 50 Aspergillus isolates and 18 of 50 representative Penicillium isolates, grown for 4 weeks at 21.1 C on artificial medium, were toxic to day-old cockerels. Tweleve of the toxic Aspergillus isolates were identified as A. wentii, eight as A. flavus, and one as A. flavus var. columnaris. Nine of the toxic Penicillium isolates were identified as P. terrestre, three as P. steckii, two each as P. citrinum and P. funiculosum, and one each as P. herquei (Series) and P. roqueforti (Series). Acute diarrhea was associated with the toxicity of A. wentii and muscular tremors with the toxicity of P. terrestre, one isolate of P. steckii, and one of P. funiculosum.

  16. Study on Machining Properties of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. Grandis: Ⅰ. Planing and Sanding Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xinyi; JIANG Xiaomei; GAO Jianmin; YIN Yafang

    2006-01-01

    The research method in this paper is based on the standard of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Planing and sanding are selected to study the machining properties of E. Urophylla × E. Grandis plantation wood. Moreover, the reasons for machining defects are analyzed. The results show E. Urophylla × E. Grandis planted in south China is a good species with a great potential for solid wood utilization.

  17. [Community features of Sacrabaeoida larvae in Stipa grandis steppe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinmin, Liu; Ning, Wu

    2004-09-01

    The study showed that in the Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, there were 4 families and 9 species of Scarabaeoidea larvae, among which, the numbers of species and individuals of Melolonthidae were more than those of other families. The important value of the dominant species in Scarabaeoidea larvae community were Trematodes tenebrioides > Serica orientalis > Amphimallon solstitialis > Cyriopertha arcuata. Based on the features of their seasonal dynamics, they could be classified into three kinds. The first kind was that their density peak occurred in spring and autumn, such as Serica orientalis. Cyriopertha arcuata belonged to the second kind, and its density had no obvious fluctuation through all the year. Trematodes tenebrioides and Amphimallon solstitialis could be classified into the third kind, and their density peak all occurred in autumn. The biodiversity index of Scarabaeoidea larvae community was relatively higher in autumn than in spring and summer. Although the richness of Scarabaeoidea larvae populations was not lower in spring, their composition was very simple.

  18. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of potential transpiration models to simulate transpiration rates in areas prone to soil water deficits leads to overestimates of water use as the soil dries. Therefore, I carried out studies on Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. I hypothesized that, with this relationship defined, simple modeling of the soil water balance could be used to predict what fraction of potential transpiration was taking place at a given time. Site 1 supported a stand of 3-year-old E. grandis trees, whereas 9-year-old trees were growing on Site 2, situated 2 km away. At each site, plastic sheeting was laid over the ground to prevent soil water recharge and thereby allow the roots in the soil to induce a continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth and sap flow rates revealed that prevention of soil water recharge resulted in only moderate drought stress. At Site 1, the trees abstracted water down to 8 m below the surface, whereas trees at Site 2 obtained most of their water from depths below 8 m. I found that modeling the water balance of deep rooting zones is impractical for the purpose of simulating nonpotential transpiration rates because of uncertainties about the depth of the root system, the soil water recharge mechanism and the water retention characteristics of the deep subsoil strata. I conclude that predicting the occurrence and severity of soil water deficits from the soil water balance is not feasible at these sites.

  19. Tri-party underground symbiosis between a weevil, bacteria and a desert plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Shelef

    Full Text Available Inhabitants of arid ecosystems face severe nitrogen and water limitations. Inventive adaptations by organisms occupying such habitats are essential for survival. This study describes a tri-party symbiotic interaction between a plant (Salsola inermis, a beetle (Conorhynchus pistor, and a bacterium (Klebsiella pneumonia. The weevil survives by living within a mud structure affixed to the plant roots, thus benefiting from increased carbon and water, and refuge from predators and parasites. Active nitrogen-fixing bacteria harbored within the weevil's gut mediate this interaction, by supplying nitrogen to the system, which eventually promotes seed development. We studied the correlation between the weevil's existence and (i root carbon and nitrogen content, (ii soil water content and (iii seed weight. Roots hosting weevils contained more nitrogen, heavier seeds and less carbon. In addition, water content was higher around the roots than in open spaces a short distance from the plant stem. Bacterial studies and nitrogen-fixation analyses, including molecular and chemical assays, indicated atmospheric nitrogen fixation in the larval stage and identified the bacterium. The coexistence of weevil and bacterial behavior coinciding with the plant's life cycle was revealed here by a long period of field observations. Out of over 60,000 known weevils, this is the only report of a weevil living most of its life underground without harming plants. The unique tri-party interaction described herein shows the important ecological role of desert plant roots and provides an example of a sustainable consortium of living organisms coping with the challenging desert environment.

  20. Circadian rhythms of feeding, oviposition, and emergence of the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHOIL M.GREENBERG; J.SCOTT ARMSTRONG; MAMOUDOU S(E)TAMOU; THOMAS W.SAPPINGTON; RANDY J.COLEMAN; TONG-XIAN LIU

    2006-01-01

    Circadian rhythm of feeding,oviposition,and emergence of boll weevil adults were determined at five different photophases (24,14,12,10,and 0 hours) and a constant 27℃ temperature,65% RH in the laboratory. Squares from Petri dishes,where they were exposed to boll weevil females,were removed and examined for feeding and oviposition punctures every 4 hours during daylight (0700-1900 h) and every 12 h at night (1900-0700 h) over eight consecutive days. Cohorts of randomly selected egg-punctured squares were sampled from ovipositing females at 0700,1100,1500,and 1900 during 24 hours and under different photophase treatments,and maintained in Petri dishes at 27 ± 1℃,65% RH.Dishes were observed twice daily (1900 and 0700 h) for adults emerging at day or night.Circadian rhythm of oviposition was not affected by the length of the photophase. The boll weevil has round-the-clock circadian rhythm of oviposition,with a daytime preference. We observed that 82.4%-86.0% of the boll weevil eggs were deposited between 0700 and 1900 h,and 14.0%-17.6% between 1900 and 0700 h during a 24-h period. Feeding of boll weevil females in photoperiods 24:0 h (complete light) and 0:24 h (complete darkness) did not significantly change between 0700-1900 h versus 1900-0700 h,while the daily cycle of light and darkness in other photoperiods significantly increased the feeding punctures from 0700-1900 compared with 1900-0700 h. The circadian rhythm of emergence depended significantly on the time of oviposition and the length of the photophase. Investigation of boll weevil circadian rhythm provides a better understanding of boll weevil ecology and reveals potential weak links for improving control technologies targeting their reproductive strategies.

  1. Dry mass allocation, water use efficiency and delta C-13 in clones of Eucalyptus grandis, E-grandis x camaldulensis and E-grandis x nitens grown under two irrigation regimes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, D

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Clonal variation in water use efficiency (WUE), dry mass accumulation and allocation, and stable carbon isotope ratio (delta (13)C) of crude leaf fibre extracts was determined in six clones of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden grown for 16 months...

  2. Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov., associated with the root collar weevil Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii on Pinus wallichiana in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.D.; Jacobs, K.; Kirisits, T.; Chhetri, D.B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leptographium spp. are commonly associated with bark beetles and weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and some are important tree pathogens. In a recent survey of diseases and insect pests of conifer trees in Bhutan, the root collar weevil, Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii was found girdling young Himalaya

  3. Effects of two pheromone trap densities against banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, populations and their impact on plant damage in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Kagezi, G.H.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    An on-farm study to evaluate the effect of pheromone trap density on the population of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Col., Curculionidae) was conducted in Masaka district, Uganda. The pheromone used was Cosmolure+, a commercially available weevil aggregation pheromone. Forty-two

  4. Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov., associated with the root collar weevil Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii on Pinus wallichiana in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.D.; Jacobs, K.; Kirisits, T.; Chhetri, D.B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leptographium spp. are commonly associated with bark beetles and weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and some are important tree pathogens. In a recent survey of diseases and insect pests of conifer trees in Bhutan, the root collar weevil, Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii was found girdling young Himalaya

  5. Mutualistic interaction between a weevil and a rust fungus, two parasites of the weed Cirsium arvense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedli, Jürg; Bacher, Sven

    2001-12-01

    We present a mutualism between a stem-boring weevil, Apion onopordi Kirby (Coleoptera: Apionidae), and a rust fungus, Puccinia punctiformis (Str.) Röhl. (Uredinales), both parasites of the creeping thistle, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Asteraceae). Females, but not males, of A. onopordi induced systemic rust infections of thistle shoots in the season after they were attacked by the weevil, indicating that insect oviposition is a crucial stage in pathogen transmission. Adult weevils emerged from systemically infected thistle shoots were heavier than weevils from healthy C. arvense shoots. Heavier females had a higher fecundity and laid larger eggs. The weevil preferred to deposit eggs in systemically rust-infected over healthy thistle shoots, which seemed to be a sub-optimal host. This is to our knowledge the first report of a mutualistic interaction between an herbivorous insect and a biotrophic plant pathogen. The mechanism responsible for the advantage of rust-infected shoots for A. onopordi causes a different outcome in other thistle herbivores, and therefore can not be explained by a general enhancement of nutritional quality in rust-infected tissue. This mutualism likely has evolved from a competitive relationship. Unlike other thistle herbivores A. onopordi seems to be better suited as mutualist for P. punctiformis because of its small impact on the host plant and its feeding niche on plant parts not directly associated with pathogen reproduction.

  6. Have stump piles any effect on the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L. incidence and seedling damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree stumps are being increasingly used for bioenergy purposes, which may have significant effects on pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L. populations and the level of damage they can cause to seedlings. Pine weevils are attracted by the smell of fresh stumps in clear-cut areas, and have been shown to cause serious damage to planted coniferous seedlings in European forests. This study was conducted to measure the incidence of pine weevil and damage caused to Norway spruce (Picea abies seedlings in a field experiment including single stump pile plots (SSP, multiple stump pile plots (MSP and control plots in North Karelia, Finland. Pine weevils were significantly more abundant in MSP stump plots (22% higher than in SSP plots, and are 23% more abundant compared to the control plots. The extent of seedling damage was significantly lower in the SSP (by 67% and MSP plots (by 58% than in the controls. Seedlings damage increased significantly with the distance from the stump pile. Stump harvesting practices should be updated and, in particular, multiple stump piles should be avoided in the clearcut area. However, future studies will be required to explore the environmental and physical factors in the stump-removal area influencing pine weevil abundance.

  7. Estimation of the population density of the sweetpotato weevils on the Mariana Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadi V.P. Reddy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas L. (Convolvulaceae has been one of the most important foods for Pacific islanders for centuries. However, the yield levels have been declining in the recent past due to the presence of sweetpotato weevils Cylas formicarius (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Brentidae, Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire and Daealus tuberosus (Zimmer man (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Therefore, urgent management or eradication methods are sought in the Mariana Islands (Guam, Rota, Saipan, and Tinian. However, the management or eradication of these weevil pests requires accurate assessments of the target pest density. Currently, no advice is provided to growers on the best method for sampling sweetpotato for weevil pests, although pheromone-based traps or chemicals are being used. This study defines the results of field counts designed to adjust relative sampling techniques for three sweetpotato weevil pests by inspecting plants visually and at random in the field with an absolute measure of population density. Significant relationships were detected between the relative four sampling sites between the three weevil pests. In the dry and wet season, 90% and 35.5%, respectively, of population density of C. formicarius was noticed in Rota. This density of the population levels of this species is significantly lower in Saipan, Guam and Tinian. No incidence of E. postfasciatus and D. tuberosus was observed on Guam. However, E. postfasciatus is identified as the second most destructive pest in Rota, Tinian and Saipan in both the dry and wet seasons. Likewise, D. tuberosus is the third major pest as the recorded population density ranged from 12.5% to 2.5%. Also, it is evident from the sampling study that the population densities of all three weevils are significantly higher in the dry season than the wet season.

  8. Threat to Cedar, Cedrela odorata, Plantations in Vietnam by the Weevil, Aclees sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Thu, Pham Quang; Quang, Dao Ngoc; Dell, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The recent decline and death of young cedar, Cedrela odorata L. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), plantations in Vietnam is caused by Aclees sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a wood-boring brown weevil. A field study was undertaken in three-year-old plantations in two districts in Thanh Hoa province in August 2008. Trees were heavily impacted by the weevil, Aclees; the infestation level (P) ranged from 80 to 100% and the average damage index (R) ranged from 1.8 to 2.8. Observations over one year enable...

  9. Root weevils of artificial forests in Ukraine steppe area (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cleonini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volovnik S. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of root weevils (Cleonini: were found in man-made forests in the steppe of Ukraine. They are Asproparthenis punctiventris, Bothynoderes affinis, Bothynoderes declivis, Cleonis pigra, Cyphocleonus dealbatus, Pachycerus segnis, Temnorhinus strabus. All these species were registered in open habitats, namely forest borders, glades, sides of the roads, slopes, and connected with plants from Asteraceae, Chenopodiacea, Boraginaceae. If beet plantations situated near artificial forests then A. punctiventris, B. affinis, B. declivis could damage them in case of mass reproduction. C.dealbatus is a potential pest of the ornamental camoniles. Literary data as to real damage caused to artificial forests by root weevils need to be proved.

  10. Sewage sludge as substrate for Tectona grandis L. seedlings production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rodrigues Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge is a waste from sewage treatment plants, which can be used in formulations of substrates for seedling production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different proportions of sewage sludge, soil and commercial substrate on the growth characteristics of Tectona grandis seedlings in tubes of 120 cm³ volume capacity. The sewage sludge used came from the STP's Cachoeiro de Itapemirim / ES. The seedlings were grown in the forest nursery / CCA / UFES. The statistical design used in the experiment was completely randomized design (CRD with six treatments and five replications. The treatments constituted of sewage sludge : commercial substrate: soil (v: v: v, which corresponded to 20:70:10 (T1, 40:50:10 (T2, 60:30:10 (T3, 80 : 10:10 (T4, 90:0:10 (T5 and the control treatment with 0:90:10 (T6. All variables assessed were significant at the 5% level of probability. The control (T6 showed results statistically equal to or lower than the treatments T3 with 60% of sewage sludge concentration (T3. It follows then that the use of sewage sludge in seedling production is feasible and promising, however, used in a proper proportion.

  11. Cassia grandis Linn. f. seed galactomannan: structural and crystallographical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Harsha; Kapoor, Virendra P

    2003-09-01

    Cassia grandis is a small or medium sized tree, found in abundance throughout India. The seeds contain about 50% endosperm gum and possess the characteristics of becoming a potential source of seed gum. The purified polysaccharide has been characterized as a pure galactomannan having a mannose-galactose ratio of 3.15; molecular weight (Mw) 80,200; polydispersity (Mw/Mn), 1.35 and intrinsic viscosity [eta], 848 mL/g. Methylation, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and 13C NMR studies confirm that the polysaccharide has the basic structure of legume galactomannans consisting of a beta-(1-->4)-linked main mannan backbone to which galactose units are attached at O-6. The orthorhombic lattice constants of the hydrated gum are as follows: a=9.00, b=24.81, c=10.30 A. The crystallographic data establish that the probable space group symmetry of the unit cell is P2(1)2(1)2. The results are in contradiction to earlier reports (Indian J. Chem. 16B (1978) 966; J. Indian Chem. Soc. 55 (1978) 1216) in which a non-galactomannan polysaccharide structure has been assigned having a main chain of (1-->4)-linked galactose and mannose units in the molar ratio 6:3, where 50% of the galactose units branched with two galactose and one mannose through 1-->3 linkage.

  12. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  13. Effects of torrefaction on energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Oliveira Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermal treatment that promotes homogenization and improvement of energy properties of biomass. This study aims to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood. Wood was torrefied at three distinct temperatures (220°C, 250°C and 280°C and analyzed for gravimetric yield (ratio of dry wood mass to torrefied wood mass, bulk density (ratio of dry torrefied mass to dry torrefied volume, heating value (higher – HHV, lower – LHV and useful – UHV, energy density (ratio of heating value to bulk density and energy yield (product of gravimetric yield and ratio of HHV of torrefied wood to HHV of feedstock. The obtained results revealed significant differences for all properties being analyzed except for bulk density, which showed no statistical difference between the control and the treatment at 220°C. Temperature 250°C generated the best energy density as a function of the increase in heating value and the slight decrease in bulk density.

  14. SPATIAL DEPENDENCE STUDY OF Eucalyptus grandis DENDROMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcio de Mello

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of spatial continuity structure of dendrometric characteristics is crucial in forest inventory, managementand planning. The inclusion of spatial continuity effect in inventory analysis provides stable and safe results that can be used in forestmanagement and planning. This paper evaluated the structure of spatial continuity of four dendrometric characteristics obtainedby two sampling procedures. Data were collected in 987 hectares of Eucalyptus grandis, located in the south of São Paulo State.Two sampling procedures were used, systematic grading and unencumbered systematic. For each plot from the two samples, thefollowing dendrometric characteristics were measured: volume, quadratic average diameter, basal area and average height of thedominant trees. For each one of these characteristics, anisotropic and isotropic semi variogrammes were built, in order toevaluate the spatial continuity structure. The semi variogrammes were built using the moment estimator method. The mainauthorized functions were adjusted to the experimental semi variogrammes, by The Minimum Square Method. The behavior of thespatial continuity was evaluated through the degree of spatial dependence and of the assigned semi variogrammes for the fourcharacteristics, in the appraised sampling methods, respectively. All appraised characteristics presented spatially structured,independently of the appraised sampling procedure. The continuity structure of the four characteristics was isotropic, i.e., thevariance among pairs of points depends on the separation vector h. Therefore, unidirectional semi variogrammes can be built forall appraised characteristics. The results suggest that, in forest inventory, the spatial component should be considered, i.e., plotsshould not be treated separately.

  15. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, P. J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research, Division of Forest Science and Technology, Nelspruit (South Africa)

    1996-01-01

    Eucalyptus grandis trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa were studied to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. It was expected that by defining this relationship, modeling of the soil water balance could be used to predict the fraction of transpiration taking place at any given time. As part of the experimental procedure soil water recharge was prevented by plastic sheeting, thus allowing the roots in the soil to induce continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth and sap flow rates revealed only moderate drought stress; trees at both sites extracted water down to eight meters and more, below the surface. These results suggest that because of uncertainties about the depth of the root system, the soil water recharge mechanisms and other related factors, soil water balance studies are not useful in predicting the occurrence and severity of soil water deficits at these sites. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii USE FOR WOOD-CEMENT PANELS MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood for wood-cement panelsmanufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 1,20 g/cm³, using portland cement as mineral bonding and woodfurnish without treatment, treated in cold water and hot water. The wood furnish of Pinus taeda was used as control. The resultsindicated that it is not necessary to treat E. grandis and E. dunni wood for wood-cement board manufacturing. In relation to woodspecies, the board manufactured with E. dunnii showed lower values of mechanical properties. However, boards manufactured of E.grandis wood showed satisfactory results in comparison to boards of P. taeda and the referenced values of BISON process and otherproducts cited in the pertnent literature, indicating the high potential for wood-cement board manufacture of this tree species.

  17. Effect of thermal modification on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Willians Calonego

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis. Boards were taken from 30-year-old E. grandis trees. The boards were thermally modified at 180 °C in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation at UNESP, Botucatu, Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The results showed that thermal modification caused: (1 decrease of 6.8% in the density at 0% equilibrium moisture content of mature wood; (2 significant decreases of 14.7% and 35.6% in the maximum volumetric swellings of juvenile and mature woods, respectively; (3 significant decreases of 13.7% and 21.3% in the equilibrium moisture content of juvenile and mature woods, respectively. The influence of thermal modification in juvenile wood was lower than in mature wood and caused greater uniformity in the physical variations between these types of wood in E. grandis.

  18. Population density of oil palm pollinator weevil Elaeidobius kamerunicus based on seasonal effect and age of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Syarifah Nadiah Syed Mat; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2016-11-01

    The pollinating weevil, Elaedobius kamerunicus (EK) has been known to be the most efficient insect pollinator of oil palm, and has successfully improved the oil palm pollination and increased the yield. Its introduction has greatly reduced the need for assisted pollination. The purpose of this study was to identify the population density of oil palm pollinator weevil EK using the concept of pollinator force and to relate the population density with the seasonal effect and the age of oil palm at Lekir Oil Palm Plantation Batu 14, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. The pollinator force of the weevil was sustained at a range between 3095.2 to 19126.1 weevils per ha. The overall mean of weevil per spikelet shows that the range of weevil was between 13.51 and 54.06 per spikelet. There was no correlation between rainfall and population density of EK. However, positive correlation was obtained between weevil density and the number of anthesising female inflorescence of oil palm (r= 0.938, ppollinator force per spikelete and the Fresh fruit Bunch (FFB), fruit set or fruit to bunch ratio.

  19. Multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis sob estímulo com benzilaminopurina In vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis under BAP pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirifran Fernandes de Andrade

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estímulo com benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliadas as interações entre concentrações de BAP (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg L-1, tempo de exposição (1, 2 e 3 horas, pH (3 e 5,8 da solução e alterações morfológicas dos explantes. Semanalmente, foi determinada a massa da matéria fresca dos explantes. Aos 21 dias de cultura, foram avaliados: o número de brotações por tratamento, o número de brotações obtidas por explante (taxa de multiplicação, e foi realizado o resgate das plântulas para avaliação histológica. O pH não apresentou interação com os demais fatores estudados. Os tratamentos com BAP a 200 mg L-1, durante 1 e 2 horas, apresentaram-se como os mais indicados na multiplicação do E. grandis. Houve intensificação da divisão celular, no parênquima cortical e no procâmbio, representada pelo surgimento de meristemóides, em resposta aos tratamentos com 200 mg L-1 de BAP, durante 1 e 2 horas. O estímulo com BAP na multiplicação in vitro de E. grandis é viável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pulse on in vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis. Interactions were evaluated among BAP concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, exposure time (1, 2 and 3 hours, pH values (3 and 5.8, and explant morphological changes. Fresh weight of the explants was determined weekly. At 21 days of culture, valuations were made of the number of shootings per treatment, number of shootings obtained per explant (multiplication rate, and seedlings rescue was accomplished for histological analysis. The pH values did not present any interaction with the other factors. The most significant treatments on E. grandis shoot multiplications were 200 mg L-1 of 6-BAP during 1 and 2 hours. There was an intensification of cell division in the cortical parenchyma and procambium, represented by the arising of meristems in

  20. [Isolation and identification of Metarhizium from Citrus grandis 'tomentosa' GAP base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weisi; Xu, Jiang; Qiao, Haili; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiangming; Qin, Rongmin; Cheng, Huizhen

    2012-04-01

    A type of entomopathogenic fungus of soil in Citrus grandis 'tomentosa' production base was isolated and identified with morphological and molecular biological methods, including pathogenesis, spore characteristic and ITS sequence analysis were conducted. The results showed that eighteen entomopathogenic fungi strains were isolated from the Tenebrio molitor infected in the soil samples, which were identified as Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae. Based on results above, we concluded that there was quantity of Metarhizium resources in this area. These provided the useful information for controlling some pests of C. grandis by using these strains of fungus.

  1. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of Saprospira grandis str. Lewin, a predatory marine bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Saw, Jimmy H. W.; Yuryev, Anton; Kanbe, Masaomi; Hou, Shaobin; Young, Aaron G; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Alam, Maqsudul

    2012-01-01

    Saprospira grandis is a coastal marine bacterium that can capture and prey upon other marine bacteria using a mechanism known as ‘ixotrophy’. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Saprospira grandis str. Lewin isolated from La Jolla beach in San Diego, California. The complete genome sequence comprises a chromosome of 4.35 Mbp and a plasmid of 54.9 Kbp. Genome analysis revealed incomplete pathways for the biosynthesis of nine essential amino acids but presence of a large number of ...

  2. A Reliable Identification System for Red Palm Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mufleh Al-Saqer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Red Palm Weevil (RPW is a widely found pest among palm trees and is known to cause significant losses every year to palm growers. Existing identification techniques for RPW comprise of using traps with pheromones to detect these pests. However, these traditional methods are labor-intensive, expensive to implement and unreliable for early detection of RPW infestation. Early detection of these pests would provide the best opportunity to eradicate them and minimize the potential losses of palm trees. Approach: In this study, a reliable identification system is developed to identify RPW by using only a small number of image descriptors in combination with neural network models. The neural networks were developed by using between three to nine image descriptors as inputs and a large database of insects’ images was used for training. Three different training ratios ranging from 25-75% were used and the network was trained by two different algorithms. Further, several scenarios were formulated to test the efficacy and reliability of the newly developed identification system. Results: The results indicate that the identification system developed in this study is capable of 100% recognition of RPW and 93% recognition of other insects in the database by taking as input only three easily-calculable image descriptors. Further, the average training times for these networks was 13 sec and the testing time for a single image was only 0.015 sec. Conclusion: The new system developed in this study provided reliable identification for RPW and was found to be up to 14 times faster in training and three times faster in testing of insects’ images.

  3. Field efficacy against the hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum and short-term persistence of entomopathogenic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Batalla-Carrera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae is a pest affecting hazelnut orchards in Europe, with an important economical repercussion. Its potential control, short-term field persistence and the vertical distribution of native entomopathogenic nematode strains were tested in Muntanyes de Prades, Tarragona (NE Iberian Peninsula over two consecutive years. Steinernema feltiae strain D114, Steinernema sp. strain D122 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora strain DG46 were used in summer and spring applications at a dosage of 5·105 IJs m-2. The three nematode species reduced the hazelnut weevil population, ranging from 32% to 88% efficacy, without significant differences in efficacy or between the two applications. Persistence evaluation was carried out during 9 weeks for S. feltiae (D114, Steinernema sp. (D122 and H. bacteriophora (DG46 and showed all species capable of lasting for this period. Nematodes and larval vertical distribution was assessed. Most of the hazelnut weevil stayed within the first 25 cm although some were found as deep as 40 cm. Entomopathogenic nematodes were found along all 40 cm depth. This study proves the suitability of entomopathogenic nematodes to control the hazelnut weevil.

  4. Green Light Synergistally Enhances Male Sweetpotato Weevil Response to Sex Pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T.

    2014-01-01

    Sweetpotato, commercially grown in over 100 countries, is one of the ten most important staple crops in the world. Sweetpotato weevil is a major pest of sweetpotato in most areas of cultivation, the feeding of which induces production in the sweetpotato root of extremely bitter tasting and toxic sesquiterpenes which can render the sweetpotato unfit for consumption. A significant step towards improved management of this weevil species was the identification of a female-produced sex pheromone [(Z)-3-dodecenyl (E)-2-butenoate] to which males are highly attracted. Reported here are results of research that documents a nearly 5-fold increase in male sweetpotato weevil catch in traps baited with this pheromone and a green light provided by a solar-powered, light-emitting diode (LED). The combination of olfactory and night-visible visual cues significantly enhanced trap effectiveness for this nighttime-active insect species. These results provide promise for improved sweetpotato weevil detection and suppression in mass trapping programs. PMID:24675727

  5. Assessing the role of generalist predators in the biological control of alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), is a major and longstanding economic pest of alfalfa throughout much of the United States. While work on biological control of this species has disproportionately focused on introduced parasitoids, generalist predators are also considered potentially i...

  6. Relationship of black vine weevil egg density and damage to two cranberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field and laboratory trials compared Metarhizium anisopliae and Steinernema kraussei to imidacloprid for black vine weevil (BVW), Otiorhynchus sulcatus, larval control in cranberry. Two field sites were treated in fall of 2009 and soil samples collected during 2009 and 2010 to assess treatment effic...

  7. Host plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Dijk, van N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    1. The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. 2. Assessment of reproductive performance

  8. Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Attraction of adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and the synthetic pheromone Cosmolure+ presented singly or in combination, was studied in the laboratory and in the field. Olfactometric studies in the laboratory showed that 50 g of fermented banana

  9. Phylogeography of specialist weevil Trichobaris soror: a seed predator of Datura stramonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Mora, Marisol; Piñero, Daniel; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Can the genetic structure of a specialist weevil be explained by the geological history of their distribution zone? We analyze the genetic variation of the weevil Trichobaris soror, a specialist seed predator of Datura stramonium, in order to address this question. For the phylogeographic analysis we used the COI gene, and assessed species identity in weevil populations through geometric morphometric approach. In total, we found 53 haplotypes in 413 samples, whose genetic variation supports the formation of three groups: (1) the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TVB group), (2) the Sierra Madre Sur (SMS group) and (3) the Balsas Basin (BB group). The morphometric analysis suggests that BB group is probably not T. soror. Our results have two implications: first, the phylogeographic pattern of T. soror is explained by both the formation of the geological provinces where it is currently distributed and the coevolution with its host plant, because the TVB and SMS groups could be separated due to the discontinuity of altitude between the geological provinces, but the recent population expansion of TVB group and the high frequency of only one haplotype can be due to specialization to the host plant. Second, we report a new record of a different species of weevil in BB group parasitizing D. stramonium fruits.

  10. Using molecular genetics to identify immature specimens of the weevil Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera, Apionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate host plant specificity of the yellow starthistle rosette weevil, Ceratapion basicorne. Larvae infesting plants were preserved in 99% ethanol. Adult specimens of C. basicorne and four closely related species were identified using conventional morphologic...

  11. Genetics of resistance to stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Zunjare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae has emerged as important storage grain pest of maize, causing substantial economic losses. Owing to high costs and environmental hazards of pesticides, host plant resistance holds promise for effective control of weevils. In the present study, a set of experimental maize hybrids generated using line × tester mating design were evaluated against S. oryzae. Significant variation for grain weight loss (GWL (6.0–49.1%, number of insect progeny emerged (NIP (17.8–203.3, grain hardness (GH (263.1–495.4 N, and pericarp thickness (PT (60.3–161.0 μm was observed. Strong positive association was observed between GWL and NIP. GH and PT did not show any correlation with GWL and NIP. Additive and non-additive gene actions were important for both GWL and NIP. Promising inbreds and experimental crosses identified can be effectively utilized in the resistance breeding programme. In majority of promising crosses having desirable SCA effects, one of the parents had desirable GCA effects, indicating that selection of inbred parents based on per se performance for generating resistant crosses may be possible. The commercial hybrid checks were highly susceptible compared to experimental hybrids. The inbreds and experimental hybrids identified hold promise in developing weevil resistant maize cultivars offering sustainable solution to management of weevils in maize.

  12. Metapopulation structure of a seed-predator weevil and its host plant in arms race coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Taniguchi, Fumiya; Sota, Teiji

    2011-06-01

    Although the importance of gene flow in the geographic structuring of host-parasite interactions has been well discussed, little is known about how dispersal drives the spatial dynamics of other types of coevolutionary interactions in nature. We evaluated the roles of gene flow in the geographically structured processes of a predator-prey arms race involving a seed-predatory weevil with a long mouthpart and its host camellia plant with a thick fruit coat. Molecular genetic analyses showed that both weevil and camellia populations were structured at a spatial scale of several kilometers. Importantly, the spatial pattern of the migration of weevils, but not that of camellias, imposed significant effects on the geographic configuration of the levels of coevolutionary escalation. This result suggests that even if migration is limited in one species (camellia), local coevolution with the other species that migrates between neighboring localities (weevil) can reduce the interpopulation difference in the local adaptive optima of the former species. Thus, gene flow of a species potentially homogenizes the local biological environments provided by the species and thereby promotes the evolutionary convergence of its coevolving counterparts. Consequently, by focusing on coevolutionary interactions in natural communities, "indirect" effects of gene flow on the adaptive divergence of organisms could be identified.

  13. Attractant compositions for weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruck, D.J.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Griepink, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to formulations of volatile organic compounds having effects on Otiorhynchus weevils e.g., Otiorhynchus sulcatus. In some embodiments, volatile organic compounds selected from (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-2-pentenol, methyl eugenol and a combination thereof are effective for attr

  14. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the Pecan Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W

    2011-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Current control recommendations are based on chemical insecticide applications. Microbial control agents such as the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin occur naturally in southeastern U.S. pecan orchards and have shown promise as alternative control agents for C. caryjae. Conceivably, the chemical and microbial agents occur simultaneously within pecan orchards or might be applied concurrently. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions between two chemical insecticides that are used in commercial C. caryae control (i.e., carbaryl and cypermethrin applied below field rates) and the microbial agents B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae. In laboratory experiments, pecan weevil larval or adult mortality was assessed after application of microbial or chemical treatments applied singly or in combination (microbial + chemical agent). The nature of interactions (antagonism, additivity, or synergy) in terms of weevil mortality was evaluated over 9 d (larvae) or 5 d (adults). Results for B. bassiana indicated synergistic activity with carbaryl and antagonism with cypermethrin in C. caryae larvae and adults. For S. carpocapsae, synergy was detected with both chemicals in C. caryae larvae, but only additive effects were detected in adult weevils. Our results indicate that the chemical-microbial combinations tested are compatible with the exception of B. bassiana and cypermethrin. In addition, combinations that exhibited synergistic interactions may provide enhanced C. caryae control in commercial field applications; thus, their potential merits further exploration.

  15. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  16. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment ovipositio

  17. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Phe

  18. Mango seed weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and premature fruit drop in mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A

    2002-04-01

    The effect of infestations of mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (F.), on premature fruit drop of mangoes was investigated. Mango fruits ('Haden') of equal size were collected both off the ground and from the tree at four times during the season (June-August). If weevil-infested fruit were more prone to dropping than uninfested fruit, the prediction was that a higher infestation rate would be found in fruit on the ground compared with fruit on the tree. Average fruit weight was used as an indicator of fruit maturity. The seed infestation rate was significantly higher in fruit collected off the ground compared with fruit collected from the tree in 38 g and 79 g (early-season) fruit but not significantly different in 207 g (midseason) and 281 g (late season) fruit. The age distribution of weevils and the number of insects in infested fruits were similar for ground and tree fruits on all dates. Results suggest that mango seed weevil infestation can increase fruit drop during early fruit development.

  19. Effect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and associated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of bananas. However, its ecology is not well elucidated especially in East Africa where plantations are up to 50 years old and are under various management and cropping systems. No single satisfa

  20. Characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities of Aquilaria crassna and Tectona grandis roots and soils in Thailand plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornrat Chaiyasen

    Full Text Available Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lec. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. are sources of resin-suffused agarwood and teak timber, respectively. This study investigated arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus community structure in roots and rhizosphere soils of A. crassna and T. grandis from plantations in Thailand to understand whether AM fungal communities present in roots and rhizosphere soils vary with host plant species and study sites. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism complemented with clone libraries revealed that AM fungal community composition in A. crassna and T. grandis were similar. A total of 38 distinct terminal restriction fragments (TRFs were found, 31 of which were shared between A. crassna and T. grandis. AM fungal communities in T. grandis samples from different sites were similar, as were those in A. crassna. The estimated average minimum numbers of AM fungal taxa per sample in roots and soils of T. grandis were at least 1.89 vs. 2.55, respectively, and those of A. crassna were 2.85 vs. 2.33 respectively. The TRFs were attributed to Claroideoglomeraceae, Diversisporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae. The Glomeraceae were found to be common in all study sites. Specific AM taxa in roots and soils of T. grandis and A. crassna were not affected by host plant species and sample source (root vs. soil but affected by collecting site. Future inoculum production and utilization efforts can be directed toward the identified symbiotic associates of these valuable tree species to enhance reforestation efforts.

  1. The Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis spp. galleriae Against Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for Integrated Pest Management in California Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaee, Mohammad-Amir; Godfrey, Larry D

    2015-02-01

    Rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kushel) is the most damaging insect pest of rice in the United States. Larval feeding on the roots stunt growth and reduce yield. Current pest management against the weevil in California relies heavily on pyrethroids that can be damaging to aquatic food webs. Examination of an environmentally friendly alternative biopesticide based on Bacillus thuringiensis spp. galleriae chemistry against rice water weevil larvae showed moderate levels of activity in pilot studies. We further examined the performance of different formulations of Bt.galleriae against the leading insecticide used in California rice, λ-cyhalothrin. The granular formulation performed as well as the λ-cyhalothrin in use in California in some of our greenhouse and field studies. This is the first reported use of B. thuringiensis spp. galleriae against rice water weevil.

  2. A synopsis of the orchid weevil genus Orchidophilus Buchanan (Curculionidae, Baridinae), with taxonomic rectifications and description of one new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six species of the weevil genus Orchidophilus Buchanan are recognized: O. epidendri (Murray) comb. n. (=Acythopeus genuinus Pascoe syn. n., =Baris orchivora Blackburn syn. n., =Apotomorhinus orchidearum Kolbe syn. n.), O. aterrimus (Waterhouse), O. eburifer (Pascoe) comb. n. (=Acythopeus gilvonotatu...

  3. Chemical components of cold pressed kernel oils from different Torreya grandis cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Zhu, Haidong; Li, Wangling; Zeng, Maomao; Wu, Shengfang; Chen, Shangwei; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-15

    The chemical compositions of cold pressed kernel oils of seven Torreya grandis cultivars from China were analyzed in this study. The contents of the chemical components of T. grandis kernels and kernel oils varied to different extents with the cultivar. The T. grandis kernels contained relatively high oil and protein content (45.80-53.16% and 10.34-14.29%, respectively). The kernel oils were rich in unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic (39.39-47.77%), oleic (30.47-37.54%) and eicosatrienoic acid (6.78-8.37%). The kernel oils contained some abundant bioactive substances such as tocopherols (0.64-1.77mg/g) consisting of α-, β-, γ- and δ-isomers; sterols including β-sitosterol (0.90-1.29mg/g), campesterol (0.06-0.32mg/g) and stigmasterol (0.04-0.18mg/g) in addition to polyphenols (9.22-22.16μgGAE/g). The results revealed that the T. grandis kernel oils possessed the potentially important nutrition and health benefits and could be used as oils in the human diet or functional ingredients in the food industry.

  4. A Multivariate Study on Genetic Variation in Teak (Tectona grandis (L.))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Erik Dahl; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Suangtho, V.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic differentiation between populations of teak (Tectona grandis (L.)) was examined in 9 quantitative characters and 10 allozyme loci. Large differences between populations were revealed in the quantitative traits. Regional patterns were revealed by multivariate analysis of the data, but ther...

  5. A Multivariate Study on Genetic Variation in Teak (Tectona grandis (L.))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Erik Dahl; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Suangtho, V.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic differentiation between populations of teak (Tectona grandis (L.)) was examined in 9 quantitative characters and 10 allozyme loci. Large differences between populations were revealed in the quantitative traits. Regional patterns were revealed by multivariate analysis of the data, but ther...

  6. Governo del territorio e grandi trasformazioni nella regione urbana milanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Pinto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available  Lo studio analizza le grandi trasformazioni in atto nella “regione urbana” milanese, esaminando gli strumenti, le strategie e le politiche seguite. Per “regione urbana” si intende un territorio che non fa riferimento a relazioni gerarchiche di tipo centro-periferico, bensì determina relazioni multi direzionali, a differenza dell’area metropolitana che viene definita in base a relazioni di dipendenza (economica, sociale, funzionale, ecc. di agglomerati esterni rispetto ad un capoluogo. La regione urbana milanese è uno dei poli economici e produttivi più attivi a livello nazionale ed europeo, tuttavia tale territorio è caratterizzato da una ridotta qualità urbana e ambientale e da fenomeni di polarizzazione e di frammentazione sociale in aumento, che hanno ripercussioni negative sulle prospettive di sviluppo dell'area. I più recenti strumenti di pianificazione dell’area milanese fanno riferimento alla coesione territoriale, cercando di disegnare una nuova struttura per il territorio frammentato e diffuso, consolidando il policentrismo della regione urbana, favorendo il riconoscimento di aggregazioni intermedie, al cui interno ricercare integrazione del sistema dei servizi, identità e appartenenze di area. Per attivare una politica di riqualificazione a livello urbano e territoriale, risulta fondamentale seguire forme di coordinamento tra i vari livelli di pianificazione. Particolare attenzione viene posta al problema della mobilità che richiede strategie particolari non solo del traffico quale effetto indotto, ma anche delle cause che lo producono, con riferimento specifico alla distribuzione sul territorio delle diverse attività, ad un corretto equilibrio tra insediamenti residenziali, produttivi e terziari. È necessario, dunque, individuare strumenti e procedure, capaci di perseguire un equilibrio dinamico tra i flussi attratti dalle attività insediate e i flussi “sostenibili” dalle infrastrutture di trasporto

  7. Prey preference and host suitability of the predatory and parasitoid carabid beetle, Lebia grandis, for several species of Leptinotarsa beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Donald C. Weber; Rowley, Daniel L.; Greenstone, Matthew H.; Athanas, Michael M.

    2006-01-01

    Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), recorded as a parasitoid only on Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is capable of parasitizing the false potato beetle, L. juncta, and also L. haldemani. Historical records show that L. decemlineata, while the only recorded host, was not present in much of the original range of L. grandis, and may not have been its host prior to its expansion into eastern North America, where L. juncta is endemic. Our laborator...

  8. Study on Machining Properties of Eucalyptus urophylla×E.grandis:Ⅱ.Shaping, Boring, Mortising and Turning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xinyi; JIANG Xiaomei; GAO Jianmin; YIN Yafang

    2006-01-01

    The research method of this paper is based on the standards of American Society for Testing and Materials(ASTM).Four items that contain boring,mortising,shaping and turning are selected to study the machining properties of E. urophylla×E. grandis plantation wood.The reasons for machining defects are analyzed.The result shows that E.urophylla×E.grandis planted in South China is a good species with great potential for solid wood utilization.

  9. Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis.

  10. Evidence of contact pheromone use in mating behavior of the raspberry weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutis, Ana; Parra, Leonardo; Palma, Rubén; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2009-02-01

    Numerous studies of insect species have shown that a subset of female cuticular hydrocarbons is used as short-range or contact pheromones. Here, we studied the possible use of contact pheromones in the mating behavior of the weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus, a native species of Chile. Males mounted females only after antennal contact with the female's cuticle, and only 33% of the males attempted to mate with dead females washed with solvent. When a glass rod (dummy) was coated with female cuticular extracts, males exhibited behaviors similar to those observed with females. A preliminary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of cuticular extracts indicated that males and females share a series of aliphatic hydrocarbons but that the relative abundance of some of these compounds differ between the sexes. These results suggest that cuticular lipids mediate mating behavior of the raspberry weevil and provide the first evidence of contact pheromones in curculionids.

  11. Elemental stoichiometry and compositions of weevil larvae and two acorn hosts under natural phosphorus variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Huawei; Du, Baoming; Liu, Chunjiang

    2017-04-05

    To understand how different trophic organisms in a parasite food chain adapt to the differences in soil nutrient conditions, we investigated stoichiometric variation and homeostasis of multiple elements in two acorn trees, Quercus variabilis and Quercus acutissima, and their parasite weevil larvae (Curculio davidi Fairmaire) at phosphorus (P)-deficient and P-rich sites in subtropical China where P-rich ores are scattered among dominant P-deficient soils. Results showed that elemental stoichiometry and compositions of both acorns and weevil larvae differed significantly between P-deficient and P-rich sites (p stoichiometry and compositions (p stoichiometry and composition and physiological regulations of nutritional needs in organisms and provide possible stoichiometric responses of both plants and animals to P loading, a worldwide issue from excess release of P into the environment.

  12. Elemental stoichiometry and compositions of weevil larvae and two acorn hosts under natural phosphorus variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Huawei; Du, Baoming; Liu, Chunjiang

    2017-04-01

    To understand how different trophic organisms in a parasite food chain adapt to the differences in soil nutrient conditions, we investigated stoichiometric variation and homeostasis of multiple elements in two acorn trees, Quercus variabilis and Quercus acutissima, and their parasite weevil larvae (Curculio davidi Fairmaire) at phosphorus (P)-deficient and P-rich sites in subtropical China where P-rich ores are scattered among dominant P-deficient soils. Results showed that elemental stoichiometry and compositions of both acorns and weevil larvae differed significantly between P-deficient and P-rich sites (p plants and animals to P loading, a worldwide issue from excess release of P into the environment.

