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Sample records for weekly hyperthermia applications

  1. ERROR CONVERGENCE ANALYSIS FOR LOCAL HYPERTHERMIA APPLICATIONS

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    NEERU MALHOTRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of numerical solution for electromagnetic problem is greatly influenced by the convergence of the solution obtained. In order to quantify the correctness of the numerical solution the errors produced on solving the partial differential equations are required to be analyzed. Mesh quality is another parameter that affects convergence. The various quality metrics are dependent on the type of solver used for numerical simulation. The paper focuses on comparing the performance of iterative solvers used in COMSOL Multiphysics software. The modeling of coaxial coupled waveguide applicator operating at 485MHz has been done for local hyperthermia applications using adaptive finite element method. 3D heat distribution within the muscle phantom depicting spherical leison and localized heating pattern confirms the proper selection of the solver. The convergence plots are obtained during simulation of the problem using GMRES (generalized minimal residual and geometric multigrid linear iterative solvers. The best error convergence is achieved by using nonlinearity multigrid solver and further introducing adaptivity in nonlinear solver.

  2. [Findings in piglets after combined application of hyperthermia and irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorcht, J; Dauterstedt, W; Herrmann, T; Barke, R; Johannsen, U

    1985-01-01

    In a pilot study, 8 shoats of the "Edelschwein" breed were submitted to a combined treatment with hyperthermia (5 X 60 min; 42 degrees C in the thoracic region) followed by irradiation of the right lung (5 X 4 Gy). Heating was performed using an applicator of the Selectotherm equipment working at 27 MHz with a power output of 1.5 to 8.0 kW; the irradiation was done with the telecobalt machine Chisobalt. Radiologic checks of the thoracic organs and laboratory diagnostics provided useful data as to the temporal course of the radiogenic pulmonary affections and the tolerability of fractionated whole-body hyperthermia including superimposed local heating on shoats. Histologic examinations of sections of heated and irradiated (right) as compared to exclusively heated (left) lung lobes of 4 animals suggested that hyperthermia exerted a radiosensitizing effect on the right lungs. Histologically confirmed irreversible lung fibrosis occurred there after exposure to even lower total doses following hyperthermia as compared to sole irradiation.

  3. Flexible Dual-Frequency Applicator for Local Hyperthermia

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    Houda Halheit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A flexible and dual-frequency microstrip applicator for microwave local hyperthermia is described. It is designed on conformal liquid crystal polymer (LCP substrate and operating at ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical frequencies of 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz. To conform the body’s curvature, the applicator is bent on a cylindrical body. 3D electromagnetic CST Microwave Studio was used to determine the performance of the applicator and to evaluate the specific absorption rate (SAR distribution in cylindrical human body phantom. The results obtained show that the antenna can be used in curved situation for uniform and superficial treatment.

  4. A printed Yagi-Uda antenna for application in magnetic resonance thermometry guided microwave hyperthermia applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulides, M. M.; Mestrom, R. M. C.; Salim, G.; Adela, B. B.; Numan, W. C. M.; Drizdal, T.; Yeo, D. T. B.; Smolders, A. B.

    2017-03-01

    Biological studies and clinical trials show that addition of hyperthermia stimulates conventional cancer treatment modalities and significantly improves treatment outcome. This supra-additive stimulation can be optimized by adaptive hyperthermia to counteract strong and dynamic thermoregulation. The only clinically proven method for the 3D non-invasive temperature monitoring required is by magnetic resonance (MR) temperature imaging, but the currently available set of MR compatible hyperthermia applicators lack the degree of heat control required. In this work, we present the design and validation of a high-frequency (433 MHz ISM band) printed circuit board antenna with a very low MR-footprint. This design is ideally suited for use in a range of hyperthermia applicator configurations. Experiments emulating the clinical situation show excellent matching properties of the antenna over a 7.2% bandwidth (S 11  phased-arrays.

  5. Iron Oxide Nanocrystals for Magnetic Hyperthermia Applications

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    Dale L. Huber

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanocrystals have been investigated extensively in the past several years for several potential applications, such as information technology, MRI contrast agents, and for drug conjugation and delivery. A specific property of interest in biomedicine is magnetic hyperthermia—an increase in temperature resulting from the thermal energy released by magnetic nanocrystals in an external alternating magnetic field. Iron oxide nanocrystals of various sizes and morphologies were synthesized and tested for specific losses (heating power using frequencies of 111.1 kHz and 629.2 kHz, and corresponding magnetic field strengths of 9 and 25 mT. Polymorphous nanocrystals as well as spherical nanocrystals and nanowires in paramagnetic to ferromagnetic size range exhibited good heating power. A remarkable 30 °C temperature increase was observed in a nanowire sample at 111 kHz and magnetic field of 25 mT (19.6 kA/m, which is very close to the typical values of 100 kHz and 20 mT used in medical treatments.

  6. Synthesis and characterizations of manganese ferrites for hyperthermia applications

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    Doaga, A.; Cojocariu, A.M. [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Bd. Carol I, Nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Amin, W.; Heib, F. [Physical Chemistry, Universität des Saarlandes, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Bender, P. [Experimental Physics, Universität des Saarlandes, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Hempelmann, R. [Physical Chemistry, Universität des Saarlandes, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Caltun, O.F., E-mail: caltun@uaic.ro [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Bd. Carol I, Nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania)

    2013-12-16

    In the last few years, magnetic nanoparticles have turned out to offer great potential in biomedical applications. This study was focused on Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite particles series with x ranging between 0 and 1. Manganese ferrites nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method that allows a good control of their shape and size. The X-ray analysis indicated a crystallite size of the particles in the nanometers domain increasing with the Mn cation substitution level. Average grain size of the nanoparticles calculated from transmission electron microscopy images of the samples was ranging between 10.5 and 19.0 nm suggesting that the majority of the nanoparticles are monodomain. The hydrodynamic diameter of the water dispersed nanoparticles measured by dynamic light scattering was ranging between 60 and 105 nm proving the tendency of agglomeration. Vibrating sample magnetometer measurement confirmed the superparamagnetic behavior of the powders. The magnetic properties were analyzed considering the proposed cation distribution and Yafet–Kittel angles, while the specific absorption rate (SAR) measurement at 1.95 MHz frequency confirmed the influence of substitution level on magnetic properties and thermal transfer rate. From our results the highest value for specific absorption rate was 148.4 W g{sup −1} for Mn{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} at an AC field of 4500 A m{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) were synthesized by coprecipitation method. • The microstructure and average grain size of nanoparticles were determined from XRD and TEM. • The magnetic behavior was characterized using VSM and SAR. • The main results are discussed in terms of cation distribution and microstructure. • The Mn ferrite based ferrofluids can be used in medical application as hyperthermia.

  7. Design and test of a 434 MHz multi-channel amplifier system for targeted hyperthermia applicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Westra, A. H.; Schippers, H.; Van Rhoon, G. C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: For our head-and-neck hyperthermia ( HT) applicator, an amplifier system with full amplitude and phase-control to deliver the radio-frequency signals, was not available. We therefore designed and tested a 433.92 MHz multi-channel amplifier system. System description: The design consists of

  8. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with a bilayer of oleic acid for magnetic hyperthermia and MRI applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Paula I.P. [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Laia, César A.T. [Laboratório Associado para a Química Verde (LAQV), REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Carvalho, Alexandra [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Pereira, Laura C.J.; Coutinho, Joana T. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Ferreira, Isabel M.M., E-mail: imf@fct.unl.pt [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Novo, Carlos M.M. [Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IHMT/UNL, 1349-008 Lisboa (Portugal); Borges, João Paulo, E-mail: jpb@fct.unl.pt [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were stabilized with oleic acid. • Maximum stabilization was achieved at neutral pH. • Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic hyperthermia applications were tested. • The produced nanoparticles are viable for both biomedical applications. - Abstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, IONPs) are promising candidates for several biomedical applications such as magnetic hyperthermia and as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their colloidal stability in physiological conditions hinders their application requiring the use of biocompatible surfactant agents. The present investigation focuses on obtaining highly stable IONPs, stabilized by the presence of an oleic acid bilayer. Critical aspects such as oleic acid concentration and pH were optimized to ensure maximum stability. NPs composed of an iron oxide core with an average diameter of 9 nm measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) form agglomerates with an hydrodynamic diameter of around 170 nm when dispersed in water in the presence of an oleic acid bilayer, remaining stable (zeta potential of −120 mV). Magnetic hyperthermia and the relaxivities measurements show high efficiency at neutral pH which enables their use for both magnetic hyperthermia and MRI.

  9. FDTD simulations to assess the performance of CFMA-434 applicators for superficial hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, H. Petra; de Greef, Martijn; Correia, Davi; Zum Vorde Sive Vording, Paul J.; van Stam, Gerard; Gelvich, Edward A.; Bel, Arjan; Crezee, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Contact flexible microstrip applicators (CFMA), operating at 434 MHz, are applied at the Academic Medical Center (AMC) for superficial hyperthermia (e.g. chest wall recurrences and melanoma). This paper investigates the performance of CFMA, evaluating the stability of the specific

  10. Modeling of various kinds of applicators used for microwave hyperthermia based on the FDTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camart, J.C.; Despretz, D.; Chive, M.; Pribetich, J. [Domaine Scientifique et Univ. de Villeneuve D`Ascq (France). Dept. Hyperfrequencies et Semiconducteurs

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents the modeling using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method of interstitial and endocavitary applicators which have been designed and developed for microwave hyperthermia treatments controlled by microwave radiometry. For each kind of applicators, the numerical results are given concerning the reflection coefficient S{sub 11}, the power deposition, and the heating patterns. These results are compared with the measurements performed on phantom models of human tissues and show a good agreement. Possibilities of future developments are discussed.

  11. Hysteresis losses and specific absorption rate measurements in magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coïsson, Marco; Barrera, Gabriele; Celegato, Federica; Martino, Luca; Kane, Shashank N; Raghuvanshi, Saroj; Vinai, Franco; Tiberto, Paola

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic hysteresis loops areas and hyperthermia on magnetic nanoparticles have been studied with the aim of providing reliable and reproducible methods of measuring the specific absorption rate (SAR). The SAR of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with two different mean sizes, and Ni1-xZnxFe2O4 ferrites with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 has been measured with three approaches: static hysteresis loops areas, dynamic hysteresis loops areas and hyperthermia of a water solution. For dynamic loops and thermometric measurements, specific experimental setups have been developed, that operate at comparable frequencies (≈ 69kHz and ≈ 100kHz respectively) and rf magnetic field peak values (up to 100mT). The hyperthermia setup has been fully modelled to provide a direct measurement of the SAR of the magnetic nanoparticles by taking into account the heat exchange with the surrounding environment in non-adiabatic conditions and the parasitic heating of the water due to ionic currents. Dynamic hysteresis loops are shown to provide an accurate determination of the SAR except for superparamagnetic samples, where the boundary with a blocked regime could be crossed in dynamic conditions. Static hysteresis loops consistently underestimate the specific absorption rate but can be used to select the most promising samples. A means of reliably measure SAR of magnetic nanoparticles by different approaches for hyperthermia applications is presented and its validity discussed by comparing different methods. This work fits within the general subject of metrological traceability in medicine with a specific focus on magnetic hyperthermia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Recent Advances in Bionanomaterials" Guest Editor: Dr. Marie-Louise Saboungi and Dr. Samuel D. Bader. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyperthermia in low aspect-ratio magnetic nanotubes for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Guzman, D. F.; Lizardi, L. I.; Otálora, J. A.; Landeros, P.

    2017-03-01

    A simple model for the magnetization reversal process of low aspect-ratio ferromagnetic nanotubes (MNTs) is presented. Because of advantages over other geometries, these structures are interesting for biomedical applications, such as magnetic hyperthermia cancer therapy, where the heat released during magnetic reversal is used to destroy tumors. For example, the tubular geometry provides two independent functional surfaces that may be selectively manipulated and also gives a storage cavity. Owing to their large surface to weight ratio and low mass density, MNTs are not decanted by gravity. We calculated magnetic phase diagrams, energy barriers, nucleation fields, and the amount of dissipated heat and specific absorption rate for magnetite nanotubes. The geometrical parameters were varied, and simple formulae were used to optimize the tube response under alternating excitation, as required for magnetic hyperthermia applications.

  13. Radiofrequency applicator concepts for simultaneous MR imaging and hyperthermia treatment of glioblastoma multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberacker Eva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent and most aggressive malignant brain tumor with de facto no long term curation by the use of current multimodal therapeutic approaches. The efficacy of brachytherapy and enhancing interstitial hyperthermia has been demonstrated. RF heating at ultrahigh fields (B0=7.0T, f=298MHz has the potential of delivering sufficiently large thermal dosage for hyperthermia of relatively large tumor areas. This work focuses on electromagnetic field (EMF simulations and provides realistic applicator designs tailored for simultaneous RF heating and MRI. Our simulations took advantage of target volumes derived from patient data, and our preliminary results suggest that RF power can be focused to both a small tumor area and a large clinical target volume.

  14. Multifunctional magnetic nanostructured hardystonite scaffold for hyperthermia, drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Ali; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Emadi, Rahmatollah

    2017-01-01

    Hyperthermia and local drug delivery have been proposed as potential therapeutic approaches for killing cancer cells. The development of bioactive materials such as Hardystonite (HT) with magnetic and drug delivery properties can potentially meet this target. This new class of magnetic bioceramic can replace the widely used magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, whose long-term biocompatibility is not clear. Magnetic HT can be potentially employed to develop new ceramic scaffolds for bone surgery and anticancer therapies. With this in mind, a synthesis procedure was developed to prepare multifunctional bioactive scaffold for tissue engineering, hyperthermia and drug delivery applications. To this end, iron (Fe(3+))-containing HT scaffolds were prepared. The effect of Fe on biological, magnetic and drug delivery properties of HT scaffolds were investigated. The results showed that obtained Fe-HT is bioactive and magnetic with no magnetite or maghemite as secondary phases. The Fe-HT scaffolds obtained also possessed high specific surface areas and demonstrated sustained drug delivery. These results potentially open new aspects for biomaterials aimed at regeneration of large-bone defects caused by malignant bone tumors through a combination of hyperthermia, local drug delivery and osteoconductivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The development and application of a radiofrequency (RF) interstitial hyperthermia system to prostate cancer

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    Uchida, Nobue; Kawaguchi, Atsuya; Moriyama, Masahiro; Kitagaki, Hajime; Urakami, Shinji; Igawa, Mikio [Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan); Kato, Hirokazu [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kasai, Toshifumi [Kyoto Coll. of Medical Technology, Sonobe (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    To heat a greater volume less invasively and more effectively, we developed a multi-channel RF interstitial hyperthermia system compatible with the high-dose rate Iridium-192 remote after-loading system (Ir-192 RALS). The system is composed of eight channel RF signal generators, which can be controlled individually. Each RF generator can be connected to an internal electrode, which was originally an Ir-192 RALS applicator; and a shared rectangular external electrode made of aluminum. By means of experiments using an agar phantom and an animal liver, we evaluated the heating characteristics, safety, and feasibility of this system. Subsequently, we applied trans-perineal radiofrequency (RF) interstitial hyperthermia and Ir-192 RALS for localized prostate cancer (PC). Under trans-rectal ultrasound guidance, 18 stainless applicators for Ir-192 RALS were inserted into the prostatic gland and seminal vesicles in an optimized pattern. Eight applicators were used as internal electrodes and were electrically insulated along the length of subdermal fat tissue using a vinyl catheter. The temperature inside the prostate and rectum was monitored continuously. Hyperthermia was performed following the first and fourth Ir-192 RALS (total of 24 Gy/4 fractions). Total doses of 46 Gy were also delivered by linear accelerator. There were no complications, such as infection, bleeding, fat necrosis, or burns. Histological examination after the treatment revealed cancer cell death and necrosis. MRI and CT images showed a well-demarcated, low-intensity area at the center of the prostate reflecting the necrotic area. Trans-perineal hyperthermoradiotherapy is a feasible and effective therapeutic alternative for the treatment of patients with localized PC. In addition, our system is compatible with the Ir-192 RALS, allowing for less-invasive interstitial hyperthermoradiotherapy by eliminating the trauma of needle re-insertion. (author)

  16. The Application of Carbon Nanotubes in Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raniszewski, Grzegorz; Miaskowski, Arkadiusz; Wiak, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

      The aim of this paper is to present the results of the investigation into the applications of carbon nanotubes with ferromagnetic nanoparticles as nanoheaters for targeted thermal ablation of cancer cells...

  17. Biotechnological promises of Fe-filled CNTs for cell shepherding and magnetic fluid hyperthermia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineux, Florent; Marega, Riccardo; Stopin, Antoine; La Torre, Alessandro; Garcia, Yann; Devlin, Eamonn; Michiels, Carine; N. Khlobystov, Andrei; Bonifazi, Davide

    2015-12-01

    Fe-filled carbon nanotubes (Fe@CNTs) recently emerged as an effective class of hybrid nanoparticles for biotechnological applications, such as magnetic cell sorting and magnetic fluid hyperthermia. Aiming at studying the effects of both the Fe loading and the magnetocrystalline characteristics in these applications, we describe herein the preparation of Fe@CNTs containing different Fe phases that, upon functionalization with the antibody Cetuximab (Ctxb), allow the targeting of cancer cells. Our experimental findings reveal that an optimal Ctxb/Fe weight ratio of 1.2 is needed for efficient magnetic cell shepherding, whereas enhanced MFH-induced mortality (70 vs. 15%) can be reached with hybrids enriched in the coercive Fe3C phase. These results suggest that a synergistic effect between the Ab loading and the Fe distribution in each nanotube exists, for which the maximum shepherding and hyperthermia effects are observed when higher densities of Fe@CNTs featuring the more coercive phase are interfaced with the cells.Fe-filled carbon nanotubes (Fe@CNTs) recently emerged as an effective class of hybrid nanoparticles for biotechnological applications, such as magnetic cell sorting and magnetic fluid hyperthermia. Aiming at studying the effects of both the Fe loading and the magnetocrystalline characteristics in these applications, we describe herein the preparation of Fe@CNTs containing different Fe phases that, upon functionalization with the antibody Cetuximab (Ctxb), allow the targeting of cancer cells. Our experimental findings reveal that an optimal Ctxb/Fe weight ratio of 1.2 is needed for efficient magnetic cell shepherding, whereas enhanced MFH-induced mortality (70 vs. 15%) can be reached with hybrids enriched in the coercive Fe3C phase. These results suggest that a synergistic effect between the Ab loading and the Fe distribution in each nanotube exists, for which the maximum shepherding and hyperthermia effects are observed when higher densities of Fe

  18. The Application of Carbon Nanotubes in Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Raniszewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of the investigation into the applications of carbon nanotubes with ferromagnetic nanoparticles as nanoheaters for targeted thermal ablation of cancer cells. Relevant nanoparticles’ characteristics were exploited in terms of their functionality for biomedical applications and their magnetic properties were examined to determine heat generation efficiency induced by the exposure of the particles to an alternating magnetic field. The influence of the electromagnetic field on the human body tissues was assessed, providing quantitative measures of the interaction. The behavior of a liquid containing magnetic particles, during the exposure to the alternating magnetic field, was verified. As for the application for the ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes, the authors investigated temperature distribution in human liver tumor together with Arrhenius tissue damage model and the thermal dose concept.

  19. Conformal Microwave Array (CMA) Applicators for Hyperthermia of Diffuse Chestwall Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Maccarini, Paolo; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Craciunescu, Oana; Diederich, Chris; Juang, Titania; Rossetto, Francesca; Schlorff, Jaime; Milligan, Andrew; Hsu, Joe; Sneed, Penny; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This article summarizes the evolution of microwave array applicators for heating large area chestwall disease as an adjuvant to external beam radiation, systemic chemotherapy, and potentially simultaneous brachytherapy. Methods Current devices used for thermotherapy of chestwall recurrence are reviewed. The largest conformal array applicator to date is evaluated in four studies: i) ability to conform to the torso is demonstrated with a CT scan of a torso phantom and MR scan of the conformal waterbolus component on a mastectomy patient; ii) Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and temperature distributions are calculated with electromagnetic and thermal simulation software for a mastectomy patient; iii). SAR patterns are measured with a scanning SAR probe in liquid muscle phantom for a buried coplanar waveguide CMA; and iv) heating patterns and patient tolerance of CMA applicators are characterized in a clinical pilot study with 13 patients. Results CT and MR scans demonstrate excellent conformity of CMA applicators to contoured anatomy. Simulations demonstrate effective control of heating over contoured anatomy. Measurements confirm effective coverage of large treatment areas with no gaps. In 42 hyperthermia treatments, CMA applicators provided well-tolerated effective heating of up to 500cm2 regions, achieving target temperatures of Tmin=41.4±0.7°C, T90=42.1±0.6°C, Tave=42.8±0.6°C, and Tmax=44.3±0.8°C as measured in an average of 90 points per treatment. Summary The CMA applicator is an effective thermal therapy device for heating large-area superficial disease such as diffuse chestwall recurrence. It is able to cover over three times the treatment area of conventional hyperthermia devices while conforming to typical body contours. PMID:20849262

  20. Nanotechnology in hyperthermia cancer therapy: From fundamental principles to advanced applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beik, Jaber; Abed, Ziaeddin; Ghoreishi, Fatemeh S; Hosseini-Nami, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali; Kamrava, S Kamran

    2016-08-10

    In this work, we present an in-depth review of recent breakthroughs in nanotechnology for hyperthermia cancer therapy. Conventional hyperthermia methods do not thermally discriminate between the target and the surrounding normal tissues, and this non-selective tissue heating can lead to serious side effects. Nanotechnology is expected to have great potential to revolutionize current hyperthermia methods. To find an appropriate place in cancer treatment, all nanotechnology-based hyperthermia methods and their risks/benefits must be thoroughly understood. In this review paper, we extensively examine and compare four modern nanotechnology-based hyperthermia methods. For each method, the possible physical mechanisms of heat generation and enhancement due to the presence of nanoparticles are explained, and recent in vitro and in vivo studies are reviewed and discussed. Nano-Photo-Thermal Therapy (NPTT) and Nano-Magnetic Hyperthermia (NMH) are reviewed as the two first exciting approaches for targeted hyperthermia. The third novel hyperthermia method, Nano-Radio-Frequency Ablation (NaRFA) is discussed together with the thermal effects of novel nanoparticles in the presence of radiofrequency waves. Finally, Nano-Ultrasound Hyperthermia (NUH) is described as the fourth modern method for cancer hyperthermia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of glycyrrhizic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Mostafa; Vahidi, Omid; Bonakdar, Shahin

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IONPs) were synthesized using the oxidative precipitation method for biomedical applications. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) extracted from the roots of licorice plant was used as the coating agent for the synthesized nanoparticles (GAIONPs). The crystal phase, morphology and size were investigated by XRD, FE-SEM and TEM. The saturation magnetization (m s ) value of the nanoparticles was measured by VSM indicating lowered m s of the GAIONPs with respect to that of the IONPs due to the presence of GA. In addition, the specific loss power of nanoparticles in a solution and in a tissue mimicking phantom was measured using an alternating magnetic field generator. The presence of the GA on the crystal surface was further confirmed using FT-IR and TG/DTA measurements. The specific surface area of the nanoparticles was measured by BET indicating that GA coating agent increases the available active surface area of the nanoparticles for about 25% making it more appropriate for drug loading purposes. The cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was investigated using MTT assay on L929 fibroblast cell line and the results demonstrated that the coating agent enhances the biocompatibility of the IONPs. The effectiveness of the nanoparticles in inducing cell death was also assessed in an in vitro hyperthermia process and the results showed that the nanoparticles are appropriate to be used for cancer treatment based on hyperthermia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A frequency tuner for resonant inverters suitable for magnetic hyperthermia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon, E. E.; Sámano, A. H.; Calleja, H.; Quintero, L. H.; Paz, J. A.; Cano, M. E.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a frequency tuner system is developed for generating variable frequency magnetic fields for magnetic hyperthermia applications. The tuning device contains three specially designed phase lock loop devices that drive a resonant inverter working in the frequency band of 180-525 kHz. This tuner system can be adapted for other resonant inverters employed in the studies of ferrofluids with superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The performance of the whole system is also examined. Our findings were in agreement with the theoretical expectations of phase locking and frequency tuning. The system is tested for samples of a solid magnetic material of cylindrical shape and ferrofluids with differing concentrations of powdered magnetite. The observations indicate significant frequency changes of the magnetic field due to heating of the samples. These frequency variations can be a source of errors, which should not be neglected in experiments determining the specific absorption rate or power dissipated density.

  3. Novel Applicators for Local Microwave Hyperthermia Based on Zeroth-Order Mode Resonator Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vrba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that a theory of zero-order mode resonator (ZOR metamaterial (MTM structure can be used for the development of a novel class of applicators for microwave thermotherapy, for example, for hyperthermia in cancer treatment or for physiotherapy. The main idea of creating such an applicator is to generate and radiate a plane electromagnetic (EM wave into the treated biological tissue, at least in a certain extent. The main aim of this paper is to investigate whether an EM wave generated by ZOR MTM structure and emitted into the biological tissue can produce a homogeneous SAR distribution in the planes parallel to the applicator aperture and achieve a penetration depth approaching the theoretical limit represented by SAR distribution and penetration depth of an ideal EM plane wave. EM field distribution inside a virtual phantom of the treated region generated by the applicator that is based on the proposed ZOR MTM principle is investigated using a well-proven full-wave commercial simulation tool. The proposed applicator type shows both a low unwanted leaked electromagnetic field and a fairly homogeneous electric field in its aperture as well as in the virtual phantom of the treated region.

  4. FDTD simulations to assess the performance of CFMA-434 applicators for superficial hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, H Petra; De Greef, Martijn; Correia, Davi; Vörding, Paul J Zum Vörde Sive; Van Stam, Gerard; Gelvich, Edward A; Bel, Arjan; Crezee, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Contact flexible microstrip applicators (CFMA), operating at 434 MHz, are applied at the Academic Medical Center (AMC) for superficial hyperthermia (e.g. chest wall recurrences and melanoma). This paper investigates the performance of CFMA, evaluating the stability of the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution, effective heating depth (EHD) and effective field size (EFS) under different conditions. Simulations were performed using finite differences and were compared to existing measurement data, performed using a rectangular phantom with a superficial fat-equivalent layer of 1 cm and filled with saline solution. The electrode plates of the applicators measure approximately 7 x 20, 29 x 21 and 20 x 29 cm(2). Bolus thickness varied between 1 and 2 cm. The impact of the presence of possible air layers between the rubber frame and the electrodes on the SAR distribution was investigated. The EHD was approximately 1.4 cm and the EFS ranged between approximately 60 and approximately 300 cm(2), depending on the applicator type. Both measurements and simulations showed a split-up of the SAR focus with a 2 cm water bolus. The extent and location of air layers has a strong influence on the shape and size of the iso-SAR contours with a value higher than 50%, but the impact on EFS and EHD is limited. Simulations, confirmed by measurements, showed that the presence of air between the rubber and the electrodes changes the iso-SAR contours, but the impact on the EFS and EHD is limited.

  5. Magnetic core-shell chitosan nanoparticles: rheological characterization and hyperthermia application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Mora, Vanessa; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Mar; San Román, Julio; Goya, Gerardo; Hernández, Rebeca; Mijangos, Carmen

    2014-02-15

    Stabilized magnetic nanoparticles are the subject of intense research for targeting applications and this work deals with the design, preparation and application of specific core-shell nanoparticles based on ionic crosslinked chitosan. The nanometric size of the materials was demonstrated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) that also proved an increase of the size of chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) with the magnetite content. Steady oscillatory rheology measurements revealed a gel-like behavior of aqueous dispersions of chitosan NPs with concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 2.0% (w/v). The cytotoxicity of all the materials synthesized was analyzed in human fibroblasts cultures using the Alamar Blue and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. The measured specific power absorption under alternating magnetic fields (f = 580 kHz, H = 24 kA/m) indicated that magnetic core-shell chitosan NPs can be useful as remotely driven heaters for magnetic hyperthermia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Infrared camera based thermometry for quality assurance of superficial hyperthermia applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hartmann, Josefin; Bert, Christoph

    2016-04-07

    The purpose of this work was to provide a feasible and easy to apply phantom-based quality assurance (QA) procedure for superficial hyperthermia (SHT) applicators by means of infrared (IR) thermography. The VarioCAM hr head (InfraTec, Dresden, Germany) was used to investigate the SA-812, the SA-510 and the SA-308 applicators (all: Pyrexar Medical, Salt Lake City, UT, USA). Probe referencing and thermal equilibrium procedures were applied to determine the emissivity of the muscle-equivalent agar phantom. Firstly, the disturbing potential of thermal conduction on the temperature distribution inside the phantom was analyzed through measurements after various heating times (5-50 min). Next, the influence of the temperature of the water bolus between the SA-812 applicator and the phantom's surface was evaluated by varying its temperature. The results are presented in terms of characteristic values (extremal temperatures, percentiles and effective field sizes (EFS)) and temperature-area-histograms (TAH). Lastly, spiral antenna applicators were compared by the introduced characteristics. The emissivity of the used phantom was found to be ε  =  0.91  ±  0.03, the results of both methods coincided. The influence of thermal conduction with regard to heating time was smaller than expected; the EFS of the SA-812 applicator had a size of (68.6  ±  6.7) cm(2), averaged group variances were  ±3.0 cm(2). The TAHs show that the influence of the water bolus is mostly limited to depths of  camera a very useful tool in SHT technical QA.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of Co-Zn ferrite nanoparticles for application to magnetic hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunkyung; Lee, Sangjoon; Kouh, Taejoon; Kim, Sam Jin; Kim, Chul Sung; Hahn, Eunjoo

    2017-01-01

    Co-Zn ferrite nanoparticles have been investigated, aiming at a further improvement of the magnetic hyperthermia properties for bio-medical applications. We precisely tune the magnetic and the thermal properties of Co x Zn1- x Fe2O4 nanoparticles, prepared by using a high-temperature thermal-decomposition method, by chemically controlling the cation. The structure and the magnetic properties as well as the AC-heating characteristics of the synthesized Co x Zn1- x Fe2O4 were measured by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer, magneTherm device and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The analysis of the XRD patterns confirmed the spinel phase, the crystalline size, and the lattice parameter. The magnetic behavior of Co-Zn ferrite was studied with M-H hysteresis curve measurements at room temperature. Also, the thermal properties were measured under an external applied field of 250 Oe at 112 kHz. In addition, we plasma-treated the samples with magnetic and thermal excellent characteristics for 30 min at room temperature. The cation distribution was investigated with Mössbauer spectroscopy and further analyzed with one sextet for the tetrahedral A site and four six-lines for the octahedral B1, B2, B3, and B4 sites.

  8. Measurement of the distribution of anisotropy constants in magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, A. A.; Marquina, C.; O'Grady, K.; Vallejo-Fernandez, G.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we have applied theoretical calculations to new experimental measurements of the effect of the anisotropy distribution in magnetite nanoparticles, which in turn controls hysteresis heating for hyperthermia applications. Good agreement between theory and experiment is reported where the theoretical calculation is based upon the detailed measurement of the particle elongation generally observed in the nanoparticles. The elongation has been measured from studies via transmission electron microscopy. We find that particle elongation is responsible for the anisotropy dispersion, which can be obtained by analysis and fitting to a measurement of the temperature decay of remanence. A median value of the anisotropy constant of 1.5  ×  105 erg/cc was obtained. A very wide distribution of anisotropy constants is present with a Gaussian standard deviation of 1.5  ×  105 erg/cc. From our measurements, deviations in the value of the saturation magnetisation from particle to particle are most likely the main factor giving rise to this large distribution, with 33% arising from the error in the measured elongation. The lower limit to the anisotropy constant of the nanoparticles is determined by the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the material, 1.1  ×  105 erg/cc for magnetite, which was studied in this work.

  9. In vitro biocompatibility of a ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic for hyperthermia application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretcanu, Oana; Miola, Marta; Bianchi, Claudia L; Marangi, Ida; Carbone, Roberta; Corazzari, Ingrid; Cannas, Mario; Verné, Enrica

    2017-04-01

    Ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics containing magnetite crystals were developed for hyperthermia applications of solid neoplastic tissue. The present work is focused on in vitro evaluation of the biocompatibility of these materials, before and after soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and pH measurements were employed in glass-ceramic characterisation. The free-radical mediated reactivity of the glass-ceramic was evaluated by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spin trapping. Cell adhesion and proliferation tests were carried out by using 3T3 murine fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity was performed by qualitative evaluation of human bone osteosarcoma cells U2OS cell line. The results show that almost two times more 3T3 cells proliferated on the samples pre-treated in SBF, compared with the untreated specimens. Moreover a decrease of confluence was observed at 48 and 72h for U2OS cells exposed to the untreated glass-ceramic, while the powder suspensions of glass-ceramic pre-treated in SBF did not influence the cell morphology up to 72h of exposition. The untreated glass-ceramic exhibited Fenton-like reactivity, as well as reactivity towards formate molecule. After pre-treatment with SBF the reactivity towards formate was completely suppressed. The concentration of iron released into the SBF solution was below 0.1ppm at 37°C, during one month of soaking. The different in vitro behaviour of the samples before and after SBF treatment has been correlated to the bioactive glass-ceramic surface modifications as detected by morphological, structural and compositional analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. One-step microwave-assisted synthesis of water-dispersible Fe3O4 magnetic nanoclusters for hyperthermia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, Ayyappan; Kalyani, S.; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John

    2017-10-01

    To realize magnetic hyperthermia as an alternate stand-alone therapeutic procedure for cancer treatment, magnetic nanoparticles with optimal performance, within the biologically safe limits, are to be produced using simple, reproducible and scalable techniques. Herein, we present a simple, one-step approach for synthesis of water-dispersible magnetic nanoclusters (MNCs) of superparamagnetic iron oxide by reducing of Fe2(SO4)3 in sodium acetate (alkali), poly ethylene glycol (capping ligand), and ethylene glycol (solvent and reductant) in a microwave reactor. The average size and saturation magnetization of the MNC's are tuned from 27 to 52 nm and 32 to 58 emu/g by increasing the reaction time from 10 to 600 s. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal that each MNC composed of large number of primary Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The synthesised MNCs show excellent colloidal stability in aqueous phase due to the adsorbed PEG layer. The highest SAR value of 215 ± 10 W/gFe observed in 52 nm size MNC at a frequency of 126 kHz and field of 63 kA/m suggest the potential use of these MNC in hyperthermia applications. This study further opens up the possibilities to develop metal ion-doped MNCs with tunable sizes suitable for various biomedical applications using microwave assisted synthesis.

  11. Thermosensitive Ni-based magnetic particles for self-controlled hyperthermia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sudip; Quetz, Abdiel; Aryal, Anil; Dubenko, Igor; Mazumdar, Dipanjan; Stadler, Shane; Ali, Naushad

    2017-04-01

    A number of ferromagnetic alloys in the bulk-form "thermoseeds" have been investigated for localized self-controlled hyperthermia treatment of cancer by substituting V, Mo, Cu, and Ga for Ni. The samples were prepared by arc-melting technique and annealed at 1223 K (950 °C) for 12 h in sealed quartz tubes. The structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of the samples were studied, using room temperature X-ray diffraction and a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer. The magnetocaloric parameters (magnetic entropy changes, refrigeration capacity (RC), and hysteretic effects) have been calculated. It has been shown that recrystallization, i.e., annealing time and temperature, is crucial for controlling the heating characteristics of the seeds. A linear decrease in Curie temperature (TC) from 380 K (107 °C) to 200 K (-73 °C) was observed with increasing substitution of Ni by V, Mo, Cu, and Ga, while the magnetization value remained nearly constant for all substitutions. The optimal composition of these Ni-based alloys has been determined in order to allow self-controlling hyperthermia, implying a Curie temperature near the therapeutic level, 315-318 K (41-45 °C). The results showed that an extraordinary self-regulating heating effect has been achieved in Ni-based magnetic materials, which may create new vistas for hyperthermia cancer treatment.

  12. The heating effect of iron-cobalt magnetic nanofluids in an alternating magnetic field: application in magnetic hyperthermia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokuhfar, Ali; Seyyed Afghahi, Seyyed Salman

    2013-12-20

    In this research, FeCo alloy magnetic nanofluids were prepared by reducing iron(III) chloride hexahydrate and cobalt(II) sulfate heptahydrate with sodium borohydride in a water/CTAB/hexanol reverse micelle system for application in magnetic hyperthermia treatment. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and energy-dispersive analysis indicate the formation of bcc-structured iron-cobalt alloy. Magnetic property assessment of nanoparticles reveals that some samples are single-domain superparamagnetic, while others are single- or multi-domain ferromagnetic. The stability of the magnetic fluids was achieved by using a CTAB/1-butanol surfactant bilayer. Results of Gouy magnetic susceptibility balance experiments indicate good stability of FeCo nanoparticles even after dilution. The inductive properties of corresponding magnetic fluids including temperature rise and specific absorption rate were determined. Results show that with increasing of the nanoparticle size in the single-domain size regime, the generated heat increases, indicating the significant effect of the hysteresis loss. Finally, the central parameter controlling the specific absorption rate of nanoparticles was introduced, the experimental results were compared with those of the Stoner-Wohlfarth model and linear response theory, and the best sample for magnetic hyperthermia treatment was specified.

  13. Modeling of endoluminal and interstitial ultrasound hyperthermia and thermal ablation: applications to device design, feedback control, and treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Diederich, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    Endoluminal and catheter-based ultrasound applicators are currently under development and are in clinical use for minimally invasive hyperthermia and thermal ablation of various tissue targets. Computational models play a critical role in in device design and optimization, assessment of therapeutic feasibility and safety, devising treatment monitoring and feedback control strategies, and performing patient-specific treatment planning with this technology. The critical aspects of theoretical modeling, applied specifically to endoluminal and interstitial ultrasound thermotherapy, are reviewed. Principles and practical techniques for modeling acoustic energy deposition, bioheat transfer, thermal tissue damage, and dynamic changes in the physical and physiological state of tissue are reviewed. The integration of these models and applications of simulation techniques in identification of device design parameters, development of real time feedback-control platforms, assessing the quality and safety of treatment delivery strategies, and optimization of inverse treatment plans are presented. PMID:23738697

  14. Modelling of endoluminal and interstitial ultrasound hyperthermia and thermal ablation: applications for device design, feedback control and treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant A; Diederich, Chris J

    2013-06-01

    Endoluminal and catheter-based ultrasound applicators are currently under development and are in clinical use for minimally invasive hyperthermia and thermal ablation of various tissue targets. Computational models play a critical role in device design and optimisation, assessment of therapeutic feasibility and safety, devising treatment monitoring and feedback control strategies, and performing patient-specific treatment planning with this technology. The critical aspects of theoretical modelling, applied specifically to endoluminal and interstitial ultrasound thermotherapy, are reviewed. Principles and practical techniques for modeling acoustic energy deposition, bioheat transfer, thermal tissue damage, and dynamic changes in the physical and physiological state of tissue are reviewed. The integration of these models and applications of simulation techniques in identification of device design parameters, development of real time feedback-control platforms, assessing the quality and safety of treatment delivery strategies, and optimisation of inverse treatment plans are presented.

  15. Application of magnetically induced hyperthermia in the model protozoan Crithidia fasciculata as a potential therapy against parasitic infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazú, V; Silber, AM; Moros, M; Asín, L; Torres, TE; Marquina, C; Ibarra, MR; Goya, GF

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnetic hyperthermia is currently a clinical therapy approved in the European Union for treatment of tumor cells, and uses magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) under time-varying magnetic fields (TVMFs). The same basic principle seems promising against trypanosomatids causing Chagas disease and sleeping sickness, given that the therapeutic drugs available have severe side effects and that there are drug-resistant strains. However, no applications of this strategy against protozoan-induced diseases have been reported so far. In the present study, Crithidia fasciculata, a widely used model for therapeutic strategies against pathogenic trypanosomatids, was targeted with Fe3O4 MNPs in order to provoke cell death remotely using TVMFs. Methods Iron oxide MNPs with average diameters of approximately 30 nm were synthesized by precipitation of FeSO4 in basic medium. The MNPs were added to C. fasciculata choanomastigotes in the exponential phase and incubated overnight, removing excess MNPs using a DEAE-cellulose resin column. The amount of MNPs uploaded per cell was determined by magnetic measurement. The cells bearing MNPs were submitted to TVMFs using a homemade AC field applicator (f = 249 kHz, H = 13 kA/m), and the temperature variation during the experiments was measured. Scanning electron microscopy was used to assess morphological changes after the TVMF experiments. Cell viability was analyzed using an MTT colorimetric assay and flow cytometry. Results MNPs were incorporated into the cells, with no noticeable cytotoxicity. When a TVMF was applied to cells bearing MNPs, massive cell death was induced via a nonapoptotic mechanism. No effects were observed by applying TVMF to control cells not loaded with MNPs. No macroscopic rise in temperature was observed in the extracellular medium during the experiments. Conclusion As a proof of principle, these data indicate that intracellular hyperthermia is a suitable technology to induce death of protozoan parasites

  16. In-situ particles reorientation during magnetic hyperthermia application: Shape matters twice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Morales, M. Puerto; Marciello, Marzia; Angelakeris, Makis; de La Presa, Patricia; Lazaro-Carrillo, Ana; Tabero, Andrea; Villanueva, Angeles; Chubykalo-Fesenko, Oksana; Serantes, David

    2016-12-01

    Promising advances in nanomedicine such as magnetic hyperthermia rely on a precise control of the nanoparticle performance in the cellular environment. This constitutes a huge research challenge due to difficulties for achieving a remote control within the human body. Here we report on the significant double role of the shape of ellipsoidal magnetic nanoparticles (nanorods) subjected to an external AC magnetic field: first, the heat release is increased due to the additional shape anisotropy; second, the rods dynamically reorientate in the orthogonal direction to the AC field direction. Importantly, the heating performance and the directional orientation occur in synergy and can be easily controlled by changing the AC field treatment duration, thus opening the pathway to combined hyperthermic/mechanical nanoactuators for biomedicine. Preliminary studies demonstrate the high accumulation of nanorods into HeLa cells whereas viability analysis supports their low toxicity and the absence of apoptotic or necrotic cell death after 24 or 48 h of incubation.

  17. Endocervical ultrasound applicator for integrated hyperthermia and HDR brachytherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Jeffery H.; Hsu, I-Chow Joe; Diederich, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical success of hyperthermia adjunct to radiotherapy depends on adequate temperature elevation in the tumor with minimal temperature rise in organs at risk. Existing technologies for thermal treatment of the cervix have limited spatial control or rapid energy falloff. The objective of this work is to develop an endocervical applicator using a linear array of multisectored tubular ultrasound transducers to provide 3-D conformal, locally targeted hyperthermia concomitant to radiotherapy in the uterine cervix. The catheter-based device is integrated within a HDR brachytherapy applicator to facilitate sequential and potentially simultaneous heat and radiation delivery. Methods: Treatment planning images from 35 patients who underwent HDR brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer were inspected to assess the dimensions of radiation clinical target volumes (CTVs) and gross tumor volumes (GTVs) surrounding the cervix and the proximity of organs at risk. Biothermal simulation was used to identify applicator and catheter material parameters to adequately heat the cervix with minimal thermal dose accumulation in nontargeted structures. A family of ultrasound applicators was fabricated with two to three tubular transducers operating at 6.6–7.4 MHz that are unsectored (360°), bisectored (2×180°), or trisectored (3×120°) for control of energy deposition in angle and along the device length in order to satisfy anatomical constraints. The device is housed in a 6 mm diameter PET catheter with cooling water flow for endocervical implantation. Devices were characterized by measuring acoustic efficiencies, rotational acoustic intensity distributions, and rotational temperature distributions in phantom. Results: The CTV in HDR brachytherapy plans extends 20.5±5.0 mm from the endocervical tandem with the rectum and bladder typically 5EM43 °C over 4–5 cm diameter with Tmaxconformal thermal delivery to the uterine cervix. Feasibility of heating

  18. Malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollock Neil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000–100,000 anesthesias. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 3,000 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs, horses, and probably other animals. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia to marked degree, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH, specifically elevation of end-expired carbon dioxide, provides the clinical diagnostic clues. In humans the syndrome is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs in autosomal recessive. The pathophysiologic changes of MH are due to uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation. Due to ATP depletion, the muscle membrane integrity is compromised leading to hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 90 mutations have been identified in the RYR-1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 25 are causal for MH. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction, on a limited basis so far, of genetic testing for susceptibility to MH. As the sensitivity of genetic testing increases, molecular genetics will be used for identifying those at risk with

  19. Magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles as theranostic platforms for magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and NIR hyperthermia applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urries, Inmaculada; Muñoz, Cristina; Gomez, Leyre; Marquina, Clara; Sebastian, Victor; Arruebo, Manuel; Santamaria, Jesus

    2014-08-07

    PEGylated magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles with a hollow or semi-hollow interior have been successfully synthesized and their physico-chemical characteristics have been investigated. The hollow interior space can be used to store drugs or other molecules of interest whereas magnetic characterization shows their potential as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. In addition, their plasmonic characteristics in the near infrared (NIR) region make them efficient in photothermal applications producing high temperature gradients after short irradiation times. We show that by controlling the etching conditions the inner silica shell can be selectively dissolved to achieve a hollow or semi-hollow interior without compromising the magnetic or plasmonic characteristics of the resulting nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements and transmission electron microscopy observations have been used to demonstrate the precise control during the etching process and to select an optimal concentration of the etching reagent and contact time to preserve the inner superparamagnetic iron oxide-based nanoparticles and the plasmonic properties of the constructs. Drug loading capabilities were also evaluated for both semi-hollow and as-synthesized nanoparticles using Rhodamine B isothiocyanate as a model compound. The nanoparticles produced could be potentially used as "theranostic" nanoparticles with both imaging capabilities and a dual therapeutic function (drug delivery and hyperthermia).

  20. Micelles driven magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) hollow spheres and a study on AC magnetic properties for hyperthermia application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Madhuri Mandal, E-mail: madhuri@bose.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700106 (India); Dey, Chaitali [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700106 (India); CRNN, University of Calcutta, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700106 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Ayan [CRNN, University of Calcutta, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700106 (India); Sarkar, Debasish [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700106 (India); Ahir, Manisha [CRNN, University of Calcutta, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700106 (India)

    2016-11-01

    Here we have discussed about designing the magnetic particles for hyperthermia therapy and done some studies in this direction. We have used oleylamine micelles as template to synthesize hollow–nanospheres (HNS) of magnetite by solvo-thermal technique. We have shown that oleylamine plays an important role to generate hollow particles. Structural analysis was done by XRD measurement and morphological measurements like SEM and TEM was performed to confirm the shape and size of hollow sphere particles. The detail magnetic measurements give an idea about the application of these HNS for magnetic heating in hyperthermia therapy. In vitro cytotoxicity studies reveal that tolerable dose rate for these particles can be significantly high and particles are non-toxic in nature. Being hollow in structure and magnetic in nature such materials will also be useful in other application fields like in drug delivery, drug release, arsenic and heavy metal removal by adsorption technique, magnetic separation etc. - Graphical abstract: Oleylamine micelles driven easy synthesis of hollow nanosphere (HNS) magnetite for hyperthermia therapy. - Highlights: • We have reported a new method of synthesis of hollow spheres of magnetite using micelles as model core and removal of micelles evolve the hollow like structure by relocating the core particles to the edge one. • Size can be controlled by varying the micellar concentration. • The detail magnetic measurements give an idea of applicability of these nano hollow spheres (NHS) in hyperthermia therapy. • Cyto-toxicity study reveals that these particles are highly biofriendly and dose rate can be increased upto a significant amount.

  1. Temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites for hyperthermia and metal extraction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, N. Narayana, E-mail: nagireddynarayana@gmail.com [Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Healthcare, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia@CRIB, Largo Barsanti e Matteucci 53, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Ravindra, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1709 (South Africa); Reddy, N. Madhava [Department of Environmental Science, Gates Institute of Technology, NH-7, Gooty, Anantapuram, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rajinikanth, V. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1709 (South Africa); Raju, K. Mohana [Synthetic Polymer Laboratory, Department of Polymer Science & Technology, S.K. University, Anantapuram, Andhra Pradesh (India); Vallabhapurapu, Vijaya Srinivasu [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1709 (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    The present work deals with the development of temperature and magnetic responsive hydrogel networks based on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)/acrylamido propane sulfonic acid. The hydrogel matrices are synthesized by polymerizing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) monomer in the presence of acrylamido propane sulphonicacid (AMPS) using a cross-linker (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide, MBA) and redox initiating system [ammonium persulphate (APS)/tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA)]. The magnetic nanoparticles are generated throughout the hydrogel networks using in situ method by incorporating iron ions and subsequent treatment with ammonia. A series of hydrogel-magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are developed by varying AMPS composition. The synthesized hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermal Analyses and Electron Microscopy analysis (Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope). The metal extraction capacities of the prepared hydrogel (HG) and hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) were studied at different temperatures. The results suggest that HGMNCs have higher extraction capacity compared to HG and HG loaded iron ions. This data also reveals that the extraction of metals by hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNCs) is higher at higher temperatures than room temperature. The prepared HGMNCs are also subjected to hyperthermia (cancer therapy) studies. - Highlights: • We have developed temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites. • Addition of AMPS monomer to this magnetic hydrogel enhances the temperature sensitivity to 40–43 °C. • Similarly the sulfonic groups present in the AMPS units enhances the swelling ratio of magnetic hydrogels. • AMPS acts as good stabilizing agent for nanoparticles in the magnetic nanogel.

  2. Simulating physiological conditions to evaluate nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) therapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shihwei [Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan (China); Chiang Chenli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Technology, Taiwan (China); Hsieh Shuchen, E-mail: shsieh@facmail.nsysu.edu.t [Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan (China)

    2010-01-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles with high self-heating capacity and low toxicity characteristics are a promising candidate for cancer hyperthermia treatment. In order to achieve minimum dosage to a patient, magnetic nanoparticles with high heating capacity are needed. In addition, the influence of physiological factors on the heat capacity of a material should be investigated in order to determine the feasibility. In this study, magnetite nanoparticles coated with lauric acid were prepared by co-precipitation of Fe{sup 3+}:Fe{sup 2+} in a ratio of 2:1, 5:3, 3:2, and 4:3, and the pH was controlled using NaOH. Structural and magnetization characterization by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) revealed that the main species was Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and further showed that most of the nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic properties. All of the magnetic nanoparticles showed a specific absorption rate (SAR) increase that was linear with the magnetic field strength and frequency of the alternating magnetic field. Among all, the magnetic nanoparticles prepared in a 3:2 ratio showed the highest SAR. To further test the influence of physiological factors on the 3:2 ratio magnetic nanoparticles, we simulated the environment with protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA), blood sugar (dextrose), electrolytes (commercial norm-saline) and viscosity (glycerol) to examine the heating capacity under these conditions. Our results showed that the SAR value was unaffected by the protein and blood sugar environments. On the other hand, the SAR value was significantly reduced in the electrolyte environment, due to precipitation and aggregation with sodium ions. For the simulated viscous environment with glycerol, the result showed that the SAR values reduced with increasing glycerol concentration. We have further tested the heating capacity contribution from the Neel mechanism by trapping the magnetic nanoparticles in a solid form of

  3. Simulating physiological conditions to evaluate nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) therapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shihwei; Chiang, Chen-li; Hsieh, Shuchen

    2010-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles with high self-heating capacity and low toxicity characteristics are a promising candidate for cancer hyperthermia treatment. In order to achieve minimum dosage to a patient, magnetic nanoparticles with high heating capacity are needed. In addition, the influence of physiological factors on the heat capacity of a material should be investigated in order to determine the feasibility. In this study, magnetite nanoparticles coated with lauric acid were prepared by co-precipitation of Fe 3+:Fe 2+ in a ratio of 2:1, 5:3, 3:2, and 4:3, and the pH was controlled using NaOH. Structural and magnetization characterization by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) revealed that the main species was Fe 3O 4 and further showed that most of the nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic properties. All of the magnetic nanoparticles showed a specific absorption rate (SAR) increase that was linear with the magnetic field strength and frequency of the alternating magnetic field. Among all, the magnetic nanoparticles prepared in a 3:2 ratio showed the highest SAR. To further test the influence of physiological factors on the 3:2 ratio magnetic nanoparticles, we simulated the environment with protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA), blood sugar (dextrose), electrolytes (commercial norm-saline) and viscosity (glycerol) to examine the heating capacity under these conditions. Our results showed that the SAR value was unaffected by the protein and blood sugar environments. On the other hand, the SAR value was significantly reduced in the electrolyte environment, due to precipitation and aggregation with sodium ions. For the simulated viscous environment with glycerol, the result showed that the SAR values reduced with increasing glycerol concentration. We have further tested the heating capacity contribution from the Néel mechanism by trapping the magnetic nanoparticles in a solid form of polydimethylsiloxane

  4. Microwave prostatic hyperthermia: Interest of urethral and rectal applicators combination -- Theoretical study and animal experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despretz, D.; Camart, J.C.; Michel, C.; Fabre, J.J. [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve D`Ascq (France); Prevost, B. [Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Sozanski, J.P. [INSERM, Lille (France); Chive, M. [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve D`Ascq (France)]|[INSERM, Lille (France)

    1996-10-01

    Microwave thermotherapy systems used for benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment generally operate with urethral or rectal applicator to deliver the microwave energy in the prostate. This technique does not allow an efficient heating of all the gland particularly in the case of large adenoma or when the treatment is limited to only one heating session. A solution to this problem is given by using simultaneously the rectal and urethral applicators. A complete 915-MHz microwave thermotherapy system is presented with two applicators which can operate independently or simultaneously to deliver the microwave energy in the prostate. Electromagnetic and thermal modeling have been developed for the applicator antenna optimization, to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the thermal pattern in the prostate for each applicator alone and when they operate together in phase. Different canine experiments have been performed to prove the interest of using the two applicators simultaneously as compared when they operate alone. Histological examination cuts of the prostate gland after heating have been carried out.

  5. Understanding the Benefits and Limitations of Magnetic Nanoparticle Heating for Improved Applications in Cancer Hyperthermia and Biomaterial Cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Michael L.

    The current work focused on the ability of magnetic nanoparticles to produce heat in the presence of an applied alternating magnetic field. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia applications utilize this behavior to treat cancer and this approach has received clinical approval in the European Union, but significant developments are necessary for this technology to have a chance for wider-spread acceptance. Here then we begin by investigating some of the important limitations of the current technology. By characterizing the ability of superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic nanoparticles to heat under a range of applied fields, we are able to determine the optimal field settings for clinical application and make recommendations on the highest impact strategies to increase heating. In addition, we apply these experimentally determined limits to heating in a series of heat transfer models, to demonstrate the therapeutic impact of nanoparticle concentration, target volume, and delivery strategy. Next, we attempt to address one of the key questions facing the field- what is the impact of biological aggregation on heating? Controlled aggregate populations are produced and characterized in ionic and protein solutions and their heating is compared with nanoparticles incubated in cellular suspensions. Through this investigation we are able to demonstrate that aggregation is responsible for up to a 50% decrease in heating. However, more importantly, we are able to demonstrate that the observed reductions in heating correlate with reductions in longitudinal relaxation (T1) measured by sweep imaging with Fourier transformation (SWIFT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), providing a potential platform to account for these aggregation effects and directly predict heating in a clinical setting. Finally, we present a new application for magnetic nanoparticle heating, in the thawing of cryopreserved biomaterials. A number of groups have demonstrated the ability to rapidly cool and preserve

  6. Designing the eatwell week: the application of eatwell plate advice to weekly food intake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leslie, Wilma S; Comrie, Fiona; Lean, Michael E J; Hankey, Catherine R

    2013-01-01

    .... Development and analysis of an illustrative 7 d 'eatwell week' menu to meet current UK recommendations for nutrients with a Dietary Reference Value, with a daily energy base of 8368 kJ (2000 kcal...

  7. Thermal modelling for hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaymakers, Bas Willem

    2001-01-01

    Hyperthermia aims at increasing the temperature of malignant tissues to the range of 40-44 C. It is used adjuvantly to adiation therapy in order to enhance tumour control and survival as was recently demonstrated for pelvic tumours by the dutch deep hyperthermia group (published in the Lancet, Van

  8. A comparative measurement technique of nanoparticle heating for magnetic hyperthermia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton, A.; Zehner, J.; Timmis, J.; Patel, V.; Vallejo-Fernandez, G.; O’Grady, K.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a method for the determination of the heating power of magnetic nanoparticle colloids which have potential for application in the remedial treatment of malignant and non-malignant tumours. The method is based upon a comparison between the heating power observed when the colloid is exposed to a radio frequency magnetic field and that which is observed using a resistive electrical heater. A new design of the measurement cell has been made which has the advantages of reducing or eliminating the effects of convection, ensuring the measurement is made in a magnetic field of known uniformity and that the heat losses in the system are constant and minimized under both magnetic and Joule heating.

  9. Designing the eatwell week: the application of eatwell plate advice to weekly food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Wilma S; Comrie, Fiona; Lean, Michael E J; Hankey, Catherine R

    2013-05-01

    To develop a menu and resource to illustrate to consumers and health professionals what a healthy balanced diet looks like over the course of a week. Development and analysis of an illustrative 7 d 'eatwell week' menu to meet current UK recommendations for nutrients with a Dietary Reference Value, with a daily energy base of 8368 kJ (2000 kcal). Foods were selected using market research data on meals and snacks commonly consumed by UK adults. Analysis used the food composition data set from year 1 (2008) of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme. The eatwell week menu was developed using an iterative process of nutritional analysis with adjustments made to portion sizes and the inclusion/exclusion of foods in order to achieve the target macronutrient composition. Three main meals and two snacks were presented as interchangeable within the weekdays and two weekend days to achieve adult food and nutrient recommendations. Main meals were based on potatoes, rice or pasta with fish (two meals; one oily), red meat (two meals), poultry or vegetarian accompaniments. The 5-a-day target for fruit and vegetables (range 5-6·7 portions) was achieved daily. Mean salt content was below recommended maximum levels (foods, and those widely consumed by British adults, can be incorporated within a 7 d healthy balanced menu. Future research should investigate the effect of using the eatwell week on adults' dietary habits and health-related outcomes.

  10. Cerebral oxygenation and hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richard Bain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF. Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g. posture and degree of hyperthermia. The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g. hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges, an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e. 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided.

  11. Planning, optimisation and evaluation of hyperthermia treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, H P; Kotte, A N T J; Crezee, J

    2017-09-01

    Hyperthermia treatment planning using dedicated simulations of power and temperature distributions is very useful to assist in hyperthermia applications. This paper describes an advanced treatment planning software package for a wide variety of applications. The in-house developed C++ software package Plan2Heat runs on a Linux operating system. Modules are available to perform electric field and temperature calculations for many heating techniques. The package also contains optimisation routines, post-treatment evaluation tools and a sophisticated thermal model enabling to account for 3D vasculature based on an angiogram or generated artificially using a vessel generation algorithm. The use of the software is illustrated by a simulation of a locoregional hyperthermia treatment for a pancreatic cancer patient and a spherical tumour model heated by interstitial hyperthermia, with detailed 3D vasculature included. The module-based set-up makes the software flexible and easy to use. The first example demonstrates that treatment planning can help to focus the heating to the tumour. After optimisation, the simulated absorbed power in the tumour increased with 50%. The second example demonstrates the impact of accurately modelling discrete vasculature. Blood at body core temperature entering the heated volume causes relatively cold tracks in the heated volume, where the temperature remains below 40 °C. A flexible software package for hyperthermia treatment planning has been developed, which can be very useful in many hyperthermia applications. The object-oriented structure of the source code allows relatively easy extension of the software package with additional tools when necessary for future applications.

  12. Quality Assurance of Superficial Hyperthermia Treatments Superficial Hyperthermia Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Bruijne (Maarten)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn hyperthermia, tumour-loaded tissue is heated to a supraphysiological level of 40-45 °C. Hyperthermia is a well-established adjuvant to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Hyperthermia causes direct cytotoxicity and has effect on tumour blood flow and oxygenation, which may enhance

  13. Intratumoral iron oxide nanoparticle hyperthermia and radiation cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, P. J.; Strawbridge, R. R.; Gibson, U. J.; Zeng, Q.; Pierce, Z. E.; Savellano, M.; Tate, J. A.; Ogden, J. A.; Baker, I.; Ivkov, R.; Foreman, A. R.

    2007-02-01

    The potential synergism and benefit of combined hyperthermia and radiation for cancer treatment is well established, but has yet to be optimized clinically. Specifically, the delivery of heat via external arrays /applicators or interstitial antennas has not demonstrated the spatial precision or specificity necessary to achieve appropriate a highly positive therapeutic ratio. Recently, antibody directed and possibly even non-antibody directed iron oxide nanoparticle hyperthermia has shown significant promise as a tumor treatment modality. Our studies are designed to determine the effects (safety and efficacy) of iron oxide nanoparticle hyperthermia and external beam radiation in a murine breast cancer model. Methods: MTG-B murine breast cancer cells (1 x 106) were implanted subcutaneous in 7 week-old female C3H/HeJ mice and grown to a treatment size of 150 mm3 +/- 50 mm3. Tumors were then injected locally with iron oxide nanoparticles and heated via an alternating magnetic field (AMF) generator operated at approximately 160 kHz and 400 - 550 Oe. Tumor growth was monitored daily using standard 3-D caliper measurement technique and formula. specific Mouse tumors were heated using a cooled, 36 mm diameter square copper tube induction coil which provided optimal heating in a 1 cm wide region in the center of the coil. Double dextran coated 80 nm iron oxide nanoparticles (Triton Biosystems) were used in all studies. Intra-tumor, peri-tumor and rectal (core body) temperatures were continually measured throughout the treatment period. Results: Preliminary in vivo nanoparticle-AMF hyperthermia (167 KHz and 400 or 550 Oe) studies demonstrated dose responsive cytotoxicity which enhanced the effects of external beam radiation. AMF associated eddy currents resulted in nonspecific temperature increases in exposed tissues which did not contain nanoparticles, however these effects were minor and not injurious to the mice. These studies also suggest that iron oxide nanoparticle

  14. Improved magnetic induction heating of nanoferrites for hyperthermia applications: Correlation with colloidal stability and magneto-structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khot, V.M., E-mail: wish_khot@yahoo.co.in [Center for Interdisciplinary Research, D. Y. Patil University, Kolhapur 416006 (India); Salunkhe, A.B. [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule University of Pune (India); Ruso, J.M. [Soft Matter and Molecular Biophysics Group, Applied Physics Department, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pawar, S.H. [Center for Interdisciplinary Research, D. Y. Patil University, Kolhapur 416006 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Nanoferrites with compositions Mn{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Co{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (MZF, CZF and NZF respectively) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) were prepared in a single step. These nanoparticles are highly water dispersible with zeta potential values between 14 and 21 mV. Magnetic induction heating characteristics of these NPs have been studied as a function of magnetic field amplitude from 6.7 to 26.7 kA m{sup −1} (at fixed frequency 265 kHz) and concentration of nanoparticles. Notable enhancement in specific absorption rate (334.5 W g{sup −1}) by CZF nanoparticles has been observed. This enhanced induction heating properties have been studied and correlated with colloidal stability and magnetostructural properties such as tuned magnetic anisotropy arising from zinc substitution. Cytotoxicity of synthesized mixed ferrites has been evaluated in vitro on HeLa cell lines using MTT assay to explore their use as heating agents in magnetic hyperthermia. - Highlights: • Magnetic nanoferrites (sizes 8–12 nm) with improved specific absorption rate (334.5 W g{sup −1}) at lowest particle concentration have been prepared • The results have been explained by correlating colloidal stability and magnetostructural properties such as magnetocrystalline anisotropy. • It has been shown that substitution of zinc tunes anisotropy of cobalt iron oxide within the value optimized previously in achieving high throughput in magnetic induction heating. • In vitro cytotoxicity proves nanoparticles are non-toxic suggesting their use as a potential heating agent in hyperthermia therapy.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro study of biocompatible cinnamaldehyde functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (CPGF Nps for hyperthermia and drug delivery applications in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtee D Wani

    Full Text Available Cinnamaldehyde, the bioactive component of the spice cinnamon, and its derivatives have been shown to possess anti-cancer activity against various cancer cell lines. However, its hydrophobic nature invites attention for efficient drug delivery systems that would enhance the bioavailability of cinnamaldehyde without affecting its bioactivity. Here, we report the synthesis of stable aqueous suspension of cinnamaldehyde tagged Fe3O4 nanoparticles capped with glycine and pluronic polymer (CPGF NPs for their potential application in drug delivery and hyperthermia in breast cancer. The monodispersed superparamagnetic NPs had an average particulate size of ∼ 20 nm. TGA data revealed the drug payload of ∼ 18%. Compared to the free cinnamaldehyde, CPGF NPs reduced the viability of breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDAMB231, at lower doses of cinnamaldehyde suggesting its increased bioavailability and in turn its therapeutic efficacy in the cells. Interestingly, the NPs were non-toxic to the non-cancerous HEK293 and MCF10A cell lines compared to the free cinnamaldehyde. The novelty of CPGF nanoparticulate system was that it could induce cytotoxicity in both ER/PR positive/Her2 negative (MCF7 and ER/PR negative/Her2 negative (MDAMB231 breast cancer cells, the latter being insensitive to most of the chemotherapeutic drugs. The NPs decreased the growth of the breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner and altered their migration through reduction in MMP-2 expression. CPGF NPs also decreased the expression of VEGF, an important oncomarker of tumor angiogenesis. They induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-3. Interestingly, upon exposure to the radiofrequency waves, the NPs heated up to 41.6 °C within 1 min, suggesting their promise as a magnetic hyperthermia agent. All these findings indicate that CPGF NPs prove to be potential nano-chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer.

  16. Evaluation of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-Na2O-Fe2O3 bioglass-ceramics for hyperthermia application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra Kumar; Srinivasan, A; Kothiyal, G P

    2009-12-01

    Magnetic bioglass ceramics (MBC) are being considered for use as thermoseeds in hyperthermia treatment of cancer. While the bioactivity in MBCs is attributed to the formation of the bone minerals such as crystalline apatite, wollastonite, etc. in a physiological environment, the magnetic property arises from the magnetite [Fe3O4] present in these implant materials. A new set of bioglasses with compositions 41CaO x (52-x)SiO2 x 4P2O5 x xFe2O3 x 3Na2O (2 glasses were then heat treated at 1050 degrees C for 3 h to obtain the glass-ceramics. The structure and microstructure of the samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction and microscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction data revealed the presence of magnetite in the heat treated samples with x > or = 2 mol% Fe2O3. Room temperature magnetic property of the heat treated samples was investigated using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. Field scans up to 20 kOe revealed that the glass ceramic samples had a high saturation magnetization and low coercivity. Room temperature hysteresis cycles were also recorded at 500 Oe to ascertain the magnetic properties at clinically amenable field strengths. The area under the magnetic hysteresis loop is a measure of the heat generated by the MBC. The coercivity of the samples is another important factor for hyperthermia applications. The area under the loop increases with an increase in Fe2O3 molar concentration and the. coercivity decreases with an increase in Fe2O3 molar concentration The evolution of magnetic properties in these MBCs as a function of Fe2O3 molar concentration is discussed and correlated with the amount of magnetite present in them.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro study of biocompatible cinnamaldehyde functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (CPGF Nps) for hyperthermia and drug delivery applications in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Kirtee D; Kadu, Brijesh S; Mansara, Prakash; Gupta, Preeti; Deore, Avinash V; Chikate, Rajeev C; Poddar, Pankaj; Dhole, Sanjay D; Kaul-Ghanekar, Ruchika

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde, the bioactive component of the spice cinnamon, and its derivatives have been shown to possess anti-cancer activity against various cancer cell lines. However, its hydrophobic nature invites attention for efficient drug delivery systems that would enhance the bioavailability of cinnamaldehyde without affecting its bioactivity. Here, we report the synthesis of stable aqueous suspension of cinnamaldehyde tagged Fe3O4 nanoparticles capped with glycine and pluronic polymer (CPGF NPs) for their potential application in drug delivery and hyperthermia in breast cancer. The monodispersed superparamagnetic NPs had an average particulate size of ∼ 20 nm. TGA data revealed the drug payload of ∼ 18%. Compared to the free cinnamaldehyde, CPGF NPs reduced the viability of breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDAMB231, at lower doses of cinnamaldehyde suggesting its increased bioavailability and in turn its therapeutic efficacy in the cells. Interestingly, the NPs were non-toxic to the non-cancerous HEK293 and MCF10A cell lines compared to the free cinnamaldehyde. The novelty of CPGF nanoparticulate system was that it could induce cytotoxicity in both ER/PR positive/Her2 negative (MCF7) and ER/PR negative/Her2 negative (MDAMB231) breast cancer cells, the latter being insensitive to most of the chemotherapeutic drugs. The NPs decreased the growth of the breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner and altered their migration through reduction in MMP-2 expression. CPGF NPs also decreased the expression of VEGF, an important oncomarker of tumor angiogenesis. They induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-3. Interestingly, upon exposure to the radiofrequency waves, the NPs heated up to 41.6 °C within 1 min, suggesting their promise as a magnetic hyperthermia agent. All these findings indicate that CPGF NPs prove to be potential nano-chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer.

  18. Application of hyperthermia in addition to ionizing irradiation fosters necrotic cell death and HMGB1 release of colorectal tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schildkopf, Petra, E-mail: petra.schildkopf@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Frey, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.frey@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Mantel, Frederick, E-mail: frederick.mantel@web.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Ott, Oliver J., E-mail: oliver.ott@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Weiss, Eva-Maria, E-mail: eva-maria.weiss@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Sieber, Renate, E-mail: renate.sieber@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Janko, Christina, E-mail: christina.janko@uk-erlangen.de [Department for Internal Medicine 3, Institute for Clinical Immunology, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Sauer, Rolf, E-mail: rolf.sauer@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Fietkau, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.fietkau@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Gaipl, Udo S., E-mail: udo.gaipl@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death in developed countries. Tumor therapies should on the one hand aim to stop the proliferation of tumor cells and to kill them, and on the other hand stimulate a specific immune response against residual cancer cells. Dying cells are modulators of the immune system contributing to anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory responses, depending on the respective cell death form. The positive therapeutic effects of temperature-controlled hyperthermia (HT), when combined with ionizing irradiation (X-ray), were the origin to examine whether combinations of X-ray with HT can induce immune activating tumor cell death forms, also characterized by the release of the danger signal HMGB1. Human colorectal tumor cells with differing radiosensitivities were treated with combinations of HT (41.5 {sup o}C for 1 h) and X-ray (5 or 10 Gy). Necrotic cell death was prominent after X-ray and could be further increased by HT. Apoptosis remained quite low in HCT 15 and SW480 cells. X-ray and combinations with HT arrested the tumor cells in the radiosensitive G2 cell cycle phase. The amount of released HMGB1 protein was significantly enhanced after combinatorial treatments in comparison to single ones. We conclude that combining X-ray with HT may induce anti-tumor immunity as a result of the predominant induction of inflammatory necrotic tumor cells and the release of HMGB1.

  19. In vivo noninvasive thermometry for hyperthermia applications using the MRI-based proton-resonance-frequency method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Poorter, J.; De Deene, Y.; Achten, E. [Ghent University (Belgium). Dept. of Magnetic Resonance; De Wagter, C. [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde; Thomsen, C. [Hvidovre Univ. (Denmark); Staahlberg, F. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics

    1995-12-01

    The lack of noninvasive temperature monitoring is seriously limiting hyperthermia treatment of deep-seated tumors. MRI methods exploit the temperature dependence of a physical property whose spatial distribution can be visualized. The Proton Resonance Frequency (PRF) as physical property was examined because phantom studies prove the high accuracy that can be obtained using this parameter. Thermal experiments were performed in human lower legs. The results show that in muscle tissue the three-dimensional temperature distribution can be evaluated with a mean spatial distribution of 2 millimetres, a temporal resolution of 2 minutes and an accuracy of about 1 degree Celsius. However, it is not possible to retrieve the temperature distribution in fat tissue using the PRF-method due to the predominance of susceptibility effects in fat. The susceptibility effects are a consequence of the temperature dependence of the susceptibility constants. Experimental data on these dependencies were obtained and the magnitude of these effects was modelled for some specific configurations. The susceptibility effects in muscle tissue can be neglected when precautions are made. The PRF method is an attractive tool to study time-varying temperature changes in muscle tissue.

  20. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, Marcus Matheus Johannes

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the author studied the diagnostic procedures for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH), with special emphasis upon refining the biological diagnostic test and improving protocols and guidelines for investigation of MH susceptibility. MH is a pharmacogenetic disease of skeletal

  1. Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bladder , rectum , liver , appendix , cervix , and peritoneal lining ( mesothelioma ) ( 1 , 3 – 7 ). Many of these studies, but not all, have shown a significant reduction in tumor size when hyperthermia is combined with other treatments ( 1 , 3 , 6 , 7 ). However, not all of ...

  2. Magnetic nanomaterials for hyperthermia-based therapy and controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Challa S S R; Mohammad, Faruq

    2011-08-14

    Previous attempts to review the literature on magnetic nanomaterials for hyperthermia-based therapy focused primarily on magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) using mono metallic/metal oxide nanoparticles. The term "hyperthermia" in the literature was also confined only to include use of heat for therapeutic applications. Recently, there have been a number of publications demonstrating magnetic nanoparticle-based hyperthermia to generate local heat resulting in the release of drugs either bound to the magnetic nanoparticle or encapsulated within polymeric matrices. In this review article, we present a case for broadening the meaning of the term "hyperthermia" by including thermotherapy as well as magnetically modulated controlled drug delivery. We provide a classification for controlled drug delivery using hyperthermia: Hyperthermia-based controlled drug delivery through bond breaking (DBB) and hyperthermia-based controlled drug delivery through enhanced permeability (DEP). The review also covers, for the first time, core-shell type magnetic nanomaterials, especially nanoshells prepared using layer-by-layer self-assembly, for the application of hyperthermia-based therapy and controlled drug delivery. The highlight of the review article is to portray potential opportunities for the combination of hyperthermia-based therapy and controlled drug release paradigms--towards successful application in personalized medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Photoacoustic-Based-Close-Loop Temperature Control for Nanoparticle Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohua, Feng; Fei, Gao; Yuanjin, Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Hyperthermia therapy requires tight temperature control to achieve selective killing of cancerous tissue with minimal damage on surrounding healthy tissues. To this end, accurate temperature monitoring and subsequent heating control are critical. However, an economic, portable, and real-time temperature control solution is currently lacking. To bridge this gap, we present a novel portable close-loop system for hyperthermia temperature control, in which photoacoustic technique is proposed for noninvasive real-time temperature measurement. Exploiting the high sensitivity of photoacoustics, the temperature is monitored with an accuracy of around 0.18 °C and then fed back to a controller implemented on field programmable gate array (FPGA) for temperature control. Dubbed as portable hyperthermia feedback controller (pHFC), it stabilizes the temperature at preset values by regulating the hyperthermia power with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) algorithm; and to facilitate digital implementation, the pHFC further converts the PID output into switching values (0 and 1) with the pulse width modulation (PWM) algorithm. Proof-of-concept hyperthermia experiments demonstrate that the pHFC system is able to bring the temperature from baseline to predetermined value with an accuracy of 0.3° and a negligible temperature overshoot. The pHFC can potentially be translated to clinical applications with customized hyperthermia system design. This paper can facilitate future efforts in seamless integration of close-loop temperature control solution and various clinical hyperthermia systems.

  4. Adaptive controller for hyperthermia robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the development of an adaptive computer control routine for a robotically, deployed focused, ultrasonic hyperthermia cancer treatment system. The control algorithm developed herein uses physiological models of a tumor and the surrounding healthy tissue regions and transient temperature data to estimate the treatment region`s blood perfusion. This estimate is used to vary the specific power profile of a scanned, focused ultrasonic transducer to achieve a temperature distribution as close as possible to an optimal temperature distribution. The controller is evaluated using simulations of diseased tissue and using limited experiments on a scanned, focused ultrasonic treatment system that employs a 5-Degree-of-Freedom (D.O.F.) robot to scan the treatment transducers over a simulated patient. Results of the simulations and experiments indicate that the adaptive control routine improves the temperature distribution over standard classical control algorithms if good (although not exact) knowledge of the treated region is available. Although developed with a scanned, focused ultrasonic robotic treatment system in mind, the control algorithm is applicable to any system with the capability to vary specific power as a function of volume and having an unknown distributed energy sink proportional to temperature elevation (e.g., other robotically deployed hyperthermia treatment methods using different heating modalities).

  5. Size reduction and radiation pattern shaping of multi-fed DCC slot antennas used in conformal microwave array hyperthermia applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarini, Paolo F.; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Martins, Carlos D.; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2009-02-01

    The use of conformal antenna array in the treatment of superficial diseases can significantly increase patient comfort while enhancing the local control of large treatment area with irregular shapes. Originally a regular square multi-fed slot antenna (Dual Concentric Conductor - DCC) was proposed as basic unit cell of the array. The square DCC works well when the outline of the treatment area is rectangular such as in the main chest or back area but is not suitable to outline diseases spreading along the armpit and neck area. In addition as the area of the patch increases, the overall power density decreases affecting the efficiency and thus the ability to deliver the necessary thermal dose with medium power amplifier (area while increasing the perimeter of the slot, thus increasing the antenna efficiency and the power density. The simulation performed with several commercial packages (Ansoft HFSS, Imst Empire, SemcadX and CST Microwave Studio) show that the size reducing method can be applied to several shapes and for different frequencies. The SAR measurements of several DCCs are performed using an in-house high resolution scanning system with tumor equivalent liquid phantom both at 915 MHz for superficial hyperthermia systems in US) and 433 MHz (Europe). The experimental results are compared with the expected theoretical predictions and both simulated and measured patterns of single antennas of various size and shapes are then summed in various combinations using Matlab to show possible treatment irregular contours of complex diseases. The local control is expected to significantly improve while maintaining the patient comfort.

  6. Application of magnetic field hyperthermia and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles to HIV-1-specific T-cell cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P; Southern, Paul; Lissina, Anya; Christian, Helen C; Sewell, Andrew K; Phillips, Rodney; Pankhurst, Quentin; Frater, John

    2013-01-01

    The latent HIV-1 reservoir remains the major barrier to HIV-1 eradication. Although successful at limiting HIV replication, highly active antiretroviral therapy is unable to cure HIV infection, thus novel therapeutic strategies are needed to eliminate the virus. Magnetic field hyperthermia (MFH) generates thermoablative cytotoxic temperatures in target-cell populations, and has delivered promising outcomes in animal models, as well as in several cancer clinical trials. MFH has been proposed as a strategy to improve the killing of HIV-infected cells and for targeting the HIV latent reservoirs. We wished to determine whether MFH could be used to enhance cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) targeting of HIV-infected cells in a proof-of-concept study. Here, for the first time, we apply MFH to an infectious disease (HIV-1) using the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle FeraSpin R. We attempt to improve the cytotoxic potential of T-cell receptor-transfected HIV-specific CTLs using thermotherapy, and assess superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle toxicity, uptake, and effect on cell function using more sensitive methods than previously described. FeraSpin R exhibited only limited toxicity, demonstrated efficient uptake and cell-surface attachment, and only modestly impacted T-cell function. In contrast to the cancer models, insufficient MFH was generated to enhance CTL killing of HIV-infected cells. MFH remains an exciting new technology in the field of cancer therapeutics, which, as technology improves, may have significant potential to enhance CTL function and act as an adjunctive therapy in the eradication of latently infected HIV-positive cells. PMID:23901272

  7. Application of magnetic field hyperthermia and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles to HIV-1-specific T-cell cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P; Southern, Paul; Lissina, Anya; Christian, Helen C; Sewell, Andrew K; Phillips, Rodney; Pankhurst, Quentin; Frater, John

    2013-01-01

    The latent HIV-1 reservoir remains the major barrier to HIV-1 eradication. Although successful at limiting HIV replication, highly active antiretroviral therapy is unable to cure HIV infection, thus novel therapeutic strategies are needed to eliminate the virus. Magnetic field hyperthermia (MFH) generates thermoablative cytotoxic temperatures in target-cell populations, and has delivered promising outcomes in animal models, as well as in several cancer clinical trials. MFH has been proposed as a strategy to improve the killing of HIV-infected cells and for targeting the HIV latent reservoirs. We wished to determine whether MFH could be used to enhance cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) targeting of HIV-infected cells in a proof-of-concept study. Here, for the first time, we apply MFH to an infectious disease (HIV-1) using the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle FeraSpin R. We attempt to improve the cytotoxic potential of T-cell receptor-transfected HIV-specific CTLs using thermotherapy, and assess superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle toxicity, uptake, and effect on cell function using more sensitive methods than previously described. FeraSpin R exhibited only limited toxicity, demonstrated efficient uptake and cell-surface attachment, and only modestly impacted T-cell function. In contrast to the cancer models, insufficient MFH was generated to enhance CTL killing of HIV-infected cells. MFH remains an exciting new technology in the field of cancer therapeutics, which, as technology improves, may have significant potential to enhance CTL function and act as an adjunctive therapy in the eradication of latently infected HIV-positive cells.

  8. Study of specific absorption rate of strontium doped lanthanum manganite nanoparticles for self-controlled hyperthermia applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Amin ur; Ahmed, Ashfaq [Magnetism Laboratory, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, S.N. [National Center for Physics, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Shaheen, S.A. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Manzoor, Sadia, E-mail: sadia_manzoor@comsats.edu.pk [Magnetism Laboratory, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-12-15

    Magnetic and magnetothermal properties of strontium doped lanthanum manganite La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} nanoparticles have been studied with the strontium concentration x varying between 0.15 and 0.45. La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared by the citrate gel route. XRD results show that all samples exhibit the characteristic perovskite structure with average particle sizes between 33 and 44 nm. Adiabatic magnetothermia measurements were carried out in an RF magnetic field of 800 A/m and 214 kHz. Both magnetic and thermomagnetic behaviors are governed by the strontium content of the samples. The saturation magnetization, Curie temperature and specific absorption rate (SAR) vary non-monotonically with x. The SAR of the nanoparticles has been calculated using the linear response theory and good agreement with the experimental data has been observed. The intrinsic loss power (ILP) has been obtained from the SAR values. ILP values of our samples are comparable to those of magnetite. - Highlights: • Using linear response theory (LRT) to calculate SAR for La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} system. • Found good agreement between the calculated and experimentally determined SAR. • LRT reproduces SAR in a compositionally dependent magnetic properties system. • Intrinsic loss power (ILP) is comparable to that of commercial ferrofluids. • Curie temperature of x=0.15, 0.2 are suitable for self-controlled hyperthermia.

  9. Magnetic nanoparticles for enhancing the effectiveness of ultrasonic hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefczak, A.; Kaczmarek, K.; Hornowski, T.; Kubovčíková, M.; Rozynek, Z.; Timko, M.; Skumiel, A.

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic hyperthermia is a method of cancer treatment in which tumors are exposed to an elevated cytotoxic temperature using ultrasound (US). In conventional ultrasonic hyperthermia, the ultrasound-induced heating in the tumor is achieved through the absorption of wave energy. However, to obtain appropriate temperature in reasonable time, high US intensities, which can have a negative impact on healthy tissues, are required. The effectiveness of US for medical purposes can be significantly improved by using the so-called sonosensitizers, which can enhance the thermal effect of US on the tissue by increasing US absorption. One possible candidate for such sonosensitizers is magnetic nanoparticles with mean sizes of 10-300 nm, which can be efficiently heated because of additional attenuation and scattering of US. Additionally, magnetic nanoparticles are able to produce heat in the alternating magnetic field (magnetic hyperthermia). The synergetic application of ultrasonic and magnetic hyperthermia can lead to a promising treatment modality.

  10. FDTD analysis of a noninvasive hyperthermia system for brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoob, Sulafa M; Hassan, Noha S

    2012-08-14

    Hyperthermia is considered one of the new therapeutic modalities for cancer treatment and is based on the difference in thermal sensitivity between healthy tissues and tumors. During hyperthermia treatment, the temperature of the tumor is raised to 40-45°C for a definite period resulting in the destruction of cancer cells. This paper investigates design, modeling and simulation of a new non-invasive hyperthermia applicator system capable of effectively heating deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors using inexpensive, simple, and easy to fabricate components without harming surrounding healthy brain tissues. The proposed hyperthermia applicator system is composed of an air filled partial half ellipsoidal chamber, a patch antenna, and a head model with an embedded tumor at an arbitrary location. The irradiating antenna is placed at one of the foci of the hyperthermia chamber while the center of the brain tumor is placed at the other focus. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used to compute both the SAR patterns and the temperature distribution in three different head models due to two different patch antennas at a frequency of 915 MHz. The obtained results suggest that by using the proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system it is feasible to achieve sufficient and focused energy deposition and temperature rise to therapeutic values in deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors without harming surrounding healthy tissue. The proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system proved suitable for raising the temperature in tumors embedded in the brain to therapeutic values by carefully selecting the systems components. The operator of the system only needs to place the center of the brain tumor at a pre-specified location and excite the antenna at a single frequency of 915 MHz. Our study may provide a basis for a clinical applicator prototype capable of heating brain tumors.

  11. FDTD analysis of a noninvasive hyperthermia system for brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoob Sulafa M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperthermia is considered one of the new therapeutic modalities for cancer treatment and is based on the difference in thermal sensitivity between healthy tissues and tumors. During hyperthermia treatment, the temperature of the tumor is raised to 40–45°C for a definite period resulting in the destruction of cancer cells. This paper investigates design, modeling and simulation of a new non-invasive hyperthermia applicator system capable of effectively heating deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors using inexpensive, simple, and easy to fabricate components without harming surrounding healthy brain tissues. Methods The proposed hyperthermia applicator system is composed of an air filled partial half ellipsoidal chamber, a patch antenna, and a head model with an embedded tumor at an arbitrary location. The irradiating antenna is placed at one of the foci of the hyperthermia chamber while the center of the brain tumor is placed at the other focus. The finite difference time domain (FDTD method is used to compute both the SAR patterns and the temperature distribution in three different head models due to two different patch antennas at a frequency of 915 MHz. Results The obtained results suggest that by using the proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system it is feasible to achieve sufficient and focused energy deposition and temperature rise to therapeutic values in deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors without harming surrounding healthy tissue. Conclusions The proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system proved suitable for raising the temperature in tumors embedded in the brain to therapeutic values by carefully selecting the systems components. The operator of the system only needs to place the center of the brain tumor at a pre-specified location and excite the antenna at a single frequency of 915 MHz. Our study may provide a basis for a clinical applicator prototype capable of heating brain tumors.

  12. Optimizing magnetic anisotropy of La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Amin ur [Magnetism Laboratory, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Applied Physical and Material Sciences, University of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Manzoor, Sadia, E-mail: sadia_manzoor@comsats.edu.pk [Magnetism Laboratory, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-12-15

    Maximizing the magnetothermal response of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP's) for hyperthermia applications is a complex problem, because it depends sensitively upon interrelated magnetic and structural parameters. The task is somewhat simpler for systems with fixed composition, e.g. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, in which the particle size is the only means of modifying the magnetic anisotropy, and hence the magnetothermal response. In the La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} system however, the magnetic interactions as well as the particle size both change with the Sr concentration x, which makes it a much more complex system for which to optimize the hyperthermia response. We have investigated the effect of magnetic anisotropy on the magnetothermal response of La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} nanoparticles as a function of the particle size as well as the Sr concentration x where 0.20≤x≤0.45. The optimum particle size range is 25–30 nm for all concentrations, where the specific absorption rate (SAR) has a maximum. The linear response theory (LRT) has been applied to this system and good agreement has been found between the experimental and theoretically determined values of the SAR for samples lying in the single domain regime and having large enough anisotropy energies. The agreement is much better for the intermediate concentrations of 0.27 and 0.33, because of their large anisotropy as compared to other concentrations. It is concluded that the LRT can be successfully used to predict the SAR of these nanoparticles, provided they possess large enough effective anisotropies. Values of the ILP have been obtained for these samples and found to be comparable to those of magnetite and some commercial ferrofluids. - Highlights: • For La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} system, the magnetic anisotropy is determined not only by the particle size, but also by the strontium content x, we made a systematic study of both these parameters on its magnetothermal

  13. Boosting the effects of hyperthermia-based anticancer treatments by HSP90 inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Lianne E. M.; van den Tempel, Nathalie; Oei, Arlene L.; L'Acosta, Mike; Pieterson, Frederique J.; Franken, Nicolaas A. P.; Kanaar, Roland; Krawczyk, Przemek M.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperthermia - application of supra-physiological temperatures to cells, tissues or organs - is a pleiotropic treatment that affects most aspects of cellular metabolism, but its effects on DNA are of special interest in the context of cancer research and treatment. Hyperthermia inhibits repair of

  14. Magnetic Nanomaterials for Hyperthermia-based Therapy and Controlled Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.; Mohammad, Faruq

    2011-01-01

    Previous attempts to review the literature on magnetic nanomaterials for hyperthermia-based therapy focused primarily on magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) using mono metallic/metal oxide nanoparticles. The term “Hyperthermia” in the literature was also confined only to include use of heat for therapeutic applications. Recently, there have been a number of publications demonstrating magnetic nanoparticle-based hyperthermia to generate local heat resulting in the release of drugs either bound to the magnetic nanoparticle or encapsulated within polymeric matrices. In this review article, we present a case for broadening the meaning of the term “hyperthermia” by including thermotherapy as well as magnetically modulated controlled drug delivery. We provide a classification for controlled drug delivery using hyperthermia: Hyperthermia-based controlled Drug delivery through Bond Breaking (DBB) and Hyperthermia-based controlled Drug delivery through Enhanced Permeability (DEP). The review also covers, for the first time, core-shell type magnetic nanomaterials, especially nanoshells prepared using layer-by-layer self-assembly, for the application of hyperthermia-based therapy and controlled drug delivery. The highlight of the review article is to portray potential opportunities in the combination of hyperthermia-based therapy and controlled drug release paradigms for successful application in personalized medicine. PMID:21447363

  15. Pregnancy week by week

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Pregnancy week by week Pregnancy week by week Week by week Videos Infographics ...

  16. EFFECTS OF MICROWAVE HYPERTHERMIA AT TWO DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES (434 AND 2450 MHZ ON HUMAN MUSCLE TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat therapy is commonly used to treat injured muscles, and recently, hyperthermia which has been used in oncology was introduced as a modality for use in sports medicine. The important physiological response which produces most of the beneficial effects of hyperthermia is increased blood flow (Sekins et al., 1984. Effective clinical response occurs when the temperature reaches 41 to 45 °C (Lehmann and de Lateur, 1982, increasing blood flow up to 15 times (Song, 1984. Sekins et al., 1984 reported that to produce observable variations in blood perfusion, temperature must rise above 41.5 °C as fast as possible. While there are several heating modalities, studies have shown that electromagnetic waves are more effective than other thermal modalities for treating injured muscles at depth of 1-4cm (Giombini et al., 2007. However, because of lack of research-based evidence of the microwave hyperthermia treatment, clinical and research studies need to be completed to confirm the therapeutic effectiveness of hyperthermia. We recently reported that hyperthermia treatment with a 434-MHz microwave and direct- contact applicator increased and maintained the muscle temperature locally by 6.3-11.4°C without causing muscle damage (Ichinoseki-Sekine et al., 2007. This system has also been found to be a highly innovative and reliable modality for treating acute muscle injuries (Giombini et al., 2001. However, most of the hyperthermia systems commonly used in clinical situations is equipped with a 2450-MHz microwave generator and a non-contact applicator. The possibility exists that the muscle temperature is influenced by the frequency and applicator style. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the changes in human muscle temperature induced by two different types of microwave hyperthermia systems. Our results could assist to solve the lack of research-based evidence for the clinical effectiveness of hyperthermia treatment. In this study two different

  17. Hyperthermia and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2008-01-01

    of the cardiovascular function, which eventually reduces arterial oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles. Accordingly, aerobic energy turnover is impaired and anaerobic metabolism provokes peripheral fatigue. In contrast, metabolic disturbances of muscle homeostasis are less important during prolonged exercise......The present review addresses mechanisms of importance for hyperthermia-induced fatigue during short intense activities and prolonged exercise in the heat. Inferior performance during physical activities with intensities that elicit maximal oxygen uptake is to a large extent related to perturbation...... in the heat, because increased oxygen extraction compensates for the reduction in systemic blood flow. The decrease in endurance seems to involve changes in the function of the central nervous system (CNS) that lead to fatigue. The CNS fatigue appears to be influenced by neurotransmitter activity...

  18. Specific absorption rate calculations of magnetite, using a modified linear response model for applications in magnetic hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, S. A.; Cano, M. E.; Torres-Arenas, J.

    2014-11-01

    Currently the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by magnetic nanoparticles is studied for biomedical applications of cancer thermotherapy. Several experiments are conduced following the framework of the Rosensweig model, in order to estimate their specific absorption rate. Nevertheless, this linear approximation involves strong simplifications which constrain their accuracy and validity range. The main aim of this work is to incorporate the deviation of the sphericity assumption in particles shapes, to improve the determination of their specific absorption rate. The correction to the effective particles volume is computed as a measure of the apparent amount of magnetic material, interacting with the external AC magnetic field. Preliminary results using the physical properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, exhibit an important correction in their estimated specific absorption rate, as a function of the apparent mean particles radius. Indeed, we have observed using a small deviation (6% of the apparent radius), up to 40% of the predicted specific absorption rate by the Rosensweig linear approximation.

  19. Specific absorption rate calculations of magnetite, using a modified linear response model for applications in magnetic hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández S, A., E-mail: h.s.alfonso@gmail.com, E-mail: meduardo2001@hotmail.com; Cano, M. E., E-mail: h.s.alfonso@gmail.com, E-mail: meduardo2001@hotmail.com [Centro Universitario de la Ciénega, Universidad de Guadalajara, Ocotlán, Jalisco (Mexico); Torres-Arenas, J., E-mail: torresare@gmail.com [Division de Ciencias e Ingenierías, Universidad de Guanajuato, León, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Currently the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by magnetic nanoparticles is studied for biomedical applications of cancer thermotherapy. Several experiments are conduced following the framework of the Rosensweig model, in order to estimate their specific absorption rate. Nevertheless, this linear approximation involves strong simplifications which constrain their accuracy and validity range. The main aim of this work is to incorporate the deviation of the sphericity assumption in particles shapes, to improve the determination of their specific absorption rate. The correction to the effective particles volume is computed as a measure of the apparent amount of magnetic material, interacting with the external AC magnetic field. Preliminary results using the physical properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, exhibit an important correction in their estimated specific absorption rate, as a function of the apparent mean particles radius. Indeed, we have observed using a small deviation (6% of the apparent radius), up to 40% of the predicted specific absorption rate by the Rosensweig linear approximation.

  20. On-demand drug release and hyperthermia therapy applications of thermoresponsive poly-(NIPAAm-co-HMAAm)/polyurethane core-shell nanofiber mat on non-vascular nitinol stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Ludwig Erik; GhavamiNejad, Amin; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2017-02-01

    A functional cover made up of core-shell nanofibers with a unique combination of thermoresponsive polymeric shell and stretchable polymeric core for non-vascular nitinol stents that uses an alternating magnetic field (AMF) to induce heat in the stent for hyperthermia therapy and simultaneously release 5-fluorouracil and/or paclitaxel was designed. Varying the ratios of NIPAAm to HMAAm monomer resulted in different LCST properties for the synthesized copolymer and further utilized for an on-demand drug release. Biocompatibility test using NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells indicates that the composite with drug content is biocompatible and the in-vitro cancer cytotoxicity test using ESO26 and OE21 cancer cells proved that the material shows cancer cytotoxic properties via combination of dual drug and hyperthermia therapy. With this functional material, we propose a tailorable and on-demand drug release with more control that can be employed for a combination drug therapy/single drug therapy combined with hyperthermia therapy for cancer cytotoxicity effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyuk Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%–8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6–12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6–12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P=0.191 than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6–12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks.

  2. Local tumour hyperthermia as immunotherapy for metastatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraya-Brown, Seiko; Fiering, Steven

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Local tumour hyperthermia for cancer treatment is currently used either for ablation purposes as an alternative to surgery or less frequently, in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to enhance the effects of those traditional therapies. As it has become apparent that activating the immune system is crucial to successfully treat metastatic cancer, the potential of boosting anti-tumour immunity by heating tumours has become a growing area of cancer research. After reviewing the history of hyperthermia therapy for cancer and introducing methods for inducing local hyperthermia, this review describes different mechanisms by which heating tumours can elicit anti-tumour immune responses, including tumour cell damage, tumour surface molecule changes, heat shock proteins, exosomes, direct effects on immune cells, and changes in the tumour vasculature. We then go over in vivo studies that provide promising results showing that local hyperthermia therapy indeed activates various systemic anti-tumour immune responses that slow growth of untreated tumours. Finally, future research questions that will help bring the use of local hyperthermia as systemic immunotherapy closer to clinical application are discussed.

  3. Local hyperthermia in the treatment of sinonasal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, V. A.; Gribova, O. V.; Vasiljev, R. V.; Ryabova, A. I.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Shtin, V. I.; Surkova, P. V.; Starceva, Zh. A.; Shilova, O. G.

    2017-09-01

    The preliminary treatment outcomes for 8 patients with sinonasal carcinoma have been presented. All the patients received a multimodality treatment including thermoradiotherapy followed by the operation and intraoperative radiotherapy. Clinical testing of the method of the combined treatment of sinonasal carcinomas with local hyperthermia has showed that the positive effect was achieved in all patients without causing pronounced complications during the treatment. Further studies with careful quality control are required to solve the existing problems of local hyperthermia in the head and neck region before this method of treatment can be recommended for a wide clinical application.

  4. Delineation of potential hot spots for hyperthermia treatment planning optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.; van Wieringen, N.; Crezee, H.; van Dijk, J. D. P.

    2007-01-01

    The optimal feed parameters of the generators for a complex-phased hyperthermia array system consisting of 4, 8 or even more applicators cannot be found using only the expertise of the treatment staff or using the limited amount of field and temperature data obtained during treatment. A number of

  5. In vivo verification of regional hyperthermia in the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Jae Moung; Kim, Hye Young; Park, Hee Chul; Lee, So Hyang; Kim, Young Sun; Jung, Sang Hoon; Han, Young Jin [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Saet Byul; Park, Ji Hyun [Laboratory Animal Research Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We performed invasive thermometry to verify the elevation of local temperature in the liver during hyperthermia. Three 40-kg pigs were used for the experiments. Under general anesthesia with ultrasonography guidance, two glass fiber-optic sensors were placed in the liver, and one was placed in the peritoneal cavity in front of the liver. Another sensor was placed on the skin surface to assess superficial cooling. Six sessions of hyperthermia were delivered using the Celsius TCS electro-hyperthermia system. The energy delivered was increased from 240 kJ to 507 kJ during the 60-minute sessions. The inter-session cooling periods were at least 30 minutes. The temperature was recorded every 5 minutes by the four sensors during hyperthermia, and the increased temperatures recorded during the consecutive sessions were analyzed. As the animals were anesthetized, the baseline temperature at the start of each session decreased by 1.3 degrees C to 2.8 degrees C (median, 2.1 degrees C). The mean increases in temperature measured by the intrahepatic sensors were 2.42 degrees C (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70-3.13) and 2.67 degrees C (95% CI, 2.05-3.28) during the fifth and sixth sessions, respectively. The corresponding values for the intraperitoneal sensor were 2.10 degrees C (95% CI, 0.71-3.49) and 2.87 degrees C (1.13-4.43), respectively. Conversely, the skin temperature was not increased but rather decreased according to application of the cooling system. We observed mean 2.67 degrees C and 2.87 degrees C increases in temperature at the liver and peritoneal cavity, respectively, during hyperthermia. In vivo real-time thermometry is useful for directly measuring internal temperature during hyperthermia.

  6. Terbium doped SnO2 nanoparticles as white emitters and SnO2:5Tb/Fe3O4 magnetic luminescent nanohybrids for hyperthermia application and biocompatibility with HeLa cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Laishram Priyobarta; Singh, Ningthoujam Premananda; Srivastava, Sri Krishna

    2015-04-14

    SnO2:5Tb (SnO2 doped with 5 at% Tb(3+)) nanoparticles were synthesised by a polyol method and their luminescence properties at different annealing temperatures were studied. Characterization of nanomaterials was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). XRD studies indicate that the prepared nanoparticles were of tetragonal structures. Upon Tb(3+) ion incorporation into SnO2, Sn(4+) changes to Sn(2+) and, on annealing again at higher temperature, Sn(2+) changes to Sn(4+). The prepared nanoparticles were spherical in shape. Sn-O vibrations were found from the FTIR studies. In photoluminescence studies, the intensity of the emission peaks of Tb(3+) ions increases with the increase of annealing temperature, and emission spectra lie in the region of white emission in the CIE diagram. CCT calculations show that the SnO2:5Tb emission lies in cold white emission. Quantum yields up to 38% can be obtained for 900 °C annealed samples. SnO2:5Tb nanoparticles were well incorporated into the PVA polymer and such a material incorporated into the polymer can be used for display devices. The SnO2:5Tb/Fe3O4 nanohybrid was prepared and investigated for hyperthermia applications at different concentrations of the nanohybrid. This achieves a hyperthermia temperature (42 °C) under an AC magnetic field. The hybrid nanomaterial SnO2:5Tb/Fe3O4 was found to exhibit biocompatibility with HeLa cells (human cervical cancer cells) at concentrations up to 74% for 100 μg L(-1). Also, this nanohybrid shows green emission and thus it will be helpful in tracing magnetic nanoparticles through optical imaging in vivo and in vitro application.

  7. Preoperative diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    operative hyperthermia and pallor in children with significant mor- tality, the so called OMBRÉDANNE'S ... fracture who was more anxious about anesthesia than about sur- gery because 10 of his relatives had died during or ... SR, and relaxation occurs when the concentration is restored to less than mechanical threshold.

  8. Radiotherapy and hyperthermia for treatment of primary locally advanced cervix cancer: results in 378 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckena, Martine; Lutgens, Ludy C; Koper, Peter C; Kleynen, Catharina E; van der Steen-Banasik, Elsbieta M; Jobsen, Jan J; Leer, Jan Willem; Creutzberg, Carien L; Dielwart, Michel F; van Norden, Yvette; Canters, Richard A M; van Rhoon, Gerard C; van der Zee, Jacoba

    2009-01-01

    To report response rate, pelvic tumor control, survival, and late toxicity after treatment with combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia (RHT) for patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (LACC) and compare the results with other published series. From 1996 to 2005, a total of 378 patients with LACC (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB2-IVA) were treated with RHT. External beam radiotherapy (RT) was applied to 46-50.4 Gy and combined with brachytherapy. The hyperthermia (HT) was prescribed once weekly. Primary end points were complete response (CR) and local control. Secondary end points were overall survival, disease-specific survival, and late toxicity. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics predictive for the end points were identified in univariate and multivariate analyses. Overall, a CR was achieved in 77% of patients. At 5 years, local control, disease-specific survival, and incidence of late toxicity Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Grade 3 or higher were 53%, 47%, and 12%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, number of HT treatments emerged as a predictor of outcome in addition to commonly identified prognostic factors. The CR, local control, and survival rates are similar to previously observed results of RHT in the randomized Dutch Deep Hyperthermia Trial. Reported treatment results for currently applied combined treatment modalities (i.e., RT with chemotherapy and/or HT) do not permit definite conclusions about which combination is superior. The present results confirm previously shown beneficial effects from adding HT to RT and justify the application of RHT as first-line treatment in patients with LACC as an alternative to chemoradiation.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and hemolysis studies of Zn{sub (1−x)}Ca{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites synthesized by sol-gel for hyperthermia treatment applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasso-Terán, Rosario Argentina, E-mail: arg.jasso@gmail.com; Cortés-Hernández, Dora Alicia; Sánchez-Fuentes, Héctor Javier; Reyes-Rodríguez, Pamela Yajaira; León-Prado, Laura Elena de; Escobedo-Bocardo, José Concepción; Almanza-Robles, José Manuel

    2017-04-01

    The synthesis of Zn{sub (1−x)}Ca{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, x=0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0, was performed by sol-gel method followed by a heat treatment at 400 °C for 30 min. These ferrites showed nanometric sizes and nearly superparamagnetic behavior. The Zn{sub 0.50}Ca{sub 0.50}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites presented a size within the range of 12–14 nm and appropriate heating ability for hyperthermia applications. Hemolysis testing demonstrated that Zn{sub 0.50}Ca{sub 0.50}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite was not cytotoxic when using 10 mg of ferrite/mL of solution. According to the results obtained, Zn{sub 0.50}Ca{sub 0.50}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is a potential material for cancer treatment by magnetic hyperthermia therapy. - Highlights: • The synthesis of Zn{sub (1−x)}Ca{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites was performed by sol-gel method. • CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Zn{sub 0.50}Ca{sub 0.}50Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites showed heating ability. • The Zn{sub 0.50}Ca{sub 0.50}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite demonstrated to be no hemolytic.

  10. Effect of combination laser hyperthermia and radiation therapy for malignant tumor of the eyelid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, Tomoko [Chukyo Hospital, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Ando, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Michiko

    1997-10-01

    Malignant tumors of the eyelid have been treated successfully by excision of a margin of normal tissue, but cosmesis may be a problem postoperatively. To avoid the problems of surgery, we used a combination therapy of laser hyperthermia followed by radiation in 4 eyes of 4 patients (2 eyes with sebaceous gland carcinoma, 1 with squamous cell carcinoma, and 1 with basal cell carcinoma). An interstitial contact laser probe of artificial sapphire connected to a continuous wave neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser was used to effect hyperthermia in the tumor for 15 to 20 minutes at each treatment. The laser energy was applied directly to the surface of the conjunctiva, which was anesthetized before each treatment by topical application of anesthetic drops and injection of lidocaine. The temperature around the tumor was maintained between 42 and 43 degrees C by intermittent low-power irradiation of 2 watts. Radiotherapy was administered 3 to 5 times a week using a linear accelerator set at 4 to 6 MeV to deliver 2.5 to 3.5 Gy at each session for a total of 50 to 65 Gy. None of the 4 patients experienced recurrence of eyelid tumor, and the only complications observed were madarosis (2 eyes) and cataract (1 eye). This protocol seems to be a promising method to treat malignant tumor of the eyelid. (author)

  11. Influence of cisplatin on the sensitivity of the rat sciatic nerve to local hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J. F.; van der Kracht, A. H.; Wondergem, J.; Gonzalez Gonzalez, D.; Haveman, J.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of cisplatin on the sensitivity of the rat sciatic nerve to local hyperthermia was investigated. Rats received 1.7 mg/kg cisplatin i.p., twice a week for 6 weeks, up to a cumulative dose of 20.4 mg/kg. After termination of cisplatin treatment, a 5 mm segment of the nerve was locally

  12. Short-time focused ultrasound hyperthermia enhances liposomal doxorubicin delivery and antitumor efficacy for brain metastasis of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Kai; Chiang, Chi-Feng; Hsu, Yu-Hone; Lin, Tzu-Hung; Liou, Houng-Chi; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lin, Win-Li

    2014-01-01

    The blood–brain/tumor barrier inhibits the uptake and accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs. Hyperthermia can enhance the delivery of chemotherapeutic agent into tumors. In this study, we investigated the effects of short-time focused ultrasound (FUS) hyperthermia on the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) for brain metastasis of breast cancer. Murine breast cancer 4T1-luc2 cells expressing firefly luciferase were injected into female BALB/c mice striatum tissues and used as a brain metastasis model. The mice were intravenously injected with PLD (5 mg/kg) with/without 10-minute transcranial FUS hyperthermia on day 6 after tumor implantation. The amounts of doxorubicin accumulated in the normal brain tissues and tumor tissues with/without FUS hyperthermia were measured using fluorometry. The tumor growth for the control, hyperthermia, PLD, and PLD + hyperthermia groups was measured using an IVIS spectrum system every other day from day 3 to day 11. Cell apoptosis and tumor characteristics were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Short-time FUS hyperthermia was able to significantly enhance the PLD delivery into brain tumors. The tumor growth was effectively inhibited by a single treatment of PLD + hyperthermia compared with both PLD alone and short-time FUS hyperthermia alone. Immunohistochemical examination further demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of PLD plus short-time FUS hyperthermia for brain metastasis of breast cancer. The application of short-time FUS hyperthermia after nanodrug injection may be an effective approach to enhance nanodrug delivery and improve the treatment of metastatic cancers. PMID:25278753

  13. [Design of broadband power divider in microwave hyperthermia system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Jiang, Guotai; Lu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Yi

    2010-10-01

    In clinical application of microwave hyperthermia, multi-applicators are often simultaneously required to irradiate the tumor because of its large volume or its deep location. Power divider separates the input microwave energy into equal, or unequal, energy to each applicator. In this paper, the design procedure for the three-section transmission-line transformer based one-to-two equal-split Wilkinson power divider is introduced. By impedance analysis on equivalent scheme, the design parameter of power divider is provided, and by simulation and optimization on Ansoft HFSS, a microstrip structure Wilkinson power divider operating frequency 2. 45 GHz is given. Measurement test results from network analyzer show that it has 25% bandwidth and good isolation in output with this structure. Besides, it is characterized by small size and easy processing. This power divider suits microwave hyperthermia.

  14. Mathematical model for hit phenomena and its application to analyze popularity of weekly tv drama

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Akira; Usui, Tsukasa; Uchiyama, Koki

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical model for hit phenomena presented by A Ishii et al in 2012 has been extended to analyze and predict a lot of hit subject using social network system. The equation for each individual consumers is assumed and the equation of social response to each hit subject is derived as stochastic process of statistical physics. The advertisement effect is included as external force and the communication effects are included as two-body and three-body interaction. The applications of this model are demonstrated for analyzing population of weekly TV drama. Including both the realtime view data and the playback view data, we found that the indirect communication correlate strongly to the TV viewing rate data for recent Japanese 20 TV drama.

  15. Ferromagnetic hyperthermia in rabbit eyes using a new glass-ceramic thermoseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, M; Yoshimura, N; Honda, Y; Hiraoka, M; Ohura, K

    1994-03-01

    Hyperthermia is a new treatment modality to increase the tumoricidal effect of radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma. We have produced a ferromagnetic glass-ceramic composed of magnetite and wollastonite as a thermoseed for interstitial hyperthermia. The stable oxidized ceramic produced sufficient heat by hysteresis loss upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field. We studied its heat-generating properties and evaluated its possible application to ocular hyperthermia. Agar model and rabbit eye studies showed that the heat generated by the ceramic was less affected by its orientation in the magnetic field than metal alloy thermoseeds and that the retinal surface was heated to 43.5 degrees C in less than 7 min without heating the surrounding tissue. Additionally, this heating system showed a good temperature stability of +/- 0.1 degrees C under steady-state conditions without using a controller. The new glass-ceramic shows promise as a thermoseed in ocular hyperthermia.

  16. An integrated platform for small-animal hyperthermia investigations under ultra-high-field MRI guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Sergio; Faridi, Pegah; Shrestha, Tej B; Pyle, Marla; Maurmann, Leila; Troyer, Deryl; Bossmann, Stefan H; Prakash, Punit

    2017-07-21

    Integrating small-animal experimental hyperthermia instrumentation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affords real-time monitoring of spatial temperature profiles. This study reports on the development and preliminary in vivo characterisation of a 2.45 GHz microwave hyperthermia system for pre-clinical small animal investigations, integrated within a 14 T ultra-high-field MRI scanner. The presented system incorporates a 3.5 mm (OD) directional microwave hyperthermia antenna, positioned adjacent to the small-animal target, radiating microwave energy for localised heating of subcutaneous tumours. The applicator is integrated within the 30 mm bore of the MRI system. 3D electromagnetic and biothermal simulations were implemented to characterise hyperthermia profiles from the directional microwave antenna. Experiments in tissue mimicking phantoms were performed to assess hyperthermia profiles and validate MR thermometry against fibre-optic temperature measurements. The feasibility of delivering in vivo hyperthermia exposures to subcutaneous 4T1 tumours in experimental mice under simultaneous MR thermometry guidance was assessed. Simulations and experiments in tissue mimicking phantoms demonstrated the feasibility of heating 21-982 mm3 targets with 8-12 W input power. Minimal susceptibility and electrical artefacts introduced by the hyperthermia applicator were observed on MR imaging. MR thermometry was in excellent agreement with fibre-optic temperatures measurements (max. discrepancy ≤0.6 °C). Heating experiments with the reported system demonstrated the feasibility of heating subcutaneous tumours in vivo with simultaneous MR thermometry. A platform for small-animal hyperthermia investigations under ultra-high-field MR thermometry was developed and applied to heating subcutaneous tumours in vivo.

  17. On the improvement of regional hyperthermia treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthermia is an adjuvant treatment modality to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, with the aim of increasing the tumour killing effect of the treatment. It involves the elevation of the tumour temperature to ~ 42oC. Radiofrequent heating is a practical method for hyperthermia: a number of

  18. Simulation techniques in hyperthermia treatment planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Paulides (Maarten); J.C. Stauffer; E. Neufeld; P.F. MacCarini (Paolo); A. Kyriakou (Adamos); R.A.M. Canters (Richard); S. Diederich (Sven); J. Bakker (Jan); G.C. van Rhoon (Gerard)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractClinical trials have shown that hyperthermia (HT), i.e. an increase of tissue temperature to 39-44 °C, significantly enhance radiotherapy and chemotherapy effectiveness [1]. Driven by the developments in computational techniques and computing power, personalised hyperthermia treatment

  19. European Malignant Hyperthermia Group guidelines for investigation of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, P M; Rüffert, H; Snoeck, M M

    2015-01-01

    It is 30 yr since the British Journal of Anaesthesia published the first consensus protocol for the laboratory diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility from the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group. This has subsequently been used in more than 10 000 individuals worldwide to inform use...... of anaesthetic drugs in these patients with increased risk of developing malignant hyperthermia during general anaesthesia, representing an early and successful example of stratified medicine. In 2001, our group also published a guideline for the use of DNA-based screening of malignant hyperthermia...

  20. Gelatine-assisted synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, André F.; Mendo, Sofia G. [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Ferreira, Liliana P. [Universidade de Lisboa, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Mendonça, Maria Helena [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Ferreira, Paula [University of Aveiro, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal); Godinho, Margarida; Cruz, Maria Margarida [Universidade de Lisboa, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Carvalho, Maria Deus, E-mail: mdcarvalho@ciencias.ulisboa.pt [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal)

    2016-01-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method exploring the use of gelatine and agar as additives. For comparison, magnetite nanoparticles were also prepared by standard co-precipitation, by co-precipitation with the addition of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) and by the thermal decomposition method. The structure and morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Their magnetic properties were studied by SQUID magnetometry and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The nanoparticles potential for applications in magnetic hyperthermia was evaluated through heating efficiency under alternating magnetic field. The results show that all synthesis methods produce Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with similar sizes. The nanoparticles synthesized in the gelatine medium display the narrowest particle size distribution, the lowest oxidation degree, one of the highest saturation magnetization values and the best hyperthermia efficiency, proving that this gelatine-assisted synthesis is an efficient, environmental friendly, and low-cost method to produce magnetite nanoparticles. Graphical Abstract: A new gelatine-assisted method is an efficient and low-cost way to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles with enhanced magnetic hyperthermia.

  1. Can commercial ferrofluids be exploited in AC magnetic hyperthermia treatment to address diverse biomedical aspects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakeris, M.; Li, Zi-An; Sakellari, D.; Simeonidis, K.; Spasova, M.; Farle, M.

    2014-07-01

    Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles are considered as promising candidates for various applications combining diagnosis, imaging and therapy. In the present work, we elaborate on the commercial colloidal solution "FluidMAG" (from Chemicell GmbH) as a possible candidate for magnetic hyperthermia application. The current product is a dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles employed for purification or separation of biotinylated biomolecules from different sources (e.g. blood). Transmission Electron Microscopy showed that the NPs have a spherical shape with mean diameter of 12.3 nm (± 20%), and SQUID magnetometry revealed their superparamagnetic character. Our promising results of the AC hyperthermia efficiency of "FluidMAG" suggest that with the appropriate manipulation it can also be exploited as magnetic hyperthermia agent.