  13. Genetic variation in avocado stem weevils Copturus aguacatae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrand, Rachel C; Cibrián Tovar, Juan; Cibrián-Jaramillo, Angélica; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2010-12-01

    The avocado stem weevil Copturus aguacatae is an important pest in avocado plantations. Its presence hinders the production and marketing of avocado in Mexico, the largest avocado producer worldwide. Biological control through pheromone synthesis, a strategy favored over chemical control in crops, is currently limited by difficult field identification of this species. Using DNA barcoding, we examine the patterns of genetic variation of C. aguacatae in avocado trees in Mexico to help facilitate its identification and biological control. We show that there is one single species of avocado stem weevil throughout the sampled sites in Mexico. Overall, haplotype diversity is high, with Oaxaca forming one distinct group and all other sampled populations are admixed irrespective of geographic origin. The results suggest that high gene flow is maintained in this species and that a global strategy for biocontrol can be designed and implemented throughout the sampled range.

  14. A new fossil weevil (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea, Belidae) from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming; REN Dong; SHIH Chungkun

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a new genus and a new species Microprobelus liuae gen. et sp. nov. referred to the family Belidae.This fossil was collected from the Late Jurassic Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, China. Detailed description and illustration of the specimen along with a brief review of fossil belids are given. And the age of the Yixian Formation and the early diversification of the weevils are discussed.

  15. Ethyl Formate: A Potential Disinfestation Treatment for Eucalyptus Weevil (Gonipterus platensis) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Manjree; Ren, Yonglin; Newman, James; Learmonth, Stewart

    2015-12-01

    Export of Pink Lady apples from Australia has been significantly affected by infestations of adult eucalyptus weevils (Gonipterus platensis Marelli). These weevils cling tenaciously to the pedicel of apple fruit when selecting overwintering sites. As a result, apples infested with live G. platensis adults lead to rejection for export. Since the Montreal Protocol restricted use of methyl bromide as postharvest treatment, it was necessary to consider alternative safer fumigants for disinfestation of eucalyptus weevil. Laboratory experiments were conducted using concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, and 80 mg/liter of ethyl formate. Complete control (100% mortality) was achieved at 25-30 mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24°C for 24-h exposure without apples. However, with 90-95% of the volume full of apples, complete control was achieved at 40 mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24°C for 24-h exposure. No phytotoxicity was observed and after one day aeration, residue of ethyl formate declined to natural levels (0.05-0.2 mg/kg). Five ethyl formate field trials were conducted in cool storages (capacity from 250-900 tons) and 100% kill of eucalyptus weevils were achieved at 50-55 mg/liter at 7-10°C for 24 h. Ethyl formate has great potential for preshipment treatment of apples. Its use is considerably cheaper and safer than already existing fumigants like methyl bromide and phosphine.

  16. Olfactory cues are subordinate to visual stimuli in a neotropical generalist weevil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Otálora-Luna

    Full Text Available The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, color, and odors has not been studied in this species. The responses of male and female D. abbreviatus to narrow bandwidths of visible light emitted by LEDs offered alone and in combination with olfactory stimuli were studied in a specially-designed multiple choice arena combined with a locomotion compensator. Weevils were more attracted to wavelengths close to green and yellow compared with blue or ultraviolet, but preferred red and darkness over green. Additionally, dim green light was preferred over brighter green. Adult weevils were also attracted to the odor of its citrus host + conspecifics. However, the attractiveness of citrus + conspecific odors disappeared in the presence of a green light. Photic stimulation induced males but not females to increase their speed. In the presence of light emitted by LEDs, turning speed decreased and path straightness increased, indicating that weevils tended to walk less tortuously. Diaprepes abbreviatus showed a hierarchy between chemo- and photo-taxis in the series of experiments presented herein, where the presence of the green light abolished upwind anemotaxis elicited by the pheromone + host plant odor. Insight into the strong responses to visual stimuli of chemically stimulated insects may be provided when the amount of information supplied by vision and olfaction is compared, as the information transmission capacity of compound eyes is estimated to be several orders of magnitude higher compared with the olfactory system. Subordination of olfactory responses by photic stimuli should be considered in the design of strategies aimed at management of such insects.

  17. Acorn fall and weeviling in a northern red oak seedling orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, we determined levels of damage by acorn weevils (Curculio spp.) and patterns of acorn fall in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling orchard in eastern Tennessee. The mean (±SE) production of acorns among 43 selected trees was 5,930 ± 586 acorns per tree with a maximum production level of 16,969 acorns for one tree...

  18. Biochemical properties of digestive carbohydrases from the sugar beet weevil, Lixus incanescens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ahsaei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sugar beet weevil, Lixus incanescens B., is one of the most important pests of sugar beet plant in Iran. The petioles and leaves of sugar beet are attacked by larvae and adults of the sugar beet weevil. Chemical application is currently used for controlling the pest. Digestion in the alimentary canal of the sugar beet weevil is facilitated by some carbohydrases. Results of the in vitro studies indicated the presence of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase in the digestive tract of the pest. Highest activities of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase were at pH 5, pH 5 and pH 4, respectively. No significant alpha-glucosidase and alpha-galactosidase activity was detected in the pest's digestive system. Optimum temperatures for alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase activity were determined at 45, 50 and 40 oC, respectively. alpha-amylase was more stable under acidic condition (pH 4 to pH 6 than under highly acidic and alkaline condition. Na+ and K+ increased alpha-amylase activity, but sodium dodecyl sulfate significantly decreased amylase activity. Also, the activity of alpha-amylase was inhibited by the other compounds such as MgCl2, CaCl2 and EDTA. Zymogram analysis using native-PAGE revealed one band of alpha-amylase activity in Lixus incanescens. High activity of carbohydrases in the digestive system of adults was determined and further researches are needed to be applied to design new strategies for controlling the sugar beet weevil based on natural carbohydrase inhibitors.

  19. New Approach of Beauveria bassiana to Control the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Trapping Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, M J; Ajlan, A M; Al-Ahmad, M H

    2015-04-01

    This work is the first study to investigate the efficacy of the commercial formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Broadband) to control adults of red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier)). This fungus could be applied as one of the biological tactics in controlling red palm weevil. Bioassay experiments for medium lethal concentrate and medium time to cause death of 50% of red palm weevil adults were carried out. The result showed that the LC50 of B. bassiana (Broadband) was 2.19×10(7) and 2.76×10(6) spores/ml at 9 and 23 d of treatment, respectively. The LT50 was 13.95 and 4.15 d for concentration of 1×10(7) and 1×10(8) spores/ml, respectively, whereas 1×10(9) spores/ml caused 100% mortality after 24 h. Additionally, a red palm weevil pheromone trap was designed to attract the adults to be contaminated with spores of Broadband, which was applied to the sackcloth fabric that coated the internal surfaces of the bucket trap. The mating behavior was studied to determine direct and indirect infection of the spores from male to female and vice versa. The results showed a high efficacy of Broadband suspension at 1×10(9) spores/ml; 40 ml of suspension at this concentration treated to cloth in a trap caused death of contaminated adults with B. bassiana spores directly and indirectly. The 100% mortality was obtained even after 13 d of traps treatment with 40 ml of the suspension at 1×10(9) spores/ml.

  20. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chiu Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (C. grandis were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06% and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%. In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  1. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  2. THE USE OF GRIGNARD REAGENT IN PHEROMONE SYNTHESIS FOR PALM WEEVIL (Rhynchorus, Sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsito Warsito

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In an integrated controlling system of palm weevil, using of synthetic feromoid is strickly needed. The research is aimed to synthesize pheromone which secreted by the weevil, e.g. 4-methyl-5-nonanol (R. ferrugineus and 3-methyl-4-octanol (R. schach through Grignard reagent which formed in situ. The synthesis was proceded by retrosynthesis to determine the precursor, valeraldehyde. The precursor was reacted with Grignard reagent of sec-amyl magnesium bromide (R. ferrugenieus and sec-butyl magnesium bromide (R. shach which made in situ. Characterization of the synthetic molecular pheromone was performed by Gas Chromatography-mass spectroscopy and Fourier Transformed Infra Red. The bioassay of the molecule was carried out by olfactometer. The result showed that the conversion of the reactions were 51.28% (4-methyl-5-nonanol and 85.90% (3-methyl-4-octanol. The character of physico-chemical and bioactivity of the synthetic pheromone are identic with natural pheromones.   Keywords: palm weevil, pheromone, grignard reagent

  3. Classification of weevils as a data-driven science: leaving opinion behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarte Jordal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Data and explicit taxonomic ranking criteria, which minimize taxonomic change, provide a scientific approach to modern taxonomy and classification. However, traditional practices of opinion-based taxonomy (i.e., mid-20th century evolutionary systematics, which lack explicit ranking and naming criteria, are still in practice despite phylogenetic evidence. This paper discusses a recent proposed reclassification of weevils that elevates bark and ambrosia beetles (Scolytinae and Platypodinae to the ranks of Family. We demonstrate that the proposed reclassification 1 is not supported by an evolutionary systematic justification because the apparently unique morphology of bark and ambrosia beetles is shared with other unrelated wood-boring weevil taxa; 2 introduces obvious paraphyly in weevil classification and hence violates good practices on maintaining an economy of taxonomic change; 3 is not supported by other taxonomic naming criteria, such as time banding. We recommend the abandonment of traditional practices of an opinion-based taxonomy, especially in light of available data and resulting phylogenies.

  4. Effects of the Diet on the Microbiota of the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    KAUST Repository

    Montagna, Matteo

    2015-01-30

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition.

  5. Effects of the Diet on the Microbiota of the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Chouaia, Bessem; Mazza, Giuseppe; Prosdocimi, Erica Maria; Crotti, Elena; Mereghetti, Valeria; Vacchini, Violetta; Giorgi, Annamaria; De Biase, Alessio; Longo, Santi; Cervo, Rita; Lozzia, Giuseppe Carlo; Alma, Alberto; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition. PMID:25635833

  6. Greenhouse studies of thiamethoxam effects on pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo, Héctor; Herle, Carolyn; Hervet, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has recently emerged as an important pest of field peas in the Canadian prairies. Systemic seed-coated insecticides may provide a tool for the integrated pest management of this pest. Therefore, several controlled assays were performed in order to determine effects of a recently registered neonicotinoid, (thiamethoxam) on S. lineatus damage to foliage, weevil mortality, fertility, egg viability, larval mortality, and root nodule damage. Foliage damage was reduced by thiamethoxam relative to untreated controls during the seedling stage (2(nd)-5(th) nodes), but weevil adult mortality was only 15-30%. Fertility was reduced substantially through an extra seven-day delay in the preoviposition period and reduced egg-laying rate during the first 20 days of the study (92% lower than controls). Overall egg viability was lower in females fed foliage grown from thiamethoxamtreated seeds. Larval survivorship and nodule damage were also lower, but only when eggs were added to treated plants at the 2(nd) node stage. When eggs were added late, at the 5th node stage, thiamethoxam had no effect on larval survivorship or nodule damage. The results of this study led to the conclusion that seed treatments such as thiamethoxam have potential to be used as tools that will aid in the integrated pest management of S. lineatus, especially in combination with other methods such as biocontrol and trap crops.

  7. Genetical genomics identifies the genetic architecture for growth and weevil resistance in spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Ilga; White, Richard; Jaquish, Barry; Alfaro, René; Ritland, Carol; Ritland, Kermit

    2012-01-01

    In plants, relationships between resistance to herbivorous insect pests and growth are typically controlled by complex interactions between genetically correlated traits. These relationships often result in tradeoffs in phenotypic expression. In this study we used genetical genomics to elucidate genetic relationships between tree growth and resistance to white pine terminal weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck.) in a pedigree population of interior spruce (Picea glauca, P. engelmannii and their hybrids) that was growing at Vernon, B.C. and segregating for weevil resistance. Genetical genomics uses genetic perturbations caused by allelic segregation in pedigrees to co-locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for gene expression and quantitative traits. Bark tissue of apical leaders from 188 trees was assayed for gene expression using a 21.8K spruce EST-spotted microarray; the same individuals were genotyped for 384 SNP markers for the genetic map. Many of the expression QTLs (eQTL) co-localized with resistance trait QTLs. For a composite resistance phenotype of six attack and oviposition traits, 149 positional candidate genes were identified. Resistance and growth QTLs also overlapped with eQTL hotspots along the genome suggesting that: 1) genetic pleiotropy of resistance and growth traits in interior spruce was substantial, and 2) master regulatory genes were important for weevil resistance in spruce. These results will enable future work on functional genetic studies of insect resistance in spruce, and provide valuable information about candidate genes for genetic improvement of spruce.

  8. Genetical genomics identifies the genetic architecture for growth and weevil resistance in spruce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilga Porth

    Full Text Available In plants, relationships between resistance to herbivorous insect pests and growth are typically controlled by complex interactions between genetically correlated traits. These relationships often result in tradeoffs in phenotypic expression. In this study we used genetical genomics to elucidate genetic relationships between tree growth and resistance to white pine terminal weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck. in a pedigree population of interior spruce (Picea glauca, P. engelmannii and their hybrids that was growing at Vernon, B.C. and segregating for weevil resistance. Genetical genomics uses genetic perturbations caused by allelic segregation in pedigrees to co-locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs for gene expression and quantitative traits. Bark tissue of apical leaders from 188 trees was assayed for gene expression using a 21.8K spruce EST-spotted microarray; the same individuals were genotyped for 384 SNP markers for the genetic map. Many of the expression QTLs (eQTL co-localized with resistance trait QTLs. For a composite resistance phenotype of six attack and oviposition traits, 149 positional candidate genes were identified. Resistance and growth QTLs also overlapped with eQTL hotspots along the genome suggesting that: 1 genetic pleiotropy of resistance and growth traits in interior spruce was substantial, and 2 master regulatory genes were important for weevil resistance in spruce. These results will enable future work on functional genetic studies of insect resistance in spruce, and provide valuable information about candidate genes for genetic improvement of spruce.

  9. EFFECT OF FENNEL WATER EXTRACTS ON REDUCTION OF FEEDING OF PEA LEAF WEEVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Biniaś

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the effect of aqueous extracts from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seeds at 2%, 5%, 10% and 20% concentrations on the feeding of peal leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus L. on broad bean (Vicia faba L.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Feeding intensity assessment was conducted by dipping leaves of broad bean in respective solutions of the extracts and determining the area of broad bean leaves, eaten by pea leaf weevil beetle in the 12 hour intervals. In addition, absolute deterrence index and palatability index were calculated. As a result of the observation no significant limiting effect of fennel seed aqueous extracts on the feeding of the pea leaf weevil females was shown. All of the used fennel extracts had inhibitory effect on the feeding of male S. linetaus and the strongest effect of extracts was observed in the first 36 hours of the experiment. The high values of the palatability index (particularly for the females with relatively low absolute deterrence index, indicate limited possibilities of the use of aqueous extracts from fennel seeds for the protection against the feeding of the beetles from the genus Sitona.

  10. Effect of mango weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on mango seed viability in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, P A; Gabbard, Z

    2000-08-01

    The mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus (= Sternochetus) mangiferae (F.), is a federally quarantined pest that prevents shipment of mangos from Hawaii into the continental United States. Although this monophagous weevil allegedly causes reduced seed germination, damage to the fruit pulp, and premature fruit drop in mangos, there are few studies examining these potential sources of crop loss. We conducted studies to assess the effect of mango weevil infestation on seed viability while making observations on the frequency of pulp feeding. Naturally infested seeds from mature fruit were planted in pots and scored for successful germination. Germination rates for infested seeds were equal to those of uninfested control seeds in a polyembryonic cultivar ('Common'), whereas germination was significantly reduced for infested seeds of a monoembryonic cultivar ('Haden') compared with uninfested control seeds but germination of infested seeds was still > 70%. To assess seed tolerance of damage, seeds were artificially damaged by cutting away 25, 50, or 75% of the cotyledon before planting and scored for germination. None of the damage treatments was significantly different from the undamaged controls, indicating that mango seeds can withstand substantial damage and still germinate successfully. Over the 2-yr period we conducted experiments, only four of 3,602 mango fruits (0.11%) showed evidence of direct feeding damage to the pulp. Results suggest that C. mangiferae is a less serious pest of mangos than previously thought.

  11. Cloning and structural analysis of a haemocyanin from the Stonefly Perla grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochetti, Romolo; Belardinelli, Mariacristina; Guerra, Laura; Buonocore, Francesco; Fausto, Anna Maria; Caporale, Carlo

    2006-12-01

    We characterized two subunits of a putative haemocyanin from the stonefly species Perla grandis. In particular, we cloned and sequenced the corresponding cDNAs and studied their expression in different insect stages. Moreover, using the deduced amino acid sequences, homology studies were performed both on their primary and tertiary structures. 3-D molecular modelling data showed that the residues involved in the oxygen transport and subunits contacts were located in spatial positions preserving the functionality of the molecule. Despite it was paradigmatically affirmed that insects do not have respiratory proteins, our data suggest that the haemocyanin could be involved in the respiratory mechanisms of P. grandis. As far as we know, this is the first haemocyanin 3-D structure described and analyzed in insects.

  12. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn. and Gmelina arborea (Roxb. for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlings planted in the uncontaminated soils. T. grandis and G. arborea as shown in this study could be good species for phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated habitats due to oil exploration and exploitation especially at low concentrations.

  13. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of Saprospira grandis str. Lewin, a predatory marine bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Jimmy H W; Yuryev, Anton; Kanbe, Masaomi; Hou, Shaobin; Young, Aaron G; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Alam, Maqsudul

    2012-03-19

    Saprospira grandis is a coastal marine bacterium that can capture and prey upon other marine bacteria using a mechanism known as 'ixotrophy'. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Saprospira grandis str. Lewin isolated from La Jolla beach in San Diego, California. The complete genome sequence comprises a chromosome of 4.35 Mbp and a plasmid of 54.9 Kbp. Genome analysis revealed incomplete pathways for the biosynthesis of nine essential amino acids but presence of a large number of peptidases. The genome encodes multiple copies of sensor globin-coupled rsbR genes thought to be essential for stress response and the presence of such sensor globins in Bacteroidetes is unprecedented. A total of 429 spacer sequences within the three CRISPR repeat regions were identified in the genome and this number is the largest among all the Bacteroidetes sequenced to date.

  14. Callogenesis in stem explants of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex Maiden showing resilience in oxide calluses

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    Regina Paula Willemen Pereira

    Full Text Available Callogenesis was achieved using growth regulators at different concentrations to obtain the best characteristics regarding the calluses texture aspect with the main objective to produce friable calluses from stem explants of Eucalyptus grandis. Stem segments of approximately 1 cm were excised from 30-day seedlings. The treatments were prepared based on the MS medium added with TDZ alone or combined with AIA; 2,4-D; ANA. Each treatment consisted of five repetitions with five explants per plate. After 210 days of in vitro culture, the calluses were evaluated visually and by manipulation for texture. The explants that did not produce calluses were those exposed to treatments with 2,4-D 50.0 µM; TDZ 3.0 µM and in absence of a growth regulator (control.The best protocols for maintenance of friable calluses of stem explants of Eucalyptus grandis under the conditions performed in this work were those using only TDZ.

  15. Temporal dynamics of the response to Al stress in Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice K. de Alcântara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation and root elongation of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis were studied under stress conditions in response to aluminum (Al, a metal known to limit agricultural productivity in acidic soils primarily due to reduced root elongation. In Brazil, the Grancam 1277 hybrid (E. grandis × E. camaldulensis has been planted in the "Cerrado", a region of the country with a wide occurrence of acidic soils. The present study demonstrated that the hybrid exhibited root growth reduction and increased levels of lipid peroxidation after 24h of treatment with 100 µM of Al, which was followed by a reduction in lipid peroxidation levels and the recovery of root elongation after 48h of Al exposure, suggesting a rapid response to the early stressful conditions induced by Al. The understanding of the temporal dynamics of Al tolerance may be useful for selecting more tolerant genotypes and for identifying genes of interest for applications in bioengineering.

  16. Modification of static bending strength properties of Eucalyptus grandis heat-treated wood

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    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the effect of thermal rectification on physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood at different levels of temperature and time. Samples of Eucalyptus grandis wood (10 × 10 × 200 mm were heat-treated at 180, 200, 220 and 240 °C during 4 and 8 hours. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and untreated samples were determined by static bending tests. The physical properties were determined by weight loss and swelling tests. The results showed that modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, weight loss, volumetric swelling and linear swelling were affected significantly by the thermal rectification. However, the length of exposure influenced just weight loss, while the temperature influenced all the studied properties of heat-treated wood. More significant modifications with treatments at a temperature of 200 °C or higher were found in the properties of heat-treated wood.

  17. Assessment of the antidiabetic potential of Cassia grandis using an in vivo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh R Lodha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. grandis (Family: Leguminosae were evaluated for antidiabetic activity by a glucose tolerance test, in normal rats and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed that they significantly lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in the glucose tolerance test. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after three hours, at a dose level of 150 mg/kg of body weight. The percentage of protection given by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 32.72 and 46.42%, respectively. In the long-term treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the degree of protection was determined by measuring the blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides on the tenth day. Both the extracts showed a significant antidiabetic activity comparable to that of glibenclamide. These results showed that the Cassia grandis possessed significant antidiabetic activity.

  18. Fertirrigation in production of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis during winter and summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fernandes Ciavatta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies correlating the splitting of fertigation with the development and quality of tree seedlings in different production systems and periods of the year are fundamental to optimize inputs and minimization of the production cycle. Thus we conducted this study aimed to check the influence of the split of fertigation in the development and quality of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings in winter and summer periods. The fertilization through the irrigation system by capillarity was split on: one, two, three or six times in the week, maintaining the total amount of nutrients applied. We concluded that the most effective fertigation for the development and quality of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis were six and one times in the week for the period of winter and summer, respectively, demonstrating the need for adequacy of fertigation managements according to the period of year.

  19. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) response to and volitilization rates of grandlure when combined with varying doses of eugenol in the extended-life pheromone lure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll weevil extended-life pheromone lures, impregnated with 25 mg grandlure and 30 mg eugenol, are replacing standard pheromone lures (10 mg grandlure) in boll weevil eradication programs, to increase the changing interval from 2 weeks, to 3 or 4 weeks, which reduces labor and material costs. The a...

  20. Molecular and morphological tools to distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838: a new weevil pest of the endangered Eggers Agave from St Croix, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agave Snout Weevil (ASW) or Sisal Weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, is one of the most destructive pests of agave plants, capable of destroying up to 70% of commercial crops, costing millions of dollars in damage to global industries including tequila, mezcal, perfume, henequen, nardo...

  1. The oropharyngeal morphology in the semiaquatic giant Asian pond turtle, Heosemys grandis, and its evolutionary implications.

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    Monika Lintner

    Full Text Available The oropharynx as a functional entity plays a fundamental role in feeding. Transitions from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles in vertebrates demanded major changes of the oropharynx for the required adaptations to a different feeding environment. Extant turtles evolved terrestrial feeding modes in three families (testudinids, emydids, geoemydids-independently from other amniotes-and are therefore important model organisms to reconstruct morpho-functional changes behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions. In this study we hypothesized that the oropharyngeal morphology in semiaquatic turtles of the geoemydid family shows parallels to testudinids, the only purely terrestrial extant lineage. We provide an in-depth description of the oropharynx in the semiaquatic geoemydid Heosemys grandis by using a combination of micro computed tomography (micro-CT and subsequent digital in situ 3-D reconstruction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and histology. We show that H. grandis has a large tongue with rough papillose surface and well-developed lingual muscles. The attachment sites of the lingual muscles on the hyolingual skeleton and their courses within the tongue are nearly identical with testudinids. The hyolingual skeleton itself is mainly cartilaginous and shows distinct-but compared to testudinids rather small-anterior extensions of the hyoid body and hypoglossum. Oral glands are well developed in H. grandis but are smaller and simpler than in testudinids. Similarly, oropharyngeal keratinization was minimal and found only in the anterior palate, regions close to the beak, and tongue tip. We conclude that H. grandis shows distinct oropharyngeal morpho-functional adaptations for a terrestrial lifestyle but still retains characters typical for aquatic forms. This makes this species an important example showing the oropharyngeal adaptations behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions in turtles.

  2. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  3. The Oropharyngeal Morphology in the Semiaquatic Giant Asian Pond Turtle, Heosemys grandis, and Its Evolutionary Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintner, Monika; Weissenbacher, Anton; Heiss, Egon

    2012-01-01

    The oropharynx as a functional entity plays a fundamental role in feeding. Transitions from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles in vertebrates demanded major changes of the oropharynx for the required adaptations to a different feeding environment. Extant turtles evolved terrestrial feeding modes in three families (testudinids, emydids, geoemydids)–independently from other amniotes–and are therefore important model organisms to reconstruct morpho-functional changes behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions. In this study we hypothesized that the oropharyngeal morphology in semiaquatic turtles of the geoemydid family shows parallels to testudinids, the only purely terrestrial extant lineage. We provide an in-depth description of the oropharynx in the semiaquatic geoemydid Heosemys grandis by using a combination of micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and subsequent digital in situ 3-D reconstruction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and histology. We show that H. grandis has a large tongue with rough papillose surface and well-developed lingual muscles. The attachment sites of the lingual muscles on the hyolingual skeleton and their courses within the tongue are nearly identical with testudinids. The hyolingual skeleton itself is mainly cartilaginous and shows distinct–but compared to testudinids rather small–anterior extensions of the hyoid body and hypoglossum. Oral glands are well developed in H. grandis but are smaller and simpler than in testudinids. Similarly, oropharyngeal keratinization was minimal and found only in the anterior palate, regions close to the beak, and tongue tip. We conclude that H. grandis shows distinct oropharyngeal morpho-functional adaptations for a terrestrial lifestyle but still retains characters typical for aquatic forms. This makes this species an important example showing the oropharyngeal adaptations behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions in turtles. PMID:23029486

  4. Growth Process of Eucalyptus urophylla × E.grandis Stand Based on Logistic Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Eucalyptus is the most valuable cultivated forest genus in the tropical and subtropical areas nowadays. It has been a challenge for foresters to model growth due to the genetic variations, management regimes, and multiple products generated from the plantations. In this paper, Logistic equation was used to study the stock growth process of E. urophylla × E. grandis plantation at age of 14 with 6 spacing treatments. And the biological interpretation of the parameters of Logistic equation was analyzed. The re...

  5. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Xie

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  6. Acquired resistance in a weevil to its parasitoid influenced by host plants

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    Stephen Latham Goldson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Field parasitism rates of the Argentine stem weevil Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae by Microctonus hyperodae Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae are known to vary according to different host Lolium species that also differ in ploidy. To further investigate this, a laboratory study was conducted to examine parasitism rates on tetraploid Italian L. multiflorum, diploid L. perenne and diploid hybrid L. perenne × L. multiflorum; none of which were infected by Epichloë endophyte. At the same time, the opportunity was taken to compare the results of this study with observations made during extensive laboratory-based research and parasitoid-rearing in the 1990s using the same host plant species. This made it possible to determine whether there has been any change in weevil susceptibility to the parasitoid over a 20 year period in the presence of the tetraploid Italian, diploid perennial and hybrid host grasses that were common to both experiments.The incidence of parasitism in cages, in the presence of these three grasses mirrored what has recently been observed in the field. When caged, weevil parasitism rates in the presence of a tetraploid Italian ryegrass host were significantly higher (75% than rates that occurred in the presence of either the diploid perennial (46% or the diploid hybrid (52% grass, which were not significantly different from each other. This is very different to laboratory parasitism rates in the 1990s when in the presence of both of the latter grasses high rates of parasitism (c. 75% were recorded. These high rates are typical of those still found in both field and caged tetraploid Italian grasses. In contrast, the abrupt decline in weevil parasitism rates points to the possibility of evolved resistance by the weevil to the parasitoid in the diploid and hybrid grasses, but not so in the tetraploid. The orientation of plants in the laboratory cages had no significant effect on parasitism rates under any

  7. EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis

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    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the fertilization in the amount and quality of the produced wood is one of the questions to be considered in the research of the Eucalyptus grandis. The present work aimed to evaluate the fertilization effect in the mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis. The population of Eucalyptus grandis was 21 years old and was managed under the system of selective thinning, with application of fertilizers. The factors used in this study were: presence or absence of fertilizers, two positions of log and five radial positions. The influences of the factors and of their combinations were evaluated regarding to compression strength, shear strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity in static banding. The compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity had been influenced by the factors: fertilizer and radial positions of the log. There was also an increase in the direction of the pith-bark in all studied properties. A good positive relationship was found to exist among the compression strength, the shear, the modulus of rupture and the modulus of elasticity with radial position.

  8. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of methanol extract of Tectona grandis flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandran S; Rajini kanth B; Rajasekaran A; Manisenthil Kumar KT

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of Tectona grandis (T. grandis) flowers (METGF) in animal models to support its traditional use. Methods:Acute toxicity study was performed to determine the toxicity level of METGF in mice and rats. Carrageenan (1%w/w) was administered and inflammation was induced in sub-plantar region of rat paw. Analgesia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 0.6%v/v acetic acid in mice to assess peripheral analgesic action of METGF. Also, hot-plate was used to induce pain in mice to evaluate central analgesic action of METGF. Results: Oral administration of METGF in rat and mice did not produce any toxicity at 2 000 mg/kg dose level. In carrageenan induced inflammation, administration of METGF (100 and 200 mg/kg) as well as indomethacin (10 mg/kg) reduced rat paw edema significantly at 3, 4 and 5 h. Both the doses of METGF showed significant inhibition in acetic acid induced writhing responses. In thermally induced analgesia models, administration of METG at dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly increased reaction time compared to control animals. The preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds and tannins in METGF. Conclusions: Present study, for the first time, confirms the anti-inflammatory and analgesic action of METGF and it supports the traditional use of T. grandis flowers.

  9. Supercritical water gasification of Eucalyptus grandis and related pyrolysis char: Effect of feedstock composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-09-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0.22) typically resulted in higher CH4 yields (30mol/kgfeed,dry) and gasification efficiencies (188%). However, experimentally, feed material with lower O/C ratios and lower volatile matter resulted in the lowest CH4 yields and gasification efficiencies. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the carbon efficiency (CE) and both the volatile matter content and O/C ratio of the feed material was found to hold true in both catalytic and non-catalytic experiments.

  10. Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2012-01-01

    Saprospira grandis Gross et al. 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class 'Sphingobacteria' that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via 'ixotrophy'. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  11. MANEJO DO SOLO E CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EM ARGISSOLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Prevedello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest species cultivation with rapid growth in Brazil has increased, mainly due to the diverse use of its wood and climate adaptation. The cultivation with minimum tillage in the forest sector stands out a way to increase productivity, combined with the maintenance of biodiversity and soil conservation. This study was conducted at the experimental area of State Foundation for Agricultural Research - Research Center for Forestry in Santa Maria - RS, with aimed to evaluate the effect of the soil tillage methods on soil physical properties and on initial development of Eucalyptus grandis, in a sandy loam Typic Hapludalf. Four soil management practices were compared: no-tillage; chisel tillage; chisel tillage plus harrowing and; rotary tillage (rotary tiller, installed in a randomized block design with three replications. The soil under no-tillage conditioned lower initial growth of eucalyptus due higher soil penetration resistance and bulk density, when compared with treatments with mobilization. The root distribution analysis in soil, despite being a qualitative method, was effective in demonstrating the effect of soil tillage for the Eucalyptus grandis plantation. The soil tillage with mobilization resulted in a higher initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis. The chisel tillage effects in the soil physical properties persisted after one year of soil tillage.

  12. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates.

  13. Fine-scale local adaptation of weevil mouthpart length and camellia pericarp thickness: altitudinal gradient of a putative arms race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu

    2008-05-01

    Although coevolutionary theory predicts that evolutionary interactions between species are spatially hierarchical, few studies have examined coevolutionary processes at multiple spatial scales. In an antagonistic system involving a plant, the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica), and its obligate seed predator, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), I elucidated the local adaptation of a camellia defensive armament (pericarp thickness) and a weevil offensive armament (rostrum length) within Yakushima Island (ca. 30 km in diameter), compared to a larger-scale variation in those traits throughout Japan reported in previous studies. Results showed that camellia pericarp thickness and weevil rostrum length vary remarkably within several kilometers on this island. In addition, geographic variation in each camellia and weevil armament was best explained by the armament size of the sympatric participant than by abiotic environmental heterogeneity. However, I also found that camellia pericarp thickness significantly decreased in cool-temperate (i.e., highland) areas, suggesting the contributions of climate on the spatial structuring of the weevil-camellia interaction. Interestingly, relatively thin pericarps occurred not only in the highlands but also in some low-altitude areas, indicating that other factors such as nonrandom or asymmetric gene flow play important roles in the metapopulation processes of interspecific interactions at small spatial scales.

  14. Effects of tillage practices on pea leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus L., Coleoptera: Curculionidae) biology and crop damage: a farm-scale study in the US Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanavan, R P; Bosque-Pérez, N A

    2012-12-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L., is periodically a significant pest of pea, Pisum sativum L., in the Palouse region of northern Idaho and eastern Washington, USA. Previous on-station research demonstrated significantly greater adult pea leaf weevil colonization, immature survival, adult emergence and plant damage in conventional-tillage compared to no-tillage plots of pea. In experiments conducted during the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, aerial and ground adult pea leaf weevil colonization of large-scale commercial pea fields under different tillage regimes in northern Idaho and eastern Washington was examined for the first time. Initial pea leaf weevil feeding damage, immature weevil densities and subsequent adult emergence from the fields were also assessed. During both years, significantly more adult pea leaf weevils were captured in conventional-tillage than in no-tillage fields during the crop establishment period in May. No-tillage soils remained wet longer in the spring and could not be planted by growers until later than conventional-tillage fields. Pea planted under conventional-tillage emerged earlier and had significantly greater feeding damage by the pea leaf weevil than no-tillage pea. Significantly, greater immature pea leaf weevil densities and subsequent adult emergence were observed in conventional-tillage than in no-tillage pea fields. Delayed development of root nodules in the cooler, moister conditions of no-tillage pea fields likely resulted in escape from attack and injury during the critical growth stages that ultimately influence yield. Results indicate that large-scale commercial no-tillage pea fields are less suitable for colonization and survival of the pea leaf weevil and suffer less weevil damage than fields under conventional tillage.

  15. Prey preference and host suitability of the predatory and parasitoid carabid beetle, Lebia grandis, for several species of Leptinotarsa beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Donald C; Rowley, Daniel L; Greenstone, Matthew H; Athanas, Michael M

    2006-01-01

    Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), recorded as a parasitoid only on Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is capable of parasitizing the false potato beetle, L. juncta, and also L. haldemani. Historical records show that L. decemlineata, while the only recorded host, was not present in much of the original range of L. grandis, and may not have been its host prior to its expansion into eastern North America, where L. juncta is endemic. Our laboratory comparisons suggest that L. juncta, the presumptive original host, best supports the development of the parasitoid larval L. grandis, based on 43.6% successful emergence of the adult carabid parasitoid, compared to 11.5% from the two other Leptinotarsa species. L. grandis adults accept eggs and larvae of all 3 Leptinotarsa species as adult food. Naive, newly-emerged adults show no preference when presented the 3 species of third-instar larvae, which they consume at a mean rate of 3.3 per day, a rate which does not differ significantly by sex, larval host, or weight at emergence. When presented with equal amounts by weight of the 3 species of Leptinotarsa eggs, such adults consume the equivalent of 23.0 L. decemlineata eggs per day, with consumption of L. juncta eggs 67% higher by weight than L. decemlineata consumption. Insight into the biotic and abiotic limitations on L. grandis should aid in determining its potential for suppression of Colorado potato beetle by biological control in diverse agroecosystems.

  16. Impacts of grazing and mowing on reproductive behaviors of Stipa grandis and Stipa krylovii in a semi-arid area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui GAO; YuBao GAO; XingDong HE

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance can affect biomass allocation of plants, but can it influence plant reproductive behavior? To address this issue, we performed field plant community investigations and explored the reproductive behaviors of Stipa grandis and Stipa krylovii in response to grazing and mowing treatments at Maodeng pasture of Xilinguole League of Inner Mongolia, China during 2007-2009. The results showed that, with a similar niche width for the two plant species under mowing and grazing treatments, mowing significantly increased the ratio of ramet to genet number of S. krylovii and the carbon to nitrogen ratio of S. grandis, and grazing significantly decreased the ratio of vegetative to reproductive tiller biomass of S. grandis and increased the ratio of vegetative to reproductive tiller number of S. krylovii. Regression analysis showed that the significantly positive effect of root to shoot biomass ratio was stronger on the ratio of vegetative to reproductive tiller number of S. grandis than on that of S. krylovii. These results indicated that grazing and mowing influenced the reproductive manner and the process of sexual reproduc-tion of S. grandis and S. krylovii.

  17. Field Abundance Patterns and Odor-Mediated Host Choice by Clover Seed Weevils, Apion fulvipes and Apion trifolii (Coleoptera: Apionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyabuga, Franklin N; Carrasco, David; Ranåker, Lynn; Andersson, Martin N; Birgersson, Göran; Larsson, Mattias C; Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Svensson, Glenn P; Anderbrant, Olle; Lankinen, Åsa

    2015-04-01

    The clover seed weevils Apion fulvipes Geoffroy, 1785 and Apion trifolii L., 1768 (Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause major losses to seed production of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), respectively. Clover is important as animal forage and an alternative to inorganic fertilizers. Because clover is mainly pollinated by bees, the use of insecticides in management of these weevils is discouraged. To gain basic knowledge for development of alternative management strategies, we investigated weevil field abundance over two growing seasons, as well as feeding and olfactory host preferences by A. fulvipes and A. trifolii. Field trap catches in southern Sweden revealed that white clover was dominated by A. fulvipes and red clover by A. trifolii. For both weevil species, female catches were positively correlated to the number of clover buds and flowers in the field. In feeding and olfactory bioassays, females of A. fulvipes and A. trifolii showed a preference for T. repens and T. pratense, respectively. However, the feeding preference was lost when the antennae were removed, indicating a significant role of olfaction in host choice. Male weevils of both species did not show clear olfactory or feeding preferences for host plant species. The field study and laboratory bioassays demonstrate that, at least for female weevils, olfaction is important for selection of host plants. We discuss these novel results in the context of managing these important pests of clover by exploiting olfaction and behavioral attraction to host plant volatiles. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Using morphometrics, in situ observations and genetic characters to distinguish among commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species; a redescription of Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 (Antipatharia : Antipathidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Daniel [University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu; Toonen, Robert J. [Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Kaneohe, HI; Brugler, Mercer R. [University of Louisiana, Lafayette; France, Scott C. [University of Louisiana, Lafayette; Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Montgomery, Anthony D. [Honolulu State Department Land and Natural Resources, HI

    2010-01-01

    The commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 is redescribed based on reexamination of the holotype from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum and field collections of 34 specimens from depths of 27-127 m. The first scanning electron micrographs of A. grandis skeletal spines are provided, along with a series of in situ color photographs and morphometric measurements of spines and polyps. Three color morphotypes were collected in the field (red, pale red, and white), none of which could be differentiated based on morphological or genetic characters (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). In situ observations are used in conjunction with morphological and genetic characters to distinguish among the commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species A. grandis and A. griggi Opresko, 2009. A. grandis is differentiated from A. griggi by its finer and more irregular branching, smaller and more closely-spaced polyps, and conical spines that are smaller and not characterized by bifurcations towards their apex. Morphologically, the species most closely resembling A. grandis is A. caribbeana Opresko, 1996 from the Caribbean. Among analyzed congenerics, DNA sequences of A. grandis were likewise most similar to those of A. caribbeana for three of the four molecular markers used in this study. A combination of low genetic variability, incomplete taxonomic sampling, and unexpected similarity between A. caribbeana and the unbranched whip coral Stichopathes cf. occidentalis (Gray, 1860), hindered our ability to determine the sister relationship of A. grandis. However, in no phylogenetic reconstruction did A. grandis group sister to its sympatric congener A. griggi.

  19. RAPD and mitochondrial DNA analysis of the soybean stalk weevil, Sternechus subsignatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Gomez, D R; Coronel, N; Binneck, E; Zucchi, M I; Rosado-Neto, G

    2008-10-01

    Sternechus subsignatus Boheman (Curculionidae: Sternechini) is one of the primary Curculionidae species that reduces soybean yield in Brazil. Initially, outbreaks were reported in southern Brazil in 1973; but, more recent, outbreaks were reported in Bahia (summer 1997-1998) and Maranhão (summer 2003-2004), two states in northeastern Brazil. A putative related species, S. pinguis (Fabricius), was first detected in Salta Province, Argentina. The objective of this study was to evaluate intraspecific molecular polymorphisms of geographically distinct Sternechus populations. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles and partial mitochondrial cytochrome B (CytB) gene sequences were used to determine whether individual soybean stalk weevils were one of two different species and to infer pest invasion pattern. Putative S. pinguis and S. subsignatus populations were collected in San Agustin (Cruz Alta, Tucumán Province, Argentina) and different sampling sites in the Brazilian states of Paraná, Bahia and Maranhão. Polymorphic bands were obtained by RAPD and analyzed by Dice coefficients. Populations from southern Brazil were more closely related genetically to an Argentinean group than the populations sampled in northeastern Brazil. The Londrina Co., Brazil population displayed the highest intra-population genetic similarity. Most of the soybean stalk weevils collected from San Agustin, Tucumán, Argentina were divergent from those collected in Brazil. Sequencing and parsimony analysis of CytB did not differentiate specimens collected in Argentina and Brazil. Thus, our data show that soybean stalk weevil outbreaks and population increases in northeastern Brazil involved local genotypes.

  20. The age and phylogeny of wood boring weevils and the origin of subsociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordal, Bjarte H; Sequeira, Andrea S; Cognato, Anthony I

    2011-06-01

    A large proportion of the hyperdiverse weevils are wood boring and many of these taxa have subsocial family structures. The origin and relationship between certain wood boring weevil taxa has been problematic to solve and hypotheses on their phylogenies change substantially between different studies. We aimed at testing the phylogenetic position and monophyly of the most prominent wood boring taxa Scolytinae, Platypodinae and Cossoninae, including a range of weevil outgroups with either the herbivorous or wood boring habit. Many putatively intergrading taxa were included in a broad phylogenetic analysis for the first time in this study, such as Schedlarius, Mecopelmus, Coptonotus, Dactylipalpus, Coptocorynus and allied Araucariini taxa, Dobionus, Psepholax, Amorphocerus-Porthetes, and some peculiar wood boring Conoderini with bark beetle behaviour. Data analyses were based on 128 morphological characters, rDNA nucleotides from the D2-D3 segment of 28S, and nucleotides and amino acids from the protein encoding gene fragments of CAD, ArgK, EF-1α and COI. Although the results varied for some of the groups between various data sets and analyses, one may conclude the following from this study: Scolytinae and Platypodinae are likely sister lineages most closely related to Coptonotus; Cossoninae is monophyletic (including Araucariini) and more distantly related to Scolytinae; Amorphocerini is not part of Cossoninae and Psepholax may belong to Cryptorhynchini. Likelihood estimation of ancestral state reconstruction of subsociality indicated five or six origins as a conservative estimate. Overall the phylogenetic results were quite dependent on morphological data and we conclude that more genetic loci must be sampled to improve phylogenetic resolution. However, some results such as the derived position of Scolytinae were consistent between morphological and molecular data. A revised time estimation of the origin of Curculionidae and various subfamily groups were made using

  1. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera.

  2. Tolerance of Anadenanthera peregrina to Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis essential oil as condition for mixed plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimar de Freitas Duarte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of selecting the species of woody Caatinga for mixed plantations with Eucalyptus spp., the allelophatic effects of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis essential oil were studied on the growth activities of Anadenanthera peregrina. The plants were closed in glass chambers in the presence of volatile oil of E. camaldulensis or E. grandis at the concentration of 13 nl.cm-3. The number of leaves, height and diameter at soil lever were compared before, immediately after and after 30 days. Chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and dry mass were evaluated after the treatment application. There was no inhibitory effect of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis oils on A. peregrina. E. camaldulensis, which was more adapted to semi-arid conditions, was planted in mixture stands with two native legume species, inoculated with Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. E. camaldulensis did not inhibit native species growth after two years of cultivation.