  2. Can commercial ferrofluids be exploited in AC magnetic hyperthermia treatment to address diverse biomedical aspects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelakeris M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles are considered as promising candidates for various applications combining diagnosis, imaging and therapy. In the present work, we elaborate on the commercial colloidal solution “FluidMAG” (from Chemicell GmbH as a possible candidate for magnetic hyperthermia application. The current product is a dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles employed for purification or separation of biotinylated biomolecules from different sources (e.g. blood. Transmission Electron Microscopy showed that the NPs have a spherical shape with mean diameter of 12.3 nm (± 20%, and SQUID magnetometry revealed their superparamagnetic character. Our promising results of the AC hyperthermia efficiency of “FluidMAG” suggest that with the appropriate manipulation it can also be exploited as magnetic hyperthermia agent.

  3. Luminescence properties of Sm{sup 3+} doped YPO{sub 4}: Effect of solvent, heat-treatment, Ca{sup 2+}/W{sup 6+}-co-doping and its hyperthermia application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Dimple P.; Ningthoujam, R. S., E-mail: rsn@barc.gov.in; Tyagi, A. K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2012-12-15

    Sm{sup 3+} doped YPO{sub 4} spherical nanoparticles are prepared by wet chemical route. Pure YPO{sub 4} shows the tetragonal phase, which is stable up to 900 °C, whereas pure SmPO{sub 4} shows the phase transition from hexagonal to monoclinic when heated above 800 °C. The (2-10 at.%) Sm{sup 3+} doped YPO{sub 4} shows the mixture of phases of tetragonal and hexagonal, which transform to the tetragonal phase above 800 °C. Infra-red study could distinguish confined water in the pore of hexagonal phase from water present on the surface of particles. Luminescence intensities of Sm{sup 3+} at 564, 601 and 645 nm are weak in case of as-prepared samples because of high non-radiative rate arising from the H{sub 2}O molecules present in pores of hexagonal lattice. The intensities increase for samples heated up to 900 °C because of increase of extent of radiative rate. Luminescence lifetime increases with increase of heat-treatment up to 900 °C. When solvent of as-prepared sample was changed from the H{sub 2}O to D{sub 2}O, 5 times enhancement in luminescence intensity is observed, which can be ascribed to the lower vibration energy of D-O over H-O, which is near to Sm{sup 3+}. When Y{sup 3+} and P{sup 5+} ions are substituted by Ca{sup 3+} and W{sup 3+} up to 3 at.%, there is an enhancement of luminescence. In order to use them as bio-labeling in drug delivery for hyperthermia applications, hybrid of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@YPO{sub 4}:7Sm is prepared and heating up to 45 °C is observed under AC magnetic field.

  4. Water dispersible superparamagnetic Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunkhe, Ashwini B.; Khot, Vishwajeet M.; Ruso, Juan M.; Patil, S. I.

    2016-12-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles of Cobalt iron oxide (CoFe2O4) are synthesized chemically, and dispersed in an aqueous suspension for hyperthermia therapy application. Different parameters such as magnetic field intensity, particle concentration which regulates the competence of CoFe2O4 nanoparticle as a heating agents in hyperthermia are investigated. Specific absorption rate (SAR) decreases with increase in the particle concentration and increases with increase in applied magnetic field intensity. Highest value of SAR is found to be 91.84 W g-1 for 5 mg. mL-1 concentration. Oleic acid conjugated polyethylene glycol (OA-PEG) coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles have shown superior cyto-compatibility over uncoated nanoparticles to L929 mice fibroblast cell lines for concentrations below 2 mg. mL-1. Present work provides the underpinning for the use of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as a potential heating mediator for magnetic fluid hyperthermia.

  5. Evaluation of immediate and 12-week effects of a smartphone sun-safety mobile application: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Lantz, Kathy; Buller, Mary Klein; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Liu, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Mobile applications on smartphones can communicate a large amount of personalized, real-time health information, including advice on skin cancer prevention, but their effectiveness may be affected by whether recipients can be convinced to use them. To evaluate a smartphone mobile application (Solar Cell) delivering real-time advice about sun protection for a second time in a randomized clinical trial. A previous trial conducted in 2012 used a randomized pretest-posttest design. For the present trial, we collected data from a volunteer sample of 202 adults 18 years or older who owned a smartphone. Participants were recruited nationwide through online promotions. Screening procedures and a 3-week run-in period were added to increase the use of the mobile application. We conducted follow-ups at 3 and 8 weeks after randomization to examine the immediate and the longer-term effects of the intervention. Use of the mobile application. The application gave feedback on sun protection (ie, sun-safety practices and the risk for sunburn) and alerted users to apply or to reapply sunscreen and to get out of the sun. The application also displayed the hourly UV Index and vitamin D production based on the forecast UV Index, time, and location. Percentage of days with the use of sun protection, time spent outdoors in the midday sun (days and hours), and the number of sunburns in the last 3 months. Participants in the intervention group used wide-brimmed hats more at 7 weeks than control participants (23.8% vs 17.4%; F = 4.07; P = .045). Women who used the mobile application reported using all sun protection combined more than men (46.4% vs 43.3%; F = 1.49; P = .04), whereas men and older individuals reported less use of sunscreen (32.7% vs 35.5%; F = 5.36; P = .02) and hats (15.6% vs 17.9%; F = 4.72; P = .03). The mobile application initially appeared to confer weak improvement of sun protection. Use of the mobile application was greater than in a previous trial and was

  6. Phosphate Kinetics During Weekly Cycle of Hemodialysis Sessions: Application of Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Malgorzata; Poleszczuk, Jan; Wojcik-Zaluska, Alicja; Ksiazek, Andrzej; Zaluska, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Both hyperphosphatemia and hypophosphatemia are associated with increased morbidity and mortality among patients on dialysis. The control of serum phosphate concentration is a considerable clinical problem. Our study aimed to improve understanding of phosphate kinetics in patients on dialysis using mathematical modeling. Three consecutive hemodialysis sessions with breaks of 2-2-3 days were monitored in 25 patients. Phosphate concentration was measured every hour and 45 min after the end of dialysis in blood serum and every 30 min in dialysate during each session. Volume of fluid compartments and body composition were assessed by bioimpedance. The pseudo one-compartment model was applied to describe the profile of phosphate in blood serum during intra- and interdialytic periods of 1-week cycle of three hemodialysis sessions. Model parameters, such as phosphate internal clearance (KM ) and the rate of phosphate mobilization (RM ), were correlated with the reduction of serum phosphate concentration during dialysis (Cpost /Cpre ) and with equivalent continuous clearance (ECC) for phosphate. KM correlated negatively with predialysis serum phosphate concentration. There was significant positive correlation between RM and age. Postdialysis volume of phosphate central compartment was lower than, but correlated to, extracellular water volume. Parameters of the pseudo one-compartment model, phosphate internal clearance, and the rate of phosphate inflow to the central compartment (the one accessible for dialysis) from other phosphate body reservoirs correlated with the indices of dialysis adequacy, such as reduction of serum phosphate and ECC. The pseudo one-compartment model can be successfully extended from a single hemodialysis to the standard weekly cycle of sessions and the model parameters strongly correlate with the adequacy parameters of dialytic removal of phosphate. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley

  7. [Evaluation of ultrasound hyperthermia system with a phantom model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, S; Hirose, T; Shiba, T; Kuriya, K; Watanabe, K

    1996-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) hyperthermia is a local heating method that has recently been introduced into clinical practice. A prototype and modified version of this system using a phantom model (agar with bone inserted) were evaluated. The prototype system consists of a power delivery unit (0.5 MHz frequency) with a circulating cooled water bolus. This system heats a shallow area irrespective of power output, but has a tendency to overheat the phantom surface. We incorporated three modifications into the prototype. The modified type has three frequency applicators (0.5, 1.0, 1.5MHz) and a secondary bolus. Aluminum-urethane shields were used to cover the phantom surface located over bone preventing overheating of bone. By changing the applicator's US frequency, we could change the depth of the heating area. Overheating of the phantom surface and bone thus was avoided. These results suggest that our modified US hyperthermia system with multiple frequency applicators, a secondary bolus and aluminum-urethane shields provided a good heating pattern.

  8. Intermittent application of hypergravity by centrifugation attenuates disruption of rat gait induced by 2 weeks of simulated microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajino, Junichi; Ito, Akira; Nagai, Momoko; Zhang, Xiangkai; Yamaguchi, Shoki; Iijima, Hirotaka; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kuroki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of intermittent hypergravity on gait alterations and hindlimb muscle atrophy in rats induced by 2 weeks of simulated microgravity were investigated. Rats were submitted to hindlimb unloading for 2 weeks (unloading period), followed by 2 weeks of reloading (recovery period). During the unloading period, animals were subjected to the following treatments: (1) free in cages (Control); (2) continuous unloading (UL); (3) released from unloading for 1 hour per day (UL+1G); (4) hypergravity for 1h per day using a centrifuge for small animals (UL+2G). The relative weights of muscles to the whole body weight and kinematics properties of hindlimbs during gait were evaluated. UL rats walked with their hindlimbs overextended, and the oscillation of their limb motion had become narrowed and forward-shifted after the unloading period, and this persisted for at least 2 weeks after the termination of unloading. However, these locomotor alterations were attenuated in rats subjected to UL+2G centrifugation despite minor systematic changes in muscle recovery. These findings indicate hypergravity application could counteract the adverse effects of simulated or actual microgravity environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined radiotherapy and local external hyperthermia in advanced cancer. Animal experiment and clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terashima, Hiromi; Ishino, Yohichi; Nakata, Hajime; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Takehiko

    1987-06-01

    The response of a mouse's foot to heat was studied. Transplanted syngeneic tumor, C3H mouse mammary carcinoma, was treated with irradiation and hyperthermia in a waterbath. The tumor did not disappear in any of the mice treated with radiotherapy with a dose of 20 Gy alone, but disappearance of the tumor was observed in 11 of 15 and 6 of 8 of the mice treated with combined therapy of irradiation and hyperthermia. There was a significant difference between these two groups. Synergistic effect was confirmed (P < 0.001, P < 0.005). Hyperthermia using Thermotron RF-8 was performed on 19 patients (5 bladder cancers, 3 uterine cancers, 3 rectal cancers, 4 soft tissue tumors, 2 oral cancers, 1 biliary tract cancer, 1 renal cancer) between April, 1986 and December, 1986. They were irradiated with a daily dose of 1.5 - 2.0 Gy, 5 times a week and hyperthermia was performed within 30 minutes after each irradiation once or twice a week. Intratumoral temperature was kept at 43 deg C - 45 deg C. Temperature over 41 deg C was maintained in most patients. Clinical response was assessed by tumor regression rates. Partial response a (PRa), defined as 80 % or more regression in tumor volume, was obtained in 1 bladder cancer patient and PRb, defined as 50 % to less than 80 % regression, was obtained in another 5 patients. Side effects were observed in all patients including mild skin burn, nausea and diarrhea. Rectovaginal fistula developed in 1 patient. Combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia seems to be useful in advanced cancer patients.

  10. Traumatic brain injury complicated by environmental hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermstad Erik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature variations after traumatic brain injury are common and devastating. This has been shown most clearly with hypothermia, but the complications associated with hyperthermia in the setting of traumatic brain injury can be just as problematic. We present the case of a soldier with traumatic brain injury exposed to environmental temperatures of 115-120° F with a core temperature of over 108° F. The complications of his conditions are discussed as well as potential treatments for the deadly combination of traumatic brain injury and environmental hyperthermia.

  11. Part-body hyperthermia with a radiofrequency multiantenna applicator under online control in 1,5 T MR-tomograph; Teilkoerperhyperthermie mit einem Radiofrequenz-Multiantennen-Applikator unter on-line Kontrolle in einem 1,5 T MR-Tomographen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wust, P.; Gellermann, J.; Faehling, H.; Wlodarczyk, W.; Felix, R. [Charite, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Berlin (Germany); Seebass, M. [Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnologie, Berlin (Germany); Turner, P. [BSD Medical Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Nadobny, J. [Charite, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Berlin (Germany); Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnologie, Berlin (Germany); Rau, B. [Charite, Medizinische Klinik m.S. Haematologie und Onkologie, Berlin (Germany); Hildebrandt, B.; Schlag, P.M. [Charite, Klinik fuer Chirurgie und Chirurgische Onkologie, Berlin (Germany); Oppelt, A. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Interventional MR, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    Objective of this study is the integration of a multiantenna applicator for part-body hyperthermia (BSD 2000/3D) in a 1.5 T MR-tomograph (Siemens Magnetom Symphony) in order to perform noninvasive MR monitoring in real time to increase safety and effectiveness of heat treatments. The positioning unit is mechanically coupled to the MR gantry from the back side and the body coil is utilised for imaging. For that purpose, the hyperthermia antenna system (100 MHz, 1.500 W) and the MR receiver(63.9 MHs) have to be decoupled in terms of high frequency (filter) and electromagnetically (emc). The processing of MR data sets is performed in a hyperthermia planning system. A simultaneous operation of radiofrequency hyperthermia and MR system is possible at clinically relevant power levels. MR imaging is used for tumor diagnostics (standard spin echo sequences), for hyperthermia planning (T1-weighted gradient echo sequences in equal- and opposed-phase techniques), and for temperature measurements according to the proton resonance frequency method (PRF method, phase evaluation registration using a gradient echo sequence with long echo time). In 33 patients with advanced pelvic and abdominal tumors we performed 150 heat sessions under MR monitoring. For 70% of these patients a visualisation of temperature sensitive data during treatment was possible. The evaluated difference images represent a superposition of real temperature increase and a (temperature-induced) perfusion elevation. The hybrid approach renders development of part body hyperthermia possible as an MR-controlled intervention in radiology. (orig.) [German] Ziel ist die Integration eines Multiantennen-Applikators fuer die Teilkoerperhyperthermie (BSD-2000/3D) in einen 1,5 T MR-Tomographen (Siemens Magnetom Symphony), um ein nicht-invasives MR-Monitoring in Echtzeit zu ermoeglichen und damit die Hyperthermie sicherer und effektiver durchfuehren zu koennen. Die Hyperthermie-Lagerungseinheit wird von der Rueckseite der

  12. Effectively managing intractable central hyperthermia in a stroke patient by bromocriptine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu KW

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kuo-Wei Yu,1,* Yu-Hui Huang,2,3 Chien-Lin Lin,1,4,* Chang-Zern Hong,5 Li-Wei Chou1,41Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 4School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Physical Therapy, Hungkuang University, Taichung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Central hyperthermia is characterized by a rapid onset, high temperature, marked temperature fluctuation, and poor response to antipyretics and antibiotics. Although poststroke central hyperthermia is common, prolonged instances are rare. We report a case of prolonged central fever after an intracranial hemorrhage. Before the accurate diagnosis and management of central fever, the patient underwent long-term antibiotic use that led to pseudomembranous colitis. Bromocriptine was used to treat the prolonged central hyperthermia, after which the fever did not exceed 39°C. A week later, the body temperature baseline was reduced to 37°C and a low-grade fever with minor temperature fluctuation occurred only a few times. No fever occurred in the month following the treatment. After the fever subsided, the patient could undergo an aggressive rehabilitation program.Keywords: bromocriptine, central hyperthermia, fever, stroke

  13. Exploring multifunctional potential of commercial ferrofluids by magnetic particle hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakellari, Despoina, E-mail: dsakel@physics.auth.gr; Mathioudaki, Stella; Kalpaxidou, Zoi; Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Angelakeris, Makis

    2015-04-15

    In this work we examine a selection of commercially available magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as candidates for magnetic particle hyperthermia applications combining their primary modality with additional heat triggered actions. Contrary to lab-made magnetic nanoparticles, commercial ferrofluids may be rapidly pushed through the medical approval processes since their applicability has already been addressed successfully (i.e., formulation, reproducibility, toxicity and quality assurance) in conjunction with the strong companies′ drive in the fast delivery of the new therapy to the patient. Four samples are under study with variable hydrodynamic diameters from two companies (Micromod and Chemicell) consisting of iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles. The tunable magnetic heating characteristics of the ferrofluids were correlated with particle, field and colloidal solution features. Our work revealed a size-dependent magnetic heating efficiency together with fast thermal response, features that are crucial for adequate thermal efficiency combined with minimum treatment duration and show the potential of such materials as multifunctional theranostic agents. - Highlights: • Commercial ferrofluids were examined as magnetic particle hyperthermia candidates. • Results show an enhanced heating efficiency. • Heating efficiency can be tuned by field amplitude and hydrodynamic size of NPs. • Coating material seems to be a key parameter for the optimum thermal response.

  14. Drug-induced hyperthermia in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, D; Naarding, Paul; Stor, T; Kremer, H P H

    Until now, only three patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and a neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) have been reported in the literature. We describe four cases with advanced stage Huntington's disease who within a period of one year developed drug-induced hyperthermia, either the neuroleptic

  15. Mild hyperthermia influence on Herceptin (R) properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escoffre, JM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413647544; Deckers, RHR|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341697834; Sasaki, Noboru; Bos, Clemens|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/232000832; Moonen, Chrit|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216691974

    Background. Mild hyperthermia (mHT) increases the tumor perfusion and vascular permeability, and reduces the interstitial fluid pressure, resulting in better intra-tumoral bioavailability of low molecular weight drugs. This approach is potentially also attractive for delivery of therapeutic

  16. Drug-induced hyperthermia in Huntington's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, D.; Naarding, P.; Stor, T.; Kremer, H.P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Until now, only three patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and a neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) have been reported in the literature. We describe four cases with advanced stage Huntington's disease who within a period of one year developed drug-induced hyperthermia, either the neuroleptic

  17. Angiogenesis and vascular targeting: Relevance for hyperthermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    in influencing the response to hyperthermia. Generally, the poorer the blood supply the better the heat effect, thus combining VTAs with heat would appear to be a logical approach. Numerous pre-clinical studies have now demonstrated the benefits of combining AIAs or VDAs with heat to improve tumour response...

  18. Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia for Bladder Cancer: A Preclinical Dosimetry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago R.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Landon, Chelsea D.; Etienne, Wiguins; Ashcraft, Kathleen A.; McNerny, Katie L.; Mashal, Alireza; Nouls, John; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Beyer, Wayne F.; Inman, Brant; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes a preclinical investigation of the feasibility of thermotherapy treatment of bladder cancer with Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH), performed by analyzing the thermal dosimetry of nanoparticle heating in a rat bladder model. Materials and Methods The bladders of twenty-five female rats were instilled with magnetite-based nanoparticles, and hyperthermia was induced using a novel small animal magnetic field applicator (Actium Biosystems, Boulder, CO). We aimed to increase the bladder lumen temperature to 42°C in <10 min and maintain that temperature for 60 min. Temperatures were measured within the bladder lumen and throughout the rat with seven fiberoptic probes (OpSens Technologies, Quebec, Canada). An MRI analysis was used to confirm the effectiveness of the catheterization method to deliver and maintain various nanoparticle volumes within the bladder. Thermal dosimetry measurements recorded the temperature rise of rat tissues for a variety of nanoparticle exposure conditions. Results Thermal dosimetry data demonstrated our ability to raise and control the temperature of rat bladder lumen ≥1°C/min to a steady-state of 42°C with minimal heating of surrounding normal tissues. MRI scans confirmed the homogenous nanoparticle distribution throughout the bladder. Conclusion These data demonstrate that our MFH system with magnetite-based nanoparticles provide well-localized heating of rat bladder lumen with effective control of temperature in the bladder and minimal heating of surrounding tissues. PMID:24050253

  19. Medical Applications of Radiofrequency-Radiation Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    ionizing radiation treatments (49,64-71). A radioresistant fibrosarcoma in mice has shown dramatic responsiveness to ionizing radiation in...experiments involving the healing of tooth-extraction wounds in dogs (73). * iThese experiments should not be confused with the low frequency (75-Hz...effects of pulsed, high frequency radiowaves on the rate of osteogenesis in the healing of extraction wounds in dogs . Oral Surg 32:1008-1016 (1971

  20. Radiofrequency electric field hyperthermia with gold nanostructures: role of particle shape and surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Seyed Mohammad; Kharrazi, Sharmin; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Gilani, Kambiz

    2017-09-10

    Hyperthermia treatment of cancerous cells has been recently developed drastically with the help of nanostructures. Heating of gold nanoparticles in non-invasive radiofrequency electric field (RF-EF) is a promising and unique technique for cancer hyperthermia. However, because of differences between particles (i.e. their surface chemistry and dispersion medium) and between RF-EF sources, the research community has not reached a consensus yet. Here, we report the results of investigations on heating of gold nanoparticles and gold nanorods under RF-EF and feasibility of in-vitro cancer hyperthermia. The heating experiments were performed to investigate the role of particle shape and surface chemistry (CTAB, citrate and PEG molecules). In-vitro hyperthermia was performed on human pancreatic cancer cell (MIA Paca-2) with PEG-coated GNPs and GNRs at concentrations that were found non-toxic based on the results of cytotoxicity assay. Application of RF-EF on cells treated with PEG-GNPs and PEG-GNRs proved highly effective in killing cells.

  1. Malignant hyperthermia resolving with discontinuation of sevoflurane alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abolkhair

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An otherwise healthy 13 year old developed hypercarbia and increased temperature during anesthesia with sevoflurane. Discontinuation of sevoflurane, surface cooling, and hyperventilation resulted in prompt resolution. However, hyperkalemia continued to raise the suspicion for malignant hyperthermia, which was ultimately confirmed by ryanodine receptor gene sequencing. The case underlines the importance of intraoperative monitoring of end-tidal CO2 and temperature and the potential benefits of early discontinuation of inhalational anesthetics in the presence of signs and symptoms suspicious for malignant hyperthermia. The severe hyperkalemia suggests that standard guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of malignant hyperthermia, including dantrolene treatment, should be followed whenever malignant hyperthermia is suspected.

  2. Mild hyperthermia influence on Herceptin properties:

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Clemens; Deckers, Roel; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Moonen, Chrit; Sasaki, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    Background Mild hyperthermia (mHT) increases the tumor perfusion and vascular permeability, and reduces the interstitial fluid pressure, resulting in better intra-tumoral bioavailability of low molecular weight drugs. This approach is potentially also attractive for delivery of therapeutic macromolecules, such as antibodies. Here, we investigated the effects of mHT on the stability, immunological and pharmacological properties of Herceptin?, a clinically approved antibody, targeting the human...

  3. Effectiveness of Radiofrequency Hyperthermia for Treating Cartilage in Guinea Pigs with Primary Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenji; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Sanshiro; Iijima, Norio; Higo, Shimpei; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Yusuke; Takai, Shinro

    2018-01-01

    Objective Autophagy was reported to be essential for maintaining chondrocyte function, and reduced autophagy leads to osteoarthritis (OA). Previous studies showed involvement of heat shock stress in the control of autophagy in cells. This study sought to investigate the effect of hyperthermia on the expression of autophagy-related proteins in articular cartilage and the progression of naturally occurring OA in Hartley guinea pigs. Design Radiofrequency pulses of 13.56 MHz were applied to the animals' knees for 20 minutes to induce hyperthermia. The knee joints were resected at 8 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, 7 days, and 6 months after hyperthermia. Serial sections of knees were examined for histopathological changes. The expression levels of Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) and Beclin1 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results Analysis of the distribution of positive cells showed that, in cases of moderate OA, ULK1 and Beclin1 expression levels were significantly decreased in the superficial zone (SZ) and middle zone (MZ) ( P < 0.01) compared with normal cartilage. Seven days after exposure to radiofrequency waves, expression levels of ULK1 and Beclin1 were augmented in the SZ in animals with mild OA. The severity of cartilage degradation was significantly reduced ( P < 0.01) in the radiofrequency-treated knees versus the untreated knees. Conclusions This study showed that heat stimulation enhanced autophagy in healthy knee chondrocytes and chondrocytes in knees with mild OA. The study also showed that long-term periodic application of hyperthermia suppresses aging-related progression of OA. The activation of autophagy by radiofrequency hyperthermia may be an effective therapeutic approach for osteoarthritis.

  4. [Analysis of budgetary impact of moderate and high risk non muscle-invasive bladder cancer by means of neoadjuvant hyperthermia chemotherapy compared to the standard adjuvant treatment with BCG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Alejandro; Piñeiro, Idelfonso; Aparici, Vicente; Neira, Pilar; Monserrat, Víctor; Uribarri, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    To study the relationship between cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact the application of a neoadjuvant chemo-hyperthermia treatment on 15 patients with NMI multi-recurrent bladder cancer and/or whose risk of recurrence and progression is medium-high, compared with the standard neoadjuvant BCG treatment, has had on the Hospital Comarcal de Monforte de Lemos (Lugo). A model was designed from an SNS perspective with a temporary horizon of three years to compare the costs of applying neoadjuvant chemo-hyperthermia on the patients of the clinical test (8 instillations weekly of 80 mg Mitomycin C recirculating at 43 C for an hour prior to carrying out a transurethral resection of the bladder tumor) with the costs of treating 15 patients with the same risk profile with the standard adjuvant treatment of BCG (control group). The effective available costs corresponding to drugs, disposables and those relative to TURBT, cold biopsy and tumor relapse were included. The costs of diagnostic tests and follow-up were discarded from the model because they did not vary between groups. The model built with effective and published cost data establishes a favourable difference in favour of the neoadjuvant treatment with chemo hyperthermia in terms of 3 year costs with a minimum global savings of 10,300€ and 687€ per patient, together with an improvement in the effectiveness of the treatment. These values could reach a minimum savings of 25,960€ and 1,731€ per patient, if a change in protocol is made after the neoadjuvant treatment, which uses the cold biopsy to check the results. Of the 15 patients pre-treated with chemo-hyperthermia, 11 high-risk and 4 medium-risk, 9 have responded completely (absence of residual tumor) and 6 partially (shrinking of the tumor). The number of expected relapses has been reduced from 8 to 2 and progression from 3 to 0. The neoadjuvant treatment with chemo hyperthermia constitutes a cost-effective therapeutic strategy.

  5. A JASTRO study group report. A randomized phase III trial of hyperthermia in combination with radiotherapy for superficial tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraoka, Masahiro; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Mitsumori, Michihide [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine] [and others

    1998-06-01

    Result of study about local effect of hyperthermia in combination with radiotherapy for superficial tumors was reported. The irradiation was more than 90% isodose for lesion, and total dose was 60 Gy in cases with anamnesis and 40-50 Gy and without anamnesis at a rate of five times a week and 2 Gy at one time. Hyperthermia was carried out four times; once a week, at 42.5 degrees on tumor side edge, and for 40 minutes. Total 53 cases (neck lymph node metastasis 30 cases, relapse breast cancer 11, advanced breast cancer 1, other superficial tumor 11) were divided into 2 groups. Radiotherapy without hyperthermia (group R) was 27 cases, radiotherapy with hyperthermia (group H) was 26 cases. CR and CR+PR within 2 months after treatment were as follows: Group R: 50%, 85%, Group H: 64%, 100%. The CR+PR was superior in group H (p=0.0497). The CR at maximum effect after treatment was 65% of group R and 86% of group H (p=0.17). The local control rate after CR was not different in both groups. (K.H.)

  6. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic materials for self-controlled hyperthermia therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    The major challenges in magnetic hyperthermia treatment (MHT) are the low heat generation of magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy and the avoidance of overheating via the temperature self-control characteristic at the ideal therapeutic range. Hence the aims of this PhD thesis are to develop a new magnetic implant material with high heat generation and temperature self-control capability, and to study their potential for safe MHT applications. In order to develop a ceramic magnetic im...

  7. Localized Hyperthermia for Enhanced Targeted Delivery of Polymer Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Nicholas

    It is estimated that in 2016, more than 848,000 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in men with more than a quarter being prostate cancer and more than 26,000 deaths attributed to this disease. Prostate cancer poses a limited risk when detected at an early stage and treatment of stages II-III has a 5-year survival rate of almost 100%. However, these early-stage cancers can eventually progress and develop into stage IV, dramatically dropping the 5-year survival rate to 28%. Thus, development of a new therapy is needed to fully eliminate these tumors. Combination of heat and chemotherapy improves therapeutic efficacy while allowing for reduced dosing of drugs and limiting side effects. Localized hyperthermia has been used to enhance the delivery of polymer therapeutics to prostate tumors through increased blood flow, vascular permeability, and incorporation of heat shock targeting. This strategy has been shown to increase the delivery and retention of polymer-drug conjugates leading to enhanced efficacy. Although much work has been done using this strategy, the effects of different thermal dosing on polymer accumulation are unknown. The first aim of this research is to examine how altering heating parameters influences polymer tumor accumulation. The hypothesis for this aim is that there is an optimal thermal treatment that leads to the maximal amount of polymer accumulation in the tumors. Additionally, the previously used heating method of plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) can result in long-term accumulation of gold nanoparticles in healthy organs, potentially limiting clinical applicability. The second aim of this proposal will be focused on investigating the alternative method of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for selective heating of tumors and enhancing macromolecular delivery. HIFU has shown the capability for precise, noninvasive heating of specific regions within the prostate through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The hypothesis

  8. Technical Quality of Deep Hyperthermia Using the BSD-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fatehi (Daryoush)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is including six previously published papers that briefly described here. In the first paper, homemade software RHyThM (Rotterdam Hyperthermia Thermal Modulator) was presented towards improvement of the accessibility of the PDOS-formatted hyperthermia (HT) data produced by

  9. Prostacyclin-induced hyperthermia - Implication of a protein mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of the prostacyclin-linked hyperthermia is studied in rabbits. Results show that intracerebroventricular administration of prostacyclin (PGI2) induces dose-related hyperthermia at room temperature (21 C), as well as at low (4 C) and high (30 C) ambient temperatures. It is found that this PGI2-induced hyperthermia is not mediated by its stable metabolite 6-keto prostaglandin F-1(alpha). Only one of the three anion transport systems, the liver transport system, appears to be important to the central inactivation of pyrogen, prostaglandin E2, and PGI2. Phenoxybenzamine and pimozide have no thermolytic effect on PGI2-induced hyperthermia, while PGI2 still induces hyperthermia after norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine levels are depleted by 6-hydroxydopamine. Indomethacin and SC-19220 (a PG antagonist) do not antagonize PGI2 induced hyperthermia, while theophylline does not accentuate the PGI2-induced hyperthermia. However, the hyperthermic response to PGI2 is attenuated by central administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin. It is concluded that PGI2-induced hyperthermia is not induced by NE, dopamine, or cyclic AMP, but rather that a protein mediator is implicated in the induction of fever by PG12.

  10. Recognizing and managing a malignant hyperthermia crisis: guidelines from the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahn, K P E; Ellis, F R; Halsall, P J

    2010-01-01

    , the cornerstone of successful MH treatment, is unavailable in large areas around the world thereby increasing the risk of MH fatalities in these areas. The European Malignant Hyperthermia Group collected and reviewed all guidelines available from the various MH centres in order to provide a consensus document...

  11. Cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreceptor unloading during passive hyperthermia does not contribute to hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rebekah A I; Pearson, James; Schlader, Zachary J; Crandall, Craig G

    2015-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does baroreceptor unloading during passive hyperthermia contribute to increases in ventilation and decreases in end-tidal carbon dioxide during that exposure? What is the main finding and its importance? Hyperthermic hyperventilation is not mitigated by expanding central blood volume and reloading the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors via rapid saline infusion or by reloading the arterial baroreceptors via phenylephrine administration. The absence of a reduction in ventilation upon reloading the baroreceptors to pre-hyperthermic levels indicates that cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreceptor unloading with hyperthermia is unlikely to contribute to hyperthermic hyperventilation in humans. This study tested the hypothesis that baroreceptor unloading during passive hyperthermia contributes to increases in ventilation and decreases in end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P ET ,CO2) during that exposure. Two protocols were performed, in which healthy subjects underwent passive hyperthermia (increasing intestinal temperature by ∼1.8°C) to cause a sustained increase in ventilation and reduction in P ET ,CO2. Upon attaining hyperthermic hyperventilation, in protocol 1 (n = 10; three females) a bolus (19 ± 2 ml kg(-1) ) of warm (∼38°C) isotonic saline was rapidly (5-10 min) infused intravenously to restore reductions in central venous pressure, whereas in protocol 2 (n = 11; five females) phenylephrine was infused intravenously (60-120 μg min(-1) ) to return mean arterial pressure to normothermic levels. In protocol 1, hyperthermia increased ventilation (by 2.2 ± 1.7 l min(-1) , P  0.05). In protocol 2, hyperthermia increased ventilation (by 5.0 ± 2.7 l min(-1) , P  0.05). The absence of a reduction in ventilation upon reloading the cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreceptors to pre-hyperthermic levels indicates that baroreceptor unloading with hyperthermia is unlikely to contribute to

  12. Noninvasive thermography of laser-induced hyperthermia using magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadi, Saher M.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Dodd, Stephen J.; Gao, Jia Hong

    2004-07-01

    The possibility to induce selective hyperthermia in a target tissue or organ is of great interest for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. An emerging application of thermotherapy is for choroidal neovascularization, a complication of age-related macular degeneration. The therapy is currently limited because the temperature required for optimal tissue response is unknown. We report here an investigation of near infrared laser-induced heating in an ocular phantom. Magnetic resonance thermography (MRT) was used as a non-invasive method to determine the temperature distribution inside the phantom during exposure to a continuous wave diode laser at 806 nm wavelength with 1 watt maximum output. The laser beam had a quasi-gaussian profile, with a radius of 0.8-2.4 mm at target. High quality temperature images were obtained from temperature-dependent phase shifts in the proton resonance frequency with a resolution of 1deg C or better, using a 2T magnet. A phantom with a layer of bovine RPE melanin of 1.5 mm thickness was used to determine the spatial resolution of the MRT measurements. Three dimensional temperature maps were also constructed showing a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm in all direction. The heat distribution depended on the laser parameters, as well as the orientation of the melanin layer with respect to the incident laser beam. The temperature profiles determined by MRT closely followed predictions of a heat diffusion model, based on the optical properties of infrared light in melanin. These results support the use of MRT to optimize laser-induced hyperthermia in a small organ such as the eye.

  13. A numerical study on dual-phase-lag model of bio-heat transfer during hyperthermia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Kumar, Dinesh; Rai, K N

    2015-01-01

    The success of hyperthermia in the treatment of cancer depends on the precise prediction and control of temperature. It was absolutely a necessity for hyperthermia treatment planning to understand the temperature distribution within living biological tissues. In this paper, dual-phase-lag model of bio-heat transfer has been studied using Gaussian distribution source term under most generalized boundary condition during hyperthermia treatment. An approximate analytical solution of the present problem has been done by Finite element wavelet Galerkin method which uses Legendre wavelet as a basis function. Multi-resolution analysis of Legendre wavelet in the present case localizes small scale variations of solution and fast switching of functional bases. The whole analysis is presented in dimensionless form. The dual-phase-lag model of bio-heat transfer has compared with Pennes and Thermal wave model of bio-heat transfer and it has been found that large differences in the temperature at the hyperthermia position and time to achieve the hyperthermia temperature exist, when we increase the value of τT. Particular cases when surface subjected to boundary condition of 1st, 2nd and 3rd kind are discussed in detail. The use of dual-phase-lag model of bio-heat transfer and finite element wavelet Galerkin method as a solution method helps in precise prediction of temperature. Gaussian distribution source term helps in control of temperature during hyperthermia treatment. So, it makes this study more useful for clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An FDTD code for hyperthermia treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, G.; Bardati, F. [Rome Univ. Tor Vergata (Italy). Dipt. di Informatica, sistemi e produzione; Tognolatti, P. [L' Aquila Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettrica

    1999-08-01

    Radio-frequency hyperthermia is an anticancer modality based on the heating of tumours by radiating sources. A set of antennas is frequently used to enhance power depositions in tissues. Treatments planning needs electromagnetic field computation within realistic body models. Since several simulation may be required the optimize the antenna-body configuration, the electromagnetic solver should be designed in such a way that new configuration of the antenna set-up can be solved without heavy changes of the basic numerical code. In this paper a numerical investigation on the effects of a segmentation technique will be presented, with reference to an FDTD computation and the heating of a paediatric tumour.

  15. Magnetic hyperthermia performance of magnetite nanoparticle assemblies under different driving fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The heating performance of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs under an alternating magnetic field (AMF is dependent on several factors. Optimizing these factors improves the heating efficiency for cancer therapy and meanwhile lowers the MNP treatment dosage. AMF is one of the most easily controllable variables to enhance the efficiency of heat generation. This paper investigated the optimal magnetic field strength and frequency for an assembly of magnetite nanoparticles. For hyperthermia treatment in clinical applications, monodispersed NPs are forming nanoclusters in target regions where a strong magnetically interactive environment is anticipated, which leads to a completely different situation than MNPs in ferrofluids. Herein, the energy barrier model is revisited and Néel relaxation time is tailored for high MNP packing densities. AMF strength and frequency are customized for different magnetite NPs to achieve the highest power generation and the best hyperthermia performance.

  16. Effect of SPIO Nanoparticle Concentrations on Temperature Changes for Hyperthermia via MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsayed A. M. Elsherbini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs are being developed for a wide range of biomedical applications. In particular, hyperthermia involves heating the MNPs through exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF. These materials offer the potential for selectively by heating cancer tissue locally and at the cellular level. This may be a successful method if there are enough particles in a tumor possessing sufficiently high specific absorption rate (SAR to deposit heat quickly while minimizing thermal damage to surrounding tissue. The current research aim is to study the influence of super paramagnetic iron oxides Fe3O4 (SPIO NPs concentration on the total heat energy dose and the rate of temperature change in AMF to induce hyperthermia in Ehrlich carcinoma cells implanted in female mice. The results demonstrated a linearly increasing trend between these two factors.

  17. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia inhibits the growth of breast carcinoma and downregulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, GUIHUA; XU, DERONG; CHAI, QIN; TAN, XIAOLANG; ZHANG, YU; GU, NING; TANG, JINTIAN

    2014-01-01

    The application of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) with nanoparticles has been shown to inhibit tumor growth in several animal models. However, the feasibility of using MFH in vivo to treat breast cancer is uncertain, and the mechanism is unclear. In the present study, it was observed that the intratumoral administration of MFH induced hyperthermia significantly in rats with Walker-265 breast carcinomas. The hyperthermia treatment with magnetic nanoparticles inhibited tumor growth in vivo and promoted the survival of the tumor-bearing rats. Furthermore, it was found that MFH treatment downregulated the protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tumor tissue, as observed by immunohistochemistry. MFH treatment also decreased the gene expression of VEGF and its receptors, VEGF receptor 1 and 2, and inhibited angiogenesis in the tumor tissues. Taken together, these results indicate that the application of MFH with nanoparticles is feasible for the treatment of breast carcinoma. The MFH-induced downregulation of angiogenesis may also contribute to the induction of an anti-tumor effect. PMID:24765139

  18. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia inhibits the growth of breast carcinoma and downregulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Xu, Derong; Chai, Qin; Tan, Xiaolang; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning; Tang, Jintian

    2014-05-01

    The application of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) with nanoparticles has been shown to inhibit tumor growth in several animal models. However, the feasibility of using MFH in vivo to treat breast cancer is uncertain, and the mechanism is unclear. In the present study, it was observed that the intratumoral administration of MFH induced hyperthermia significantly in rats with Walker-265 breast carcinomas. The hyperthermia treatment with magnetic nanoparticles inhibited tumor growth in vivo and promoted the survival of the tumor-bearing rats. Furthermore, it was found that MFH treatment downregulated the protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tumor tissue, as observed by immunohistochemistry. MFH treatment also decreased the gene expression of VEGF and its receptors, VEGF receptor 1 and 2, and inhibited angiogenesis in the tumor tissues. Taken together, these results indicate that the application of MFH with nanoparticles is feasible for the treatment of breast carcinoma. The MFH-induced downregulation of angiogenesis may also contribute to the induction of an anti-tumor effect.

  19. TU-EF-210-02: MRg Hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, R. [UT Southwestern Medical Ctr at Dallas (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare.

  20. Yearly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Aged Applicants (FY 2016, including 53rd week)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual volume of SSI Aged initial claims at the national level from federal fiscal year 2016 shown two ways—we base one on a 52-week reporting...

  1. Boron Neutron Capture Therapty (BNCT) in an Oral Precancer Model: Therapeutic Benefits and Potential Toxicity of a Double Application of BNCT with a Six-Week Interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrea Monti Hughes; Emiliano C.C. Pozzi; Elisa M. Heber; Silvia Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; Ana J. Molinari; Marcela A. Garabalino; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2011-11-01

    Given the clinical relevance of locoregional recurrences in head and neck cancer, we developed a novel experimental model of premalignant tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies and demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect of a single application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) on tumor development from premalignant tissue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a double application of BNCT with a 6 week interval in terms of inhibitory effect on tumor development, toxicity and DNA synthesis. We performed a double application, 6 weeks apart, of (1) BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT); (2) BNCT mediated by the combined application of decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and BPA [(GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT] or (3) beam-only, at RA-3 nuclear reactor and followed the animals for 8 months. The control group was cancerized and sham-irradiated. BPA-BNCT, (GB- 10 + BPA)-BNCT and beam-only induced a reduction in tumor development from premalignant tissue that persisted until 8, 3, and 2 months respectively. An early maximum inhibition of 100% was observed for all 3 protocols. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was detected. Reversible mucositis was observed in premalignant tissue, peaking at 1 week and resolving by the third week after each irradiation. Mucositis after the second application was not exacerbated by the first application. DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in premalignant tissue 8 months post-BNCT. A double application of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT, 6 weeks apart, could be used therapeutically at no additional cost in terms of radiotoxicity in normal and dose-limiting tissues.

  2. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an oral precancer model: therapeutic benefits and potential toxicity of a double application of BNCT with a six-week interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti Hughes, Andrea; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Heber, Elisa M; Thorp, Silvia; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Molinari, Ana J; Garabalino, Marcela A; Nigg, David W; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2011-11-01

    Given the clinical relevance of locoregional recurrences in head and neck cancer, we developed a novel experimental model of premalignant tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies and demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect of a single application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) on tumor development from premalignant tissue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a double application of BNCT with a 6 week interval in terms of inhibitory effect on tumor development, toxicity and DNA synthesis. We performed a double application, 6 weeks apart, of (1) BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT); (2) BNCT mediated by the combined application of decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and BPA [(GB-10+BPA)-BNCT] or (3) beam-only, at RA-3 nuclear reactor and followed the animals for 8 months. The control group was cancerized and sham-irradiated. BPA-BNCT, (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT and beam-only induced a reduction in tumor development from premalignant tissue that persisted until 8, 3, and 2 months respectively. An early maximum inhibition of 100% was observed for all 3 protocols. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was detected. Reversible mucositis was observed in premalignant tissue, peaking at 1 week and resolving by the third week after each irradiation. Mucositis after the second application was not exacerbated by the first application. DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in premalignant tissue 8 months post-BNCT. A double application of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT, 6 weeks apart, could be used therapeutically at no additional cost in terms of radiotoxicity in normal and dose-limiting tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving efficacy of hyperthermia in oncology by exploiting biological mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Tempel, Nathalie; Horsman, Michael R; Kanaar, Roland

    2016-01-01

    systematic and rational manner. In addition, the novel insights in hyperthermia's many biological effects on tumour cells will ultimately result in new treatment regimes. For example, the molecular effects of hyperthermia on the essential cellular process of DNA repair suggest novel combination therapies......, with DNA damage response targeting drugs that should now be clinically explored. Here, we provide an overview of recent studies on the various macroscopic and microscopic biological effects of hyperthermia. We indicate the significance of these effects on current treatments and suggest how they will help...

  4. Water dispersible superparamagnetic Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salunkhe, Ashwini B. [Centre for advanced materials research, Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Soft matter and molecular biophysics group, Department of Applied Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Khot, Vishwajeet M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (United Kingdom); Ruso, Juan M. [Soft matter and molecular biophysics group, Department of Applied Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Patil, S.I., E-mail: patil@physics.unipune.ac.in [Centre for advanced materials research, Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India)

    2016-12-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles of Cobalt iron oxide (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) are synthesized chemically, and dispersed in an aqueous suspension for hyperthermia therapy application. Different parameters such as magnetic field intensity, particle concentration which regulates the competence of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticle as a heating agents in hyperthermia are investigated. Specific absorption rate (SAR) decreases with increase in the particle concentration and increases with increase in applied magnetic field intensity. Highest value of SAR is found to be 91.84 W g{sup −1} for 5 mg. mL{sup −1} concentration. Oleic acid conjugated polyethylene glycol (OA-PEG) coated CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have shown superior cyto-compatibility over uncoated nanoparticles to L929 mice fibroblast cell lines for concentrations below 2 mg. mL{sup −1}. Present work provides the underpinning for the use of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles as a potential heating mediator for magnetic fluid hyperthermia. - Highlights: • Superparamagnetic, water dispersible CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs were synthesized by simple and cost effective Co precipitation route. • Effect of coating on various physical and chemical properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs were studied. • The effect of coating on induction heating as well as biocompatibility of NPs were studied.

  5. Target visualisation and microwave hyperthermia monitoring using nanoparticle-enhanced transmission ultrasound (NETUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Or; Weitz, Iris S; Azhari, Haim

    2017-10-24

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of using nanoparticle-enhanced transmission ultrasound (NETUS) as an image-based monitoring modality for microwave hyperthermia treatment. A dedicated transmission ultrasound imaging system was used to obtain acoustic projections and ultrasound computed tomography images. Initially, speed-of-sound based images were used to non-invasively monitor temperature changes in in vitro and ex vivo specimens, induced by a microwave needle-type applicator. Next, the hyperthermia acceleration ability of two ultrasound nanoparticles based contrast agents (iron oxide and copper oxide) was examined and visualised. Finally, a two-step image guided microwave therapeutic procedure using NETUS was investigated in a realistic breast mimicking phantom. First, the pathology simulating region borders were detected. Then, a microwave-induced temperature elevation was non-invasively monitored. The transmission ultrasound scanning system was able to detect temperature changes with a resolution of less than 0.5 °C, both in vitro and ex vivo. In accordance with previous studies, it was visually demonstrated that iron oxide nanoparticles expedite the heating process (p visualisation with non-invasive thermometry and accelerated heating effect. Quantitative feedback, however, requires a tissue-specific calibration-curve. A proof of concept for microwave hyperthermia treatment monitoring using NETUS was established. The suggested methodology may potentially provide a non-invasive cost-effective means for monitoring thermal treatment of the breast.

  6. The influence of magnetic and physiological behaviour on the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles for hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, C. L.; Jackson, A. J.; Borchers, J. A.; Ivkov, R.; Foreman, A. R.; Hoopes, P. J.; Strawbridge, R.; Pierce, Z.; Goerntiz, E.; Lau, J. W.; Gruettner, C.

    2008-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are being developed for a wide range of biomedical applications. In particular, hyperthermia involves heating the magnetic nanoparticles through exposure to an alternating magnetic field. These materials offer the potential to selectively treat cancer by heating cancer tissue locally and at the cellular level. This may be a successful method if there are enough particles in a tumor possessing a sufficiently high specific absorption rate (SAR) to deposit heat quickly while minimizing thermal damage to surrounding tissue. High SAR magnetic nanoparticles have been developed and used in mouse models of cancer. The magnetic nanoparticles comprise iron oxide magnetic cores (mean core diameter of 50 nm) surrounded by a dextran layer shell for colloidal stability. In comparing two similar systems, the saturation magnetization is found to play a crucial role in determining the SAR, but is not the only factor of importance. (A difference in saturation magnetization of a factor of 1.5 yields a difference in SAR of a factor of 2.5 at 1080 Oe and 150 kHz.) Variations in the interactions due to differences in the dextran layer, as determined through neutron scattering, also play a role in the SAR. Once these nanoparticles are introduced into the tumor, their efficacy, with respect to tumor growth, is determined by the location of the nanoparticles within or near the tumor cells and the association of the nanoparticles with the delivered alternating magnetic field (AMF). This association (nanoparticle SAR and AMF) determines the amount of heat generated. In our setting, the heat generated and the time of heating (thermal dose) provides a tumor gross treatment response which correlates closely with that of conventional (non-nanoparticle) hyperthermia. This being said, it appears specific aspects of the nanoparticle hyperthermia cytopathology mechanism may be very different from that observed in conventional cancer treatment hyperthermia.

  7. Adjuvant properties of thermal component of hyperthermia enhanced transdermal immunization: effect on dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Joshi

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia enhanced transdermal (HET immunization is a novel needle free immunization strategy employing application of antigen along with mild local hyperthermia (42°C to intact skin resulting in detectable antigen specific Ig in serum. In the present study, we investigated the adjuvant effect of thermal component of HET immunization in terms of maturation of dendritic cells and its implication on the quality of the immune outcome in terms of antibody production upon HET immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT. We have shown that in vitro hyperthermia exposure at 42°C for 30 minutes up regulates the surface expression of maturation markers on bone marrow derived DCs. This observation correlated in vivo with an increased and accelerated expression of maturation markers on DCs in the draining lymph node upon HET immunization in mice. This effect was found to be independent of the antigen delivered and depends only on the thermal component of HET immunization. In vitro hyperthermia also led to enhanced capacity to stimulate CD4+ T cells in allo MLR and promotes the secretion of IL-10 by BMDCs, suggesting a potential for Th2 skewing of T cell response. HET immunization also induced a systemic T cell response to TT, as suggested by proliferation of splenocytes from immunized animal upon in vitro stimulation by TT. Exposure to heat during primary immunization led to generation of mainly IgG class of antibodies upon boosting, similar to the use of conventional alum adjuvant, thus highlighting the adjuvant potential of heat during HET immunization. Lastly, we have shown that mice immunized by tetanus toxoid using HET route exhibited protection against challenge with a lethal dose of tetanus toxin. Thus, in addition to being a painless, needle free delivery system it also has an immune modulatory potential.

  8. The influence of magnetic and physiological behaviour on the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles for hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, C L; Lau, J W [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8552 (United States); Jackson, A J; Borchers, J A [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Ivkov, R; Foreman, A R [Triton BioSystems, Inc., Chelmsford, MA 01824 (United States); Hoopes, P J; Strawbridge, R; Pierce, Z [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Goerntiz, E [Fraunhofer Institut Angewandte Polymerforschung, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Gruettner, C [Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, 18119 Rostock-Warnemuende (Germany)

    2008-07-07

    Magnetic nanoparticles are being developed for a wide range of biomedical applications. In particular, hyperthermia involves heating the magnetic nanoparticles through exposure to an alternating magnetic field. These materials offer the potential to selectively treat cancer by heating cancer tissue locally and at the cellular level. This may be a successful method if there are enough particles in a tumor possessing a sufficiently high specific absorption rate (SAR) to deposit heat quickly while minimizing thermal damage to surrounding tissue. High SAR magnetic nanoparticles have been developed and used in mouse models of cancer. The magnetic nanoparticles comprise iron oxide magnetic cores (mean core diameter of 50 nm) surrounded by a dextran layer shell for colloidal stability. In comparing two similar systems, the saturation magnetization is found to play a crucial role in determining the SAR, but is not the only factor of importance. (A difference in saturation magnetization of a factor of 1.5 yields a difference in SAR of a factor of 2.5 at 1080 Oe and 150 kHz.) Variations in the interactions due to differences in the dextran layer, as determined through neutron scattering, also play a role in the SAR. Once these nanoparticles are introduced into the tumor, their efficacy, with respect to tumor growth, is determined by the location of the nanoparticles within or near the tumor cells and the association of the nanoparticles with the delivered alternating magnetic field (AMF). This association (nanoparticle SAR and AMF) determines the amount of heat generated. In our setting, the heat generated and the time of heating (thermal dose) provides a tumor gross treatment response which correlates closely with that of conventional (non-nanoparticle) hyperthermia. This being said, it appears specific aspects of the nanoparticle hyperthermia cytopathology mechanism may be very different from that observed in conventional cancer treatment hyperthermia.

  9. Recognizing and managing a malignant hyperthermia crisis: guidelines from the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahn, K P E; Ellis, F.R.; Halsall, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Survival from a malignant hyperthermia (MH) crisis is highly dependent on early recognition and prompt action. MH crises are very rare and an increasing use of total i.v. anaesthesia is likely to make it even rarer, leading to the potential risk of reduced awareness of MH. In addition, dantrolene....... The guidelines consist of two textboxes: Box 1 on recognizing MH and Box 2 on the treatment of an MH crisis...

  10. Online feedback focusing algorithm for hyperthermia cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kung-Shan; Stakhursky, Vadim; Stauffer, Paul; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K

    2007-11-01

    being raised to a temperature > or = 41 degrees C. However, when there is antenna excitation uncertainty, about 40% to 80% of normal tissue volume is raised to a temperature > or = 41 degrees C. No significant tumor heating improvement is observed in all simulations after about 25 iteration steps. A feedback control algorithm is presented and shown to be successful in iteratively improving the focus of tissue heating within a four-antenna cylindrical phased array hyperthermia applicator. This algorithm appears to be robust in the presence of errors in assumed tissue properties, including realistic deviations of tissue properties and patient position in applicator. Only moderate robustness was achieved in the presence of misaligned applicator/tumor positioning and antenna excitation errors resulting from load mismatch or antenna cross coupling.

  11. Whole body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, accelerates brain and locomotor limb circulatory strain and impairs exercise capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Kalsi, Kameljit K

    2017-01-01

    with exercise capacity, blood temperature (TB), oxygen uptake (V̇O2), brain perfusion (MCA Vmean), locomotor limb hemodynamics, and hematological parameters were assessed during incremental cycling exercise with elevated skin (mild hyperthermia; HYPmild), combined core and skin temperatures (moderate......Cardiovascular strain and hyperthermia are thought to be important factors limiting exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans, however, the contribution of elevations in skin (Tsk) versus whole body temperatures on exercise capacity has not been characterized. To ascertain their relationships...... hyperthermia; HYPmod), and under control conditions. Both hyperthermic conditions increased Tsk versus control (6.2 ± 0.2°C; P exercise, Tsk remained elevated in both hyperthermic...

  12. Photoinduced Mild Hyperthermia and Synergistic Chemotherapy by One-Pot-Synthesized Docetaxel-Loaded Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/Polypyrrole Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jie; Liu, Jialu; Song, Qi; Wang, Dan; Xie, Wensheng; Yan, Hao; Zhou, Junfeng; Wei, Yen; Sun, Xiaodan; Zhao, Lingyun

    2016-09-21

    Mild hyperthermia has shown great advantages when combined with chemotherapy. The development of a multifunctional platform for the integration of mild hyperthermia capability into a drug-loading system is a key issue for cancer multimodality treatment application. Herein, a facile one-pot in situ fabrication protocol of docetaxel (DTX)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposites was developed. While the PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) allow efficient drug loading, the PPy nanobulges embedded within the surface of the PLGA NPs, formed by in situ pyrrole polymerization without the introduction of other template agents, can act as ideal mediators for photoinduced mild hyperthermia. Physiochemical characterizations of the as-prepared nanocomposites, including structure, morphology, photothermal effects, and an in vitro drug release profile, were systematically investigated. Further, 2-deoxyglucose-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was anchored onto the surface of the nanocomposites to endow the nanoplatform with targeting ability to tumor cells, which resulted in a 17-fold increase of NP internalization within human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) as competed with PEG-modified nanocomposites. Mild hyperthermia can be successfully mediated by the nanoplatform, and the temperature can be conveniently controlled by careful modulation of the PPy contents within the nanocomposites or the laser power density. Importantly, we have demonstrated that MCF-7 cells, which are markedly resistant to heat treatment of traditional water-bath hyperthermia, became sensitive to the PLGA/PPy nanocomposite-mediated photothermal therapy under the same mild-temperature hyperthermia. Moreover, DTX-loaded PLGA/PPy-nanocomposite-induced mild hyperthermia can strongly enhance drug cytotoxicity to MCF-7 cells. Under the same thermal dose, photoinduced hyperthermia can convert the interaction between hyperthermia and drug treatment from interference to synergism. This

  13. Thermal Skin Damage During Reirradiation and Hyperthermia Is Time-Temperature Dependent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, Akke, E-mail: akke.bakker@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kolff, M. Willemijn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Holman, Rebecca [Clinical Research Unit, Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Caspar M. van; Korshuize-van Straten, Linda; Kroon-Oldenhof, Rianne de; Rasch, Coen R.N.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Crezee, Hans [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship of thermal skin damage (TSD) to time–temperature isoeffect levels for patients with breast cancer recurrence treated with reirradiation plus hyperthermia (reRT + HT), and to investigate whether the treatment history of previous treatments (scar tissue) is a risk factor for TSD. Methods and Materials: In this observational study, temperature characteristics of hyperthermia sessions were analyzed in 262 patients with recurrent breast cancer treated in the AMC between 2010 and 2014 with reirradiation and weekly hyperthermia for 1 hour. Skin temperature was measured using a median of 42 (range, 29-82) measurement points per hyperthermia session. Results: Sixty-eight patients (26%) developed 79 sites of TSD, after the first (n=26), second (n=17), third (n=27), and fourth (n=9) hyperthermia session. Seventy percent of TSD occurred on or near scar tissue. Scar tissue reached higher temperatures than other skin tissue (0.4°C, P<.001). A total of 102 measurement points corresponded to actual TSD sites in 35 of 79 sessions in which TSD developed. Thermal skin damage sites had much higher maximum temperatures than non-TSD sites (2.8°C, P<.001). Generalized linear mixed models showed that the probability of TSD is related to temperature and thermal dose values (P<.001) and that scar tissue is more at risk (odds ratio 0.4, P<.001). Limiting the maximum temperature of a measurement point to 43.7°C would mean that the probability of observing TSD was at most 5%. Conclusion: Thermal skin damage during reRT + HT for recurrent breast cancer was related to higher local temperatures and time–temperature isoeffect levels. Scar tissue reached higher temperatures than other skin tissue, and TSD occurred at lower temperatures and thermal dose values in scar tissue compared with other skin tissue. Indeed, TSD developed often on and around scar tissue from previous surgical procedures.