  3. PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis EM SUBSTRATOS ORGÂNICOS ALTERNATIVOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the disposal of urban and agro-industries waste have become essential for the possibility of their use in forest seedling production and the environmental impact that would be caused by improper disposal. The study was developed to evaluate the growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings submitted to different types and combinations of urban and agro-industrial organic substrates. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with 10 treatments consisting of different substrates and proportions combinations of them (100% organic compost urban waste (COLU, 100% organic compost of the agro-industrial residue (CORA; 100% commercial substrate; 25% (COLU+ 75% Commercial; 25% CORA +75% Commercial; 25% COLU + 75% soil; 50% COLU +50% Commercial; 50% CORA +50% Commercial; 50% Commercial + 50% soiland 100% Soil and 12 repetitions. It was evaluated plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, length between node, fresh weight of shoot and root dry mass of shoots and roots, total dry weight, main root length, root system length, root volume, average root radius, specific surface area of the root system and stability of clod.The substrates containing organic compost urban show great potential for use as alternative substrates for the production of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. A mixture of commercial substrate to organic compost allows the urban growth of root and the shoot of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. A mixture of 50% commercial substrate and 50% organic compound of agro-industrial waste provide more stem diameter growth compared to treatments containing soil or over the organic compound of agro-industrial waste.

  4. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities of Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, and Citrus grandis Against Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sholeh Saeb

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microorganisms resistant to most antibiotics are rapidly spreading, and there is an urgent and continuous need for novel antimicrobial compounds. The genus Citrus belongs to the family Rutaceae has many biologically active secondary metabolites. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial activity of essential oil and extract of Lemon (Citrus limon, Mandarin (Citrus reticulata and Pummelo (Citrus grandis against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. Materials and Methods: The fresh Citrus leaves were shade-dried and powdered. Antimicrobial metabolites were extracted from them by 80% methanol for extract and using a Clevenger-type apparatus for essential oil. Eight different concentrations of the each leaf extract and essential oil were prepared. The antimicrobial susceptibility assay of Citrus leaves metabolites were subjected against four bacterial strains by agar disc diffusion and E-test method. Results: In this study, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of different Citrus leaf extracts were determined against all four food-borne pathogens. The C. grandis leaf essential oil had potent antimicrobial activity against all four pathogens, and the C. limon leaf essential oil was effective on Gram-positive bacteria. S. typhi was resistant against two leaves essential oils. Conclusions: The results showed that there was no antimicrobial activity effect in all extracts on tested bacteria. In this study, the antibacterial effect of essential oil of Citrus leaves on four strains of pathogenic microorganisms was confirmed. The C. grandis leaf essential oil had the most powerful antimicrobial properties, suggesting its potential application as natural preservative in foods or an effective medicine against different pathogenic microbes. Key words: Antibacterial activity, E-test, Citr

  5. Identification of PCR-base markers linked to wood splitting in Eucalyptus Grandis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available biology in combination with quantitative genetics and statistics to develop a non-destructive and early screen- ing method to identify E. grandis seedlings or young plants that are low splitters. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two unrelated, open pollinated E... by means of Best Linear Prediction (BLP). Theoretically the BLP gives the best correlation between the true genetic value and the predictive genetic value. This was done using the programme Matgen 5.6, a BLP package for unbalanced index selection in tree...

  6. Magnesium Alleviates Adverse Effects of Lead on Growth, Photosynthesis, and Ultrastructural Alterations of Torreya grandis Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Song, Lili; Müller, Karin; Hu, Yuanyuan; Song, Yang; Yu, Weiwu; Wang, Hailong; Wu, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg2+) has been shown to reduce the physiological and biochemical stress in plants caused by heavy metals. To date our understanding of how Mg2+ ameliorates the adverse effects of heavy metals in plants is scarce. The potential effect of Mg2+ on lead (Pb2+) toxicity in plants has not yet been studied. This study was designed to clarify the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of lead (Pb2+) toxicity. Torreya grandis (T. grandis) seedlings were grown in substrate contaminated with 0, 700 and 1400 mg Pb2+ per kg-1 and with or without the addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+. Growth parameters, concentrations of Pb2+ and Mg2+ in the plants’ shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigment, gas exchange parameters, the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm), root oxidative activity, ultrastructure of chloroplasts and root growth were determined to analyze the effect of different Pb2+ concentrations on the seedlings as well as the potential ameliorating effect of Mg2+ on the Pb2+ induced toxicity. All measurements were tested by a one-way ANOVA for the effects of treatments. The growth of T. grandis seedlings cultivated in soils treated with 1400 mg kg-1 Pb2+ was significantly reduced compared with that of plants cultivated in soils treated with 0 or 700 mg kg-1 Pb2+. The addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+ improved the growth of the Pb2+-stressed seedlings, which was accompanied by increased chlorophyll content, the net photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm, and enhanced chloroplasts development. In addition, the application of Mg2+ induced plants to accumulate five times higher concentrations of Pb2+ in the roots and to absorb and translocate four times higher concentrations of Mg2+ to the shoots than those without Mg2+ application. Furthermore, Mg2+ addition increased root growth and oxidative activity, and protected the root ultrastructure. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first report on the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of Pb2+ toxicity. The generated results

  7. Magnesium alleviates adverse effects of lead on growth, photosynthesis and ultrastructural alterations of Torreya grandis seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg2+ has been shown to reduce the physiological and biochemical stress in plants caused by heavy metals. To date our understanding of how Mg2+ ameliorates the adverse effects of heavy metals in plants is scarce. The potential effect of Mg2+ on lead (Pb2+ toxicity in plants has not yet been studied. This study was designed to clarify the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of lead (Pb2+ toxicity. Torreya grandis (T. grandis seedlings were grown in substrate contaminated with 0, 700 and 1400 mg Pb2+ per kg-1 and with or without the addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+. Growth parameters, concentrations of Pb2+ and Mg2+ in the plants’ shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigment, gas exchange parameters, the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm, root oxidative activity, ultrastructure of chloroplasts and root growth were determined to analyze the effect of different Pb2+ concentrations in the seedlings as well as the potential ameliorating effect of Mg2+ on the Pb2+ induced toxicity. The growth of T. grandis seedlings cultivated in soils treated with 1400 mg kg-1 Pb2+ was significantly reduced compared with that of plants cultivated in soils treated with 0 or 700 mg kg-1 Pb2+. The addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+ improved the growth of the Pb2+-stressed seedlings, which was accompanied by increased chlorophyll content, the net photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm, and enhanced chloroplasts development. In addition, the application of Mg2+ induced plants to accumulate five times higher concentrations of Pb2+ in the roots and to absorb and translocate four times higher concentrations of Mg2+ to the shoots than those without Mg2+ application. Furthermore, Mg2+ addition increased root growth and oxidative activity, and protected the root ultrastructure. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first report on the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of Pb2+ toxicity. The gener¬ated results may have important implications for understanding the

  8. Micropropagación de teca (Tectona grandis L.f)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal; Cartago, Costa Rica; Muñoz, Anaballe; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal; Cartago, Costa Rica

    2012-01-01

    La teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) es una especie considerada valiosa por la calidad de su madera. La alta demanda a nivel mundial ha impulsado su cultivo en plantaciones comerciales. Sin embargo, la calidad de muchas de estas plantaciones justificó el inicio de programas de mejoramiento de la especie. La introducción de técnicas de micropropagación o propagación clonal in vitro (en condiciones de laboratorio) en los programas de mejoramiento genético y para el establecimiento de plantaciones con...

  9. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA FUNGI INOCULATION ON TEAK (Tectona grandis Linn. F AT CIKAMPEK, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragil S.B. Irianto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of Arbuscular Mycorhiza Fungi (AMF on the early growth of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F plantation. Teak seedlings were inoculated with Glomus aggregatum or Mycofer (mixing of four Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF : G. margarita, G. manihotis, G. etunicatum and Acalospora spinosa at the time of transplantation. At  three months old the seedlings were planted in Cikampek experimental forest. Results showed that application of G. aggregatum or mycofer to teak could accelerate height and diameter growth by up to 61%and4 7%, respectively, after three months in the field.

  10. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn.) and Gmelina arborea (Roxb.) for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi; Efemena Dickens Dolor; Ebere Mercy Okechukwu

    2007-01-01

    A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlin...

  11. Influence of Planting Spacing on Mechanical Properties of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla Planted in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HENSON; Michael

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand influence of planting spacing on mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla planted as a potential species for solid wood products in China. Four trees at age of 13 were selected from each of 6 groups of planting spacing and a total of 24 sampling trees were selected from the Dongmen Forestry Center of Guangxi Province in China. Furthermore, a one-meter-long log from each tree was cut into small blocks for wood properties testing. MOE, MOR and co...

  12. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit;

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India...... had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Overall, the pattern...... of the findings for conservation and use of genetic resources of the species are discussed....

  13. The antineoplastic quassinoids of Simaba cuspidata spruce and Ailanthus grandis Prain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, J; Varon, Z; Moretti, C; Pettit, G R; Herald, C L; Rideout, J A; Saha, S B; Khastgir, H N

    1980-01-01

    The South American Simaba cuspidata Spruce and North Indian Ailanthus grandis Prain were investigated as sources of potentially useful antineoplastic agents. Both of these Simaroubaceae plant species were found to produce 6 alpha-tigloyloxychaparrinone (4a) and the new quassinoid 6 alpha-tigloyloxychaparrin (3b). The latter structure was determined by interpretation of spectral data and oxidation to 6 alpha-tigloyloxychaparrinone (4a). While both glycol 3b and alpha-ketol 4a were found to significantly inhibit growth of the murine P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line, only the alpha-ketol (4a) inhibited growth of the corresponding in vivo system.

  14. Localization and transcriptional responses of Chrysoporthe austroafricana in Eucalyptus grandis identify putative pathogenicity factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronishree Mangwanda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysoporthe austroafricana is a fungal pathogen that causes the development of stem cankers on susceptible Eucalyptus grandis trees. Clones of E. grandis that are partially resistant and highly susceptible have been identified based on the extent of lesion formation on the stem upon inoculation with C. austroafricana. These interactions have been used as a model pathosystem to enhance our understanding of interactions between pathogenic fungi and woody hosts, which may be different to herbaceous hosts. In previous research, transcriptomics of host responses in these two clones to C. austroafricana suggested roles for salicylic acid and gibberellic acid phytohormone signalling in defense. However, it is unclear how the pathogen infiltrates host tissue and which pathogenicity factors facilitate its spread in the two host genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate these two aspects of the E. grandis-C. austroafricana interaction and to test the hypothesis that the pathogen possesses mechanisms to modulate the tree phytohormone-mediated defenses. Light microscopy showed that the pathogen occurred in most cell types and structures within infected E. grandis stem tissue. Notably, the fungus appeared to spread through the stem by penetrating cell wall pits. In order to understand the molecular interaction between these organisms and predict putative pathogenicity mechanisms of C. austroafricana, fungal gene expression was studied in vitro and in planta. Fungal genes associated with cell wall degradation, carbohydrate metabolism and phytohormone manipulation were expressed in planta by C. austroafricana. These genes could be involved in fungal spread by facilitating cell wall pit degradation and manipulating phytohormone mediated defense in each host environment, respectively. Specifically, the in planta expression of an ent-kaurene oxidase and salicylate hydroxylase in C. austroafricana suggests putative mechanisms by which the pathogen can

  15. Response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lesch, W

    1997-12-15

    Full Text Available ELSEVIER Forest Ecology and Management 99 (1997) 295-307 The response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations W. Lesch, David F. Scott * Jonkershoek Forestry Research Centre....304 1.052(p,) 0.96 2nd ?/-= eP?CbE - 3.456 7.134( /3>) 0.95 Cathedral Total streamflow 1 st T= e6c1Clil - 0.727 1.114(/3,) 0.95 Peak Dry season streamflow 1 St Tz e6?C?? -0.871 I .207( p, ) 0.88 W. Lesch, D.F. Scott...

  16. Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of adults of raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to odors released from conspecific females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutis, Ana; Parra, Leonardo; Manosalva, Loreto; Palma, Rubén; Candia, Oscar; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2010-08-01

    The raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important pest in blueberry and raspberry fields in the south of Chile. In this study, we investigated the electroantennographic and behavioral responses of A. superciliosus to semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults, with particular attention to male attraction to females. Odors released from females significantly attracted males in a Y-tube olfactometer. Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analysis of female volatile extracts revealed the presence of limonene and α-pinene. Electroantennogram recordings from both sexes indicated that males of A. superciliosus possess olfactory sensitivity for the R isomer of limonene and α-pinene, whereas females only perceived R-limonene. Behavioral assays using synthetic compounds showed that only R-limonene elicited an attraction response from male weevils. Field experiments confirmed the laboratory results, showing that R-limonene was attractive to weevils. This is the first report of intraspecific chemical communication in this weevil. We discuss the origin of these compounds, their possible role in the sexual behavior of this species, and their potential use in a pest control strategy.

  17. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  18. Distribution, timing of attack, and oviposition of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, on banana crop residues in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    Crop sanitation (removal and chopping of residue corms and pseudostems following plant harvest) has been recommended as a 'best bet' means of reducing banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations. However, it has been unclear when such practices should be ca

  19. Effects of crop sanitation on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae), populations and crop damage in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Crop sanitation, i.e. destruction of crop residues, has been hypothesized to lower banana weevil damage by removing adult refuges and breeding sites. Although it has been widely recommended to farmers, limited data are available to demonstrate the efficacy of this method. The effects of crop sanitat

  20. Enhancing dissemination of Beauveria bassiana with host plant base incision trapfor the management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Emudong, P.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Kagezi, G.H.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Karamura, E.

    2015-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of highland banana in East and central Africa. It causes yield loss of up to 100% in heavily infested fields. Studies were carried out in Uganda to evaluate the efficacy of the the plant base incision

  1. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Prior research indicated potential to use Hypocreales fungi for suppression of C. caryae. In this study, we first compared the efficacy of two fungal spp. Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52) in ability to ...

  2. Reaction of Leaf Weevil Phyllobius arborator (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Manganese Content in Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinek, P; Kula, E; Hedbávný, J

    2017-02-01

    Reaction of leaf weevil (Phyllobius arborator (Herbst)) to increased concentration of manganese in diet was investigated in laboratory rearing with controlled temperature, humidity, and light conditions. Food for leaf weevils in rearing (leaves of birch Betula pendula Roth) was contaminated by soaking the leaves in solutions of MnCl2.4H2O with graded concentration of manganese. Direct influence of food was characterized by the consumed amount of leaves, period of feeding, and weight of P. arborator adults. At the same time, the levels of manganese in unconsumed food, excrement, and bodies of adults were determined.Even very high content of manganese in food did not cause significantly different reaction of P. arborator adults in comparison to individuals in control treatment. No significant difference in the quantity of the consumed food, weight of adults, and duration of their feeding period was found between the treatments within the experiment. The content of manganese found in food, excrement, and adult beetles indicate that P. arborator avoided manganese intoxication through food by both-voiding manganese through the feces and sequestering it at relatively high concentrations in unspecified parts of their body. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Experimental and numerical evaluations on palm microwave heating for Red Palm Weevil pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Rita; Panariello, Gaetano; Pinchera, Daniele; Schettino, Fulvio; Caprio, Emilio; Griffo, Raffaele; Migliore, Marco Donald

    2017-01-01

    The invasive Red Palm Weevil is the major pest of palms. Several control methods have been applied, however concern is raised regarding the treatments that can cause significant environmental pollution. In this context the use of microwaves is particularly attractive. Microwave heating applications are increasingly proposed in the management of a wide range of agricultural and wood pests, exploiting the thermal death induced in the insects that have a thermal tolerance lower than that of the host matrices. This paper describes research aiming to combat the Red Palm pest using microwave heating systems. An electromagnetic-thermal model was developed to better control the temperature profile inside the palm tissues. In this process both electromagnetic and thermal parameters are involved, the latter being particularly critical depending on plant physiology. Their evaluation was carried out by fitting experimental data and the thermal model with few free parameters. The results obtained by the simplified model well match with both that of a commercial software 3D model and measurements on treated Phoenix canariensis palms with a ring microwave applicator. This work confirms that microwave heating is a promising, eco-compatible solution to fight the spread of weevil. PMID:28361964

  4. Threat to cedar, Cedrela odorata, plantations in Vietnam by the weevil, Aclees sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Pham Quang; Quang, Dao Ngoc; Dell, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The recent decline and death of young cedar, Cedrela odorata L. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), plantations in Vietnam is caused by Aclees sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a wood-boring brown weevil. A field study was undertaken in three-year-old plantations in two districts in Thanh Hoa province in August 2008. Trees were heavily impacted by the weevil, Aclees; the infestation level (P) ranged from 80 to 100% and the average damage index (R) ranged from 1.8 to 2.8. Observations over one year enabled the life history to be determined. Eggs were laid (February to March, September to November) inside the bark from the base of the trunk up to 60 cm in height. Larvae formed extensive feeding tunnels in the inner bark and sap wood. Pupation occurred in feeding tunnels or pupal chambers in the sapwood. Adults emerged twice a year, February to March and August to October. It is concluded that Aclees is a threat to C. odorata plantations in tropical regions of the world, and quarantine measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of spread.

  5. Experimental and numerical evaluations on palm microwave heating for Red Palm Weevil pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Rita; Panariello, Gaetano; Pinchera, Daniele; Schettino, Fulvio; Caprio, Emilio; Griffo, Raffaele; Migliore, Marco Donald

    2017-03-01

    The invasive Red Palm Weevil is the major pest of palms. Several control methods have been applied, however concern is raised regarding the treatments that can cause significant environmental pollution. In this context the use of microwaves is particularly attractive. Microwave heating applications are increasingly proposed in the management of a wide range of agricultural and wood pests, exploiting the thermal death induced in the insects that have a thermal tolerance lower than that of the host matrices. This paper describes research aiming to combat the Red Palm pest using microwave heating systems. An electromagnetic-thermal model was developed to better control the temperature profile inside the palm tissues. In this process both electromagnetic and thermal parameters are involved, the latter being particularly critical depending on plant physiology. Their evaluation was carried out by fitting experimental data and the thermal model with few free parameters. The results obtained by the simplified model well match with both that of a commercial software 3D model and measurements on treated Phoenix canariensis palms with a ring microwave applicator. This work confirms that microwave heating is a promising, eco-compatible solution to fight the spread of weevil.

  6. Heterochromatic banding patterns on chromosomes of twelve weevil species (Insecta, Coleoptera, Curculionoidea: Apionidae, Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecová, Milada; Rozek, Maria; Lachowska, Dorota

    2002-01-01

    The C-banding patterns of twelve weevil species are presented. The obtained results confirm the existence of two groups of species: with a small or large amount of heterochromatin in the karyotype. The first group comprises seven species (Apionidae: Holotrichapion pisi; Curculionidae: Phyllobius urticae, Ph. pyri, Ph. maculicornis, Tanymecus palliatus, Larinodontes turbinatus, Cionus tuberculosus). In weevils with a small amount of heterochromatin, tiny grains on the nucleus in interphase are visible, afterwards in mitotic and meiotic prophase appearing as dark dots. The absence of C-bands does not indicate a lack of heterochromatin but heterochromatic regions are sometimes so small that the condensation is not visible during the cell cycle. The second group comprises five species (Otiorhynchus niger, O. morio, Polydrusus corruscus, Barypeithes chevrolati, Nedyus quadrimaculatus) which possess much larger heteropicnotic parts of chromosomes visible during all nuclear divisions. The species examined have paracentromeric C-bands on autosomes and the sex chromosome X, except for Otiorhynchus niger, which also has an intercalary bands on one pair of autososomes. All the species examined differ in the size of segments of constitutive heterochromatin. The y heterochromosome is dot-like and wholly euchromatic in all the studied species.

  7. Characterization of olfactory sensory neurons in the white clover seed weevil, Apion fulvipes (Coleoptera: Apionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin N; Larsson, Mattias C; Svensson, Glenn P; Birgersson, Göran; Rundlöf, Maj; Lundin, Ola; Lankinen, Åsa; Anderbrant, Olle

    2012-10-01

    Seed-eating Apion weevils (Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause large economic losses in white and red clover seed production across Europe. Monitoring and control of clover weevils would be facilitated by semiochemical-based methods. Until now, however, nothing was known about physiological or behavioral responses to semiochemicals in this insect group. Here we analyzed the antenna of the white clover (Trifolium repens L.) specialist Apion fulvipes Geoffroy with scanning electron microscopy, and used single sensillum recordings with a set of 28 host compounds to characterize 18 classes of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nine of the OSN classes responded strongly to synthetic compounds with high abundance in clover leaves, flowers, or buds. Eight classes responded only weakly to the synthetic stimuli, whereas one collective class responded exclusively to volatiles released from a crushed clover leaf. The OSNs showed a remarkable degree of specificity, responding to only one or a few chemically related compounds. In addition, we recorded a marked difference in the temporal dynamics of responses between different neurons, compounds, and doses. The identified physiologically active compounds will be screened for behavioral activity, with the ultimate goal to develop an odor-based control strategy for this pest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On the spatial spread of the Rice Water Weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Erirhinidae, in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A five year study has been made to establish the spread of the rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Erirhinidae in Northern Italy. Data obtained with GPS from 2005 throughout 2009 were first georeferenced with SW ArcGis® 9.2, then overlapped and compared to the map of the European environmental landscape based on the interpretation of satellite images (CORINE Land Cover map and to the hydrographic chart CT10 (Technical Regional map 10000. The analysis of the radial rate of spread per year indicates a deceleration in the expansion from 10.864 ± 6.801 km/year in 2005 to 5.318 ± 1.401 km/year in 2009. In five years the weevil has expanded its distribution in nearly all rice paddies in Lombardy and Piedmont, over an area of about 200,000 ha, which correspond to 86% of the total Italian rice area. Its expansion is thought to follow a type of stratified dispersal, due both to insect adult active dispersal and to accidental movements caused by human transportation.

  9. Adaptive divergence of scaling relationships mediates the arms race between a weevil and its host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sota, Teiji

    2006-12-22

    Coevolution of exaggerated morphologies between insects and plants is a well-known but poorly understood phenomenon in evolutionary biology. In the antagonistic interaction between a seed-predatory insect, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), and its host plant, Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica), we examined the evolutionary trajectory of an exaggerated offensive trait of the weevil (rostrum length) in terms of scaling relationship. Sampling throughout Japan revealed that the ratio of the rostrum length to overall body size was correlated with the ratio of the pericarp thickness to overall fruit size across the localities. We found a geographical interpopulation divergence in a parameter pertaining to the allometric equation of rostrum length (the coefficient a in y=axb, where y and x denote rostrum and body lengths, respectively), and the pattern of geographical differentiation in the allometric coefficient was closely correlated with the variation in the pericarp thickness of Japanese camellia. Our results provide a novel example of a geographically diverged scaling relationship in an insect morphology resulting from a coevolutionary arms race with its host plant.

  10. Primeiro registro de Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae em Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden no Brasil First record of Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae on Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a infestação de um ácaro-vermelho em mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, mantidas em casa de vegetação no município de Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. O ácaro foi observado na parte superior das folhas que exibiam sinais de sucção de seiva e bronzeamento. Essas injúrias causaram desenvolvimento anormal e morte de plantas. O ácaro foi identificado como Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, e isso representa o primeiro registro dessa espécie em mudas clonais de E. grandis no Brasil.An infestation of the red spider mite was reported in clone seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden under greenhouse conditions, in the municipality of Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais State. The spider mite was found on the leaf upper faces with signs of sap suction and bronzing. Such injuries caused abnormal development and plant death. The spider mite was identified as Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. This is the first record of O. yothersi on E. grandis seedlings in Brazil.

  11. Contenido de nutrientes en las raices finas y el mantillo de rodales de Eucalyptus grandis de diferente edad en la Mesopotomia Argentina [Fine roots and litter nutrient content of Eucalyptus grandis stands presenting different ages in Mesopotomia Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Perez; J. Frangi; J.F. Goya; A. Luy; M. Arturi; NO-VALUE

    2013-01-01

    Entre Ríos province is an important center of Eucalyptus spp. plantations in Argentina. It was hypothesized that fine root biomass and litter mass increased with age increasing in plantations. Five, seven and seventeen year old stands of Eucalyptus grandis were sampled. All of them were first rotation stands. We estimated the mass of litter and fine roots (

  12. Antraquinonas e naftoquinonas do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandi (Verbenaceae Anthraquinones and naphtoquinones from the bark of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae reforestation specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Y.O. Moreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato hexânico do caule de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae, através de procedimentos fitoquímicos clássicos, levou ao isolamento das naftoquinonas lapachol e desidro-a-lapachona e das antraquinonas tectoquinona e obtusifolina. As estruturas das substâncias foram caracterizadas através da análise de métodos espectrométricos de RMN. Este é o primeiro estudo fitoquímico de um espécime de reflorestamento de Tectona grandis, no Brasil, sendo o objetivo principal deste trabalho a comprovação da presença de tectoquinona em espécimes cultivados.The hexane extract of the bark of Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae afforded two anthraquinones and two naphtoquinones. Their caracterizations were obtained through NMR spectroscopic techniques. This is the first phytochemical study of the bark of Tectona grandis reforestation specimen in Brazil. The main interest in this work is proving the presence of tectoquinone in reforestation specimen.

  13. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum via Intercropping and its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel eTeshome

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L. pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.. This trait is expressed in some genotypes (Np genotypes of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of neoplastic pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36% whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10% and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of neoplastic pods dropped significantly (7%. In order to enhance neoplastic expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of neoplastic pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping neoplastic genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in neoplastic genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting neoplastic formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems.

  14. The gut microbiota of the pine weevil is similar across Europe and resembles that of other conifer-feeding beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategui, Aileen; Axelsson, Karolin; Nordlander, Göran; Schmidt, Axel; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Terenius, Olle; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of conifer seedlings in Europe. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the composition of its gut microbial community and the role it plays in mediating the weevil's ability to utilize conifers as a food source. Here, we characterized the gut bacterial communities of different populations of H. abietis across Europe and compared them to those of other beetles that occupy similar ecological niches. We demonstrate that the microbial community of H. abietis is similar at higher taxonomic levels (family and genus) across locations in Europe, with Wolbachia as the dominant microbe, followed by Enterobacteria and Firmicutes. Despite this similarity, we observed consistent differences between countries and locations, but not sexes. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the gut bacterial community of the pine weevil is very similar to that of bark beetles that also exploit conifers as a food source. The Enterobacteriaceae symbionts of both host taxa are especially closely related phylogenetically. Conversely, the microbiota of H. abietis is distinct from that of closely related weevils feeding on nonconifer food sources, suggesting that the microbial community of the pine weevil is determined by the environment and may be relevant to host ecology. Furthermore, several H. abietis-associated members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are known to contain genes involved in terpenoid degradation. As such, we hypothesize that the gut microbial community is important for the utilization of conifer seedlings as a food source, either through the detoxification of plant secondary metabolites or through the supplementation of essential nutrients.

  15. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  16. Use of glass transition temperature for stabilization of board's cracks of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred W. Calonego

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus grandis logs temperatures were determined and correlated with the board's cracks during steaming. Thermocouples were inserted in the logs center, registering their temperatures during steaming at 90"C. The logs were sawed and the board's cracks measured. It was concluded that: (1 the logistic S-shaped curve explains the logs temperature variation; (2 the logs with diameter of 20 to As temperaturas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis, durante a vaporização, foram determinadas e correlacionadas com as rachaduras das tábuas. Nos centros das toras foram inseridos termopares e registradas suas temperaturas durante a vaporização à 90"C. As toras foram desdobradas e as rachaduras das tábuas mensuradas. Concluiu-se que: (1 o modelo estatístico sigmoidal logístico explica a variação da temperatura nas toras; (2 as toras com 20 a <25, 25 a <30 e 30 a <35 cm de diâmetro apresentaram, respectivamente, 84,2"C, 73,1"C e 45,8"C ao final da vaporização; e (3 as rachaduras foramsignificativamente menores nas toras que atingiram a temperatura de transição vítrea.

  17. Mast Cell Stabilizing,Antianaphylactic and Antihistaminic Activity of Coccinia grandis Fruits in Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dnyaneshwar J Taur; Ravindra Y Patil

    2011-01-01

    Coccinia grandis Linn(Curcubitaceae)is a climber herb cultivated throughout India.In traditional medicine fruits have been used to treat leprosy,fever,asthma,bronchitis and jaundice.In present study,ethanol extract of C.grandis fruit(ECGF)at 100,125 and 150 mg·kg-1,i.p.,was evaluated for mast cell stabilizing,antianaphylactic and antihistaminic activity using egg albumin induced mast cell degranulation in mice;passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats and clonidine induced catalepsy in mice respectively.ECGF at(100-150 mg·kg-1,i.p.)significantly protected egg albumin induced degranulations of mast cells and caused reduction of blue dye leakage in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in dose dependently.The treatment ECGF also inhibited clonidine induced catalepsy in dose dependent manner.Phytochemical studies observed presence of saponin,steroids,alkaloids,flavonoids and glycosides.In conclusion ECGF possesses mast cell stabilizing;anti anaphylactic and antihistaminic potential which might be used in treatment of asthma.

  18. Physical characterization of particleboard panels made from Eucalyptus grandis with addition of industrial wood residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the wood from planted forests constitutes the main material source for the production of particleboards. The utilization of forest residues for production of these panels was not implemented in industrial level yet. This work had the objective of evaluating the physical properties of three layers particleboard, industrially manufactured, using wood of Eucalyptus grandis from plantation and industrial wood residues in different ratios (adittion from 10% to 35% in volume. The material (Eucalyptus grandis wood and industrial residues - recycled pallets and sawdust was supplied by Eucatex S. A. Ind. e Com. located in Botucatu - Sao Paulo State, Brazil, where the panels had been manufactured in Eucatex plant. Physical tests were carried out at the Process Laboratories of Eucatex and in the Materials Testing Laboratory, Rural Engineering Department of the College of Agronomic Sciences - Sao Paulo State University - UNESP. Results revealed that panels had very good physical performance, attending, in general, to all the technical specifications established by the product standards, even in the treatments with higher addition of residues. The final moisture content of the panel presented effect in the properties studied with general trend of reduction in water absorption and swelling in thickness when the moisture content increased from 9% for 12,5%.

  19. Light intensity and type of container on producing Cassia grandis L. f. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio C. P. Leal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to determine the effects of the luminosity and type of container on producing Cassia grandis seedlings. Thus, in a substrate composed by topsoil + wood powder (1:1 the seedlings were grown into plastic tubets containing 0.3 dm3 of such substrate, or into plastic pots containing 1.0 dm3 of the same substrate, and subjected to 50 and 25% shading or full sunlight. The assessments were performed every two weeks by measuring plant height and stem diameter, during eight weeks period. At the end of this period, the leaf area, dry mass of shoots and roots, the ratio between height of plant/diameter of stem, and the Dickson quality index were also assessed. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with treatments arranged in a 3 x 2 factorial [3 luminosity levels (50, 25% shading and full sunlight x 2 types of containers (plastic tubets and clay pots] with four replicates of 10 seedlings each. Means were compared by Tukey test at 0.05 probability level and adjustments for the non-linear regression polynomial curves for the assessed characteristics were computed in function of time. Shadings of 25 and 50% were the best alternatives to luminosity; and the tubets were the most suitable containers for production of Cassia grandis seedlings.

  20. Characterization and rheological study of the galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Barros, Wilson; Santos, Gustavo R C; Correia, Maria T S; Mourão, Paulo A S; Teixeira, José A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2014-04-15

    Galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis with 0.1M NaCl, followed by ethanol precipitation, presented a yield of 36 ± 8%. The polysaccharide has a constant mannose/galactose ratio (2.44:1). Methylation analysis, one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy confirmed that the polysaccharide has a central core composed of 4-linked β-mannose units, with branches of galactose, linked to the carbohydrate core through α(1-6) linkage. The amorphous nature of the galactomannan was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Rheological characterization exhibited Newtonian plateaus followed by shear-thinning zones characteristic of polymer solutions up to 1.5% (w/v) and above this value the system exhibited yield stress associated with a weak gel. Adjusting stress-strain curves confirmed a 1.6% (w/v) as the galactomannan concentration value for the sol-gel transition. These results indicate that the galactomannan extracted from C. grandis seeds presents rheological characteristics suitable for applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetic and food industries.

  1. Effects of potassium and sodium supply on drought-adaptive mechanisms in Eucalyptus grandis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Christina, Mathias; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; de Cassia Piccolo, Marisa; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo; e Moreira, Rildo Moreira; Krusche, Alex Vladimir; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Nouvellon, Yann

    2014-07-01

    A basic understanding of nutrition effects on the mechanisms involved in tree response to drought is essential under a future drier climate. A large-scale throughfall exclusion experiment was set up in Brazil to gain an insight into the effects of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) nutrition on tree structural and physiological adjustments to water deficit. Regardless of the water supply, K and Na supply greatly increased growth and leaf area index (LAI) of Eucalyptus grandis trees over the first 3 yr after planting. Excluding 37% of throughfall reduced above-ground biomass accumulation in the third year after planting for K- supplied trees only. E. grandis trees were scarcely sensitive to drought as a result of the utilization of water stored in deep soil layers after clear-cutting the previous plantation. Trees coped with water restriction through stomatal closure (isohydrodynamic behavior), osmotic adjustment and decrease in LAI. Additionally, droughted trees showed higher phloem sap sugar concentrations. K and Na supply increased maximum stomatal conductance, and the high water requirements of fertilized trees increased water stress during dry periods. Fertilization regimes should be revisited in a future drier climate in order to find the right balance between improving tree growth and limiting water shortage. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Genetic effects of rainforest fragmentation in an early successional tree (Elaeocarpus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, M; Jones, R; Hunter, J

    2004-12-01

    Rainforests in Australia and around the world have been extensively cleared and degraded. It is essential to recognize the changes in population diversity and dynamics that follow habitat fragmentation if better conservation and management strategies are to be developed. This study is an investigation of the medium term (over 100 years) effects of rainforest fragmentation on a long-lived, early successional tree species within a habitat matrix that includes various types of fragmented and undisturbed sites. Five microsatellite loci were used to assess the level and distribution of genetic variation across the southern range of Elaeocarpus grandis (Elaeocarpaceae). In all, 21 sites were sampled to provide a direct comparison between fragmented and undisturbed populations. Overall levels of diversity (A=3.4, He=0.568, f=0.094) were higher than those of closely related endemic species, but lower than those recorded across other rainforest trees. No significant genetic structure was detected across this species, suggesting the existence of efficient dispersal and colonization mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of gene flow. Rainforest fragments, and in particular those within the extensively cleared Big Scrub, show a trend for increased inbreeding levels caused by a loss of heterozygosity within juvenile cohorts. However, the overall rate of genetic decline within fragmented rainforests appears to be more subtle in E. grandis than across other species. A combination of ecological attributes and evolutionary history is likely to have contributed to this outcome and need to be considered in future rainforest restoration projects.

  3. Near infrared spectroscopy for estimating wood basic density in Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood basic density is indicative of several other wood properties and is considered as a key feature for many industrialapplications. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a fast, efficient technique that is capable of estimating that property. However,it should be improved in order to complement the often time-consuming and costly conventional method. Research on woodtechnological properties using near infrared spectroscopy has shown promising results. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluatethe efficiency of near infrared spectroscopy for estimating wood basic density in both Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis.The coefficients of determination of the predictive models for cross validation ranged between 0.74 and 0.86 and the ratio performanceof deviation (RPD ranged between 1.9 and 2.7. The application of spectral filter, detection and removal of outlier samples, andselection of variables (wavelength improved the adjustment of calibrations, thereby reducing the standard error of calibration (SECand cross validation (SECV as well as increasing the coefficient of determination (R² and the RPD value. The technique of nearinfrared spectroscopy can therefore, be used for predicting wood basic density in Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis.

  4. Estimate of the density of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden using near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviana Rosso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to estimate wood density of Eucalyptus grandis. For that, 66 27-year-old trees were logged and central planks were removed from each log. Test pieces 2.5 x 2.5 x 5.0 cm in size were removed from the base of each plank, in the pith-bark direction, and subjected to determination of bulk and basic density at 12% moisture (dry basis, followed by spectral readings in the radial, tangential and transverse directions using a Bruker Tensor 37 infrared spectrophotometer. The calibration to estimate wood density was developed based on the matrix of spectra obtained from the radial face, containing 216 samples. The partial least squares regression to estimate bulk wood density of Eucalyptus grandis provided a coefficient of determination of validation of 0.74 and a ratio performance deviation of 2.29. Statistics relating to the predictive models had adequate magnitudes for estimating wood density from unknown samples, indicating that the above technique has potential for use in replacement of conventional testing.

  5. Pathogenic Interactions Between Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and Cultivars of Pummelo (Citrus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, H; Ozaki, K; Tsuyumu, S

    2000-12-01

    ABSTRACT The aggressiveness of strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri on seven Citrus species, including Citrus sinensis (navel orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. unshiu (Satsuma mandarin), C. junos (Yuzu), C. aurantifolia ('Mexican' lime), C. tachibana (Tachibana), and C. grandis (pummelo: 'Otachibana', 'Banpeiyu', and 'Anseikan'), were assessed by comparing lesion expansion and growth in planta, using a prick inoculation method. The existence of two groups distinct in aggressiveness was demonstrated on the pummelo cultivars, whereas the remaining species tested were uniformly susceptible. The two groups of strains were distinct in lesion expansion and growth in planta; however, both caused canker lesions on the 'Otachibana' pummelo. The sensitivity of the bacterial strains to phages Cp1 and Cp2 was associated with differences in aggressiveness. Namely, all the strains sensitive to Cp2 but resistant to Cp1 were aggressive to 'Otachibana', whereas all the strains sensitive to Cp1 but resistant to Cp2 were weakly aggressive. When a repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction amplification was carried out by enterobacterial repetitive intergeneric consensus (ERIC) sequences (ERIC1R and ERIC2) as the primers, these two groups were also distinguishable by the presence or absence of a 1.8-kb DNA fragment among otherwise identical fragments. The 1.8-kb fragment was amplified only from the strains aggressive to C. grandis.

  6. Quality of wood and pulp from a clone of Eucalyptus grandis planted at three locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Angeli Sansígolo

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus grandis is one of the most popular species to use as raw material for pulp production in Brazil, as it provides excellent pulping, bleaching and papermaking results. The main objective of this study is to examine the quality of wood and pulp from a clone of Eucalyptus grandis, at age 4 years approximately, planted in three different soils, two of which being low fertility and one being a superior fertility soil, and their reflections on wood quality and pulping results. Chemical analyses of the soils followed guidelines developed by Raij et al. (2001, while physical and chemical properties of the wood followed ABTCP, TAPPI and ABNT standards. Chemical analyses of the soils pointed to lower fertility in Fazenda Limeira and Fazenda Tapera Queimada as opposed to higher fertility in Fazenda Mendes União. Results revealed stronger tendencies for the stand grown in the less fertile soils (Fazenda Limeira and Fazenda Tapera Queimada in comparison to the stand grown in more fertile soil (Fazenda Mendes União as to: higher wood and bark basic density, lower height and dry matter content, higher bark content, lower extractives content and higher holocellulose content, higher total and screened yields from pulping, lower specific wood consumption/t of pulp, and higher tear and tensile indices at low refining levels.

  7. Systemic Insecticides Reduce Feeding, Survival and Fecundity of Adult Black Vine Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a Variety of Ornamental Nursery Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of bioassays were conducted to test the systemic activity of clothianidin, chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam against adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) on Taxus, Heuchera, Astilbe, Sedum, Euonymus, and Rhododendron grown in containers. The insecticides wer...

  8. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India ...

  9. Evaluating variations of physiology-based hyperspectral features along a soil water gradient in a Eucalyptus grandis plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, M.A.; Aardt, van J.; Main, R.; Majeke, B.

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing is viewed as a cost-effective alternative to intensive field surveys in assessing site factors that affect growth of Eucalyptus grandis over broad areas. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing to discriminate between site qualities in E.

  10. Mycorrhizal symbionts of Pisonia grandis and P. sechellarum in Seychelles: identification of mycorrhizal fungi and description of new Tomentella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvi, Triin; Tedersoo, Leho; Abarenkov, Kessy; Beaver, Katy; Gerlach, Justin; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2010-01-01

    Nyctaginaceae includes species that are predominantly non-mycorrhizal or form arbuscular or ectomycorrhiza. Root-associated fungi were studied from P. grandis and P. sechellarum roots collected respectively on the islands of Cousin and Silhouette in Seychelles. In addition fungal sporocarps were collected from the sampling area. Fungal symbionts were identified from the roots by anatomotyping and rDNA sequencing; sporocarps collected were examined microscopically and sequenced. Three distantly related ectomycorrhizal fungal species belonging to Thelephoraceae were identified from the roots of P. grandis. Sporocarps also were found for two symbionts and described as new Tomentella species. In addition Tomentella species collected from other Seychelles islands were studied and described as new species if there was no close resemblance to previously established species. P. sechellarum was determined to be an arbuscular mycorrhizal plant; three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species were detected from the roots. P. grandis is probably associated only with species of Thelephoraceae throughout its area. Only five Tomentella species are known to form ectomycorrhiza with P. grandis and they never have been found to be associated with another host, suggesting adaptation of these fungi to extreme environmental conditions in host's habitat.

  11. Variation in water-use efficiency and delta-C-13 levels in eucalyptus-grandis clones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olbrich, BW

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether the delta-C-13 levels in the foliage and twigs of four Eucalyptus grandis clones were related to their water use efficiency (WUE). This relationship has previously been demonstrated in a number of herbaceous...

  12. Interspecific hybridization and inbreeding effect in seed from a Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clonal orchard in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campinhos Eduardo N.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We used allozyme markers to estimate the amount of natural hybridization between Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla in a 7.4-hectare commercial hybrid-seed orchard planted in Espírito Santo, Brazil. This orchard was planted in 1982 using a honeycomb design, with each hexagonal plot containing one E. grandis tree surrounded by six E. urophylla trees. There were 267 replicated hexagonal plots in the orchard. Seeds were harvested from the E. grandis clone only. The multilocus outcrossing rate estimated for the E. grandis clone averaged 70.2%, ranging from 33.0 to 99.0% among individual trees. Contaminant pollination, inferred from progeny genotypes containing alleles not present in the seven parental clones, accounted for 14.4% of the hybrid seed. Contaminant pollen was attributed to neighboring eucalyptus stands isolated from the orchard by a 400-m wide belt of native forest. Inbred and hybrid progenies were identified by their allozyme genotypes and transplanted to the field. Field growth of inbred progeny was 30% lower than that of hybrid plants at two and three years of age.

  13. HPTLC METHOD OF QUANTITATION OF BIOACTIVE MARKER CONSTITUENT PINITOL IN EXTRACTS OF PISONIA GRANDIS (R.BR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Poongothai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pisonia grandis R.Br. is an evergreen medicinal plant in the four O'clock family of Nyctaginaceae. Leaves, stems and root of this plant are extensively used by tribals in India to prepare several folk medicines to treat rheumatism, arthritis and diabetes. Recently pinitol has been reported from the leaves of Pisonia grandis and thus the present study was designed to quantify this antidiabetic molecule in the various extracts of leaves of Pisonia grandis by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. The calibration curve of a stabilized HPTLC method was linear in the range of 1.5 to 7.0µg per spot and the correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9718, thus exhibiting good linearity between concentration and area. The limit of quantification (LOQ and limit of detection (LOD was found to be 1.5 and 1.2 µg respectively. The present study also revealed that among all the extracts, PGSX3 and PGSX4 contain more than 8 µg of pinitol per milligram of extract and thus exhibited chloroform: methanol mixture (9:1 and 100 % ethanol are found to be effective solvents to extract pinitol from Pisonia grandis. This is the first report on quantitation of pinitol by HPTLC.