  14. Optimisation-based thermal treatment planning for catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Diederich, Chris J; Wootton, Jeffery H; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I-Chow

    2010-02-01

    A patient-specific optimisation-based hyperthermia treatment planning program for catheter-based ultrasound technology was developed for a priori evaluation of proposed applicator implant strategies and determination of initial applied power settings. The interstitial and endocavity heating applicators, designed for delivering 3-D controllable hyperthermia within High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy implants, consist of linear and sectored arrays of ultrasound transducers with variable power control in both length and angle. A 3D biothermal model, which incorporates relevant anatomical structures and implant geometries based upon HDR treatment planning, has been developed to simulate the temperature distributions induced by these ultrasound applicators within the catheter implants. A temperature-based constrained optimisation algorithm was devised and integrated within the finite-element thermal solver to determine the optimal applied power levels. A temperature-expressed objective function and constraints were employed to limit maximum temperature (T(max)), maximise target coverage (T(target)), and minimise thermal exposure to normal tissue and surrounding organs. The optimisation-based treatment planning was applied on representative examples of clinical HDR implants for endocavity treatment of cervix (n = 3) and interstitial treatment of prostate (n = 3). Applicator positioning and orientation, T(max), and T(target), were varied, and temperature volume and thermal dose volume histograms calculated for each plan. The optimisation approach provided optimal applied power levels (4-24 independent transducer sections) leading to conforming or tailored temperature distributions for all cases, as indicated with improved temperature index T(90) in the target volume and negligible temperature and thermal dose (t(43,max) optimised power estimates was shown to be within optimisation (optimisation-based treatment planning platform for catheter-based ultrasound applicators is

  15. Proton beam irradiation and hyperthermia. Effects on experimental choroidal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, K.G.; Svitra, P.P.; Seddon, J.M.; Albert, D.M.; Gragoudas, E.S.; Koehler, A.M.; Coleman, D.J.; Torpey, J.; Lizzi, F.L.; Driller, J.

    1985-12-01

    Ultrasonically induced hyperthermia (4.75 MHz) and proton irradiation (160 meV) were evaluated alone and combined to treat experimental choroidal melanoma in 58 rabbit eyes. Threshold tumoricidal doses were established for each modality. Therapy was performed combining subthreshold doses of heat and radiation. Focused ultrasonic energy via an external beam was found to deliver well-localized heat to an intraocular tumor. Ectopic temperature elevations due to soft-tissue-bone interfaces were alleviated by modifying beam alignment. The results indicate that hyperthermia (43 degrees C for one hour) potentiated the tumoricidal effects of radiation, while sparing normal ocular structures. Therefore, we believe that experimental hyperthermia is suitable as an adjuvant treatment modality. This shows that ultrasound hyperthermia has the potential to increase the efficacy of proton irradiation by lowering radiation doses and thus decreasing posttreatment ocular morbidity in human intraocular malignancies.

  16. Characteristics of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Bun; Hayashi, Keiji; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In humans, hyperthermia leads to activation of a set of thermoregulatory responses that includes cutaneous vasodilation and sweating. Hyperthermia also increases ventilation in humans, as is observed in panting dogs, but the physiological significance and characteristics of the hyperventilatory response in humans remain unclear. The relative contribution of respiratory heat loss to total heat loss in a hot environment in humans is small, and this hyperventilation causes a concomitant reduction in arterial CO2 pressure (hypocapnia), which can cause cerebral hypoperfusion. Consequently, hyperventilation in humans may not contribute to the maintenance of physiological homeostasis (i.e., thermoregulation). To gain some insight into the physiological significance of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation in humans, in this review, we discuss 1) the mechanisms underlying hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation, 2) the factors modulating this response, and 3) the physiological consequences of the response. PMID:27227102

  17. Effect of radiotherapy and hyperthermia on the tumor accumulation of HPMA copolymer-based drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Twan; Peschke, Peter; Kühnlein, Rainer; Subr, Vladimir; Ulbrich, Karel; Debus, Jürgen; Huber, Peter; Hennink, Wim; Storm, Gert

    2007-02-26

    Copolymers of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) are prototypic and well-characterized polymeric drug carriers that have been broadly implemented in the delivery of anticancer therapeutics. In an attempt to improve the tumor accumulation of HPMA copolymer-based drug delivery systems, their in vivo application was combined with radiotherapy and hyperthermia. As the effects of radiotherapy and hyperthermia were considered to depend significantly on the tumor model used, we first analyzed the accumulation of two differently sized HPMA copolymers in three different types of tumors, based on the syngeneic Dunning rat prostate carcinoma model. Subsequently, in these three models, the effects of different doses of radiotherapy and hyperthermia on the tumor accumulation of 31 kDa poly(HPMA), 65 kDa poly(HPMA) and 28 kDa poly(HPMA)-GFLG-doxorubicin were evaluated. It was found that the polymeric drug delivery systems accumulated effectively in all three tumor models. In addition, as opposed to hyperthermia, radiotherapy was found to improve the concentrations of the copolymers independent of the tumor model used. Based on these findings, we conclude that radiotherapy is an effective means for increasing the tumor accumulation of (polymeric) drug delivery systems, and we propose that the combination of carrier-based chemotherapy with radiotherapy holds significant potential for improving the treatment of advanced solid malignancies.

  18. Growth hormone deficiency and hyperthermia during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif

    1995-01-01

    .001]. Consequently, the core temperatures of the patients increased significantly after exercise compared with those of the CTs [38.3 C (0.10 C) (MPD) and 38.1 C (0.06 C) (isolated GH deficiency) vs. 37.5 C (0.2 C) (CTs) (P exercise in the patients......-deficiency may be at risk for developing hyperthermia. To pursue this, we performed a controlled study on sweating and body temperature regulation during exercise in the heat in 16 GH-treated GH-deficient patients with normalized insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor/binding protein-3 serum...... levels [11 with multiple pituitary deficiency (MPD) and 5 with isolated GH deficiency] and in 10 healthy subjects as controls (CTs). Each subject exercised on a bicycle ergometer for 60 min at a workload corresponding to 45% of their individual maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), in a room maintained...

  19. Malignant Hyperthermia and Idiopathic HyperCKemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a rare but life-threatening condition that is more frequently encountered and discussed within the anesthesia literature. Here we through a case specifically discuss the susceptibility of individuals and/or families with asymptomatic unexplained elevations of creatine kinase (CK, also frequently referred to as hyperCKemia or idiopathic hyperCKemia (IHCK in recent reports. The clinical implications would be to underscore the importance of this as a susceptibility to developing MH and highlight the importance of genetic susceptibility testing in such cases. Anesthesiologists and critical care intensivists as well as primary care physicians should keep this in mind when seeing patients with asymptomatic hyperCKemia and potentially inform them about the possibility of developing MH if exposed to triggering agents. Genetic susceptibility testing should be considered if available and family members should also receive nontriggering agents when undergoing anesthesia and wear Medic Alert tags.

  20. Evaluation of Cryosurgery-Hyperthermia Treatment Utilizing Peltier Thermoelectric Effect for Living Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daishi; Sone, Kazuya; Fukumoto, Ichiro

    Cryosurgery and hyperthermia treatment are used as a treatment method for malignant tumors. Since liquid nitrogen is used as the cryogens, it is difficult to control the freezing rate and thawing rate. In hyperthermia, there are problems of thermotolerance acquisition by heat shock protein (HSP) and only a few studies regarding hyperthermia with cryosurgery have been investigated. The aims of this study are to produce cryosurgery-hyperthermia system utilizing Stirling Cooler and Peltier device and evaluate hyperthermia after cryosurgery by comparing cryosurgery and hyperthermia on the mouse liver. Normal living liver tissues of mice are divided into 3 groups (cryosurgery and cryosurgery-hyperthermia, hyperthermia), then performed cryosurgery, hyperthermia and hyperthermia followed cryosurgery, applying a 1 cycle rapid freezing and slow thawing method for cryosurgery. The temperatures of the tissue surface and probe were measured during operation, the liver was stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) after operation and observed under an optical microscope. The results showed measured temperature of rapid freezing and slow thawing. HE stained tissue showed stasis, pyknosis, nucleus disappearance and decreasing stainability in cryosurgery and cryosurgery-hyperthermia group, stasis, pyknosis and degreasing stainability in hyperthermia group. The results suggested cryosurgery-hyperthermia was the most effective to destroy the tissue.

  1. Influence of patient mispositioning on SAR distribution and simulated temperature in regional deep hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklan, Bassim; Gierse, Pia; Hartmann, Josefin; Ott, Oliver J.; Fietkau, Rainer; Bert, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Patient positioning plays an important role in regional deep hyperthermia to obtain a successful hyperthermia treatment. In this study, the influence of possible patient mispositioning was systematically assessed on specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature distribution. With a finite difference time domain approach, the SAR and temperature distributions were predicted for six patients at 312 positions. Patient displacements and rotations as well as the combination of both were considered inside the Sigma-Eye applicator. Position sensitivity is assessed for hyperthermia treatment planning -guided steering, which relies on model-based optimization of the SAR and temperature distribution. The evaluation of the patient mispositioning was done with and without optimization. The evaluation without optimization was made by creating a treatment plan for the patient reference position in the center of the applicator and applied for all other positions, while the evaluation with optimization was based on creating an individual plan for each position. The parameter T90 was used for the temperature evaluation, which was defined as the temperature that covers 90% of the gross tumor volume (GTV). Furthermore, the hotspot tumor quotient (HTQ) was used as a goal function to assess the quality of the SAR and temperature distribution. The T90 was shown considerably dependent on the position within the applicator. Without optimization, the T90 was clearly decreased below 40 °C by patient shifts and the combination of shifts and rotations. However, the application of optimization for each positon led to an increase of T90 in the GTV. Position inaccuracies of less than 1 cm in the X-and Y-directions and 2 cm in the Z-direction, resulted in an increase of HTQ of less than 5%, which does not significantly affect the SAR and temperature distribution. Current positioning precision is sufficient in the X (right-left)-direction, but position accuracy is required in the Y-and Z-directions.

  2. High-performance iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic particle imaging - guided hyperthermia (hMPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Lisa M.; Situ, Shu F.; Griswold, Mark A.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging imaging modality that allows the direct and quantitative mapping of iron oxide nanoparticles. In MPI, the development of tailored iron oxide nanoparticle tracers is paramount to achieving high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. To date, most MPI tracers being developed for potential clinical applications are based on spherical undoped magnetite nanoparticles. For the first time, we report on the systematic investigation of the effects of changes in chemical composition and shape anisotropy on the MPI performance of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. We observed a 2-fold enhancement in MPI signal through selective doping of magnetite nanoparticles with zinc. Moreover, we demonstrated focused magnetic hyperthermia heating by adapting the field gradient used in MPI. By saturating the iron oxide nanoparticles outside of a field free region (FFR) with an external static field, we can selectively heat a target region in our test sample. By comparing zinc-doped magnetite cubic nanoparticles with undoped spherical nanoparticles, we could show a 5-fold improvement in the specific absorption rate (SAR) in magnetic hyperthermia while providing good MPI signal, thereby demonstrating the potential for high-performance focused hyperthermia therapy through an MPI-guided approach (hMPI).Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging imaging modality that allows the direct and quantitative mapping of iron oxide nanoparticles. In MPI, the development of tailored iron oxide nanoparticle tracers is paramount to achieving high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. To date, most MPI tracers being developed for potential clinical applications are based on spherical undoped magnetite nanoparticles. For the first time, we report on the systematic investigation of the effects of changes in chemical composition and shape anisotropy on the MPI performance of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. We observed a 2-fold enhancement in MPI signal

  3. Preclinical dosimetry of magnetic fluid hyperthermia for bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago R.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Landon, Chelsea; Etienne, Wiguins; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Inman, Brant; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-02-01

    Background Despite positive efficacy, thermotherapy is not widely used in clinical oncology. Difficulties associated with field penetration and controlling power deposition patterns in heterogeneous tissue have limited its use for heating deep in the body. Heat generation using iron-oxide super-paramagnetic nanoparticles excited with magnetic fields has been demonstrated to overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this preclinical study is to investigate the feasibility of treating bladder cancer with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) by analyzing the thermal dosimetry of nanoparticle heating in a rat bladder model. Methods The bladders of 25 female rats were injected with 0.4 ml of Actium Biosystems magnetite-based nanoparticles (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) via catheters inserted in the urethra. To assess the distribution of nanoparticles in the rat after injection we used the 7 T small animal MRI system (Bruker ClinScan, Bruker BioSpin MRI GmbH, Ettlingen, Germany). Heat treatments were performed with a small animal magnetic field applicator (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) with a goal of raising bladder temperature to 42°C in 1°C/min to a steady-state of 42°C. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that a MFH system provides well-localized heating of rat bladder with effective control of temperature in the bladder and minimal heating of surrounding tissues.

  4. Radiofrequency fields in hyperthermia and MRI : Exploiting their similarities for mutual benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.A.T. van den

    2006-01-01

    Hyperthermia treatment planning aims to calculate and optimize the thermal dose of hyperthermia treatments for individual patient cases. For this purpose extensive electromagnetic and thermal modelling techniques have been successfully developed over the last years. Unfortunately, means to monitor

  5. Effect of magnesium sulfate on hyperthermia and pentylen-tetrazol-induced seizure in developing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadimkhani, Maryam; Saboory, Ehsan; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Mohammdi, Sedra; Rasmi, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common type of convulsive events among children. Its prevalence has been estimated to be 2-5% in children between 3 months and 5 years old. Also, blood and CSF magnesium levels have been demonstrated to be reduced in children with FS. This study investigates the effect of MgSo4 pretreatment on the behaviors caused by hyperthermia (HT) and effect of these two on pentylen-tetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure later in life. Materials and Methods: Thirty two Wistar rats were assigned to 2 groups: saline-hyperthermia-pentylentetrazol (SHP) and magnesium-hyperthermia-pentylentetrazol (MHP). In both groups, HT was induced at the age of 18-19 days old. Before the HT, MHP group received MgSo4 and SHP group received normal saline intraperitoneally (IP). Behaviors of the rats were recorded during the HT. Then, in half of each group (n=8) at the age of 25-26 days old and in other half at the age of 78-79 days, seizure was induced by PTZ. Results: The HT successfully caused convulsive behaviors in the rats and pretreatment with MgSo4 before HT attenuated HT-induced convulsive behaviors. PTZ-induced seizures a week later was more severe than those of 2 months later. Conclusion: It can be concluded that pretreatment with MgSO4 inhibits HT-induced seizure and, in a long run, this intervention reduced PTZ-induced seizure later in life. PMID:27482341

  6. Magnetic hyperthermia enhance the treatment efficacy of peri-implant osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chih-Hsiang; Tsai, Pei-I; Huang, Shu-Wei; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Shen, Hsin-Hsin; Chen, San-Yuan; Lin, Feng Huei; Hsu, Lih-Tao; Chen, Yen-Chun

    2017-07-25

    When bacteria colony persist within a biofilm, suitable drugs are not yet available for the eradication of biofilm-producing bacteria. The aim of this study is to study the effect of magnetic nano-particles-induced hyperthermia on destroying biofilm and promoting bactericidal effects of antibiotics in the treatment of osteomyelitis. Sixty 12-weeks-old male Wistar rats were used. A metallic 18G needle was implanted into the bone marrow cavity of distal femur after the injection of Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). All animals were divided into 5 different treatment modalities. The microbiological evaluation, scanning electron microscope examination, radiographic examination and then micro-CT evaluation of peri-implant bone resorption were analyzed. The pathomorphological characteristics of biofilm formation were completed after 40-days induction of osteomyelitis. The inserted implants can be heated upto 75 °C by magnetic heating without any significant thermal damage on the surrounding tissue. We also demonstrated that systemic administration of vancomycin [VC (i.m.)] could not eradicate the bacteria; but, local administration of vancomycin into the femoral canal and the presence of magnetic nanoparticles hyperthermia did enhance the eradication of bacteria in a biofilm-based colony. In these two groups, the percent bone volume (BV/TV: %) was significantly higher than that of the positive control. For the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis, we developed a new modality to improve antibiotic efficacy; the protection effect of biofilms on bacteria could be destroyed by magnetic nanoparticles-induced hyperthermia and therapeutic effect of systemic antibiotics could be enhanced.

  7. Patient specific optimization-based treatment planning for catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia and thermal ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Punit; Chen, Xin; Wootton, Jeffery; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.-Chow; Diederich, Chris J.

    2009-02-01

    A 3D optimization-based thermal treatment planning platform has been developed for the application of catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia in conjunction with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for treating advanced pelvic tumors. Optimal selection of applied power levels to each independently controlled transducer segment can be used to conform and maximize therapeutic heating and thermal dose coverage to the target region, providing significant advantages over current hyperthermia technology and improving treatment response. Critical anatomic structures, clinical target outlines, and implant/applicator geometries were acquired from sequential multi-slice 2D images obtained from HDR treatment planning and used to reconstruct patient specific 3D biothermal models. A constrained optimization algorithm was devised and integrated within a finite element thermal solver to determine a priori the optimal applied power levels and the resulting 3D temperature distributions such that therapeutic heating is maximized within the target, while placing constraints on maximum tissue temperature and thermal exposure of surrounding non-targeted tissue. This optimizationbased treatment planning and modeling system was applied on representative cases of clinical implants for HDR treatment of cervix and prostate to evaluate the utility of this planning approach. The planning provided significant improvement in achievable temperature distributions for all cases, with substantial increase in T90 and thermal dose (CEM43T90) coverage to the hyperthermia target volume while decreasing maximum treatment temperature and reducing thermal dose exposure to surrounding non-targeted tissues and thermally sensitive rectum and bladder. This optimization based treatment planning platform with catheter-based ultrasound applicators is a useful tool that has potential to significantly improve the delivery of hyperthermia in conjunction with HDR brachytherapy. The planning platform has been extended

  8. Hyperthermia-induced vascular injury in normal and neoplastic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badylak, S F; Babbs, C F; Skojac, T M; Voorhees, W D; Richardson, R C

    1985-09-01

    The sequential morphologic alterations in normal skeletal muscle in rats, Walker 256 tumors in rats, and transmissible venereal tumors (TVT) in dogs following microwave-induced hyperthermia (43 degrees C and 45 degrees C for 20 minutes), were studied by histologic and ultrastructural examination. Normal muscle and Walker 256 tumors showed edema, congestion, and hemorrhage at 5 minutes post-heating (PH), followed by suppuration, macrophage infiltration, and thrombosis at 6 and 48 hours PH, and finally by regeneration and repair by 7 days PH. Vascular endothelial damage and parenchymal degeneration were present 5 minutes PH. Progressive injury occurred for at least 48 hours PH. Two hyperthermia treatments separated by a 30- or 60-min cooling interval, were applied to Walker 256 tumors in a subsequent study. Increased selective heating of tumor tissue versus surrounding normal tissue, and increased intratumoral steady state temperatures were found during the second hyperthermia treatment. Canine TVTs were resistant to hyperthermia damage. These results suggest that vascular damage contributes to the immediate and latent cytotoxic effects of hyperthermia in normal tissue and some types of neoplastic tissue, and that selective heating of neoplastic tissue occurs in tumor tissue with disrupted microvasculature.

  9. A temperature analysis in magnetic hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astefanoaei, Iordana; Stancu, Alexandru

    2017-12-01

    In the Magnetic Hyperthermia - the control of the temperature field within the malignant tissues is an important task which receives a considerable attention in the all experimental and theoretical researches. A temperature analysis focus the main parameters which influences strongly this therapy. The spatial distribution of the particles influences significantly the temperature field developed within a malignant tissue, when an external time - dependent magnetic field is applied. This paper analyses the temperature field induced by the particulate systems (magnetite and maghemite) with an exponential spatial distribution within a concentric tissues configuration (malignant and healthy tissues). The temperature field developed by these magnetic systems was computed using an analytical model which predicts the temperature at every point. This model was developed in order to compute the isothermal surfaces in the range of the therapeutic temperature range: 42÷46°C. The parameters involved in the burning process of the malignant tissues are optimized to get the uniform hyperthermic temperatures within malignant tissues for a corresponding clinically particle dosage.

  10. Magnetic hyperthermia of laponite based ferrofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamantopoulos, G., E-mail: gior15@ims.demokritos.gr [Institute of Materials Science, National Centre for Scientific Research ‘Demokritos’, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Basina, G.; Tzitzios, V.; Karakosta, E.; Fardis, M. [Institute of Materials Science, National Centre for Scientific Research ‘Demokritos’, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Jaglicic, Z. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy and Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lazaridis, N. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Chemistry Department, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papavassiliou, G. [Institute of Materials Science, National Centre for Scientific Research ‘Demokritos’, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece)

    2013-06-15

    Magnetic Hyperthermia experiments have been performed on different concentrations of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles immobilized on nano-clay disks. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured in AC field amplitudes H{sub 0} from 7 to 30 kA/m. At low field amplitudes, SAR followed the usual H{sub 0}{sup 2} law whereas for higher field amplitudes a linear dependence was found for the higher concentrations. Measurements at three different field amplitudes were also performed for a wide range of iron oxide concentrations in order to determine the effect of the Brownian relaxation time to SAR. A field dependent maximum was observed and for fields up to 20 kA/m the power dissipation losses were well explained according to theoretical predictions. - Highlights: ► Influence of the AC field to the specific absorption rates (SAR). ► Transition point from the expected square dependence to a linear law between SAR and AC field amplitude. ► A field dependent maximum of the SAR values versus iron oxide concentration is observed. ► Experimental validation of the existing theoretical work.

  11. New experimental model for single liver lobe hyperthermia in small animals using non-directional microwaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț Tudorancea

    Full Text Available Our aim was to develop a new experimental model for in vivo hyperthermia using non-directional microwaves, applicable to small experimental animals. We present an affordable approach for targeted microwave heat delivery to an isolated liver lobe in rat, which allows rapid, precise and stable tissue temperature control.A new experimental model is proposed. We used a commercial available magnetron generating 2450 MHz, with 4.4V and 14A in the filament and 4500V anodic voltage. Modifications were required in order to adjust tissue heating such as to prevent overheating and to allow for fine adjustments according to real-time target temperature. The heating is controlled using a virtual instrument application implemented in LabView® and responds to 0.1° C variations in the target. Ten healthy adult male Wistar rats, weighing 250-270 g were used in this study. The middle liver lobe was the target for controlled heating, while the rest of the living animal was protected.In vivo microwave delivery using our experimental setting is safe for the animals. Target tissue temperature rises from 30°C to 40°C with 3.375°C / second (R2 = 0.9551, while the increment is lower it the next two intervals (40-42°C and 42-44°C with 0.291°C/ s (R2 = 0.9337 and 0.136°C/ s (R2 = 0.7894 respectively, when testing in sequences. After reaching the desired temperature, controlled microwave delivery insures a very stable temperature during the experiments.We have developed an inexpensive and easy to manufacture system for targeted hyperthermia using non-directional microwave radiation. This system allows for fine and stable temperature adjustments within the target tissue and is ideal for experimental models testing below or above threshold hyperthermia.

  12. Triggering cell death by nanographene oxide mediated hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, M.; Matesanz, M. C.; Gonçalves, G.; Feito, M. J.; Linares, J.; Marques, P. A. A. P.; Portolés, M. T.; Vallet-Regi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been proposed as an hyperthermia agent for anticancer therapies due to its near-infrared (NIR) optical absorption ability which, with its small two-dimensional size, could have a unique performance when compared to that of any other nanoparticle. Nevertheless, attention should be given to the hyperthermia route and the kind of GO-cell interactions induced in the process. The hyperthermia laser irradiation parameters, such as exposure time and laser power, were investigated to control the temperature rise and consequent damage in the GOs containing cell culture medium. The type of cell damage produced was evaluated as a function of these parameters. The results showed that cell culture temperature (after irradiating cells with internalized GO) increases preferentially with laser power rather than with exposure time. Moreover, when laser power is increased, necrosis is the preferential cell death leading to an increase of cytokine release to the medium.

  13. New Experiences of Treatment in Multiple Tumors with HIFU Ablation and Whole Body Hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akira; Gondo, Hideki; Iijima, Norio; Xia, Yuantian; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2007-05-01

    We have performed some 5000 whole body hyperthermia (WBH) treatments using far-infrared equipment (RHD 7500: Enthermics medical systems, USA) in 1000 cancer patients since 1991 at Luke Hospital & Clinic (Nakano, Japan). Hyperthermia is a natural treatment whereby patients are heated within the fever temperature range of 41-42 C. However, this therapy alone is poorly suited to advanced cancer patients, where regional tumor control is needed. The potential of HIFU therapy for theses cases deserves further investigation. We have treated 20 times in 12 advanced cancer patients, since importing a new HIFU device (Sonic CZ901: Mianyang some electronic Ltd: China) last December and are able to report some interesting results of combination treatment with HIFU and WBH. Our first experience was a 20-year old female pharyngeal cancer patient with lung and multiple liver metastases. Her lung tumor reduced following WBH (given weekly, 4 times in total) and her liver tumor clearly reduced following HIFU treatment. Our second experience of combinative treatment was in a 65-year old male suffering from a neck tumor with bone metastasis. He received WBH after HIFU treatment into 7th lib bone metastasis. After 10 days, his neck tumor grew with evidence of internal necrosis, and finally ruptured. CT images showed necrotic changes in the focus of the neck tumor and also lib bone metastasis. We believe that this new thermal combinative therapy shows great promise.

  14. The Dartmouth Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence: magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ian; Fiering, Steve N; Griswold, Karl E; Hoopes, P Jack; Kekalo, Katerina; Ndong, Christian; Paulsen, Keith; Petryk, Alicea A; Pogue, Brian; Shubitidze, Fridon; Weaver, John

    2015-01-01

    The Dartmouth Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence - one of nine funded by the National Cancer Institute as part of the Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer - focuses on the use of magnetic nanoparticles for cancer diagnostics and hyperthermia therapy. It brings together a diverse team of engineers and biomedical researchers with expertise in nanomaterials, molecular targeting, advanced biomedical imaging and translational in vivo studies. The goal of successfully treating cancer is being approached by developing nanoparticles, conjugating them with Fabs, hyperthermia treatment, immunotherapy and sensing treatment response.

  15. Targeting therapy-resistant cancer stem cells by hyperthermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oei, A L; Vriend, L E M; Krawczyk, P M

    2017-01-01

    Eradication of all malignant cells is the ultimate but challenging goal of anti-cancer treatment; most traditional clinically-available approaches fail because there are cells in a tumour that either escape therapy or become therapy-resistant. A subpopulation of cancer cells, the cancer stem cells...... are limited. Here, we argue that hyperthermia - a therapeutic approach based on local heating of a tumour - is potentially beneficial for targeting CSCs in solid tumours. First, hyperthermia has been described to target cells in hypoxic and nutrient-deprived tumour areas where CSCs reside and ionising...

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast of iron oxide nanoparticles developed for hyperthermia is dominated by iron content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabler, Michele; Zhu, Wenlian; Hedayati, Mohammad; Attaluri, Anilchandra; Zhou, Haoming; Mihalic, Jana; Geyh, Alison; DeWeese, Theodore L; Ivkov, Robert; Artemov, Dmitri

    2014-05-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hyperthermia for cancer treatment. The relationship between MRI signal intensity and cellular iron concentration for many new formulations, particularly MNPs having magnetic properties designed for heating in hyperthermia, is lacking. In this study, we examine the correlation between MRI T2 relaxation time and iron content in cancer cells loaded with various MNP formulations. Human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells were loaded with starch-coated bionised nanoferrite (BNF), iron oxide (Nanomag® D-SPIO), Feridex™, and dextran-coated Johns Hopkins University (JHU) particles at a target concentration of 50 pg Fe/cell using poly-D-lysine transfection reagent. T2-weighted MRI of serial dilutions of these labelled cells was performed at 9.4 T and iron content quantification was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Clonogenic assay was used to characterise cytotoxicity. No cytotoxicity was observed at twice the target intracellular iron concentration (∼100 pg Fe/cell). ICP-MS revealed highest iron uptake efficiency with BNF and JHU particles, followed by Feridex and Nanomag-D-SPIO, respectively. Imaging data showed a linear correlation between increased intracellular iron concentration and decreased T2 times, with no apparent correlation among MNP magnetic properties. This study demonstrates that for the range of nanoparticle concentrations internalised by cancer cells the signal intensity of T2-weighted MRI correlates closely with absolute iron concentration associated with the cells. This correlation may benefit applications for cell-based cancer imaging and therapy including nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery and hyperthermia.

  17. TU-B-210-02: MRg HIFU - Advanced Approaches for Ablation and Hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moonen, C. [University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    MR guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS), or alternatively high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU), is approved for thermal ablative treatment of uterine fibroids and pain palliation in bone metastases. Ablation of malignant tumors is under active investigation in sites such as breast, prostate, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, and soft tissue. Hyperthermia therapy with MRgFUS is also feasible, and may be used in conjunction with radiotherapy and for local targeted drug delivery. MRI allows in situ target definition and provides continuous temperature monitoring and subsequent thermal dose mapping during HIFU. Although MRgHIFU can be very precise, treatment of mobile organs is challenging and advanced techniques are required because of artifacts in MR temperature mapping, the need for intercostal firing, and need for gated HIFU or tracking of the lesion in real time. The first invited talk, “MR guided Focused Ultrasound Treatment of Tumors in Bone and Soft Tissue”, will summarize the treatment protocol and review results from treatment of bone tumors. In addition, efforts to extend this technology to treat both benign and malignant soft tissue tumors of the extremities will be presented. The second invited talk, “MRI guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound – Advanced Approaches for Ablation and Hyperthermia”, will provide an overview of techniques that are in or near clinical trials for thermal ablation and hyperthermia, with an emphasis of applications in abdominal organs and breast, including methods for MRTI and tracking targets in moving organs. Learning Objectives: Learn background on devices and techniques for MR guided HIFU for cancer therapy Understand issues and current status of clinical MRg HIFU Understand strategies for compensating for organ movement during MRgHIFU Understand strategies for strategies for delivering hyperthermia with MRgHIFU CM - research collaboration with Philips.

  18. [System design of small intellectualized ultrasound hyperthermia instrument in the LabVIEW environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Bai, Jingfeng; Chen, Yazhu

    2005-08-01

    Small-scale intellectualized medical instrument has attracted great attention in the field of biomedical engineering, and LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) provides a convenient environment for this application due to its inherent advantages. The principle and system structure of the hyperthermia instrument are presented. Type T thermocouples are employed as thermotransducers, whose amplifier consists of two stages, providing built-in ice point compensation and thus improving work stability over temperature. Control signals produced by specially designed circuit drive the programmable counter/timer 8254 chip to generate PWM (Pulse width modulation) wave, which is used as ultrasound radiation energy control signal. Subroutine design topics such as inner-tissue real time feedback temperature control algorithm, water temperature control in the ultrasound applicator are also described. In the cancer tissue temperature control subroutine, the authors exert new improvments to PID (Proportional Integral Differential) algorithm according to the specific demands of the system and achieve strict temperature control to the target tissue region. The system design and PID algorithm improvement have experimentally proved to be reliable and excellent, meeting the requirements of the hyperthermia system.

  19. [MRI-assisted thermometry for regional hyperthermia and interstitial laser thermotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, M; Muacevic, A; Reinl, H; Sroka, R; Abdel-Rahman, S; Issels, R; Reiser, M F

    2004-04-01

    To demonstrate the potential of quantitative MRI-assisted thermometry for the treatment of tumor patients with regional hyperthermia (RHT) and interstitial laser thermotherapy (ILTT). Two patients and seven tissue samples were investigated using the T1-relaxation time and the chemical shift of the proton resonance frequency (PRF) as temperature sensitive MRI-parameters at 0.2 and 1.5 T. Thermotherapy was applied using either a dedicated MRI-hyperthermia hybrid system or a temperature controlled laser with 830 nm. Both patients were treated successfully showing clinical benefit. T1 and PRF are depending on the applied thermotherapy method and on the MR-system suitable for MRI-assisted thermometry. The clinical application based on phantom results is not necessarily adequate. Clinical application and phantom experiments of RHT and ILTT show the potential of MRI-assisted thermometry for further improvement of both minimal invasive thermotherapy methods. Further investigations concerning optimization of the MRI-techniques, the influence of perfusion or the determination of threshold values are necessary.

  20. Toxicity evaluation of magnetic hyperthermia induced by remote actuation of magnetic nanoparticles in 3D micrometastasic tumor tissue analogs for triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocke, Nathanael A; Sethi, Pallavi; Jyoti, Amar; Chan, Ryan; Arnold, Susanne M; Hilt, J Zach; Upreti, Meenakshi

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia as a treatment modality is acquiring increased recognition for loco-regional therapy of primary and metastatic lung malignancies by pulmonary delivery of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). The unique characteristic of magnetic nanoparticles to induce localized hyperthermia in the presence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) allows for preferential killing of cells at the tumor site. In this study we demonstrate the effect of hyperthermia induced by low and high dose of MNP under the influence of an AMF using 3D tumor tissue analogs (TTA) representing the micrometastatic, perfusion independent stage of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that infiltrates the lungs. While application of inhalable magnetic nanocomposite microparticles or magnetic nanocomposites (MnMs) to the micrometastatic TNBC model comprised of TTA generated from cancer and stromal cells, showed no measureable adverse effects in the absence of AMF-exposure, magnetic hyperthermia generated under the influence of an AMF in TTA incubated in a high concentration of MNP (1 mg/mL) caused significant increase in cellular death/damage with mechanical disintegration and release of cell debris indicating the potential of these inhalable composites as a promising approach for thermal treatment of diseased lungs. The novelty and significance of this study lies in the development of methods to evaluate in vitro the application of inhalable composites containing MNPs in thermal therapy using a physiologically relevant metastatic TNBC model representative of the microenvironmental characteristics in secondary lung malignancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antitumor magnetic hyperthermia induced by RGD-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles, in an experimental model of colorectal liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oihane K. Arriortua

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work reports important advances in the study of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs related to their application in different research fields such as magnetic hyperthermia. Nanotherapy based on targeted nanoparticles could become an attractive alternative to conventional oncologic treatments as it allows a local heating in tumoral surroundings without damage to healthy tissue. RGD-peptide-conjugated MNPs have been designed to specifically target αVβ3 receptor-expressing cancer cells, being bound the RGD peptides by “click chemistry” due to its selectivity and applicability. The thermal decomposition of iron metallo-organic precursors yield homogeneous Fe3O4 nanoparticles that have been properly functionalized with RGD peptides, and the preparation of magnetic fluids has been achieved. The nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM, electron magnetic resonance (EMR spectroscopy and magnetic hyperthermia. The nanoparticles present superparamagnetic behavior with very high magnetization values, which yield hyperthermia values above 500 W/g for magnetic fluids. These fluids have been administrated to rats, but instead of injecting MNP fluid directly into liver tumors, intravascular administration of MNPs in animals with induced colorectal tumors has been performed. Afterwards the animals were exposed to an alternating magnetic field in order to achieve hyperthermia. The evolution of an in vivo model has been described, resulting in a significant reduction in tumor viability.

  2. Catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia with HDR brachytherapy for treatment of locally advanced cancer of the prostate and cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Chris J.; Wootton, Jeff; Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant; Juang, Titania; Scott, Serena; Chen, Xin; Cunha, Adam; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I. C.

    2011-03-01

    A clinical treatment delivery platform has been developed and is being evaluated in a clinical pilot study for providing 3D controlled hyperthermia with catheter-based ultrasound applicators in conjunction with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Catheter-based ultrasound applicators are capable of 3D spatial control of heating in both angle and length of the devices, with enhanced radial penetration of heating compared to other hyperthermia technologies. Interstitial and endocavity ultrasound devices have been developed specifically for applying hyperthermia within HDR brachytherapy implants during radiation therapy in the treatment of cervix and prostate. A pilot study of the combination of catheter based ultrasound with HDR brachytherapy for locally advanced prostate and cervical cancer has been initiated, and preliminary results of the performance and heating distributions are reported herein. The treatment delivery platform consists of a 32 channel RF amplifier and a 48 channel thermocouple monitoring system. Controlling software can monitor and regulate frequency and power to each transducer section as required during the procedure. Interstitial applicators consist of multiple transducer sections of 2-4 cm length × 180 deg and 3-4 cm × 360 deg. heating patterns to be inserted in specific placed 13g implant catheters. The endocavity device, designed to be inserted within a 6 mm OD plastic tandem catheter within the cervix, consists of 2-3 transducers × dual 180 or 360 deg sectors. 3D temperature based treatment planning and optimization is dovetailed to the HDR optimization based planning to best configure and position the applicators within the catheters, and to determine optimal base power levels to each transducer section. To date we have treated eight cervix implants and six prostate implants. 100 % of treatments achieved a goal of >60 min duration, with therapeutic temperatures achieved in all cases. Thermal dosimetry within the hyperthermia target

  3. Developing Antitumor Magnetic Hyperthermia: Principles, Materials and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishin, Alexander M; Shtil, Alexander A; Pyatakov, Alexander P; Zverev, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Methods of local or loco-regional anticancer treatment are of the utmost importance because the therapeutic 'power' is applied directly to the disease site. Consequently, general toxicity is minimized. Hyperthermia, that is, a sustained increase of intratumoral temperature up to 45oC, has been investigated as a perspective treatment modality alone and/or in combination with ionizing radiation or chemotherapy. Still, the surrounding tissues can be damaged by the external heat. Development of new materials and devices gave rise to methods of inducing hyperthermia by a high frequency magnetic or electromagnetic field applied to the tumor with exogenous nanosized particles captured within it. The idea of this approach is the release of local heat in the vicinity of the magnetic nanoparticle in a time-varying magnetic field due to transfer of external magnetic field energy into the heat. Therefore, tumor cells are heated whereas the peritumoral non-malignant tissues are spared. This review analyzes recent advances in understanding physical principles that underlie magnetic hyperthermia as well as novel approaches to obtain nanoparticles with optimized physico-chemical, toxicological and tumoricidal properties. Special focus is made on the construction of devices for therapeutic purposes. The review covers recent patents and general literature sources regarding magnetic hyperthermia, the developing approach to treat otherwise intractable malignancies.

  4. A review on hyperthermia via nanoparticle-mediated therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Ayesha; Ahmad, Zaki; Bég, O Anwar; Arshad, Sarmad; Sherin, Lubna

    2017-05-01

    Hyperthermia treatment, generated by magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is promising since it is tumour-focused, minimally invasive and uniform. The most unique feature of magnetic nanoparticles is its reaction and modulation by a magnetic force basically responsible for enabling its potential as heating mediators for cancer therapy. In magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia, a tumour is preferentially loaded with systemically administered nanoparticles with high-absorption cross-section for transduction of an extrinsic energy source to heat. To maximize the energy deposited in the tumour while limiting the exposure to healthy tissues, the heating is achieved by exposing the region of tissue containing magnetic nanoparticles to an alternating magnetic field. The magnetic nanoparticles dissipate heat from relaxation losses thereby heating localized tissue above normal physiological ranges. Besides thermal efficiency, the biocompatibility of magnetite nanoparticles assisted its deployment as efficient drug carrier for targeted therapeutic regimes. In the present article, we provide a state-of-the-art review focused on progress in nanoparticle induced hyperthermia treatments that have several potential advantages over both global and local hyperthermia treatments achieved without nanoparticles. Green bio-nanotechnology has attracted substantial attention and has demonstrable abilities to improve cancer therapy. Furthermore, we have listed the challenges associated with this treatment along with future prospective that could attract the interest of biomedical engineers, biomaterials scientists, medical researchers and pharmacological research groups. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. All rights reserved.

  5. The development of PdNi thermoseeds for interstitial hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J. G.; van Wieringen, N.; Koedooder, C.; Nieuwenhuys, G. J.; van Dijk, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic induction heating of thermoseed implants can be used to produce highly localized hyperthermia in deep-seated tumors. Automatic temperature control throughout the tumor can be achieved by the self-regulating character of ferromagnetic seeds, which corrects for local variations in heat loss

  6. Thermosensitive Nanostructured Media for imaging and Hyperthermia Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Hyperthermia has been used for many years to treat a wide variety of tumors in patients. The most commonly applied method of hyperthermia is capacitive heating by using microwave. Magnetic fluids based on iron oxide (Fe3O4), stabilized by biocompatible surfactants are typically used as heating agent. However, significant limitations of using commercial available magnetic particles are non-selectivity and overheating of surrounding normal tissues. To improve the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment we intend to develop Curie temperature (Tc)-tuned nanostructured media having T2 relaxation response on MRI for selective and self-controlled hyperthermia cancer treatment. As an active part of this media we fabricated superparamagnetic, biocompatible and dextran coated ferrite nanoparticles Mg1+xTixFe2(1-x)O4 at 0.3 x combustion synthesis. This process typically involves a reaction in a solution containing metal nitrates and different fuels, which are classified based on the type of reactive groups (e.g., amino, hydroxyl, carboxyl) connected to a hydrocarbon chain, such as glycine, hydrazine, or urea. Our experiments revealed that ferrite with formula Mg1.35Ti0.35Fe1.3O4 appears with Curie temperature within 46-50rC. NSF, grant # 0933140.

  7. On the temperature control in self-controlling hyperthermia therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Mahyar, E-mail: ebrahimi_m@mehr.sharif.ir

    2016-10-15

    In self-controlling hyperthermia therapy, once the desired temperature is reached, the heat generation ceases and overheating is prevented. In order to design a system that generates sufficient heat without thermal ablation of surrounding healthy tissue, a good understanding of temperature distribution and its change with time is imperative. This study is conducted to extend our understanding about the heat generation and transfer, temperature distribution and temperature rise pattern in the tumor and surrounding tissue during self-controlling magnetic hyperthermia. A model consisting of two concentric spheres that represents the tumor and its surrounding tissue is considered and temperature change pattern and temperature distribution in tumor and surrounding tissue are studied. After describing the model and its governing equations and constants precisely, a typical numerical solution of the model is presented. Then it is showed that how different parameters like Curie temperature of nanoparticles, magnetic field amplitude and nanoparticles concentration can affect the temperature change pattern during self-controlling magnetic hyperthermia. The model system herein discussed can be useful to gain insight on the self-controlling magnetic hyperthermia while applied to cancer treatment in real scenario and can be useful for treatment strategy determination. - Highlights: • Temperature change pattern in tumor and surrounding tissue are studied. • The model system herein can be useful for treatment strategy determination. • In the work described herein, emphasis is on the effect of low Curie temperature. • If the equilibrium temperature can be tuned appropriately, the stay time will be infinite.

  8. Materials Characterization of Feraheme/Ferumoxytol and Preliminary Evaluation of Its Potential for Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dobson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feraheme, is a recently FDA-cleared superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION-based MRI contrast agent that is also employed in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Feraheme nanoparticles have a hydrodynamic diameter of 30 nm and consist of iron oxide crystallites complexed with a low molecular weight, semi-synthetic carbohydrate. These features are attractive for other potential biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH, since the carboxylated polymer coating affords functionalization of the particle surface and the size allows for accumulation in highly vascularized tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. This work presents morphological and magnetic characterization of Feraheme by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometry. Additionally, the results of an initial evaluation of the suitability of Feraheme for MFH applications are described, and the data indicate the particles possess promising properties for this application.

  9. Preparation of Multifunctional Fe@Au Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Surface Grafting as a Potential Treatment for Magnetic Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jei Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron core gold shell nanoparticles grafted with Methotrexate (MTX and indocyanine green (ICG were synthesized for the first time in this study, and preliminarily evaluated for their potential in magnetic hyperthermia treatment. The core-shell Fe@Au nanoparticles were prepared via the microemulsion process and then grafted with MTX and ICG using hydrolyzed poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid (PSMA to obtain core-shell Fe@Au-PSMA-ICG/MTX nanoparticles. MTX is an anti-cancer therapeutic, and ICG is a fluorescent dye. XRD, TEM, FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry were performed to characterize the nanoparticles. The data indicated that the average size of the nanoparticles was 6.4 ± 09 nm and that the Au coating protected the Fe core from oxidation. MTX and ICG were successfully grafted onto the surface of the nanoparticles. Under exposure to high frequency induction waves, the superparamagnetic nanoparticles elevated the temperature of a solution in a few minutes, which suggested the potential for an application in magnetic hyperthermia treatment. The in vitro studies verified that the nanoparticles were biocompatible; nonetheless, the Fe@Au-PSMA-ICG/MTX nanoparticles killed cancer cells (Hep-G2 via the magnetic hyperthermia mechanism and the release of MTX.

  10. Synthesis and magnetic hyperthermia studies on high susceptible Fe1-xMgxFe2O4 superparamagnetic nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, A.; Krishnamoorthi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Majority studies on magnetic hyperthermia properties were carried out by modifying the saturation mass magnetization (Ms) of the samples. Here efforts were made to enhance the specific heat generation rate (SHGR) of single domain superparamagnetic (SP) material by modifying its magnetic susceptibility. Well crystallined, inverse spinel structured and close to monosize Fe1-xMgxFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, & 0.5) compounds with nanosphere geometry (diameter 10 nm) were synthesized by solvothermal reflux method at ≈ 300 °C . In the literature it is reported that magnesium ferrites synthesized at high temperatures yield mixed (normal & inverse) spinel structures. The inverse spinel structure was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), lattice vibrations and magnetic characteristics of the compounds. The Ms of the compounds decrease with increase of substituent Mg2+ concentration. Under high excitation energy the inter-valance charge transfer whereas under low excitation energy the intra-valance charge transfer process were predominant. The as-synthesized nanospheres were encapsulated by hydrophobic oleic acid and were exchanged by hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid) by chemical exchange process. Estimated magnetic hyperthermia power or SHGR of the x = 0, 0.3 & 0.5 were 11, 11.4 & 22.4 W per gram of respective compounds, respectively, under 63.4 kA m-1 field amplitude and 126 kHz frequency. The SHGR enhances with Mg2+ concentration though its Ms reduces and is attributed to reduced spin-orbital coupling in the compounds with enhanced Mg2+ concentration. This may pave a new way to develop magnetic hyperthermia material by modifying magnetic susceptibility of the compounds against to the reported Ms modification approach. The obtained high SHGR of the biocompatible compounds could be used in magnetic hyperthermia applications in biomedical field.

  11. Quality and comfort in head and neck hyperthermia: A redesign according to clinical experience and simulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnen, Zef; Togni, Paolo; Roskam, Roel; van de Geer, Stefan G; Goossens, Richard H M; Paulides, Margarethus M

    2015-01-01

    Clinical phase III trials have shown the benefit of adding hyperthermia to radiotherapy and chemotherapy for head and neck cancer (H&N). The HYPERcollar, a functional prototype capable of applying hyperthermia to the entire H&N region was developed. Specific absorption rate-based hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) is used to optimise HYPERcollar treatments. Hence, besides treatment quality, reproduction and reproducibility of the HTP are also pivotal. In the current work we analysed the impact of key parameters on treatment quality and completely redesigned the mechanical layout of the HYPERcollar for improved treatment quality and patient comfort. The requirements regarding patient position and the water bolus shape were quantified by simulation studies. The complete mechanical redesign was based on these requirements and non-modellable improvements were experimentally validated. From simulation studies we imposed the required positioning accuracy to be within ±5 mm. Simulation studies also showed that the water bolus shape has an important impact on treatment quality. Solutions to meet the requirements were 1) a redesign of the applicator, 2) a redesign of the water bolus, and 3) a renewed positioning strategy. Experiments were used to demonstrate whether the solutions meet the requirements. The HYPERcollar redesign improves water bolus shape, stability and skin contact. The renewed positioning strategy allows for positioning of the patient within the required precision of ±5 mm. By clinically introducing the new design, we aim at improving not only treatment quality and reproducibility, but also patient comfort and operator handling, which are all important for a better hyperthermia treatment quality.

  12. Design and evaluation of a hybrid radiofrequency applicator for magnetic resonance imaging and RF induced hyperthermia: electromagnetic field simulations up to 14.0 Tesla and proof-of-concept at 7.0 Tesla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Winter

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the feasibility of a hybrid radiofrequency (RF applicator that supports magnetic resonance (MR imaging and MR controlled targeted RF heating at ultrahigh magnetic fields (B0≥7.0T. For this purpose a virtual and an experimental configuration of an 8-channel transmit/receive (TX/RX hybrid RF applicator was designed. For TX/RX bow tie antenna electric dipoles were employed. Electromagnetic field simulations (EMF were performed to study RF heating versus RF wavelength (frequency range: 64 MHz (1.5T to 600 MHz (14.0T. The experimental version of the applicator was implemented at B0 = 7.0T. The applicators feasibility for targeted RF heating was evaluated in EMF simulations and in phantom studies. Temperature co-simulations were conducted in phantoms and in a human voxel model. Our results demonstrate that higher frequencies afford a reduction in the size of specific absorption rate (SAR hotspots. At 7T (298 MHz the hybrid applicator yielded a 50% iso-contour SAR (iso-SAR-50% hotspot with a diameter of 43 mm. At 600 MHz an iso-SAR-50% hotspot of 26 mm in diameter was observed. RF power deposition per RF input power was found to increase with B0 which makes targeted RF heating more efficient at higher frequencies. The applicator was capable of generating deep-seated temperature hotspots in phantoms. The feasibility of 2D steering of a SAR/temperature hotspot to a target location was demonstrated by the induction of a focal temperature increase (ΔT = 8.1 K in an off-center region of the phantom. Temperature simulations in the human brain performed at 298 MHz showed a maximum temperature increase to 48.6C for a deep-seated hotspot in the brain with a size of (19×23×32mm(3 iso-temperature-90%. The hybrid applicator provided imaging capabilities that facilitate high spatial resolution brain MRI. To conclude, this study outlines the technical underpinnings and demonstrates the basic feasibility of an 8-channel hybrid TX

  13. A theranostic platform for localized magnetic fluid hyperthermia and magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Daniel; Tay, Zhi Wei; Dhavalikar, Rohan; Goodwill, Patrick; Zheng, Bo; Rinaldi, Carlos; Conolly, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is a promising avenue for noninvasive or minimally invasive therapies including tissue ablation, hyperthermia, and drug delivery. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a promising new medical imaging modality with wide-ranging applications including angiography, cell tracking, and cancer imaging. MFH and MPI are kindred technologies leveraging the same physics: Both MFH and MPI function by exciting iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with AC magnetic fields. In this manuscript, we show that this can be leveraged for combined MPI-MFH. The gradient fields employed in MPI can benefit MFH by providing high resolution targeting anywhere in the body, and a dual system provides opportunities for real-time diagnostic imaging feedback. Here we experimentally quantify the spatial localization of MFH using MPI gradient fields with a custom MPI-MFH system, demonstrating approximately 3 mm heating resolution in phantoms. We show an ability to precisely target phantom components as desired and provide heating of approximately 150 W g-1. We also show preliminary simultaneous MPI-MFH data.

  14. Procedure for creating a three-dimensional (3D) model for superficial hyperthermia treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linthorst, Marianne; Drizdal, Tomas; Joosten, Hans; Rhoon, Gerard C. van; Zee, Jacoba van der [Hyperthermia Unit, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Erasmus MC Rotterdam

    2011-12-15

    To make a patient- and treatment-specific computed tomography (CT) scan and to create a three-dimensional (3D) patient model for superficial hyperthermia treatment planning (SHTP). Patients with recurrent breast adenocarcinoma in previously irradiated areas referred for radiotherapy (RT) and hyperthermia (HT) treatment and giving informed consent were included. After insertion of the thermometry catheters in the treatment area, a CT scan in the treatment position was made. A total of 26 patients have been, thus far, included in the study. During the study period, five types of adjustments were made to the procedure: (1) marking the RT field with radioopaque markers, (2) making the CT scan after the first HT treatment instead of before, (3) using an air- and foam-filled (dummy) water bolus, (4) a change to radiolucent catheters for which radioopaque markers were needed, and (5) marking the visible/palpable extent of the tumor with radioopaque markers, if necessary. With these adjustments, all necessary information is visible on the CT scan. Each CT slice was automatically segmented into muscle, fat, bone, and air. RT field, catheters, applicators, and tumor lesions, if indicated, were outlined manually using the segmentation program iSeg. Next the model was imported into SEMCAD X, a 3D electromagnetic field simulator. Using the final procedure to obtain a patient- and treatment-specific CT scan, it is possible to create a 3D model for SHTP.

  15. Development and application of a multiple linear regression model to consider the impact of weekly waste container capacity on the yield from kerbside recycling programmes in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Jim; Curry, Robin; Reid, Tim

    2013-03-01

    This article describes the development and application of a multiple linear regression model to identify how the key elements of waste and recycling infrastructure, namely container capacity and frequency of collection, affect the yield from municipal kerbside recycling programmes. The overall aim of the research was to gain an understanding of the factors affecting the yield from municipal kerbside recycling programmes in Scotland with an underlying objective to evaluate the efficacy of the model as a decision-support tool for informing the design of kerbside recycling programmes. The study isolates the principal kerbside collection service offered by all 32 councils across Scotland, eliminating those recycling programmes associated with flatted properties or multi-occupancies. The results of the regression analysis model have identified three principal factors which explain 80% of the variability in the average yield of the principal dry recyclate services: weekly residual waste capacity, number of materials collected and the weekly recycling capacity. The use of the model has been evaluated and recommendations made on ongoing methodological development and the use of the results in informing the design of kerbside recycling programmes. We hope that the research can provide insights for the further development of methods to optimise the design and operation of kerbside recycling programmes.

  16. Implementation of treatment planning in the routine clinical procedure of regional hyperthermia treatment of cervical cancer: an overview and the Rotterdam experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canters, Richard A M; Paulides, Margarethus M; Franckena, Martine F; van der Zee, Jacoba; van Rhoon, Gerard C

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript provides an overview in the field of hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) in cervical cancer. Treatment planning techniques: The workflow of an HTP assisted treatment generally consists of patient imaging, tissue segmentation, model generation, electromagnetic (EM) and thermal calculations, optimisation, and clinical implementation. A main role in HTP is played by numerical simulations, for which currently a number of software packages are available in hyperthermia. To implement these simulations, accurate applicator models and accurate knowledge of dielectric and thermal parameters is mandatory. Model validation is necessary to check if this is implemented well. In the translation from HTP models to the clinic, the main aspect is accurate representation of the actual treatment situation in the HTP models. Accurate patient positioning and organ-specific segmentation can be helpful in minimising the differences between model and clinic. In the clinic, different approaches are possible: simple, i.e. target centre point (TCP) steering, often called 'target steering', or only pretreatment planning versus advanced, i.e. active HTP guided steering or image guided hyperthermia by non-invasive thermometry (NIT). The Rotterdam experience: To illustrate the implementation of HTP guided steering, the Rotterdam approach of complaint adaptive steering is elaborated, in which optimisation is adapted with increased constraints on tissues with heat-induced discomfort. Many publications on HTP show that HTP can be considered a feasible method to optimise and control a hyperthermia treatment, with the objective to enhance treatment quality and documentation. Ultimately, after overcoming the various uncertainties, this may lead to dose prescription.

  17. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  18. An improved bolus configuration for commercial multielement ultrasound and microwave hyperthermia systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, C J; Stauffer, P R; Bozzo, D

    1994-09-01

    A simple modification is presented for two commercially available hyperthermia applicators which dramatically improves the regulation and dynamic control of the temperature at the bolus/tissue interface. This alteration requires the addition of a variable speed pump, bubble trap, simple heat exchanger, and a few minor changes to the existing system. With this modified design, the water within the bolus is directly circulated and temperature controlled. The convective nature of the circulating system ensures uniform temperature throughout the extended bolus and increases the thermal energy transfer at the bolus/tissue interface. This modification also provides significantly improved flexibility in controlling the treatment temperature distributions since the bolus/tissue interface temperature can now be dynamically varied during a treatment, in addition to adjusting the applicator power output and frequency.

  19. An implantable smart magnetic nanofiber device for endoscopic hyperthermia treatment and tumor-triggered controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, Arathyram Ramachandra Kurup; Unnithan, Afeesh Rajan; Yun, Yeo-Heung; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-02-01

    The study describes the design and synthesis of an implantable smart magnetic nanofiber device for endoscopic hyperthermia treatment and tumor-triggered controlled drug release. This device is achieved using a two-component smart nanofiber matrix from monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) as well as bortezomib (BTZ), a chemotherapeutic drug. The IONP-incorporated nanofiber matrix was developed by electrospinning a biocompatible and bioresorbable polymer, poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), and tumor-triggered anticancer drug delivery is realized by exploiting mussel-inspired surface functionalization using 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine (dopamine) to conjugate the borate-containing BTZ anticancer drug through a catechol metal binding in a pH-sensitive manner. Thus, an implantable smart magnetic nanofiber device can be exploited to both apply hyperthermia with an alternating magnetic field (AMF) and to achieve cancer cell-specific drug release to enable synergistic cancer therapy. These results confirm that the BTZ-loaded mussel-inspired magnetic nanofiber matrix (BTZ-MMNF) is highly beneficial not only due to the higher therapeutic efficacy and low toxicity towards normal cells but also, as a result of the availability of magnetic nanoparticles for repeated hyperthermia application and tumor-triggered controlled drug release. The current work report on the design and development of a smart nanoplatform responsive to a magnetic field to administer both hyperthermia and pH-dependent anticancer drug release for the synergistic anticancer treatment. The iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) incorporated nanofiber matrix was developed by electrospinning a biocompatible polymer, poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), and tumor-triggered anticancer drug delivery is realized by surface functionalization using 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine (dopamine) to conjugate the boratecontaining anticancer drug bortezomib through a catechol metal binding in a p

  20. Hyperthermia and Use of Antipyretics in Pediatric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Marushko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problem of hyperthermia in pediatric practice. There are given the peculiarities of fever types, recommendations on management by physician who provides care for a child with a fever, recommendations on the definition of the category of patients who should be administered with antipyretic agent. The authors provide evidence-based data on the benefits of ibuprofen (Nurofen® for children as the hypothermic therapy in children with fever.

  1. High skeletal muscle adenylate cyclase in malignant hyperthermia.

    OpenAIRE

    Willner, J H; Cerri, C G; Wood, D S

    1981-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia occurs in humans with several congenital myopathies, usually in response to general anesthesia. Commonly, individuals who develop this syndrome lack symptoms of muscle disease, and their muscle lacks specific pathological changes. A biochemical marker for this myopathy has not previously been available; we found activity of adenylate cyclase and content of cyclic AMP to be abnormally high in skeletal muscle. Secondary modification of protein phosphorylation could explai...

  2. Protection from scrotal hyperthermia in laptop computer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheynkin, Yefim; Welliver, Robert; Winer, Andrew; Hajimirzaee, Farshid; Ahn, Hongshik; Lee, Kyewon

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate methods of prevention of scrotal hyperthermia in laptop computer (LC) users. Experimental study. University hospital. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers. Right and left scrotal temperature and LC and lap pad temperatures were recorded during three separate 60-minute sessions using a working LC in a laptop position: session 1, sitting with closely approximated legs; session 2, sitting with closely approximated legs with a lap pad below the working LC; and session 3, sitting with legs apart at a 70°angle with a lap pad below the working LC. Scrotal temperature elevation. Scrotal temperature increased significantly regardless of leg position or use of a lap pad. However, it was significantly lower in session 3 (1.41 °C ± 0.66 °C on the left and 1.47 °C ± 0.62 °C on the right) than in session 2 (2.18 °C ± 0.69 °C and 2.06 °C ± 0.72 °C) or session 1 (2.31 °C ± 0.96 °C and 2.56 °C ± 0.91 °C). A scrotal temperature elevation of 1 °C was reached at 11 minutes in session 1, 14 minutes in session 2, and 28 minutes in session 3. Sitting position with closely approximated legs is the major cause of scrotal hyperthermia. Scrotal shielding with a lap pad does not protect from scrotal temperature elevation. Prevention of scrotal hyperthermia in LC users presently is not feasible. However, scrotal hyperthermia may be reduced by a modified sitting position (legs apart) and significantly shorter use of LC. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Implant strategies for endocervical and interstitial ultrasound hyperthermia adjunct to HDR brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Jeffery H.; Prakash, Punit; Hsu, I.-Chow Joe; Diederich, Chris J.

    2011-07-01

    Catheter-based ultrasound devices provide a method to deliver 3D conformable heating integrated with HDR brachytherapy delivery. Theoretical characterization of heating patterns was performed to identify implant strategies for these devices which can best be used to apply hyperthermia to cervical cancer. A constrained optimization-based hyperthermia treatment planning platform was used for the analysis. The proportion of tissue >=41 °C in a hyperthermia treatment volume was maximized with constraints Tmax 200 cm3) is possible using multiple sectored interstitial and endocervical ultrasound devices. The endocervical device can heat >41 °C to 4.6 cm diameter compared to 3.6 cm for the interstitial. Sectored applicators afford tight control of heating that is robust to perfusion changes in most regularly spaced configurations. T90 in example patient cases was 40.5-42.7 °C (1.9-39.6 EM43 °C) at 1 kg m-3 s-1 with 10/14 patients >=41 °C. Guidelines are presented for positioning of implant catheters during the initial surgery, selection of ultrasound applicator configurations, and tailored power schemes for achieving T90 >= 41 °C in clinically practical implant configurations. Catheter-based ultrasound devices, when adhering to the guidelines, show potential to generate conformal therapeutic heating ranging from a single endocervical device targeting small volumes local to the cervix (directional interstitial applicators in the lateral periphery to target much larger volumes (6 cm radial), while preferentially limiting heating of the bladder and rectum.

  4. The Effect of Particle Concentration on the Heating Rate of Ferrofluids for Magnetic Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaescu I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex magnetic susceptibility χ(f = χ′(f - i χ″(f, of a ferrofluid sample with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene and stabilized with oleic acid, over the range 0.1 GHz to 6 GHz, was determined. The initial sample has been successively diluted with kerosene (with a dilution rate of 2/3, thus obtaining further three samples. Using the complex magnetic susceptibility measurements of each sample, the frequency field and particle concentration dependencies of the heating rate of the ferrofluid samples, were analyzed. The results show the possibility of using the heating rate of ferrofluid samples with different particle concentrations, in hyperthermia applications.

  5. Magnetic particle hyperthermia: Neel relaxation in magnetic nanoparticles under circularly polarized field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Chatel, P F; Nandori, I; Hakl, J; Meszaros, S; Vad, K [Institute of Nuclear Research, PO Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2009-03-25

    The mechanism of magnetization reversal in single-domain ferromagnetic particles is of interest in many applications, in most of which losses must be minimized. In cancer therapy by hyperthermia the opposite requirement prevails: the specific loss power should be maximized. Of the mechanisms of dissipation, here we study the effect of Neel relaxation on magnetic nanoparticles unable to move or rotate and compare the losses in linearly and circularly polarized fields. We present exact analytical solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation as derived from the Gilbert equation and use the calculated time-dependent magnetizations to find the energy loss per cycle. In frequencies lower than the Larmor frequency, linear polarization is found to be the better source of heat power, at high frequencies (beyond the Larmor frequency) circular polarization is preferable.

  6. Improvement of drug delivery by hyperthermia treatment using magnetic cubic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Chaitali; Baishya, Kaushik; Ghosh, Arup; Goswami, Madhuri Mandal; Ghosh, Ajay; Mandal, Kalyan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report a novel synthesis method, characterization and application of a new class of ferromagnetic cubic cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for hyperthermia therapy and temperature triggered drug release. The MNPs are characterized by XRD, TEM, FESEM, AC magnetic hysteresis and VSM. These MNPs were coated with folic acid and loaded with an anticancer drug. The drug release studies were done at two different temperatures (37 °C and 44 °C) with progress of time. It was found that higher release of drug took place at elevated temperature (44 °C). We have developed a temperature sensitive drug delivery system which releases the heat sensitive drug selectively as the particles are heated up under AC magnetic field and controlled release is possible by changing the external AC magnetic field.

  7. Predicting effects of blood flow rate and size of vessels in a vasculature on hyperthermia treatments using computer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Tzu-Ching

    2010-03-01

    same difference as compared to the CBVN model. The optimization used here is adjusting power based on the local temperature in the treated region in an attempt to reach the ideal therapeutic temperature of 43°C. The scheme can be used (or adapted in a non-invasive power supply application such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU. Results show that, for low perfusion rates in CBVN model vessels, impacts on tissue temperature becomes insignificant. Uniform temperature in the treated region is obtained. Conclusion Therefore, any method that could decrease or prevent blood flow rates into the tumorous region is recommended as a pre-process to hyperthermia cancer treatment. Second, the size of vessels in vasculatures does not significantly affect on total power consumption during hyperthermia therapy when the total blood flow rate is constant. It is about 0.8% decreasing in total optimized absorbed power in the heated region as γ (the ratio of diameters of successive vessel generations increases from 0.6 to 0.7, or from 0.7 to 0.8, or from 0.8 to 0.9. Last, in hyperthermia treatments, when the heated region consists of thermally significant vessels, much of absorbed power is required to heat the region and (provided that finer spatial power deposition exists to heat vessels which could lead to higher blood temperatures than tissue temperatures when modeled them using PBHTE.

  8. Implant strategies for endocervical and interstitial ultrasound hyperthermia adjunct to HDR brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Jeffery H; Prakash, Punit; Hsu, I-Chow Joe; Diederich, Chris J, E-mail: CDiederich@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94115 (United States)

    2011-07-07

    Catheter-based ultrasound devices provide a method to deliver 3D conformable heating integrated with HDR brachytherapy delivery. Theoretical characterization of heating patterns was performed to identify implant strategies for these devices which can best be used to apply hyperthermia to cervical cancer. A constrained optimization-based hyperthermia treatment planning platform was used for the analysis. The proportion of tissue {>=}41 deg. C in a hyperthermia treatment volume was maximized with constraints T{sub max} {<=} 47 deg. C, T{sub rectum} {<=} 41.5 deg. C, and T{sub bladder} {<=} 42.5 deg. C. Hyperthermia treatment was modeled for generalized implant configurations and complex configurations from a database of patients (n = 14) treated with HDR brachytherapy. Various combinations of endocervical (360{sup 0} or 2 x 180{sup 0} output; 6 mm OD) and interstitial (180{sup 0}, 270{sup 0}, or 360{sup 0} output; 2.4 mm OD) applicators within catheter locations from brachytherapy implants were modeled, with perfusion constant (1 or 3 kg m{sup -3} s{sup -1}) or varying with location or temperature. Device positioning, sectoring, active length and aiming were empirically optimized to maximize thermal coverage. Conformable heating of appreciable volumes (>200 cm{sup 3}) is possible using multiple sectored interstitial and endocervical ultrasound devices. The endocervical device can heat >41 deg. C to 4.6 cm diameter compared to 3.6 cm for the interstitial. Sectored applicators afford tight control of heating that is robust to perfusion changes in most regularly spaced configurations. T{sub 90} in example patient cases was 40.5-42.7 deg. C (1.9-39.6 EM{sub 43deg.C}) at 1 kg m{sup -3} s{sup -1} with 10/14 patients {>=}41 deg. C. Guidelines are presented for positioning of implant catheters during the initial surgery, selection of ultrasound applicator configurations, and tailored power schemes for achieving T{sub 90} {>=} 41 deg. C in clinically practical implant

  9. The role of hyperthermia in the water economy of desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, B.I.; Williams, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    A number of authors have suggested that hyperthermia, the elevation of body temperature (T-b) 2 degrees-4 degrees C above normal, contributes to a reduction in total evaporative water loss (TEWL) in birds. Information about the role of hyperthermia in the water economy of birds is scattered

  10. A case of malignant hyperthermia captured by an anesthesia information management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Michael D; Patel, Rajesh A; Blum, James M; Tremper, Kevin K

    2011-04-01

    Many cases of malignant hyperthermia triggered by volatile anesthetic agents have been described. However, to our knowledge, there has not been a report describing the precise changes in physiologic data of a human suffering from this process. Here we describe a case of malignant hyperthermia in which monitoring information was frequently and accurately captured by an anesthesia information management system.

  11. Exchange-coupled Fe3O4/CoFe2O4 nanoparticles for advanced magnetic hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassell, M.; Robles, J.; Das, R.; Phan, M. H.; Srikanth, H.

    Iron oxide nanoparticles especially Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3 have been extensively studied for magnetic hyperthermia because of their tunable magnetic properties and stable suspension in superparamagnetic regime. However, their relatively low heating capacity hindered practical application. Recently, a large improvement in heating efficiency has been reported in exchange-coupled nanoparticles with exchange coupling between soft and hard magnetic phases. Here, we systematically studied the effect of core and shell size on the heating efficiency of the Fe3O4/CoFe2O4 core/shell nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were synthesized using thermal decomposition of organometallic precursors. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed formation of spherical shaped Fe3O4 and Fe3O-/CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements showed high magnetization (≅70 emu/g) and superparamagnetic behavior for the nanoparticles at room temperature. Magnetic hyperthermia results showed a large increase in specific absorption rate (SAR) for 8nm Fe3O4/CoFe2O4 compared to Fe3O4 nanoparticles of the same size. The heating efficiency of the Fe3O4/CoFe2O4 with 1 nm CoFe2O4 (shell) increased from 207 to 220 W/g (for 800 Oe) with increase in core size from 6 to 8 nm. The heating efficiency of the Fe3O4/CoFe2O4 with 2 nm CoFe2O4 (shell) and core size of 8 nm increased from 220 to 460 W/g (for 800 Oe). These exchange-coupled Fe3O4/CoFe2O4 core/shell nanoparticles can be a good candidate for advanced hyperthermia application.

  12. Effects of hyperthermia on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Møller, Kirsten; Volianitis, Stefanos

    2002-01-01

    ergometer. The gCBF and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were determined with the Kety-Schmidt technique after 15 min of exercise when core temperature was similar across trials, and at the end of exercise, either when subjects remained normothermic (core temperature = 37.9 degrees C......The development of hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in humans is associated with various changes in the brain, but it is not known whether the cerebral metabolism or the global cerebral blood flow (gCBF) is affected. Eight endurance-trained subjects completed two exercise bouts on a cycle......; control) or when severe hyperthermia had developed (core temperature = 39.5 degrees C; hyperthermia). The gCBF was similar after 15 min in the two trials, and it remained stable throughout control. In contrast, during hyperthermia gCBF decreased by 18% and was therefore lower in hyperthermia compared...

  13. The response of kidney to ionizing radiation combined with hyperthermia induced by ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.G.; Sager, H.T.; Elkon, D.; Constable, W.; Rinehart, L.; Wills, M.; Savory, J.; Lacher, D.

    1982-11-01

    Mouse kidneys were made hyperthermic (42.5 degrees C for 30 min) one hour before, during, or one hour after local irradiation to determine the effect of hyperthermia on radiation damage. An ultrasound beam was used to induce hyperthermia. The urinary concentrations of total protein and albumin were used as criteria of kidney injury. Hyperthermia alone did not induce proteinuria. Radiation alone produced proteinuria that was not correlated with dose. Hyperthermia induced during or after irradiation resulted in a thermal enhancement factor of 1.29 +/- .33. Hyperthermia induced one hour before irradiation resulted in a thermal enhancement factor of 0.88 +/- .05, indicating a radioprotective effect. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been shown.

  14. The response of kidney to ionizing radiation combined with hyperthermia induced by ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.G.; Sager, H.T.; Elkon, D.; Constable, W.; Rinehart, L.; Wills, M.; Savory, J.; Lacher, D.

    1982-11-01

    Mouse kidneys were made hyperthermic (42.5/sup 0/C for 30 min) one hour before, during, or one hour after local irradiation to determine the effect of hyperthermia on radiation damage. An ultrasound beam was used to induce hyperthermia. The urinary concentrations of total protein and albumin were used as criteria of kidney injury. Hyperthermia alone did not induce proteinuria. Radiation alone produced proteinuria that was not correlated with dose. Hyperthermia induced during or after irradiation resulted in a thermal enhancement factor of 1.29+/-.33. Hyperthermia induced one hour before irradiation resulted in a thermal enhancement factor of 0.88+/-.05, indicating a radioprotective effect. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been shown.

  15. Peptide and non-peptide opioid-induced hyperthermia in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    The intracerebroventricular administration of prototype nonpeptide opioid receptor (mu, kappa, and sigma) agonists, morphine, ketocyclazocine, and N-allyl-normetazocine was found to induce hyperthermia in rabbits. The similar administration of peptide opioids like beta-endorphin (BE), methionine-enkephalin (ME), and its synthetic analogue D-ala2-methionine-enkephalinamide (DAME) was also found to cause hyperthermia. Results indicate that only the liver-like transport system is important to the ventricular inactivation of BE and DAME. Prostaglandins and norepinephrine were determined not to be involved in peptide and nonpeptide opioid-induced hyperthermia. In addition, cAMP was not required since a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, theophylline, did not accentuate the hyperthermia due to peptide and nonpeptide opioids. Naloxone-sensitive receptors were found to be involved in the induction of hyperthermia by morphine, BE, ME, and DAME since naloxone attenuated them. However, the hyperthermic response to ketocyclazocine and N-allyl-normetazocine was not antagonized by naloxone.

  16. A Pilot Study of Catheter-Based Ultrasound Hyperthermia with HDR Brachytherapy for Treatment of Locally Advanced Cancer of the Prostate and Cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Chris J.; Wootton, Jeff; Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant; Juang, Titania; Scott, Serena; Chen, Xin; Cunha, Adam; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I. C.

    2011-09-01

    Interstitial and endocavity ultrasound devices have been developed specifically for applying hyperthermia within temporary HDR brachytherapy implants during radiation therapy. Catheter-based ultrasound applicators are capable of 3D spatial control of heating in both angle and length of the devices, with enhanced radial penetration of heating compared to other hyperthermia technologies. A pilot study of the combination of catheter based ultrasound with HDR brachytherapy for locally advanced prostate and cervical cancer has been initiated, and preliminary results of the performance and heating distributions are reported herein. The treatment delivery platform consists of a 32 channel RF amplifier and a 48 channel thermocouple monitoring system. Controlling software can monitor and regulate frequency and power to each transducer section as required during the procedure. Interstitial applicators consist of multiple transducer sections of 2-4 cm length×180 deg and 3-4 cm×360 deg. heating patterns to be inserted in specific placed 13g implant catheters. The endocavity device, designed to be inserted within a 6 mm OD plastic tandem catheter within the cervix, consists of 2-3 transducers x dual 180 or 360 deg sectors. 3D temperature based treatment planning and optimization is dovetailed to the HDR optimization based planning to best configure and position the applicators within the catheters, and to determine optimal base power levels to each transducer section. To date we have treated eight cervix implants and four prostate implants. 100% of treatments achieved a goal of >60 min duration, with therapeutic temperatures achieved in all cases. Thermal dosimetry within the hyperthermia target volume (HTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) are reported. Catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia with HDR appears feasible with therapeutic temperature coverage of the target volume within the prostate or cervix while sparing surrounding more sensitive regions.

  17. EFFECT OF HEAT PRECONDITIONING BY MICROWAVE HYPERTHERMIA ON HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE AFTER ECCENTRIC EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Saga

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify whether heat preconditioning results in less eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and muscle soreness, and whether the repeated bout effect is enhanced by heat preconditioning prior to eccentric exercise. Nine untrained male volunteers aged 23 ± 3 years participated in this study. Heat preconditioning included treatment with a microwave hyperthermia unit (150 W, 20 min that was randomly applied to one of the subject's arms (MW; the other arm was used as a control (CON. One day after heat preconditioning, the subjects performed 24 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors at 30°·s-1 (ECC1. One week after ECC1, the subjects repeated the procedure (ECC2. After each bout of exercise, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, range of motion (ROM of the elbow joint, upper arm circumference, blood creatine kinase (CK activity and muscle soreness were measured. The subjects experienced both conditions at an interval of 3 weeks. MVC and ROM in the MW were significantly higher than those in the CON (p < 0.05 for ECC1; however, the heat preconditioning had no significant effect on upper arm circumference, blood CK activity, or muscle soreness following ECC1 and ECC2. Heat preconditioning may protect human skeletal muscle from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage after a single bout of eccentric exercise but does not appear to promote the repeated bout effect after a second bout of eccentric exercise

  18. Temperature measurements in a capacitive system of deep loco-regional hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinbas, H; Rosch, M; Demiray, M

    2017-01-01

    Hyperthermia has been shown to be a medically useful procedure applicable for different indications. For the connection between clinical effects and heat, it is important to understand the actual temperatures achieved in the tissue. There are limited temperature data available when using capacitive hyperthermia devices even though this is worldwide the most widespread method for loco-regional heating. Hence, this study examines temperature measurements using capacitive heating. Bioequivalent phantoms were used for the measurements, which, however, do not consider perfusion in live tissue. In general, the required temperature impact for an effective cancer therapy should need an increase of 0.2°C/min, which has been achieved. In the described tests on the non-perfused dummy, on average, the temperature increases by approximately 2°C in the first 12 min. The temperature difference relative to the starting temperature was 10-12°C within a therapy time of 60 min (rising from the initial room temperature between 20-24°C and 32-34°C). The average deviation with three individual measurements each on different days in a specified localization was 2°C. The minimum temperature difference was 4.2°C, and the maximum value was reached in the liver with 10.5°C. These values were achieved with a moderate energy input of 60-150 watts, with much higher performance outputs still available. These results show that the tested capacitive device is capable of achieving quick temperature increase with a sufficient impact into the depth of a body.

  19. Stimuli-responsive magnetic nanoparticles for tumor-targeted bimodal imaging and photodynamic/hyperthermia combination therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Sub; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Joo Young; Matsuda, Shofu; Hideshima, Sho; Mori, Yasurou; Osaka, Tetsuya; Na, Kun

    2016-06-01

    Despite magnetic nanoparticles having shown great potential in cancer treatment, tremendous challenges related to diagnostic sensitivity and treatment efficacy for clinical application remain. Herein, we designed optimized multifunctional magnetite nanoparticles (AHP@MNPs), composed of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and photosensitizer conjugated hyaluronic acid (AHP), to achieve enhanced tumor diagnosis and therapy. Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by a facile hydrolysis method. MNPs have higher biocompatibility, controllable particle sizes, and desirable magnetic properties. The fabricated AHP@MNPs have enhanced water solubility (average size: 108.13 +/- 1.08 nm), heat generation properties, and singlet oxygen generation properties upon magnetic and laser irradiation. The AHP@MNPs can target tumors via CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis, which have enhanced tumor therapeutic effects through photodynamic/hyperthermia-combined treatment without any drugs. We successfully detected tumors implanted in mice via magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging. Furthermore, we demonstrated the photodynamic/hyperthermia-combined therapeutic efficacy of AHP@MNPs with synergistically enhanced efficacy against cancer.Despite magnetic nanoparticles having shown great potential in cancer treatment, tremendous challenges related to diagnostic sensitivity and treatment efficacy for clinical application remain. Herein, we designed optimized multifunctional magnetite nanoparticles (AHP@MNPs), composed of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and photosensitizer conjugated hyaluronic acid (AHP), to achieve enhanced tumor diagnosis and therapy. Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by a facile hydrolysis method. MNPs have higher biocompatibility, controllable particle sizes, and desirable magnetic properties. The fabricated AHP@MNPs have enhanced water solubility (average size: 108.13 +/- 1.08 nm), heat generation properties, and singlet oxygen generation properties upon magnetic and laser

  20. Development, characterization, and in vitro trials of chloroaluminum phthalocyanine-magnetic nanoemulsion to hyperthermia and photodynamic therapies on glioblastoma as a biological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, L. B.; Primo, F. L.; Jardim, D. R.; Morais, P. C.; Tedesco, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    A glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the highest grade glioma tumor (grade IV) and is the most malignant form of astrocytomas. Grade IV tumors, which are the most malignant and aggressive, affect people between the ages of 45 and 70 years. A GBM exhibits remarkable characteristics that include excessive proliferation, necrosis, genetic instability, and chemoresistance. Because of these characteristics, GBMs are difficult to treat and have a poor prognosis with a median survival of less than one year. New methods to achieve widespread distribution of therapeutic agents across infiltrative gliomas significantly improve brain tumor therapy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and hyperthermia (HPT) are well-established tumor therapies with minimal side effects while acting synergistically. This study introduces a new promising nanocarrier for the synergistic application of PDT and magnetic hyperthermia therapy against human glioma cell line T98 G, with cellular viability reduction down to as low as 17% compared with the control.

  1. On the optimization of interstitial hyperthermia systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handl-Zeller, L.; Kaercher, K.H.; Schreier, K.; Handl, O.

    1987-07-01

    After having studied the fundamental possibilities of proceedings allowing an intracorporal transfer of energy, two systems were investigated in detail in order to achieve a wide range of application: 1. Resistance heating of tissue by modified standard needles and individual regulation of each needle (system KHS-9). 2. Water heating of standard needles as used in interstitial radiotherapy and overall regulation of the total system. These new systems are supposed to be applied in clinical practice and have been developed by GSP-Wien at the suggestion of the University Hospital. Patent is applied for both of them.

  2. Fluorescent magnetic nanoparticle-labeled mesenchymal stem cells for targeted imaging and hyperthermia therapy of in vivo gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jing; Ji, Jiajia; Song, Hua; Qian, Qirong; Wang, Kan; Wang, Can; Cui, Daxiang

    2012-06-01

    How to find early gastric cancer cells in vivo is a great challenge for the diagnosis and therapy of gastric cancer. This study is aimed at investigating the feasibility of using fluorescent magnetic nanoparticle (FMNP)-labeled mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to realize targeted imaging and hyperthermia therapy of in vivo gastric cancer. The primary cultured mouse marrow MSCs were labeled with amino-modified FMNPs then intravenously injected into mouse model with subcutaneous gastric tumor, and then, the in vivo distribution of FMNP-labeled MSCs was observed by using fluorescence imaging system and magnetic resonance imaging system. After FMNP-labeled MSCs arrived in local tumor tissues, subcutaneous tumor tissues in nude mice were treated under external alternating magnetic field. The possible mechanism of MSCs targeting gastric cancer was investigated by using a micro-multiwell chemotaxis chamber assay. Results show that MSCs were labeled with FMNPs efficiently and kept stable fluorescent signal and magnetic properties within 14 days, FMNP-labeled MSCs could target and image in vivo gastric cancer cells after being intravenously injected for 14 days, FMNP-labeled MSCs could significantly inhibit the growth of in vivo gastric cancer because of hyperthermia effects, and CCL19/CCR7 and CXCL12/CXCR4 axis loops may play key roles in the targeting of MSCs to in vivo gastric cancer. In conclusion, FMNP-labeled MSCs could target in vivo gastric cancer cells and have great potential in applications such as imaging, diagnosis, and hyperthermia therapy of early gastric cancer in the near future.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Control of Hyperthermia Using Real Time Ultrasonic Thermal Strain Imaging with Motion Compensation, Phantom Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foiret, Josquin; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2015-01-01

    Mild hyperthermia has been successfully employed to induce reversible physiological changes that can directly treat cancer and enhance local drug delivery. In this approach, temperature monitoring is essential to avoid undesirable biological effects that result from thermal damage. For thermal therapies, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been employed to control real-time Focused Ultrasound (FUS) therapies. However, combined ultrasound imaging and therapy systems offer the benefits of simple, low-cost devices that can be broadly applied. To facilitate such technology, ultrasound thermometry has potential to reliably monitor temperature. Control of mild hyperthermia was previously achieved using a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller based on thermocouple measurements. Despite accurate temporal control of heating, this method is limited by the single position at which the temperature is measured. Ultrasound thermometry techniques based on exploiting the thermal dependence of acoustic parameters (such as longitudinal velocity) can be extended to create thermal maps and allow an accurate monitoring of temperature with good spatial resolution. However, in vivo applications of this technique have not been fully developed due to the high sensitivity to tissue motion. Here, we propose a motion compensation method based on the acquisition of multiple reference frames prior to treatment. The technique was tested in the presence of 2-D and 3-D physiological-scale motion and was found to provide effective real-time temperature monitoring. PID control of mild hyperthermia in presence of motion was then tested with ultrasound thermometry as feedback and temperature was maintained within 0.3°C of the requested value.

  4. A memorable week

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    This has been a memorable week for CERN, starting with the award of a Special Fundamental Physics Prize and ending with the handover of the CERN Council Presidency from Michel Spiro to Agnieszka Zalewska. In between, the LHC team demonstrated its expertise with a successful pilot run with 25 nanosecond bunch spacing, a new application for Associate Membership was received, and we had good news on the budget.   The award of the Fundamental Physics Prize, and the manner in which it was divided between ATLAS, CMS and the LHC, is fitting recognition of the efforts of the thousands of people who have contributed over many years to the success of our flagship scientific endeavour. In making the award, the Milner Foundation aims to raise the profile of fundamental physics and its value to society. The Fundamental Physics Prize comes hot on the heels of the European Physical Society’s first Edison Volta Prize, which Sergio Bertolucci, Steve Myers and I were honoured to accept on behalf of t...

  5. Suppressed expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases in hyperthermia induced defective neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianliang; Leng, Zhaoting; Liu, Wenjing; Wang, Xia; Yan, Xue; Yu, Li

    2015-05-06

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common congenital malformations. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway is involved in many physiological processes. HMGB1 has been showed closely associated with neurulation and NTDs induced by hyperthermia and could activate MAPKs pathway. Since hyperthermia caused increased activation of MAPKs in many systems, the present study aims to investigate whether HMGB1 contributes to hyperthermia induced NTDs through MAPKs pathway. The mRNA levels of MAPKs and HMGB1 between embryonic day 8.5 and 10 (E8.5-10) in hyperthermia induced defective neural tube were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). By immunofluorescence and western blotting, the expressions of HMGB1 and phosphorylated MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK and p38) in neural tubes after hyperthermia were studied. The mRNA levels of MAPKs and HMGB1, as well as the expressions of HMGB1 along with phosphorylated JNK, p38 and ERK, were downregulated in NTDs groups induced by hyperthermia compared with control. The findings suggested that HMGB1 may contribute to hyperthermia induced NTDs formation through decreased cell proliferation due to inhibited phosphorylated ERK1/2 MAPK. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Hyperthermia Induces Apoptosis through Endoplasmic Reticulum and Reactive Oxygen Species in Human Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Han Hou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is a relatively rare form of cancer, but OS is the most commonly diagnosed bone cancer in children and adolescents. Chemotherapy has side effects and induces drug resistance in OS. Since an effective adjuvant therapy was insufficient for treating OS, researching novel and adequate remedies is critical. Hyperthermia can induce cell death in various cancer cells, and thus, in this study, we investigated the anticancer method of hyperthermia in human OS (U-2 OS cells. Treatment at 43 °C for 60 min induced apoptosis in human OS cell lines, but not in primary bone cells. Furthermore, hyperthermia was associated with increases of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and caspase-3 activation in U-2 OS cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction was followed by the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, and was accompanied by decreased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and increased pro-apoptotic proteins Bak and Bax. Hyperthermia triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, which was characterized by changes in cytosolic calcium levels, as well as increased calpain expression and activity. In addition, cells treated with calcium chelator (BAPTA-AM blocked hyperthermia-induced cell apoptosis in U-2 OS cells. In conclusion, hyperthermia induced cell apoptosis substantially via the ROS, ER stress, mitochondria, and caspase pathways. Thus, hyperthermia may be a novel anticancer method for treating OS.

  7. Clinically Relevant Pharmacological Strategies That Reverse MDMA-Induced Brain Hyperthermia Potentiated by Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Ren, Suelynn; Wakabayashi, Ken T; Baumann, Michael H; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    MDMA-induced hyperthermia is highly variable, unpredictable, and greatly potentiated by the social and environmental conditions of recreational drug use. Current strategies to treat pathological MDMA-induced hyperthermia in humans are palliative and marginally effective, and there are no specific pharmacological treatments to counteract this potentially life-threatening condition. Here, we tested the efficacy of mixed adrenoceptor blockers carvedilol and labetalol, and the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, in reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia. We injected rats with a moderate non-toxic dose of MDMA (9 mg/kg) during social interaction, and we administered potential treatment drugs after the development of robust hyperthermia (>2.5 °C), thus mimicking the clinical situation of acute MDMA intoxication. Brain temperature was our primary focus, but we also simultaneously recorded temperatures from the deep temporal muscle and skin, allowing us to determine the basic physiological mechanisms of the treatment drug action. Carvedilol was modestly effective in attenuating MDMA-induced hyperthermia by moderately inhibiting skin vasoconstriction, and labetalol was ineffective. In contrast, clozapine induced a marked and immediate reversal of MDMA-induced hyperthermia via inhibition of brain metabolic activation and blockade of skin vasoconstriction. Our findings suggest that clozapine, and related centrally acting drugs, might be highly effective for reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia in emergency clinical situations, with possible life-saving results.

  8. ROS and Sympathetically mediated Mitochondria activation in Brown Adipose Tissue contributes to Methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eSanchez-Alavez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse has been shown to induce alterations in mitochondrial function in the brain as well as to induce hyperthermia, which contributes to neurotoxicity and Meth-associated mortality. Brown adipose tissue (BAT, a thermogenic site known to be important in neonates, has recently regained importance since being identified in significant amounts and in correlation with metabolic balance in human adults. Given the high mitochondrial content of BAT and its role in thermogenesis, we aimed to investigate whether BAT plays any role in the development of Meth-induced hyperthermia. By ablating or denervating BAT, we identified a partial contribution of this organ to Meth-induced hyperthermia. BAT ablation decreased temperature by 0.5oC and reduced the length of hyperthermia by 1 hr, compared to sham-operated controls. BAT denervation also affected the development of hyperthermia in correlation with decreased the expression of electron transport chain molecules, and increase on PCG1a levels, but without affecting Meth-induced UCP1 upregulation. Furthermore, in isolated BAT cells in culture, Meth, but not Norepinephrine (NE, induced H2O2 upregulation. In addition, we found that in vivo Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS play a role in Meth hyperthermia. Thus, sympathetically- mediated mitochondrial activation in the BAT and Meth-induced ROS are key components to the development of hyperthermia in Meth abuse.

  9. Clinically Relevant Pharmacological Strategies That Reverse MDMA-Induced Brain Hyperthermia Potentiated by Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Ren, Suelynn; Wakabayashi, Ken T; Baumann, Michael H; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    MDMA-induced hyperthermia is highly variable, unpredictable, and greatly potentiated by the social and environmental conditions of recreational drug use. Current strategies to treat pathological MDMA-induced hyperthermia in humans are palliative and marginally effective, and there are no specific pharmacological treatments to counteract this potentially life-threatening condition. Here, we tested the efficacy of mixed adrenoceptor blockers carvedilol and labetalol, and the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, in reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia. We injected rats with a moderate non-toxic dose of MDMA (9 mg/kg) during social interaction, and we administered potential treatment drugs after the development of robust hyperthermia (>2.5 °C), thus mimicking the clinical situation of acute MDMA intoxication. Brain temperature was our primary focus, but we also simultaneously recorded temperatures from the deep temporal muscle and skin, allowing us to determine the basic physiological mechanisms of the treatment drug action. Carvedilol was modestly effective in attenuating MDMA-induced hyperthermia by moderately inhibiting skin vasoconstriction, and labetalol was ineffective. In contrast, clozapine induced a marked and immediate reversal of MDMA-induced hyperthermia via inhibition of brain metabolic activation and blockade of skin vasoconstriction. Our findings suggest that clozapine, and related centrally acting drugs, might be highly effective for reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia in emergency clinical situations, with possible life-saving results. PMID:26105141

  10. A thermo-fluid analysis in magnetic hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordana, Astefanoaei; Ioan, Dumitru; Alexandra, Stancu; Horia, Chiriac

    2014-04-01

    In the last years, hyperthermia induced by the heating of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in an alternating magnetic field received considerable attention in cancer therapy. The thermal effects could be automatically controlled by using MNPs with selective magnetic absorption properties. In this paper, we analyze the temperature field determined by the heating of MNPs, injected in a malignant tissue, subjected to an alternating magnetic field. The main parameters which have a strong influence on temperature field are analyzed. The temperature evolution within healthy and tumor tissues are analyzed by finite element method (FEM) simulations in a thermo-fluid model. The cooling effect produced by blood flow in blood vessels from the tumor is considered. A thermal analysis is conducted under different distributions of MNP injection sites. The interdependence between the optimum dose of the nanoparticles and various types of tumors is investigated in order to understand their thermal effect on hyperthermia therapy. The control of the temperature field in the tumor and healthy tissues is an important step in the healing treatment.

  11. INSURMOUNTABLE HEAT: THE EVOLUTION AND PERSISTENCE OF DEFENSIVE HYPERTHERMIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clint, Edward; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2016-03-01

    Fever, the rise in body temperature set point in response to infection or injury, is a highly conserved trait among vertebrates, and documented in many arthropods. Fever is known to reduce illness duration and mortality. These observations present an evolutionary puzzle: why has fever continued to be an effective response to fast-evolving pathogenic microbes across diverse phyla, and probably over countless millions of years? Framing fever as part of a more general thermal manipulation strategy that we term defensive hyperthermia, we hypothesize that the solution lies in the independent contributions to pathogen fitness played by virulence and infectivity. A host organism deploying defensive hyperthermia alters the ecological environment of an invading pathogen. To the extent that the pathogen evolves to be able to function effectively at elevated temperatures, it disadvantages itself at infecting the next (thermonormative) host, becoming more likely to be thwarted by that host's immune system and outcompeted by wild ecotype conspecifics (a genetically distinct strain adapted to specific environmental conditions) that, although more vulnerable to elevated temperatures, operate more effectively at the host's normal temperature. We evaluate this hypothesis in light of existing evidence concerning pathogen thermal specialization, and discuss theoretical and translational implications of this model.

  12. New ferromagnetic bone cement for local hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegami, K; Sano, T; Wakabayashi, H; Sonoda, J; Yamazaki, T; Morita, S; Shibuya, T; Uchida, A

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a ferromagnetic bone cement as a thermoseed to generate heat by hysteresis loss under an alternate magnetic field. This material resembles bioactive bone cement in composition, with a portion of the bioactive glass ceramic component replaced by magnetite (Fe3O4) powder. The temperature of this thermoseed rises in proportion to the weight ratio of magnetite powder, the volume of the thermoseed, and the intensity of the magnetic field. The heat-generating ability of this thermoseed implanted into rabbit and human cadaver tibiae was investigated by applying a magnetic field with a maximum of 300 Oe and 100 kHz. In this system, it is very easy to increase the temperature of the thermoseed in bone beyond 50 degrees C by adjusting the above-mentioned control factors. When the temperature of the thermoseed in rabbit tibiae was maintained at 50 to 60 degrees C, the temperature at the interface between the bone and muscle (cortical surface) surrounding the material rose to 43 to 45 degrees C; but at a 10-mm distance from the thermoseed in the medullary canal, the temperature did not exceed 40 degrees C. These results demonstrate that ferromagnetic bone cement may be applicable for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors.

  13. Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Hyperthermia for Head & Neck Cancer in Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Wang, Luning; Cheng, Rui; Mao, Leidong; Arnold, Robert D.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Chen, Zhuo G.; Platt, Simon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle induced hyperthermia is applied for treatment of head and neck cancer using a mouse xenograft model of human head and neck cancer (Tu212 cell line). A hyperthermia system for heating iron oxide nanoparticles was developed by using alternating magnetic fields. Both theoretical simulation and experimental studies were performed to verify the thermotherapy effect. Experimental results showed that the temperature of the tumor center has dramatically elevated from around the room temperature to about 40oC within the first 5-10 minutes. Pathological studies demonstrate epithelial tumor cell destruction associated with the hyperthermia treatment. PMID:22287991

  14. Gadolinium-doped iron oxide nanoparticles induced magnetic field hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy increases tumour response by vascular disruption and improved oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pei-Shin; Tsai, Hsin-Yu; Drake, Philip; Wang, Fu-Nien; Chiang, Chi-Shiun

    2017-11-01

    The gadolinium-doped iron oxide nanoparticles (GdIONP) with greater specific power adsorption rate (SAR) than Fe3O4 was developed and its potential application in tumour therapy and particle tracking were demonstrated in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate C1 (TRAMP-C1) tumours. The GdIONPs accumulated in tumour region during the treatment could be clearly tracked and quantified by T2-weighted MR imaging. The therapeutic effects of GdIONP-mediated hyperthermia alone or in combination with radiotherapy (RT) were also evaluated. A significant increase in the tumour growth time was observed following the treatment of thermotherapy (TT) only group (2.5 days), radiation therapy only group (4.5 days), and the combined radio-thermotherapy group (10 days). Immunohistochemical staining revealed a reduced hypoxia region with vascular disruption and extensive tumour necrosis following the combined radio-thermotherapy. These results indicate that GdIONP-mediated hyperthermia can improve the efficacy of RT by its dual functions in high temperature (temperature greater than 45 °C)-mediated thermal ablation and mild-temperature hyperthermia (MTH) (temperature between 39 and 42 °C)-mediated reoxygenation.

  15. Experimental ex-vivo validation of PMMA-based bone cements loaded with magnetic nanoparticles enabling hyperthermia of metastatic bone tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harabech, Mariem; Kiselovs, Normunds Rungevics; Maenhoudt, Wim; Crevecoeur, Guillaume; Van Roost, Dirk; Dupré, Luc

    2017-05-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty comprises the injection of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement into vertebrae and can be used for the treatment of compression fractures of vertebrae. Metastatic bone tumors can cause such compression fractures but are not treated when injecting PMMA-based bone cement. Hyperthermia of tumors can on the other hand be attained by placing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in an alternating magnetic field (AMF). Loading the PMMA-based bone cement with MNPs could both serve vertebra stabilization and metastatic bone tumor hyperthermia when subjecting this PMMA-MNP to an AMF. A dedicated pancake coil is designed with a self-inductance of 10 μH in series with a capacitance of 0.1 μF that acts as resonant inductor-capacitor circuit to generate the AMF. The thermal rise is appraised in beef vertebra placed at 10 cm from the AMF generating circuit using optical temperatures sensors, i.e. in the center of the PMMA-MNP bone cement, which is located in the vicinity of metastatic bone tumors in clinical applications; and in the spine, which needs to be safeguarded to high temperature exposures. Results show a temperature rise of about 7 °C in PMMA-MNP whereas the temperature rise in the spine remains limited to 1 °C. Moreover, multicycles heating of PMMA-MNP is experimentally verified, validating the technical feasibility of having PMMA-MNP as basic component for percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with hyperthermia treatment of metastatic bone tumors.

  16. Combining hard and soft magnetism into a single core-shell nanoparticle to achieve both hyperthermia and image contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiuhong; Gong, Maogang; Cai, Shuang; Zhang, Ti; Douglas, Justin T; Chikan, Viktor; Davies, Neal M; Lee, Phil; Choi, In-Young; Ren, Shenqiang; Forrest, M Laird

    2015-01-01

    Background A biocompatible core/shell structured magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was developed to mediate simultaneous cancer therapy and imaging. Methods & results A 22-nm MNP was first synthesized via magnetically coupling hard (FePt) and soft (Fe3O4) materials to produce high relative energy transfer. Colloidal stability of the FePt@Fe3O4 MNPs was achieved through surface modification with silane-polyethylene glycol (PEG). Intravenous administration of PEG-MNPs into tumor-bearing mice resulted in a sustained particle accumulation in the tumor region, and the tumor burden of treated mice was a third that of the mice in control groups 2 weeks after a local hyperthermia treatment. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging exhibited enhanced T2 contrast in the tumor region. Conclusion This work has demonstrated the feasibility of cancer theranostics with PEG-MNPs. PMID:26606855

  17. Combined treatment of radiotherapy and local hyperthermia using 8 MHz RF-wave for advanced carcinoma of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuwa, Nobukazu

    1988-01-01

    During the period from January 1983 through September 1986, 13 patients with carcinoma of the breast were treated with local hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy. Six patients were inoperable advanced cases and the other 7 were recurrent cases. Local heat was applied with an 8-MHz RF-capacitive heating equipment, once or twice a week after radiotherapy, for 40 approx. 60 minutes per session. Of the 6 cases with inoperable advanced lesions, 4 achieved CR and the other 2 achieved PRa (80 approx. 100 % regression), and of the 7 cases with local recurrent tumors, 3 achieved CR and the other 4 achieved PRa. As complications of the thermoradiotherapy, grade I-II skin burns were observed in 9 cases, pain around the ribs in 8 cases, mild lassitude in 2 cases, persistent tachycardia in 1 case and acute erosive gastritis in 1 case. It is worth noting that CR was achieved in these huge tumors, which can not be controlled by radiotherapy alone.

  18. Induction of Localized Hyperthermia by Millisecond Laser Pulses in the Presence of Gold-Gold Sulphide Nanoparticles in a Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahamat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Application of near-infrared absorbing nanostructures can induce hyperthermia, in addition to providing more efficient  photothermal effects. Gold-gold sulfide (GGS is considered as one of these nanostructures. This study was performed on a tissue-equivalent optical-thermal phantom to determine the temperature profile in the presence and absence of GGS and millisecond pulses of a near-infrared laser. Moreover, the feasibility of hyperthermia induction was investigated in a simulated tumor. Materials and Methods A tumor with its surrounding tissues was simulated in a phantom made of Agarose and Intralipid. The tumor was irradiated by 30 laser pulses with durations of 30, 100, and 400 ms and fluences of 40 and 60 J/cm2. Temperature variations in the phantom with and without GGS were recorded, using fast-response sensors of a digital thermometer, placed at different distances from the central axis at three depths. The temperature rise was recorded by varying duration and fluence of the laser pulses. Results The rise in temperature was recorded by increasing laser fluence and number of pulses for three durations. The temperature profile was obtained at each depth. The presence of GGS resulted in a significant increase in temperature in all cases (P

  19. Structured superparamagnetic nanoparticles for high performance mediator of magnetic fluid hyperthermia: synthesis, colloidal stability and biocompatibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorat, N D; Otari, S V; Bohara, R A; Yadav, H M; Khot, V M; Salunkhe, A B; Phadatare, M R; Prasad, A I; Ningthoujam, R S; Pawar, S H

    2014-09-01

    Core-shell structures with magnetic core and metal/polymer shell provide a new opportunity for constructing highly efficient mediator for magnetic fluid hyperthermia. Herein, a facile method is described for the synthesis of superparamagnetic LSMO@Pluronic F127 core-shell nanoparticles. Initially, the surface of the LSMO nanoparticles is functionalized with oleic acid and the polymeric shell formation is achieved through hydrophobic interactions with oleic acid. Each step is optimized to get good dispersion and less aggregation. This methodology results into core-shell formation, of average diameter less than 40 nm, which was stable under physiological conditions. After making a core-shell formulation, a significant increase of specific absorption rate (up to 300%) has been achieved with variation of the magnetization (shell MNPs. The mechanism of cell death by necrosis and apoptosis is studied with sequential staining of acridine orange and ethidium bromide using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. The present work reports a facile method for the synthesis of core-shell structure which significantly improves SAR and biocompatibility of bare LSMO MNPs, indicating potential application for hyperthermia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Combined Hyperthermia and Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Punit [Department of Pathology, Scott & White Hospital and the Texas A& M Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Temple, TX 76504 (United States); Hurwitz, Mark D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Medical Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Asea, Alexzander, E-mail: asea@medicine.tamhsc.edu [Department of Pathology, Scott & White Hospital and the Texas A& M Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Temple, TX 76504 (United States)

    2011-09-30

    Radiotherapy is used to treat approximately 50% of all cancer patients, with varying success. Radiation therapy has become an integral part of modern treatment strategies for many types of cancer in recent decades, but is associated with a risk of long-term adverse effects. Of these side effects, cardiac complications are particularly relevant since they not only adversely affect quality of life but can also be potentially life-threatening. The dose of ionizing radiation that can be given to the tumor is determined by the sensitivity of the surrounding normal tissues. Strategies to improve radiotherapy therefore aim to increase the effect on the tumor or to decrease the effects on normal tissues, which must be achieved without sensitizing the normal tissues in the first approach and without protecting the tumor in the second approach. Hyperthermia is a potent sensitizer of cell killing by ionizing radiation (IR), which can be attributed to the fact that heat is a pleiotropic damaging agent, affecting multiple cell components to varying degrees by altering protein structures, thus influencing the DNA damage response. Hyperthermia induces heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70; HSPA1A) synthesis and enhances telomerase activity. HSPA1A expression is associated with radioresistance. Inactivation of HSPA1A and telomerase increases residual DNA DSBs post IR exposure, which correlates with increased cell killing, supporting the role of HSPA1A and telomerase in IR-induced DNA damage repair. Thus, hyperthermia influences several molecular parameters involved in sensitizing tumor cells to radiation and can enhance the potential of targeted radiotherapy. Therapy-inducible vectors are useful for conditional expression of therapeutic genes in gene therapy, which is based on the control of gene expression by conventional treatment modalities. The understanding of the molecular response of cells and tissues to ionizing radiation has lead to a new appreciation of the exploitable genetic

  1. Predicting thermal history a-priori for magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia of internal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Purbarun; Sirisha Maganti, Lakshmi

    2017-08-01

    This article proposes a simplistic and realistic method where a direct analytical expression can be derived for the temperature field within a tumour during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia. The approximated analytical expression for thermal history within the tumour is derived based on the lumped capacitance approach and considers all therapy protocols and parameters. The present method is simplistic and provides an easy framework for estimating hyperthermia protocol parameters promptly. The model has been validated with respect to several experimental reports on animal models such as mice/rabbit/hamster and human clinical trials. It has been observed that the model is able to accurately estimate the thermal history within the carcinoma during the hyperthermia therapy. The present approach may find implications in a-priori estimation of the thermal history in internal tumours for optimizing magnetic hyperthermia treatment protocols with respect to the ablation time, tumour size, magnetic drug concentration, field strength, field frequency, nanoparticle material and size, tumour location, and so on.

  2. [Mathematical modeling of thermal regulation in local hyperthermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losev, E S

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model for description of transient heating of biological tissue during the local hyperthermia is proposed. The model is based on the bioheat transfer equation and on equation of thermoregulation which represents integro-differential relationship between the local temperature and the local blood perfusion rate. One-dimensional electromagnetic heating of a semi-infinite homogeneous tissue volume and a local approximation of the problem are studied numerically and analytically. A possibility of the oscillatory local temperature response in return to local constant power heating is investigated for different forms of the thermoregulation equation. It is shown that long-time undamped temperature oscillations are predicted under assumption about memory's mechanism in blood flow regulation is accepted.

  3. Effects of radiofrequency hyperthermia on the healthy canine cornea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaze, M.B.; Turk, M.A.

    1986-04-01

    Radiofrequency hyperthermia was used to induce axial corneal lesions in the eyes of 10 dogs. Clinical observations were continued for up to 6 months, using biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Eyes were harvested at intervals for light and electron microscopic evaluation. Clinical alterations included immediate corneal opacification and epithelial disruption at the site of electrode contact. Ulcerative keratitis persisted for 4 to 6 days, accompanied by anterior uveitis. Additional corneal changes included stromal thinning, edema, and vascularization. Final evaluation revealed negligible alterations in corneal contour or clarity 6 months after treatment. Microscopically, epithelial and superficial stromal necrosis preceded epithelial loss. Stromal alterations included edema (associated with focal endothelial detachments), vascularization, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Recovery was characterized by keratocytic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, epithelial proliferation, and stromal condensation.

  4. Hyperthermia: an effective strategy to induce apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kanwal; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Heat has been used as a medicinal and healing modality throughout human history. The combination of hyperthermia (HT) with radiation and anticancer agents has been used clinically and has shown positive results to a certain extent. However, the clinical results of HT treatment alone have been only partially satisfactory. Cell death following HT treatment is a function of both temperature and treatment duration. HT induces cancer cell death through apoptosis; the degree of apoptosis and the apoptotic pathway vary in different cancer cell types. HT-induced reactive oxygen species production are responsible for apoptosis in various cell types. However, the underlying mechanism of signal transduction and the genes related to this process still need to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by HT, enhancement of heat-induced apoptosis, and the genetic network involved in HT-induced apoptosis.

  5. Malignant hyperthermia and its implications in general dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenstahl, Erik F; Rowshan, Henry H

    2009-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an uncommon and potentially life-threatening pharmacogenetic disorder. This abnormality in muscle metabolism can be triggered by a variety of agents (particularly general anesthetics and stress), resulting in a rapid heart rate increase, muscle rigidity, acidosis, temperature elevation, rhabdomyolysis, and renal failure. Immediate discontinuing of triggering agents, oxygenation, cooling, and dantrolene are necessary to treat an episode. MH-susceptible patients often indicate a positive family history of experiencing an adverse event during anesthesia. Few diagnostic tests are available to screen patients; the most accurate test is a skeletal muscle biopsy. MH-susceptible patients can undergo surgical procedures as necessary. Careful exploration of the medical history will allow the clinician to make the necessary modifications to treat and manage an episode expediently.

  6. Temperature distribution in the human body under various conditions of induced hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, O. V.; Perelman, T. L.; Fradkin, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model based on heat balance equations was developed for studying temperature distribution in the human body under deep hyperthermia which is often induced in the treatment of malignant tumors. The model yields results which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The distribution of temperature under various conditions of induced hyperthermia, i.e. as a function of water temperature and supply rate, is examined on the basis of temperature distribution curves in various body zones.

  7. Induction of deep, local hyperthermia by ultrasound and electromagnetic fields: problems and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lele, P P

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility, and the biophysical and engineering concepts underlying the use of electromagnetic energy and ultrasound for production of deep, local hyperthermia are discussed. Focused ultrasound currently is the only modality that can be used for producing controllable levels of hyperthermia localized to deep seated tumors, non-invasively and safely. The ultrasonic focus needs to moved within the tissues around the periphery of the tumor to achieve uniform temperature distributions.

  8. AKT inhibitor suppresses hyperthermia-induced Ndrg2 phosphorylation in gastric cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Yurong; Guo, Yan; Liu, Wenchao [Department of Oncology, State Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Jian; Li, Xia; Shen, Lan; Ru, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi, Xi' an (China); Xue, Yan [Department of Oncology, State Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi, Xi' an (China); Zheng, Jin [Department of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine of Oncology, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi, Xi' an (China); Liu, Xinping; Zhang, Jing; Yao, Libo [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi, Xi' an (China)

    2013-04-05

    Hyperthermia is one of the most effective adjuvant treatments for various cancers with few side effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms still are not known. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), a tumor suppressor, has been shown to be involved in diverse cellular stresses including hypoxia, lipotoxicity, etc. In addition, Ndrg2 has been reported to be related to progression of gastric cancer. In the current study, our data showed that the apoptosis rate of MKN28 cells increased relatively rapidly to 13.4% by 24 h after treatment with hyperthermia (42°C for 1 h) compared to 5.1% in control cells (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, there was no obvious change in the expression level of total Ndrg2 during this process. Further investigation demonstrated that the relative phosphorylation levels of Ndrg2 at Ser332, Thr348 increased up to 3.2- and 1.9-fold (hyperthermia group vs control group) at 3 h in MKN28 cells, respectively (P < 0.05). We also found that heat treatment significantly increased AKT phosphorylation. AKT inhibitor VIII (10 µM) decreased the phosphorylation level of Ndrg2 induced by hyperthermia. Accordingly, the apoptosis rate rose significantly in MKN28 cells (16.4%) treated with a combination of AKT inhibitor VIII and hyperthermia compared to that (6.8%) of cells treated with hyperthermia alone (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data demonstrated that Ndrg2 phosphorylation could be induced by hyperthermia in an AKT-dependent manner in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, AKT inhibitor VIII suppressed Ndrg2 phosphorylation and rendered gastric cancer cells susceptible to apoptosis induced by hyperthermia.

  9. AKT inhibitor suppresses hyperthermia-induced Ndrg2 phosphorylation in gastric cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurong Tao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is one of the most effective adjuvant treatments for various cancers with few side effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms still are not known. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2, a tumor suppressor, has been shown to be involved in diverse cellular stresses including hypoxia, lipotoxicity, etc. In addition, Ndrg2 has been reported to be related to progression of gastric cancer. In the current study, our data showed that the apoptosis rate of MKN28 cells increased relatively rapidly to 13.4% by 24 h after treatment with hyperthermia (42°C for 1 h compared to 5.1% in control cells (P < 0.05. Nevertheless, there was no obvious change in the expression level of total Ndrg2 during this process. Further investigation demonstrated that the relative phosphorylation levels of Ndrg2 at Ser332, Thr348 increased up to 3.2- and 1.9-fold (hyperthermia group vs control group at 3 h in MKN28 cells, respectively (P < 0.05. We also found that heat treatment significantly increased AKT phosphorylation. AKT inhibitor VIII (10 µM decreased the phosphorylation level of Ndrg2 induced by hyperthermia. Accordingly, the apoptosis rate rose significantly in MKN28 cells (16.4% treated with a combination of AKT inhibitor VIII and hyperthermia compared to that (6.8% of cells treated with hyperthermia alone (P < 0.05. Taken together, these data demonstrated that Ndrg2 phosphorylation could be induced by hyperthermia in an AKT-dependent manner in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, AKT inhibitor VIII suppressed Ndrg2 phosphorylation and rendered gastric cancer cells susceptible to apoptosis induced by hyperthermia.

  10. AKT inhibitor suppresses hyperthermia-induced Ndrg2 phosphorylation in gastric cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurong Tao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is one of the most effective adjuvant treatments for various cancers with few side effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms still are not known. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2, a tumor suppressor, has been shown to be involved in diverse cellular stresses including hypoxia, lipotoxicity, etc. In addition, Ndrg2 has been reported to be related to progression of gastric cancer. In the current study, our data showed that the apoptosis rate of MKN28 cells increased relatively rapidly to 13.4% by 24 h after treatment with hyperthermia (42°C for 1 h compared to 5.1% in control cells (P < 0.05. Nevertheless, there was no obvious change in the expression level of total Ndrg2 during this process. Further investigation demonstrated that the relative phosphorylation levels of Ndrg2 at Ser332, Thr348 increased up to 3.2- and 1.9-fold (hyperthermia group vs control group at 3 h in MKN28 cells, respectively (P < 0.05. We also found that heat treatment significantly increased AKT phosphorylation. AKT inhibitor VIII (10 µM decreased the phosphorylation level of Ndrg2 induced by hyperthermia. Accordingly, the apoptosis rate rose significantly in MKN28 cells (16.4% treated with a combination of AKT inhibitor VIII and hyperthermia compared to that (6.8% of cells treated with hyperthermia alone (P < 0.05. Taken together, these data demonstrated that Ndrg2 phosphorylation could be induced by hyperthermia in an AKT-dependent manner in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, AKT inhibitor VIII suppressed Ndrg2 phosphorylation and rendered gastric cancer cells susceptible to apoptosis induced by hyperthermia.

  11. 3D radiobiological evaluation of combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, C M; Crezee, J; Oei, A L; Franken, N A P; Stalpers, L J A; Bel, A; Kok, H P

    2016-10-17

    Currently, clinical decisions regarding thermoradiotherapy treatments are based on clinical experience. Quantification of the radiosensitising effect of hyperthermia allows comparison of different treatment strategies, and can support clinical decision-making regarding the optimal treatment. The software presented here enables biological evaluation of thermoradiotherapy plans through calculation of equivalent 3D dose distributions. Our in-house developed software (X-Term) uses an extended version of the linear-quadratic model to calculate equivalent radiation dose, i.e. the radiation dose yielding the same effect as the thermoradiotherapy treatment. Separate sets of model parameters can be assigned to each delineated structure, allowing tissue specific modelling of hyperthermic radiosensitisation. After calculation, the equivalent radiation dose can be evaluated according to conventional radiotherapy planning criteria. The procedure is illustrated using two realistic examples. First, for a previously irradiated patient, normal tissue dose for a radiotherapy and thermoradiotherapy plan (with equal predicted tumour control) is compared. Second, tumour control probability (TCP) is assessed for two (otherwise identical) thermoradiotherapy schedules with different time intervals between radiotherapy and hyperthermia. The examples demonstrate that our software can be used for individualised treatment decisions (first example) and treatment optimisation (second example) in thermoradiotherapy. In the first example, clinically acceptable doses to the bowel were exceeded for the conventional plan, and a substantial reduction of this excess was predicted for the thermoradiotherapy plan. In the second example, the thermoradiotherapy schedule with long time interval was shown to result in a substantially lower TCP. Using biological modelling, our software can facilitate the evaluation of thermoradiotherapy plans and support individualised treatment decisions.