  14. Do tissue carbon and nitrogen limit population growth of weevils introduced to control waterhyacinth at a site in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California?

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, David F.; Ksander, Gregory G.

    2004-01-01

    Waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes(Mart.) Solms), is a serious problem in the Sacramento Delta. Two weevil species (Neochetina bruchi Hustache and N. eichhorniae Warner) have been introduced as biological control agents. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that nitrogen (N) in the tissue of waterhyacinth was not sufficient to support weevil growth and reproduction. Because it grows better on plants with high N content and because it has a greater impact on the growth...

  15. Aboveground nutrient components of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. grandis in semiarid Brazil under the nature and the mycorrhizal inoculation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcela C. Pagano; Antonio F. Bellote; Maria R. Scotti

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the aboveground biomass, nutrient content and the percentages of mycorrhizal colonization in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis plantations in the semiarid region (15° 09' S 43° 49' W) in the north of the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil. Results show that the total above-ground biomass (dry matter) was 33.6 Mg·ha-1 for E. camaldulensis and 53.1 Mg·ha-1 for E. grandis. The biomass of the stem wood, leaves, branches, and stem bark for E. camaldulensis accounted for 64.4%, 19.6%, 15.4%, and 0.6% of the total biomass, respectively (Table 2); meanwhile a similar partition of the total above-ground biomass was also found for E. grandis. The dry matter of leaves and branches of E. camaldulensis accounted for 35% of total biomass, and the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S in leaves and branches accounted for 15.5%, 0.7%, 12.3%, 22.6%, 1.9%, and 1.4% of those in total above-ground biomass, respectively. In the trunk (bark and wood), nutrient accumulation in general was lower. Nutrient content of E. grandis presented little variation compared with that of E. camaldulensis. Wood localized in superior parts of trunk presented a higher concentration of P and bark contained significant amounts of nutrients, especially in E. grandis. This indicated that leaving vegetal waste is of importance on the site in reducing the loss of tree productivity in this semi-arid region. The two species showed mycotrophy.

  16. Revisión taxonómica de Alytes grandis Brunner (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchiz, B.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only existing remain referred to Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, presumably a discoglossid frog from the German Pleistocene, is examined and compared with other living and fossil Palaearctic anurans. The analysis rejects its validity as an independent extinct species, as The material is clearly within the known variability of living Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, of which it should be considered merely a sinonym.

    Se examina el holotipo y único resto atribuido de Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, un supuesto discoglósido del Pleistoceno alemán, comparándose con otros anuros actuales y fósiles del Paleártico. El análisis permite desechar su pertenencia a una especie extinta independiente, siendo en cambio atribuible con toda claridad a la viviente Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, de la que debe considerarse sinónimo.
    Zum systematischen Status von Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957 (Amphibia, Anura. Der bislang einzig bekannte und von Brunner (1957 beschriebene Rest zu Alytes grandis aus pleistozänen Ablagerungen der Breitenberghöhle bei Gössweinstein (Fränk, Alb wird beschrieben und aufgrund ausführlicher Vergleichsuntersuchungen der rezenten Art Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, zugeordnet, Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, ist somit als synonyrn zu Rana temporaria zu betrachten.

  17. Organogênese de explante foliar de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Organogenesis of the leaf explant of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cristina Soares de Carvalho Alves

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ [1-fenil-3-(1,2,3-tia-diazol-5-iluréia], BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético no desempenho da propagação in vitro por organogênese de explante foliar de três clones híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Houve resposta diferenciada dos clones quanto a intensidade, textura e coloração dos calos, em razão dos tratamentos com os reguladores de crescimento. Os melhores resultados de calejamento dos três genótipos foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1, obtendo-se 100% de calejamento no explante foliar. Os piores resultados de calejamento foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento BAP (0,1 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1. Em relação à regeneração, a melhor resposta foi obtida com 1,0 mg L-1 BAP em que 8% dos calos formados a partir de explantes foliares regeneraram gemas, com número médio destas formadas por calo igual a 4,2.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of growth regulators TDZ [1-phenil-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea], BAP (6-benzilaminopurine e NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid on the in vitro propagation by organogenesis from foliar explants of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. Depending on the clone used, there were singular responses to growth regulators treatment regarding callusing intensity, texture and color. The best results of the three genotypes used were observed with the TDZ (0.5 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment, where 100% of the foliar explants presented callus. The worst results were observed with the BAP (0.1 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment. Subsequently, considering the regeneration process, the best response was achieved with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP, in which 8% of the calli regenerated buds, with an average of 4.2 buds per explant.

  18. Brotación in vitro de yemas de teca (Tectona grandis L. f. Sprouting buds in vitro teak (Tectona grandis L. f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rojas Parajeles

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La teca (Tectona grandis L.f. es una especie maderable exótica introducida a Costa Rica para la siembra de plantaciones comercial por la alta demanda de su madera, su rápido crecimiento y su alta calidad. Inicialmente se utilizó la semilla como único material de siembra y la pobre calidad de muchas de las plantaciones impulsó el inicio de programas de mejora genética. La propagación clonal tomó mucha importancia en estos programas y el cultivo in vitro se convirtió en una herramienta valiosa para la propagación masiva de los árboles élites. Por lo anterior, este trabajo se enfocó en evaluar el efecto de varias concentraciones de dos reguladores de crecimiento, bencilaminopurina (BA y ácido indolacético (AIB, solos y en combinación, en la brotación de yemas dormantes y formación de callos de teca. Tanto el análisis estadístico como la observación visual mostraron que el tratamiento que consistió de 0,005 mg/l de AIA fue el mejor para incrementar la brotación de las yemas y para disminuir la formación de callo.Teak (Tectona grandis L. f. is an exotic timber species introduced to Costa Rica for commercial plantations due to the high demand for its wood, rapid growth and high-quality. Initially the seed was use as the only planting material, but the poor quality of many of the plantations resulted in the initiation of genetic improvement programs. The introduction of clonal propagation in these programs and the establishment of in vitro culture techniques became import tools for mass propagation of the selected elite trees. On the foregoing, this work focused on assessing the effect of several concentrations of two growth regulators, benzylaminopurine (BA and indole acetic acid (AIB, alone and in combination, in the budding of dormantes buds and callus formation of teak. Both the statistical analysis and the visual observation showed that the treatment consisted of 0.005 mg/l of IAA was the best to increase the budding of the

  19. First complete and productive cell culture model for members of the genus Iridovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Susan M; Vigerust, David J; Perales-Hull, Marsha R; Lodhi, Sundus A; Viravathana, Polrit; Bilimoria, Shän L

    2012-11-01

    Chilo iridescent virus (CIV; the type strain of the genus Iridovirus) replicates productively in larvae of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis. This study focuses on characterizing productive infections of a boll weevil cell line, BRL-AG-3A (AG3A), starting with CIV reared in the waxworm, Galleria mellonella. We show that CIV can be continually and productively passaged to high titer in AG3A cells. The replication of larval-derived CIV in AG3A was analyzed by observing viral DNA replication and restriction endonuclease digestion profiles, morphogenesis, and infectivity using TCID(50) assays with AG3A as an indicator cell line. The data showed that virus passaged in the AG3A host is stable. AG3A cells are more efficient than previously utilized CF-124T cells from Choristoneura fumiferana. This system constitutes a superior model for cellular and molecular studies on CIV; it represents the first complete, productive cell culture model for the replication of CIV or any member of the genus Iridovirus.

  20. PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis EM SUBSTRATOS ORGÂNICOS ALTERNATIVOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815745Estudos referentes ao descarte de resíduos orgânicos urbanos e agroindustriais tornaram-se imprescindíveis pela possibilidade de seu uso na produção de mudas florestais e pelo impacto ambiental que seria provocado pelo descarte inadequado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis submetidas a diferentes tipos e combinações de substratos orgânicos urbano e agroindustriais. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação sob delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 10 tratamentos constituídos por diferentes substratos e proporções de combinação dos mesmos (100% Composto Orgânico de Lixo Urbano (COLU; 100% Composto Orgânico de Resíduo Agroindustrial (CORA; 100% Substrato Comercial; 25% COLU + 75% Comercial; 25% CORA + 75% Comercial; 25% COLU + 75% Solo; 50% COLU + 50% Comercial; 50% CORA + 50% Comercial; 50% Comercial + 50% Solo e 100% Solo e 12 repetições. Avaliaram-se altura da planta, diâmetro do colo, número de folhas, comprimento entre nós, massa fresca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, massa seca total, comprimento da raiz principal, comprimento do sistema radicular, volume do sistema radicular, raio médio das raízes, área superficial específica do sistema radicular e estabilidade de torrão. Os substratos contendo composto orgânico de lixo urbano apresentam grande potencialidade de uso como substratos alternativos na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. A mistura de substrato comercial ao composto orgânico de lixo urbano possibilita crescimento do sistema radicular e parte aérea das mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. A mistura de 50% de substrato comercial e 50% composto orgânico de resíduo agroindustrial proporciona maior crescimento de diâmetro de caule em relação aos tratamentos contendo solo ou em relação ao composto orgânico de res

  1. Fractionation of organic substances from the South African Eucalyptus grandis biomass by a combination of hot water and mild alkaline treatments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An alternative way of fractionating lignocellulose biomass into its individual components, hemicelluloses, lignin and cellulose, was investigated. South African Eucalyptus grandis wood chips were fractionated using a combination of hot water...

  2. Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

  3. Emodin, a toxic metabolite of Aspergillus wentii isolated from weevil-damaged chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J M; Cole, R J; Kirksey, J W

    1975-07-01

    A diarrheagenic toxin from culture extracts of Aspergillus wentii Wehmer isolated from weevil-damaged Chinese chestnuts was identified as emodin (2-methyl-4,5,7-trihydroxyanthraquinone). The orange-red, crystalline toxin (mp 255 to 257 C) showed ultraviolet absorption maxima in ethyl alcohol at 223, 250, 267, 290, and 442 nm, and infrared absorption maxima at 3,400 cm-1 (OH), 1,635, and 1,625 CM-1. Chemical shifts and coupling constants of the proton magnetic resonance spectra of the A. wentii toxin and of authentic emodin agreed. Mean lethal dose of emodin orally administered to 1-day-old DeKalb cockerels was 3.7 mg/kg.

  4. Trichobaris weevils distinguish amongst toxic host plants by sensing volatiles that do not affect larval performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gisuk; Joo, Youngsung; Diezel, Celia; Lee, Eun Ju; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2016-07-01

    Herbivorous insects use plant metabolites to inform their host plant selection for oviposition. These host-selection behaviours are often consistent with the preference-performance hypothesis; females oviposit on hosts that maximize the performance of their offspring. However, the metabolites used for these oviposition choices and those responsible for differences in offspring performance remain unknown for ecologically relevant interactions. Here, we examined the host-selection behaviours of two sympatric weevils, the Datura (Trichobaris compacta) and tobacco (T. mucorea) weevils in field and glasshouse experiments with transgenic host plants specifically altered in different components of their secondary metabolism. Adult females of both species strongly preferred to feed on D. wrightii rather than on N. attenuata leaves, but T. mucorea preferred to oviposit on N. attenuata, while T. compacta oviposited only on D. wrightii. These oviposition behaviours increased offspring performance: T. compacta larvae only survived in D. wrightii stems and T. mucorea larvae survived better in N. attenuata than in D. wrightii stems. Choice assays with nicotine-free, JA-impaired, and sesquiterpene-over-produced isogenic N. attenuata plants revealed that although half of the T. compacta larvae survived in nicotine-free N. attenuata lines, nicotine did not influence the oviposition behaviours of both the nicotine-adapted and nicotine-sensitive species. JA-induced sesquiterpene volatiles are key compounds influencing T. mucorea females' oviposition choices, but these sesquiterpenes had no effect on larval performance. We conclude that adult females are able to choose the best host plant for their offspring and use chemicals different from those that influence larval performance to inform their oviposition decisions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Carbon Stocks and Soil C Dynamics: an Investigation of C Sequestration Potential in a Eucalyptus grandis Plantation in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, M. I.; Crow, S. E.; Yost, R.; Turn, S.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical forests are important for many reasons, one of which is their ability to transfer large quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere to living biomass thereby potentially offsetting climate change. If the biomass is then harvested for commercial use, the stored carbon (C) is released back to the atmosphere. As a result, commercial rotational forestry is generally considered C neutral. However, the growth and harvest of forests also affects the soil C cycle through inputs of below ground biomass in proportion to above ground biomass. With sustainable management practices, soil can be a long-term sink for C, shifting the C balance of the system and providing a climate offset. This study examines the C stocks and dynamics of an E. grandis plantation located in Hawaii. The study has two parts: 1) A snapshot of C resources in the plantation, and 2) An investigation of change in soil C stock and pool size with afforestation. Above ground biomass C was calculated from measurements of the E. grandis trees and ranged from 40-67 Mg C/ha. Below ground biomass C was estimated from published allometric equations and was 16-27 Mg C/ha. 55 preliminary soil cores from 0-30 cm were collected in a 400 m2 plot in the plantation. Strong spatial dependence was observed in a sample variogram constructed from this data, and cumulative organic C in the top 0.4 t ranged from 120-580 Mg C/ha. To identify the effect of E. grandis afforestation on changes in soil C stock and pools, we compared adjacent pastureland and forested plots in a paired design with six sites. The paired plots constrained elevation, climate, and soil series, so that the effects of conversion from pasture to E. grandis plantation could be evaluated. Soil is physically separated into fractions that have different C turnover times: the labile pool which decomposes rapidly, the intermediate (or intra-aggregate) pool which turns over on a decadal scale, and the mineral-associated pool, which can reside in the soil for

  6. Salicylic acid alleviates the adverse effects of salt stress in Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii seedlings by activating photosynthesis and enhancing antioxidant systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salt stress is a major factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Salicylic acid (SA has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of environmental stress on plants. To investigate the protective role of SA in ameliorating salt stress on Torreya grandis (T. grandis trees, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze the biomass, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis (Pn, gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC, malondialdehyde (MDA content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD of T. grandis under 0.2% and 0.4% NaCl conditions with and without SA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The exposure of T. grandis seedlings to salt conditions resulted in reduced growth rates, which were associated with decreases in RWC and Pn and increases in REC and MDA content. The foliar application of SA effectively increased the chlorophyll (chl (a+b content, RWC, net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn, and proline content, enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and minimized the increases in the REC and MDA content. These changes increased the capacity of T. grandis in acclimating to salt stress and thus increased the shoot and root dry matter. However, when the plants were under 0% and 0.2% NaCl stress, the dry mass of the shoots and roots did not differ significantly between SA-treated plants and control plants. CONCLUSIONS: SA induced the salt tolerance and increased the biomass of T. grandis cv. by enhancing the chlorophyll content and activity of antioxidative enzymes, activating the photosynthetic process, and alleviating membrane injury. A better understanding about the effect of salt stress in T. grandis is vital, in order gain knowledge over expanding the plantations to various regions and also for the recovery of T. grandis species in the future.

  7. The Lesser of Two Weevils: Molecular-Genetics of Pest Palm Weevil Populations Confirm Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Panzer 1798) as a Valid Species Distinct from R. ferrugineus (Olivier 1790), and Reveal the Global Extent of Both

    OpenAIRE

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F.; Christina D Hoddle; Mark S Hoddle; Richard Stouthamer

    2013-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW) is a major pest of palms. It is native to southeast Asia and Melanesia, but in recent decades has vastly expanded its range as the result of multiple accidental anthropogenic introductions into the Middle East, Mediterranean Basin, Caribbean, and U.S.A. Currently regarded as a single species, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), RPW displays remarkable color variation across its range, and consequently has a taxonomic history littered with new species descriptions an...

  8. EFFECT OF THE STEAMING ON THE DRYING OF Eucalyptus grandis BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Nogueira Rezende

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the steaming on the drying rate and drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis boards. For this purpose, wood from an experimental plantation of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with 24 years of age was used. Trees were felled and sectioned in logs and the logs were sawn by a tangential system. Half of the boards volume were steamed during 3 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity after the heating of the drying process. The other half was not steamed (control. The boards were dried in the dry-kiln and the resulting defects from the drying process and drying rate were determined. The results indicated that the steaming was effective in increase of the drying rate in 15% and decrease of the drying defects of 20 to 52%.

  9. Modification of the original color of the Eucalyptus grandis wood by heat treatments

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    Rosilei Aparecida Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the modification of original color of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood after heat-treatment. Wood samples were heat-treated under different temperatures (180, 200, 215 and 230ºC and time conditions (15 minutes, 2 and 4 hours. Color analysis were performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using a Color Eye XTH-X-Rite 200d spectrophotometer. All heat treatments promoted an alteration of the original color of wood. Heat-treated woods presented lower L* (lightness values than untreated wood (control, characterizing the wood darkness, mainly for more severe conditions of temperature and time. Chromatic coordinates (a* and b* showed different behaviors depending on the temperature-time combination. The modification of the original color of the wood allowed the creation of new color patterns, which can add greater value to the studied wood.

  10. Development Potential, in a Greenhouse, of Cuttings of the Hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis

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    M. N. Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for development in the greenhouse, cuttings of the hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Sinop - Mato Grosso and generated equations to estimate the percentage of rooting parameters. Were measured: the percentage of cuttings with some degree of modification, the percentage of cuttings in the percentage of cuttings with roots larger than 10 cm in length. Also measured was the neck diameter, height and leaf area index. The heights and leaf area showed lower development within the greenhouse. The rooting potential is based on curve speed of rooting and was found 12 days after staking. The identification of the optimal point of withdrawal of the shoots of the greenhouse through the intercept curves daily current increase curve (DCI e daily average increase (DAI, being 19 days after staking. The company derives the stakes with 24 days underdoing the potential of the species and structures used.Keywords: Eucalyptus, greenhouse management and rooting

  11. Prediction of the modulus of elasticity of Eucalyptus grandis through two nondestructive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the modulus of elasticity (MOE at static bending of Rose gum (Eucalyptus grandis heartwood and sapwood through two nondestructive techniques: ultrasound and stress wave. Sixty samples of heartwood and sapwood were prepared. Nondestructive tests were performed using ultrasound and stress wave timer equipment, while destructive tests were carried out in a universal machine through static bending tests. The main results showed that the heartwood presented better behavior than the sapwood in the non-destructive tests. However, the best model was obtained considering both wood types through the ultrasonic technique. Therefore, stress wave and ultrasonic techniques could be employed to estimate the modulus of elasticity of Rose gum wood.

  12. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from the Peel of Chinese Torreya grandis Fort

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    Tao Feng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the peel essential oil of Torreya grandis fort obtained by cold pressing and steam distillation was determined by GC and GC/MS. 62 constituents accounting for 99.6% of the total pressed oil were identified while 59 compounds accounting for 99.4% of the steam distilled oil were identified. Limonene (35.6–37.1%, α-pinene (20.1–24.1%, and δ-carene (3.3–3.9 were the major constituents. Others include γ-carene (3.8-3.9%, germacrene D (2.5–2.9%, and β-farnesene (2.7-2.8%.

  13. Wood properties of Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus caribaea estimated by colorimetry

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    Patrícia Gomes Ribeiro Amorim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-destructive technologies has been very effective in characterization and evaluation of wood quality. This study aimed to characterize the technologically wood of Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus grandis by Colorimetry. The study was conducted at the University of Brasilia (UNB in Physics and Engineering Laboratory the Laboratory of Forest Products/LPF - Brazilian Forest Service (SFB. Species were subjected to standard tests of basic density, shrinkage and bending. For the colorimetric determination of the parameters it was used a spectrophotometer according to the methodology adopted by Camargos (1999. The radial surface of the wood is most suitable for the collecting of the colorimetric parameters and prediction of properties. Property best estimated by this technique was the density, followed by modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR.

  14. Quantification by allometric equations of carbon sequestered by Tec-tona grandis in different agroforestry systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Avinash Jain; S. A. Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Non destructive methods for quantification of carbon seques-tration in tropical trees are inadequately developed. We described a stan-dardized method for estimating carbon stock in teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F.). We developed linear allometric equations using girth at breast height (GBH), height and age to quantify above ground biomass (AGB). We used AGB to estimate carbon stock for teak trees of different age groups (1.5, 3.5, 7.5, 13.5, 18.5 and 23.5 years). The regression equation with GBH, y=3.174x-21.27, r2=0.898 (p teak-wheat (56.92%)>teak-wild oat (54.94%)>teak-gram (37.15%)>teak-ashwagandha (11.86%). The results from GBH-based regression equations provided satisfactory estimates of carbon stock in tropical trees.

  15. Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activities of Chinese local pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wanpeng; Fang, Bo; Zhao, Qiyang; Jiao, Bining; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2014-10-15

    China is one of the most important diversity centres of the genus Citrus L. and is particularly rich in pummelo germplasm. In this study, the flavonoids in the peels and pulps of 28 Chinese local pummelos and four grapefruits were determined by optimised Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide anion methods. We found that naringin was the predominant flavonoid in pummelo, while naringin and neohesperidin were the predominant flavonoids in grapefruit. The fruit peels of Citrus paradisi cvs. Rio Red and Cocktail had the highest contents of naringin (9871.69mg/kg FW) and neohesperidin (7011.15mg/kg FW), respectively. Overall, C. paradisi cvs. Cocktail, Rio Red and Changshanhuyou, Citrus grandis cvs. 28-19, Chandler, and Hongxinyou contained more flavonoids and exhibited higher antioxidant capacities and are potentially good sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants.

  16. Is Prey Specificity Constrained by Geography? Semiochemically Mediated Oviposition in Rhizophagus grandis (Coleoptera: Monotomidae) with Its Specific Prey, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and with Exotic Dendroctonus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2017-08-14

    Examples of totally specific predators are rare, and the mechanisms underlying this specificity are often poorly understood. In Eurasia, the Monotomid beetle Rhizophagus grandis is found only in the galleries of its prey, the bark beetle Dendroctonus micans. The specificity of R. grandis relies on kairomones which female predators use to adjust their oviposition to the number of prey larvae available in a gallery. Yet these chemical signals are still largely unknown. The North American D. punctatus and D. valens, which are not sympatric with R. grandis but have a similar ecology as D. micans, could also elicit predator oviposition, which would suggest that specificity in this predator-prey system is constrained by geography. In order to further identify these determinants of specificity, we used artificial oviposition boxes to compare the oviposition level of R. grandis in the presence of larvae of each of the three prey species. We jointly used sequential dynamic headspace extractions and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to investigate oviposition stimuli associated with each prey species and potential oviposition inhibitors emitted by the predator. We further assessed potential stimuli with the analysis of emissions from D. micans larvae reared alone. Overall, we identified and quantified 67 compounds, mostly terpenes. Several robust candidate stimulants or inhibitors of R. grandis' oviposition were identified. The three prey species elicited similar oviposition levels in R. grandis, which suggests that this predator could form new associations outside of its native range.

  17. Effect of the fractions of Coccinia grandis on Ethanol-Induced cerebral oxidative stress in rats

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    M Umamaheswari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of the various fractions of hydromethanol extract of the leaves of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae against ethanol-induced cerebral oxidative stress in rats. The leaves of this species is used in traditional medicine for treating jaundice, bronchitis, skin eruptions, burns, rheumatism, syphilis, gonorrhoea, etc. Cerebral oxidative stress was induced in rats by the administration of 20% ethanol (5 ml/100 g b.w. for 28 days. The pet-ether (PEF, chloroform (CF, ethylacetate (EAF and residual (RF fractions at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. were simultaneously administered with ethanol orally for 28 days. Vitamin E at a dose of 100 mg/kg orally was used as the standard. Administration of ethanol resulted in a significant increase in the activities of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid and lipid levels. In addition, there was a significant elevation in the levels of malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides and a reduction in the activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the brain. Simultaneous administration of the fractions prevented the enzymatic leakage and the rise in uric acid and lipid levels. All the fractions (except the residual fraction prevented the peroxidative damage caused by ethanol, which is evidenced from the improved antioxidant potential. Further, histopathological examination of the brain tissue revealed that the fractions offered significant protection against ethanol toxicity. Among the fractions tested, the chloroform fraction exhibited appreciable antioxidant property, which was almost comparable with the standard Vitamin E. These results suggest that the leaves of Coccinia grandis exhibit significant antioxidant activity in ethanol-treated rats.

  18. Incidence and management of white grub, Schizonycha ruficollis on seedlings of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NITIN KULKARNI; KAILASH CHANDRA; PRAFULLA NARAHAR WAGH; KAILASH CHANDRA JOSHI; RAM BHAJAN SINGH

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was conducted annually from 2002 to 2005 between the second week of May and the end of September on the incidence of scarab beetle, Schizonycha ruficollis (Fabricius) in a teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nursery at Ramdongari, Nagpur, India.The immature stages, that is white grubs of the scarab beetle damaged 14%-52% of teak seedlings in the nursery beds, whereas the adult of the species, that is scarab beetles, were recorded on three new host trees (Ziziphus xylopyra, Acacia catechu and A.leucophloea) in addition to the reported hosts such as ziziphus (Z. jujuba and Z. mauritiana). Beetles of the S. ruficollis started emerging from the nursery beds just after the pre-monsoon showers and continued for 10-18 days. While beetle of S. ruficollis defoliated tree hosts available in the surroundings, the immature stages of the beetle caused major damage by feeding on root systems of teak seedlings with symptoms of wilting and mortality in forest nursery beds. The result of chemical and biological treatments for the management of grubs of S. ruficollis in nursery beds indicated phorate 10% granular at the rate of 20 g/m2 and chlorpyriphos 20% emulsifiable concentrate at the rate of 5.0 mL/m2 to be effective. Grubs of S. ruficollis have not been recorded previously as a major pest of teak (T. grandis). This is also the first report on occurrence of S. ruficollis adults on tree hosts such as Z. xylopyra, A. catechu and A.leucophloea. White grubs being pests of economic importance and the toughest insects to manage, information given in this paper on incidence, pest status and management of Schizonycha ruficollis is of importance to researchers and forest nursery managers.

  19. Temperature effects on wood anatomy, wood density, photosynthesis and biomass partitioning of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D S; Montagu, K D; Conroy, J P

    2007-02-01

    Wood density, a gross measure of wood mass relative to wood volume, is important in our understanding of stem volume growth, carbon sequestration and leaf water supply. Disproportionate changes in the ratio of wood mass to volume may occur at the level of the whole stem or the individual cell. In general, there is a positive relationship between temperature and wood density of eucalypts, although this relationship has broken down in recent years with wood density decreasing as global temperatures have risen. To determine the anatomical causes of the effects of temperature on wood density, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden seedlings were grown in controlled-environment cabinets at constant temperatures from 10 to 35 degrees C. The 20% increase in wood density of E. grandis seedlings grown at the higher temperatures was variously related to a 40% reduction in lumen area of xylem vessels, a 10% reduction in the lumen area of fiber cells and a 10% increase in fiber cell wall thickness. The changes in cell wall characteristics could be considered analogous to changes in carbon supply. Lumen area of fiber cells declined because of reduced fiber cell expansion and increased fiber cell wall thickening. Fiber cell wall thickness was positively related to canopy CO2 assimilation rate (Ac), which increased 26-fold because of a 24-fold increase in leaf area and a doubling in leaf CO2 assimilation rate from minima at 10 and 35 degrees C to maxima at 25 and 30 degrees C. Increased Ac increased seedling volume, biomass and wood density; but increased wood density was also related to a shift in partitioning of seedling biomass from roots to stems as temperature increased.

  20. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L. A.; Rosado-Neto, G. H.

    2010-08-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures ( Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  1. Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov., associated with the root collar weevil Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii on Pinus wallichiana in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X D; Jacobs, K; Kirisits, T; Chhetri, D B; Wingfield, M J

    2008-12-01

    Leptographium spp. are commonly associated with bark beetles and weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and some are important tree pathogens. In a recent survey of diseases and insect pests of conifer trees in Bhutan, the root collar weevil, Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii was found girdling young Himalayan blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) trees in Central Bhutan. Intensive wood staining and a Leptographium sp. were associated with damage by this insect. The fungus was also isolated from individuals of H. chenkupdorjii. It was tentatively identified based on morphology and then compared with other Leptographium spp. using DNA sequences for three gene regions. Morphological characteristics showed that the Leptographium sp. from H. chenkupdorjii is similar to, but distinct from L. procerum and L. profanum. DNA sequence comparisons revealed that the isolates from Bhutan resided in a distinct well-supported clade and confirmed that they represent an undescribed taxon for which the name Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov. is provided.

  2. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoennicke, M.G., E-mail: mhonnicke@bnl.go [NSLS II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Cusatis, C. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica-UFPR, Curitiba (Brazil); Rigon, L. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Menk, R.-H. [Sincrotrone Trieste SCPa, Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Arfelli, F. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Dipartamento di Fisica-Universita di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Foerster, L.A.; Rosado-Neto, G.H. [Departamento de Zoologia-UFPR, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2010-08-21

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures (Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  3. EVALUATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN CONTROLLING OF THE BANANA WEEVIL BORER Cosmopolites sordidus Germar IN WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsol Hasyim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar, is an important pest of highland banana and plantain in Africa, but it exists in low densities in presumed area of origin in Southeast Asia such as in Indonesia. This suggests a possible existence of effective co-evolved natural enemies in the origin area of Indonesia, especially West Sumatra. The objectives of this study were: (1 to evaluate banana weevil pest status at selected sites in West Sumatra, (2 to survey parasitoids and predators, and (3 to determine the control potential of the most important natural enemies. Surveys were undertaken in March 2002-August 2003 in five locations in West Sumatra, i.e., Bukittinggi, Sitiung, Pariaman, Pasaman, and Batusangkar. Five farms per site were selected randomly among all farms that contained banana stands of > 0.5 ha. Sampling for banana weevil adults and damage, and for predators was done throughout small banana stands and within a 20 m x 40 m (0.08 ha subplot on larger farms. Field-collected larvae were taken to the laboratory and reared on corm pieces (3 cm x 3 cm x 3 cm until pupation. Larvae were collected from pseudostem as well as corm residues. To estimate the abundance of non-social predators, i.e., those other than ants, 10 residues each on each farm were examined from plants that had been harvested 1-4 weeks, 5-8 weeks or 9 or more weeks before our visit to the site. Samples of the different morphospecies were saved in alcohol for later identification. The result showed that the banana weevil incidence was found to be low,  0.6-1.7 adults per trap. Plant damage indices were below 2.2%. We collected and reared 24,360 eggs and 3118 larvae, but no parasitism was detected. Phorids (Megaselia sp. and drosophilids were recovered from larval rearings, but most likely were scavengers. A complex of predators was detected, the most important of which was the histerid beetles,  Plaesius javanus Erichson. In laboratory tests, adults and larvae

  4. Curculio Curculis lupus: biology, behavior and morphology of immatures of the cannibal weevil Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bená, Daniela de Cássia; Vanin, Sergio Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Weevils are one of the largest groups of living organisms, with more than 60,000 species feeding mostly on plants. With only one exception, their described larvae are typical plant-feeders, with mouthparts adapted to chewing plant material. Here we describe the second case of a weevil with early-instar larvae adapted to killing conspecifics. We have studied the life history of Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943 (Curculioninae: Derelomini sensu Caldara, Franz & Oberprieler (2014)), a species whose immatures feed internally on palm flowers and fruits. We provide detailed descriptions of all immature stages, including the extremely modified first-instar larva. Unlike other weevils and later instars, this stage exhibits a flat body with very long ventropedal lobe setae, a large and prognathous head with a gula, and falciform mandibles, each with a serrate retinaculum, that are used to fight with and eventually kill other first-instar larvae. We also provide biological notes on all stages and the results of behavioral tests that showed that larval aggression occurs only among early life stages. Finally we show that adult size is highly dependent on timing of oviposition. This specialized killer first instar probably evolved independently from the one other case known in weevils, in Revena rubiginosa (Conoderinae: Bariditae sensu Prena, Colonnelli & Hespenheide (2014)). Interestingly, both lineages inhabit the same hosts, raising the possibility that both intra- and inter-specific competition shaped those phenotypes. Given the scarcity of knowledge on early larval stages of concealed insect herbivores, it is possible that our findings represent an instance of a much broader phenomenon. Our observations also allowed us to conclude that Anchylorhynchus eriospathae and A. hatschbachi G. G. Bondar, 1943 are actually the same species, which we synonymize here by considering the latter as a junior synonym (new synonymy). PMID:25101231

  5. Effect of Light Availability on the Interaction between Maritime Pine and the Pine Weevil: Light Drives Insect Feeding Behavior But Also the Defensive Capabilities of the Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Suárez-Vidal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Light is a major environmental factor that may determine the interaction between plants and herbivores in several ways, including top-down effects through changes in herbivore behavior and bottom-up effects mediated by alterations of plant physiology. Here we explored the relative contribution of these two regulation processes to the outcome of the interaction of pine trees with a major forest pest, the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis. We studied to what extent light availability influence insect feeding behavior and/or the ability of pines to produce induced defenses in response to herbivory. For this purpose, 3-year old Pinus pinaster plants from three contrasting populations were subjected to 6 days of experimental herbivory by the pine weevil under two levels of light availability (complete darkness or natural sunlight independently applied to the plant and to the insect in a fully factorial design. Light availability strongly affected the pine weevil feeding behavior. The pine weevil fed more and caused larger feeding scars in darkness than under natural sunlight. Besides, under the more intense levels of weevil damage (i.e., those registered with insects in darkness, light availability also affected the pine’s ability to respond to insect feeding by producing induced resin defenses. These results were consistent across the three studied populations despite they differed in weevil susceptibility and inducibility of defenses. Morocco was the most damaged population and the one that induced more defensive compounds. Overall, results indicate that light availability modulates the outcome of the pine–weevil interactions through both bottom-up and top-down regulation mechanisms.

  6. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants.

  7. Oviposition preference of pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. among host and non-host plants and its implication for pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Mendesil eAmosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1 and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm. and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L., in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants.

  8. Use of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis atacamensis CIA- NE07 in the control of banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Amador

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the species of banana borers, black weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus is the most economically important pest in Costa Rica and worldwide. The control of C. sordidus in intensive production systems is mainly based on application of insecticides; therefore the search for biological alternatives, such as the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN, is needed. The susceptibility of Cosmopolites sordidus to Heterorhabditis atacamensis CIANE07 was evaluated. The effect of inoculating H. atacamensis on larvae and adults of C. sordidus, in vitro and in artificially infected corms, was evaluated. Larvae inoculated with EPN had a mortality of 88% on the second day and 100% on the third day; no mortality was observed in adults. The treatments of 100, 500 and 1000 IJ.larvae-1 showed statistically significant differences from the control and theLD50 was 52 IJ.larvae-1. When the larvae were placed within the corms the LD50 increased to 375 IJ.larvae-1. The results indicate that the strain H. atacamensis CIA-NE07 is capable of locating and infecting weevil larvae within the banana corm and reach infection levels over 80%, 10 days after inoculation at doses of 1000 and 2000 IJ.larvae-1. The entomopathogenic nematodes are a viable alternative to be considered in the Integrated Pest Management programs of black weevil, in crops such us banana and plantain.

  9. Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

    2014-03-31

    The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively.

  10. Danos visuais e anatômicos causados pelo glyphosate em folhas de Eucalyptus grandis Visible and anatomic damages caused by glyphosate in Eucalyptus grandis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A sintomatologia é um dos principais critérios adotados para avaliar os danos causados por fatores bióticos e abióticos em plantas. Contudo, aspectos microscópicos são necessários na compreensão dos mecanismos de intoxicação e no diagnóstico precoce da injúria. Objetivou-se no presente estudo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de quatro formulações comerciais de glyphosate (Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI® sobre a morfoanatomia foliar de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis (UFV01, UFV02, UFV03, UFV04, UFV05 e UFV06. Após a aplicação do glyphosate na dose de 129,6 g ha-1, acompanhou-se diariamente o surgimento de sintomas, e aos 14 dias coletaram-se amostras de folhas aparentemente sadias para as análises microscópicas. Todos os clones apresentaram cloroses e necroses a partir do quarto dia de exposição, independentemente da formulação utilizada. O clone UFV04 não apresentou injúrias anatômicas. Nos demais clones, os herbicidas ocasionaram plasmólise, colapso celular, hipertrofia e formação de tecido de cicatrização, porém não foram diagnosticadas variações na espessura das folhas. Visualmente, o Roundup transorb® foi o herbicida que provocou maior intoxicação nas plantas. Anatomicamente, plantas expostas ao Roundup NA® apresentaram maior número de danos. O clone UFV06 foi o mais sensível à ação das formulações testadas, considerando-se tanto a análise visual quanto a anatômica. Os resultados confirmam o valor diagnóstico da análise visual e prognóstico da anatomia vegetal, sendo o estudo conjunto desses parâmetros fundamental para avaliar a sensibilidade entre os clones e o potencial fitotóxico de herbicidas.Symptomatology is one of the most important criteria used to determine the damages caused by biotic and abiotic factors in plants. However, microscopic aspects are needed to elucidate intoxication mechanisms and early injury diagnosis. This work aimed to evaluate the

  11. Eficiência das minicepas e microcepas na produção de propágulos de clones de Eucalyptus grandis Efficiency of ministumps and microstumps of Eucalyptus grandis clones for minicutting and microcutting production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Titon

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência dos jardins clonais nas técnicas de microestaquia e miniestaquia de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis, quanto a sobrevivência, vigor e capacidade produtiva das microcepas e minicepas em coletas sucessivas de microestacas e miniestacas. As microcepas utilizadas foram oriundas de mudas rejuvenescidas por micropropagação, mediante subcultivos in vitro, e as minicepas, de miniestacas oriundas de plantas propagadas pelo método da estaquia convencional (macroestaquia. As minicepas e as microcepas apresentaram desempenho similar, tendo sido observado, para ambas, elevada taxa de sobrevivência, vigor e capacidade produtiva de material para propagação vegetativa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of clonal gardens in the microcutting and minicutting techniques of four Eucalyptus grandis clones regarding the survival, vigor and productive capacity of the microstumps and ministumps in successive collections of microcuttings and minicuttings. The microstumps were obtained from rejuvenated tissue explants through subculture in vitro, and the ministumps by minicuttings derived from conventional rooted cuttings. The ministumps and microstumps of E. grandis exhibited similar performance, i.e., high survival rate, vigor and productive capacity of vegetative propagation material.

  12. AVALIAÇÃO DA SUPERFÍCIE DA MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden TRATADA TERMICAMENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Pires de Moura Palermo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the machined surface quality of Eucalyptus grandis wood submitted to heat treatment. The machining operations realized on the boards obtained from the processing of six trees were: planing, thicknessing, tear in horizontal drilling, drilling, drilling hinge and sanding. 208 boards of 125 x 25 x 500 mm were selected, with 104 untreated and 104 heat-treated boards at maximum temperature of 190ºC. The evaluation of the surface was performed according to ASTM D-1666/87 standard. The result showed that the Eucalyptus grandis wood presents a good behavior during the machining tests, obtaining notes 1 and 2 (excellent and good, except for drilling hinge test in the bolt hole and drilling with 12, 8, 6 mm, reaching notes between 2 and 4 (good, regular and bad. The heat treatment reduced the number of defects on the machined samples, except for torn grain in some machining operations.

  13. Molecular and Morphological Tools to Distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838 (Curculionidae: Dryophthorinae): A New Weevil Pest of the Endangered Century Plant, Agave eggersiana from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Lourdes Chamorro; Joshua Persson; Christian W. Torres-Santana; Jeff Keularts; Sonja J. Scheffer; Matthew L. Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The agave snout weevil (AGW) or sisal weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal is here reported for the first time in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) where it threatens Agave eggersiana Trel., a USVI endemic and endangered century-plant. We provide molecular, morphological, and behavioral characters to successfully distinguish the two known Scyphophorus...

  14. Antioxidant, antiglycation and insulinotrophic properties of Coccinia grandis (L. in vitro: Possible role in prevention of diabetic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Packirisamy Meenatchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM for the treatment of diabetes and related complications, the antidiabetic potential of the mature unripe fruits of Coccinia grandis (CGF was evaluated. Oxidative stress and glycation plays an important role in manifesting of diabetes and vascular complications. Agents with antioxidant and antiglycation properties may retard these pathological alterations. In this study, the edible plant Coccinia grandis was assessed for in vitro estimation of antioxidant and antiglycation potential and its insulinotrophic properties in RINm5F cells. Antioxidant activity was evaluated as DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion scavenging activities, whereas the protein glycation inhibitory potential was evaluated using in vitro albumin-fructose glycation model. Glycation inhibition was estimated by different biochemical parameters viz. fructosamine, protein carbonyl group and protein aggregation using thioflavin T fluorescence. C. grandis extract exerted a dose dependent radical scavenging activity and exhibited a significant antiglycation potential. The extract also showed a significant insulinotrophic property with 1.28 and 1.71-fold increase in insulin release when compared to control at 0.25 and 0.50 mg/mL, respectively. These data suggest the possible antidiabetic role of CGF extract, presumably by its antioxidant, antiglycation and insulin secretory effects. Present findings provide experimental evidence that the fruits of C. grandis have potential antidiabetic activity which might be used as a functional food and safe remedy for the treatment of diabetes and associated complications. This study also revealed that the plant can be a promising source for development of natural antiglycating agents and novel insulin secretagogues.

  15. Development of general biomass allometric equations for Tectona grandis Linn.f. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. plantations in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waraporn Ounban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some common, general biomass allometric equations were developed and tested for estimating the stem and aboveground biomass (AGB of Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations. In total, 84 datasets for T. grandis and 94 datasets for E. camaldulensis were gathered from published papers. The general allometric equations were then developed and the slopes and elevations were tested using ANCOVA. Spacing of 2 m × 4 m, 2 m × 8 m, 3 m × 3 m and 4 m × 4 m for T. grandis and 2 m × 3 m, 2 m × 4 m, 2 m × 8 m and 3 m × 3 m for E. camaldulensis were used as control factors. The results confirmed that diameter at breast height (D and total height (H were the best parameters for biomass estimation, of which the simple combination D2H produced the best estimation. The general allometric equations which gave the best fit (p  0.05. The range of D and H was 4.4–41.2 cm and 5.5–31.0 m, respectively, for T. grandis and 0.5–19.8 cm and 1.7–26.0 m, respectively, for E. camaldulensis.

  16. Quantifying and modelling the effects of environmental factors on wood properties of Eucalyptus grandis in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Sasha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available the effects of environmental factors on wood properties of Eucalyptus grandis in South Africa by Sasha Naidoo Submitted in fulfilment of the academic requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy In the School of Biological... - PLAGIARISM I, Sasha Naidoo declare that 1. The research reported in this thesis, except where otherwise indicated, is my original research. 2. This thesis has not been submitted for any degree or examination at any other university. 3...

  17. René Descartes, the Robots and the Soul in the debate between Tommaso Ceva and Guido Grandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Serrai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Descartes outlined human intelligence as a divine gift, albeit in a system governed by universal laws of physics and mathematics. In the eighteenth century the camaldolite Guido Grandi and Tommaso Ceva, both mathematicians, had a dispute about the interpretation of the Cartesian model of human intelligence. This case provides an opportunity to retrace the path of a speculative techno-philosophical question concerning the human possibility to equipping robots with the ability to experience a self-consciousness.