  12. Visual function and retinal vessel diameters during hyperthermia in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bettina Hagström; Bram, Thue; Kappelgaard, Per; Arvidsson, Henrik; Loskutova, Ekaterina; Munch, Inger Christine; Larsen, Michael

    2017-11-01

    To assess the effect of elevated core body temperature on temporal and spatial contrast sensitivity and retinal vessel diameters. The study included 13 healthy volunteers aged 20-37 years. Core body temperature elevation (target +1.1°C) was induced by wrapping the participants in cling film, tinfoil and warming blankets. Subsequent cooling was achieved by undressing. Flicker sensitivity (critical flicker fusion frequency) was chosen to assess temporal resolution, while the Freiburg Vision Test was used to determine spatial contrast sensitivity at 1.5 cycles per degree. Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy was used to measure retinal trunk vessel diameters. Assessment was made at baseline, during hyperthermia and after cooling. The induction of a mean increase in core body temperature of 1.02°C was associated with a 7.15-mmHg mean reduction in systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01), a 10.6-mmHg mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.01), a mean increase in pulse rate of 36.3 bpm (p < 0.0001), a 2.66% improvement in flicker sensitivity (CI95 1.37-3.94, p < 0.001), a 2.80% increase in retinal artery diameters (CI95 1.09-4.51, p < 0.01) and a 2.95% increase in retinal vein diameters (CI95 0.96-4.94, p < 0.01). There was no detectable effect of temperature on spatial contrast sensitivity. All ocular test parameters returned to baseline levels after cooling. Increased core body temperature was accompanied by improved temporal visual resolution and retinal trunk vessel dilation. The results suggest that hyperthermia is associated with enhanced retinal function and increased retinal metabolism. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Current state of the art of regional hyperthermia treatment planning: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, H P; Wust, P; Stauffer, P R; Bardati, F; van Rhoon, G C; Crezee, J

    2015-09-17

    Locoregional hyperthermia, i.e. increasing the tumor temperature to 40-45 °C using an external heating device, is a very effective radio and chemosensitizer, which significantly improves clinical outcome. There is a clear thermal dose-effect relation, but the pursued optimal thermal dose of 43 °C for 1 h can often not be realized due to treatment limiting hot spots in normal tissue. Modern heating devices have a large number of independent antennas, which provides flexible power steering to optimize tumor heating and minimize hot spots, but manual selection of optimal settings is difficult. Treatment planning is a very valuable tool to improve locoregional heating. This paper reviews the developments in treatment planning software for tissue segmentation, electromagnetic field calculations, thermal modeling and optimization techniques. Over the last decade, simulation tools have become more advanced. On-line use has become possible by implementing algorithms on the graphical processing unit, which allows real-time computations. The number of applications using treatment planning is increasing rapidly and moving on from retrospective analyses towards assisting prospective clinical treatment strategies. Some clinically relevant applications will be discussed.

  14. Magnetic silica nanotubes: synthesis, drug release, and feasibility for magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuecheng; Klingeler, Rüdiger; Kath, Matthias; El Gendy, Ahmed A; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Kalenczuk, Ryszard J; Borowiak-Palen, Ewa

    2012-04-01

    A new kind of silica nanotube with incorporated γ-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles has been successfully prepared through sol-gel processes. Hematite particles supported on carbon nanotubes served as templates for the fabrication of the magnetic silica nanotubes. The obtained nanostructures consisting of magnetic Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles protected by a silica shell were fully characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N(2) sorption and desorption, and magnetization studies. The hollow inner space and the magnetic functionalization render the material promising for applications in biology and medicine. This is underlined by studies in alternating magnetic fields which show a significant heating effect, i.e., the feasibility for applications in hyperthermia therapies. In addition, the material exhibits enhanced drug-loading capacity which is demonstrated by loading with rhodamine B molecules as drugs and corresponding release experiments. The results show that magnetic silica nanotubes can be straightforwardly synthesized and have a great potential as a multifunctional drug carrier system.

  15. Hypo-fractionated radiation, magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia and a viral immunotherapy treatment of spontaneous canine cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, P. Jack; Moodie, Karen L.; Petryk, Alicia A.; Petryk, James D.; Sechrist, Shawntel; Gladstone, David J.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Veliz, Frank A.; Bursey, Alicea A.; Wagner, Robert J.; Rajan, Ashish; Dugat, Danielle; Crary-Burney, Margaret; Fiering, Steven N.

    2017-02-01

    It has recently been shown that cancer treatments such as radiation and hyperthermia, which have conventionally been viewed to have modest immune based anti-cancer effects, may, if used appropriately stimulate a significant and potentially effective local and systemic anti-cancer immune effect (abscopal effect) and improved prognosis. Using eight spontaneous canine cancers (2 oral melanoma, 3 oral amelioblastomas and 1 carcinomas), we have shown that hypofractionated radiation (6 x 6 Gy) and/or magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (2 X 43°C / 45 minutes) and/or an immunogenic virus-like nanoparticle (VLP, 2 x 200 μg) are capable of delivering a highly effective cancer treatment that includes an immunogenic component. Two tumors received all three therapeutic modalities, one tumor received radiation and hyperthermia, two tumors received radiation and VLP, and three tumors received only mNP hyperthermia. The treatment regimen is conducted over a 14-day period. All patients tolerated the treatments without complication and have had local and distant tumor responses that significantly exceed responses observed following conventional therapy (surgery and/or radiation). The results suggest that both hypofractionated radiation and hyperthermia have effective immune responses that are enhanced by the intratumoral VLP treatment. Molecular data from these tumors suggest Heat Shock Protein (HSP) 70/90, calreticulin and CD47 are targets that can be exploited to enhance the local and systemic (abscopal effect) immune potential of radiation and hyperthermia cancer treatment.

  16. Effects of acute hyperthermia on the carotid baroreflex control of heart rate in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, F.; Sagawa, S.; Torii, R.; Endo, Y.; Shiraki, K.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of hyperthermia on the carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflexes in humans. Nine healthy males underwent acute hyperthermia (esophageal temperature 38.0° C) produced by hot water-perfused suits. Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) responses were determined during positive and negative R-wave-triggered neck pressure steps from +40 to -65 mm Hg during normothermia and hyperthermia. The carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex sensitivity was evaluated from the maximum slope of the HR response to changes in carotid distending pressure. Buffering capacity of the HR response to carotid distending pressure was evaluated in % from a reference point calculated as (HR at 0 mm Hg neck pressure-minimum HR)/HR range ×100. An upward shift of the curve was evident in hyperthermia because HR increased from 57.7+/-2.4 beats/min in normothermia to 88.7+/-4.1 beats/min in hyperthermia (Phypotension is reduced and the capacity for bradycardia response to sudden hypertension is increased during acute hyperthermia.

  17. Rib fractures after reirradiation plus hyperthermia for recurrent breast cancer. Predictive factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenborg, Sabine; Valk, Christel; Os, Rob van; Voerde Sive Voerding, Paul zum; Crezee, Hans; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Rasch, Coen [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiation Oncology, Z1-215, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oei, Bing; Venselaar, Jack [Institute Verbeeten (BVI), Tilburg (Netherlands); Randen, Adrienne van [University of Amsterdam (AMC), Department of Radiology Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    Combining reirradiation (reRT) and hyperthermia (HT) has shown high therapeutic value for patients with locoregional recurrent breast cancer (LR). However, additional toxicity of reirradiation (e.g., rib fractures) may occur. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of potential risk factors on the occurrence of rib fractures. From 1982-2005, 234 patients were treated with adjuvant reRT + HT after surgery for LR. ReRT consisted typically of 8 fractions of 4 Gy twice a week, or 12 fractions of 3 Gy four times a week. A total of 118 patients were irradiated with abutted photon and electron fields. In all, 60 patients were irradiated using either one or alternating combinations of abutted AP electron fields. Hyperthermia was given once or twice a week. The 5-year infield local control (LC) rate was 70 %. Rib fractures were detected in 16 of 234 patients (actuarial risk: 7 % at 5 years). All rib fractures occurred in patients treated with a combination of photon and abutted electron fields (p = 0.000); in 15 of 16 patients fractures were located in the abutment regions. The other significant predictive factors for rib fractures were a higher fraction dose (p = 0.040), large RT fields, and treatment before the year 2000. ReRT + HT results in long-term LC. The majority of rib fractures were located in the photon/electron abutment area, emphasizing the disadvantage of field overlap. Large abutted photon/electron fields combined with 4 Gy fractions increase the number of rib fractures in this study group. However, as these factors were highly correlated no relative importance of the individual factors could be estimated. Increasing the number of HT sessions a week does not increase the risk of rib fractures. (orig.) [German] Der kombinierte Einsatz von Rebestrahlung (reRT) und Hyperthermie (HT) zeigt eine hohe Wirksamkeit bei Patienten mit lokoregional rezidiviertem Brustkrebs (LR). Jedoch koennen zusaetzliche toxische Effekte von reRT (z. B. Rippenfrakturen

  18. Radiochemotherapy in combination with regional hyperthermia in preirradiated patients with recurrent rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, V.; Issels, R.D.; Buecklein, V. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Dept. of Internal Medicine III; Institute of Molecular Immunology, Muenchen (Germany). KKG Hyperthermie GSF-Haematologikum; Pazos, M.; Schaffer, P.; Wilkowski, R.; Duehmke, E. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Rahman, S.; Tschoep, K.; Schaffer, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Dept. of Internal Medicine III

    2008-03-15

    Background and Purpose: Encouraging results of phase II studies combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy have been published. In this study, the results of a multimodal salvage therapy including radiochemotherapy (RCT) and regional hyperthermia (RHT) in preirradiated patients with recurrent rectal cancer are reported. Patients and Methods: All patients enrolled had received previous pelvic irradiation (median dose 50.4 Gy). The median time interval between prior radiotherapy and the onset of local recurrence was 34 months. The combined treatment consisted of reirradiation with a median dose of 39.6 Gy (30.0-45.0 Gy), delivered in fractions of 1.8 Gy/day. 5-fluorouracil was given as continuous infusion 350 mg/m2/day five times weekly, and RHT (BSD-2000 system) was applied twice a week within 1 h after radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was local progression-free survival (LPFS); secondary endpoints were overall survival, symptom control, and toxicity. Results: 24 patients (median age 59 years) with a previously irradiated locally recurrent adenocarcinoma of the rectum were enrolled. The median LPFS was 15 months (95% confidence interval 12-18 months) with a median follow-up of 27 months (16-37 months). The overall 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 87% and 30%, respectively. Pain was the main symptom in 17 patients. Release of pain was achieved in 12/17 patients (70%). No grade 3 or 4 hematologic or skin toxicity occurred. Grade 3 gastrointestinal acute toxicity was observed in 12.5% of the patients. Paratumoral thermometry revealed a homogeneous distribution of temperatures. Conclusion: RCT combined with RHT is an efficient salvage therapy showing high efficacy with acceptable toxicity and can be recommended as treatment option for this unfavorable group of preirradiated patients with local recurrence of rectal cancer. (orig.)

  19. Toward Online Adaptive Hyperthermia Treatment Planning: Correlation Between Measured and Simulated Specific Absorption Rate Changes Caused by Phase Steering in Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, H. Petra, E-mail: H.P.Kok@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ciampa, Silvia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Kroon-Oldenhof, Rianne de; Steggerda-Carvalho, Eva J.; Stam, Gerard van; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J.; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Geijsen, Elisabeth D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bardati, Fernando [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Bel, Arjan; Crezee, Johannes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Hyperthermia is the clinical application of heat, in which tumor temperatures are raised to 40°C to 45°C. This proven radiation and chemosensitizer significantly improves clinical outcome for several tumor sites. Earlier studies of the use of pre-treatment planning for hyperthermia showed good qualitative but disappointing quantitative reliability. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) can be used more reliably for online adaptive treatment planning during locoregional hyperthermia treatments. Methods and Materials: This study included 78 treatment sessions for 15 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. At the start of treatments, temperature rise measurements were performed with 3 different antenna settings optimized for each patient, from which the absorbed power (specific absorption rate [SAR]) was derived. HTP was performed based on a computed tomography (CT) scan in treatment position with the bladder catheter in situ. The SAR along the thermocouple tracks was extracted from the simulated SAR distributions. Correlations between measured and simulated (average) SAR values were determined. To evaluate phase steering, correlations between the changes in simulated and measured SAR values averaged over the thermocouple probe were determined for all 3 combinations of antenna settings. Results: For 42% of the individual treatment sessions, the correlation coefficient between measured and simulated SAR profiles was higher than 0.5, whereas 58% showed a weak correlation (R of <0.5). The overall correlation coefficient between measured and simulated average SAR was weak (R=0.31; P<.001). The measured and simulated changes in average SAR after adapting antenna settings correlated much better (R=0.70; P<.001). The ratio between the measured and simulated quotients of maximum and average SARs was 1.03 ± 0.26 (mean ± SD), indicating that HTP can also correctly predict the relative amplitude of

  20. Effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on sperm parameters, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental prospective study, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on the male reproductive organs, from the perspective of sperm parameters, semen plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress, to evaluate whether different frequencies of heat exposure cause different degrees of damage to spermatogenesis. Two groups of volunteers (10 per group received testicular warming in a 43°C water bath 10 times, for 30 min each time: group 1: 10 consecutive days; group 2: once every 3 days. Sperm parameters, epididymis and accessory sex gland function, semen plasma oxidative stress and serum sex hormones were tested before treatment and in the 16-week recovery period after treatment. At last, we found an obvious reversible decrease in sperm concentration (P = 0.005 for Group 1 and P= 0.008 for Group 2 when the minimums were compared with baseline levels, the same below, motility (P = 0.009 and 0.021, respectively, the hypoosmotic swelling test score (P = 0.007 and 0.008, respectively, total acrosin activity (P = 0.018 and 0.009, respectively, and an increase in the seminal plasma malondialdehyde concentration (P = 0.005 and 0.017, respectively. The decrease of sperm concentration was greater for Group 2 than for Group 1 (P = 0.031. We concluded that transient scrotal hyperthermia seriously, but reversibly, negatively affected the spermatogenesis, oxidative stress may be involved in this process. In addition, intermittent heat exposure more seriously suppresses the spermatogenesis compared to consecutive heat exposure. This may be indicative for clinical infertility etiology analysis and the design of contraceptive methods based on heat stress.

  1. Regional deep hyperthermia: impact of observer variability in CT-based manual tissue segmentation on simulated temperature distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklan, Bassim; Hartmann, Josefin; Zink, Diana; Siavooshhaghighi, Hadi; Merten, Ricarda; Putz, Florian; Ott, Oliver; Fietkau, Rainer; Bert, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of the inter- and intra-observer segmentation variation of tumors and organs at risk on the simulated temperature coverage of the target. CT scans of six patients with tumors in the pelvic region acquired for radiotherapy treatment planning were used for hyperthermia treatment planning. To study the effect of inter-observer variation, three observers manually segmented in the CT images of each patient the following structures: fat, muscle, bone and the bladder. The gross tumor volumes (GTV) were contoured by three radiation oncology residents and used as the hyperthermia target volumes. For intra-observer variation, one of the observers of each group contoured the structures of each patient three times with a time span of one week between the segmentations. Moreover, the impact of segmentation variations in organs at risk (OARs) between the three inter-observers was investigated on simulated temperature distributions using only one GTV. The spatial overlap between individual segmentations was assessed by the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean surface distance (MSD). Additionally, the temperatures T90/T10 delivered to 90%/10% of the GTV, respectively, were assessed for each observer combination. The results of the segmentation similarity evaluation showed that the DSC of the inter-observer variation of fat, muscle, the bladder, bone and the target was 0.68  ±  0.12, 0.88  ±  0.05, 0.73  ±  0.14, 0.91  ±  0.04 and 0.64  ±  0.11, respectively. Similar results were found for the intra-observer variation. The MSD results were similar to the DSCs for both observer variations. A statistically significant difference (p  distribution.

  2. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  3. Optimal design of implants for magnetically mediated hyperthermia: A wireless power transfer approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Hans-Dieter; Sarris, Costas D.

    2017-09-01

    In magnetically mediated hyperthermia (MMH), an externally applied alternating magnetic field interacts with a mediator (such as a magnetic nanoparticle or an implant) inside the body to heat up the tissue in its proximity. Producing heat via induced currents in this manner is strikingly similar to wireless power transfer (WPT) for implants, where power is transferred from a transmitter outside of the body to an implanted receiver, in most cases via magnetic fields as well. Leveraging this analogy, a systematic method to design MMH implants for optimal heating efficiency is introduced, akin to the design of WPT systems for optimal power transfer efficiency. This paper provides analytical formulas for the achievable heating efficiency bounds as well as the optimal operating frequency and the implant material. Multiphysics simulations validate the approach and further demonstrate that optimization with respect to maximum heating efficiency is accompanied by minimizing heat delivery to healthy tissue. This is a property that is highly desirable when considering MMH as a key component or complementary method of cancer treatment and other applications.

  4. Magnetic hyperthermia controlled drug release in the GI tract: solving the problem of detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Joseph C.; Patrick, P. Stephen; Casson, Alfred; Southern, Paul; Lin, Fang-Yu; Powell, Michael J.; Pankhurst, Quentin A.; Kalber, Tammy; Lythgoe, Mark; Parkin, Ivan P.; Mayes, Andrew G.

    2016-09-01

    Drug delivery to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is highly challenging due to the harsh environments any drug- delivery vehicle must experience before it releases it’s drug payload. Effective targeted drug delivery systems often rely on external stimuli to effect release, therefore knowing the exact location of the capsule and when to apply an external stimulus is paramount. We present a drug delivery system for the GI tract based on coating standard gelatin drug capsules with a model eicosane- superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle composite coating, which is activated using magnetic hyperthermia as an on-demand release mechanism to heat and melt the coating. We also show that the capsules can be readily detected via rapid X-ray computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), vital for progressing such a system towards clinical applications. This also offers the opportunity to image the dispersion of the drug payload post release. These imaging techniques also influenced capsule content and design and the delivered dosage form. The ability to easily change design demonstrates the versatility of this system, a vital advantage for modern, patient-specific medicine.

  5. Hyperthermia with rotating magnetic nanowires inducing heat into tumor by fluid friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egolf, Peter W.; Pawlowski, Anne-Gabrielle; Tsague, Paulin; Marco, Bastien de; Bovy, William; Tucev, Sinisa [Institute of Thermal Sciences and Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, CH 1401 Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Shamsudhin, Naveen, E-mail: snaveen@ethz.ch; Pané, Salvador; Pokki, Juho; Ansari, M. H. D.; Nelson, Bradley J. [Multi-Scale Robotics Lab, Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, ETH Zurich, CH 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Vuarnoz, Didier [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), EPFL Fribourg, CH 1701 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2016-08-14

    A magnetic hyperthermia cancer treatment strategy that does not operate by means of conventional heating mechanisms is presented. The proposed approach consists of injecting a gel with homogeneously distributed magnetic nanowires into a tumor. Upon the application of a low-frequency rotating or circularly polarized magnetic field, nanowires spin around their center of viscous drag due to torque generated by shape anisotropy. As a result of external rotational forcing and fluid friction in the nanoparticle's boundary layer, heating occurs. The nanowire dynamics is theoretically and experimentally investigated, and different feasibility proofs of the principle by physical modeling, which adhere to medical guidelines, are presented. The magnetic nanorotors exhibit rotations and oscillations with quite a steady center of gravity, which proves an immobile behavior and guarantees a time-independent homogeneity of the spatial particle distribution in the tumor. Furthermore, a fluid dynamic and thermodynamic heating model is briefly introduced. This model is a generalization of Penne's model that for this method reveals theoretic heating rates that are sufficiently high, and fits well into medical limits defined by present standards.

  6. Hyperthermia with rotating magnetic nanowires inducing heat into tumor by fluid friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egolf, Peter W.; Shamsudhin, Naveen; Pané, Salvador; Vuarnoz, Didier; Pokki, Juho; Pawlowski, Anne-Gabrielle; Tsague, Paulin; de Marco, Bastien; Bovy, William; Tucev, Sinisa; Ansari, M. H. D.; Nelson, Bradley J.

    2016-08-01

    A magnetic hyperthermia cancer treatment strategy that does not operate by means of conventional heating mechanisms is presented. The proposed approach consists of injecting a gel with homogeneously distributed magnetic nanowires into a tumor. Upon the application of a low-frequency rotating or circularly polarized magnetic field, nanowires spin around their center of viscous drag due to torque generated by shape anisotropy. As a result of external rotational forcing and fluid friction in the nanoparticle's boundary layer, heating occurs. The nanowire dynamics is theoretically and experimentally investigated, and different feasibility proofs of the principle by physical modeling, which adhere to medical guidelines, are presented. The magnetic nanorotors exhibit rotations and oscillations with quite a steady center of gravity, which proves an immobile behavior and guarantees a time-independent homogeneity of the spatial particle distribution in the tumor. Furthermore, a fluid dynamic and thermodynamic heating model is briefly introduced. This model is a generalization of Penne's model that for this method reveals theoretic heating rates that are sufficiently high, and fits well into medical limits defined by present standards.

  7. Iron Nanoparticles Fabricated by High-Energy Ball Milling for Magnetic Hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, D. K.; Manh, D. H.; Phong, L. T. H.; Nam, P. H.; Nam, D. N. H.; Anh, N. T. N.; Nong, H. T. T.; Phan, M. H.; Phuc, N. X.

    2016-05-01

    Iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) have been successfully prepared by high-energy ball milling in air for various milling times from 1 h to 32 h. Their structure, particle size, elemental composition, magnetic, and inductive heating properties were investigated by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, vibrating-sample magnetometry, and magnetic induction heating, respectively. XRD analysis showed that the average crystallite size decreased to 11 nm after 10 h of milling, then remained almost unchanged for longer milling times. Coexistence of iron (Fe) and iron oxide (FeO) phases was detected after 12 h of milling. EDX analysis also confirmed the occurrence of oxidation, which can be reconciled with the corresponding decrease and increase in saturation magnetization ( M s) with milling time when exposed to oxygen and when annealed under H2 ambient due to oxygen reduction. The time-dependent magnetic and inductive heating responses of the FeNPs were investigated for prospective application in magnetic hyperthermia. The effect of varying the alternating-current (AC) magnetic field strength on the saturation heating temperature and specific loss power of FeNP-containing ferrofluid with concentration of 4 mg/mL was also studied and is discussed.

  8. Fe-Doped Sol-Gel Glasses and Glass-Ceramics for Magnetic Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baino, Francesco; Fiume, Elisa; Miola, Marta; Leone, Federica; Onida, Barbara; Laviano, Francesco; Gerbaldo, Roberto; Verné, Enrica

    2018-01-22

    This work deals with the synthesis and characterization of novel Fe-containing sol-gel materials obtained by modifying the composition of a binary SiO₂-CaO parent glass with the addition of Fe₂O₃. The effect of different processing conditions (calcination in air vs. argon flowing) on the formation of magnetic crystalline phases was investigated. The produced materials were analyzed from thermal (hot-stage microscopy, differential thermal analysis, and differential thermal calorimetry) and microstructural (X-ray diffraction) viewpoints to assess both the behavior upon heating and the development of crystalline phases. N₂ adsorption-desorption measurements allowed determining that these materials have high surface area (40-120 m²/g) and mesoporous texture with mesopore size in the range of 18 to 30 nm. It was assessed that the magnetic properties can actually be tailored by controlling the Fe content and the environmental conditions (oxidant vs. inert atmosphere) during calcination. The glasses and glass-ceramics developed in this work show promise for applications in bone tissue healing which require the use of biocompatible magnetic implants able to elicit therapeutic actions, such as hyperthermia for bone cancer treatment.

  9. Fe-Doped Sol-Gel Glasses and Glass-Ceramics for Magnetic Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Baino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the synthesis and characterization of novel Fe-containing sol-gel materials obtained by modifying the composition of a binary SiO2-CaO parent glass with the addition of Fe2O3. The effect of different processing conditions (calcination in air vs. argon flowing on the formation of magnetic crystalline phases was investigated. The produced materials were analyzed from thermal (hot-stage microscopy, differential thermal analysis, and differential thermal calorimetry and microstructural (X-ray diffraction viewpoints to assess both the behavior upon heating and the development of crystalline phases. N2 adsorption–desorption measurements allowed determining that these materials have high surface area (40–120 m2/g and mesoporous texture with mesopore size in the range of 18 to 30 nm. It was assessed that the magnetic properties can actually be tailored by controlling the Fe content and the environmental conditions (oxidant vs. inert atmosphere during calcination. The glasses and glass-ceramics developed in this work show promise for applications in bone tissue healing which require the use of biocompatible magnetic implants able to elicit therapeutic actions, such as hyperthermia for bone cancer treatment.

  10. The study of thermal change by chemoport in radiofrequency hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Sun Young; Gim, Yang Soo; Kwak, Keun Tak; Yang, Myung Sik; Cha, Seok Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluate the thermal changes caused by use of the chemoport for drug administration and blood sampling during radiofrequency hyperthermia. 20 cm size of the electrode radio frequency hyperthermia (EHY-2000, Oncotherm KFT, Hungary) was used. The materials of the chemoport in our hospital from currently being used therapy are plastics, metal-containing epoxy and titanium that were made of the diameter 20 cm, height 20 cm insertion of the self-made cylindrical Agar phantom to measure the temperature. Thermoscope(TM-100, Oncotherm Kft, Hungary) and Sim4Life (Ver2.0, Zurich, Switzerland) was compared to the actual measured temperature. Each of the electrode measurement position is the central axis and the central axis side 1.5 cm, 0 cm(surface), 0.5 cm, 1.8 cm, 2.8 cm in depth was respectively measured. The measured temperature is 24.5 - 25.5℃, humidity is 30% - 32%. In five-minute intervals to measure the output power of 100 W, 60 min. In the electrode central axis 2.8 cm depth, the maximum temperature of the case with the unused of the chemoport, plastic, epoxy and titanium were respectively 39.51℃, 39.11℃, 38.81℃, 40.64℃, simulated experimental data were 42.20 ℃, 41.50℃, 40.70℃, 42.50℃. And in the central axis electrode side 1.5 cm depth 2.8 cm, measured data were 39.37℃, 39.32℃, 39.20℃, 39.46℃, the simulated experimental data were 42.00℃, 41.80℃, 41.20℃, 42.30℃. The thermal variations were caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic field surrounding the chemoport showed lower than in the case of unused in non-conductive plastic material and epoxy material, the titanum chemoport that made of conductor materials showed a slight differences. This is due to the metal contents in the chemoport and the geometry of the chemoport. And because it uses a low radio frequency bandwidth of the used equipment. That is, although use of the chemoport in this study do not significantly affect the surrounding tissue. That is, because the

  11. Effect of a combined surgery, re-irradiation and hyperthermia therapy on local control rate in radio-induced angiosarcoma of the chest wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linthorst, M.; Rhoon, G.C. van; Zee, J. van der [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Geel, A.N. van [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgical Oncology; Baartman, E.A. [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Oei, S.B. [Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ghidey, W. [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Trial and Medical Statistics

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Radiation-induced angiosarcoma (RAS) of the chest wall/breast has a poor prognosis due to the high percentage of local failures. The efficacy and side effects of re-irradiation plus hyperthermia (reRT + HT) treatment alone or in combination with surgery were assessed in RAS patients. Patients and methods: RAS was diagnosed in 23 breast cancer patients and 1 patient with melanoma. These patients had previously undergone breast conserving therapy (BCT, n = 18), mastectomy with irradiation (n=5) or axillary lymph node dissection with irradiation (n = 1). Treatment consisted of surgery followed by reRT + HT (n = 8), reRT + HT followed by surgery (n = 3) or reRT + HT alone (n = 13). Patients received a mean radiation dose of 35 Gy (32-54 Gy) and 3-6 hyperthermia treatments (mean 4). Hyperthermia was given once or twice a week following radiotherapy (RT). Results: The median latency interval between previous radiation and diagnosis of RAS was 106 months (range 45-212 months). Following reRT + HT, the complete response (CR) rate was 56 %. In the subgroup of patients receiving surgery, the 3-month, 1- and 3-year actuarial local control (LC) rates were 91, 46 and 46 %, respectively. In the subgroup of patients without surgery, the rates were 54, 32 and 22 %, respectively. Late grade 4 RT toxicity was seen in 2 patients. Conclusion: The present study shows that reRT + HT treatment - either alone or combined with surgery - improves LC rates in patients with RAS. (orig.)

  12. [Simultaneous action of UV light and hyperthermia on survival and recombination of yeast: effect of intensity of agents on their synergistic interaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassokhina, A V; Petin, V G; Zhurakovskaia, G P

    2000-01-01

    Synergistic effects of simultaneous application of ultraviolet (UV) light and hyperthermia on survival and recombination of diploid yeast cells were studied. For both test-systems the dependence of the synergistic interaction on UV light fluence rate and exposure temperature was revealed: the temperature range synergistically increasing the action of UV light is shifted towards low temperature values with decreasing of UV light fluence rate. For cell survival, the dependence of the synergistic enhancement ratio on the exposure temperature passes through a maximum. A possible qualitative interpretation of these results is discussed.

  13. Absence of Exertional Hyperthermia in a 17 Year Old with Severe Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Serina J.; Lee, Jong O.; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective An important safety concern when exercising burned patients is the potential for an excessive increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia = body core temperature > 39°C) during exercise. Methods We examined the thermoregulatory response to exercise in the heat (31°C, relative humidity 40%) in a 17 year old with a 99% total body surface area burn. A 30 minute exercise test was performed at an intensity of 75% of his peak aerobic capacity. Intestinal temperature was assessed via telemetry with an ingestible capsule. Intestinal temperature was measured pre-exercise, during, and post-exercise. Results The patient completed 12 minutes of the 30 minute exercise test. Starting core temperature was 36.98 °C and increased 0.69 °C during exercise. After excercise, intestinal temperature continued to increase, but no hyperthermia was noted. Conclusion It has been reported that burned children can safely exercise at room temperature, however, the response in the heat is unknown. This patient did not develop exertional hyperthermia, which we propose is due to his low fitness level and heat intolerance. However, the potential for hyperthermia would be increased if he were forced to maintain a high relative workload in the heat. We propose that severely burned individuals should be able to safely participate in physical activities. However, the decision to stop exercising should be accepted to avoid development of exertional hyperthermia. PMID:19506510

  14. Simultaneous hyperthermia and doxorubicin delivery from polymer-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, G.R., E-mail: iglesias@ugr.es [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain); Delgado, A.V.; González-Caballero, F. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain); Ramos-Tejada, M.M. [Department of Physics, University of Jaén, Linares 23700 (Spain)

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the hyperthermia response, (i.e., heating induced by an externally applied alternating magnetic field) and the simultaneous release of an anti-cancer drug (doxorubicin) by polymer-coated magnetite nanoparticles have been investigated. After describing the setup for hyperthermia measurements in suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles, the hyperthermia (represented by the rate of suspension heating and, ultimately, by the specific absorption rate or SAR) of magnetite nanoparticles (both bare and polymer-coated as drug nanocarriers) is discussed. The effect of the applied ac magnetic field on doxorubicin release is also studied, and it is concluded that the field does not interfere with the release process, demonstrating the double functionality of the investigated particles. - Highlights: • Magnetite NPs coated with polymers are used for drug delivery and hyperthermia. • The SAR of polyelectrolyte-coated NPs is larger because of their improved stability. • The antitumor drug doxorubicin is adsorbed on the coated particles. • The release rate of the drug is not affected by the ac magnetic field used in hyperthermia.

  15. Hydroxyapatite Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: A Promising Nanomaterial for Magnetic Hyperthermia Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Mondal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Targeting cancer cells without injuring normal cells is the prime objective in treatment of cancer. In this present study, solvothermal and wet chemical precipitation techniques were employed to synthesize iron oxide (IO, hydroxyapatite (HAp, and hydroxyapatite coated iron oxide (IO-HAp nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia mediated cancer therapy. The synthesized well dispersed spherical IO-HAp nanoparticles, magnetite, and apatite phases were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and Field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The non-toxic behavior of synthesized IO-HAp nanoparticles was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay (Trypan blue and MTT assay. The synthesized nanoparticles revealed a remarkable magnetic saturation of 83.2 emu/g for IO and 40.6 emu/g for IO-HAp nanoparticles in presence of 15,000 Oe (1.5 T magnetic field at room temperature (300 K. The magnetic hyperthermia study that was performed with IO-HAp nanoparticles showed an excellent hyperthermia effect (SAR value 85 W/g over MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. The in vitro hyperthermia temperature (~45 °C was reached within 3 min, which shows a very high efficiency and kills nearly all of the experimental MG-63 osteosarcoma cells within 30 min exposure. These results could potentially open new perceptions for biomaterials that are aimed for anti-cancer therapies based on magnetic hyperthermia.

  16. Modeling of self-controlling hyperthermia based on nickel alloy ferrofluids: Proposition of new nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delavari, H. Hamid, E-mail: Hamid.delavari@gmail.com [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, 145888-9694 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Madaah Hosseini, Hamid R. [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, 145888-9694 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, 145888-9694 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Wolff, Max, E-mail: Max.wolff@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    In order to provide sufficient heat without overheating healthy tissue in magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH), a careful design of the magnetic properties of nanoparticles is essential. We perform a systematic calculation of magnetic properties of Ni-alloy nanoparticles. Stoner–Wohlfarth model based theories (SWMBTs) are considered and the linear response theory (LRT) is used to extract the hysteresis loop of nickel alloy nanoparticles in alternating magnetic fields. It is demonstrated that in the safe range of magnetic field intensity and frequency the LRT cannot be used for the calculation of the area in the hysteresis for magnetic fields relevant for hyperthermia. The best composition and particle size for self-controlling hyperthermia with nickel alloys is determined based on SWMBTs. It is concluded that Ni–V and Ni–Zn are good candidates for self-controlling hyperthermia. - Highlights: ► Systematic calculation of magnetic properties of Ni-alloy NPs with composition has been performed. ► Optimum composition and particle size for self-controlling hyperthermia (SCH) have been determined. ► Ni–V and Ni–Zn nanoparticles are more appropriate candidates for SCH.

  17. The effect of hypofractionated radiation and magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia on tumor immunogenicity and overall treatment response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, P. Jack; Wagner, Robert J.; Song, Ailin; Osterberg, Bjorn; Gladstone, David J.; Bursey, Alicea A.; Fiering, Steven N.; Giustini, Andrew J.

    2017-02-01

    It is now known that many tumors develop molecular signals (immune checkpoint modulators) that inhibit an effective tumor immune response. New information also suggest that even well-known cancer treatment modalities such as radiation and hyperthermia generate potentially beneficial immune responses that have been blocked or mitigated by such immune checkpoints, or similar molecules. The cancer therapy challenge is to; a) identify these treatment-based immune signals (proteins, antigens, etc.); b) the treatment doses or regimens that produce them; and c) the mechanisms that block or have the potential to promote them. The goal of this preliminary study, using the B6 mouse - B16 tumor model, clinically relevant radiation doses and fractionation schemes (including those used clinically in hypofractionated radiation therapy), magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (mNPH) and sophisticated protein, immune and tumor growth analysis techniques and modulators, is to determine the effect of specific radiation or hyperthermia alone and combined on overall treatment efficacy and immunologic response mechanisms. Preliminary analysis suggests that radiation dose (10 Gy vs. 2 Gy) significantly alters the mechanism of cell death (apoptosis vs. mitosis vs. necrosis) and the resulting immunogenicity. Our hypothesis and data suggest this difference is protein/antigen and immune recognition-based. Similarly, our evidence suggest that radiation doses larger than the conventional 2 Gy dose and specific hyperthermia doses and techniques (including mNP hyperthermia treatment) can be immunologically different, and potentially superior to, the radiation and heat therapy regimens that are typically used in research and clinical practice.

  18. Local hyperthermia benefits natural and experimental common colds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, D.; Barrow, I.; Arthur, J.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether inhaling fully humidified air at 43 degrees C gave more benefit to cold sufferers than inhaling air at 30 degrees C. DESIGN--Randomised double blind trial. Setting--General practice and the common cold research unit. SUBJECTS--87 Unselected patients with typical acute nasal and upper respiratory symptoms (general practice study), and 84 volunteers aged 18-50 without a history of chronic or allergic diseases. INTERVENTIONS--Subjects breathed from apparatus delivering 40 litres of room air heated to 43 degrees C or 30 degrees C and fully humidified (relative humidity 100%) per minute. End point--Reduction in severity of disease. MEASUREMENTS and main results--Patients recorded their symptoms (general practice study) and observers recorded symptoms and signs, weight of nasal secretions, isolation of virus, and antibody responses in volunteers. Patients treated for 20 minutes at 43 degrees C had in the succeeding days roughly half the score for symptoms of those treated at 30 degrees C. Volunteers treated for 30 minutes on three occasions when they were starting a cold showed an 18% [corrected] reduction in symptoms. Treatment of volunteers for 20 minutes at the onset of the cold and for 10 minutes on succeeding days showed no difference between 43 degrees C and 30 degrees C. CONCLUSIONS--Nasal hyperthermia can improve the course of a common cold and also give immediate relief of symptoms. PMID:2500196

  19. Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia of Rodent Tumors Using Manganese Perovskite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Bubnovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To test the antitumor activity of magnetic fluid (MF on the basis of substituted lanthanum-strontium manganite nanoparticles combined with alternating magnetic field (AMF in experiments with transplanted tumors. Materials and Methods. MF with a size of nanoparticles of 30–40 nm in aqueous agarose solution was investigated. The ability of MF to heat tumor under AMF (300 kHz, 7.7 kA/m was tested in vivo with rodent tumors (Guerin carcinoma, Walker-256 carcinosarcoma, and Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL. Results. Single administration of MF into the tumor at a dose of 150 mg/kg (rats or 200 mg/kg (mice followed by AMF within 20–30 min (treatment was repeated 3-4-fold has resulted in the complete regression of tumor in the 35% of rats and 57% of mice. Administration of MF alone or action of AMF alone has not resulted in tumor growth inhibition. The chemomodifying effect of nanohyperthermia was determined, in particular for cisplatinum: thermal enhancement ratio was 2.0. It was also observed that nanohyperthermia has resulted in the absence of 3LL metastases in 43% of mice. Conclusions. MF on the basis of lanthanum-strontium manganite may be considered as an effective inductor of tumor local hyperthermia.

  20. Clinical protocol for the management of malignant hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann-Camaiora, A; Alsina, E; Domínguez, A; Del Blanco, B; Yepes, M J; Guerrero, J L; García, A

    2017-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia is a hypermetabolic syndrome that appears in susceptible patients after exposure to certain anaesthetic drugs (succinylcholine, inhalation anaesthetics). Its incidence in Spain is 1 in 40,000 adults, with a 10% mortality rate. It is induced by an abnormal regulation of the ryanodine receptors, producing a massive release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the striate muscle. Clinical manifestations include: CO 2 increase, tachycardia, haemodynamic instability, metabolic and respiratory acidosis, profuse sweating, hyperpyrexia, CPK increase, myoglobinuria, kidney failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and ending in cardiac arrest. Dantrolene sodium is a ryanodine receptor antagonist, and inhibits the release of intracellular calcium. Definitive diagnosis is achieved by the exposure of muscle fibres to caffeine and halothane. Protocols can help guarantee a reliable and secure management when this severe event occurs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrating Hyperthermia into Modern Radiation Oncology: What Evidence Is Necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. Peeken

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia (HT is one of the hot topics that have been discussed over decades. However, it never made its way into primetime. The basic biological rationale of heat to enhance the effect of radiation, chemotherapeutic agents, and immunotherapy is evident. Preclinical work has confirmed this effect. HT may trigger changes in perfusion and oxygenation as well as inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms. Moreover, there is evidence for immune stimulation and the induction of systemic immune responses. Despite the increasing number of solid clinical studies, only few centers have included this adjuvant treatment into their repertoire. Over the years, abundant prospective and randomized clinical data have emerged demonstrating a clear benefit of combined HT and radiotherapy for multiple entities such as superficial breast cancer recurrences, cervix carcinoma, or cancers of the head and neck. Regarding less investigated indications, the existing data are promising and more clinical trials are currently recruiting patients. How do we proceed from here? Preclinical evidence is present. Multiple indications benefit from additional HT in the clinical setting. This article summarizes the present evidence and develops ideas for future research.

  2. JSA guideline for the management of malignant hyperthermia crisis 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) can be fatal if the crisis is not appropriately treated. It is an inherited disease usually triggered by the administration of volatile inhalational anesthetics and/or succinylcholine, a muscle relaxant. In a patient with suspected MH, the mechanism of calcium release from storage in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the skeletal muscle is abnormally accelerated. Unexplained hypercarbia representing >55 mmHg of end-tidal carbon dioxide, tachycardia, and muscle rigidity (including masseter muscle rigidity) are early signs of the initiation of MH, because the metabolism is accelerated. The body temperature can rise by >0.5 °C/15 min and may reach ≥40 °C. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis, arrhythmia, cola-colored urine, increased levels of serum potassium, and tented T-waves on electrocardiogram are common and can lead to cardiac arrest. MH should be treated by discontinuation of the triggering agents, administration of intravenous dantrolene (initially 1 mg/kg), and reduction of the body temperature. Early diagnosis and sufficient dantrolene with body temperature reduction are essential to relieve the patient's MH crisis. This guideline in Japanese translation has been posted on the website: http://www.anesth.or.jp/guide/pdf/guideline_akuseikounetsu.pdf .

  3. Effects of Theophylline on Anesthetized Malignant Hyperthermia-Susceptible Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Fiege

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Theophylline was shown to induce contracture development in porcine malignant hyperthermia (MH susceptible (MHS skeletal muscles in vitro. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the in vivo effects of theophylline in MHS and MH normal (MHN swine. Methods. MH-trigger-free general anesthesia was performed in MHS and MHN swine. Theophylline was administered intravenously in cumulative doses up to 93.5 mg⋅kg-1. The clinical occurrence of MH was defined by changes of central-venous pCO2, central-venous pH, and body core temperature. Results. Theophylline induced comparable clinical alterations in the anesthetized MHS and MHN swine, especially in regard to hemodynamic data. No pig developed hypermetabolism and/or MH according to defined criteria. All animals died with tachycardia followed by ventricular fibrillation. Conclusions. The cumulative theophylline doses used in this study were much higher than doses used therapeutically in humans, as demonstrated by measured blood concentrations. Theophylline is thus not a trigger of MH in genetically determined swine.

  4. Re-irradiation of the chest wall for local breast cancer recurrence. Results of salvage brachytherapy with hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auoragh, A. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Hospital Fuerth, Department of Radiation Oncology, Fuerth (Germany); Strnad, V.; Ott, O.J.; Fietkau, R. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Beckmann, M.W. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Following mastectomy and adjuvant external beam radiation therapy in patients with breast cancer, the incidence of local or locoregional recurrence is approximately 9 % (2-20 %). Alongside the often limited possibilities of surgical treatment, radiation therapy combined with superficial hyperthermia is the most effective local therapy. In the present work, a retrospective analysis of salvage brachytherapy combined with superficial hyperthermia for chest wall recurrences is presented. Between 2004 and 2011, 18 patients with a total of 23 target volumes resulting from chest wall recurrences after previously mastectomy and external beam radiation therapy (median 56 Gy, range 50-68 Gy) were treated with superficial brachytherapy as salvage treatment: 8 patients (44 %) had macroscopic tumor, 3 (17 %) had microscopic tumor (R1), and 7 (39 %) had undergone R0 resection and were treated due to risk factors. A dose of 50 Gy was given (high-dose rate [HDR] and pulsed-dose rate [PDR] procedures). In all, 5 of 23 patients (22 %) received additional concurrent chemotherapy, and in 20 of 23 (87 %) target volumes additional superficial hyperthermia was carried out twice weekly. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival was 56 %, the disease-free survival was 28 %, and a 5-year overall survival was 22 %. Late side effects Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade 3 were reported in 17 % of the patients: 2 of 18 (11 %) had CTC grade 3 fibrosis, and 1 of 18 (6 %) had a chronic wound healing disorder. Re-irradiation as salvage brachytherapy with superficial hyperthermia for chest wall recurrences is a feasible and safe treatment with good local control results and acceptable late side effects. (orig.) [German] Nach einer Mastektomie und adjuvanter Strahlentherapie bei Patientinnen mit Mammakarzinom kommt es bei 9 % (2-20 %) zum lokalen bzw. lokoregionaeren Rezidiv. Neben den oft limitierten operativen Behandlungsmoeglichkeiten ist die Strahlentherapie mit Oberflaechenhyperthermie die

  5. The effect of hyperthermia on mitomycin-C induced cytotoxicity in four human bladder cancer cell lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.G. van der; Jansen, K.F.J.; Verhaegh, G.W.C.T.; O'Donnell, M.A.; Schalken, J.A.; Witjes, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hyperthermia and mitomycin-C (MMC) have given very encouraging results in several clinical studies for the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. However, a synergistic effect of hyperthermia and MMC on the decrease of cell proliferation has never been

  6. A Study of Effects of Hyperthermia on Large, Short-Haired Male Dogs: A Simulated Air Transport Environmental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    FAA-AM-77-8 A STUDY OF EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON LARGE, SHORT-HAIRED MALE DOGS: A SIMULATED AIR TRANSPORT ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS G. D. Hanneman, D.V.M...EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON LARGE, SHORT-HAIRED •[MALE DOGS: A SIMULATED AIR TRNPR S : ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS 4 M. 1N • . Introduction. In the past decade

  7. CERN safety week

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    Following an increase in the number of accidents in 2008, the Safety Commission is organising a CERN safety week from 8 to 12 June for riders of bicycles, scooters and motorbikes. We invite you to take part in the programme, which will be held in the Main Building (Bldg. 500) and will consist of an exhibition, organised events and hands-on activities, including demonstrations of emergency braking, a driving simulator, simulation of what it feels like to drive under the influence of alcohol, demonstrations by the Fire Brigade, video projections, etc. There will also be a number of prizes to be won. Please sign up via your DSO.

  8. Changes in white spot lesions following post-orthodontic weekly application of 1.25 per cent fluoride gel over 6 months-a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Part II: clinical data evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko C; Seibold, Laura; Heumann, Christian; Gnandt, Erhard; Röder, Miriam; Ruf, Sabine

    2017-04-01

    White spot lesions (WSL) frequently occur as side-effect of multibracket appliance treatment. The clinical effects of local fluoridation on post-orthodontic WSL and oral health development are however inconclusive. In vivo monitoring of clinical WSL and oral health changes in response to weekly 1.25 per cent fluoride gel application after multibracket appliance treatment. Randomized, single-centre, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study. Patients with not less than 1 WSL (modified score 1 or 2) on not less than 1 upper front teeth after debonding. Professional fluoride/placebo gel application during weeks 1-2; self-administered home application (weeks 3-24). Clinical evaluation of WSL index, lesion activity, plaque index, gingival bleeding index, and decayed, missing, and filled teeth index as well as saliva buffer capacity and stimulated salivary flow rate (T0-T5). Random assignment to test (n = 23) or placebo group (n = 23) using a sequentially numbered list (random allocation sequence generated for 50 subjects in 25 blocks of 2 subjects each). The clinical study duration lasted from March 2011 to September 2013. Unblinding was performed after complete data evaluation. Intention-to-treat analysis set comprised 39 participants (test: n = 21, placebo: n = 18). No clinical parameter except stimulated salivary flow rate (fluoride group: 1.1ml/min, placebo group: 0.74ml/min; P = 0.022) showed a statistically significant group difference after 24 weeks. Several adverse events occurred similarly frequent in both groups; none was classified as possibly related to the study product. The number of dropouts was higher than expected and the socio-economic status was not assessed. Furthermore, the unknown level of compliance during the home application phase must be considered as limitation. Based on the results of this study, no clinical effect of post-orthodontic high-dose fluoride treatment on WSL and oral health changes could be detected. The study was

  9. ATLAS overview week highlights

    CERN Document Server

    D. Froidevaux

    2005-01-01

    A warm and early October afternoon saw the beginning of the 2005 ATLAS overview week, which took place Rue de La Montagne Sainte-Geneviève in the heart of the Quartier Latin in Paris. All visitors had been warned many times by the ATLAS management and the organisers that the premises would be the subject of strict security clearance because of the "plan Vigipirate", which remains at some level of alert in all public buildings across France. The public building in question is now part of the Ministère de La Recherche, but used to host one of the so-called French "Grandes Ecoles", called l'Ecole Polytechnique (in France there is only one Ecole Polytechnique, whereas there are two in Switzerland) until the end of the seventies, a little while after it opened its doors also to women. In fact, the setting chosen for this ATLAS overview week by our hosts from LPNHE Paris has turned out to be ideal and the security was never an ordeal. For those seeing Paris for the first time, there we...

  10. Acute volume expansion attenuates hyperthermia-induced reductions in cerebral perfusion during simulated hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlader, Zachary J; Seifert, Thomas; Wilson, Thad E

    2013-01-01

    a simulated hemorrhagic challenge induced by lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Eight healthy young male subjects underwent a supine baseline period (pre-LBNP), followed by 15- and 30-mmHg LBNP while normothermic, hyperthermic (increased pulmonary artery blood temperature ~1.1°C), and following acute volume......Hyperthermia reduces the capacity to withstand a simulated hemorrhagic challenge, but volume loading preserves this capacity. This study tested the hypotheses that acute volume expansion during hyperthermia increases cerebral perfusion and attenuates reductions in cerebral perfusion during...... infusion while hyperthermic. Primary dependent variables were mean middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAvmean), serving as an index of cerebral perfusion; mean arterial pressure (MAP); and cardiac output (thermodilution). During baseline, hyperthermia reduced MCAvmean (P = 0.001) by 12 ± 9% relative...

  11. An induction heating device using planar coil with high amplitude alternating magnetic fields for magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuhe; Zhuo, Zihang; Cai, Dongyang; Wu, Jian'an; Wang, Jie; Tang, Jintian

    2015-01-01

    Induction heating devices using the induction coil and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are the way that the magnetic hyperthermia is heading. To facilitate the induction heating of in vivo magnetic nanoparticles in hyperthermia experiments on large animals. An induction heating device using a planar coil was designed with a magnetic field frequency of 328 kHz. The coil's magnetic field distribution and the device's induction heating performance on different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles were measured. The alternating magnetic field produced in the axis position 165 mm away from the coil center is 40 Gs in amplitude; magnetic nanoparticles with a concentration higher than 80 mg. mL-1 can be heated up rapidly. Our results demonstrate that the device can be applied not only to in vitro and in small animal experiments of magnetic hyperthermia using MNPs, but also in large animal experiments.

  12. Numerical analysis of temperature field improvement with nanoparticles designed to achieve critical power dissipation in magnetic hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yundong; Flesch, Rodolfo C. C.; Jin, Tao

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) hyperthermia is a promising emerging therapy for cancer treatment that is minimally invasive and has been successfully used to treat different types of tumors. The power dissipation of MNPs, which is one of the most important factors during a hyperthermia treatment, is determined by the properties of MNPs and characteristics of the magnetic field. This paper proposes a method based on the finite element analysis for determining the value of the power dissipation of particles (PDP) that can maximize the average temperature of the tumor during treatment and at the same time guarantee that the maximum temperature is within the therapeutic range. The application of the critical PDP value can improve the effectiveness of the treatment since it increases the average temperature in the tumor region while limiting the damage to the healthy tissue that surrounds it. After the critical PDP is determined for a specific model, it is shown how the properties of the MNPs can be chosen to achieve the desired PDP value. The transient behavior of the temperature distribution for two different models considering blood vessels is analyzed as a case study, showing that the presence of a blood vessel inside the tumor region can significantly decrease the uniformity of the temperature field and also increase the treatment duration given its cooling effects. To present a solution that does not depend upon a good model of the tumor region, an alternative method that uses MNPs with low Curie temperature is proposed, given the temperature self-regulating properties of such MNPs. The results demonstrate that the uniformity of the temperature field can be significantly increased by combining the optimization procedure proposed in this paper with the use of low-Curie-temperature MNPs.

  13. Response of breast cancer cells and cancer stem cells to metformin and hyperthermia alone or combined.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyemi Lee

    Full Text Available Metformin, the most widely prescribed drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes, has been shown to exert significant anticancer effects. Hyperthermia has been known to kill cancer cells and enhance the efficacy of various anti-cancer drugs and radiotherapy. We investigated the combined effects of metformin and hyperthermia against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell, and MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells. Incubation of breast cancer cells with 0.5-10 mM metformin for 48 h caused significant clonogenic cell death. Culturing breast cancer cells with 30 µM metformin, clinically relevant plasma concentration of metformin, significantly reduced the survival of cancer cells. Importantly, metformin was preferentially cytotoxic to CD44(high/CD24(low cells of MCF-7 cells and, CD44(high/CD24(high cells of MIA PaCa-2 cells, which are known to be cancer stem cells (CSCs of MCF-7 cells and MIA PaCa-2 cells, respectively. Heating at 42°C for 1 h was slightly toxic to both cancer cells and CSCs, and it markedly enhanced the efficacy of metformin to kill cancer cells and CSCs. Metformin has been reported to activate AMPK, thereby suppressing mTOR, which plays an important role for protein synthesis, cell cycle progression, and cell survival. For the first time, we show that hyperthermia activates AMPK and inactivates mTOR and its downstream effector S6K. Furthermore, hyperthermia potentiated the effect of metformin to activate AMPK and inactivate mTOR and S6K. Cell proliferation was markedly suppressed by metformin or combination of metformin and hyperthermia, which could be attributed to activation of AMPK leading to inactivation of mTOR. It is conclude that the effects of metformin against cancer cells including CSCs can be markedly enhanced by hyperthermia.

  14. Structural effects on the magnetic hyperthermia properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Abenojar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs are heavily explored as diagnostic and therapeutic agents due to their low cost, tunable properties, and biocompatibility. In particular, upon excitation with an alternating current (AC magnetic field, the NPs generate localized heat that can be exploited for therapeutic hyperthermia treatment of diseased cells or pathogenic microbes. In this review, we focus on how structural changes and inter-particle interactions affect the heating efficiency of iron oxide-based magnetic NPs. Moreover, we present an overview of the different approaches to evaluate the heating performance of IONPs and introduce a new theranostic modality based on magnetic imaging guided–hyperthermia.

  15. Magnetic nanowires and hyperthermia: How geometry and material affect heat production efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Contreras, Maria F.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia, which refers to the production of heat by magnetic nanostructures under an alternating magnetic field (AMF), has been previously investigated with superparamagnetic nanobeads as a cancer therapy method. Magnetic nanowires (NWs) used in hyperthermia can be very promising, as it has been shown that they have a larger magnetic moment per unit of volume compared to the nanobeads. Moreover, Fe NWs proved to have a higher heating efficiency compared to Fe nanobeads, when exposed to an AMF at the same concentration [1].

  16. Thermal dosimetry analysis combined with patient-specific thermal modeling of clinical interstitial ultrasound hyperthermia integrated within HDR brachytherapy for treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Wootton, Jeff; Prakash, Punit; Scott, Serena; Hsu, I. C.; Diederich, Chris J.

    2017-03-01

    This study presents thermal dosimetry analysis from clinical treatments where ultrasound hyperthermia (HT) was administered following high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment for locally advanced prostate cancer as part of a clinical pilot study. HT was administered using ultrasound applicators from within multiple 13-g brachytherapy catheters implanted along the posterior periphery of the prostate. The heating applicators were linear arrays of sectored tubular transducers (˜7 MHz), with independently powered array elements enabling energy deposition with 3D spatial control. Typical heat treatments employed time-averaged peak acoustic intensities of 1 - 3 W/cm2 and lasted for 60 - 70 minutes. Throughout the treatments, temperatures at multiple points were monitored using multi-junction thermocouples, placed within available brachytherapy catheters throughout mid-gland prostate and identified as the hyperthermia target volume (HTV). Clinical constraints allowed placement of 8 - 12 thermocouple sensors in the HTV and patient-specific 3D thermal modeling based on finite element methods (FEM) was used to supplement limited thermometry. Patient anatomy, heating device positions, orientations, and thermometry junction locations were obtained from patient CT scans and HDR and hyperthermia planning software. The numerical models utilized the applied power levels recorded during the treatments. Tissue properties such as perfusion and acoustic absorption were varied within physiological ranges such that squared-errors between measured and simulated temperatures were minimized. This data-fitting was utilized for 6 HT treatments to estimate volumetric temperature distributions achieved in the HTV and surrounding anatomy devoid of thermocouples. For these treatments, the measured and simulated T50 values in the hyperthermia target volume (HTV) were between 40.1 - 43.9 °C and 40.3 - 44.9 °C, respectively. Maximum temperatures between 46.8 - 49.8 °C were measured during

  17. Field dependent transition to the non-linear regime in magnetic hyperthermia experiments: Comparison between maghemite, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles of similar sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Verde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Further advances in magnetic hyperthermia might be limited by biological constraints, such as using sufficiently low frequencies and low field amplitudes to inhibit harmful eddy currents inside the patient's body. These incite the need to optimize the heating efficiency of the nanoparticles, referred to as the specific absorption rate (SAR. Among the several properties currently under research, one of particular importance is the transition from the linear to the non-linear regime that takes place as the field amplitude is increased, an aspect where the magnetic anisotropy is expected to play a fundamental role. In this paper we investigate the heating properties of cobalt ferrite and maghemite nanoparticles under the influence of a 500 kHz sinusoidal magnetic field with varying amplitude, up to 134 Oe. The particles were characterized by TEM, XRD, FMR and VSM, from which most relevant morphological, structural and magnetic properties were inferred. Both materials have similar size distributions and saturation magnetization, but strikingly different magnetic anisotropies. From magnetic hyperthermia experiments we found that, while at low fields maghemite is the best nanomaterial for hyperthermia applications, above a critical field, close to the transition from the linear to the non-linear regime, cobalt ferrite becomes more efficient. The results were also analyzed with respect to the energy conversion efficiency and compared with dynamic hysteresis simulations. Additional analysis with nickel, zinc and copper-ferrite nanoparticles of similar sizes confirmed the importance of the magnetic anisotropy and the damping factor. Further, the analysis of the characterization parameters suggested core-shell nanostructures, probably due to a surface passivation process during the nanoparticle synthesis. Finally, we discussed the effect of particle-particle interactions and its consequences, in particular regarding discrepancies between estimated

  18. Changes in white spot lesions following post-orthodontic weekly application of 1.25 per cent fluoride gel over 6 months-a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Part I: photographic data evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko C; Seibold, Laura; Heumann, Christian; Gnandt, Erhard; Röder, Miriam; Ruf, Sabine

    2017-04-01

    White spot lesions (WSLs) are a frequent side-effect of multibracket appliance treatment. The effect of local fluoridation on post-orthodontic WSL is however inconclusive. Assessment of WSL changes in response to weekly 1.25 per cent fluoride gel application after multibracket appliance treatment. Randomized, single-centre, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study. Patients with not less than 1 WSL (modified score 1 or 2) on not less than 1 upper front teeth after debonding. Professional fluoride/placebo gel application during weeks 1-2; self-administered home application (weeks 3-24). Photographic WSL assessment (dimension and luminance) of the upper front teeth (T0-T5). Random assignment to test (n = 23) or placebo group (n = 23) using a sequentially numbered list (random allocation sequence generated for 50 subjects in 25 blocks of 2 subjects each). The clinical study duration lasted from March 2011 to September 2013. Unblinding was performed after complete data evaluation. Intent-to-treat analysis set comprising 39 participants (test: n = 21, placebo: n = 18). Dimensional WSL quantification showed limited reliability. Luminance improvement (%) of WSL, however, was seen after 6 months (test/placebo: tooth 12, 24.8/18.0; tooth 11, 38.4/35.4; tooth 21, 39.6/38.3; and tooth 22, 15.2/25.0). No statistically significant group difference existed. Data suggest that WSLs are difficult to measure with respect to reliability and repeatability and methods for monitoring WSLs in clinical trials require improvement/validation. Similar adverse events occurred in both groups; none was classified as possibly related to the study product. The number of dropouts was higher than expected and the socio-economic status was not assessed. Furthermore, the unknown level of compliance during the home application phase must be considered as limitation. Based on the results of this study, no difference could be detected with respect to the development of WSL under post

  19. Gold nanorod-mediated hyperthermia enhances the efficacy of HPMA copolymer-90Y conjugates in treatment of prostate tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckway, Brandon; Frazier, Nick; Gormley, Adam J; Ray, Abhijit; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-03-01

    The treatment of prostate cancer using a radiotherapeutic (90)Y labeled N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer can be enhanced with localized tumor hyperthermia. An (111)In labeled HPMA copolymer system for single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) was developed to observe the biodistribution changes associated with hyperthermia. Efficacy studies were conducted in prostate tumor bearing mice using the (90)Y HPMA copolymer with hyperthermia. HPMA copolymers containing 1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) copolymerization and subsequently labeled with either (111)In for imaging or (90)Y for efficacy studies. Radiolabel stability was characterized in vitro with mouse serum. Imaging and efficacy studies were conducted in DU145 prostate tumor bearing mice. Imaging was performed using single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). Localized mild tumor hyperthermia was achieved by plasmonic photothermal therapy using gold nanorods. HPMA copolymer-DOTA conjugates demonstrated efficient labeling and stability for both radionuclides. Imaging analysis showed a marked increase of radiolabeled copolymer within the hyperthermia treated prostate tumors, with no significant accumulation in non-targeted tissues. The greatest reduction in tumor growth was observed in the hyperthermia treated tumors with (90)Y HPMA copolymer conjugates. Histological analysis confirmed treatment efficacy and safety. HPMA copolymer-DOTA conjugates radiolabeled with both the imaging and treatment radioisotopes, when combined with hyperthermia can serve as an image guided approach for efficacious treatment of prostate tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of PEG-iron oxide hydrogel nanocomposites for dual hyperthermia and paclitaxel delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenach, Samantha A; Shapiro, Jenna M; Hilt, J Zach; Anderson, Kimberly W

    2013-01-01

    Hyperthermia, the heating of tissue from 41 to 45 °C, has been shown to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy when used in conjunction with irradiation and/or chemotherapy. In this work, hydrogel nanocomposites have been developed that can control the delivery of both heat and a chemotherapeutic agent (e.g. paclitaxel). The nanocomposites studied involve a stealth, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based system comprised of PEG (n = 1000) methyl ether methacrylate and PEG (n = 400) dimethacrylate with iron oxide nanoparticles physically entrapped within the hydrogel matrices. The capability of the hydrogel nanocomposites to be heated in an alternating magnetic field was demonstrated. The heating of the hydrogel systems was dependent on the crosslinking of the hydrogel network where hydrogels with lower swelling ratios were found to heat to a greater extent than those with higher ratios. In addition, paclitaxel was shown to exhibit non-Fickian release from the hydrogel systems, with the amount of drug released dependent on the hydrogel network structure. Three cell lines: M059K (glioblastoma), MDA MB 231 (breast carcinoma), and A549 (lung adenocarcinoma) were exposed to paclitaxel only, hyperthermia only, and both paclitaxel and hyperthermia to determine if a synergistic cytotoxic effect was possible for these cell lines. The efficacy of paclitaxel was greater with hyperthermia for the A549 cells; however, the M059K and MDA MB 231 did not show the same response.

  1. Radiotherapy and hyperthermia for treatment of primary locally advanced cervix cancer: results in 378 patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franckena, M.; Lutgens, L.C.; Koper, P.C.; Kleynen, C.E.; Steen-Banasik, E.M. van der; Jobsen, J.J.; Leer, J.W.H.; Creutzberg, C.L.; Dielwart, M.F.; Norden, Y. Van; Canters, R.A.; Rhoon, G.C. van; Zee, J. van der

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report response rate, pelvic tumor control, survival, and late toxicity after treatment with combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia (RHT) for patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (LACC) and compare the results with other published series. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1996 to

  2. Hyperthermia-related clinical trials on cancer treatment within the ClinicalTrials.gov registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cihoric, Nikola; Tsikkinis, Alexandros; van Rhoon, Gerard; Crezee, Hans; Aebersold, Daniel M.; Bodis, Stephan; Beck, Marcus; Nadobny, Jacek; Budach, Volker; Wust, Peter; Ghadjar, Pirus

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermia has been shown to improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer. This paper summarises all recent clinical trials registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov registry. The records of 175,538 clinical trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov were

  3. [Malignant hyperthermia. The need for anesthesia in a patient manifesting this syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, A G; Caramella, F; Pagani, L; Pietrobono, P; Bragheri, R

    1980-11-01

    Successful treatment of malignant hyperthermia, following its prompt recognition in a young patient during general anaesthesia with halothane and succinylcholine, preceded the equally successful employment of ketamin, with no signs of enzyme alteration and circulatory stability, when the same subject had to be operated 20 days later.

  4. Effects of hyperthermia on binding, internalization, and degradation of epidermal growth factor. [/sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magun, B.E.; Fennie, C.W.

    1981-04-01

    /sup 125/I-epidermal growth factor was used as a molecular probe to study the effects of hyperthermia and local anesthetics on cultured Rat-1 cells. Heating cells at 45/sup 0/C for times up to 1 h caused a continuous decrease in EGF binding. Scatchard analysis showed that the decreased binding resulted from a decrease in the affinity of the EGF receptors rather than from a decrease in receptor number. Exposure to 42/sup 0/C had no effect on degradation. We compared the effects of heat to those caused by the local anesthetics procaine the lidocaine, which have been shown to prevent EGF degradation. Because procaine and lidocaine have been shown by others to potentiate the killing effects of hyperthermia on tumors and in cultured cells, we suggest that hyperthermia and the local anesthetics may act at the same cellular site. By inhibiting the action of lysosomes, hyperthermia and local anesthetics may permit potentially toxic materials to enter the cell by endocytosis, where they would accumulate and induce lethal damage.

  5. Killing of Staphylococcus aureus via Magnetic Hyperthermia Mediated by Magnetotactic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyou; Chen, Linjie; Yi, Yong; Chen, Chuanfang; Wu, Long-Fei; Song, Tao

    2016-02-12

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common hospital and household pathogen. Given the emergence of antibiotic-resistant derivatives of this pathogen resulting from the use of antibiotics as general treatment, development of alternative therapeutic strategies is urgently needed. Here, we assess the feasibility of killing S. aureus cells in vitro and in vivo through magnetic hyperthermia mediated by magnetotactic bacteria that possess magnetic nanocrystals and demonstrate magnetically steered swimming. The S. aureus suspension was added to magnetotactic MO-1 bacteria either directly or after coating with anti-MO-1 polyclonal antibodies. The suspensions were then subjected to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) for 1 h. S. aureus viability was subsequently assessed through conventional plate counting and flow cytometry. We found that approximately 30% of the S. aureus cells mixed with uncoated MO-1 cells were killed after AMF treatment. Moreover, attachment between the magnetotactic bacteria and S. aureus increased the killing efficiency of hyperthermia to more than 50%. Using mouse models, we demonstrated that magnetic hyperthermia mediated by antibody-coated magnetotactic MO-1 bacteria significantly improved wound healing. These results collectively demonstrated the effective eradication of S. aureus both in vitro and in vivo, indicating the potential of magnetotactic bacterium-mediated magnetic hyperthermia as a treatment for S. aureus-induced skin or wound infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Relating Magnetic Properties and High Hyperthermia Performance of Iron Oxide Nanoflowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Philipp; Fock, Jeppe; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2018-01-01

    We investigated in depth the interrelations among structure, magnetic properties, relaxation dynamics and magnetic hyperthermia performance of magnetic nanoflowers. The nanoflowers are about 39 nm in size, and consist of densely packed iron oxide cores. They display a remanent magnetization, which...

  7. The significance of accurate dielectric tissue data for hyperthermia treatment planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamer, JB; van Wieringen, N; de Leeuw, AAC; Lagendijk, JJW

    2001-01-01

    For hyperthermia treatment planning, dielectric properties of several tissue types are required. Since it is difficult to perform patient specific dielectric imaging, default values based on literature data are used. However, these show a large spread (approximate to 50%). Consequently, it is

  8. Knowledge of nursing professionals of a surgical center regarding malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Silva Sousa

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of the nursing professionals in a surgical center about malignant hyperthermia. This is a descriptive exploratory study on malignant hyperthermia conducted with mid- and high-level nursing professionals in the surgical center of an institution located in the city of São Paulo, where the research was conducted between August and September 2013. Analysis of the data was descriptive and the average of the correct answers was compared using Student's t-test. Among the 96 participants, the two items in which at least 70% of the team showed knowledge were: the definition of malignant hyperthermia and the professionals involved in the health care provided. With respect to all test items, 70% of nurses answered 50% correctly. The same percentage of mid-level professionals answered only 20% correctly. There was no statistically significant difference between the professional categories. This study revealed insufficient knowledge on the part of the nursing team about malignant hyperthermia.

  9. MR based electric properties imaging for hyperthermia treatment planning and MR safety purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balidemaj, E.

    2016-01-01

    Many randomized clinical studies have shown that the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is significantly enhanced when used in combination with hyperthermia (tumor heating in the range of 41-45 ℃). To generate spatially focussed heating in the deep seated tumors (e.g. cervical,

  10. Marshall J. Edwards: discoverer of maternal hyperthermia as a human teratogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John M

    2005-11-01

    In a series of animal studies performed over a career spanning 40 years at the University of Sydney, Professor Marshall J. Edwards investigated the hypothesis that maternal hyperthermia during gestation can be teratogenic to the developing fetus. He is one of few investigators to have discovered a known human teratogen primarily through animal studies. In 1970 he earned his Ph.D. from the University of Sydney, writing a doctoral thesis entitled "A Study of Some Factors Affecting Fertility of Animals with Particular Reference to the Effects of Hyperthermia on Gestation and Prenatal Development of the Guinea-Pig." He went on to prove that hyperthermia-induced malformations in animals involve many organs and structures, particularly the central nervous system. Other defects include craniofacial anomalies, heart defects and hypodactyly, cataracts and coloboma, kyphoscoliosis, renal anomalies, dental agenesis, and abdominal wall defects. In a series of carefully planned and executed experiments, he demonstrated that the type of defect is related to the timing of the hyperthermic insult, and analyzed the underlying mechanisms. Cell death, membrane disruption, vascular disruption, and placental infarction were all implicated in causing embryonic damage. This special article reviews the scientific discoveries and personal philosophy of Marshall J. Edwards, the discoverer of maternal hyperthermia as a human teratogen.

  11. GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex ligands and stress-induced hyperthermia in singly housed mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, B.; Bouwknecht, J.A.; Pattij, T.; Leahy, C.; Oorschot, R. van; Zethof, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) in singly housed mice, in which the rectal temperature of a mouse is measured twice with a 10-min interval, enables to study the effects of a drug on the basal (T(1)) and on the stress-enhanced temperature (T(2)), 10 min later, using the rectal procedure as

  12. Radiosensitizing effect of withaferin A combined with hyperthermia on mouse fibrosarcoma and melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, P.U.; Kamath, R. [Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Bhopal (India)

    2003-03-01

    The effect of withaferin A, a plant withanolide, alone or in combination with acute and fractionated radiotherapy and/or hyperthermia, was tested on two mouse tumors, B16F1 melanoma and fibrosarcoma, grown in C57BL and Swiss albino mice, respectively. Tumors were exposed locally to 30 or 50 Gy gamma radiation as acute dose, or 5 fractions of 10 Gy. Withaferin A, 40 mg/kg, was injected intraperitoneally, 1h before acute irradiation, or 30 mg/kg before every 10 Gy fraction. Local hyperthermia, 43 deg C for 30 min, followed acute irradiation (RT) or first fraction of 10 Gy. Withaferin A, radiation and hyperthermia, individually and in bimodality treatments, produced no complete response (CR) in melanoma. Some CR were seen in fibrosarcoma, which increased after bimodality treatments. Trimodality treatment synergistically increased CR to 37% in melanoma and to 64% in fibrosarcoma. Fractionated radiotherapy (10 Gy x 5) was more effective (25% CR) than acute dose of 50 Gy (0% CR) on melanoma, while there was no difference between the response of fibrosarcoma to the two regimens. Withaferin A with fractionated radiotherapy synergistically increased the CR of both tumors; hyperthermia further enhanced this effect. Utility of withaferin A in increasing the clinical response of radioresistant tumors to fractionated radiotherapy has to be explored. (author)

  13. First clinical experience with intranasal cooling for hyperthermia in brain-injured patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Jacob Bertram; Springborg, Karoline Kanstrup; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Hyperthermia is common in brain-injured patients and associated with a worse outcome. As brain rather than body temperature reduction, theoretically, is the most important in cerebral protection, there is logic in targeting cooling at the brain. Selective brain cooling can, in theory, be obtained...

  14. Hyperthermia combined with re-irradiation for neck node metastasis from head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohizumi, Yukio; Tamai, Yoshifumi; Imamiya, Satoshi; Akiba, Takeshi [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-06-01

    The effects of hyperthermia combined with re-irradiation were compared with those of re-irradiation alone using retrospectively matched-pair analysis. Between 1984 and 1997, 12 patients were treated with hyperthermia combined with re-irradiation for neck node metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. During the same period, 12 patients treated with re-irradiation alone were selected retrospectively using the same anatomical diagnosis, nodal site, and nodal size. Recurrent nodes were heated by a 2450 MHz microwave or 13 MHz radio frequency 4 times on average for 30 to 50 min immediately before radiotherapy. The maximum temperatures were >41 deg C in 83% and >42 deg C in 58% of patients. The median survival and median recurrence periods were 12 months and 6 months, respectively in both groups. The response rate was 83% in both groups. Nodal size and radiation dose, but not heating temperature, were prognostic factors. Five patients in the hyperthermia group experienced skin ulcers or burns as acute complications. Late complications were observed in one patient in the hyperthermia group and 3 patients in the re-irradiation-alone group. Heating induced acute complications and had no significant effect on the tumors. Further advanced in hyperthermic technique are required. (author)

  15. Transient temperature rise in a mouse due to low-frequency regional hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trakic, Adnan; Liu Feng; Crozier, Stuart [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2006-04-07

    A refined nonlinear heat transfer model of a mouse has been developed to simulate the transient temperature rise in a neoplastic tumour and neighbouring tissue during regional hyperthermia using a 150 kHz inductive coil. In this study, we incorporate various bio-energetic enhancements to the heat transfer equation and numerical validations based on experimental findings for the mouse, in terms of nonlinear metabolic heat production, homeothermy, blood perfusion parameters, thermoregulation, psychological and physiological effects. The discretized bio-heat transfer equation has been validated with the commercial software FEMLAB on a canonical multi-sphere object before applying the scheme to the inhomogeneous mouse voxel phantom. The time-dependent numerical results of regional hyperthermia of mouse thigh have been compared with the available experimental temperature results with only a few small disparities. During the first 20 min of local unfocused heating, the temperature in the tumour and the surrounding tissue increased by around 7.5 deg. C. The objective of this preliminary study was to develop a validated electrothermal numerical scheme for inductive hyperthermia of a small mammal with the intention of expanding the model into a complete numerical solution involving ferromagnetic nanoparticles for targeted heating of tumours at low frequencies. In addition, the numerical scheme herein could assist in optimizing and tailoring of focused electromagnetic fields for hyperthermia.

  16. High intensity focused ultrasound induced in vivo large volume hyperthermia under 3D MRI temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillander, Matti; Hokland, Steffen; Koskela, Julius; Dam, Høgni; Andersen, Niels Peter; Pedersen, Michael; Tanderup, Kari; Ylihautala, Mika; Köhler, Max

    2016-03-01

    Mild hyperthermia can be used as an adjuvant therapy to enhance radiation therapy or chemotherapy of cancer. However, administering mild hyperthermia is technically challenging due to the high accuracy required of the temperature control. MR guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a technology that can address this challenge. In this work, accurate and spatially uniform mild hyperthermia is demonstrated for deep-seated clinically relevant heating volumes using a HIFU system under MR guidance. Mild hyperthermia heating was evaluated for temperature accuracy and spatial uniformity in 11 in vivo porcine leg experiments. Hyperthermia was induced with a commercial Philips Sonalleve MR-HIFU system embedded in a 1.5T Ingenia MR scanner. The operating software was modified to allow extended duration mild hyperthermia. Heating time varied from 10 min up to 60 min and the assigned target temperature was 42.5 °C. Electronic focal point steering, mechanical transducer movement, and dynamic transducer element switch-off were exploited to enlarge the heated volume and obtain uniform heating throughout the acoustic beam path. Multiple temperature mapping images were used to control and monitor the heating. The magnetic field drift and transducer susceptibility artifacts were compensated to enable accurate volumetric MR thermometry. The obtained mean temperature for the target area (the cross sectional area of the heated volume at focal depth primarily used to control the heating) was on average 42.0 ± 0.6 °C. Temperature uniformity in the target area was evaluated using T10 and T90, which were 43.1 ± 0.6 and 40.9 ± 0.6 °C, respectively. For the near field, the corresponding temperatures were 39.3 ± 0.8 °C (average), 40.6 ± 1.0 °C (T10), and 38.0 ± 0.9 °C (T90). The sonications resulted in a concise heating volume, typically in the shape of a truncated cone. The average depth reached from the skin was 86.9 mm. The results show that the heating

  17. Multi-focal HIFU reduces cavitation in mild-hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Vandiver; Caskey, Charles F

    2017-01-01

    Mild-hyperthermia therapy (40-45 °C) with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a technique being considered in a number of different treatments such as thermally activated drug delivery, immune-stimulation, and as a chemotherapy adjuvant. Mechanical damage and loss of cell viability associated with HIFU-induced acoustic cavitation may pose a risk during these treatments or may hinder their success. Here we present a method that achieves mild heating and reduces cavitation by using a multi-focused HIFU beam. We quantify cavitation level and temperature rise in multi-focal sonications and compare it to single-focus sonications at the transducer geometric focus. Continuous wave sonications were performed with the Sonalleve V2 transducer in gel phantoms and pork at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 acoustic watts for 30 s. Cavitation activity was measured with two ultrasound (US) imaging probes, both by computing the raw channel variance and using passive acoustic mapping (PAM). Temperature rise was measured with MR thermometry at 3 T. Cavitation and heating were compared for single- and multi-focal sonication geometries. Multi-focal sonications used four points equally spaced on a ring of either 4 mm or 8 mm diameter. Single-focus sonications were not steered. Multi-focal sonication generated distinct foci that were visible in MRI thermal maps in both phantoms and pork, and visible in PAM images in phantoms only. Cavitation activity (measured by channel variance) and mean PAM image value were highly correlated (r > 0.9). In phantoms, cavitation exponentially decreased over the 30-second sonication, consistent with depletion of cavitation nuclei. In pork, sporadic spikes signaling cavitation were observed with single focusing only. In both materials, the widest beam reduced average and peak cavitation level by a factor of two or more at each power tested when compared to a single focus. The widest beam reduced peak temperature by at least 10 °C at powers above 5

  18. Experimental Investigation of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Enhanced Microwave Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Brogan T; Wang, Hongwang; Binns, Valerie J; Curto, Sergio; Bossmann, Stefan H; Prakash, Punit

    2017-06-22

    The objective of this study was to evaluate microwave heating enhancements offered by iron/iron oxide nanoparticles dispersed within tissue-mimicking media for improving efficacy of microwave thermal therapy. The following dopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were considered: 10 and 20 nm diameter spherical core/shell Fe/Fe₃O₄, 20 nm edge-length cubic Fe₃O₄, and 45 nm edge-length/10 nm height hexagonal Fe₃O₄. Microwave heating enhancements were experimentally measured with MNPs dissolved in an agar phantom, placed within a rectangular waveguide. Effects of MNP concentration (2.5-20 mg/mL) and microwave frequency (2.0, 2.45 and 2.6 GHz) were evaluated. Further tests with 10 and 20 nm diameter spherical MNPs dispersed within a two-compartment tissue-mimicking phantom were performed with an interstitial dipole antenna radiating 15 W power at 2.45 GHz. Microwave heating of 5 mg/mL MNP-agar phantom mixtures with 10 and 20 nm spherical, and hexagonal MNPs in a waveguide yielded heating rates of 0.78 ± 0.02 °C/s, 0.72 ± 0.01 °C/s and 0.51 ± 0.03 °C/s, respectively, compared to 0.5 ± 0.1 °C/s for control. Greater heating enhancements were observed at 2.0 GHz compared to 2.45 and 2.6 GHz. Heating experiments in two-compartment phantoms with an interstitial dipole antenna demonstrated potential for extending the radial extent of therapeutic heating with 10 and 20 nm diameter spherical MNPs, compared to homogeneous phantoms (i.e., without MNPs). Of the MNPs considered in this study, spherical Fe/Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles offer the greatest heating enhancement when exposed to microwave radiation. These nanoparticles show strong potential for enhancing the rate of heating and radial extent of heating during microwave hyperthermia and ablation procedures.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Enhanced Microwave Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brogan T. McWilliams

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate microwave heating enhancements offered by iron/iron oxide nanoparticles dispersed within tissue-mimicking media for improving efficacy of microwave thermal therapy. The following dopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs were considered: 10 and 20 nm diameter spherical core/shell Fe/Fe3O4, 20 nm edge-length cubic Fe3O4, and 45 nm edge-length/10 nm height hexagonal Fe3O4. Microwave heating enhancements were experimentally measured with MNPs dissolved in an agar phantom, placed within a rectangular waveguide. Effects of MNP concentration (2.5–20 mg/mL and microwave frequency (2.0, 2.45 and 2.6 GHz were evaluated. Further tests with 10 and 20 nm diameter spherical MNPs dispersed within a two-compartment tissue-mimicking phantom were performed with an interstitial dipole antenna radiating 15 W power at 2.45 GHz. Microwave heating of 5 mg/mL MNP-agar phantom mixtures with 10 and 20 nm spherical, and hexagonal MNPs in a waveguide yielded heating rates of 0.78 ± 0.02 °C/s, 0.72 ± 0.01 °C/s and 0.51 ± 0.03 °C/s, respectively, compared to 0.5 ± 0.1 °C/s for control. Greater heating enhancements were observed at 2.0 GHz compared to 2.45 and 2.6 GHz. Heating experiments in two-compartment phantoms with an interstitial dipole antenna demonstrated potential for extending the radial extent of therapeutic heating with 10 and 20 nm diameter spherical MNPs, compared to homogeneous phantoms (i.e., without MNPs. Of the MNPs considered in this study, spherical Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles offer the greatest heating enhancement when exposed to microwave radiation. These nanoparticles show strong potential for enhancing the rate of heating and radial extent of heating during microwave hyperthermia and ablation procedures.

  20. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi, E-mail: junsaito@sannet.ne.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi [Division of Respiratory Disease, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shibuya, Kei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  1. Fever-range hyperthermia vs. hypothermia effect on cancer cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamida, Dimitra; Karagounis, Ilias V; Mitrakas, Achilleas; Kalamida, Sofia; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Koukourakis, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of fever-range hyperthermia and mild hypothermia on human cancer cells focusing on cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression. A549 and H1299 lung carcinoma, MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma, U87MG and T98G glioblastoma, DU145 and PC3 prostate carcinoma and MRC5 normal fetal lung fibroblasts cell lines were studied. After 3-day exposure to 34°C, 37°C and 40°C, cell viability was determined. Cell proliferation (ki67 index), apoptosis (Caspase 9) and HSP90 expression was studied by confocal microscopy. Viability/proliferation experiments demonstrated that MRC5 fibroblasts were extremely sensitive to hyperthermia, while they were the most resistant to hypothermia. T98G and A549 were thermo-tolerant, the remaining being thermo-sensitive to a varying degree. Nonetheless, as a universal effect, hypothermia reduced viability/proliferation in all cell lines. Hyperthermia sharply induced Caspase 9 in the U87MG most thermo-sensitive cell line. In T98G and A549 thermo-tolerant cell lines, the levels of Caspase 9 declined. Moreover, hyperthermia strongly induced the HSP90 levels in T98G, whilst a sharp decrease was recorded in the thermo-sensitive PC3 and U87MG cell lines. Hyperthermia sensitized thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines to cisplatin and temozolomide, whilst its sensitizing effect was diminished in thermo-tolerant cell lines. The existence of thermo-tolerant and thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines was confirmed, which further encourages research to classify human tumor thermic predilection for patient stratification in clinical trials. Of interest, mild hypothermia had a universal suppressing effect on cancer cell proliferation, further supporting the radio-sensitization hypothesis through reduction of oxygen and metabolic demands.

  2. Fever-range hyperthermia vs. hypothermia effect on cancer cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Kalamida

    Full Text Available The current study examines the effect of fever-range hyperthermia and mild hypothermia on human cancer cells focusing on cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression.A549 and H1299 lung carcinoma, MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma, U87MG and T98G glioblastoma, DU145 and PC3 prostate carcinoma and MRC5 normal fetal lung fibroblasts cell lines were studied. After 3-day exposure to 34°C, 37°C and 40°C, cell viability was determined. Cell proliferation (ki67 index, apoptosis (Caspase 9 and HSP90 expression was studied by confocal microscopy.Viability/proliferation experiments demonstrated that MRC5 fibroblasts were extremely sensitive to hyperthermia, while they were the most resistant to hypothermia. T98G and A549 were thermo-tolerant, the remaining being thermo-sensitive to a varying degree. Nonetheless, as a universal effect, hypothermia reduced viability/proliferation in all cell lines. Hyperthermia sharply induced Caspase 9 in the U87MG most thermo-sensitive cell line. In T98G and A549 thermo-tolerant cell lines, the levels of Caspase 9 declined. Moreover, hyperthermia strongly induced the HSP90 levels in T98G, whilst a sharp decrease was recorded in the thermo-sensitive PC3 and U87MG cell lines. Hyperthermia sensitized thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines to cisplatin and temozolomide, whilst its sensitizing effect was diminished in thermo-tolerant cell lines.The existence of thermo-tolerant and thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines was confirmed, which further encourages research to classify human tumor thermic predilection for patient stratification in clinical trials. Of interest, mild hypothermia had a universal suppressing effect on cancer cell proliferation, further supporting the radio-sensitization hypothesis through reduction of oxygen and metabolic demands.

  3. Ag-doped manganite nanoparticles: new materials for temperature-controlled medical hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, O V; Gorbenko, O Yu; Markelova, M N; Kaul, A R; Atsarkin, V A; Demidov, V V; Soto, C; Roy, E J; Odintsov, B M

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to introduce newly synthesized nanomaterials as an alternative to superparamagnetic ironoxide based particles (SPIO) and thus to launch a new platform for highly controllable hyperthermia cancer therapy and imaging. The new material that forms the basis for this article is lanthanum manganite particles with silver ions inserted into the perovskite lattice: La(1-x)Ag(x)MnO(3+delta). Adjusting the silver doping level, it is possible to control the Curie temperature (T(c)) in the hyperthermia range of interest (41-44 degrees C). A new class of nanoparticles based on silver-doped manganites La(1-x)Ag(x)MnO(3+delta) is suggested. New nanoparticles are stable, and their properties were not affected by the typical ambient conditions in the living tissue. It is possible to monitor the particle uptake and retention by MRI. When these particles are placed into an alternating magnetic field, their temperature increases to the definite value near T(c) and then remains constant if the magnetic field is maintained. During the hyperthermia procedure, the temperature can be restricted, thereby preventing the necrosis of normal tissue. A new class of nanoparticles based on silver-doped manganites La(1-x)Ag(x)MnO(3+delta) was suggested. Ag-doped perovskite manganites particles clearly demonstrated the effect of adjustable Curie temperature necessary for highly controllable cellular hyperthermia. The magnetic relaxation properties of the particles are comparable with that of SPIO, and so we were able to monitor the particle movement and retention by MRI. Thus, the new material combines the MRI contrast enhancement capability with targeted hyperthermia treatment.

  4. Susceptibility losses in heating of magnetic core/shell nanoparticles for hyperthermia: a Monte Carlo study of shape and size effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakaki, M; Binns, C; Trohidou, K N

    2015-05-07

    Optimizing the heating properties of magnetic nanoparticles is of great importance for hyperthermia applications. Recent experimental results show that core/shell nanoparticles could give an increased specific absorption rate (SAR) compared to the magnetic oxide nanoparticles currently used. We have developed a modified phenomenological model based on the linear Néel-Brown relaxation model to calculate the SAR due to susceptibility losses in complex nanoparticles with ferromagnetic (FM) core/ferrimagnetic (FiM) shell morphology. We use the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation technique with the implementation of the Metropolis algorithm to investigate the effect of size and shape on the magnetisation behaviour of complex ferromagnetic/ferrimagnetic nanoparticles covered by a surfactant layer. The findings of our simulations are used as an input in our modified model for the calculation of the SAR. Our calculations show that for all the sizes and shapes the complex FM/FiM nanoparticles give higher SAR values than the pure ferrimagnetic ones due to their higher core saturation magnetisation. For all sizes the nanoparticles with the truncated cuboctahedral shape give the highest SAR values and the cubic ones the lowest ones. The decrease in the surfactant thickness results in an increase of the SAR values. Our results have the same characteristics as the available experimental data from Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles, confirming that the complex nanoparticles with core/shell morphology can optimise the heating properties for hyperthermia.

  5. Development of a new flexible electrode for interstitial hyperthermia compatible with a high dose rate {sup 192}Ir remote after-loading system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Nobue; Moriyama, Masahiro; Kitagaki, Hajime [Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan); Kato, Hirokazu; Kasai, Toshifumi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    1999-09-01

    We developed a new electrode for induction of RF interstitial hyperthermia combined with a high dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir remote after-loading system (RALS), and studied the heating characteristics of using an agar phantom. This hyperthermia induction system consists of two types of electrodes: a flexible internal electrode made of coil-spring (1.14 mm in diameter, 5 or 10-cm in length) which can be inserted into a 5-Fr. nylon RALS catheter; and a rectangular external electrode made of copper plate. The results from computer simulation showed that overheating does not occur in proximity to the external electrode. Experiments using the phantom showed that with application of a 5 W at 13.56 MHz RF signal for 2 min, the temperature rose uniformly along the electrode, while no overheating around the outer electrode was observed. The specific absorption rate (SAR) values at 1-cm and 1.5-cm distance were about 25% and 7%, respectively, with 100% defined as the value at the electrode. The electrodes we developed efficiently provide a uniform distribution of increasing temperature, suggesting that their use may make it possible to avoid the trauma of catheter re-insertion. (author)

  6. Regional deep hyperthermia: impact of observer variability in CT-based manual tissue-segmentation on a simulated temperature distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklan, Bassim; Hartmann, Josefin; Zink, Diana; Siavooshhaghighi, Hadi; Merten, Ricarda; Putz, Florian; Ott, Oliver; Fietkau, Rainer; Bert, Christoph

    2017-03-22

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of inter- and intra-observer segmentation variation of tumor and organs at risk on the simulated temperature coverage of the target. CT scans of six patients with tumors in the pelvic region acquired for radiotherapy treatment planning were used for the hyperthermia treatment planning. To study the effect of inter-observer variation, three observers manually segmented in the CT images of each patient the following structures: fat, muscle, bone and bladder. The gross tumor volumes (GTV) were contoured by three radiation oncology residents and used as hyperthermia target volume. For the intra-observer variation, one of the observers of each group contoured the structures of each patient three times with a time span of one week between the segmentations. Moreover, the impact of segmentation variations in organs at risk (OARs) between the three inter-observers was investigated on simulated temperature distributions using only one GTV. The spatial overlap between individual segmentations was assessed by the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean surface distance (MSD). Additionally, the temperatures T90/T10 delivered to 90%/10% of the GTV, respectively were assessed for each combination observer combination. The results of the segmentation similarity evaluation showed that the DSC of inter-observer variation of fat, muscle, bladder, bone and target was 0.68±0.12, 0.88±0.05, 0.73±0.14, 0.91±0.04 and 0.64±0.11, respectively. Similar results were found for the intra-observer variation. The MSD gave results like DSC for both observer variations. A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was found for T90 and T10 in the predicted target temperature due to the observer variability. The conclusion is that intra- and inter-observer variations have a significant impact on the temperature coverage of the target. Furthermore, the organs at risk, such as bone and bladder, may essentially

  7. Malignant Hyperthermia in Dental and Facial Plastic surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Maheri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative evaluation of the patients scheduled for ambulatory surgery is of great importance in regards of both surgery and anesthesia considerations. Malignant Hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic clinical syndrome which mostly arises from volatile anesthesia with halothane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine. Clinical manifestations of MH are acidosis and rhabdomyolysis which occur following uncontrolled increases in skeletal muscle metabolism and rapidly increasing body temperature (by as much as 1°C/5 min (1. Primary cases of MH were reported to be of a 70% mortality rate; however, thanks to the emergence of diagnostic tools such as end-expired carbon dioxide and the administration of dantrolene, this rate has decreased to less than 5%.      MH might occur even in those with no previous or familial history. Even a safe history of the previous surgery under the administration of MH triggering agents cannot guarantee a next safe surgery. A noteworthy point in the preoperative evaluation is the probable association of MH with certain musculoskeletal disorders including Duchenne, Becker, and myotonic muscular dystrophies, strabismus, osteogenesis imperfecta, ptosis, myelomeningocele, kyphoscoliosis, King-Denborough syndrome, periodic paralysis, hernias, marfanoid syndrome, and central core disease (1. These diseases are frequently encountered by dental and facial plastic surgeons and having the knowledge of the probable association between MH and these conditions could aware the dental and facial plastic surgeons and the anesthesiologists to be more vigilant.      Although MH workup leads to the definite diagnosis, no convincing intraoperative diagnostic tool has been introduced so far. Masseter spasm is a condition which might follow administration of depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents due to the slow tonic fibers of masseter and lateral pterygoid muscles (2-4. The severer forms of masseter spasm would

  8. Combined transperineal radiofrequency (RF) interstitial hyperthermia and brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer (PC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urakami, Shinji; Gonda, Nobuko; Kikuno, Nobuyuki [Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)] (and others)

    2001-05-01

    Hyperthermia has been used effectively as a radiation sensitizer. Interstitial hyperthermoradiotherapy has been therefore utilized as a minimal invasive therapy in attempts to improve local tumor control for various cancers, but not for urological cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and feasibility of transperineal hyperthermoradiotherapy for localized PC. Based on our basic study of hyperthermoradiotherapy, we devised the procedure of combined transperineal RF interstitial hyperthermia and brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Two patients with localized PC underwent transperineal RF interstitial hyperthermia combined with brachytherapy operation the 192-Ir remote after-loading system (RALS). Under transrectal ultrasound guidance, a total number of 12-18 stainless steel needles for 192-Ir RALS were implanted into the prostatic gland and seminal vesicles (SV) in an optimized pattern. Eight of the needles were used as electrodes for hyperthermia, and were electrically insultated using the vinyl catheter along the length of the subdermal fatty tissue to protect from overheating. Three other needles were utilized for continuous temperature mapping in the prostate. Rectal temperature was also monitored. Total radiation doses of 70 Gy to the prostate and SV were planned as a combination of brachytherapy (24 Gy/4 fraction) and external irradiation using a four-field box technique (46 Gy/23 fraction). Hyperthermic treatment (goal of 42 to 43 deg C for 60 minutes) was performed twice following the 1st and 4th brachytherapy at an interval of more than 48 hours for the recovery of cancer cells from thermotolerance. Both patients reached the treatment goal of all intraprostatic temperatures >43.0 deg C, which was considered favorable for hyperthermia, and the rectal temperatures of both patients remained <38 deg C during hyperthermia. In serial PSA measurements of both patients, serum PSA was less than 1.0 ng/ml within 3 months and has since

  9. Comparison of hyperthermia and adrenaline to enhance the intratumoral accumulation of cisplatin in a murin model of peritoneal carcinomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tixier Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The best method to deliver intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC for peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian cancer is not well defined. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of hyperthermia and adrenaline to enhance the intratumoral accumulation of cisplatin in a rat model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Methods Four groups of 5 BDIX rats with ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis underwent IPC with 30 mg/l of cisplatin according to the following conditions: normothermia at 37° for 1 or 2 hours, hyperthermia at 42°C for 1 hour or normothermia at 37°C for 2 hours with 2 mg/l adrenaline. Tissue platinum content was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The effect of hyperthermia, adrenaline and the duration of exposure to the drug was measured in vivo (tissue concentration of platinum in tumor, abdominal and extra abdominal tissues and in vitro (cytotoxicity on human ovarian cancer cells. Results In vitro, hyperthermia and longer exposure enhanced the accumulation and the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on cancer cells. In vivo, only the 2 hours treatment with adrenaline resulted in increased platinum concentrations. The rats treated with adrenaline showed significantly lower concentrations of cisplatin in extra peritoneal tissues than those treated with hyperthermia. Conclusion Adrenaline is more effective than hyperthermia in order to enhance the intratumoral concentration of cisplatin in rats with peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian origin. It may also decrease the systemic absorption of the drug.

  10. A busy week for Council

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    This has been a busy week for the CERN Council, and there is much to report. Firstly, I’m pleased to say that Council approved the Organization’s Medium Term Plan, and with it the budget for financial year 2010. In a time of global recession, this is a strong vote of confidence from the Member States. This meeting of Council provided an opportunity for the working group on the scientific and geographical enlargement of CERN to set out a roadmap towards its final report, which is to be made at Council’s December session this year. One part of the process over the coming months is to bring the major players in particle physics from beyond the European region into the discussion, ensuring that the working group’s recommendations lead to an optimum position for CERN and European particle physics in the global context. An indicator of the continuing attractiveness of CERN is the fact that Council has received four new applications...

  11. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy alone or with regional hyperthermia for localised high-risk soft-tissue sarcoma: a randomised phase 3 multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issels, Rolf D; Lindner, Lars H; Verweij, Jaap

    2010-01-01

    The optimum treatment for high-risk soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) in adults is unclear. Regional hyperthermia concentrates the action of chemotherapy within the heated tumour region. Phase 2 studies have shown that chemotherapy with regional hyperthermia improves local control compared...... with chemotherapy alone. We designed a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of regional hyperthermia with chemotherapy....

  12. Application of recourse optimization for risk management of electricity production with weekly and monthly horizon; Regles de decision pour la gestion du risque: application a la gestion hebdomadaire de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apparigliato, R

    2008-06-15

    In this Phd, we focus on the problem of weekly risk management in electric production. In the first part of this work, we investigate how to take into account stochastic inflows in the optimal management of a hydraulic valley. Our model is based on robust optimization and linear decision rules. A validation procedure based on simulation over random scenarios shows that we are able to postpone constraints violations of volume at very low cost. The second part deals with the problem of active management of electrical power margin, defined as the difference between the total offer and the total demand, considering the different random parameters which affect the electrical system. The objective is to determine optimal solutions to be taken in order to satisfy the demand in 99% of the cases. In that purpose, we propose a new open-looped formulation, based on the stochastic process of power margin and on the use of probabilistic constraints. To be able to solve this problem, we generate power margin's scenarios using more realistic methods than those used in exploitation. At last, a closed-loop approach, based on the heuristic 'Stochastic Programming with Step Decision Rules', introduced by Thenie and Vial, is studied. First results are quite promising in comparison with the opened-loop ones. (author)

  13. Laser irradiation of ferrous particles for hyperthermia as cancer therapy, a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jigar M; Evrensel, Cahit A; Fuchs, Alan; Sutrisno, Joko

    2015-01-01

    Our recent in vivo animal studies showed the feasibility of using micron sized iron particles to induce physical damage to breast cancer tumors and thereby triggering a localized immune response to help fight the cancer. Combining a hyperthermic treatment with this ongoing study may enhance the immune response. As a result, a novel treatment of inducing hyperthermia using iron particles excited by a continuous wave near-infrared laser was analyzed. In this theoretical study, Mie scattering calculations were first conducted to determine the absorption and scattering efficiencies of the suspended drug coated particles. The resulting heat transfer between the particles and the surrounding tumor and the healthy tissue was modeled using Pennes' Bioheat equation. Predicted temperature changes were satisfactory for inducing hyperthermia (42(∘)C), thermally triggering drug release, and even thermal ablation (55(∘)C).

  14. Hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with baclofen pump catheter failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, R K; Stolp-Smith, K A; Christopherson, M W

    1998-03-01

    A 29-year-old man with C6 tetraplegia (ASIA A) using an implanted baclofen pump and intrathecal catheter infusion system for spasticity control developed severe spasticity, hyperthermia, hypotension, rhabdomyolysis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation after catheter disconnection. Tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation were necessary. Extensive workup for a concurrent infection was negative except for urine cultures. The patient remained febrile for 10 days despite empirical antibiotic trials. Administration of high-dose benzodiazepines was inadequate for spasticity control. Spasticity control and his clinical condition, including body temperature, did not improve until his catheter was surgically replaced and intrathecal baclofen administration was resumed. The pharmacopathology of abrupt baclofen withdrawal and the similarities between this presentation, sepsis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and malignant hyperthermia are discussed. High-dose dantrolene was not used; however, based on similarities between this patient's presentation and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, it may have been the drug of choice.

  15. Non-Invasive Radiofrequency-Induced Targeted Hyperthermia for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Raoof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted biological therapies for hepatocellular cancer have shown minimal improvements in median survival. Multiple pathways to oncogenesis leading to rapid development of resistance to such therapies is a concern. Non-invasive radiofrequency field-induced targeted hyperthermia using nanoparticles is a radical departure from conventional modalities. In this paper we underscore the need for innovative strategies for the treatment of hepatocellular cancer, describe the central paradigm of targeted hyperthermia using non-invasive electromagnetic energy, review the process of characterization and modification of nanoparticles for the task, and summarize data from cell-based and animal-based models of hepatocellular cancer treated with non-invasive RF energy. Finally, future strategies and challenges in bringing this modality from bench to clinic are discussed.

  16. FDTD verification of deep-set brain tumor hyperthermia using a spherical microwave source distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, D. [20th Intelligence Squadron, Offutt AFB, NE (United States); Rappaport, C.M. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Center for Electromagnetics Research; Terzuoli, A.J. Jr. [Air Force Inst. of Tech., Dayton, OH (United States). Graduate School of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Although use of noninvasive microwave hyperthermia to treat cancer is problematic in many human body structures, careful selection of the source electric field distribution around the entire surface of the head can generate a tightly focused global power density maximum at the deepest point within the brain. An analytic prediction of the optimum volume field distribution in a layered concentric head model based on summing spherical harmonic modes is derived and presented. This ideal distribution is then verified using a three-dimensional finite difference time domain (TDTD) simulation with a discretized, MRI-based head model excited by the spherical source. The numerical computation gives a very similar dissipated power pattern as the analytic prediction. This study demonstrates that microwave hyperthermia can theoretically be a feasible cancer treatment modality for tumors in the head, providing a well-resolved hot-spot at depth without overheating any other healthy tissue.

  17. Simple and Rapid Synthesis of Magnetite/Hydroxyapatite Composites for Hyperthermia Treatments via a Mechanochemical Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Nakatsuka, Ryo; Murase, Kenya; Takata, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideya; Watano, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simple method for the rapid synthesis of magnetite/hydroxyapatite composite particles. In this method, superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are first synthesized by coprecipitation using ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. Immediately following the synthesis, carbonate-substituted (B-type) hydroxyapatite particles are mechanochemically synthesized by wet milling dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and calcium carbonate in a dispersed suspension of magnetite nanoparticles, during which the magnetite nanoparticles are incorporated into the hydroxyapatite matrix. We observed that the resultant magnetite/hydroxyapatite composites possessed a homogeneous dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles, characterized by an absence of large aggregates. When this material was subjected to an alternating magnetic field, the heat generated increased with increasing magnetite concentration. For a magnetite concentration of 30 mass%, a temperature increase greater than 20 K was achieved in less than 50 s. These results suggest that our composites exhibit good hyperthermia properties and are promising candidates for hyperthermia treatments. PMID:23629669

  18. Hyperthermia and multiorgan failure after abuse of "bath salts" containing 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Heather A; Holstege, Christopher P

    2012-07-01

    "Bath salts" are being increasingly used as drugs of abuse. These products have been found to contain a variety of compounds, including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). We present a case of a 25-year-old man who injected bath salts and acutely developed severe agitation, hyperthermia, and tachycardia. Despite aggressive early medical management, including dialysis, he progressed to multiorgan system failure, although he ultimately recovered after a prolonged hospital course. The only chemical substance detected on comprehensive toxicologic testing was MDPV, a synthetic cathinone analogue. According to our case, MDPV abuse may result in adverse multisystem organ effects, including rhabdomyolysis, cardiac injury, hepatic injury, and renal failure. It is unknown whether these end-organ effects were due to direct cellular toxicity induced by MDPV or a result of the patient's marked agitation and hyperthermia. Acute management should focus on the rapid identification of organ injury and appropriate supportive care. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  19. Giant-spin nonlinear response theory of magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia: A field dependence study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrião, M. S.; Aquino, V. R. R.; Landi, G. T.; Verde, E. L.; Sousa, M. H.; Bakuzis, A. F.

    2017-05-01

    Understanding high-field amplitude electromagnetic heat loss phenomena is of great importance, in particular, in the biomedical field, because the heat-delivery treatment plans might rely on analytical models that are only valid at low field amplitudes. Here, we develop a nonlinear response model valid for single-domain nanoparticles of larger particle sizes and higher field amplitudes in comparison to the linear response theory. A nonlinear magnetization expression and a generalized heat loss power equation are obtained and compared with the exact solution of the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation assuming the giant-spin hypothesis. The model is valid within the hyperthermia therapeutic window and predicts a shift of optimum particle size and distinct heat loss field amplitude exponents, which is often obtained experimentally using a phenomenological allometric function. Experimental hyperthermia data with distinct ferrite-based nanoparticles and third harmonic magnetization data support the nonlinear model, which also has implications for magnetic particle imaging and magnetic thermometry.

  20. Experimental Studies Of Ondoscopic Local Hyperthermia With Nd: YA3 Laser (Laserthermia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sohtaro; Narumi, Hiruyuki; Aoki, Jun; Miwa, Takeshi; Daikuzono, Norio

    1989-09-01

    In 1983, we initiated experimental and clinical studies of endoscopic Nd:YAG laser treatment with SLT contact probes for endoscopy comparing with the non-contact quartz fiber, in order to evaluate the histological effects and safety to each method. The first computer-controlled endoscopic loval hyperthermia (Laserthermia) system was developed and reported at the 6th Meeting of the Japanease SOciety for Laser Medicine in Sep. 1985. We named interstitial local hyperthermia with Nd:YAG laser, "Laserthermia". Recent 3 years, technical and histological studies for treatment of the gastric cancer were carried out and reported in the SPIE's symposium. In this paper, newly developed the single channel method, and histological studies by Laserthermia to the human gastric cancer transplanted to the nude mice were discussed.

  1. WBDOC Weekly Workload Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Weekly reports of workloads processed in the Wilkes Barre Data Operation Center. Reports on quantities of work received, processed, pending and average processing...

  2. Hyperthermia-induced disruption of functional connectivity in the human brain network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Passive hyperthermia is a potential risk factor to human cognitive performance and work behavior in many extreme work environments. Previous studies have demonstrated significant effects of passive hyperthermia on human cognitive performance and work behavior. However, there is a lack of a clear understanding of the exact affected brain regions and inter-regional connectivities. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We simulated 1 hour environmental heat exposure to thirty-six participants under two environmental temperature conditions (25 °C and 50 °C, and collected resting-state functional brain activity. The functional connectivities with a preselected region of interest (ROI in the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus (PCC/PCu, furthermore, inter-regional connectivities throughout the entire brain using a prior Anatomical Automatic Labeling (AAL atlas were calculated. We identified decreased correlations of a set of regions with the PCC/PCu, including the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC and bilateral medial temporal cortex, as well as increased correlations with the partial orbitofrontal cortex particularly in the bilateral orbital superior frontal gyrus. Compared with the normal control (NC group, the hyperthermia (HT group showed 65 disturbed functional connectivities with 50 of them being decreased and 15 of them being increased. While the decreased correlations mainly involved with the mOFC, temporal lobe and occipital lobe, increased correlations were mainly located within the limbic system. In consideration of physiological system changes, we explored the correlations of the number of significantly altered inter-regional connectivities with differential rectal temperatures and weight loss, but failed to obtain significant correlations. More importantly, during the attention network test (ANT we found that the number of significantly altered functional connectivities was positively correlated with an increase in

  3. Muscular body build and male sex are independently associated with malignant hyperthermia susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Brian; Brandom, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is a disorder of the regulation of calcium in skeletal muscle. Muscular individuals have been shown to have a 13.6-fold increased risk of death during malignant hyperthermia (MH) episodes and are more likely to experience a recurrence after initial treatment. Twenty-five percent of severe MH episodes have occurred in elite athletes. This study investigated the association between MHS and muscular body build. Data were obtained from existing reports in the North American Malignant Hyperthermia Registry, including the Report of Muscle Biopsy and Contracture Testing (caffeine-halothane contracture test [CHCT]) as well as Adverse Metabolic or Muscular Reaction to Anesthesia (AMRA) reports. Malignant hyperthermia susceptible individuals were compared with MH negative individuals with regard to body build and reason for testing. Males were also compared with females. Both the CHCT and the AMRA forms were reviewed for comments. Of the 1,292 individuals diagnosed with MHS by CHCT, males were more likely to be diagnosed with the disorder than females (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99 to 2.7; P build (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.21 to 3.9; P = 0.01) were independently predictive of MHS. The interaction between muscular body build and male sex was not significant (P = 0.13). Indications for testing, MH episode vs family history of MH, did not differ between muscular and non-muscular individuals (P = 0.44). Eight of 839 AMRAs and two reports of CHCT had comments describing athletic abilities. Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RYR1) gene mutations were found in five of these athletes. Muscular body build and male sex are strongly associated with MHS.

  4. Surface Engineering of Core/Shell Iron/Iron Oxide Nanoparticles from Microemulsions for Hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guandong; Liao, Yifeng; Baker, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and surface engineering of core/shell-type iron/iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia cancer therapy. Iron/iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized from microemulsions of NaBH4 and FeCl3, followed by surface modification in which a thin hydrophobic hexamethyldisilazane layer - used to protect the iron core - replaced the CTAB coating on the particles. Phosphatidylcholine was then assembled on the nanoparticle surface. The resulting nanocomposit...

  5. Altered topological patterns of large-scale brain functional networks during passive hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shaowen; Sun, Gang; Jiang, Qingjun; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Li, Min; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Lun

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we simulated environmental heat exposure to 18 participants, and obtained functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) data during resting state. Brain functional networks were constructed over a wide range of sparsity threshold according to a prior atlas dividing the whole cerebrum into 90 regions. Results of graph theoretical approaches showed that although brain networks in both normal and hyperthermia conditions exhibited economical small-world property, significant alterations in both global and nodal network metrics were demonstrated during hyperthermia. Specifically, a lower clustering coefficient, maintained shortest path length, a lower small-worldness, a lower mean local efficiency were found, indicating a tendency shift to a randomized network. Additionally, significant alterations in nodal efficiency were found in bilateral gyrus rectus, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral insula, right caudate nucleus, bilateral putamen, left temporal pole of middle temporal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus. In consideration of physiological system changes, we found that the alterations of normalized clustering coefficient, small-worldness, mean normalized local efficiency were significantly correlated with the rectal temperature alteration, but failed to obtain significant correlations with the weight loss. More importantly, behavioral attention network test (ANT) after MRI scanning showed that the ANT effects were altered and correlated with the alterations of some global metrics (normalized shortest path length and normalized global efficiency) and prefrontal nodal efficiency (right dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus and left orbital inferior frontal gyrus), implying behavioral deficits in executive control effects and maintained alerting and orienting effects during passive hyperthermia. The present study provided the first evidence for human brain functional disorder during passive hyperthermia according to

  6. Fish can show emotional fever:Stress-induced hyperthermia in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Sonia; huntingford, felicity; Boltana, Sebastian; Vargas, reynaldo; Knowles, Toby; Mackenzie, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Whether fish are sentient beings remains an unresolved and controversial question. Among characteristics thought to reflect a low level of sentience in fish is an inability to showstress-induced hyperthermia (SIH), a transient rise in bodytemperature shown in response to a variety of stressors. This is a real feverresponse, so is often referred to as ‘emotional fever’. It has been suggestedthat the capacity for emotional fever evolved only in amniotes (mammals,birds and reptiles), in associat...

  7. ALTERATION OF THERMAL BALANCE: HYPERTHERMIA, HYPERTHERMIC REACTIONS, HEAT STROKE, AND SUNSTROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F. Litvitskiy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Author analyzes an etiology, key components of pathogenesis and symptoms of hyperthermic states: hyperthermia, hyperthermic reactions, heat stroke, and sunstroke, adaptive and pathogenic effects, developing in these conditions, and principles of their etiotropic, pathogenetic and symptomatic therapy.Key words: hyperthermic states, disconnectors of oxidative phosphorylation, hypoxia, toxemia.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:96-102

  8. High-resolution temperature-based optimization for hyperthermia treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, H P [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haaren, P M A van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kamer, J B Van de [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Wiersma, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dijk, J D P Van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Crezee, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-07-07

    In regional hyperthermia, optimization techniques are valuable in order to obtain amplitude/phase settings for the applicators to achieve maximal tumour heating without toxicity to normal tissue. We implemented a temperature-based optimization technique and maximized tumour temperature with constraints on normal tissue temperature to prevent hot spots. E-field distributions are the primary input for the optimization method. Due to computer limitations we are restricted to a resolution of 1 x 1 x 1 cm{sup 3} for E-field calculations, too low for reliable treatment planning. A major problem is the fact that hot spots at low-resolution (LR) do not always correspond to hot spots at high-resolution (HR), and vice versa. Thus, HR temperature-based optimization is necessary for adequate treatment planning and satisfactory results cannot be obtained with LR strategies. To obtain HR power density (PD) distributions from LR E-field calculations, a quasi-static zooming technique has been developed earlier at the UMC Utrecht. However, quasi-static zooming does not preserve phase information and therefore it does not provide the HR E-field information required for direct HR optimization. We combined quasi-static zooming with the optimization method to obtain a millimetre resolution temperature-based optimization strategy. First we performed a LR (1 cm) optimization and used the obtained settings to calculate the HR (2 mm) PD and corresponding HR temperature distribution. Next, we performed a HR optimization using an estimation of the new HR temperature distribution based on previous calculations. This estimation is based on the assumption that the HR and LR temperature distributions, though strongly different, respond in a similar way to amplitude/phase steering. To verify the newly obtained settings, we calculate the corresponding HR temperature distribution. This method was applied to several clinical situations and found to work very well. Deviations of this estimation

  9. Hyperthermia Using Antibody-Conjugated Magnetic Nanoparticles and Its Enhanced Effect with Cryptotanshinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ota

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat dissipation by magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs under an alternating magnetic field can be used to selectively treat cancer tissues. Antibodies conjugated to MNPs can enhance the therapeutic effects of hyperthermia by altering antibody-antigen interactions. Fe3O4 nanoparticles (primary diameter, 20–30 nm coated with polyethylenimine (PEI were prepared and conjugated with CH11, an anti-Fas monoclonal antibody. HeLa cell growth was then evaluated as a function of antibody and MNP/antibody complex doses. HeLa cell growth decreased with increased doses of the antibody and complexes. However, MNPs alone did not affect cell growth; thus, only the antibody affected cell growth. In hyperthermia experiments conducted using an alternating magnetic field frequency of 210 kHz, cell viability varied with the intensity of the applied alternating magnetic field, because the temperature increase of the culture medium with added complexes was dependent on magnetic field intensity. The HeLa cell death rate with added complexes was significantly greater as compared with that with MNPs alone. Cryptotanshinone, an anti-apoptotic factor blocker, was also added to cell cultures, which provided an additional anti-cancer cell effect. Thus, an anti-cancer cell effect using a combination of magnetic hyperthermia, an anti-Fas antibody and cryptotanshinone was established.