  18. Evidence for salicylic acid signalling and histological changes in the defence response of Eucalyptus grandis to Chrysoporthe austroafricana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Lizahn; Berger, Dave Kenneth; Moleleki, Lucy Novungayo; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A.; Myburg, Alexander A.; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2017-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are cultivated for forestry and are of economic importance. The fungal stem canker pathogen Chrysoporthe austroafricana causes disease of varying severity on E. grandis. The Eucalyptus grandis-Chrysoporthe austroafricana interaction has been established as a model system for studying Eucalyptus antifungal defence. Previous studies revealed that the phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) affects the levels of resistance in highly susceptible (ZG14) and moderately resistant (TAG5) clones. The aims of this study were to examine histochemical changes in response to wounding and inoculation as well as host responses at the protein level. The anatomy and histochemical changes induced by wounding and inoculation were similar between the clones, suggesting that anatomical differences do not underlie their different levels of resistance. Tyloses and gum-like substances were present after inoculation and wounding, but cell death occurred only after inoculation. Hyphae of C. austroafricana were observed inside dead and living cells, suggesting that the possibility of a hemibiotrophic interaction requires further investigation. Proteomics analysis revealed the possible involvement of proteins associated with cell death, SA signalling and systemic resistance. In combination with previous information, this study forms a basis for future functional characterisation of candidate genes involved in resistance of E. grandis to C. austroafricana. PMID:28349984

  19. Investigating inhibition of microbes inducing microbiologically-influenced-corrosion by Tectona grandis based Fe-nanoparticle material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Omotosho, Olugbenga Adeshola; Inyang, Michael Anietie; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin; Nwaokorie, Ikechi Thaddeus; Adidi, Emmanuel Amanogho; Owoeye, Taiwo Felicia; Nwakudu, Kelechukwu Chinedu; Akinlabu, Deborah Kehinde; Gabriel, Olanrewaju Oyewale; Taiwo, Olugbenga Samson; Awotoye, Olufisayo Adebola

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, inhibition of microbes inducing microbiologically-influenced-corrosion (MIC) of metals by Tectona grandis based Fe (iron) Nanoparticle material was investigated. For this, extract was obtained from the leaf of Tectona grandis and this was employed as precursor for synthesizing the Fe-nanoparticle material. From this, the synthesized plant extract based nanoparticle material was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM+EDS) instrument. The developed Fe bio-nanoparticle material was then employed for sensitivity and/or resistance study application against different strains of microbes that are known to induce microbiologically-influenced-corrosion, in metallic materials, and for this, microbial growth inhibition effect was compared with that from a commercial antibiotic employed as control. Results showed that the Tectona grandis based Fe-nanoparticle exhibited good inhibition effects on the growth of many of the MIC inducing microbes investigated. Sensitivity measures of zone of inhibition against the growth of MIC inducing microbial strains either outperformed or compares well with that obtained from the commercial antibiotic control, in the study. These results indicate positive prospect on the suitability of Fe bio-nanoparticle for corrosion inhibition applications for the protection of metals against microbiological corrosion influencing environment.

  20. A comparative assessment on regeneration status of indigenous woody plants in Eucalyptus grandis plantation and adjacent natural forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiferaw Alem; Tadesse Woldemariam

    2009-01-01

    Diversity, density and species composition of naturally regenerated woody plants under Eucalyptus grandis plantation and the adjacent natural forest were investigated and compared. Twenty plots, with an area of 20 m× 20 m for each, were established in both of E. Grandis plantation and adjacent natural forest, independently. In each plot, species name, abundance, diameter and height were recorded. Numbers of seedling were collected in five sub-plots (4 m2) within each major plot. A total of 46 species in the plantation, and 52 species in the natural forest, which belongs to 36 families were recorded. The diversity of species (H') is 2.19 in the plantation and 2.74 in the natural forest. The density of understory woody plant was 3842 stems/ha in the plantation and 4122 stems/ha in the natural forest. The densities of seedlings in the natural forest and the plantation were 8101 stems/ha and 4151 stems/ha, respectively. High similarity of woody species composition was found between the natural forest and the plantation. The E. Grandis plantation was found favoring the regeneration and growth of Millitia ferruginia and Coffea arabica in a much better way than other underneath woody species.

  1. Allelopathic effects of essential oil from Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla on pathogenic fungi and pest insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This study on the allelopathic effects and chemical components of the essential oil from Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla shows that the leaf oil emulsion of E.grandis × E.urophylla can inhibit the proliferation of pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum,Pyriculerie grisea,Glorosprium musa rum and Phytophthora capsici.Pupation and feeding of the pest insects Spodopteralitura Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera Hubner are shown to be affected with restraining effects which increase with the increasing levels of oil concentration.A GC/MS analysis of the leaf oil indicated that the main components,with a relative content of≥3%,were alloocimene (43.22%),α-pinene (13.63%),γ-terpinene (5.49%),(E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (3.58%),β-fenchyl alcohol (4.58%),and 2-amino-3,5-dicyano-6-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-pyridine (3.67%).Terpenes played an important role in the inhibitory effects of E.grandis × E.urophylla essential oil on pathogenic fungi and pest insects.Poor biodiversity of eucalyptus plantations is a function of allelopathy.

  2. Differential gene expression profiling in the developed ovaries between the parthenogenetic and bisexual female rice water weevils, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Pu; ZHOU WenWu; ZHANG Qin; CHENG JiaAn; ZHU ZengRong; WAY M O

    2009-01-01

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidee), reproduces by sex in the Southeastern United States, but reproduces by parthenogenesis in California and other in-vaded regions in Asia and Europe. The objective of this study was to create a parthenogenetic gene expression profile of the rice water weevil in order to gain a better insight into the molecular mecha-nisms of parthenogenesis in the weevil. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique was employed for profiling differential gene expression in the developed ovary between the parthenoge-netic and bisexual female rice water weevils. A total of 70 contigs were obtained, and the BLASTX search identified putatively 28 genes with differential functions. According to the cytological process of parthenogenesis, the tubulin alpha-1 chain and signal transduction genes etc. were selected for real time quantitative RT-PCR analyses, and their possible functions related to the molecular mechanism of parthenogenesis were discussed. The tubulin alpha-1 chain and some signal transduction genes may be related to the molecular mechanisms of parthenogenesis of the rice water weevil.

  3. Effects of a non-native biocontrol weevil, Larinus planus, and other emerging threats on populations of the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle, Cirsium pitcheri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Kayri; Jolls, Claudia L.; Marik, Julie E.; Vitt, Pati; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Kind, Darcy

    2012-01-01

    Larinus planus Frabicius (Curculionidae), is a seed-eating weevil that was inadvertently introduced into the US and was subsequently distributed in the US and Canada for the control of noxious thistle species of rangelands. It has been detected recently in the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). We assayed weevil damage in a natural population of Pitcher's thistle at Whitefish Dunes State Park, Door County, WI and quantified the impact on fecundity. We then estimated the impact of this introduced weevil and other emerging threats on two natural, uninvaded populations of Pitcher's thistle for which we have long-term demographic data for 16 yr (Wilderness State Park, Emmet County, MI) and 23 yr (Miller High Dunes, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Porter County, IN). We used transition matrices to determine growth rates and project the potential effects of weevil damage, inbreeding, goldfinch predation, and vegetative succession on Pitcher's thistle population viability. Based on our models, weevil seed predation reduced population growth rate by 10–12%, but this reduction was enough to reduce time to extinction from 24 yr to 13 yr and 8 yr to 5 yr in the MI and IN population, respectively. This impact is particularly severe, given most populations of Pitcher's thistle throughout its range hover near or below replacement. This is the first report of unanticipated ecological impacts from a biocontrol agent on natural populations of Cirsium pitcheri.

  4. Host plants of the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J F; Mowery, S V

    2007-08-01

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), has taken on added importance as a pest of cotton in the Cotton Belt after successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). Because the Southern Blacklands region of Central Texas is in advanced stages of boll weevil eradication, blooming weeds and selected row crops were sampled during a 3-yr study to determine lygus species composition and associated temporal host plants. L. lineolaris was the sole lygus species in the region. Thirteen previously unreported host plants were identified for L. lineolaris, of which 69% supported reproduction. Rapistrum rugosum L. Allioni and Ratibida columnifera (Nuttall) Wooton and Standley were primary weed hosts during the early season (17 March to 31 May). Conyza canadensis L. Cronquist variety canadensis and Ambrosia trifida L. were primary weed hosts during the midseason (1 June to 14 August) and late-season (15 August to 30 November), respectively. Sisymbrium irio L. and Lamium amplexicaule L. sustained L. lineolaris populations during the overwintering period (1 December to 16 March). The proportion of females and numbers of nymphs found in R. rugosum, C. canadensis, A. trifida, and S. irio suggests these weeds supported reproductive adults during the early, mid-, and late season and overwintering period, respectively. Medicago sativa L. was the leading crop host for L. lineolaris; Glycine max L. Merrill did not yield L. lineolaris. Few L. lineolaris were collected in Gossypium hirsutum L. These results provide a more comprehensive assessment of host plants contributing to L. lineolaris populations in central Texas.

  5. Components and Insecticidal Activity against the Maize Weevils of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Fruits and Leaves

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    Shu Shan Du

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, Zanthoxylum schinifolium essential oils were found to possess strong insecticidal activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium fruits and leaves were extracted via hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. Estragole (69.52% was the major compound of the essential oil of fresh fruits, followed by linalool (8.63% and limonene (4.34% and 94.33% of the total components were monoterpenoids. The main components of the essential oil of fresh leaves were linalool (12.94%, ar-tumerone (8.95%, limonene (6.45% and elixene (5.43% and only 50.62% were monoterpenoids. However, the essential oil from purchased fruits contained linalool (33.42%, limonene (13.66% and sabinene (5.72%, followed by estragole (4.67%, nerol (4.56% and 4-terpineol (4.27%. Estragole, linalool and sabinene were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, and further identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. The essential oil from the fresh fruits (LD50 = 15.93 μg/adult possessed two times more toxicity to the insects compared with that of fresh leaves (LD50 = 35.31 μg/adult. Estragole, linalool and sabinene exhibited contact activity against S. zeamais with LD50 values of 17.63, 13.90 and 23.98 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults with LC50 values of 13.19 mg/L (fresh fruits, 24.04 mg/L (fresh leaves and 17.63 mg/L (purchased fruits. Estragole, linalool and sabinene also exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils with LC50 values of 14.10, 10.46 and 9.12 mg/L, respectively.

  6. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

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    Yussef F.B. Braga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v. The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasil. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v. Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P < 0.05 entre as doses de 2-tridecanona testadas foram observadas, para quatro dos seis parâmetros biológicos analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a 2-tridecanona é tóxica para C. maculatus, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0.05 o número de insetos emergidos após a infestação. Esse efeito foi causado principalmente pela significativa redução observada na eclosão dos ovos expostos ao vapor da substância.

  7. Feeding ecology of the copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis near the lower interface of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, Marcia M.; Wishner, Karen F.

    Feeding ecology of the calanoid copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis collected in the Arabian Sea at one station during the Spring Intermonsoon and during the Southwest Monsoon of 1995 was studied with transmission electron microscopy of gut-contents. Highest abundances of these animals occurred from ˜400 to 1100 m, near the lower interface of the oxygen minimum zone and at the inflection point where oxygen starts to increase. We expected that their gut-contents would include particles and cells that had sunk relatively undegraded from surface waters as well as those from within the oxygen minimum zone, and that gut-contents would differ between the Spring Intermonsoon and the more productive SW Monsoon. Overall, in both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis was omnivorous, and consumed a variety of detrital particles, prokaryotic and eukaryotic autotrophs, gram-negative bacteria including metal-precipitating bacteria, aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, microheterotrophs, virus-like particles and large virus-like particles, as well as cuticle and cnidarian tissue. Few significant differences in types of food consumed were seen among life stages within or among various depth zones. Amorphous, unidentifiable material was significantly more abundant in guts during the Spring Intermonsoon than during the late SW Monsoon, and recognizable cells made up a significantly higher portion of gut-contents during the late SW Monsoon. This is consistent with the Intermonsoon as a time when organic material is considerably re-worked by the surface water microbial loop before leaving the euphotic zone. In both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis had consumed what appeared to be aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, similar to those we had previously found in gut-contents of several species of zooplankton from the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern tropical Pacific. By intercepting sinking material, populations of Lucicutia aff. L. grandis act as a filter for carbon

  8. High-throughput gene and SNP discovery in Eucalyptus grandis, an uncharacterized genome

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    Pappas Georgios J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benefits from high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology may be most apparent for species with high societal or economic value but few genomic resources. Rapid means of gene sequence and SNP discovery using this novel sequencing technology provide a set of baseline tools for genome-level research. However, it is questionable how effective the sequencing of large numbers of short reads for species with essentially no prior gene sequence information will support contig assemblies and sequence annotation. Results With the purpose of generating the first broad survey of gene sequences in Eucalyptus grandis, the most widely planted hardwood tree species, we used 454 technology to sequence and assemble 148 Mbp of expressed sequences (EST. EST sequences were generated from a normalized cDNA pool comprised of multiple tissues and genotypes, promoting discovery of homologues to almost half of Arabidopsis genes, and a comprehensive survey of allelic variation in the transcriptome. By aligning the sequencing reads from multiple genotypes we detected 23,742 SNPs, 83% of which were validated in a sample. Genome-wide nucleotide diversity was estimated for 2,392 contigs using a modified theta (θ parameter, adapted for measuring genetic diversity from polymorphisms detected by randomly sequencing a multi-genotype cDNA pool. Diversity estimates in non-synonymous nucleotides were on average 4x smaller than in synonymous, suggesting purifying selection. Non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (Ka/Ks among 2,001 contigs averaged 0.30 and was skewed to the right, further supporting that most genes are under purifying selection. Comparison of these estimates among contigs identified major functional classes of genes under purifying and diversifying selection in agreement with previous researches. Conclusion In providing an abundance of foundational transcript sequences where limited prior genomic information existed, this

  9. Effects of Rest Grazing on Organic Carbon Storage in Stipa grandis Steppe in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-jie; ZHU Yan; ZHAO Jian-ning; LI Gang; WANG Hui; LAI Xin; YANG Dian-lin

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the potential effects of rest grazing on organic carbon storage in Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Using potassium dichromate heating method, we analyzed the organic carbon storage of plant and soil in Stipa grandis steppe after rest grazing for 3, 6, and 9 yr. The results indicated that as the rest grazing ages prolonged, the biomass of aboveground parts, litter and belowground plant parts (roots) of the plant communities all increased, meanwhile the C content of the biomass increased with the rest grazing ages prolonging. For RG0, RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a, C storage in aboveground vegetation were 60.7, 76.9, 82.8 and 122.2 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of litter were 5.1, 5.8, 20.4 and 25.5 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of belowground roots (0-100 cm) were 475.2, 663.0, 1 115.0 and 1 867.3 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage in 0-100 cm soil were 13.97, 15.76, 18.60 and 32.41 kg Cm-2, respectively. As the rest grazing ages prolonged, the organic C storage in plant communities and soil increased. The C storage of belowground roots and soil organic C was mainly concentrated in 0-40 cm soil body. The increased soil organic C for RG3a accounted for 89.8% of the increased carbon in vegetation-soil system, 87.2%for RG6a, and 92.6%for RG9a. From the perspective of C sequestration cost, total cost for RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a were 2 903.4, 5 806.8 and 8 710.2 CNY ha-1, respectively. The cost reduced with the extension of rest grazing ages, 0.15 CNY kg-1 C for RG3a, 0.11 CNY kg-1 C for RG6a and 0.04 CNY kg-1 C for RG9a. From the growth characteristics of grassland plants, the spring was one of the two avoided grazing periods, timely rest grazing could effectively restore and update grassland vegetation, and was beneifcial to the sustainable use of grassland. Organic C storage for RG9a was the highest, while the cost of C sequestration was the lowest. Therefore, spring rest grazing should be encouraged because it was proved to be a very

  10. RNA-Seq reveals complex genetic response to deepwater horizon oil release in Fundulus grandis

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    Garcia Tzintzuni I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The release of oil resulting from the blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DH drilling platform was one of the largest in history discharging more than 189 million gallons of oil and subject to widespread application of oil dispersants. This event impacted a wide range of ecological habitats with a complex mix of pollutants whose biological impact is still not yet fully understood. To better understand the effects on a vertebrate genome, we studied gene expression in the salt marsh minnow Fundulus grandis, which is local to the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico and is a sister species of the ecotoxicological model Fundulus heteroclitus. To assess genomic changes, we quantified mRNA expression using high throughput sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq in F. grandis populations in the marshes and estuaries impacted by DH oil release. This application of RNA-Seq to a non-model, wild, and ecologically significant organism is an important evaluation of the technology to quickly assess similar events in the future. Results Our de novo assembly of RNA-Seq data produced a large set of sequences which included many duplicates and fragments. In many cases several of these could be associated with a common reference sequence using blast to query a reference database. This reduced the set of significant genes to 1,070 down-regulated and 1,251 up-regulated genes. These genes indicate a broad and complex genomic response to DH oil exposure including the expected AHR-mediated response and CYP genes. In addition a response to hypoxic conditions and an immune response are also indicated. Several genes in the choriogenin family were down-regulated in the exposed group; a response that is consistent with AH exposure. These analyses are in agreement with oligonucleotide-based microarray analyses, and describe only a subset of significant genes with aberrant regulation in the exposed set. Conclusion RNA-Seq may be successfully applied to feral and

  11. CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DA MADEIRA DE ÁRVORES MATRIZES DE Eucalyptus grandis

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    Denis L. G. Fernandes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em relação a características tecnológicas da madeira. Foram selecionadas 63 árvores matrizes, pertencentes a um povoamento comercial localizado no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As árvores foram abatidas e, com base nos dados dendrométricos, calculou-se o volume comercial com e sem casca, o fator de forma, a conicidade e a relação altura/diâmetro. Quanto à madeira, foi analisada a massa específica básica, os percentuais volumétricos de cerne, alburno e casca, as rachaduras de topo das toras e das tábuas, os empenamentos e os defeitos visuais das tábuas, tais como nós e bolsa de resina. A massa específica básica, cuja média inclui a madeira dessa espécie entre as moderadamente leves a pesadas, mostrou uma tendência decrescente entre o DAP e 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, crescente até 100% da mesma. O percentual volumétrico de cerne apresentou valores médios crescentes desde a base até 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, diminuiu até 100% da altura comercial, sendo que a média geral foi de 75,7%. O comprimento médio das rachaduras de topo em tábuas de Eucalyptus grandis foi de 63%. A alta porcentagem de rachaduras de topo foi atribuída à posição de retirada das tábuas, próxima à medula. Já a variabilidade das rachaduras de topo encontrada para as toras (CV=60% possibilita a seleção de árvores com menor tendência em apresentar esse defeito.

  12. Durabilidad natural de madera de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento

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    Silvia Böthig

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Una de las especies forestales de rápido crecimiento cultivadas en Uruguay de mayor importancia económica es el Eucalyptus grandis. Trabajos anteriores reportan propiedades físicas y mecánicas de la madera juvenil y adulta proveniente de plantaciones de esta especie en diferentes regiones del país. Sin embargo, dado que no se dispone de datos científicos nacionales sobre su durabilidad natural, en este trabajo fue evaluada madera de E. grandis obtenida de dos plantaciones de 16 años de edad con semilla del mismo origen, de dos sitios, Rivera y Río Negro. Se estudió la durabilidad natural del duramen externo e interno siguiendo los métodos de la norma EN 350-1, tomando Populus deltoides x euroamericana cv I-214 como especie de referencia. Se realizaron ensayos de laboratorio para determinar la resistencia a la descomposición fúngica (Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor y Serpula lacrymans y a las termites (Reticulitermes spp. siguiendo las normas EN 113 y EN 118, respectivamente. Se realizaron ensayos de campo de estacas, de doble capa y cámara fúngica, los cuales aún están en curso, por lo que en el presente trabajo se presentan resultados parciales. Los perfiles radiales de densidad básica revelaron que la madera del duramen externo no era adulta, sino madera de transición. En general, el duramen de E. grandis mostró una mayor durabilidad que el híbrido Populus.El E. grandis se clasificó como moderadamente o seriamente atacado por Reticulitermes spp. Según EN 350-1, la madera juvenil de E. grandis puede considerarse como “moderadamente durable” ante la pudrición parda provocada por G. trabeum, mientras que la madera de transición puede describirse como “durable”. La madera de transición mostró en relación a la madera juvenil una mayor resistencia al G. trabeum, una susceptibilidad levemente menor a las termites y mejor desempeño en el campo luego de 17 meses de exposición. El sitio de la plantación no

  13. Regulation of the abundance of clover seed weevils, Apion spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in a seed stand of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.

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    P. Kolařík

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover seed weevils, Apion trifolii and Protapion apricans, members of the genus Apion, are responsible for causing serious economic damage in clover. In 2010-2012, the effectiveness of some insecticides against clover seed weevils in the genus Apion were tested in red clover stands. The efficacy of different products was evaluated on the basis of analyses of specimens trapped in the herb layer of red clover using a sweep net and red clover heads sampled in individual plots. Over the course of these trials, the applications of the products tested resulted in a marked reduction in their numbers (particularly of adults and, to a lesser extent, also of larvae. The highest efficacy was observed with Biscaya 240 (A.I. thiacloprid and Mospilan 20 SP (A.I. acetamiprid. Results obtained in this study corroborated the low efficacy of the insecticide Karate Zeon Technology 5 CS against seed weevils of the genus Apion.

  14. Efficacy of soft-electron (low-energy electron) treatment for disinfestation of brown rice containing different ages of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Taro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Horigane, Akemi K.; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Hayashi, Toru

    2009-07-01

    Soft electrons (low-energy electrons) have been reported to effectively disinfest grains contaminated with stored-product insects. In this study, brown rice grains infested with different ages of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, were exposed to soft electrons. Soft electrons at an acceleration voltage of 170 kV effectively inactivated eggs, old larvae and pupae of the maize weevil, but could not completely inactivate young larvae. The locations of young larvae in rice grains were specified by magnetic resonance microimaging. Most of the larvae resided at the periphery of the grains while only a few at the center, which were assumed to get out of inactivation. This indicated that soft electrons with low penetration capacity could reach the most of weevil larvae in grains. Combination of soft-electron treatment and short time-low-dose phosphine fumigation achieved high mortality rate of S. zeamais.

  15. Efficacy of soft-electron (low-energy electron) treatment for disinfestation of brown rice containing different ages of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Taro [National Food Research Institute, NARO Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)], E-mail: taroi@affrc.go.jp; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Horigane, Akemi K.; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Hayashi, Toru [National Food Research Institute, NARO Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Soft electrons (low-energy electrons) have been reported to effectively disinfest grains contaminated with stored-product insects. In this study, brown rice grains infested with different ages of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, were exposed to soft electrons. Soft electrons at an acceleration voltage of 170 kV effectively inactivated eggs, old larvae and pupae of the maize weevil, but could not completely inactivate young larvae. The locations of young larvae in rice grains were specified by magnetic resonance microimaging. Most of the larvae resided at the periphery of the grains while only a few at the center, which were assumed to get out of inactivation. This indicated that soft electrons with low penetration capacity could reach the most of weevil larvae in grains. Combination of soft-electron treatment and short time-low-dose phosphine fumigation achieved high mortality rate of S. zeamais.

  16. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily D. Fountain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Dieffenbach’s speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk, which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010–2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1 these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2 the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3 the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units.

  17. Efficiency of inert mineral dusts in the control of corn weevil

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    Carlos F. Jairoce

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Corn weevil (Sitophilus zeamais may cause great losses in the crop and in stored corn grains. This insect is controlled with the use of chemical insecticides, which may cause serious damage to human health. One alternative of control is the use of inert dusts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of inert dusts in the control of S. zeamais under laboratory conditions. The experiment was conducted in 2014, in a completely randomized design, and the treatments consisted of basalt dust with three different granulometries (A, B and C and diatomaceous earth, each of which at the doses of 2 and 4 kg t-1 and a control (no application. Each treatment had four replicates, and the sample unit consisted of 20 g of corn grains infected with 10 adults of S. zeamais kept in temperature-controlled chamber at 25 °C, 70% RH and photophase of 12 h. The dust efficiency was calculated using the equation of Abbott. The mortality rate was higher with the use of diatomaceous earth, reaching 100% after 5 days of exposure and the percentage of control for basalt dusts, 29 days after treatment, was above 80%.

  18. Composition of essential oil of Chinese Chenopodium ambrosioides and insecticidal activity against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sha Sha; Feng Hu, Jin; Liu, Zhi Long

    2011-06-01

    In a screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. was found to possess strong fumigant activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.). Essential oil of C. ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation, and the constituents were determined by GC-MS analysis. The active compounds were isolated and identified by bioassay-directed fractionation. Five active compounds [(Z)-ascaridole, 2-carene, ρ-cymene, isoascaridole and α-terpinene] were isolated and identified from the essential oil from Chinese C. ambrosioides. The LC₅₀ values (fumigation) of the crude essential oils and the active compound (Z)-ascaridole against S. zeamais adults were 3.08 and 0.84 mg L⁻¹ air respectively. The LD₅₀ values (contact toxicity) of the crude essential oil and (Z)-ascaridole against S. zeamais adults were 2.12 and 0.86 µg g⁻¹ body weight respectively. The findings suggested that the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides and its main active constituent, (Z)-ascaridole, may be explored as a natural potential fumigant. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Does cypermethrin affect enzyme activity, respiration rate and walking behavior of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais)?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronnie Von Santos Veloso; Eliseu José G.Pereira; Raul Narciso C.Guedes; Maria Goreti A.Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Insecticides cause a range of sub-lethal effects on targeted insects,which are frequently detrimental to them.However,targeted insects are able to cope with insecticides within sub-lethal ranges,which vary with their susceptibility.Here we assessed the response of three strains of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) to sub-lethal exposure to the pyrethoid insecticide cypermethrin.We expected enzyme induction associated with cypermethrin resistance since it would aid the resistant insects in surviving such exposure.Lower respiration rate and lower activity were also expected in insecticide-resistant insects since these traits are also likely to favor survivorship under insecticide exposure.Curiously though,cypermethrin did not affect activity of digestive and energy metabolism enzymes,and even reduced the activity of some enzymes (particularly for cellulase and cysteine-proteinase activity in this case).There was strain variation in response,which may be (partially) related to insecticide resistance in some strains.Sub-lethal exposure to cypermethrin depressed proteolytic and mainly cellulolytic activity in the exposed insects,which is likely to impair their fitness.However,such exposure did not affect respiration rate and walking behavior of the insects (except for the susceptible strain where walking activity was reduced).Walking activity varies with strain and may minimize insecticide exposure,which should be a concern,particularly if associated with (physiological) insecticide resistance.

  20. New Initiatives for Management of Red Palm Weevil Threats to Historical Arabian Date Palms *

    KAUST Repository

    Mukhtar, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil (RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of infested plants, injection and spraying of biochemical and chemical pesticide treatments in heavily infested and newly infested areas, and the use of pheromone/ kairomone traps for monitoring and reduction of RPW populations has been only partially successful in controlling its spread. New methods are needed to help manage the RPW populations. At a workshop in Riyadh in March 2010, plans were recommended to 1) devise and test new biological, chemical, and biotechnological methods to manage RPW in farms and urban palms; 2) compare the economic and logistic feasibility of acoustic and other detection methods against RPW larvae; and 3) develop biosensor indicators of RPW infestation in date palms. If these initiatives are successful, they will be of great assistance to landscape and orchard managers dealing with such a challenging pest of a highly valuable tree.

  1. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the weevil subfamily Platypodinae reveals evolutionarily conserved range patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordal, Bjarte H

    2015-11-01

    Platypodinae is a peculiar weevil subfamily of species that cultivate fungi in tunnels excavated in dead wood. Their geographical distribution is generally restricted, with genera confined to a single continent or large island, which provides a useful system for biogeographical research. This study establishes the first detailed molecular phylogeny of the group, with the aim of testing hypotheses on classification, diversification, and biogeography. A phylogeny was reconstructed based on 3648 nucleotides from COI, EF-1α, CAD, ArgK, and 28S. Tree topology was well resolved and indicated a strong correlation with geography, more so than predicted by previous morphology-based classifications. Tesserocerini was paraphyletic, with Notoplatypus as the sister group to a clade consisting of three main lineages of Tesserocerini and the recently evolved Platypodini. Austroplatypus formed the sister group to all remaining Platypodini and hence confirmed its separate status from Platypus. The Indo-Australian genera of Platypodini were strikingly paraphyletic, suggesting that the taxonomy of this tribe needs careful revision. Ancestral-area reconstructions in Lagrange and S-DIVA were ambiguous for nodes roughly older than 80 Ma. More recent events were firmly assessed and involved post-Gondwanan long-distance dispersal. The Neotropics was colonized three times, all from the Afrotropical region, with the latest event less than 25 Ma that included the ancestor of all Neotropical Platypodini. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Wood digestion in Pselactus spadix Herbst--a weevil attacking marine timber structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oevering, Pascal; Pitman, Andrew J; Pandey, Krishna K

    2003-04-01

    Pselactus spadix tunnels timber structures in the marine environment. Recent studies reported a cosmopolitan distribution for this weevil, which is frequently found in harbour and port areas. P. spadix feeds on timber (hardwood and softwood) in immature and adult life stages, but its digestion of wood components had not been investigated. Using dry weight analyses of tunnel walls and frass produced, P. spadix adults consumed Scots pine with soft rot decay at a rate of 1.59 +/- 0.37 mg d-1 and the digestibility of this substrate was 57.96 +/- 5.89 (i.e. for 100 mg consumed SR-pine, 58 mg was digested). Using gravimetric analysis to quantify structural wood components in tunnel walls and frass, P. spadix adults were found to digest cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose with digestibility coefficients of 82.2, 41.2 and 14.5 respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses of tunnel walls and frass of adults and larvae from soft rotted pine also indicated digestion of all structural components, with larvae digesting cellulose and lignin more efficiently than adults. When FTIR was employed to analyse adult tunnel walls and frass from undecayed pine, cellulose and hemicellulose were digested, but no evidence of lignin digestion was found. This study shows that adults digest lignin when soft rot is present and suggests a symbiotic function of wood degrading microorganisms.

  3. Transcriptome analysis and systemic RNAi response in the African sweetpotato weevil (Cylas puncticollis, Coleoptera, Brentidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Katterinne; Pertry, Ine; Christiaens, Olivier; Bauters, Lander; Bailey, Ana; Niblett, Chuck; Ghislain, Marc; Gheysen, Godelieve; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The African sweetpotato weevil (SPW) Cylas puncticollis Boheman is one of the most important constraints of sweetpotato production in Sub-Saharan Africa and yet is largely an uncharacterized insect pest. Here, we report on the transcriptome analysis of SPW generated using an Illumina platform. More than 213 million sequencing reads were obtained and assembled into 89,599 contigs. This assembly was followed by a gene ontology annotation. Subsequently, a transcriptome search showed that the necessary RNAi components relevant to the three major RNAi pathways, were found to be expressed in SPW. To address the functionality of the RNAi mechanism in this species, dsRNA was injected into second instar larvae targeting laccase2, a gene which encodes an enzyme involved in the sclerotization of insect exoskeleton. The body of treated insects showed inhibition of sclerotization, leading eventually to death. Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) confirmed this phenotype to be the result of gene silencing. Together, our results provide valuable sequence data on this important insect pest and demonstrate that a functional RNAi pathway with a strong and systemic effect is present in SPW and can further be explored as a new strategy for controlling this important pest.

  4. Life History of the Tamarind Weevil, Sitophilus linearis (Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, on Tamarind Seed

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    James Adebayo Ojo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tamarind weevil, Sitophilus linearis Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is an important pest of tamarind and other Caesalpinioideae. Investigating its life history is important in the implementation of management strategy. Its life history was monitored daily to understand its developmental biology on tamarind seed following standard procedures under laboratory conditions of 24–30°C temperature, 60–70% relative humidity, and 12L : 12D photoperiod. The egg incubation period lasted 3.17 ± 0.07 days. A mated female of S. linearis laid an average of 165 ± 5.78 eggs during an oviposition period of 86.8 ± 2.47 days. There were four larval instars, with a total larval developmental period of 16 days. The pupal period lasted 8 days, and adult lived 108.5 ± 3.61 days. The overall growth ratio for the four instars was 1.33. There was a regular relationship and significant correlation (r=0.94 between the stages of larval development and head capsule width.

  5. RNA interference: a promising biopesticide strategy against the African Sweetpotato Weevil Cylas brunneus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Olivier; Prentice, Katterinne; Pertry, Ine; Ghislain, Marc; Bailey, Ana; Niblett, Chuck; Gheysen, Godelieve; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-01-01

    The African sweetpotato weevil Cylas brunneus is one of the most devastating pests affecting the production of sweetpotatoes, an important staple food in Sub-Saharan Africa. Current available control methods against this coleopteran pest are limited. In this study, we analyzed the potential of RNA interference as a novel crop protection strategy against this insect pest. First, the C. brunneus transcriptome was sequenced and RNAi functionality was confirmed by successfully silencing the laccase2 gene. Next, 24 potential target genes were chosen, based on their critical role in vital biological processes. A first screening via injection of gene-specific dsRNAs showed that the dsRNAs were highly toxic for C. brunneus. Injected doses of 200ng/mg body weight led to mortality rates of 90% or higher for 14 of the 24 tested genes after 14 days. The three best performing dsRNAs, targeting prosα2, rps13 and the homolog of Diabrotica virgifera snf7, were then used in further feeding trials to investigate RNAi by oral delivery. Different concentrations of dsRNAs mixed with artificial diet were tested and concentrations as low as 1 μg dsRNA/ mL diet led to significant mortality rates higher than 50%.These results proved that dsRNAs targeting essential genes show great potential to control C. brunneus. PMID:27941836

  6. Effect of mango weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on mango seed viability in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulungu, Loth S; Mpinga, Makala; Mwatawala, Maulid W

    2008-02-01

    Studies were conducted at the horticulture unit of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, to assess the incidence and effect of mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus mangiferae (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation on mango, Mangifera indica L., seed viability. Three polyembryo mango cultivars ('Sindano nyeusi', 'Sindano nyeupe', and 'Dodo') as well as three monoembryo mango cultivars ('Ex-horticulture', 'Tango', and 'Bongwa') were collected and examined for the presence of C. mangiferae. The effect of seed damage on viability was assessed for both naturally and artificially damaged seeds. However, for artificially damaged seeds, the viability was assessed by cutting away 0, 25, 50, or 75% of the cotyledon before planting. In this experiment, only monoembryo mango cultivars were used. All the examined cultivars were infested by C. mangiferae, although at varying levels. Polyembryo mango cultivars were relatively more infested than monoembryo cultivars. Bongwa and Tango were least infested, whereas Sindano nyeusi recorded the highest C. mangiferae incidence. Germination rates of damaged seeds of polyembryonic cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control, except for Sindano nyeusi. There were no significant differences in germination percentage among the three monoembryo cultivars, and all the cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control. The germination rates of seeds with 25% of their cotyledons removed did not differ significantly from the undamaged seeds, indicating that monoembryo cultivar seeds can withstand up to 25% damage and germinate successfully.

  7. Does cypermethrin affect enzyme activity, respiration rate and walking behavior of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Santos Veloso, Ronnie; Pereira, Eliseu José G; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Oliveira, Maria Goreti A

    2013-06-01

    Insecticides cause a range of sub-lethal effects on targeted insects, which are frequently detrimental to them. However, targeted insects are able to cope with insecticides within sub-lethal ranges, which vary with their susceptibility. Here we assessed the response of three strains of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to sub-lethal exposure to the pyrethoid insecticide cypermethrin. We expected enzyme induction associated with cypermethrin resistance since it would aid the resistant insects in surviving such exposure. Lower respiration rate and lower activity were also expected in insecticide-resistant insects since these traits are also likely to favor survivorship under insecticide exposure. Curiously though, cypermethrin did not affect activity of digestive and energy metabolism enzymes, and even reduced the activity of some enzymes (particularly for cellulase and cysteine-proteinase activity in this case). There was strain variation in response, which may be (partially) related to insecticide resistance in some strains. Sub-lethal exposure to cypermethrin depressed proteolytic and mainly cellulolytic activity in the exposed insects, which is likely to impair their fitness. However, such exposure did not affect respiration rate and walking behavior of the insects (except for the susceptible strain where walking activity was reduced). Walking activity varies with strain and may minimize insecticide exposure, which should be a concern, particularly if associated with (physiological) insecticide resistance.

  8. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots

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    Dominique Carval

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants” (Carval et al., in press [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  9. Structure and Function of the Digestive System of Solen Grandis Dunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Xiuzhen; ZHAN Wenbin; REN Sulian

    2003-01-01

    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing.Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  10. Métodos de captura para formigas em pré-plantio de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Jardel Boscardin

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar três métodos de coleta de formigas em uma área de pré-plantio de Eucalyptus grandis em Santa Maria-RS. Foram realizadas amostragens de março a agosto de 2011, utilizando-se armadilha de solo (AS, isca atrativa à base de patê de fígado de frango (IA e extração por Funil de Berlese (FB, sendo seis repetições por tratamento em cada data de coleta. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da aplicação de glifosato, tendo sido realizados controles das plantas infestantes: na linha e na entrelinha de plantio (T1; em faixa de um metro paralela à linha de plantio e de um metro na parte central da entrelinha, sem controle (T2; em faixa de meio metro paralela à linha de plantio (T3, e a testemunha, sem controle de plantas infestantes (T4. A partir dos resultados obtidos, os métodos demonstraram ser complementares entre si, sugerindo a utilização de mais de um método na captura de formigas.

  11. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis

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    Zhisheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, and solvent extraction (SE. A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD, 56 (HS-SPME, and 48 (SE compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81% were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level.

  12. PARTICLEBOARDS PRODUCED WITH Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden POLYSTYRENE AND POLYETHYLENE THEREPHTHALATE PARTICLES

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    Antônio da Silva Maciel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the properties of wood particleboards, containing particles of polystyrene (PS and polyethylene therephthalate (PET. Particleboards were produced with 0%, 25% or 50% of polystyrene and 100%, 75% or 50% of Eucalyptus grandis particles. Additional boards were produced with two amounts of PET/PS (5/20% or 10/40% and 75% or 50% wood particles. As binding agents three amounts (0%, 4% or 6% of urea-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde adhesive and three amounts of polystyrene in toluene solution (0%, 4% or 6% were used. One-layer boards, measuring approximately 400,0 x 400,0 x 10,0 mm with density approximately equal to 0,60 g/cm3, were produced. Internal bond, modulus of rupture and elasticity, screw withdrawal, as well water absorption and thickness swelling, after 24 hours of immersion were determined. All mechanical boards’ properties were superior to the established by ANSI/A 208.1-1993 standards. All wood/plastic particleboards absorbed more water then those observed in commercial boards. However the observed thickness swelling was quite similar to the values of commercial wood particleboards. Boards in which the solution of polystyrene was applied were, in general, presented the best values for all properties.

  13. Genetic diversity of teak (Tectona grandis L.F. from different provenances using microsatellite markers

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    Berenice Kussumoto Alcântara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis is one of the main timber species in the world with high economic value, famous for its beauty, strength and durability. The objective of this work was to characterize the genetic diversity of teak genotypes used in Brazilian plantations. Nine microsatellite primers were used to assess 60 teak genotypes, including 33 genotypes from seeds of plantations and 14 clones from Cáceres municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and 13 clones from Honduras, Malaysia, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast and Solomon Islands. Two groups of genotypes were detected using the Bayesian Structure analysis: 80% were placed in group 1, represented by genotypes from Cáceres and one from Malaysia, and 20% allocated in group 2, composed of clones from India, Solomon Islands, Malaysia and Honduras and the clones from the Ivory Coast. Most of the genetic variability (73% was concentrated within groups according to AMOVA analysis. Genetic parameters were estimated for the two groups obtained in the analysis of Structure. Moderate genetic diversity was found, with 4.1 alleles per locus, on average, and an average heterozygosity of 0.329, which was lower than the expected heterozygosity (He = 0.492. Group 1 showed the lowest values for these parameters. Suggestions were made concerning the identification of contrasting genotypes to be used as parents in breeding programs.

  14. INITIAL GROWTH OF Tectona Grandis L.f., IN DIFFERENT SPACINGS IN PARACATU, MG, BRAZIL

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    Renato Luiz Grisi Macedo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the initial growth of Tectona grandis L.f (Teca at different spacings in the northwesternregion of the Minas Gerais State – Brazil. A randomized block experimental design was used. The treatments consisted of fivedifferent planting spacings (3 x 2 m; 6 x 2 m; 6 x 4 m and 12 x 2,5 m with five repetitions each. The permanent experimentalconsisted of an approximate area of 300 m². The survival rate, plant height, diameter at breast height, volume/plant, volume/ha,basal area/plant and basal area/ha, were determined 24 and 36 months after planting, the current increment between the twoevaluation periods was determined for all the characteristics previously cited. The analysis of the results allows concluding thatteca presents potential for plantation in the region. Teca presented the higher growth rate at the 3 x 2 m spacing, whereno intra-specific competitive effects were observed. The main factors that limited initial growth were the long period ofrain insufficiency associated to a high soil compacting level.

  15. Optimum extraction process of polyphenols from Bridelia grandis stem bark using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusotti, Gloria; Ngueyem, Tatiana Adrienne; Biesuz, Raffaela; Caccialanza, Gabriele

    2010-06-01

    Euphorbiaceae barks are known to contain an appreciable amount of polyphenolic compounds responsible for several biological activities. Preliminary extraction from Bridelia grandis stem bark afforded high content of polyphenols, determined by spectrophotometric methods such as Folin-Ciocalteu (for total phenols, TP) and n-butanol-HCl (for condensed tannins, CT). A preliminary Plackett-Burman screening design was used to identify the key factors that influence the TP and CT extraction. Between all the variables known to influence the extraction from vegetable matrixes, six were selected; maceration was chosen as traditional extraction methodology. To investigate the effect of solvents and extraction method, methanol, acetone 70% (v/v in water), centrifugation and ultrasound were chosen. A full factorial design 2(3) was applied to optimize the extraction procedure. The responses were obtained analyzing the extracts for their TP and CT contents determined by the above-mentioned spectrophotometric methods. The results confirm that, within the explored domain, the optimum solvent is methanol and the optimum method is one-cycle centrifugation. Finally, it was also compared with the effect of maceration on the considered responses. It has never given results better than centrifugation, whereas in the case of CT it represents an advantage to employ a three-cycle centrifugation instead of one.

  16. EFFECT OF LOG STEAMING ON THE REDUCTION OF DEFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH GROWTH STRESS OF Eucalyptus grandis

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    Fred Willians Calonego

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate log steaming effect on the reduction of defects associated with residual growth stress of Eucalyptus grandis wood. There were used logs with diameter of 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35 cm, from the Horto Florestal, Manduri, São Paulo. Half of the logs was steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity. Subsequently, the logs were live sawn and the defects resulting from the growth stresses in logs of various diameter were measured. The results indicate that log steaming provided the release of a great part of the growth stresses, without eliminating them completely, showing, nevertheless, that this treatment is feasible and advisable for growth stress relief; the boards coming from heated logs of 20 to <25 cm presented, in general, larger defect reduction, showing that the smaller the log diameter the higher the efficiency of steam treatment at 90ºC of temperature during 20 hours.

  17. Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall

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    Paulo Henrique Müller da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha−1 and 86% higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

  18. Hygroscopicity of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda subjected to thermal treatment

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    Karina Soares Modes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the thermal treatment technique under two conditions—autoclave combined with electric oven and electric oven only—on the hygroscopic properties of wood from Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, comparing them with results obtained for untreated wood. Three trees at age 25 years were sampled, with boards being removed at DBH level in order to make specimens 2.5 x 2.5 x 5.0 cm in size in the radial, tangential and axial direction respectively. In the combined treatment, specimens were subjected to thermal treatment in an autoclave set at 130°C/± 3°C and kgf/cm² pressure for 3 hours, then to a conditioning period, followed by heat in an electric oven set at 160°C/±1°C for the same time. Properties being evaluated included water absorption rate, volumetric swelling, water repellency effectiveness and anti-swelling efficiency. Results revealed that the thermal treatments being adopted were effective in reducing hygroscopicity and in increasing the dimensional stability of both species, revealing also that the combined autoclave and electric oven treatment provides best results.

  19. EFFECT OF Eucalyptus grandis WOOD REFINING ON THE FIBER MORFHOLOGY AND ON MDF PANELS PROPERTIES

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    Ugo Leandro Belini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of eucalypts wood for MDF panels producing is recent in Brazil and presents larger perspective of increase, in relationship to pine wood, due to the shorter harvesting cycle and integral use of the bark in the productive process, etc,. The present work evaluated the anatomical structure and properties of MDF panels manufactured at laboratory with Eucalyptus grandis fibers obtained in three treatments. It were evaluated the variations in heating time, digester and refining pressure and specific energy. MDF panels obtained in critical refining condition showed darker fibers and cell walls transversely broken and lower resistance to internal bond, surface soundness, withdrawal of screws and swelling in thickness. MDF panels obtained after less intensive refining condition showed better physical properties. Better refining conditions increase the bulk density and hinder the adhesive recover and fiber interlace, with worse physical and mechanics properties. Fiber morphology was evaluated through stereoscope and scanning electronic microscopic (SEM, establishing relationships between chips refining treatments and MDF panels properties.

  20. Probability density functions for description of diameter distribution in thinned stands of Tectona grandis

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    Julianne de Castro Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fatigue life, Frechet, Gamma, Generalized Gamma, Generalized Logistic, Log-logistic, Nakagami, Beta, Burr, Dagum, Weibull and Hyperbolic distributions in describing diameter distribution in teak stands subjected to thinning at different ages. Data used in this study originated from 238 rectangular permanent plots 490 m2 in size, installed in stands of Tectona grandis L. f. in Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The plots were measured at ages 34, 43, 55, 68, 81, 82, 92, 104, 105, 120, 134 and 145 months on average. Thinning was done in two occasions: the first was systematic at age 81months, with a basal area intensity of 36%, while the second was selective at age 104 months on average and removed poorer trees, reducing basal area by 30%. Fittings were assessed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test. The Log-logistic (3P, Burr (3P, Hyperbolic (3P, Burr (4P, Weibull (3P, Hyperbolic (2P, Fatigue Life (3P and Nakagami functions provided more satisfactory values for the k-s test than the more commonly used Weibull function.

  1. Fractionation of Eucalyptus grandis chips by dilute acid-catalysed steam explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Alexandre; Mathias, Alvaro L; Wypych, Fernando; Ramos, Luiz P

    2003-01-01

    Steam explosion of Eucalyptus grandis has been carried out under various pretreatment conditions (200-210 degrees C, 2-5 min) after impregnation of the wood chips with 0.087 and 0.175% (w/w) H2SO4. This study, arranged as a 2(3) factorial design, indicated that pretreatment temperature is the most critical variable affecting the yield of steam-treated fractions. Pretreatment of 0.175% (w/w) H2SO4-impregnated chips at 210 degrees C for 2 min was the best condition for hemicellulose recovery (mostly as xylose) in the water soluble fraction, reaching almost 70% of the corresponding xylose theoretical yield. By contrast, lower pretreatment temperatures of 200 degrees C were enough to yield steam-treated substrates from which a 90% cellulose conversion was obtained in 48 h, using low enzyme loadings of a Celluclast 1.5 1 plus Novozym 188 mixture (Novo Nordisk). Release of water-soluble chromophores was monitored by UV spectroscopy and their concentration increased with pretreatment severity. The yield of alkali-soluble lignin increased at higher levels of acid impregnation and pretreatment temperatures. Thermoanalysis of these lignin fractions indicated a pattern of lignin fragmentation towards greater pretreatment severities but lignin condensation prevailed at the most drastic pretreatment conditions.

  2. EFEITO DO DESBASTE NAS RACHADURAS DE TOPO DAS TORAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden

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    Rômulo Trevisan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of thinning in the end splits of the logs of the Eucalyptus grandis at 18 years of age. There was analyzed a thinning experiment, located in the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, installed in randomized blocks with four repetitions. The seven treatments were defined according to the number of thinnings applied and ranged from zero to six interventions. The trees were selected, in each treatment, on the basis of the Assmann’s dominant diameter and the central diameter of tree, being referred to as dominant and central trees, respectively. After cutting down the selected the logs were located between the DBH (diameter at breast height and 25% positions, 25% and 50%; 50% and 75%; 75% and 100% of the commercial height, for the end split study. The results indicate that the average end splits of the logs in the dominant and central trees was higher at the second log sampled, suggesting that sectioning should be carried in conjunction with techniques that minimize the growth stress, especially when this is performed near the half of the commercial height. The thinning induced variation in the logs end split, both for dominant and central trees; however, there was no clear positive or negative trend, leading to the conclusion that changes in growth rate did not af fect these parameters uniformly.

  3. LOG BREAKDOWN OF Eucalyptus grandis WITH CHAINSAW, PART 1 – OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSISi

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    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810558The aim of this work was to analyze the operational performance of chainsaw log breakdown of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill, taking into account small scale use, e.g., in small farms, using yield and efficiency as evaluation tools. The specific aim was to analyze the behavior of yield and efficiency in five diametric classes: 20.0-25.9cm, 26.0-28.9 cm, 29.0-31.9 cm, 32.0-34.9 cm and 35.0-41.0 cm. According to the results obtained, the chainsaw log breakdown had a satisfactory operational behavior, with average yield and efficiency of 58,5% and 0.55m³/operator/h, respectively. However, the feasibility of such technique is restricted to small scale use. Diametric class 3 (29.0-31.9 cm presented the best yield (66.6% because it was the one that presented the best adequacy between log diameter and products. It is suggested for further researches the development of specific sawing diagrams per diametric class, in addition to the reduction of class ranges, aiming the yield increase. The average breakdown time spent per log was the same for classes 3, 4 and 5, resulting that the latter presented the best efficiency, 0.82 m³/operator/h.

  4. Características de vigas laminadas coladas confeccionadas com madeira de teca (Tectona grandis

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a influência do adesivo, das gramaturas e dos tempos de prensagem nas propriedades mecânicas de vigas laminadas coladas, confeccionadas com madeira de teca (Tectona grandis. As vigas foram produzidas com cinco lamelas, sendo duas da classe de módulo de elasticidade dinâmico, classe 1 - MOEd C1 nas faces, e três da classe 2 - MOEd C2 no miolo. Para a colagem, utilizou-se o adesivo à base de resorcina-fenol-formaldeído (RFF, com gramaturas de 350 e 450 g.m- 2, e tempos de prensagem de 5 e 8 horas. Para o adesivo à base de emulsão polimérica de isocianato (EPI, a colagem foi realizada com gramaturas de 180 e 220 g.m- 2, e tempos de prensagem de 3 e 4 horas. Os resultados das propriedades mecânicas das vigas indicaram que não houve uma relação bem definida dos efeitos das variáveis de estudo nas propriedades de flexão estática. As vigas coladas com o adesivo RFF tiveram maior resistência da linha de cola em comparação às vigas coladas com o adesivo EPI.

  5. STORAGE TIME EFFECT ON MINI-CUTTINGS ROOTING IN Tectona grandis LINN F. CLONES

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    Yorleny Badilla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the influence of storage length on Tectona grandis mini-cuttings survival and rooting. A factorial arrangement (4 x 7 was utilized, based on four clones (Carapá, Ipê, GU5 and TB7 and seven time intervals from mini-cuttings harvesting until final sowing (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 hours. A randomized block design with three replicates and 16 mini-cuttings per experimental unit was utilized. Survival and rooting rates were evaluated after greenhouse culture (30 days after sowing and after shadow house culture (40 days after sowing; as well as height, collar diameter, aerial and root biomass 55 days after sowing. No significant differences were observed in survival and rooting rates among time intervals in teak mini-cuttings preparation from these four clones. However differences among clones were registered for rooting rate, suggesting a genotypic effect. Survival and rooting rates were very high after greenhouse culture (93% and 90% respectively, as well as survival after culture in a shadow-house (88%.

  6. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils.

  7. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad [Food Science Program, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Ishak [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

  8. Termorretificação e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

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    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    Full Text Available A termorretificação pode ser utilizada na alteração da cor da madeira, tornado-a semelhante às madeiras tropicais de maior valor agregado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações colorimétricas na madeira de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 140, 170, 200 e 230 °C, por três, cinco e sete horas. Corpos de prova de 2 × 2 × 2 cm foram secos em estufa e termorretificados para avaliação de claridade (L, matriz vermelho (a*, matriz amarelo (b*, saturação (C e ângulo de tinta (H. A claridade (L* reduziu-se a partir de 140 °C; a matriz vermelho (a*, a partir de 140 °C por cinco horas; a matriz amarelo (b*, a saturação e o ângulo de tinta reduziram-se a partir de 170 °C. A temperatura se mostrou mais efetiva na alteração da cor do que o tempo. A termorretificação escureceu a madeira e pode ser uma alternativa para ampliação do uso do material.

  9. WOOD BASIC DENSITY EFFECT OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla CLONES ON BLEACHED PULP QUALITY

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    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  10. SCREENING OF ANTIMICROBIAL, CYTOTOXIC AND PESTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF COCCINIA GRANDIS (L. VOIGT

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    Md. Faruk Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess the antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic and pesticidal activities of Coccinia grandis roots extract. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method against some pathogenic microorganisms. Cytotoxicity was determined using brine shrimp lethality bioassay method. The plant extract was screened for pesticidal activity towards Sitophilus oryzae adults. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was also studied against test organisms, using serial dilution technique to determine the antibacterial potency. In antibacterial screening, large inhibition zones were observed against the tested gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea and Stapphylococcus aureus and gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae bacteria. In antifungal screening, the extract showed moderate antifungal activities against the tested fungi (Candida albicans and Colletotrichum falcatum. In cytotoxicity activity test, LC50 (lethal concentration, 50% of the extract against brine shrimp nauplii was 15.00µg/ml. The plant extract also showed moderate pesticidal activities towards S. oryzae adults. These results suggested that the plant extract has significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria, moderate antifungal, cytotoxic and pesticidal activity towards the tested fungi, brine shrimp nauplii and S. oryzae adults, respectively.

  11. SEEDLINGS ESTABLISHMENT OF Eucalyptus grandis MYCORRHIZATED WITH Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 IN SANDY SOIL

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    Andréa Hentz de Mello

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival and the initial growth of mycorrhizated eucalypts with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 ectomycorrhizal fungus, after its transplant to area subject to the arenization process in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The area was divided into four blocks, each one with four treatments (fertile turf with and without mycorrhizae, Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae. Each parcel was composed of 16 seedlings arranged in four lines in the spacing of 1,5 m x 1,5 m, totalizing in each block 64 seedlings. 90 days after the planting in the field, the eucaliptus seedlings produced in turf with fungus in the fertile substratum presented a survival rate of 100 %, whereas for those produced in fertile turf without fingi, the survival rate was 92 %. The seedlings produced in the Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae had a survival rate varying around 98 and 89 %, respectively. The produced seedlings with turf and fungus showed significant differences in height and stem diameter. This study showed that the Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced in substratum fertile turf and inoculated with the Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 isolated may maintain good development and establishment in the field.

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ANATOMY AND DRYING IN Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus urophylla WOOD

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    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drying is an important step to using wood and anatomical characteristics influence this process. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between anatomy and wood drying. Samples with 2 x 2 x 4 cm were obtained from eight Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clones at 1.3 m height to evaluate the anatomy and drying in climate chamber during 15 days. Cell wall fraction was established as the parameter that best correlated with drying, the Pearson correlation coefficient between this parameter and moisture was -0.8986, -0.6580, 0.9216, 0.8743, 0.7131 and 0.8727 for saturated wood, and after 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 days of drying, respectively. The frequency and vessel size, as well as the height and width of the rays showed low relation with wood drying. Wood anatomy, mainly the cell wall fraction, influences moisture losses and should be considered in wood drying programs.

  13. Química e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden termorretificada

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    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A termorretificação visa melhorar as características para agregar valor à madeira através da aplicação de calor. O objetivo foi avaliar as alterações químicas e colorimétricas da madeira termorretificada de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 170, 200 e 230 ºC por 3, 5 e 7 h. Os teores de extrativos, lignina, holocelulose, composição elementar e os parâmetros colorimétricos foram determinados. Os teores de extrativos aumentaram nos tratamentos a 170 °C e diminuíram a partir de 200 °C, enquanto o teor de lignina total aumentou e o de holocelulose diminuiu a partir de 200 °C. O teor de carbono aumentou e o de oxigênio diminuiu a 230 °C por 5 e 7 h. A termorretificação reduziu a claridade, matriz vermelho (a* e matriz amarelo (b* da madeira de eucalipto em todos os tratamentos.

  14. Danos causados por Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1977 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae em Eucalyptus grandis Hill. ex Maiden. Eucalyptus grandis Hill.ex. Maiden injuries caused by Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor.

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    Dalva Luiz de Queiroz Santana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os danos de Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1977 foram caracterizados em observações realizadas em campo,  laboratório e casa de vegetação. Os primeiros danos de C. spatulata em Eucalyptus grandis são provocados  pela postura, ficando uma pequena mancha preta, onde o ovo é depositado, que evolui para manchas maiores,  podendo levar a seca da gema. Os espécimens eliminam grandes quantidades de líquidos ricos em  açúcares “honeydew”, que se acumulam sobre folhas e  ponteiros, propiciando a proliferação de fungos formadores de fumagina e fungos fitopatogênicos. As  plantas atacadas ficam com as folhas deformadas,  menores que as normais, encarquilhadas, com falhas  entre as nervuras e com fumagina.  Conseqüentemente, a capacidade fotossintética  diminui. Com os danos provocados pelas picadas,  posturas, acúmulo de fumagina, aparecimento de  fungos oportunistas e a morte dos brotos, a planta  perde a dominância apical, ocorrendo uma  superbrotação no local. O ataque de C. spatulata causa uma diminuição do diâmetro das plantas e encurtamento dos internódios, ocasionando uma maior  fragilidade na área onde há esta formação. Cortes  anatômicos do caule, infestado com C. spatulata, mostram que a parte interna do lenho, na região onde  houve um superbrotamento, apresenta grande  concentração de fibras gelatinosas, que são menos  lignificadas. Estas fibras conferem menor resistência ao  caule das plantas, tornando-o frágil e susceptível a  quebra em função de ventos ou mesmo pelo próprio  peso. Além disto, as plantas atacadas apresentaram  modificações anatômicas quanto ao arranjo dos poros e  maior espessamento da casca.
    The injuries of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1977, were characterized through observations in field,  laboratory and greenhouse. The first injuries of C. spatulata in Eucalyptus grandis are caused

  15. Growth Performance of the Red-Stripe Weevil Rhynchophorus schach Oliv. (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae on Meridic Diets

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    Choon-Fah J. Bong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biology and growth performance of Red Stripe Weevil, Rhynchophorus schach Oliv. were studied using meridic diets. The diets consisted of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. bagasse, copra (Cocos nucifera L. cake and sago (Metroxylon sagus Rottb. flour as main ingredients. Larvae or locally known as sagoworm, in copra cake diet exhibited the fastest growth with maximum weight gain of 1609 mg in week 5, while those of sugarcane bagasse diet had slowest growth with peak weight gain of 1024 mg in week 9. Sago flour diet gave the longest larval period at 96.3 days with the highest final larval weight of 8132.1 mg. The R. schach larvae had 8 instars. Head capsule width within each instar was constant irrespective of diets given. Instar period was dependent on diets given and varied from 6.3-12 days. Pupal duration ranged from 38.5-41 days. Adult emergence was 90%. Sago flour diet had the heaviest pupae and adults. Male weevils emerged earlier than the females, but females lived 10-13 days longer. Fecundity was low at 67 eggs per female but the hatchability was 92%. Life cycle for the insect ranged from 130.2-138.8 days, with a lifespan of 178.2-183.8 days. Larvae raised on sago flour diet had the highest fat content at 57.8% but with the lowest fiber at 4.7%. Larvae were generally rich in Mg, Ca, Zn and Fe, but low in Cu. This study showed that sago flour constituted the most suitable diet. The results also suggested that growth and development of the weevil could be further improved by incorporating copra cake and sugarcane bagasse into the sago flour diet. Larvae could be readily mass produced as a source of nutritious food, besides its potential use as a laboratory test organism.

  16. One-step column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution followed by automatic separation of volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides from Citrus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Han-Bing; Li, Hui; Hao, Rui-Lin; Chen, Ya-Fei; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2014-02-15

    Citrus grandis Tomentosa is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and health foods. Its functional components include volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides which cannot be effectively extracted through traditional methods. A column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution was developed for one-step extraction of all bioactive substances from C. grandis. Dried material was loaded into a column with petroleum ether: ethanol (8:2, PE) and sequentially eluted with 2-fold PE, 3-fold ethanol: water (6:4) and 8-fold water. The elutes was separated into an ether fraction containing volatiles and an ethanol-water fraction containing flavonoids and polysaccharides. The later was separated into flavonoids and polysaccharides by 80% ethanol precipitation of polysaccharides. Through this procedure, volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides in C. grandis were simultaneously extracted at 98% extraction rates and simply separated at higher than 95% recovery rates. The method provides a simple and high-efficient extraction and separation of wide range bioactive substances.

  17. Investigation of the current population of Dendroctonus micans (Kugelann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and colonization rate of Rhizophagus grandis Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Monotomidae in spruce forests of Artvin

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    Hazan Alkan Akıncı

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, current population of Dendroctonus micans (Kugelann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, and colonization status of its specific predator Rhizophagus grandis Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Monotomidae in spruce forests of Artvin were investigated. Field works were conducted in a total of 30 sampling plots and along 20 transects. Sampling plots were 30 × 10 m in size and transects 50 m long. Presently, D. micans has a “very low infestation” rate in Artvin spruce forests and D. micans infestation rate is 4.1 times lower than the early 2000s. The trees at the stands edges were attacked more than trees in stand closure. All the larval galleries of D. micans were colonized by R. grandis. R. grandis could colonize larval galleries of its prey even in endemic conditions.

  18. ECOLOGICAL-FAUNISTIC AND ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF BEETLE-WEEVILS OF ISLAND CHECHEN OF THE CASPIAN SEA

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    Y. G. Arsanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Ecological-faunistic investigations of island Chechen are great interest for understanding the law of formation of island biotas and reconstruction of zoogeological history of the Caspian Sea. Faunistic investigations of islands and coastal areas , habitats and others chorologic aspects illuminate the ways of their probable settlement,explains the paradoxes of propagation of some species. Study of relationships with host plants appear the crucial stage of ecological-faunistic investigathions of the weevils.Location. Materials of the work were expeditionary duties of the authors, as well as staff and the students of ecologo-geografical faculty of Dagistan State University and the Institute for Applied Ecology ( Makhachkala from 2009 to 2013 year for the island Chechen.Methods. Charges were made with the help of light traps, soil traps, including trap, enhanced light source .Geografpical coordinates of all locations were recorded using GPS- navigator: T1 - 43°57’58” N 47°38’35” E; T2 - 43°58’17” N 47°42’55”; T3 - 43°59’08” N 47°44’39” E; T4 - 43°57’27” N 47°45’05” E; T5 - 43°58’11” N47°38’46” E.Results. As a result of studies were set the species composition of the faun of the beetle-weevils of the island Chechen, the analyses of the distribution of species by locality; mounted forage plants of the beetles and quantitative distribution of the beetls for families forage plants; conduct the zoogeographical analysis of studied fauna.Main conclusions. The studies on the island of Chechen were collected 187 specimens belonging to 16 species and 14 geniuse; the most common type was Coniatus splendidulus. The food base of the weevil beetles in the island of Chechen are 10 plant families,thelargest number of species focused on Chenopodiаceae, then followed Polygonaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae. Analysis of fauna habitats of the beetle- weevils of the island Chechen allowed to allocate 7

  19. Insecticidal activity of alpha-cypermethrin against small banded pine weevil Pissodes castaneus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in forest plantations and thickets

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    Prokocka Aleksandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris plantations and thickets damaged by biotic and abiotic factors are particularly attractive to small-banded pine weevil Pissodes castaneus, whose larvae excavate feeding tunnels in the stems of young trees, causing their death. There are no chemical methods that can be applied to protect forest plantations and thickets against this pest. Therefore, the studies were undertaken aimed at the assessment of the efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin used to reduce the numbers of this pest within restock areas. The scope of work included laboratory and field estimation of insecticidal activity of alpha-cypermethrin.

  20. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil; Primeira ocorrencia de Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) predando lagartas desfolhadoras do dendezeiro no estado do Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rafael C.; Lemos, Walkymario P.; Muller, Antonio A. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: rafaufra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: wplemos@cpatu.embrapa.br; Muller, Antonio A. [Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia; Bernardino, Aline S.; Buecke, Joel [Grupo Agropalma S/A., Tailandia, PA (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  1. Blood Sugar Lowering Effect of Coccinia grandis (L. J. Voigt: Path for a New Drug for Diabetes Mellitus

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    M. A. A. K. Munasinghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Role of herbs in the management and control of diabetes has emerged fast over the years. We assessed the efficacy of Coccinia grandis (locally known as Ken, Kovakka leaves as a hypoglycemic agent. Methods. Double-blind phase I clinical trial was conducted at the general hospital and a private hospital in Matara in August 2009. All the participants were given a common meal for dinner, and they maintained a 10-hour fasting period. Sixty-one healthy volunteers were given a meal containing 20 g of leaves of Coccinia grandis which was mixed with a measured amount of scraped coconut and table salt for breakfast, and other 61 were given the placebo meal which also contained scraped coconut and salt. Glucose tolerance test was performed blindly for the two groups. Mixed factorial design analysis of variance and student's t-test were applied. Results. Overall blood sugar levels of the experimental group were also significantly lower than those of the control group (F(1,117 5.56, <0.05. Increase in the blood sugar levels from fasting to one hour (F(1,117 6.77, <0.05 and two hours (F(1,117 5.28, <0.05 postprandially was statistically significant for participants who were in the control group than those of in the experimental group. The mean difference of postprandial blood sugar levels (mg/dL after one hour (20.2, 95% confidence interval, 4.81 to 35.5 and two hours (11.46, 95% confidence interval; 1.03 to 21.9 was statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusions. Coccinia grandis has a blood sugar lowering effect. However further studies are needed to validate our findings.

  2. Susceptibility of different developmental stages of large pine weevil Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic fungi and effect of fungal infection to adult weevils by formulation and application methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Minshad A; Butt, Tariq M

    2012-09-15

    The large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, is a major pest in European conifer forests causing millions of Euros of damage annually. Larvae develop in the stumps of recently felled trees; the emerging adults feed on the bark of seedlings and may kill them. This study investigated the susceptibility of different developmental stages of H. abietis to commercial and commercially viable isolates of entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium and Beauveria. All the developmental stages of H. abietis can be killed by Metarhizium robertsii, Metarhizium brunneum, and Beauveria bassiana. The most virulent isolate of M. robertsii ARSEF4556 caused 100% mortality of pupae, larvae and adults on day 4, 6 and 12, respectively. This strain was further tested against adult weevils in different concentrations (10(5)-10(8) conidia cm(-2) or ml(-1)) using two types of fungal formulation: 'dry' conidia and 'wet' conidia (suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80) applied on different substrates (tissue paper, peat and Sitka spruce seedlings). 'Dry' conidia were more effective than 'wet' conidia on tissue paper and on spruce or 'dry' conidia premixed in peat. The LC(50) value for 'dry' conidia of isolate ARSEF4556 was three folds lower than 'wet' conidia on tissue paper. This study showed that 'dry' conidia are more effective than 'wet' conidia, causing 100% adult mortality within 12 days. Possible strategies for fungal applications are discussed in light of the high susceptibility of larvae and pupae to fungal pathogen.

  3. Identification of the Weevil immune genes and their expression in the bacteriome tissue

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    Moya Andrés

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent infections with mutualistic intracellular bacteria (endosymbionts are well represented in insects and are considered to be a driving force in evolution. However, while pathogenic relationships have been well studied over the last decades very little is known about the recognition of the endosymbionts by the host immune system and the mechanism that limits their infection to the bacteria-bearing host tissue (the bacteriome. Results To study bacteriome immune specificity, we first identified immune-relevant genes of the weevil Sitophilus zeamais by using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH and then analyzed their full-length coding sequences obtained by RACE-PCR experiments. We then measured immune gene expression in the bacteriome, and in the aposymbiotic larvae following S. zeamais primary endosymbiont (SZPE injection into the hemolymph, in order to consider the questions of bacteriome immune specificity and the insect humoral response to symbionts. We show that larval challenge with the endosymbiont results in a significant induction of antibacterial peptide genes, providing evidence that, outside the bacteriome, SZPE are recognized as microbial intruders by the host. In the bacteriome, gene expression analysis shows the overexpression of one antibacterial peptide from the coleoptericin family and, intriguingly, homologs to genes described as immune modulators (that is, PGRP-LB, Tollip were also shown to be highly expressed in the bacteriome. Conclusion The current data provide the first description of immune gene expression in the insect bacteriome. Compared with the insect humoral response to SZPE, the bacteriome expresses few genes among those investigated in this work. This local immune gene expression may help to maintain the endosymbiont in the bacteriome and prevent its invasion into insect tissues. Further investigations of the coleoptericin, the PGRP and the Tollip genes should elucidate the role

  4. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-01-12

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2(-ΔΔCt) analyses revealed that T0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g(-1) fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g(-1) fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness.

  5. Genetic Conservation of Phosphine Resistance in the Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tam T; Collins, Patrick J; Duong, Tu M; Schlipalius, David I; Ebert, Paul R

    2016-05-01

    High levels of resistance to phosphine in the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae have been detected in Asian countries including China and Vietnam, however there is limited knowledge of the genetic mechanism of resistance in these strains. We find that the genetic basis of strong phosphine resistance is conserved between strains of S. oryzae from China, Vietnam, and Australia. Each of 4 strongly resistant strains has an identical amino acid variant in the encoded dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) enzyme that was previously identified as a resistance factor in Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum. The unique amino acid substitution, Asparagine > Threonine (N505T) of all strongly resistant S. oryzae corresponds to the position of an Asparagine > Histidine variant (N506H) that was previously reported in strongly resistant R. dominica. Progeny (F16 and F18) from 2 independent crosses showed absolute linkage of N505T to the strong resistance phenotype, indicating that if N505T was not itself the resistance variant that it resided within 1 or 2 genes of the resistance factor. Non-complementation between the strains confirmed the shared genetic basis of strong resistance, which was supported by the very similar level of resistance between the strains, with LC50 values ranging from 0.20 to 0.36 mg L(-1) for a 48-h exposure at 25 °C. Thus, the mechanism of high-level resistance to phosphine is strongly conserved between R. dominica, T. castaneum and S. oryzae. A fitness cost associated with strongly resistant allele was observed in segregating populations in the absence of selection.

  6. Evaluation of toxicity of biorational insecticides against larvae of the alfalfa weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadi V.P. Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is a major pest of alfalfa Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae. While H. postica usually causes the most damage before the first cutting, in summer of 2015 damaging levels of the pest persisted in Montana well after the first harvest of alfalfa. Although conventional insecticides can control H. postica, these chemicals have adverse effects on non-target organisms including pollinators and natural enemy insects. In this context, use of biorational insecticides would be the best alternative options, as they are known to pose less risk to non-target organisms. We therefore examined the six commercially available biorational insecticides against H. postica under laboratory condition: Mycotrol® ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA, Aza-Direct® (Azadirachtin, Met52® EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52, Xpectro OD® (B. bassiana GHA + pyrethrins, Xpulse OD® (B. bassiana GHA + Azadirachtin and Entrust WP® (spinosad 80%. Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lowest labelled rates were tested for all products. However, in the case of Entrust WP, additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 times the lowest label rate were also assessed. Mortality rates were determined at 1–9 days post treatment. Based on lethal concentrations and relative potencies, this study clearly showed that Entrust was the most effective, causing 100% mortality within 3 days after treatment among all the tested materials. With regard to other biorational, Xpectro was the second most effective insecticide followed by Xpulse, Aza-Direct, Met52, and Mycotrol. Our results strongly suggested that these biorational insecticides could potentially be applied for H. postica control.

  7. Evaluation and modeling of synergy to pheromone and plant kairomone in American palm weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochat Didier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many behavioral responses to odors are synergistic, particularly in insects. In beetles, synergy often involves a pheromone and a plant odor, and pest management relies on them for the use of combined lures. To investigate olfactory synergy mechanisms, we need to distinguish synergistic effects from additive ones, when all components of the mixture are active. Results As versatile tools and procedures were not available, we developed a bioassay, and a mathematical model to evaluate synergy between aggregation pheromone (P and host plant odors (kairomone: K in the American palm weevil, a pest insect showing enhanced responses to P+K mixtures. Responses to synthetic P and natural K were obtained using a 4-arm olfactometer coupled to a controlled volatile delivery system. We showed that: (1 Response thresholds were ca. 10 and 100 pg/s respectively for P and K. (2 Both stimuli induced similar maximum response. (3 Increasing the dose decreased the response for P to the point of repellence and maintained a maximum response for K. (4 P and K were synergistic over a 100-fold range of doses with experimental responses to P+K mixtures greater than the ones predicted assuming additive effects. Responses close to maximum were associated with the mixture amounts below the response threshold for both P and K. Conclusion These results confirm the role of olfactory synergy in optimizing active host-plant localization by phytophagous insects. Our evaluation procedure can be generalized to test synergistic or inhibitory integrated responses of various odor mixtures for various insects.

  8. Proline content and protein patterns in Eucalyptus grandis shoots submitted to high and low temperature shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M. Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Proline content and protein patterns changes in response to temperature shocks of both acclimated and non acclimated E. grandis shoots cultivated in vitro were investigated. Analysis of soluble proteins through SDS-PAGE and proline were carried out after 12h at 12ºC (cold acclimation or 33ºC (heat acclimation, and immediately after temperature shocks at 41ºC and 0ºC. Analyses were also performed 24h after the temperature shocks (recovery period. Temperature treatment at 0ºC did not change soluble protein patterns both in acclimatized and non acclimatized plants, whereas cold temperature induced high proline levels, which kept relatively high after recovery period. Three novel, probably HSPs, proteins (90.5, 75 and 39 kDa were observed in both acclimated and non acclimated plants submitted to high temperatures. Plants exposed at 41ºC were able to recover from heat shocks after 24h, whereas they did not recover completely from cold shocks. The effect of the acclimation period on the recovering (homeostasis varied depending on the parameter evaluated, and type and duration of the temperature shock.As respostas às mudanças de temperatura de plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas de E. grandis cultivadas in vitro foram avaliadas considerando alterações dos níveis de prolina e proteínas solúveis totais. Análises de proteínas solúveis através de SDS-PAGE e prolina foram realizadas após 12h a 12ºC (aclimatação ao frio ou a 33ºC (aclimatação ao calor, e imediatamente depois dos choques térmicos a 41ºC e 0ºC. Análises também foram realizadas após um período de 24h depois dos choques térmicos (período de recuperação. O tratamento de temperatura a 0ºC não alterou o padrão de proteínas nas plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas, entretanto a temperatura baixa induziu altos níveis de prolina, que se mantiveram relativamente altos após o período de recuperação. Três novas proteínas (90,5, 75 e 39 kDa, provavelmente

  9. Phylogeography and the geographic cline in the armament of a seed-predatory weevil: effects of historical events vs. natural selection from the host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sota, Teiji

    2006-11-01

    Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica) and its seed predator, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), provide a notable example of a geographic mosaic of coevolution. In the species interaction, the offensive trait of the weevil (rostrum length) and the defensive trait of the plant (pericarp thickness) are involved in a geographically-structured arms race, and these traits and selective pressures acting on the plant defence vary greatly across a geographical landscape. To further explore the geographical structure of this interspecific interaction, we tested whether the geographical variation in the weevil rostrum over an 800-km range along latitude is attributed to local natural selection or constrained by historical (phylogeographical) events of local populations. Phylogeographical analyses of the mitochondrial DNA sequences of the camellia weevil revealed that this species has experienced differentiation into two regions, with a population bottleneck and subsequent range and/or population expansion within each region. Although these phylogeographical factors have affected the variation in rostrum length, analyses of competing factors for the geographical variation revealed that this pattern is primarily determined by the defensive trait of the host plant rather than by the effects of historical events of populations and a climatic factor (annual mean temperature). Thus, our study suggests the overwhelming strength of coevolutionary selection against the effect of historical events, which may have limited local adaptation.

  10. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOPALAKRISHNAN Ayyaru; RAJKUMAR Mayalagu; SUN Jun; PARIDA Ajay; VENMATHI MARAN Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (dayto 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  11. The weevil genus Achia champion (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): new species associate with urvillea (Sapindaceae) and New Serjania Host Plant records for A. ancile Burke and A. affinis Hustache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new species of the weevil genus Achia Champion are described: A. urvilleae Clark and Burke from the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil and Misiones Province, Argentina; A. uniformis Clark and Burke from Bolivia; and A. boliviana Clark and Burke from Bolivia and Salta and Santiago del Estero prov...

  12. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of red palm weevil (Coleopter: Curculionidae) in agricultural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  13. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of Red Palm Weevil in agricultural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  14. Estimating of larval stadia of West Indian sweetpotato weevil Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire) developed in the artificial larval diet by measuring larval head widths.

    OpenAIRE

    下地, 幸夫; Shimoji, Yukio; 琉球産経株式会社

    2003-01-01

    The survey conducted by measuring larval head widths of West Indian sweetpotato weevil Euscepes postfasciatus developed in the artificial larval diet revealed that there were five larval stadia in the developmental period. The result of this experiment can be used to estimate the larval stadia approximately in the artificial larval diet.

  15. Identification of genome regions controlling cotyledon, pod wall/seed coat and pod wall resistance to pea weevil through QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryamanesh, N; Zeng, Y; Byrne, O; Hardie, D C; Al-Subhi, A M; Khan, T; Siddique, K H M; Yan, G

    2013-11-15

    Pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum, is one of the limiting factors for field pea (Pisum sativum) cultivation in the world with pesticide application the only available method for its control. Resistance to pea weevil has been found in an accession of Pisum fulvum but transfer of this resistance to cultivated pea (P. sativum) is limited due to a lack of easy-to-use techniques for screening interspecific breeding populations. To address this problem, an interspecific population was created from a cross between cultivated field pea and P. fulvum (resistance source). Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed to discover the regions associated with resistance to cotyledon, pod wall/seed coat and pod wall resistance. Three major QTLs, located on linkage groups LG2, LG4 and LG5 were found for cotyledon resistance explaining approximately 80 % of the phenotypic variation. Two major QTLs were found for pod wall/seed coat resistance on LG2 and LG5 explaining approximately 70 % of the phenotypic variation. Co-linearity of QTLs for cotyledon and pod wall/seed coat resistance suggested that the mechanism of resistance for these two traits might act through the same pathways. Only one QTL was found for pod wall resistance on LG7 explaining approximately 9 % of the phenotypic variation. This is the first report on the development of QTL markers to probe Pisum germplasm for pea weevil resistance genes. These flanking markers will be useful in accelerating the process of screening when breeding for pea weevil resistance.

  16. Pre-release evaluation of Neochetina weevils potential for the management of Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm. In the Rift valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebregiorgis, F.Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the host-specificity, potential efficacy and optimum densities of the two weevils (Neochetina bruchi and N. eichhorniae) as water hyacinth control agents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Density-plant damage relationship was monitored for two years (2012 to 2014)

  17. Adaptability of two weevils (Neochetina bruchi and Neochetina eichhorniae) with potential to control water hyacinth in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firehun, Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2015-01-01

    Neochetina weevils have potential as biocontrol agents for water hyacinth, an aquatic weed which seriously affects irrigation water supply in sugarcane, vegetables and other horticultural crop production in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. A study was conducted on (i) the adaptability and duration of de

  18. Registration of AO-1012-29-3-3A red kidney bean germplasm line with bean weevil, BCMV and BCMNV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are important seed-borne diseases of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Americas and Africa. The bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) is an aggressive post-harvest pest of the common bean. The development of bea...

  19. Trapping sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Brentidae), with high doses of sex pheromone: Catch enhancement and weathering rate in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, one of the top ten staple crops produced worldwide, has increased in production in Hawaii in recent years. The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers)(Coleoptera: Brentidae), is a major economic and quarantine pest of sweetpotato in Hawa...

  20. Dielectric properties of cowpea weevil, black eyed peas and mung beans with respect to the development of radio frequency heat treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    In developing radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) disinfestation treatments for chickpeas and lentils, large amounts of product infested with cowpea weevil must be treated to validate treatment efficacy. To accomplish this, black-eyed peas and mung beans are being considered for use as surrogate...

  1. New records of Paracrias Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae as parasitoids on weevil larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae in Brazil, with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Palmieri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paracrias strii Schauff, 1985 and P. ceratophaga Palmieri & Hansson sp. nov. are first record in Brazil and both are associated with Ceratopus Schoenherr larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae reared from syconia of two species of fig-trees. Both Paracrias species are diagnosed and illustrated. Males of P. ceratophaga sp. nov. are described. The association of Paracrias with weevil larvae is briefly discussed.

  2. First field collection of the Rough Sweetpotato Weevil, Blosyrus asellus(Olivier)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Hawaii Island, with notes on detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus(Olivier)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was first detected in the state of Hawaii at a commercial Okinawan sweetpotato farm in Waipio, Oahu, on 14 November 2008. Reported here is, the first detection of this pest in sweetpotato fields on the island of Hawaii (...

  3. Polyamines and transglutaminase activity are involved in compatible and self-incompatible pollination of Citrus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Alessandra; Antognoni, Fabiana; Iorio, Rosa Anna; Distefano, Gaetano; Las Casas, Giuseppina; La Malfa, Stefano; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Del Duca, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Pollination of pummelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) pistils has been studied in planta by adding compatible and self-incompatible (SI) pollen to the stigma surface. The pollen germination has been monitored inside the pistil by fluorescent microscopy showing SI altered morphologies with irregular depositions of callose in the tube walls, and heavy callose depositions in enlarged tips. The polyamine (PA) content as free, perchloric acid (PCA)-soluble and -insoluble fractions and transglutaminase (TGase) activity have been analyzed in order to deepen their possible involvement in the progamic phase of plant reproduction. The conjugated PAs in PCA-soluble fraction were definitely higher than the free and the PCA-insoluble forms, in both compatible and SI pollinated pistils. In pistils, pollination caused an early decrease of free PAs and increase of the bound forms. The SI pollination, showed highest values of PCA-soluble and -insoluble PAs with a maximum in concomitance with the pollen tube arrest. As TGase mediates some of the effects of PAs by covalently binding them to proteins, its activity, never checked before in Citrus, was examined with two different assays. In addition, the presence of glutamyl-PAs confirmed the enzyme assay data and excluded the possibility of a misinterpretation. The SI pollination caused an increase in TGase activity, whereas the compatible pollination caused its decrease. Similarly to bound PAs, the glutamyl-PAs and the enzyme activity peaked in the SI pollinated pistils in concomitance with the observed block of the pollen tube growth, suggesting an involvement of TGase in SI response.

  4. Development and evaluation of teak (Tectona grandis L.f. taper equations in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Warner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taper refers to the general decrease in the regular outline of a solid body from its base to its tip. Taper models are used to estimate the volume and value of wood products from harvesting trees. Teak (Tectona grandis L.f. is highly valued as one of the world's most preferred timbers and a teak taper equation is required to inform optimal harvesting strategies given the limited plantation resource available in Thailand. Teak taper equations were developed and evaluated based on 331 sample trees collected in 2014 from eight plantations in northern Thailand aged from 10 to 46 yr using two taper model formulations—the Kozak variable-exponent taper model and the Goodwin cubic polynomial model comprising hyperbolic and parabolic terms. Variants based on both model types were fitted using nonlinear regression analysis with diameter at breast height, total tree height and height of girth measurement as the independent variables to estimate diameter underbark at the nominated height. Goodness-of-fit and leave-one-out cross validation with lack-of-fit statistical testing combined with extensive graphical analysis of residuals were used to select the best model. A Goodwin model variant (named FIO-teak1 as the first plantation teak taper model known to be published in Thailand provided the best estimates of volume and diameter underbark. A simple case study confirmed that FIO-teak1 in combination with the Farm Forestry Toolbox software package could assist teak plantation managers in decision making associated with optimizing log grade value based on standing tree inventory data.

  5. PRODUCTIVITY AND COSTS OF PROCESSOR WORKING IN STANDS OF Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Carlos Tarnowski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a time study was conducted with the objective of adjusting equations to estimate the time of activities, productivity, operational costs and the production of the processor used in a harvest operation of stands of Eucalyptus grandis in plain topography in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The operational cycle of the processor consisted of the time spent to process a tree, and was divided in to stages, which were assessed using the methotodology of single activity times. The sampling unit was the operational cycle of the machine. The statistical analysis was based on regression analysis considering the selection procedure “stepwise”. With the adjusted equations it was possible to estimate the productivity of the machine taking into account the of tree diameter. Considering an operational efficiency of 70 % under the circumstances of the study, the productivity of the processor was 25,8 m3 cc/h, the operational costs 47,90 US$/h and the production costs 1,86 US$/m3 cc. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that the time of tree processing has varied directly according to the diameter increase diameter; the preparation time, contrary to the processing time, only shows a weak correlation with tree diameter; productivity of the processor is directly proportional to tree diameter, when expressed in volume and inversely proportional when expressed in tree number; the costs per cubic meter of wood processed varies inversely with of increased diameter; from the operational costs, fixed costs had the highest proportion followed by the variable costs, administrative costs and costs for manpower; the production costs of the processor decreased exponentially with increasing tree diameter.

  6. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J. (Iowa State)

    2013-09-24

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  7. PRODUÇÃO DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EM DIFERENTES INTENSIDADES DE DESBASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Mainardi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes intensidades de desbaste sobre a produção Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden implantado no ano de 1981, em espaçamento inicial de 3,0 x 2,0 metros, na região de Cachoeira do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudado com delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com duas repetições e quatro tratamentos: testemunha, sem desbastes, manutenção de 40%, 50% e 60% da área basal da testemunha, constando-se diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. A produção máxima (756,3 m3cc/ha foi obtida na testemunha, sem desbaste, que não diferiu estatísticamente de 639,6 m3cc/ha, obtido no tratamento com manutenção de 60% da área basal da testemunha, porém diferiu dos tratamentos com manutenção de 50% e 40% da área basal da testemunha. A redução da área basal incrementou a concentração das freqüências nas maiores classes de diâmetro, deslocando a distribuição para a direita, porém com perdas expressivas de produção total e acréscimo significativo no diâmetro. A manutenção de 60% da área basal da testemunha permitiu as menores perdas de produção, cerca de 15,4%, e um ganho de 6,4cm ou 23,9% em incremento diamétrico das árvores remanescentes quando comparado com a testemunha, sem desbaste.

  8. Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Leonardo; Jung, Thomas; Evoli, Maria; Pane, Antonella; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Van Tri, Mai; Wright, Sandra; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Olsson, Christer; Faedda, Roberto; Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with ‘King’ mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on ‘Carrizo’ citrange (C. sinensis ‘Washington Navel’ x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity. PMID:28208159

  9. COMBINATION OF TWO NON-INDUSTRIAL METHODS ON THE PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT OF Eucalyptus grandis FENCE POSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares Modes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the effect of the combination of two non-industrial methods to treat fence posts of Eucalyptus grandis, on the penetration and retention of water borne preservative. Thus, four fences with 2.20 m in length were treated by replacement of sap and simple diffusion alone and other four ones have combined the two techniques, with water-borne CCB 50% preservative at a concentration of 3.5%. After each treatment condition, the pieces were seasoned in the shade for 30 days. Disks were taken at 0.60 and 1.60 m from the base of the pieces which had one side sanded for analysis of the penetration of the preservative using a solution of chrome azurol S. From the same parts, test specimens were also manufactured in diametrically opposed positions with dimensions of approximately 3.0 x 2.0 x 2.5 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal to analyze the retention of the element copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method and boron by visible spectrophotometry with azomethine-H, also known as colorimetry. The retention values obtained were compared with the minimum recommended by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards – ABNT for water borne preservatives which is 6.5 kg of active ingredients per m³ of wood. The penetration achieved by the combined method was considered sufficient for non-industrial treatment, while the retention values were higher than the retention of at least 6.5 kg of active ingredients / m³ of treated wood in all positions and portions evaluated.

  10. Nutrient concentration age dynamics of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Moya, J.; Murillo, R.; Portuguez, E.; Fallas, J. L.; Rios, V.; Kottman, F.; Verjans, J. M.; Mata, R.; Alvarado, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study. Appropriate knowledge regarding teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nutrition is required for a better management of the plantations to attain high productivity and sustainability. This study aims to answer the following questions: How can it be determined if a teak tree suffers a nutrient deficiency before it shows symptoms? Are nutrient concentration decreases in older trees associated with age-related declines in forest productivity? Area of study. Costa Rica and Panama. Material and Methods. Nutrient concentration in different tree tissues (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured at different ages using false-time-series in 28 teak plantations Research highlights. Foliar N concentration decreases from 2.28 in year 1 to 1.76% in year 19. Foliar Mg concentration increases from 0.23 in year 1 to 0.34% in year 19. The foliar concentrations of the other nutrients are assumed to be constant with tree age: 1.33% Ca, 0.88% K, 0.16% P, 0.12% S, 130 mg kg{sup -}1 Fe, 43 mg kg{sup -}1 Mn, 11 mg kg{sup -}1 Cu, 32 mg kg{sup -}1 Zn and 20 mg kg{sup -}1 B. The nutrient concentration values showed can be taken as a reference to evaluate the nutritional status of similar teak plantations in the region. The concentrations of K, Mg and N could be associated with declines in teak plantation productivity as the plantation becomes older. Whether age-related changes in nutrient concentrations are a cause or a consequence of age-related declines in productivity is an issue for future research with the aim of achieving higher growth rates throughout the rotation period. (Author) 35 refs.

  11. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 Å resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains (α, β, and γ). The class I active site is within the C-terminal α domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal γ and β domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg2+ complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This “loop-in” conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the “loop-out” conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities. PMID:22219188

  12. Influence of 6-Benzyladenine and gelling agent on the reduction of hyperhydricity in Tectona grandis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Quiala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Running title: Controlling hyperhydricity in teakInfluencia de la 6-Bencilaminopurina y el agente gelificante en la reducción de la hiperhidricidad en Tectona grandis L. Abstract:  The influence of different factors on shoot proliferation and the occurrence of hyperhydricity in teak (Tectona grandis L. have been studied. Four concentrations of BA (2.22, 4.44, 6.66 and 8.88 µM and a control treatment with 0 BA were examined. Aiming at reducing the costs during commercial propagation by using gelrite in stead of agar, the use of both gelling agent in the proliferation and hyperhydricity was tested. In order to evaluate if hyperhydricity can be reduced by increasing the gelrite concentration in the culture medium, three concentrations (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g l-1 were tested in combination with 4.44 µM BA.  The proliferation and occurrence of hyperhydricity during 21 successive subcultures were evaluated. The highest proliferation was achieved in the treatments with 6.66 or 8.88 µM BA. They yielded 5.22 and 5.56 shoots/explant, respectively. But also, the highest percent of hyperhydric shoots was achieved in this treatment. Gelrite resulted in a higher proliferation, but also an almost two times higher hyperhydricity as compared to agar-solidified media. Satisfactory reduction in hyperhydricity (18% was achieved with 3.0 g l-1 gelrite. However, the successive subcultures onto proliferation in this treatment favored hyperhydricity compromising shoot quality and its competence to proliferate. In vitro teak plants were ex vitro rooted and then transferred to greenhouse conditions for acclimatization; ten weeks after transfer they were ready for field plantation.Key words: cytokinin; forestry; micropropagation; morpho-physiological disorder; teakAbbreviations: BA- 6-Benzyladenine, MS- Murashige and Skoog basal medium, IBA- Indole-3-butyric acid, ANA-Naphtalene acetic acidResumen: Se estudió la influencia de diferentes factores en la proliferaci

  13. Morphology of salivary gland and distribution of dopamine and serotonin on red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, A. S. Nurul; Wahida, O. Nurul; Shafinaz, M. N. Norefrina; Idris, A. G.

    2013-11-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) is insect pest to plants of the family Palmaceae. No study has been reported on the digestive mechanism of Red Palm Weevil (RPW). Salivary glands are responsible in the feeding regulation of insect while serotonin and dopamine play a significant role in the regulation of this gland. It is great to see the morphology of the salivary gland and how dopamine and serotonin possibly play their role in this gland. Two variation of RPW, striped and spotted RPW were chosen. The morphology of the gland of both RPW variants examined by using light microscopy was found to be a tubular type. Immunohistochemical analysis conducted showed that serotonin and dopamine in both variations did not innervate the glands suggesting they are not act as neurotransmitter. However, it can be detected on few areas within the glands. This suggests that serotonin and dopamine may act as a hormone because there is no evidence on the nerve fibers. The role of these biogenic amines in the salivary gland of RPW needs further investigation. Hopefully the data would help in understanding the mechanism of salivary glands control by biogenic amines in RPW specifically and insects with sucking mouthpart generally.

  14. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Ashley E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; Clark, Stacy L.; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Reynolds, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  15. Host plant phenology affects performance of an invasive weevil, Phyllobius oblongus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in a northern hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, David R; Jordan, Michelle S; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2010-10-01

    We investigated how host plant phenology and plant species affected longevity, reproduction, and feeding behavior of an invasive weevil. Phyllobius oblongus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is common in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes Region. Adults emerge in spring, feed on foliage of woody understory plants, and oviposit in the soil. Preliminary data indicate that adults often feed on sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marshall, foliage early in the season, then feed on other species such as raspberry, Rubus spp. Whether this behavior reflects temporal changes in the quality of A. saccharum tissue or merely subsequent availability of later-season plants is unknown. We tested adult P. oblongus in laboratory assays using young (newly flushed) sugar maple foliage, old (2-3 wk postflush) sugar maple foliage, and raspberry foliage. Raspberry has indeterminate growth, thus always has young foliage available for herbivores. Survival, oviposition, and leaf consumption were recorded. In performance assays under no-choice conditions, mated pairs were provided one type of host foliage for the duration of their lives. In behavioral choice tests, all three host plants were provided simultaneously and leaf area consumption was compared. Adults survived longer on and consumed greater amounts of young maple and raspberry foliage than old maple foliage. P. oblongus preferred young maple foliage to old maple foliage early in the season, however, later in the growing season weevils showed less pronounced feeding preferences. These results suggest how leaf phenology, plant species composition, and feeding plasticity in host utilization may interact to affect P. oblongus population dynamics.

  16. Assessing the virulence of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the pine-infesting weevils to scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jankowiak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The pine-infesting weevils are known to be effective vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi. To understand more about fungal virulence of these fungi, inoculation studies were conducted on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.. Two-year-old seedlings were wound-inoculated with one of eleven ophiostomatoid fungi associated with pine-infesting weevils. After 11 weeks, a darkened lesion, extending from the point of inoculation, was observed in all species, except for Ophiostoma cf. abietinum Marm. & Butin, Ophiostoma quercus (Georgev. Nannf., and Sporothrix inflata de Hoog. Seedling mortality was observed in seedlings inoculated with Leptographium truncatum (M.J. Wingf. & Marasas M.J. Wingf., Leptographium lundbergii Lagerb. & Melin, Leptographium procerum (W.B. Kendr. M.J. Wingf., Grosmannia radiaticola (J.J. Kim, Seifert & G.H. Kim Zipfel, Z.W. de Beer & M.J. Wingf., Ophiostoma floccosum Math.-Käärik, Ophiostoma minus (Hedgc. Syd. & P. Syd., and Ophiostoma piliferum (Fr. Syd. & P. Syd. Ophiostoma minus and L. truncatum caused the largest lesions and sapwood blue-stain in Scots pine. Grosmannia radiaticola, Ophiostoma piceae (Münch Syd. & P. Syd., O. floccosum, O. piliferum, L. lundbergii,and L. procerum produced significantly smaller lesions and sapwood blue-stain than O. minus and L. truncatum, while O. cf. abietinum, O. quercus and S. inflata did not cause any lesions.

  17. Larval competition in weevils Revena rubiginosa (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) preying on seeds of the palm Syagrus romanzoffiana (Arecaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Costa, Cecília P.; Knogge, Christoph

    2005-06-01

    Inter- and intraspecific local resource competition may lead to the selection of specific adaptive individual characteristics to overcome interference competition. A highly selective scenario is predictable for interference competition among seed preying weevil larvae that live in and feed upon a single host seed. This scenario is found in Syagrus romanzoffiana palm seeds which are predated by Revena rubiginosa (Curculionidae) larvae. Although multiple infestation of one seed by weevil larvae can occur, invariably only one individual survives and develops in each host seed. A strong competition between the first instar larvae in a restricted window of host fruit development stages leads to physical interactions of conspecifics by ovicide or direct fighting using falcate mandibles. The occurrence of this type of mandible is synchronized with fruit development and restricted to instars with probable competition, as infestation occurs only while the endocarp is soft. Only after lignification of the endocarp the larva changes into the next instar. Mandibles of subsequent instars differ markedly from those of the first instar. The new mandibles can scrape the solid endosperm but are unable to perforate and kill conspecifics. These findings give strong evidence for the selective pressure of intraspecific competition, where special behaviour, mandible morphology and synchronization of its changes with the seed development contribute to individual benefit that involves the killing of conspecifics, since one host seed can only maintain a single larva throughout its complete development.

  18. Assessment of Insecticidal Efficacy of Diatomaceous Earth and Powders of Common Lavender and Field Horsetail against Bean Weevil Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohinc, T; Vayias, B; Bartol, T; Trdan, S

    2013-12-01

    In the search for an effective and sustainable control method against the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), an important insect pest affecting stored common beans and other legumes, three different powders were tested against adult been weevils under laboratory conditions. The three powders were diatomaceous earth (DE) (commercial product SilicoSec®), common lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) powder and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense) powder. The substances were tested at five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C), two relative humidity levels (RH) (55 and 75%), and four concentrations (100, 300, 500, and 900 ppm). The mortality of adults was measured after the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 7th days of exposure. The efficacy of the powders increased with the temperature, whereas in general, RH did not have a significant effect on the adults' survival. According to common practice of storing common beans, we recommend the use of DE against the pest in question, as this inert powder showed the highest efficacy at lower temperatures and concentrations. Concerning the wider use of common lavender and field horsetail powders, we suggest studying their combined use with other environmentally friendly methods with the aim of achieving the highest synergistic effect possible.

  19. 香蕉根颈象甲研究进展%Advance in Banana Weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus(Germar)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱海燕; 刘奎; 谢艺贤; 张欣

    2011-01-01

    香蕉根颈象甲是危害香蕉的重要害虫,在部分地区的留芽蕉园内发生较为严重.本文对国内外香蕉根颈象甲的生物学特性、香蕉根颈象甲的农业防治、化学防治、信息化合物防治及生物防治方面的研究进行了综述,并对其前景进行讨论,旨在为国内开展香蕉根颈象甲的研究和在生产中的防治提供参考.%The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar), is regarded as an important insect pest of banana and plantain, and in some ratoon crops it's damage is more serious. The research achievements about biological characteristics, integrated management which included cultural control, chemical control, infochemicals control and biological control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar)were summarized, and the future research work was also discussed. The aim was to offer reference for the national research and the integrated management about the banana weevil.

  20. Sunflower stem weevil and its larval parasitoids in native sunflowers: is parasitoid abundance and diversity greater in the U.S. Southwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Paul J; Charlet, Laurence D; Seiler, Gerald J

    2011-02-01

    Classical biological control programs often target a pest's region of origin as a likely source for new biological control agents. Here, we use this approach to search for biological control agents of the sunflower stem weevil (Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte), an economically important pest of commercial sunflower. We conducted surveys of weevil natural enemy diversity and abundance across a transect running from the northern Great Plains to the southwestern U.S. (the presumed area of endemism of annual sunflower species in the genus Helianthus). Accordingly, natural enemy diversity and abundance were expected to be greater in the southwestern U.S. C. adspersus and their larval parasitoids were collected from stems of four native sunflower species (Helianthus annuus, H. nuttallii, H. pauciflorus, and H. petiolaris) from 147 sites across eight states. Native H. annuus constituted the majority of the sunflower populations. Mean weevil densities were significantly higher in sunflower stalks that were larger in diameter. Mean weevil densities within sites did not differ across the range of longitudes and latitudes sampled. After accounting for the effects of stalk diameter and location, weevil densities did not differ among the four sunflower species nor did they differ as a function of elevation. C. adspersus in H. annuus and H. petiolaris were attacked by seven species of parasitoids. No parasitoids were found attacking C. adspersus in H. nuttallii or H. pauciflorus stalks. C. adspersus were twice as likely to be attacked by a parasitoid when feeding on H. petiolaris than H. annuus. Furthermore, the likelihood that C. adspersus would be parasitized decreased with increasing elevation and increasing stem diameters. All parasitoid species have been previously reported attacking C. adspersus larvae in cultivated sunflower. Species richness was less diverse in these collections than from previous studies of cultivated sunflower. Our findings suggest that the species

  1. MICOBIOTA ASSOCIADA À MADEIRA SERRADA DE Eucalyptus grandis HILL EX MAIDEN DURANTE A SECAGEM AO AR LIVRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi o de acompanhar a secagem ao ar livre da madeira serrada de Eucalyptus grandis conduzida na região de Lavras, MG e identificar a micobiota associada à madeira em diversas fases da secagem. As tábuas foram cortadas de oito toras de 3,0 m de comprimento, oriundas de três árvores, com 27 anos de idade, plantadas em área experimental da UFLA. Dos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a secagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis ao ar livre, iniciada em janeiro, consumiu 158 dias até atingir umidade próxima a 12,5%. A curva de secagem foi representada por uma equação logarítmica com coeficiente de determinação (R2 igual a 98,3%. Os fungos causadores de bolores superficiais e de manchas tiveram maior ocorrência no início da secagem. As mais altas freqüências de fungos, verificadas no início da secagem, foram observadas para Penicillium spp. e Pestalotiopsis sp. O fungo Lentinus lepideus ocorreu com maior freqüência no final da secagem.

  2. Curva Característica de Secagem da Madeira de Tectona grandis e Acacia mangium ao Ar Livre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Leite Braz

    Full Text Available A secagem natural é uma alternativa que pode ser empregada como pré-secagem ou secagem definitiva para diversas madeiras com baixo custo e condições simples de trabalho. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento das curvas características de secagem ao ar livre de tábuas de Acacia mangium e Tectona grandis. Árvores de cada espécie com idade de 15 anos foram abatidas, com toras de aproximadamente 3 m. Essas foram desdobradas utilizando-se o sistema de cortes tangenciais para a obtenção das tábuas de 3,0 cm de espessura. Instalada a pilha de madeira para a secagem, a umidade inicial das amostras foi determinada e o acompanhamento foi realizado por meio de pesagens periódicas das amostras de controle. Observou-se que nas condições ambientais expostas, a madeira de Acacia mangium secou mais lentamente ao ar livre que a madeira de Tectona grandis. Recomenda-se a análise da curva de secagem para cada espécie separadamente.

  3. Contenido de los nutrientes básicos en Catolaccus grandis Burks criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAUJO LÚCIA HELENA AVELINO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los niveles de carbohidratos, proteínas solubles y aminoácidos libres de larvas, pupas hembras y adultos hembras de Catolaccus grandis (Burks (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodón envenenadas por hembras del parasitoide y por larvas de primer instar del parasitoide. Esto estudio fue conducido en la Unidade de Investigación de Control Biologico de Plagas del Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos de la América, en Weslaco, Texas. Las 20 muestras de cada uno de los tres estados de desarrollo: tercer instar larval, pupas hembra y adultos hembra del parasitoide C. grandis, fueron separadas y pesadas individualmente y se cuantió el contenido de carbohidratos totales, proteínas solubles totales y aminoácidos libres criados en diferentes sustratos. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la existencia de patrones metabólicos significativamente distintos de estos nutrientes básicos.

  4. A four-domain Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from Solen grandis is implicated in immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiumei; Yang, Jialong; Yang, Jianmin; Liu, Xiangquan; Liu, Meijun; Yang, Dinglong; Xu, Jie; Hu, Xiaoke

    2012-12-01

    Serine proteinase inhibitor (SPI) serves as a negative regulator in immune signal pathway by restraining the activities of serine proteinase (SP) and plays an essential role in the innate immunity. In the present study, a Kunitz-type SPI was identified from the mollusk razor clam Solen grandis (designated as SgKunitz). The full-length cDNA of SgKunitz was of 1284 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 768 bp. The ORF encoded four Kunitz domains, and their amino acids were well conserved when compared with those in other Kunitz-type SPIs, especially the six cysteines involved in forming of three disulfide bridges in each domain. In addition, the tertiary structure of all the four domains adopted a typical model of Kunitz-type SPI family, indicating SgKunitz was a new member of Kunitz-type SPI superfamily. The mRNA transcripts of SgKunitz were detected in all tested tissues of razor clam, including muscle, mantle, gonad, gill, hepatopancreas and hemocytes, and with the highest expression level in gill. When the razor clams were stimulated by LPS, PGN or β-1, 3-glucan, the expression level of SgKunitz mRNA in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated (P inhibitor of SP involving in the immune response of S. grandis, and provided helpful evidences to understand the regulation mechanism of immune signal pathway in mollusk.

  5. Optimizing Culture System of Ri T-DNA Transformed Roots for Citrus grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-hong; SUN Zhong-hai; TONG Rui-jian

    2006-01-01

    Genetic transformation experiments of the different explants from Citrus grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes were carried out in darkness or in light. The optimizing culture system of Ri T-DNA transformed roots for C. grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You was constructed as follows: After the ventral wounded striations on the single activation cotyledon were inoculated by A. rhizogenes A4 (logarithmic period), they were cocultured at (25 ± 2)℃ in darkness for 25-30 days; some transformed roots were generated from wounded striations of most cotyledons. The genetically transformed ratio is (83 ± 11)%. Axenic Ri T-DNA transformed roots (hairy roots) were harvested after five subcultures. Explants were activated on MT medium. The MS medium was used for subculture of transformed roots. Mass Ri T-DNA transformed roots in which the hormone was produced independently were harvested from this optimizing culture system. White, fresh Ri T-DNA transformed roots were (1.14 ± 0.07) cm long, (0.73 ± 0.04) mm wide, and the growth direction of transformed roots was negative geotropism.

  6. Genome scans for divergent selection in natural populations of the widespread hardwood species Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) using microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhijiao; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Fagen; Weng, Qijie; Zhou, Chanpin; Li, Mei; Li, Jie; Huang, Huanhua; Mo, Xiaoyong; Gan, Siming

    2016-01-01

    Identification of loci or genes under natural selection is important for both understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation and practical applications, and genome scans provide a powerful means for such identification purposes. In this study, genome-wide simple sequence repeats markers (SSRs) were used to scan for molecular footprints of divergent selection in Eucalyptus grandis, a hardwood species occurring widely in costal areas from 32° S to 16° S in Australia. High population diversity levels and weak population structure were detected with putatively neutral genomic SSRs. Using three FST outlier detection methods, a total of 58 outlying SSRs were collectively identified as loci under divergent selection against three non-correlated climatic variables, namely, mean annual temperature, isothermality and annual precipitation. Using a spatial analysis method, nine significant associations were revealed between FST outlier allele frequencies and climatic variables, involving seven alleles from five SSR loci. Of the five significant SSRs, two (EUCeSSR1044 and Embra394) contained alleles of putative genes with known functional importance for response to climatic factors. Our study presents critical information on the population diversity and structure of the important woody species E. grandis and provides insight into the adaptive responses of perennial trees to climatic variations. PMID:27748400

  7. α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Phenolic Extracts from Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of different extracts and fractions from Eucalyptus. grandis × urophylla bark (EB against α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme activities. The ethyl acetate extract (EB-E showed the highest activity among others. Seven fractions were derived from EB-E; among them EB-E-7 showed the highest significant inhibition of both enzymes, with IC50 of 1.40±0.18 and 1.72±0.12 μg/mL, respectively. EB-E and its active fraction EB-E-7 showed highest contents of total phenolics: 178.79±4.68 and 920.4±5.46 mg GAEag−1, respectively. HPLC-MS analysis of EB-E-7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid, quercetin-glucuronide, quercetin-3-α-rhamnopyranoside, and ellagic acid rhamnoside as major compounds, together with smaller concentrations of myricetin-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin-hexoside, myricetin-3-α-arabinofuranoside, and isorhamnetin. Therefore, the phenolic compounds from Eucalyptus grandis × E. urograndis bark potently inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, having potential in prevention of hyperglycemia.

  8. In vivo antitussive activity of Coccinia grandis against irritant aerosol and sulfur dioxide-induced cough model in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakti Prasad Pattanayak and Priyashree Sunita

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae has extensively used to get relief from asthma and cough by the indigenous people of India. The antitussive effect of aerosols of two different concentrations (2.5%, 5% w/v of methanol extract of C. grandis fruits were tested by counting the numbers of coughs produced due to aerosols of citric acid, 10 min after exposing the male guinea pigs to aerosols of test solutions for 7 min. In another set of experiment methanol extract was investigated for its therapeutic efficacy on a cough model induced by sulfur dioxide gas in mice. The results showed significant reduction of cough number obtained in the presence of both concentrations of methanol extract as that of the prototype antitussive agent codeine phosphate. Also, methanol extract exhibited significant antitussive effect at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, per orally by inhibiting the cough by 20.57, 33.73 and 56.71% within 90 min of performing the experiment respectively.

  9. 桉树枝瘿姬小蜂危害巨园桉的研究%Study on Leptocybe invasa's Hazard to Eucalyptus grandis × E.tereticonis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江; 王缉健; 刘宇; 罗基同; 蒋金培; 吴耀军

    2010-01-01

    桉树枝瘿姬小蜂(Leptocybe invasa Fish er & La salle)在巨园桉(E.grandis×E.tereticornis)DH201-2不同生长阶段和不同生长高度均能侵入定居,并产生大量虫瘿,对巨园桉危害严重.

  10. Microarray-based method for the parallel analysis of genotypes and expression profiles of wood-forming tissues in Eucalyptus grandis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available of Eucalyptus grandis planting stock that exhibit preferred wood qualities is thus a priority of the South African forestry industry. The researchers used microarray-based DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis in combination with expression...

  11. Support Vector Machine Based Red Palm Weevil (Rynchophorus Ferrugineous, Olivier Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam M. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Red palm weevil (Rynchophorus Ferrugineous, Oliveir is an insect which threatens the existence of palm trees. The proposed research is to develop a RPW identification system using Support Vector Machine method. The problem is to extract image features from an image and using SVM to find out the existence of RPW in an image. Approach: Images are snapped and image processing techniques of Regional Properties and Zernike Moments are used to extract different features of an image. The obtained features are fed into the SVM based system individually as well as in combination. The database used to train and test the system includes 326 RPW and 93 other insect images. The input data from database is selected randomly and fed into the system in three steps i.e., 25, 50 and 75% while remaining database is used for testing purpose. In SVM, polynomial kernel function and Radial Basis Function are used for training. Each experiment is repeated 10 times and the average results are used for analysis. Results: The optimal results are obtained by using Radial Basis Function in SVM at lower values of sigma σ while Polynomial kernel function is not successful in returning adequate results. Further detailed analysis of results for σ value of 10 and 15 revealed that proposed system works well with large training data and with inputs obtained by Regional Properties. The optimal value of σ for proposed system is found to be 10 when training data ratio is 50%. The training time for proposed system depends on size of database and is found to be 0.025 sec per image while time consumed by proposed system for identification of RPW in an image is found to be 15 milli sec. The proposed systems success in identification of RPW and other insect is found to be 97 and 93% respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that SVM based system using Radial Basis Function having σ value of 10 is optimal in identifying RPW from an image. The optimal input

  12. Responses of plant biomass, photosynthesis and lipid peroxidation to warming and precipitation change in two dominant species (Stipa grandis and Leymus chinensis) from North China Grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiliang; Wang, Yuhui; Lv, Xiaomin

    2016-03-01

    Influential factors of global change affect plant carbon uptake and biomass simultaneously. Although the effects from warming and precipitation change have been extensive studied separately, the responses of plant biomass, photosynthesis, and lipid peroxidation to the interaction of these factors are still not fully understood. In this study, we examined the physiological responses of two dominant plant species from grasslands of northern China with different functional traits to combinations of five simulated warming patterns and five simulated precipitation patterns in environment-controlled chambers. Our results showed that the biomass, net CO 2 assimilation rate (P n), maximal efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry (F v/F m), and chlorophyll content (Chl) of Stipa grandis and Leymus chinensis were enhanced by moderate warming and plus precipitation, but they declined drastically with high temperature and drought. High temperature and drought also led to significant malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, which had a negative correlation with leaf biomass. The lower level of lipid peroxidation in leaves of S. grandis suggests that this species is better protected from oxidative damage under heat stress, drought stress and their interactive conditions than L. chinensis. Using the subordinate function values method, we found S. grandis to be more sensitive to climate change than L. chinensis and the gross biomass and root biomass of S. grandis and the leaf biomass of L. chinensis were most sensitive to climate change. Furthermore, the P n of both S. grandis and L. chinensis had a significant linear relationship with F v/F m and Chl, indicating that carbon assimilation may be caused by nonstomatal limitations.

  13. Systematics and evolution of the Meriones shawii/grandis complex (Rodentia, Gerbillinae) during the Late Quaternary in northwestern Africa: Exploring the role of environmental and anthropogenic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Cornette, Raphaël; Lalis, Aude; Nicolas, Violaine; Cucchi, Thomas; Denys, Christiane

    2017-05-01

    Rodents of the Meriones shawii/grandis complex have been attested to in North Africa since the Middle Pleistocene and are abundant in archaeological sites. Today, they are widely spread and represent a major pest to local human populations. This complex, therefore, represents an accurate model for investigating the roles of climate change and human impact in shaping Quaternary faunal diversity and distribution. Many gray areas still exist regarding the systematics, ecology and geographical distribution of this complex, for both present and past populations. The purpose of this study is to compare modern genotyped and fossil Meriones specimens in order to 1) clarify the current systematics and distribution of the Meriones populations of the shawii/grandis complex, 2) document the taxonomic diversity in fossil Meriones from northwestern Africa, and 3) track their phenotypic and biogeographic evolution through time. To answer these questions we used geometric morphometrics on skulls (landmarks) and first upper molars (landmarks and sliding landmarks). We evidenced the existence of two morpho-groups within the M. shawii/grandis complex, with a clear geographic pattern (M. grandis in Morocco vs. M. shawii in Algeria and Tunisia). Currently only one morpho-group, attributed to M. grandis, seems to exist in Morocco, with a small overlap with M. shawii in the most eastern part of the country. However, according to fossil data, M. shawii was also present in Atlantic Morocco during the Late Pleistocene. We have also highlighted the impact of Holocene climate change and habitat anthropization on this arid adapted group. During the Middle Holocene, a major climatic event (last interglacial optimum) seems to have induced a demographic collapse in Moroccan populations and the disappearance of the shawii clade from Morocco (except in the most eastern areas). Both species then re-expanded, benefitting from the increasing aridity and the new ecological niche driven by agriculture

  14. Trophic discrimination factor of nitrogen isotopes within amino acids in the dobsonfly Protohermes grandis (Megaloptera: Corydalidae) larvae in a controlled feeding experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Naoto F; Hayashi, Fumio; Sasaki, Yoko; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2017-03-01

    The trophic discrimination factor (TDF) of nitrogen isotopes ((15)N/(14)N) within amino acids, between a stream-dwelling dobsonfly larva (Protohermes grandis: Megaloptera; Corydalidae) and its diet (chironomid larvae), was determined in controlled feeding experiments. Last-instar larvae of P. grandis were collected from the Yozawa-gawa River, central Japan, and reared in the laboratory. After fed to satiation for 1 month, one group of larvae was each fed one living chironomid larva per day for 4 weeks, while a second group was starved for 8 weeks. The larvae were harvested at intervals and the nitrogen isotopic composition of glutamic acid (δ(15)NGlu) and phenylalanine (δ(15)NPhe) were determined to calculate TDF. The mean TDF of satiated and starved larvae were 7.1‰ ± 0.5‰ (n = 3) and 7.3‰ ± 0.5‰ (n = 5), respectively. Thus, the TDF for P. grandis larvae in this study was similar to that reported for other arthropods (approximately 7‰) and was independent of satiation or starvation. A previous study of wild P. grandis larvae, based on the δ(15)NGlu and δ(15)NPhe values, estimated its trophic position (TP) as approximately 2.0 ± 0.1 (n = 5), a low value close to that of algivores, although they are generally characterized as carnivores (usually accepted as TP ≥ 3). The TDF for P. grandis larvae suggests that their low TPs in nature were caused by incorporation of vascular plant-derived amino acids (with a different δ(15)N profile from that of algae) and not by an unusually low TDF or by the effects of the satiation/starvation on amino acid metabolism.

  15. Produção de Eucalyptus grandis Hhill ex Maiden em diferentes intensidades de desbaste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O efeito de diferentes intensidades de desbaste sobre a produção Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden implantado no ano de 1981, em espaçamento inicial  de 3,0 x 2,0 metros, na região de Cachoeira do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudado com delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com duas repetições e quatro tratamentos: testemunha, sem desbastes, manutenção de 40%, 50% e 60% da área basal da testemunha, constando-se diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. A produção máxima (756,3 m3cc/ha foi obtida na testemunha, sem desbaste, que não diferiu estatísticamente de 639,6 m3cc/ha, obtido no tratamento com manutenção de 60% da área basal da testemunha, porém diferiu dos tratamentos com manutenção de 50% e 40% da área basal da testemunha. A redução da área basal incrementou a concentração das freqüências nas maiores classes de diâmetro, deslocando a distribuição para a direita, porém com perdas expressivas de produção total e acréscimo significativo no diâmetro. A manutenção de 60% da área basal da testemunha permitiu as menores perdas de produção, cerca de 15,4%, e um ganho de 6,4cm ou 23,9% em  incremento  diamétrico  das  árvores  remanescentes quando comparado com a testemunha, sem desbaste.

  16. [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelidae: Oligochaeta) soil quality indicator in Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) sites with slash and burn management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Sheila; Huerta, Esperanza; Geissen, Violette; Mendoza, Manuel; Godoy, Roberto; Jarquín, Aarón

    2012-12-01

    Soil burning has been used in agricultural and forestry systems as a fundamental technique to clean the land and add some nutrients to the soil. In addition, earthworms are known to promote various soil functions since they contribute to aeration and organic matter and nutrients availability to other soil organisms. This study evaluated the effects of tropical forest crops management with presence-absence of Eucalyptus grandis on earthworm population in Huimanquillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Three sites (average area of 1-1.5ha each) with different management conditions were considered for soil and earthworm sampling (two depths and six replicates): without vegetation (SV) and recent slash-burned (38 days), forest crops of five years of production of E. grandis (Euc), and secondary vegetation of 15 years (Acah). Soil physico-chemical properties (apparent density, humidity, texture, pH, Ntot, OM, P, K, cationic capacity) were also evaluated, and earthworms were collected at the end of the rainy season (august-october 2007). We found that the sites soil is an acrisol acid, with pH 3.0-4.5 in the first 30cm depth. Organic matter content (OM) and total nitrogen (Ntot) in the recently burned sites were significantly lower (6-8% y 0.19-0.22%, respectively) than in sites with vegetation (OM=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%). Only one species (P. corethrurus) was found in all the sampled areas, where most of the individuals were at juvenile stage (80%). The highest densities and biomass were found in Euc. treatment (166.4ind/m2 y 36.8g/m2) followed by Acah (138.7ind/m2 y 19.1g/m2 respectively), while the SV treatment showed of about an 80% reduced earthworm populations when compared to other treatments. Even though 15 years have passed over the secondary vegetation (Acah) still some perturbations were observed as the low abundance of the oligochaeta group. We concluded that the management used to culture E. grandis produces negative effects over the abundance and diversity of earthworms

  17. Production and carbon allocation in monocultures and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvellon, Yann; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Epron, Daniel; Le Maire, Guerric; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1 : 1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5 kg DM m(-2)), intermediate in MS (12.2 kg DM m(-2)) and highest in E100 (13.9 kg DM m(-2)). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21% lower growth (ΔB(w)) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23% lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ΔB(w)/ANPP and ΔB(w)/GPP. In contrast, the 28% lower ΔB(w) in MS than in E100 was explained both by

  18. Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produção de celulose em plantações clonais de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Gava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at the Western Plateau of the State of São Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very clayey were found. At each site, three experimental plots were allocated with 100 trees each. Trees representative of each class frequency of diameter at breast height were harvested. Their biomass and wood components were characterized. The wood productivity and quality was affected by physical attributes of soil, mainly clay content, which is directly related to the amount of available water. Basic wood density did not changed at different soil types. Total lignin content decreased and holocellulose content exponentially increased as soil clay content increased (until about 350 to 400 g kg-1 of clay. The wood extractives content was not affected by soil attributes. Screened cellulose yield exponentially increased with soil clay content.Os atributos edáficos podem afetar a qualidade da madeira de eucalipto, o que pode resultar em considerável efeito sobre a produção de celulose. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atributos físicos e químicos do solo na qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis usada para polpação celulósica. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas no planalto ocidental do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, plantadas com um mesmo clone de Eucalyptus grandis, com idades variando entre 6,5 e 7,0 anos de idade. Quatro classes de solo, com textura arenosa a muito argilosa, foram encontradas. Em cada uma das cinco áreas, foram demarcadas, aleatoriamente, 3 parcelas com 100 plantas cada. Em cada parcela, foram colhidas

  19. Organogenesis and transient genetic transformation of the hybrid Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla Organogênese e transformação genética transiente do híbrido Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Bomfim de Alcantara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla presents high levels of productivity and potential for use in paper, cellulose and fiber industries. The bud organogenesis from leaf explants of two clones of E. grandis × E. urophylla was studied in order to verify the effect of several factors: subculture duration on multiplication medium, type of explants, entire and half leaves: basal and apical portions, and duration of the culture on a regeneration medium. Differences in organogenic capacity of the two clones tested were observed. The explant most recommended for organogenesis is the basal section of the leaf collected from shoot clusters subcultured every 17 days. Moreover, the leaf explants must be transferred to a fresh bud induction medium every five days. This study also aimed at evaluating factors affecting the genetic transformation of leaf explants with the uidA gene, via co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, such as the pre-culture of the explants on a specific medium, the duration of their co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone to the culture media. The best conditions for the expression of the uidA gene were two days of pre-culture of the leaf tissues, three days of co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone in pre- and co-culture media.O híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla apresenta alta produtividade e potencial para indústrias de papel, celulose e fibras. A organogênese de explantes foliares de dois clones de E. grandis × E. urophylla foi estudada para verificar fatores como tempo de repicagem das plântulas matrizes em meio de multiplicação; tipo de explantes, folhas inteiras e de meias-folhas (porções basais e apicais e dos dias que os explantes foliares permaneceram em meio de regeneração. Foram observadas diferenças na capacidade organogênica dos dois clones testados. A parte basal das folhas, coletadas de brotações repicadas a cada 17

  20. Behavior of Eucalyptus grandis and E. cloeziana seedlings grown in arsenic-contaminated soil Comportamento de mudas de E. grandis E. eucalyptus cloeziana cultivadas em solo contaminado por arsênio

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    Roseli Freire Melo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic has been considered the most poisonous inorganic soil pollutant to living creatures. For this reason, the interest in phytoremediation species has been increasing in the last years. Particularly for the State of Minas Gerais, where areas of former mining activities are prone to the occurrence of acid drainage, the demand is great for suitable species to be used in the revegetation and "cleaning" of As-polluted areas. This study was carried out to evaluate the potential of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill Maiden and E. cloeziana F. Muell, for phytoremediation of As-polluted soils. Soil samples were incubated for a period of 15 days with different As (Na2HAsO4 doses (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg dm-3. After 30 days of exposure the basal leaves of E. cloeziana plants exhibited purple spots with interveinal chlorosis, followed by necrosis and death of the apical bud at the 400 mg dm-3 dose. Increasing As doses in the soil reduced root and shoot dry matter, plant height and diameter in both species, although the reduction was more pronounced in E. cloeziana plants. In both species, As concentrations were highest in the root system; the highest root concentration was found in E. cloeziana plants (305.7 mg kg-1 resulting from a dose of 400 mg dm-3. The highest As accumulation was observed in E. grandis plants, which was confirmed as a species with potential for As phytoextraction, tending to accumulate As in the root system and stem.O arsênio (As tem sido considerado o poluente inorgânico de solo mais tóxico para os seres vivos, razão pela qual o interesse por espécies indicadoras e fitorremediadoras tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Particularmente para o Estado de Minas Gerais, que apresenta áreas remanescentes de atividade mineradora sujeitas à ocorrência de drenagem ácida, existe grande demanda por espécies com potencial para serem utilizadas na revegetação e "limpeza" de substratos contaminados por esse metaloide. Este

  1. Estudo de algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis Study of some mechanical properties of wood in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A procura por madeiras oriundas de reflorestamentos destinadas à serraria é uma realidade já há muitos anos, principalmente aquelas das espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Visando buscar novas informações importantes para esse mercado, este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades e provenientes de talhadia simples e de reforma. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira desse híbrido apresenta boas características tecnológicas, destacando-se a segunda tora (a partir de 3 m com as melhores propriedades de flexão estática (Módulo de Elasticidade - MOE e Módulo de Ruptura - MOR e Compressão Axial das fibras. As árvores de maior idade (166 meses e que sofreram dois desbastes apresentaram as melhores propriedades de flexão estática e compressão axial.The search for wood originated from reforestations destined to sawmill has been observed for many years, mainly for the Eucalyptus species. Searching for information to assist this market, the aim of this study was to determine some mechanical properties of the wood from a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid, at two different ages and coming from coppice and reform. The results show that the wood of this clonal hybrid presents good technological characteristics and is the second best log (starting from 3,0 m, as to static bending properties (Module of Elasticity - MOE and Module of Rupture - MOR. The oldest trees (166 months - E2 which suffered two thinning presented the best results for the property of static bending and axial crushing (CA.

  2. Compósitos de partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, polipropileno e polietileno de alta e baixa densidades Composites of Eucalyptus grandis wood, polypropylene, and high and low-density polyethylene particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Gomes Milagres

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as propriedades de painéis fabricados com mistura de partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, polietileno de alta densidade, polietileno de baixa densidade e polipropileno. Empregaram-se duas formulações adesivas (uréia-formaldeído e uréia-formaldeído contendo 0,5% de epóxi. De modo geral, as propriedades dos painéis foram afetadas pela composição das partículas. Os painéis com melhores propriedades foram fabricados com 75% de partículas de madeira e 25% de partículas de polietileno de alta densidade. A adição de epóxi ao adesivo uréico aumentou os valores do módulo de ruptura, dureza Janka, e reduziu o inchamento, em espessura, de alguns painéis. As propriedades mecânicas da maioria dos painéis, exceto o módulo de elasticidade, ultrapassaram os valores mínimos estabelecidos na norma ANSI/A1-208/93.The objective of this work was to establish the properties of particleboards fabricated with blends of Eucalyptus grandis, low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene and polypropylene particles. Two adhesives formulations were used (urea-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde plus 0,5% of epoxy adhesive. Panel properties were affected by particle composition. Panels with best properties were fabricated with 75% of wood particles and 25% of high density polypropylene. The addition of epoxy to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved of the values of modulus of rupture, hardness and reduced the amount of thickness swelling. Except for the modulus of elasticity, board properties meet grade M-2 ANSI/A1-208/93 requirements.

  3. Spinosad Induces Antioxidative Response and Ultrastructure Changes in Males of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin A.; Alzahrani, Abdullah M.; Elmenshawy, Omar M.; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M.

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is of great concern worldwide, especially in the Middle East, where dates are a strategic crop. Despite their ecological hazard, insecticides remain the most effective means of control. A bioinsecticide of bacterial origin, spinosad is effective against several pests, and its efficacy against male R. ferrugineus was assessed in the present study. The antioxidative responses of key enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) to spinosad were investigated in the midgut and testes, and the effects of this insecticide on the cell ultrastructure of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes were also determined. The lethal concentration 50 of spinosad was measured at 58.8 ppm, and the insecticide inhibited the activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in the midgut. However, no significant changes in the activities of these enzymes were observed in the testes. Spinosad treatment resulted in concentration-dependent changes in the cellular organelles of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes of R. ferrugineus, and some of these effects were similar to those exerted by other xenobiotics. However, specific changes were observed as a result of spinosad treatment, including an increase in the number and size of concretions in Malpighian tubule cells and the occasional absence of the central pair of microtubules in the axonemes of sperm tails. This study introduces spinosad for potential use as an insecticide within an integrated control program against male red palm weevils. Additionally, the study provides biochemical and ultrastructural evidence for use in the development of bioindicators.

  4. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Wells, Lenny; Cottrell, Ted E; Behle, Robert W; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-04-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch. Prior research indicated the potential for use of Hypocreales fungi to suppress C. caryae. We compared the efficacy of two fungal spp., Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their ability to cause C. caryae mortality. The fungus, B. bassiana, was applied to trunks of pecan trees (a method previously shown to be effective in C. caryae suppression) and efficacy was compared with M. brunneum applied to the ground or to the trunk with or without SoyScreen Oil as an ultraviolet protecting agent. Results indicated B. bassiana to be superior to M. brunneum regardless of application method; consequently, the potential for applying B. bassiana to control C. caryae was explored further. Specifically, the impact of different fertilizer regimes (as used by pecan growers) on the persistence of B. bassiana (GHA) in soil was determined. B. bassiana was applied to soil in a pecan orchard after one of several fertilizer treatments--i.e., ammonium nitrate, crimson clover, poultry litter, clover plus poultry litter, and a no-fertilizer control. B. bassiana persistence up to 49 d in 2009 and 2010 was assessed by plating soil onto selective media and determining the number of colony forming units, and by baiting soil with a susceptible host, Galleria mellonella (L.). Fertilizer treatments did not impact B. bassiana persistence. We conclude that standard fertilizers for nitrogen management, when applied according to recommended practices, are unlikely to negatively impact survival of B. bassiana in pecan orchards when the fungus is applied for C. caryae suppression during weevil emergence. Additional research on interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and fertilizer amendments (or other tree nutrition or soil management practices) is merited.

  5. Biological Control Against the Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus Chinensis L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae Using Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Righi Assia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is a valuable foodstuff but unfortunately this legume is prone to insect attacks from the chick pea weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.. This serious pest damages the chickpea and causes decreases in the yield and in the nutritional quality. Biological control is being used to deal with this problem. We tried different doses of the essential oils of three new medicinal plants, namely Salvia verbenaca L., Scilla maritima L., and Artemisia herba-alba Asso to limit the damage of the chick pea weevil pest, and to protect consumer’s health. To determine the effect and efficiency of the oil, the tests were conducted using the different biological parameters of fertility, longevity, and fecundity, under controlled temperature and relative humidity (28°C and 75%. The effectiveness of organic oils was demonstrated. We tested these oils on the germination of seeds. The obtained results showed that the tested plant oils have a real organic insecticide effect. The essential oil of Artemisia proved most effective as a biocide; achieving a mortality rate of 100%. A significant reduction in longevity was observed under the effect of 30 μl of S. maritima (1.3 days and S. verbenaca (2.8, 4.6 days, respectively, for males and females compared to 8 and 15 days for the control. For fecundity, an inhibition of oviposition was obtained using 30 μl of Salvia and Scilla essential oils. The test on the seed germination using different essential oils, showed no damage to the germinating seeds. The germination rate was 99%. These findings suggest that the tested plants can be used as a bioinsecticide for control of the C. chinensis pest of stored products.

  6. Spinosad Induces Antioxidative Response and Ultrastructure Changes in Males of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin A; Alzahrani, Abdullah M; Elmenshawy, Omar M; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is of great concern worldwide, especially in the Middle East, where dates are a strategic crop. Despite their ecological hazard, insecticides remain the most effective means of control. A bioinsecticide of bacterial origin, spinosad is effective against several pests, and its efficacy against male R. ferrugineus was assessed in the present study. The antioxidative responses of key enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) to spinosad were investigated in the midgut and testes, and the effects of this insecticide on the cell ultrastructure of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes were also determined. The lethal concentration 50 of spinosad was measured at 58.8 ppm, and the insecticide inhibited the activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in the midgut. However, no significant changes in the activities of these enzymes were observed in the testes. Spinosad treatment resulted in concentration-dependent changes in the cellular organelles of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes of R. ferrugineus, and some of these effects were similar to those exerted by other xenobiotics. However, specific changes were observed as a result of spinosad treatment, including an increase in the number and size of concretions in Malpighian tubule cells and the occasional absence of the central pair of microtubules in the axonemes of sperm tails. This study introduces spinosad for potential use as an insecticide within an integrated control program against male red palm weevils. Additionally, the study provides biochemical and ultrastructural evidence for use in the development of bioindicators. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  7. Diflubenzuron Hazards to Fish, Wildlife and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    1992-01-01

    Diflubenzuron (1(4chlorophenyl)3(2,6difluorobenzoyl)urea), also known as dimilin, is a potent broad spectrum insect growth regulator that interferes with chitin synthesis at time of molting and is effective in controlling immature stages of insects. Diflubenzuron was approved for domestic use in 1976 to control gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), and in 1979 against the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis). By 1989 this compound was also registered for domestic use against mosquitos, forest Lepidoptera, mushroom flies, and leaf-eating insect pests of citrus, woody ornamentals, vegetables, and fruit. Diflubenzuron seldom persists for more than a few days in soil and water. When used properly in forest management, it is unlikely to be leached into ground water from the application site. Degradation in water and soil is most rapid when small particle formulations are applied; microorganisms are abundant; and at elevated pH, temperature, and organic loading. Chemical and biological processes initially yield 2,6difluorobenzoic acid and 4chlorophenylurea.

  8. CANONICAL CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus saligna CLONES

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    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of canonical correlation measures the existence and the intensity of the association between two groups of variables. The research objectified to evaluate thecanonical correlation between chemical and physical characteristics and fiber dimensional ofwood of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna clones, verifying the interdependenceamong the groups of studied variables. The analysis indicated that the canonical correlationswere high and that in two cases the first and second pair were significant at the level of 1% ofprobability. The analysis of canonical correlation showed that the groups are notindependent. The intergroup associations indicated that the wood of high insoluble lignin contentand low ash content is associated with the high radial and tangential contraction and highbasic density wood.

  9. Flavonoid profiles of immature and mature fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck (Dangyuja) and overall contribution to the antioxidant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eun Ae; Kim, Gon-Sup; Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Semin; Yi, Song; Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Jae Hoon; Jin, Jong Sung; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul

    2015-04-01

    Citrus fruits are a valuable functional food and their peel is used in East Asian folk medicine. In this study, the polar components of the fruit tissues of Citrus grandis Osbeck were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and compared with reported data. Among the 13 characterized compounds, eight flavonoids and one coumarin were identified for the first time in fruit tissues. The total amount of the identified components was the largest for the immature fruit peel, followed by mature fruit peel, mature fruit flesh, and immature fruit flesh. Naringin (2) and neohesperidin (3) were particularly rich in all samples. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids extracted from fruit tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner. The activity of the fruit peels was significantly higher than that of the fruit flesh. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Biological Characteristics and Control Measures of Hazelnut weevil%榛实象甲的生物学特性及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 钟思兰; 刘剑锋

    2016-01-01

    The harm, morphological characteristics, and life history of Hazelnut weevil were introduced firstly, and then some measures to pre-vent and control H.weevil by chemical agents, artificially killing, forest management, and biological control were proposed.%分析了榛实象甲给我国榛子产业造成的危害,介绍了棒实象甲的形态特征和生活史,并有针对性地提出了化学药剂防治、人工捕杀、营林措施、生物防治等榛实象甲综合防治措施。

  11. Notes on chromosome numbers and C-banding patterns in karyotypes of some weevils from central Europe (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea: Apionidae, Nanophyidae, Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowska, Dorota; Holecová, Milada; Rozek, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome numbers and C-banding patterns of sixteen weevil species are presented. The obtained results confirm the existence of two groups of species with either a small or large amount of heterochromatin in the karyotype. The first group comprises twelve species (Apionidae: Oxystoma cerdo, Eutrichapion melancholicum, Ceratapion penetrans, Ceratapion austriacum, Squamapion flavimanum, Rhopalapion longirostre; Nanophyidae: Nanophyes marmoratus; Curculionidae: Centricnemus (=Peritelus) leucogrammus, Sitona humeralis, Sitona lineatus, Sitona macularis, Sitona suturalis). In weevils with a small amount of heterochromatin, tiny grains on the nucleus during interphase are visible, afterwards appearing as dark dots during mitotic and meiotic prophase. The second group comprises four species from the curculionid subfamily Cryptorhynchinae (Acalles camelus, Acalles commutatus, Acalles echinatus, Ruteria hypocrita) which possess much larger heteropycnotic chromosome parts visible during all nuclear divisions. The species examined have pericentromeric C-bands on autosomes and on the X chromosome.

  12. Potensi Kayu Perkakas dan Kayu Bakar Jenis Jati (Tectona grandis di Hutan Rakyat Desa Natah, Gunung Kidul

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    Ris Hadi Purwanto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Potentials  of Merchantable Timber and Firewod of Teak (Tectona grandis in Natah Village Community Forest , Gunungkidul The potential of merchantable timber and firewod of teak (Tectona grandis in Desa Natah community forest was estimated by developing allometric equations method. To establish the allometric equation 350 sample trees were measured to determine the relationships between tree height (H and diameter breast height (D. Thirty trees of various sizes were cut to measure the merchantable timber and firewood volume. The raw merchantable timber volume of teak in the community forest was defined as the ligneous material contained in the bole and branches which both with a diameter of at least 10cm. The result showed that D (taken at about 1.3m above the ground was a good predictor of H with r2 over 0.9672. When D was combined with H, r2 was improved somewhat for the merchantable timber volume, suggesting the growth patterns of tree dimensions were colesy interdependent. A standing stock of the merchantable timber and firewood volume of teak in the community forest was then estimated based on the allometric relations. Proportions of the merchantable timber and firewood volume were 66.91% and 33.09% of total wood volume per tree, respectively. The potential of merchantable timber and firewood volume in these community forest were 13.501 m3/ha and 8.686 m3/ha, respectively, with a basal area of 1.887 m2/ha. Based on the basal area, Desa Natah community forests of teak could be classified into extremely sparse of stands category.

  13. EFEITO DA TERMORRETIFICAÇÃO NAS PROPRIEDADES MECÂNICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Pinus taeda E Eucalyptus grandis

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    Karina Soares Modes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of thermal treatment, employed under two treatment conditions on mechanical properties of wood of Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. From each species, three 25-year tress were sampled, and from each one, it was taken the first 2-meter long log, which was obtained from two boards of size 7,0 x 20,0 cm (thickness x width respectively diametrically opposite from where 30 specimens were saw for each treatment. At the first one, called the combined one, the woods were subjected to heat treatment by autoclaving at 130 / ± 3°C and pressure of 2 kgf / cm ² for 3 hours and, after a conditioning period, subjected to heat in an electric oven at 160 / ± 1°C for the same period. The second treatment consisted only of heat treatment in oven. It was also evaluated the pieces of wood without treatment (control. The mechanical properties were evaluated by means of tests for determining the modulus of elasticity and rupture in bending, maximum resistance to compression parallel to the grain and Janka hardness according to ASTM D 143 (1995, and the impact resistance according to ABNT NBR 7190 (1997. For Pinus taeda wood, it was observed that treatment in an oven gave the worst outcomes, both due to the reduction in the values of supported load of a greater number of mechanical properties evaluated, but also as compared to the lowest increments in resistance when it was observed an increase to the same ones with heat treatment. In Eucalyptus grandis, the combined treatment decreased the greatest number of mechanical properties of wood.

  14. INFLUÊNCIA DO VERMICOMPOSTO NA PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

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    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a expressiva área de florestas plantadas com espécies do gênero Eucalyptus e o uso dessa madeira para múltiplos propósitos, sua cultura é de grande importância econômica para o Brasil. O uso de substratos com boas características físico-químicas constituem importante fator para a qualidade das mudas produzidas. Neste sentido, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de diferentes doses de vermicomposto em tubetes com capacidade de receber aproximadamente 50 cm3 de substrato. O estudo foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com Eucalyptus grandis, no período de janeiro a abril de 1997. O substrato utilizado para produção das mudas foi o solo coletado no horizonte A (0-20 cm da Unidade de Mapeamento São Pedro (Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo acrescido de diferentes doses de vermicomposto (0; 5,0; 10,0; 15,0 e 20,0 cm3 por tubete. O vermicomposto utilizado foi proveniente de produção de minhocas vermelhas da Califórnia (Eisenia foetida Savigny valendo-se de esterco de bovino. Após 100 dias de desenvolvimento, observou-se que as mudas de Eucalyptus grandis responderam de maneira distinta às doses aplicadas, não suportando misturas acima 15,0 cm3 (30% de vermicomposto por tubete.

  15. IDENTIFICAÇÃO E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA ENTOMOFAUNA EM PLANTIOS DE TECA (Tectona grandis

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    SILVA, Carla Vanessa Moraes da

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pest insects with potential damages and losses on teak plantation, Tectona grandis, is relevant due to the economic criterion which requires high costs for managing. Therefore, the necessity of knowing about the insect fauna of plant protection importance has gained importance, such as the soil termite, field cricket, black cutworm, Saúva-lemon, Caterpillars-to-teak, Catepillar-queimadeira and others that reduce the production. Thus, this study aimed to add to the existing literature new information about the biological and morphological aspects, damages and methods to control the major pests of Teak, which may assist the crop management. A presença de insetos-pragas com potencial de dano e de perdas na cultura da teca, Tectona grandis, é relevante devido ao critério econômico que requer altos custos com seu manejo. Sendo assim, acentua-se a necessidade do conhecimento sobre a entomofauna de importância fitossanitária para a cultura, tais como o cupim do solo, grilo-comum, lagarta-rosca, saúva-limão, lagarta-da-teca, lagarta-queimadeira e demais coleobrocas que reduzem sua produção. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi acrescentar à bibliografia existente novas informações sobre os aspectos biológicos, morfológicos, injúrias e táticas de controle das principais pragas da cultura da Teca, as quais podem auxiliar no manejo da cultura.

  16. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potential of methanol extract ofTectona grandis flowers in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramaniam Ramachandran; Aiyalu Rajasekaran; KT Manisenthil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activity of methanol extract ofTectona grandis (T. grandis) flowers(METGF)in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats to supports its traditional use.Methods: Acute toxicity study of METGF was carried out in rat to determine its dose for the antidiabetic study. Oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) was performed to evaluateMETGF effect on elevated blood glucose level. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration ofSTZ(60 mg/kg, ip.) and it was confirmed 72 h after induction.METGF was orally given to the diabetic rats up to28 days and blood glucose level were estimated each week. On28 day of the experiment, diabetic rats were sacrificed after the blood collection for the biochemical parameters analysis and liver, kidney was collected to determine antioxidants levels.Results:In acute toxicity,METGFdid not show toxicity and death up to a dose 2 000mg/kg in rats. Administration ofMETGF 100 and200mg/kg significantly (P<0.001) reduced blood glucose levels inOGTTand STZ-induced diabetic rats. Both doses ofMETGF treatment significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 andP<0.05) increased body weight, serum insulin, haemoglobin (Hb) and total protein levels in diabetic rats. Also,MEGTF treatment reduced elevated glycosylated haemoglobin(HbA1c) and other biochemical parameters levels significantly (P<0.001) in diabetic rats. Altered lipid profiles and antioxidants levels were reversed to near normal in diabetic rats treated withMETGF. Conclusions: These results concluded that METGF possesses antidiabetic, antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity which supports its traditional use.

  17. Systematics of the weevil genus Mecinus Germar, 1821 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). I. Taxonomic treatment of the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Roberto; Fogato, Valter

    2013-01-01

    Palaearctic species of the weevil genus Mecinus Germar, 1821 are revised. A total of 47 species are recognized, one of which, M. baridioides sp. n. is new to science. Mecinus dorsalis var. tavaresi Hoffmann, 1958 (stat. rev.) is considered as a distinct species, whereas M. alboscutellatus var. atratulus (Solari, 1933) is maintained as a subspecies of M. alboscutellatus (Hustache, 1913). The following new synonymies are proposed: Mecinus barbarus Gyllenhal, 1838 (= M. longiusculus var. subcylindricus Pic, 1896 syn. n.); M. caucasicus (Reitter, 1907) (= Gymnetron caucasicum var. rubricum Reitter, 1907 syn. n.); M. comosus Boheman, 1845 (= M. setosus Kiesenwetter, 1864 syn. n.; = M. hesteticus Vitale, 1906 syn. n.; = M. pici Reitter, 1907 syn. n.; = M. pici var. theresae Reitter, 1907 syn. n.); M. elongatus (H. Brisout de Barneville, 1862) (= G. pyrenaeum H. Brisout de Barneville, 1862 syn. n.); M. haemorrhoidalis (H. Brisout de Barneville, 1862) (= M. fairmairei Tournier, 1873 syn. n.; = G. variabile var. brevipenne Desbrochers des Loges, 1893 syn. n.; = G. variabile var. curtulum Reitter, 1907 syn. n.); M. humeralis Tournier, 1873 (= M. tournieri Fairmaire, 1876 syn. n.; = M. lineicollis Reitter, 1907 syn. n.); M. paratychioides (Hoffmann, 1965) (= G. longirostre Pic, 1921 syn. n.); M. longulus (Desbrochers des Loges, 1893) (= G. nigronotatum Pic, 1906 syn. n.; = G. nigronotatum var. vaulogeri Pic, 1930 syn. n.); M. pipistrellus (Marseul, 1871) (= G. concavirostre Stöcklein, 1950 syn. n.); M. plantaginis (Eppelsheim, 1875) (= G. zherichini Korotyaev, 1994 syn. n.); M. pyraster (Herbst, 1795) (= M. schneideri Kirsch, 1870 syn. n.; = M. hariolus Reitter, 1907 syn. n.; = M. pici var. favarcqui Pic, 1915 syn. n.); M. sanctus (Desbrochers des Loges, 1893) (= G. laterufum Pic, 1900 syn. n.); M. simus (Mulsant & Rey, 1859) (= G. mixtum Mulsant & Godart, 1873 syn. n.); M. tychioides (H. Brisout de Barneville, 1862) (= G. aestivum Hoffmann, 1956 syn. n.); M. vulpes (Lucas

  18. A revision of the New Zealand weevil genus Irenimus Pascoe, 1876 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Samuel D J

    2017-05-08

    The taxonomy of the New Zealand weevil genus Irenimus Pascoe, 1876 is revised, resulting in a narrower concept of the genus than has been considered in recent decades. In total, the genus now contains only seven species. In addition to the type species, I. parilis Pascoe, 1876, the genus contains I. duplex (Broun, 1904) and five newly described species: I. aniptus new species (type locality, Oamaru, DN), I. crinitus new species (type locality, Hakataramea Valley, SC), I. minimus new species (type locality, Alexandra, CO), I. stichus new species (type locality, Tekapo, MK) and I. thoracicus new species (type locality, Oamaru, DN). The genus Chalepistes new genus is established to contain the majority of species previously described in the genus Catoptes Schönherr, 1842, but also including species described in Brachyolus White, 1846; Irenimus Pascoe, 1876; Inophloeus Pascoe, 1875; and Nicaeana Pascoe, 1877. A total of 27 valid described species are new combinations with Chalepistes: C. aequalis (Broun, 1895) (from Irenimus), C. albosparsus (Broun, 1917) (from Irenimus), C. apicalis (Broun, 1923) (from Catoptes), C. asperatus (Broun, 1914) (from Brachyolus), C. compressus (Broun, 1880) (from Irenimus), C. costifer (Broun, 1886) (from Inophloeus), C. curvus (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from Irenimus), C. dehiscens (Broun, 1917) (from Catoptes), C. dugdalei (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from Irenimus), C. egens (Broun, 1904) (from Irenimus), C. inaequalis (Sharp, 1886) (from Brachyolus), C. instabilis (Marshall, 1931) (from Catoptes), C. latipennis (Broun, 1893) (from Catoptes), C. limbatus (Broun, 1909) (from Catoptes), C. lobatus (Broun, 1921) (from Catoptes), C. patricki (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from Irenimus), C. pensus (Broun, 1914) (from Inophloeus), C. placidus (Broun, 1914) (from Nicaeana), C. posticalis (Broun, 1893) (from Irenimus), C. rhesus (Pascoe, 1875) (from Inophloeus), C. rubidus (Broun, 1881) (from Inophloeus), C. similis (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from

  19. MODELOS PREDICTIVOS DE BIOMASA AÉREA DE Eucalyptus grandis PARA EL NORESTE DE ARGENTINA

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    Rosa Angela Winck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes intereses industriales, energéticos y ambientales han motivado el análisis de las distintas posibilidades de aprovechamiento de la biomasa forestal, este tema está adquiriendo un creciente protagonismo, por lo que la cuantificación de la biomasa aérea de estos sistemas forestales constituye un primer paso fundamental e ineludible. El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar modelos que permitan estimar la biomasa de los diferentes compartimentos aéreos de Eucalyptus grandis . Para ello se emplearon datos de 41 árboles provenientes de rodales de diferentes edades, entre 4 y 32 años, ubicados en la región NE de Argentina. Se tomaron 23 individuos ubicados en la Zona Norte y Alta de Misiones (zona 1 y 18 en el Sur de Misiones y NE de Corrientes (zona 2. Se determinó la biomasa de hojas, ramas menores a 5 cm, ramas mayores a 5 cm, total de ramas, fuste y biomasa total del árbol. Para el ajuste de modelos se tomaron diversas variables independientes, el diámetro a la altura de pecho (dap, la altura total del árbol (h, el producto (dap 2 *h y la variable “ dummy” (zona. Para el caso de la biomasa de ramas y de hojas, debido a que no se lograron resultados satisfactorios con el empleo de estas variables, se examinaron modelos que adicionaban índice de sitio, factor de espaciamiento, diámetro en la base de la copa verde (dbcv, altura hasta la base de la copa verde (hbcv, longitud de copa verde (lcv, el área transversal de albura en la base de copa verde (g Alb bcv y diferentes combinaciones de estas variables. Los modelos fueron seleccionados en base al coeficiente de determinación y el error cuadrático medio. Para la biomasa de ramas menores a 5 cm, ramas mayores a 5 cm, total de ramas, fuste y total, los mejores modelos fueron los que incorporaron como variables regresoras, el diámetro a la altura de pecho, la altura total del árbol y la variable “ dummy” (zona. Para la biomasa de hojas, las variables, edad,

  20. Response of Pisum sativum (Fabales: Fabaceae) to Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation: effect of adult weevil density on damage, larval population, and yield loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankosky, M A; Cárcamo, H A; Dosdall, L M

    2011-10-01

    Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive pest in North America and its geographical range is currently expanding across the Canadian prairies. Adults and larvae of S. lineatus feed upon the foliage and root nodules, respectively, of field pea, Pisum sativum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and may contribute to economic losses when population densities are high. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs that incorporate economic thresholds should be used to manage S. lineatus populations in a sustainable manner. The impact of nitrogen fertilizer on field pea yield and the relationships between adult weevil density and above- and below-ground damage and yield were investigated in southern Alberta, Canada using exclusion cages on field pea plots. In each cage, 32 field pea plants were exposed to weevil densities ranging from zero to one adult weevil per plant. Nitrogen-fertilized plants yielded 16% more than unfertilized plants. Nitrogen-fertilized plants had fewer root nodules than unfertilized plants, but fertilizer had no effect on foliar feeding by S. lineatus. Adult density affected foliar feeding damage, with increases in above-ground damage associated with increases in S. lineatus density. Adult density did not affect root nodule damage, larval density, foliar biomass or seed weight. Overall, these results indicate that terminal leaf damage may be used to estimate adult weevil density but cannot be used to predict larval density or yield loss. Further research is required to better understand the impact of larval damage on yield and determine if economic thresholds can be developed using data from large-scale production systems.

  1. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Obata

    Full Text Available Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots. are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details.

  2. Silencing the Olfactory Co-Receptor RferOrco Reduces the Response to Pheromones in the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffan, Alan; Antony, Binu; Abdelazim, Mahmoud; Shukla, Paraj; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Aldosari, Saleh A; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), one of the most widespread of all invasive insect pest species, is a major cause of severe damage to economically important palm trees. RPW exhibits behaviors very similar to those of its sympatric species, the Asian palm weevil (R. vulneratus), which is restricted geographically to the southern part of Southeast Asia. Although efficient and sustainable control of these pests remains challenging, olfactory-system disruption has been proposed as a promising approach for controlling palm weevils. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of an olfactory co-receptor (Orco) from R. ferrugineus (RferOrco) and R. vulneratus (RvulOrco) and examine the effects of RferOrco silencing (RNAi) on odorant detection. RferOrco and RvulOrco encoding 482 amino acids showing 99.58% identity. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from RferOrco into R. ferrugineus pupae significantly reduced RferOrco gene expression and led to the failure of odor-stimulus detection, as confirmed through olfactometer and electroantennography (EAG) assays. These results suggest that olfactory-system disruption leading to reduced pheromone detection holds great potential for RPW pest-control strategies.

  3. Infectivity of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae to Larvae and Adults of the Hazelnut Weevil, Curculio nucum: Differential Virulence and Entry Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla-Carrera, Laia; Morton, Ana; Shapiro-Ilan, David; Strand, Michael R; García-Del-Pino, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the existing susceptibility differences of the hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum L. (Coleoptera:, Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes by assessing the main route of entry of the nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae strain B14 and S. feltiae strain D114, into larvae and adult insects, as well as host immune response. Our results suggested that S. carpocapsae B14 and S. feltiae D114 primarily entered adult insects and larvae through the anus. Larvae were more susceptible to S. feltiae D114 than S. carpocapsae B14 and adults were highly susceptible to S. carpocapsae B14 but displayed low susceptibility to S. feltiae D114. Penetration rate correlated with nematode virulence. We observed little evidence that hazelnut weevils mounted any cellular immune response toward S. carpocapsae B14 or S. feltiae D114. We conclude the differential susceptibility of hazelnut weevil larvae and adults to S. carpocapsae B14 and S. feltiae D114 primarily reflected differences in the ability of these two nematodes to penetrate the host.

  4. Silencing the Olfactory Co-Receptor RferOrco Reduces the Response to Pheromones in the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffan, Alan; Abdelazim, Mahmoud; Shukla, Paraj; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), one of the most widespread of all invasive insect pest species, is a major cause of severe damage to economically important palm trees. RPW exhibits behaviors very similar to those of its sympatric species, the Asian palm weevil (R. vulneratus), which is restricted geographically to the southern part of Southeast Asia. Although efficient and sustainable control of these pests remains challenging, olfactory-system disruption has been proposed as a promising approach for controlling palm weevils. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of an olfactory co-receptor (Orco) from R. ferrugineus (RferOrco) and R. vulneratus (RvulOrco) and examine the effects of RferOrco silencing (RNAi) on odorant detection. RferOrco and RvulOrco encoding 482 amino acids showing 99.58% identity. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from RferOrco into R. ferrugineus pupae significantly reduced RferOrco gene expression and led to the failure of odor-stimulus detection, as confirmed through olfactometer and electroantennography (EAG) assays. These results suggest that olfactory-system disruption leading to reduced pheromone detection holds great potential for RPW pest-control strategies. PMID:27606688

  5. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two weevils, Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis and E. brandti: conserved genome arrangement in Curculionidae and deficiency of tRNA-Ile gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhen-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The weevils Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis and Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, are two of the most important pests of the tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima, which is found throughout China. In this study, the complete mitogenomes of the two weevils have been sequenced using Illumina HiSeqTM 2000. The mitogenomes of E. chinensis and E. brandti are 15,628bp and 15,597bp long with A+T contents of 77.7% and 76.6%, respectively. Both species have typical circular mitochondrial genomes that encode 36 genes. Except the deficiency of tRNA-Ile, the gene composition and order of E. chinensis and E. brandti are identical to the inferred ancestral gene arrangement of insects. In both mitochondrial genomes, the start codons for COI and ND1 are AAT and TTG, respectively. A5bp motif (TACTA is detected in intergenic region between the tRNA-Ser (UCN and ND1 genes. The ATP8/ATP6 and ND4L/ND4 gene pairs appear to overlap four or seven nucleotides (ATAA/ATGATAA in different reading frames. The complete sequences of AT-rich region have two regions including tandem repeats. The study identifies useful genetic markers for studying the population genetics, molecular identification and phylogeographics of Eucryptorrhynchus weevils. The features of the mitochondrial genomes are expected to be valuable in

  6. A water-alcohol extract of Citrus grandis whole fruits has beneficial metabolic effects in the obese Zucker rats fed with high fat/high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasmaja, Atso; Lecklin, Anne; Li, Xiang Ming; Zou, Jianqiang; Zhu, Guo-Guang; Laakso, Into; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that citrus fruits and compounds such as flavonoids, limonoids and pectins have health promoting effects. Our aim was to study the effects of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. tomentosa hort. fruit extract on the energy metabolism. A whole fruit powder from dry water and alcohol extracts of C. grandis containing 19% naringin flavonoid was prepared. The effects of the citrus extract were followed in the obese Zucker rats fed with the HFD. The circulatory levels of GLP-1 decreased significantly by the extract in comparison to the HFD group, whereas the decreased ghrelin levels were reversed. The levels of PYY were decreased in all HFD groups. The leptin amounts decreased but not significantly whereas insulin and amylin were unchanged. The cholesterol and glucose levels were somewhat but not systematically improved in the HFD fed rats. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms.

  7. EFFECT OF TIME AND TEMPERATURE OF THERMAL RECTIFICATION ON THE REDUCTION OF MAXIMUM SWELLING OF Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal rectification of wood was developed in the decade of 1940 and has been largely studied and produced in Europe. In Brazil, the research about this technique is still little and sparse, but it has gained attention nowadays. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of time and temperature of rectification on the reduction of maximum swelling of Eucalyptus grandis wood. According to the results obtained it is possible to achieve reductions of about 50% on the maximum volumetric swelling of Eucalyptus grandis wood. Best results were obtained for 230°C of thermal rectification rather than 200°C. The factor temperature was more significant than time, once that there was no significant difference between the times used (1, 2 and 3 hours. There was no significant interaction between the factors time and temperature.

  8. Correlações dendroclimatológicas do Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden na região de Rio Claro, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Roque Ugulino de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial forests plantation contributes decisively to generate socio-economic and environmental benefits, providing sustainability at the forest-based industries. The Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden stand out as one of the most cultivated species for reforestation in Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between precipitation and wood production for 23-year old Eucalyptus grandis from a commercial plantation in Rio Claro, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The annual increment of wood was determined by the X-ray densitometry, which provides a detailed wood density profile in radial direction for each sample. One year of the tree life was considered because this the period for the formation of two consecutive latewood rings formation, which corresponds to two high density peaks. The results showed a positive correlation between precipitation data and annual increment of wood, revealing the dendroclimatology potential of this species in this region.

  9. Physicochemical properties of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed and its oil%金柚柚籽及其油脂的理化性质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李咏梅; 谢婧

    2015-01-01

    Citrus grandis var. Jinyu see d oil was prepared by Soxhlet extraction method and the physicochemi-cal properties of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed and its oil were analyzed. The results showed that the mass of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed accounted for 10. 3% of the total fruit mass and its crude fat content reached 34. 6%. Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil presented golden color, high transparency, good fluidity at room temperature, natural flavor and taste of shaddock. The relative density, moisture and volatile matter content, refractive index, acid value, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value of Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil were 0. 963 ± 0. 025 5, (0. 071 ± 0. 009 8)%,1. 454 ± 0. 038 1, (1. 273 ± 0. 103 1) mgKOH/g, (169. 75 ± 0. 483 0)mgKOH/g, (133. 3 ± 0. 066 7)gI/100 g and (4. 25 ± 0. 711 0)mmol/kg, respectively. The GC analysis result indicated that the content of unsaturated fatty acids in Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil was 67. 6%, containing linoleic acid(39. 3%), oleic acid(24. 7%) and linolenic acid(3. 6%). The saturated fat-ty acids in Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil were mainly palmitic acid(27. 6%) and stearic acid(3. 9%). Therefore, Citrus grandis var. Jinyu seed oil was suitable for being developed as edible oil.%采用索氏抽提法制备金柚柚籽油,并对金柚柚籽及其油脂进行理化性质分析。结果表明:金柚柚籽质量占全果总质量10.3%,柚籽粗脂肪含量高达34.6%。柚籽油色泽金黄、室温下流动性好、透明度高、有油脂固有气味和滋味,并具有一定柚子气味;相对密度0.963±0.0255,水分及挥发物含量(0.071±0.0098)%,折光指数1.454±0.0381,酸值(KOH)(1.273±0.1031)mg/g,碘值(I)(133.3±0.0667) g/100 g,皂化值(KOH)(169.75±0.4830)mg/g,过氧化值(4.25±0.7110)mmol/kg;气相色谱法分析结果显示,柚籽油中不饱和脂肪酸含量为67.6%,主要是亚油酸(39.3%)、油酸(24.7%)、亚麻酸(3.6%);饱

  10. Biometry of fruits and seeds and pre-germination treatments in Cassia grandis L. f. (FabaceaeBiometria de frutos e sementes e tratamentos pré-germinativos em Cassia grandis L. f. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Thiago Coelho Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The species Cassia grandis L. f. (Fabaceae, has environmental and economic importance to justify studies to its best use. The objective of this study is to evaluate the morphology of fruits and seeds of Cassia grandis L. f. and the effect of pre-germination treatments. The fruits biometry was determined in a sample of 100 units, taken at random from the batch collected at the Center for Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Paraiba, to determination of length, width, fresh weight and number of seeds per fruit. From the seeds took in a sample of 100 units were determined length, width, diameter and fresh weight of the seedlings. To overcome dormancy using 100 seeds per treatment divided into four replicates, employed the following techniques: seeds without scarification; scarified on the opposite side of the hilum and two side-cut 25% and 50% opposite the hilum, all of which are made with and without soaking in distilled water for 24 hours. It was evaluated the first count, emergency, emergency speed index, length and mass of dry matter of shoot and root. The biometric data were analyzed by frequency classes and the pre-germination treatments by analysis of variance and Tukey’s test. The fruits have an average of 34.77 cm in length, width 39.96 mm, 174.32 g of fresh weight and 23.63 seeds, which have an average of 15.83 mm, 11.34 mm, 6, 0.867 g and 39 mm in length, width and fresh weight, respectively. Scarification increased germination and negatively affects the dry matter accumulation in shoots. The soaking did not affect germination, but increases the initial growth of the seedling shoot. The cut in the seed of 50% in the area opposite the hilum affect the emergence and seedling growth of Cassia grandis. A espécie Cassia grandis L. f. (Fabaceae, apresenta importância ambiental e econômica que justificam estudos para o seu melhor aproveitamento. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a morfometria de frutos e sementes de Cassia

  11. Urbanistica d'occasione. Grandi eventi ed esperienze di rigenerazione urbana della città post-industriale nel Regno Unito

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    La ricerca affronta il rapporto tra eventi culturali e Grandi Eventi nelle dinamiche di rigenerazione urbana delle aree della città post-moderna e post-industriale. L’evento non è valutato solo in quanto catalizzatore del cambiamento, ma anche e soprattutto in quanto progetto di trasformazione integrata, che costituisca una strategia di condivisione e promozione di immaginari radicati e interconnessi, legati ai significati e alle potenzialità dei territori interessati. In particolar modo, ess...

  12. Urbanistica d'occasione. Grandi eventi ed esperienze di rigenerazione urbana della città post-industriale nel Regno Unito

    OpenAIRE

    Attademo, Anna

    2011-01-01

    La ricerca affronta il rapporto tra eventi culturali e Grandi Eventi nelle dinamiche di rigenerazione urbana delle aree della città post-moderna e post-industriale. L’evento non è valutato solo in quanto catalizzatore del cambiamento, ma anche e soprattutto in quanto progetto di trasformazione integrata, che costituisca una strategia di condivisione e promozione di immaginari radicati e interconnessi, legati ai significati e alle potenzialità dei territori interessati. In particolar modo, ess...

  13. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods.

  14. RESISTÊNCIA BIOLÓGICA DA MADEIRA TRATADA DE Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus cloeziana A FUNGOS APODRECEDORES EM ENSAIOS DE LABORATÓRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnos Alan Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the biological resistance of treated wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana under the action of biodeteriorative organisms in laboratory testing. Thus, we used trees of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, both 16 years old, which was converted into planks and subjected to preservative treatment in an autoclave with chromate copper arsenate (CCA. Then, it was made the specimens for the conduct of accelerated decay test, as recommended by ASTM. From the results, it was observed for the fungus Trametes versicolor that the preservative treatment was effective in reducing the biological degradation of the wood of the two species, with reduced mass loss in 35.17 and 82.31% for wood Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, respectively, as for the fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum mass loss was reduced by 6.79 and 96.65%, compared to the control. Based on the conditions of realization of the present study, it was observed that preservative treatment with CCA is effective in the increasing the biological resistance of the wood under the action of fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

  15. Effects of Urban Waste and Mineral Fertilizers Applications on Eucalyptus grandis Growth and Soil Conditions Efeito da Aplicação de Lixo Urbano Compostado e de Adubos Minerais no Solo e na Produtividade de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Castro Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Forest plantations have been studied as a potential ecosystem able to absorb organic residues as fertilizers or soil conditioners. This study evaluate the effects of the application of composted organic waste and mineral fertilizers in a Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden plantation with 86 months of age in Neossolo Quartzarênico. It was analyzed wood production, litter decomposition and the physical and chemical changes in the soil properties. It was observed that the municipal composted organic wastes resulted in an increase of 45.6% in wood volume, as compared to the control. It also increase the velocity of the litter
    decomposition on average of 28% and 16% for leaves and twigs respectively, increasing the pH level values and the availability of water in the soil (from 13% to 25% more available water in the first layer of the soil, 0 -10 cm. 
    As florestas têm sido estudadas como ecossistemas aptos à absorver resíduos orgânicos, utilizados como fertilizantes e condicionadores do solo. Este trabalho avaliou no Município de Itatinga, SP, em Neossolo Quartzarênico, os efeitos da aplicação de lixo urbano compostado e da adubação mineral em plantações de Eucalyptus grandis com 86 meses de idade. Foram analisadas as produtividades de madeira, a decomposição da serapilheira e as propriedades químicas e físicas do
    solo. Verificou-se que a aplicação de lixo urbano aumentou a produtividade de E. grandis com relação à testemunha, com um ganho de 45,6 % no volume cilíndrico de madeira. O solo com aplicação de lixo urbano apresentou um menor tempo de decomposição da serapilheira, em média com reduções de 28 % para folhas e de 16 % para galhos, com aumentos no pH e na água disponível no solo de 13 % a 25 %, na camada de 0 a 10 cm de profundidade, que podem justificar a maior
    produção de madeira obtida no final da rotação, em

  16. The cold-hardiness of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) and Rhizophagus grandis (Coleoptera, Rhizophagidae)%红脂大小蠹Dendroctonus valens(Coleoptera,Scolytidae)和大唼蜡甲 Rhizophagus grandis(Coleoptera,Rhizophagidae)的耐寒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建兴; 杨忠岐; Jean-Claude Gregoire

    2009-01-01

    Dendroctonus valens LeConte(Red turpentine beetle,RTB) was recently found in outbreak in China.Its elder instars and mature larvae mainly over-winter under the roots of the pine stumps and standing trees in China.The cold tolerant capabilities of the pest was estimated in the laboratory by SU-per-cooling points (SCP) and short-term lower lethal temperatures (LLT).The results show that the lowest mean super-cooling point of the RTB over-wintering larvae is-11.98 ± 2.55℃ and it is a species of tolerant-freezing insect.The SCP of RTB is significantly different between different geographical populations,the elder stage larvae have lower cold-hardiness than younger ones,but no significantly different between the larvae in early winter and later winter.The RTB larvae could spend its life in winter below the atmospheric temperie temperature which being lower more than-23.5℃ at least.In contrast,Rhizophagus grandis Gyll.,as a predator of Dendroctonus micans,was introduced to China against RTB since 2001.The mean SCP of Rhizophagus grandis larva is-l8.05 ±2.76℃ which being lower temperature more than ones of any stage of RTB.%红脂大小蠹 Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Red turpentine beetle,RTB)是近年来在中国爆发的入侵生物,在我国主要以老熟幼虫在油松伐桩和立木的根部越冬.室内测定昆虫的过冷却点(SCP)和短时间致死低温(LLT)是评价昆虫耐寒能力的重要方法.实验结果显示,红脂大小蠹越冬幼虫的平均过冷却点为一11.98±2.55℃,是一种耐冰冻的昆虫.红脂大小蠹的过冷却点在不同地理分布区的种群问有明显差异,老熟幼虫的过冷却点明显低于低龄幼虫,在越冬前和越冬后的幼虫问没有明显差异.红脂大小蠹幼虫在冬季至少町以忍受-23.5℃的大气温度安全越冬.从2001年开始引入我国的云杉大小蠹的捕食者大唼蜡甲(Rhizophagus grandis cyll.)幼虫的过冷却点为-18.05±2.76℃,低于红脂大小蠹所有虫态

  17. Filtration and clearance rates of Anadara grandis juveniles (Pelecypoda, Arcidae with different temperatures and suspended matter concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Miranda-Baeza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove cockle Anadara grandis (Broderip and Sowerby, 1829 is a potential candidate for aquaculture and for bioremediation of aquaculture effluents in the tropical and subtropical coastal areas of the eastern Pacific Ocean. Laboratory-produced spat are available, but there is no information on their responses to the range of environmental conditions to which they might be subject during the growth cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the filtration and clearance rates of A. grandis spat (shell length 9.50±0.37 mm with a food concentration (7.5 mg∙l-1 at four different temperatures (22, 25, 28 and 31 ºC, with pH = 7.5±0.2 and O2 concentration of 6.4±0.5 mg·l-1; experiment one; and with a temperature (25 °C and five concentrations of suspended matter (from 7.5 to 29 mg·l-1 and pH and O2 values of 7.9±0.2 and 6.8± 0.4 mg·l-1; experiment two. Filtration and clearance rates were highest at 25 ºC and significantly different (p.05. In the second experiment filtration increased according to the amount of food available, but there were no significant differences (p>.05 between 7.5 and 11 mg·l-1 and from 22.4 to 29 mg·l-1. The trend was similar for clearance, and in this case significant differences were found (pLa almeja Anadara grandis (Broderip and Sowerby, 1829 es un candidato potencial para la acuicultura y la biorremediación de efluentes acuícolas en las áreas costeras tropicales y subtropicales del océano Pacífico oriental. Se dispone de semilla producida en laboratorio, sin embargo no hay información sobre sus respuestas a los intervalos de las condiciones ambientales a las cuales puede estar sujeta durante el periodo de crecimiento. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las tasas de filtración y de clarificación de semilla de A. grandis (largo de la concha= 9.50±0.37 mm con una concentración de alimento (7.5 mg∙l-1 y cuatro diferentes temperaturas (22, 25, 28 y 31 °C con pH= 7.5±0.2, concentración de O

  18. Calcium and potassium silicates and the growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings Aplicação de silicatos de cálcio e de potássio e o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Antonio Bognola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of silicate is a practice that has been frequently adopted in annual crops, although few studies have been conducted in order to verify its efficiency in forest tree species. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of calcium and potassium silicates in the growth of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in Alambari county, State of São Paulo. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with eight treatments, three replications and 25 plants per plot, maintained at the field capacity moisture level. Seedlings were planted in plastic tubes using local substrate, basic fertilization and silicates. Diameter, height and fresh and dry biomass of the seedlings were determined 150 days after silicates treatments were applied. The use of silicates either in the substrate or through foliar application, in the production of eucalypt seedlings has proven to be inadequate when the substrate presents a balanced basic composition in terms of nutrients and pH.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.83

    O uso de silicato é uma prática que vem sendo adotada com frequência em culturas anuais, muito embora poucos trabalhos tenham sido realizados com intuito de verificar sua eficiência em espécies florestais arbóreas. O objetivo principal desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de silicatos de cálcio e de potássio no crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, no Município de Alambari, SP. O delineamento usado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com oito tratamentos, três repetições e 25 plantas por parcela, sendo mantidas na umidade de capacidade de campo. As mudas foram plantadas em tubetes de plástico, utilizando substrato local, com adubação básica e silicatos. Diâmetro de colo, altura e biomassa verde e seca das mudas foram determinados 150 dias após a

  19. Efeito do tempo de armazenamento de minestacas no enraizamento de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Effect of storage time of minicuttings on the rooting of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do tempo de armazenamento de miniestacas no processo de enraizamento de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas em minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 6 x 4, constituído de seis tratamentos (estaqueamento após a coleta e estaqueamento após o armazenamento em câmara fria por 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 dias e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram realizadas avaliações do porcentual de enraizamento e crescimento das miniestacas enraizadas em casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e a pleno sol. Concluiu-se que o plantio das miniestacas logo após a coleta no minijardim clonal foi o que proporcionou melhor resposta ao enraizamento nos quatro clones estudados, sendo observado efeito negativo do armazenamento dos propágulos, mesmo quando realizado por curto período de tempo.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the storage time of minicuttings on the rooting process of four clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. The minicuttings were collected in a clonal minigarden carried on in a hydroponic system in small gutters. The experimental design used was of random plots, in a factorial arrangement 6 x 4, constituted by six treatments (cutting after collection, cutting after storage in cold chamber per 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 days and four clones, in four repetitions and plots of 16 plants per repetition. Evaluations of the rooting percentage and growth of the rooted minicuttings in a greenhouse, a shade house and in the open sun were made. It was concluded that planting the minicuttings right after the collection in the clonal miniorchard had the best rooting response for the four clones studied and also that there was a negative effect of the storage, even when stored for a short

  20. Avaliação de um modelo de distribuição diamétrica ajustado para povoamentos de Tectona grandis submetidos a desbaste Evaluation of a diametric distribution model adjusted for thinned Tectona grandis stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilciano Saraiva Nogueira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, do ponto de vista do realismo biológico, um modelo de distribuição diamétrica, bem como a eficiência do método dos ingressos porcentuais para determinação da idade técnica do primeiro e do segundo desbaste de povoamentos de teca (Tectona grandis L. f.. A avaliação consistiu em comparar as idades técnicas de desbaste obtidas pelo método dos ingressos porcentuais, as distribuições diamétricas projetadas para idades futuras e o comportamento da distribuição remanescente, após algumas simulações de desbaste, com a tendência lógica esperada. Pôde-se concluir que o modelo de distribuição diamétrica proposto gera estimativas que seguem uma tendência lógica do ponto de vista biológico e que o método dos ingressos porcentuais é adequado para determinar a idade técnica do primeiro e do segundo desbaste.The objective of this study was to evaluate, under the biological point of view, a diametric distribution model. Another objective was to evaluate the efficiency of the percentage of entries method to determine the technical age for the first and second thinning in teak (Tectona grandis L. f. stands. This evaluation was carried out by comparing the technical thinning ages obtained by the percentage of entries method, the diametric distributions projected for future ages and the behavior of the remaining distribution, after some thinning simulations, with the expected logical tendency. It was be concluded that the proposed diametric distribution model generates estimates which follow a logical tendency, biologically speaking and that the percentage of entries method is suitable to determine the technical age of the first and second thinning.