  10. [A case of the complications following glycerin enema which suggested malignant hyperthermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Emi; Mori, Yumiko; Amano, Eizo; Akamatsu, Tetsuya; Okada, Toshiki

    2010-07-01

    We experienced a case of the complications following glycerin enema which suggested malignant hyperthermia. A 73-year-old man with knee osteoarthritis was scheduled for total knee arthroplasty under general and epidural anesthesia. The patient received glycerin enema before surgery. After epidural catheterization, anesthesia was induced with thiopental, fentanyl, vecuronium and sevoflurane. The trachea was intubated and the patient was ventilated with sevoflurane-air-oxygen. Then, cola-like urine was drained and he became febrile up to 37.9 degrees C. Although there were no other symptoms suggesting malignant hyperthermia, the surgery was cancelled. We suspected not only hemolysis by the color of the serum and the blood chemistry, but also rhabdomyolysis by increased levels of serum creatine phosphokinase and myoglobin as well as urine myoglobin. He recovered uneventfully. On the third day, perirectal abscess and anal fissure were diagnosed, which were considered to be the cause of the fever. It is well-known that glycerin enema could cause hemolysis, but rabdomyolysis as a complication of glycerin enema has rarely been reported. We speculate that injection of hypertonic glycerin into the perirectal tissue could have caused rhabdomyolysis as well as hemolysis, which led to cola-like urine. The complications following glycerin enema can be incorporated to a differential diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia.

  11. Precise determination of the heat delivery during in vivo magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia with infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Harley F.; Capistrano, Gustavo; Mello, Francyelli M.; Zufelato, Nicholas; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela; Bakuzis, Andris F.

    2017-05-01

    Non-invasive and real-time monitoring of the heat delivery during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (MNH) is of fundamental importance to predict clinical outcomes for cancer treatment. Infrared thermography (IRT) can determine the surface temperature due to three-dimensional heat delivery inside a subcutaneous tumor, an argument that is supported by numerical simulations. However, for precise temperature determination, it is of crucial relevance to use a correct experimental configuration. This work reports an MNH study using a sarcoma 180 murine tumor containing 3.9 mg of intratumorally injected manganese-ferrite nanoparticles. MNH was performed at low field amplitude and non-uniform field configuration. Five 30 min in vivo magnetic hyperthermia experiments were performed, monitoring the surface temperature with a fiber optical sensor and thermal camera at distinct angles with respect to the animal’s surface. The results indicate that temperature errors as large as 7~\\circ C can occur if the experiment is not properly designed. A new IRT error model is found to explain the data. More importantly, we show how to precisely monitor temperature with IRT during hyperthermia, which could positively impact heat dosimetry and clinical planning.

  12. Numerical investigation of temperature field in magnetic hyperthermia considering mass transfer and diffusion in interstitial tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yundong; Flesch, Rodolfo C. C.; Jin, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) hyperthermia ablates malignant cells by heating the region of interest when MNPs are subjected to an external alternating magnetic field. The energy density to be dissipated into heat, and consequently the temperature profile during treatment, depends on the distribution of MNPs within the tumoral region. This paper uses numerical models to evaluate the temporal and spatial temperature distributions inside a tumor when intratumoral injection of MNPs is considered. To this end, the theories of mass transfer and diffusion in interstitial tissue are combined with Rosensweig’s theory and Pennes bio-heat transfer equation, and the finite element method is used for analyzing the temperature field under different scenarios. Simulation results demonstrate that the treatment temperature field strongly depends on factors, such as the injection method, particle size, injection concentration and injection dose. However, the maximal temperature reached during hyperthermia and the effective treatment area are difficult to control. In order to obtain better treatment effects, this paper investigates a solution that uses a kind of material with low Curie temperature and the results show that the effective treatment area of hyperthermia can be significantly improved using this type of MNP.

  13. [Case of fulminant-malignant hyperthermia occurring on sixth sevoflurane anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kazuna; Toya, Akina; Shimomatsu, Kouta; Saitoh, Yoko; Manabe, Yozo; Kohjitani, Atsushi

    2011-06-01

    We report a case of fulminant-malignant hyperthermia that occurred after five uneventful sevoflurane anesthetic procedures. A 7-year-old girl with bronchial asthma was scheduled for closure of palatal fistula under general anesthesia, after five previous uneventful operations under sevoflurane anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and vecuronium, and maintained with nitrous oxide, oxygen, and sevoflurane. Body temperature at the beginning of operation was 37.0 degrees C. After 5 hr 10 min, sudden tachycardia and elevations in body temperature and PET(CO2) were noticed. Sevoflurane was discontinued and body surface cooling, hyperventilation with 100% oxygen, and administration of dantrolene sodium 2 mg x kg(-1), furosemide 4 mg, and 7% NaHCO3 solution 10 ml were started on a suspicion of malignant hyperthermia. Body temperature, heart rate, and PET(CO2) reached to 40.1 degrees C, 190 beats x min(-1), and 60 mmHg, respectively, with metabolic acidosis. Twenty minutes after starting dantrolene infusion, these values decreased to 38 degrees C, 150 beats x min(-1), and 39 mmHg, respectively. Laboratory examination showed that serum potassium, CK, AST, ALT, and LDH concentrations and urine myoglobin level were within normal ranges. Clinical symptoms of this patient fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of fulminant-malignant hyperthermia. The trigger drug was considered to be sevoflurane despite the five previous uneventful sevoflurane anesthetic procedures.

  14. Precise determination of the heat delivery during in vivo magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia with infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Harley F; Capistrano, Gustavo; Mello, Francyelli M; Zufelato, Nicholas; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela; Bakuzis, Andris F

    2017-05-21

    Non-invasive and real-time monitoring of the heat delivery during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (MNH) is of fundamental importance to predict clinical outcomes for cancer treatment. Infrared thermography (IRT) can determine the surface temperature due to three-dimensional heat delivery inside a subcutaneous tumor, an argument that is supported by numerical simulations. However, for precise temperature determination, it is of crucial relevance to use a correct experimental configuration. This work reports an MNH study using a sarcoma 180 murine tumor containing 3.9 mg of intratumorally injected manganese-ferrite nanoparticles. MNH was performed at low field amplitude and non-uniform field configuration. Five 30 min in vivo magnetic hyperthermia experiments were performed, monitoring the surface temperature with a fiber optical sensor and thermal camera at distinct angles with respect to the animal's surface. The results indicate that temperature errors as large as [Formula: see text]C can occur if the experiment is not properly designed. A new IRT error model is found to explain the data. More importantly, we show how to precisely monitor temperature with IRT during hyperthermia, which could positively impact heat dosimetry and clinical planning.

  15. Magnetic hyperthermia efficiency and 1H-NMR relaxation properties of iron oxide/paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Maria R.; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Sieni, Elisabetta; Sgarbossa, Paolo; Forzan, Michele; Cavallari, Eleonora; Stefania, Rachele; Dughiero, Fabrizio; Aime, Silvio

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) can be exploited in biomedicine as agents for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatments and as contrast enhancers in magnetic resonance imaging. New, oleate-covered, iron oxide particles have been prepared either by co-precipitation or thermal decomposition methods and incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-Fe-NPs) to improve their biocompatibility and in vivo stability. Moreover, the PLGA-Fe-NPs have been loaded with paclitaxel to pursue an MFH-triggered drug release. Remarkably, it has been found that the nanoparticle formulations are characterized by peculiar 1H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles that directly correlate with their heating potential when exposed to an alternating magnetic field. By prolonging the magnetic field exposure to 30 min, a significant drug release was observed for PLGA-Fe-NPs in the case of the larger-sized magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the immobilization of lipophilic Fe-NPs in PLGA-NPs also made it possible to maintain Néel relaxation as the dominant relaxation contribution in the presence of large iron oxide cores (diameters of 15-20 nm), with the advantage of preserving their efficiency when they are entrapped in the intracellular environment. The results reported herein show that NMRD profiles are a useful tool for anticipating the heating capabilities of Fe-NPs designed for MFH applications.

  16. Assessment of the efficacy of laser hyperthermia and nanoparticle-enhanced therapies by heat shock protein analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Fei [Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Ran, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Guo, Junwei [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2014-03-15

    Tumor thermotherapy is a method of cancer treatment wherein cancer cells are killed by exposing the body tissues to high temperatures. Successful clinical implementation of this method requires a clear understanding and assessment of the changes of the tumor area after the therapy. In this study, we evaluated the effect of near-infrared laser tumor thermotherapy at the molecular, cellular, and physical levels. We used single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in combination with this thermotherapy. We established a mouse model for breast cancer and randomly divided the mice into four groups: mice with SWNT-assisted thermotherapy; mice heat treated without SWNT; mice injected with SWNTs without thermotherapy; and a control group. Tumors were irradiated using a near-infrared laser with their surface temperature remaining at approximately 45 °C. We monitored the tumor body growth trend closely by daily physical measurements, immunohistochemical staining, and H and E (hematoxylin-eosin) staining by stage. Our results showed that infrared laser hyperthermia had a significant inhibitory effect on the transplanted breast tumor, with an inhibition rate of 53.09%, and also significantly reduced the expression of the heat shock protein Hsp70. Furthermore, we have found that protein analysis and histological analysis can be used to assess therapeutic effects effectively, presenting broad application prospects for determining the effect of different treatments on tumors. Finally, we discuss the effects of SWNT-assisted near-infrared laser tumor thermotherapy on tumor growth at the molecular, cellular, and physical levels.

  17. Assessment of the efficacy of laser hyperthermia and nanoparticle-enhanced therapies by heat shock protein analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fei; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Juan; Guo, Junwei; Liu, Ran

    2014-03-01

    Tumor thermotherapy is a method of cancer treatment wherein cancer cells are killed by exposing the body tissues to high temperatures. Successful clinical implementation of this method requires a clear understanding and assessment of the changes of the tumor area after the therapy. In this study, we evaluated the effect of near-infrared laser tumor thermotherapy at the molecular, cellular, and physical levels. We used single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in combination with this thermotherapy. We established a mouse model for breast cancer and randomly divided the mice into four groups: mice with SWNT-assisted thermotherapy; mice heat treated without SWNT; mice injected with SWNTs without thermotherapy; and a control group. Tumors were irradiated using a near-infrared laser with their surface temperature remaining at approximately 45 °C. We monitored the tumor body growth trend closely by daily physical measurements, immunohistochemical staining, and H&E (hematoxylin-eosin) staining by stage. Our results showed that infrared laser hyperthermia had a significant inhibitory effect on the transplanted breast tumor, with an inhibition rate of 53.09%, and also significantly reduced the expression of the heat shock protein Hsp70. Furthermore, we have found that protein analysis and histological analysis can be used to assess therapeutic effects effectively, presenting broad application prospects for determining the effect of different treatments on tumors. Finally, we discuss the effects of SWNT-assisted near-infrared laser tumor thermotherapy on tumor growth at the molecular, cellular, and physical levels.

  18. Assessment of the efficacy of laser hyperthermia and nanoparticle-enhanced therapies by heat shock protein analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Tang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tumor thermotherapy is a method of cancer treatment wherein cancer cells are killed by exposing the body tissues to high temperatures. Successful clinical implementation of this method requires a clear understanding and assessment of the changes of the tumor area after the therapy. In this study, we evaluated the effect of near-infrared laser tumor thermotherapy at the molecular, cellular, and physical levels. We used single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs in combination with this thermotherapy. We established a mouse model for breast cancer and randomly divided the mice into four groups: mice with SWNT-assisted thermotherapy; mice heat treated without SWNT; mice injected with SWNTs without thermotherapy; and a control group. Tumors were irradiated using a near-infrared laser with their surface temperature remaining at approximately 45 °C. We monitored the tumor body growth trend closely by daily physical measurements, immunohistochemical staining, and H&E (hematoxylin-eosin staining by stage. Our results showed that infrared laser hyperthermia had a significant inhibitory effect on the transplanted breast tumor, with an inhibition rate of 53.09%, and also significantly reduced the expression of the heat shock protein Hsp70. Furthermore, we have found that protein analysis and histological analysis can be used to assess therapeutic effects effectively, presenting broad application prospects for determining the effect of different treatments on tumors. Finally, we discuss the effects of SWNT-assisted near-infrared laser tumor thermotherapy on tumor growth at the molecular, cellular, and physical levels.

  19. Functional Characterization of C-terminal Ryanodine Receptor 1 Variants Associated with Central Core Disease or Malignant Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Remai; Schiemann, Anja H; Langton, Elaine; Bulger, Terasa; Pollock, Neil; Bjorksten, Andrew; Gillies, Robyn; Hutchinson, David; Roxburgh, Richard; Stowell, Kathryn M

    2017-01-01

    Central core disease and malignant hyperthermia are human disorders of skeletal muscle resulting from aberrant Ca2+ handling. Most malignant hyperthermia and central core disease cases are associated with amino acid changes in the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the skeletal muscle Ca2+-release channel. Malignant hyperthermia exhibits a gain-of-function phenotype, and central core disease results from loss of channel function. For a variant to be classified as pathogenic, functional studies must demonstrate a correlation with the pathophysiology of malignant hyperthermia or central core disease. We assessed the pathogenicity of four C-terminal variants of the ryanodine receptor using functional analysis. The variants were identified in families affected by either malignant hyperthermia or central core disease. Four variants were introduced separately into human cDNA encoding the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. Following transient expression in HEK-293T cells, functional studies were carried out using calcium release assays in response to an agonist. Two previously characterized variants and wild-type skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor were used as controls. The p.Met4640Ile variant associated with central core disease showed no difference in calcium release compared to wild-type. The p.Val4849Ile variant associated with malignant hyperthermia was more sensitive to agonist than wild-type but did not reach statistical significance and two variants (p.Phe4857Ser and p.Asp4918Asn) associated with central core disease were completely inactive. The p.Val4849Ile variant should be considered a risk factor for malignant hyperthermia, while the p.Phe4857Ser and p.Asp4918Asn variants should be classified as pathogenic for central core disease.

  20. Reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetyl cysteine reduces methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia without affecting motor activity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Bortell, Nikki; Galmozzi, Andrea; Conti, Bruno; Marcondes, Maria Cecilia G.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a potentially lethal side effect of Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse, which involves the participation of peripheral thermogenic sites such as the Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT). In a previous study we found that the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) can prevent the high increase in temperature in a mouse model of Meth-hyperthermia. Here, we have further explored the ability of NAC to modulate Meth-induced hyperthermia in correlation with changes in BAT. We found that NAC treatment in controls causes hypothermia, and, when administered prior or upon the onset of Meth-induced hyperthermia, can ameliorate the temperature increase and preserve mitochondrial numbers and integrity, without affecting locomotor activity. This was different from Dantrolene, which decreased motor activity without affecting temperature. The effects of NAC were seen in spite of its inability to recover the decrease of mitochondrial superoxide induced in BAT by Meth. In addition, NAC did not prevent the Meth-induced decrease of BAT glutathione. Treatment with S-adenosyl-L-methionine, which improves glutathione activity, had an effect in ameliorating Meth-induced hyperthermia, but also modulated motor activity. This suggests a role for the remaining glutathione for controlling temperature. However, the mechanism by which NAC operates is independent of glutathione levels in BAT and specific to temperature. Our results show that, in spite of the absence of a clear mechanism of action, NAC is a pharmacological tool to examine the dissociation between Meth-induced hyperthermia and motor activity, and a drug of potential utility in treating the hyperthermia associated with Meth-abuse. PMID:26346736

  1. Reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetyl cysteine reduces methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia without affecting motor activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Bortell, Nikki; Galmozzi, Andrea; Conti, Bruno; Marcondes, Maria Cecilia G

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a potentially lethal side effect of Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse, which involves the participation of peripheral thermogenic sites such as the Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT). In a previous study we found that the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) can prevent the high increase in temperature in a mouse model of Meth-hyperthermia. Here, we have further explored the ability of NAC to modulate Meth-induced hyperthermia in correlation with changes in BAT. We found that NAC treatment in controls causes hypothermia, and, when administered prior or upon the onset of Meth-induced hyperthermia, can ameliorate the temperature increase and preserve mitochondrial numbers and integrity, without affecting locomotor activity. This was different from Dantrolene, which decreased motor activity without affecting temperature. The effects of NAC were seen in spite of its inability to recover the decrease of mitochondrial superoxide induced in BAT by Meth. In addition, NAC did not prevent the Meth-induced decrease of BAT glutathione. Treatment with S-adenosyl-L-methionine, which improves glutathione activity, had an effect in ameliorating Meth-induced hyperthermia, but also modulated motor activity. This suggests a role for the remaining glutathione for controlling temperature. However, the mechanism by which NAC operates is independent of glutathione levels in BAT and specific to temperature. Our results show that, in spite of the absence of a clear mechanism of action, NAC is a pharmacological tool to examine the dissociation between Meth-induced hyperthermia and motor activity, and a drug of potential utility in treating the hyperthermia associated with Meth-abuse.

  2. The induction of hyperthermia in rabbit liver by means of duplex stainless steel thermoseeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byeong Ho [Donga University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Bong Sig [Medical Radiology Clinic, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kon [Inje University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon Kon [Shine, Ltd., (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    To determine the heating characteristics of needle-shaped duplex stainless steel thermoseeds, and to evaluate their effectiveness in the induction of hyperthermia in rabbit liver. Thermoseeds of the two different shapes, L-shaped for single doses of hyperthermia and I-shaped for in-vitro study and repeated hyperthermic induction, were prepared. For the in-vitro study, an I-shaped thermoseed 0.23 mm in diameter and 25 mm long was placed inside a plastic tube filled with water. Heat was applied for 30 minutes within an induction magnetic field, and during this time changes in temperature were recorded using three thermocouples. For the in-vivo study, fifteen New Zealand white rabbits were divided into five equal groups. An I-shaped or L-shaped thermoseed was inserted in each rabbit's liver, and then placed within the center of the magnetic induction coil during a 30-minute period of hyperthermia. The rabbits in the first group were sacrificed immediately after hyperthermia was induced once, while those in the other groups were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 7 days, respectively, also after one induction. The remaining three rabbits were sacrificed 4 days after three consecutive daily treatment sessions. The resected segments of liver were subsequently evaluated histopathologically for the extent of coagulation necrosis caused by heating of the thermoseed. The in-vitro study demonstrated that the temperature in the thermoseed, which was 25.9. deg. C before heating and 54.8 .deg. C after heating, rose rapidly at first but progressively less rapidly as time elapsed. Light microscopic examination of the rabbits' livers revealed coagulation necrosis and infiltration by inflammatory cells around the insertion site of the thermoseed. The maximum diameter of coagulation necrosis was 2.81{+-}1.68 mm, and this occurred in the rabbits that were sacrificed 7 days after heat induction. Needle-shaped duplex stainless steel thermoseeds show temperature-dependent-type heating

  3. Water-dispersible sugar-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. An evaluation of their relaxometric and magnetic hyperthermia properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartigue, Lenaic; Innocenti, Claudia; Kalaivani, Thangavel; Awwad, Azzam; Sanchez Duque, Maria del Mar; Guari, Yannick; Larionova, Joulia; Guérin, Christian; Montero, Jean-Louis Georges; Barragan-Montero, Véronique; Arosio, Paolo; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Gatteschi, Dante; Sangregorio, Claudio

    2011-07-13

    Synthesis of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) for biomedical applications represents a current challenge. In this paper we present the synthesis and characterization of water-dispersible sugar-coated iron oxide NPs specifically designed as magnetic fluid hyperthermia heat mediators and negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, the influence of the inorganic core size was investigated. To this end, iron oxide NPs with average size in the range of 4-35 nm were prepared by thermal decomposition of molecular precursors and then coated with organic ligands bearing a phosphonate group on one side and rhamnose, mannose, or ribose moieties on the other side. In this way a strong anchorage of the organic ligand on the inorganic surface was simply realized by ligand exchange, due to covalent bonding between the Fe(3+) atom and the phosphonate group. These synthesized nanoobjects can be fully dispersed in water forming colloids that are stable over very long periods. Mannose, ribose, and rhamnose were chosen to test the versatility of the method and also because these carbohydrates, in particular rhamnose, which is a substrate of skin lectin, confer targeting properties to the nanosystems. The magnetic, hyperthermal, and relaxometric properties of all the synthesized samples were investigated. Iron oxide NPs of ca. 16-18 nm were found to represent an efficient bifunctional targeting system for theranostic applications, as they have very good transverse relaxivity (three times larger than the best currently available commercial products) and large heat release upon application of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation with amplitude and frequency close to the human tolerance limit. The results have been rationalized on the basis of the magnetic properties of the investigated samples.

  4. Opposite effects of moderate heat stress and hyperthermia on cholinergic system of soil nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinnikova, Tatiana B; Kolsanova, Rufina R; Belova, Evgenia B; Shagidullin, Rifgat R; Gainutdinov, Marat Kh

    2016-12-01

    Cholinergic system plays important role in all functions of organisms of free-living soil nematodes C. elegans and C. briggsae. Using pharmacological analysis we showed the existence of two opposite responses of nematodes cholinergic system to moderate and extreme heat stress. Short-term (15min) noxious heat (31-32°C) caused activation of cholinergic synaptic transmission in C. elegans and C. briggsae organisms by sensitization of nicotinic ACh receptors. In contrast, hyperthermia blocked cholinergic synaptic transmission by inhibition of ACh secretion by neurons. The resistance of behavior to extreme high temperature (36-37°C) was significantly higher in C. briggsae than in C. elegans, and thermostability of cholinergic transmission correlated with resistance of behavior to hyperthermia. Activation of cholinergic transmission by moderate heat stress can be the reason of movement speed increase in such adaptive behavior as noxious heat escape. Inhibition of ACh release is one of reasons for behavior failure caused by extreme high temperature since partial inhibition of ACh-esterase by aldicarb protected C. elegans and C. briggsae behavior against hyperthermia. Antagonist of mAChRs atropine almost completely prevented the rise in behavior thermotolerance caused by aldicarb. Pilocarpine, agonist of mAChRs, protected nematodes behavior against hyperthermia similarly with aldicarb. Therefore it is evident that it is the deficiency of mAChRs activity that is the reason for nematodes' behavior failure by hyperthermia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimizing non-invasive radiofrequency hyperthermia treatment for improving drug delivery in 4T1 mouse breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J; Krzykawska-Serda, Martyna; Chak-Shing Ho, Jason; Newton, Jared; Suki, Sarah; Law, Justin; Nguyen, Lam; Keshishian, Vazrik; Serda, Maciej; Taylor, Kimberly; Curley, Steven A; Corr, Stuart J

    2017-03-13

    Interactions of high-frequency radio waves (RF) with biological tissues are currently being investigated as a therapeutic platform for non-invasive cancer hyperthermia therapy. RF delivers thermal energy into tissues, which increases intra-tumoral drug perfusion and blood-flow. Herein, we describe an optical-based method to optimize the short-term treatment schedules of drug and hyperthermia administration in a 4T1 breast cancer model via RF, with the aim of maximizing drug localization and homogenous distribution within the tumor microenvironment. This method, based on the analysis of fluorescent dyes localized into the tumor, is more time, cost and resource efficient, when compared to current analytical methods for tumor-targeting drug analysis such as HPLC and LC-MS. Alexa-Albumin 647 nm fluorphore was chosen as a surrogate for nab-paclitaxel based on its similar molecular weight and albumin driven pharmacokinetics. We found that RF hyperthermia induced a 30-40% increase in Alexa-Albumin into the tumor micro-environment 24 h after treatment when compared to non-heat treated mice. Additionally, we showed that the RF method of delivering hyperthermia to tumors was more localized and uniform across the tumor mass when compared to other methods of heating. Lastly, we provided insight into some of the factors that influence the delivery of RF hyperthermia to tumors.

  6. Optimizing non-invasive radiofrequency hyperthermia treatment for improving drug delivery in 4T1 mouse breast cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Krzykawska-Serda, Martyna; Chak-Shing Ho, Jason; Newton, Jared; Suki, Sarah; Law, Justin; Nguyen, Lam; Keshishian, Vazrik; Serda, Maciej; Taylor, Kimberly; Curley, Steven A.; Corr, Stuart J.

    2017-03-01

    Interactions of high-frequency radio waves (RF) with biological tissues are currently being investigated as a therapeutic platform for non-invasive cancer hyperthermia therapy. RF delivers thermal energy into tissues, which increases intra-tumoral drug perfusion and blood-flow. Herein, we describe an optical-based method to optimize the short-term treatment schedules of drug and hyperthermia administration in a 4T1 breast cancer model via RF, with the aim of maximizing drug localization and homogenous distribution within the tumor microenvironment. This method, based on the analysis of fluorescent dyes localized into the tumor, is more time, cost and resource efficient, when compared to current analytical methods for tumor-targeting drug analysis such as HPLC and LC-MS. Alexa-Albumin 647 nm fluorphore was chosen as a surrogate for nab-paclitaxel based on its similar molecular weight and albumin driven pharmacokinetics. We found that RF hyperthermia induced a 30-40% increase in Alexa-Albumin into the tumor micro-environment 24 h after treatment when compared to non-heat treated mice. Additionally, we showed that the RF method of delivering hyperthermia to tumors was more localized and uniform across the tumor mass when compared to other methods of heating. Lastly, we provided insight into some of the factors that influence the delivery of RF hyperthermia to tumors.

  7. Prospective phase II trial of regional hyperthermia and whole liver irradiation for numerous chemorefratory liver metastases from colerectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-03-15

    A prospective phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of regional hyperthermia and whole liver irradiation (WLI) for numerous chemorefractory liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Enrolled patients had numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. Five sessions of hyperthermia and seven fractions of 3-gray WLI were planned. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was determined using the Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire C-30 and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary version 4.0. Objective and pain response was evaluated. A total of 12 patients consented to the study and the 10 who received WLI and hyperthermia were analyzed. WLI was completed as planned in nine patients and hyperthermia in eight. Pain response was partial in four patients and stable in four. Partial objective response was achieved in three patients (30.0%) and stable disease was seen in four patients at the 1-month follow-up. One patient died 1 month after treatment because of respiratory failure related to pleural metastasis progression. Other grade III or higher toxicities were detected in three patients; however, all severe toxicities were related to disease progression rather than treatment. No significant difference in HRQoL was noted at the time of assessment for patients who were available for questionnaires. Combined WLI and hyperthermia were well tolerated without severe treatment-related toxicity with a promising response from numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer.

  8. A heat-generating bioactive glass-ceramic for hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohura, K; Ikenaga, M; Nakamura, T; Yamamuro, T; Ebisawa, Y; Kokubo, T; Kotoura, Y; Oka, M

    1991-01-01

    Glass plates of the chemical composition: CaO (29.0), SiO 2 (31.0), Fe 2O 3 (40.0), B 2O 3 (3.0), P 2O 5 (3.0) in weight ratio were heated to 1050 degrees C at a rate of 5 degrees C/min and then cooled to laboratory temperature. The resulting glass-ceramic containing magnetite and wollastonite crystals showed high-saturation magnetization. The bonding ability of this new glass-ceramic to bone tissue was evaluated using rabbit tibiae, and compared with glass of the same composition. This glass-ceramic formed a Ca, P-rich layer on its surface and bonded tightly with bone within 8 weeks of implantation. However, the glass did not form this Ca, P-rich layer, nor had it bonded with bone at 25 weeks. The bone-heating ability of this glass-ceramic was investigated by applying a max. 300-Oe, 100-kHz magnetic field. The granules of the glass-ceramic filled in the rabbit tibiae heated the whole surrounding bone to more than 42 degrees C and maintained this temperature for 30 min. Bioactive ceramics reinforce the mechanical strength of bone tissue. Furthermore, this heat-generating bioactive glass-ceramic can be used for hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors.

  9. Mechanobiology of low-density lipoprotein transport within an arterial wall--impact of hyperthermia and coupling effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen; Vafai, Kambiz

    2014-01-03

    The effects of hyperthermia, coupling attributes and property variations on Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transport within a multi-layered wall while accounting for the fluid structure interaction (FSI) is analyzed in this work. To understand the potential impact of the hyperthermia process, thermo-induced attributes are incorporated, accounting for the plasma flow, mass transfer, as well as the elastic wall structure. The coupling effect of osmotic pressure, Soret and Dufour diffusion is discussed and their influence on LDL transport is examined, demonstrating that only the Soret effect needs to be accounted for. The effect of thermal expansion on changing the behavior of flow, mass transport, and elastic structure is illustrated and analyzed while incorporating the variations in the effective LDL diffusivity and consumption rate, as well as other dominating parameters. It is shown that hyperthermia results in an enhancement in LDL transport by increasing the concentration levels within the arterial wall. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radio frequency induced hyperthermia mediated by dextran stabilized LSMO nanoparticles: in vitro evaluation of heat shock protein response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhayani, K. R.; Rajwade, J. M.; Paknikar, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    Dextran stabilized La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (Dex-LSMO) is an alternative cancer hyperthermia agent holding considerable promise. Here, we have carried out a comparative study on radio frequency (˜264 kHz) induced Dex-LSMO mediated heating and extraneous heating (mimicking generalized hyperthermia) in terms of changes in the morphology, proliferation pattern and induction of heat shock proteins in a human melanoma cell line (A375). Our results clearly show that the cellular effects seen with extraneous heating (60 min at 43 °C) could be reproduced by just six minutes of radio frequency induced Dex-LSMO mediated heating. More importantly, the observed enhanced levels of HSP 70 and 90 (molecular markers of heat shock that trigger favorable immunological reactions) seen with Dex-LSMO mediated heating were comparable to extraneous heating. These results suggest the possible utility of Dex-LSMO as a cancer hyperthermia agent.

  11. The ATLAS Glasgow Overview Week

    CERN Multimedia

    Richard Hawkings

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS Overview Weeks always provide a good opportunity to see the status and progress throughout the experiment, and the July week at Glasgow University was no exception. The setting, amidst the traditional buildings of one of the UK's oldest universities, provided a nice counterpoint to all the cutting-edge research and technology being discussed. And despite predictions to the contrary, the weather at these northern latitudes was actually a great improvement on the previous few weeks in Geneva. The meeting sessions comprehensively covered the whole ATLAS project, from the subdetector and TDAQ systems and their commissioning, through to offline computing, analysis and physics. As a long-time ATLAS member who remembers plenary meetings in 1991 with 30 people drawing detector layouts on a whiteboard, the hardware and installation sessions were particularly impressive - to see how these dreams have been translated into 7000 tons of reality (and with attendant cabling, supports and services, which certainly...

  12. MRI assisted thermometry for regional hyperthermia and interstitial laser thermotherapy; MRT-gestuetzte Thermometrie in der regionalen Tiefenhyperthermie und interstitiellen Laserthermotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peller, M.; Reinl, H.; Reiser, M.F. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Muacevic, A. [Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Sroka, R. [Laserforschungslabor der Urologischen Klinik, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Abdel-Rahman, S.; Issels, R. [Inst. fuer Molekulare Immunologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg, Muenchen (Germany); Medizinische Klinik, III, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Purpose. To demonstrate the potential of quantitative MRI-assisted thermometry for the treatment of tumor patients with regional hyperthermia (RHT) and interstitial laser thermotherapy (ILTT). Methods. Two patients and seven tissue samples were investigated using theT1-relaxation time and the chemical shift of the proton resonance frequency (PRF) as temperature sensitive MRI-parameters at 0.2 and 1.5 T. Thermotherapy was applied using either a dedicated MRI-hyperthermia hybrid system or a temperature controlled laser with 830 nm. Results. Both patients were treated successfully showing clinical benefit. T1 and PRF are depending on the applied thermotherapy method and on the MR-system suitable for MRI-assisted thermometry. The clinical application based on phantom results is not necessarily adequate. (orig.) [German] Fragestellung. Die Untersuchungen zeigen die Moeglichkeiten einer quantitativen MR-getuetzten Thermometrie bei der Behandlung von Tumorpatienten mit regionaler Tiefenhyperthermie (RHT) und interstitieller Laserthermotherapie (ILTT). Methodik. Bei 2 Tumorpatienten und 7 Gewebeproben wurden die chemische Verschiebung der Protonenresonanzfrequenz und die T1-Relaxationszeit als temperaturempfindliche MR-Parameter bei 0,2 bzw. 1,5 T untersucht. Die Thermotherapie erfolgte dabei mit einem speziellen MRT-Hyperthermie-Hybridsystem (RHT) bzw. einem temperaturgesteuerten Diodenlaser bei 830 nm (ILTT). Ergebnisse. Beide Patienten konnten klinisch erfolgreich behandelt werden. Die gewaehlten temperatursensitiven MR-Parameter sind, abhaengig vom therapeutischen Ansatz und den Eigenschaften des jeweiligen MR-Systems, fuer eine klinische MR-gestuetzte Thermometrie geeignet. Eine direkte Uebertragung der Ergebnisse aus Phantommessungen ist nicht ohne Einschraenkung moeglich. (orig.)

  13. [Hyperthermia. Modification of body temperature as clinical therapeutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuña Urtasun, Berta; Villalgordo Ortin, Paola; Montes García, Yolanda; Marín, Fernández Blanca

    2011-04-01

    The application of heat or cold therapy is called thermotherapy Thermotherapy has been used since ancient times, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans used solar radiation or submersion in springs to apply heat and ice and snow for cold application. The first scientific references related to thermotherapy appear in late eighteenth century but the twentieth century when the introduction of new forms of deep heat therapy have expanded their capabilities and their operation with media surface more comfortable and effective. Thermotherapy although they require more experimentation to obtain a solid scientific proof that their use is raising great expectations in various fields such as oncology treatment, surgery neurology etc. In the surgical field thermal ablation has been used successfully in the treatment of various diseases, benign prostatic hyperplasia, liver and gynecological tumors, among others. In the field of oncology has been shown to improve outcomes diathermy applied in conjunction with chemo and radiation therapy Based on the literature review describing the main uses of the change in temperature as a therapeutic, the main indications for these techniques, as applicable, evidence of its benefits and complications arising from their use.

  14. Salvage prostate HDR brachytherapy combined with interstitial hyperthermia for local recurrence after radiation therapy failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukielka, A.M.; Hetnal, M.; Dabrowski, T.; Walasek, T.; Brandys, P.; Reinfuss, M. [Centre of Oncology, M. Sklodowska - Curie Institute, Krakow Branch, Department of Radiotherapy, Krakow (Poland); Nahajowski, D.; Kudzia, R.; Dybek, D. [Centre of Oncology, M. Sklodowska - Curie Institute, Krakow Branch, Department of Medical Physics, Department of Radiotherapy, Krakow (Poland)

    2014-02-15

    The aim of the present retrospective study is to evaluate toxicity and early clinical outcomes of interstitial hyperthermia (IHT) combined with high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy as a salvage treatment in patients with biopsy-confirmed local recurrence of prostate cancer after previous external beam radiotherapy. Between September 2008 and March 2013, 25 patients with local recurrence of previously irradiated prostate cancer were treated. The main eligibility criteria for salvage prostate HDR brachytherapy combined with interstitial hyperthermia were biopsy confirmed local recurrence and absence of nodal and distant metastases. All patients were treated with a dose of 30 Gy in 3 fractions at 21-day intervals. We performed 62 hyperthermia procedures out of 75 planned (83 %). The aim of the hyperthermia treatment was to heat the prostate to 41-43 C for 60 min. Toxicity for the organs of the genitourinary system and rectum was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, v. 4.03). Determination of subsequent biochemical failure was based on the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/ml). The median age was 71 years (range 62-83 years), the median initial PSA level was 16.3 ng/ml (range 6.37-64 ng/ml), and the median salvage PSA level was 2.8 ng/ml (1.044-25.346 ng/ml). The median follow-up was 13 months (range 4-48 months). The combination of HDR brachytherapy and IHT was well tolerated. The most frequent complications were nocturia, weak urine stream, urinary frequency, hematuria, and urgency. Grade 2 rectal hemorrhage was observed in 1 patient. No grade 3 or higher complications were observed. The 2-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of biochemical control after salvage treatment was 74 %. The PSA in 20 patients decreased below the presalvage level, while 11 patients achieved a PSA nadir < 0.5 ng/ml. All patients are still alive. Of the 7 patients who experienced biochemical failure, bone metastases were found in 2 patients. IHT in combination

  15. Effect of indomethacin on hyperthermia induced by heat stress in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, R. L.; Macari, M.; Malheiros, E. B.; Secato, E. R.; Guerreiro, J. R.

    An investigation was carried out to verify whether the heat stress hyperthermia response of broilers is prostaglandin-dependent. Male broiler chickens of the Hubbard-Petterson strain, aged 35-49 days, were used. Chickens were injected with indomethacin (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally ) 15 min before or 2 h after heat exposure (at 35°C for 4 h), and rectal temperature was measured before injection and up to 4 h thereafter. Birds were separated into two groups with and without access to water during heat stress. The increase in rectal temperature was lower (Pbroiler chickens.

  16. Preparation of magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a multifunctional platform for potential drug delivery and hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xia; Zhu, Yufang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report the preparation of magnetic mesoporous silica (MMS) nanoparticles with the potential multifunctionality of drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. Carbon-encapsulated magnetic colloidal nanoparticles (MCN@C) were used to coat mesoporous silica shells for the formation of the core-shell structured MMS nanoparticles (MCN@C/mSiO2), and the rattle-type structured MMS nanoparticles (MCN/mSiO2) were obtained after the removal of the carbon layers from MCN@C/mSiO2 nanoparticles. ...

  17. Restaging of locally advanced carcinoma of the rectum with MR imaging after preoperative radio-chemotherapy plus regional hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, K.T.; Wust, P.; Stroszczynski, C.; Felix, R. [Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite (Germany); Rau, B.; Huenerbein, M. [Div. of Surgery and Surgical Oncology, Robert-Roessle Hospital and Tumor Inst., Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany); Schneider, U. [Inst. of Pathology, Campus Buch, Charite, Robert-Roessle Hospital and Tumor Inst., Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Background: The restaging accuracy of MR imaging in advanced primary rectal carcinoma after preoperative radiochemotherapy and regional hyperthermia was evaluated and compared with the histopathologically verified degree of tumor remission after a course of radio-chemo-thermotherapy. Patients and Methods: 35 patients with primary rectal carcinoma (uT3/uT4) underwent MRI using a surface coil 4-6 weeks after radiochemotherapy (n=35), regional hyperthermia (n=23), and before curative surgery. We defined as gold standard for the remission status the comparison of pretherapeutic endosonography with the histopathology of the resected specimen. Results: T category was correctly restaged after preoperative treatment in only 19 (54%) of 35 patients. Nine of 20 responders were overstaged and seven of 15 non-responders were understaged. Concurrently, the N category was correctly restaged in 19 (54%) of 35 patients (twelve responders and seven non-responders). Overstaging occurred in four responders and two non-responders, understaging occurred in four responders and six non-responders. Conclusions: MRI proved independent of the response status as not suitable to restage locally advanced rectal carcinoma after preoperative radiochemotherapy despite optimized imaging technique and spatial resolution. Basically, imaging the morphology of a tumor cannot clearly differentiate between vital and devitalized tissue after a treatment. Functional imaging such as PET (positron emission tomography) appears more feasible for restaging after radio-chemo-thermotherapy. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Die Genauigkeit der Stadienbestimmung mittels MR-Bildgebung wurde bei primaer fortgeschrittenen Rektumkarzinomen nach praeoperativer Radiochemotherapie und regionaler Hyperthermie gepueft und mit der histopathologisch ermittelten Tumorremission nach praeoperativer Behandlung verglichen. Patienten und Methode: 35 Patienten mit primaeren Rektumkarzinomen (uT3/uT4) wurden MR-tomographisch mittels

  18. A week of Israeli restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2006-01-01

    In Israeli discourse, Israel is always the side exercising restraint in its conflict with the Palestinians. This was true again for the events of the past week: As the Qassam rockets were falling on the Southern Israeli town of Sderot, it was “leaked” that the Israeli Minister of Defense had

  19. Clinical outcome and imaging changes after intraarticular (IA) application of etanercept or methylprednisolone in rheumatoid arthritis: Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound-Doppler show no effect of IA injections in the wrist after 4 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M.; Boesen, L.; Jensen, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) changes in the wrist of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) 4 weeks after an US guided intraarticular (IA) injection. Methods. Contrast enhanced MRI and US-Doppler were performed at baseline and 4 weeks after IA...... injection of either 40 mg methylprednisolone (n = 12) or 25 mg etanercept (n = 13) in 25 patients with RA taking disease modifying antirheumatic drugs with a therapy-resistant wrist joint. All injections were US guided. Results. There was an improvement in swollen target joint score (p

  20. Enhancement of hyperthermia-induced apoptosis by 5Z-7-oxozeaenol, a TAK1 inhibitor, in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhao, Qing-Li; Jawaid, Paras; Rehman, Mati Ur; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kondo, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    KRAS mutant lung cancers have long been considered as untreatable with drugs. Transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) appears to play an anti-apoptotic role in response to multiple stresses and has been reported to be a responsive kinase that regulates cell survival in KRAS-dependent cells. In this study, in order to find a useful approach to treat KRAS mutant lung cancer, we focused on the combined effects of 5Z-7-oxozeaenol, a TAK1 inhibitor, with hyperthermia (HT) in KRAS mutant lung cancer cell line A549. Annexin V-FITC/PI assay, cell cycle analysis, and colony formation assay revealed a significant enhancement in apoptosis induced by HT treatment, when the cells were pre-incubated with 5Z-7-oxozeaenol in a dose-dependent manner. The enhanced apoptosis by 5Z-7-oxozeaenol was accompanied by a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). In addition, western blot showed that 5Z-7-oxozeaenol enhanced HT-induced expressions of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, and HSP70 and decreased HT-induced expressions of Bcl-2, p-p38, p-JNK, and LC3. Moreover, 5Z-7-oxozeaenol pre-treatment resulted in a marked elevation of intracellular calcium level which might be associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related pathway. Taken together, our data provides further insights of the mechanism of action of 5Z-7-oxozeaenol and HT treatment, and their potential application as a novel approache to treat patients with KRAS mutant lung cancer.

  1. Impact of magnetic field parameters and iron oxide nanoparticle properties on heat generation for use in magnetic hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Rhythm R. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Davis, Todd P.; Glover, Amanda L.; Nikles, David E. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Brazel, Christopher S., E-mail: cbrazel@eng.ua.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Heating of nanoparticles (NPs) using an AC magnetic field depends on several factors, and optimization of these parameters can improve the efficiency of heat generation for effective cancer therapy while administering a low NP treatment dose. This study investigated magnetic field strength and frequency, NP size, NP concentration, and solution viscosity as important parameters that impact the heating efficiency of iron oxide NPs with magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) crystal structures. Heating efficiencies were determined for each experimental setting, with specific absorption rates (SARs) ranging from 3.7 to 325.9 W/g Fe. Magnetic heating was conducted on iron oxide NPs synthesized in our laboratories (with average core sizes of 8, 11, 13, and 18 nm), as well as commercially-available iron oxides (with average core sizes of 8, 9, and 16 nm). The experimental magnetic coil system made it possible to isolate the effect of magnetic field parameters and independently study the effect on heat generation. The highest SAR values were found for the 18 nm synthesized particles and the maghemite nanopowder. Magnetic field strengths were applied in the range of 15.1–47.7 kA/m, with field frequencies ranging from 123 to 430 kHz. The best heating was observed for the highest field strengths and frequencies tested, with results following trends predicted by the Rosensweig equation. An increase in solution viscosity led to lower heating rates in nanoparticle solutions, which can have significant implications for the application of magnetic fluid hyperthermia in vivo. - Highlights: • Heating was tested in seven iron oxide nanoparticles for different magnetic fields. • Confirms an optimal nanoparticle size for heating that agrees with the literature. • Verifies Rosenweig's equation to predict the effect of field frequency on heating. • Reports reduced heating in high viscosity environments.

  2. Efficacy of heat generation in CTAB coated Mn doped ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raland, R. D.; Borah, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Manganese doped Zinc ferrite (Mn-ZnFe2O4, where Mn  =  0%, 3%, 5% and 7%) nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method. CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) was used as a surfactant to inhibitgrowth and agglomeration. In this work, we have discussed on the influence of CTAB and Mn doping in tailoring the structural and magnetic properties of Mn-ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles for the effective application of magnetic hyperthermia. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of Mn-ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles. Lattice parameter and x-ray densities were obtained from the Rietveld refinement of the XRD pattern. The presence of CTAB as a stabilizing layer adsorbed on the surface of the nanoparticles were confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman vibrational spectrum. The saturation magnetization showsan increasing trend with Mn addition owing to cationic re-distribution and an increase super-exchange interaction between the two sub-lattices. Superparamagnetic behaviorof Mn-ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles were confirmed by temperature-dependent zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and field-cooling (FC) magnetization curves. The efficiency of induction heating measured by its specific absorption rate (SAR) and intrinsic loss power (ILP) value varies as a function of saturation magnetization. It has been hypothesized that the maximum generation of heat arises from Neel relaxation mechanism. The optimum generation of heat of Mn-ZnFe2O4 nanoparticle is determined by the higher frequency (f  =  337 kHz) range and maximum concentration of Mn doping.

  3. ATLAS Overview Week at Brookhaven

    CERN Multimedia

    Pilcher, J

    Over 200 ATLAS participants gathered at Brookhaven National Laboratory during the first week of June for our annual overview week. Some system communities arrived early and held meetings on Saturday and Sunday, and the detector interface group (DIG) and Technical Coordination also took advantage of the time to discuss issues of interest for all detector systems. Sunday was also marked by a workshop on the possibilities for heavy ion physics with ATLAS. Beginning on Monday, and for the rest of the week, sessions were held in common in the well equipped Berkner Hall auditorium complex. Laptop computers became the norm for presentations and a wireless network kept laptop owners well connected. Most lunches and dinners were held on the lawn outside Berkner Hall. The weather was very cooperative and it was an extremely pleasant setting. This picture shows most of the participants from a view on the roof of Berkner Hall. Technical Coordination and Integration issues started the reports on Monday and became a...

  4. Magnetic induction of hyperthermia by a modified self-learning fuzzy temperature controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Tai, Cheng-Chi

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study involved developing a temperature controller for magnetic induction hyperthermia (MIH). A closed-loop controller was applied to track a reference model to guarantee a desired temperature response. The MIH system generated an alternating magnetic field to heat a high magnetic permeability material. This wireless induction heating had few side effects when it was extensively applied to cancer treatment. The effects of hyperthermia strongly depend on the precise control of temperature. However, during the treatment process, the control performance is degraded due to severe perturbations and parameter variations. In this study, a modified self-learning fuzzy logic controller (SLFLC) with a gain tuning mechanism was implemented to obtain high control performance in a wide range of treatment situations. This implementation was performed by appropriately altering the output scaling factor of a fuzzy inverse model to adjust the control rules. In this study, the proposed SLFLC was compared to the classical self-tuning fuzzy logic controller and fuzzy model reference learning control. Additionally, the proposed SLFLC was verified by conducting in vitro experiments with porcine liver. The experimental results indicated that the proposed controller showed greater robustness and excellent adaptability with respect to the temperature control of the MIH system.

  5. Iron Oxide Nanospheres and Nanocubes for Magnetic Hyperthermia Therapy: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Z.; Das, R.; Alonso, J.; Clements, E.; Phan, M. H.; Srikanth, H.

    2017-06-01

    Improving the heating capacity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for hyperthermia therapy is an important but challenging task. Through a comparative study of the inductive heating properties of spherical and cubic Fe3O4 MNPs with two distinct average volumes (˜7000 nm3 and 80,000 nm3), we demonstrate that, for small size (˜7000 nm3), the cubic MNPs heat better compared with the spherical MNPs. However, the opposite trend is observed for larger size (˜80,000 nm3). The improvement in heating efficiency in cubic small-sized MNPs (˜7000 nm3) can be attributed to enhanced anisotropy and the formation of chain-like aggregates, whereas the decrease of the heating efficiency in cubic large-sized MNPs (˜80,000 nm3) has been attributed to stronger aggregation of particles. Physical motion is shown to contribute more to the heating efficiency in case of spherical than cubic MNPs, when dispersed in water. These findings are of crucial importance in understanding the role of shape anisotropy and optimizing the heating response of magnetic nano-structures for advanced hyperthermia.

  6. A new mild hyperthermia device to treat vascular involvement in cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J; Nguyen, Lam P; Law, Justin J; Krzykawska-Serda, Martyna; Taylor, Kimberly M; Cao, Hop S Tran; Anderson, Andrew O; Pulikkathara, Merlyn; Newton, Jared M; Ho, Jason C; Hwang, Rosa; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Coarfa, Cristian; Huang, Shixia; Edwards, Dean; Curley, Steven A; Corr, Stuart J

    2017-09-12

    Surgical margin status in cancer surgery represents an important oncologic parameter affecting overall prognosis. The risk of disease recurrence is minimized and survival often prolonged if margin-negative resection can be accomplished during cancer surgery. Unfortunately, negative margins are not always surgically achievable due to tumor invasion into adjacent tissues or involvement of critical vasculature. Herein, we present a novel intra-operative device created to facilitate a uniform and mild heating profile to cause hyperthermic destruction of vessel-encasing tumors while safeguarding the encased vessel. We use pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma as an in vitro and an in vivo cancer model for these studies as it is a representative model of a tumor that commonly involves major mesenteric vessels. In vitro data suggests that mild hyperthermia (41-46 °C for ten minutes) is an optimal thermal dose to induce high levels of cancer cell death, alter cancer cell's proteomic profiles and eliminate cancer stem cells while preserving non-malignant cells. In vivo and in silico data supports the well-known phenomena of a vascular heat sink effect that causes high temperature differentials through tissues undergoing hyperthermia, however temperatures can be predicted and used as a tool for the surgeon to adjust thermal doses delivered for various tumor margins.

  7. Hyperthermia, dehydration, and osmotic stress: unconventional sources of exercise-induced reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michelle A; Clanton, Thomas L; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-01-15

    Evidence of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is observed in the circulation during exercise in humans. This is exacerbated at elevated body temperatures and attenuated when normal exercise-induced body temperature elevations are suppressed. Why ROS production during exercise is temperature dependent is entirely unknown. This review covers the human exercise studies to date that provide evidence that oxidant and antioxidant changes observed in the blood during exercise are dependent on temperature and fluid balance. We then address possible mechanisms linking exercise with these variables that include shear stress, effects of hemoconcentration, and signaling pathways involving muscle osmoregulation. Since pathways of muscle osmoregulation are rarely discussed in this context, we provide a brief review of what is currently known and unknown about muscle osmoregulation and how it may be linked to oxidant production in exercise and hyperthermia. Both the circulation and the exercising muscle fibers become concentrated with osmolytes during exercise in the heat, resulting in a competition for available water across the muscle sarcolemma and other tissues. We conclude that though multiple mechanisms may be responsible for the changes in oxidant/antioxidant balance in the blood during exercise, a strong case can be made that a significant component of ROS produced during some forms of exercise reflect requirements of adapting to osmotic challenges, hyperthermia challenges, and loss of circulating fluid volume. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. In Vivo Imaging of Local Gene Expression Induced by Magnetic Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Sandre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to demonstrate that colloidal dispersions of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with dextran macromolecules placed in an alternating magnetic field can not only produce heat, but also that these particles could be used in vivo for local and noninvasive deposition of a thermal dose sufficient to trigger thermo-induced gene expression. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first characterized in vitro on a bio-inspired setup, and then they were assayed in vivo using a transgenic mouse strain expressing the luciferase reporter gene under transcriptional control of a thermosensitive promoter. Iron oxide nanoparticles dispersions were applied topically on the mouse skin or injected subcutaneously with Matrigel™ to generate so-called pseudotumors. Temperature was monitored continuously with a feedback loop to control the power of the magnetic field generator and to avoid overheating. Thermo-induced luciferase expression was followed by bioluminescence imaging 6 h after heating. We showed that dextran-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle dispersions were able to induce in vivo mild hyperthermia compatible with thermo-induced gene expression in surrounding tissues and without impairing cell viability. These data open new therapeutic perspectives for using mild magnetic hyperthermia as noninvasive modulation of tumor microenvironment by local thermo-induced gene expression or drug release.

  9. Specific absorption rate determination of magnetic nanoparticles through hyperthermia measurements in non-adiabatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coïsson, M. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Barrera, G. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); University of Torino, Chemistry Department, via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Celegato, F.; Martino, L.; Vinai, F. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Martino, P. [Politronica srl, via Livorno 60, 10144 Torino (Italy); Ferraro, G. [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia - IIT, corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Tiberto, P. [INRIM, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    An experimental setup for magnetic hyperthermia operating in non-adiabatic conditions is described. A thermodynamic model that takes into account the heat exchanged by the sample with the surrounding environment is developed. A suitable calibration procedure is proposed that allows the experimental validation of the model. Specific absorption rate can then be accurately determined just from the measurement of the sample temperature at the equilibrium steady state. The setup and the measurement procedure represent a simplification with respect to other systems requiring calorimeters or crucial corrections for heat flow. Two families of magnetic nanoparticles, one superparamagnetic and one characterised by larger sizes and static hysteresis, have been characterised as a function of field intensity, and specific absorption rate and intrinsic loss power have been obtained. - Highlights: • Development and thermodynamic modelling of a hyperthermia setup operating in non-adiabatic conditions. • Calibration of the experimental setup and validation of the model. • Accurate measurement of specific absorption rate and intrinsic loss power in non-adiabatic conditions.

  10. Inhibition of mTOR promotes hyperthermia sensitivity in SMMC-7721 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, QING-LIANG; LIU, BO; LI, XIAO-JIE; HU, KUN-PENG; ZHAO, KUN; YE, XIAO-MING

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical mediator of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mTOR signaling pathway, and mTOR activity is induced following heat shock. Thermotherapy is used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of mTOR in modulating thermosensitivity in HCC has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the antisense plasmid pEGFP-C1-mTOR was transfected into SMMC-7721 cells, and the expression levels of mTOR were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The thermal responses of the transfected cells were also examined. The results revealed that SMMC-7721 cells were sensitive to heat treatment, and cell viability was significantly inhibited following hyperthermia treatment (P<0.01). The mRNA and protein expression levels of mTOR decreased post-transfection. Cell proliferation, colony-forming ability and motility were all significantly decreased following hyperthermia treatment in the transfected cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that apoptosis was significantly increased following treatment (P<0.01). The number of cells in S phase was increased, and the cell cycle was arrested in S phase. In conclusion, inhibition of mTOR increased the thermosensitivity of SMMC-7721 cells by increasing cellular apoptosis and inducing S phase arrest. PMID:26998020

  11. Nanoparticle-mediated radiofrequency capacitive hyperthermia: A phantom study with magnetic resonance thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Soo; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2015-01-01

    In hyperthermia, focusing heat generation on tumour tissues and precisely monitoring the temperature around the tumour region is important. To focus heat generation in radiofrequency (RF) capacitive heating, magnetic nanoparticles suspended in sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solution were used, based on the hypothesis that the nanoparticle suspension would elevate electrical conductivity and RF current density at the nanoparticle-populated region. A tissue-mimicking phantom with compartments with and without nanoparticles was made for RF capacitive heating experiments. An FDTD model of the phantom was developed to simulate temperature increases at the phantom. To monitor temperature inside the phantom, MR thermometry was performed intermittently during RF heating inside a 3Tesla MRI magnet bore. FDTD simulation on the phantom model was performed in two steps: electromagnetic simulation to compute specific absorption rate and thermal simulation to compute temperature changes. Experimental temperature maps were similar to simulated temperature maps, demonstrating that nanoparticle-populated regions drew more heat than background regions. Nanoparticle-mediated RF heating could mitigate concerns about normal tissue death during RF capacitive hyperthermia.

  12. Does hyperthermia constrain flight duration in a short-distance migrant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, Magella; Woakes, Anthony J; Larochelle, Jacques; Polymeropoulos, Elias T; Granbois, Jean-Marc; Butler, Patrick J; Pelletier, David; Frappell, Peter B; Portugal, Steven J

    2016-09-26

    While some migratory birds perform non-stop flights of over 11 000 km, many species only spend around 15% of the day in flight during migration, posing a question as to why flight times for many species are so short. Here, we test the idea that hyperthermia might constrain flight duration (FD) in a short-distance migrant using remote biologging technology to measure heart rate, hydrostatic pressure and body temperature in 19 migrating eider ducks (Somateria mollissima), a short-distance migrant. Our results reveal a stop-and-go migration strategy where migratory flights were frequent (14 flights day(-1)) and short (15.7 min), together with the fact that body temperature increases by 1°C, on average, during such flights, which equates to a rate of heat storage index (HSI) of 4°C h(-1) Furthermore, we could not find any evidence that short flights were limited by heart rate, together with the fact that the numerous stops could not be explained by the need to feed, as the frequency of dives and the time spent feeding were comparatively small during the migratory period. We thus conclude that hyperthermia appears to be the predominant determinant of the observed migration strategy, and suggest that such a physiological limitation to FD may also occur in other species.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by acute postural change in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-12-01

    Thermal sensation represents the primary stimulus for behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation. We assessed whether the sensation of skin and core temperatures for the driving force of behavioral thermoregulation was modified by postural change from the supine (Sup) to sitting (Sit) during mild hyperthermia. Seventeen healthy young men underwent measurements of noticeable increase and decrease (±0.1 °C/s) of skin temperature (thresholds of warm and cold sensation on the skin, 6.25 cm2 of area) at the forearm and chest and of the whole-body warm sensation in the Sup and Sit during normothermia (NT; esophageal temperature (Tes), ˜36.6 °C) and mild hyperthermia (HT; Tes, ˜37.2 °C; lower legs immersion in 42 °C of water). The threshold for cold sensation on the skin at chest was lower during HT than NT in the Sit ( P cold on the skin and more whole-body warmth.

  14. Effect of hyperthermia on experimental acute pancreatitis Efeito da hipertermia na pancreatite aguda experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Jesus de Almeida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUD: Recent studies indicate that hyperthermia can change inflammatory mechanisms and protect experimental animals from deleterious effects of secretagogue-induced acute pancreatitis AIM: To evaluate the effects of hyperthermia post-treatment on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats METHODS: Twenty animals were divided in two groups: group I (n = 10, rats with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis undergone hyperthermia, and group II (n = 10, animals with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis that were kept normothermic. In all groups, amylase serum levels, histologic damage, vascular permeability and pancreatic water content were assessed. Acute pancreatitis was induced by administration of two cerulein injections (20 mcg/kg. A single dose of Evans' blue dye was administered along with the second dose of cerulein. All animals also received a subcutaneous injection of saline solution. After this process, animals undergone hyperthermia were heated in a cage with two 100 W lamps. Body temperature was increased to 39.5ºC and maintained at that level for 45 minutes. Normothermia rats were kept at room temperature in a second cage RESULTS: Control animals had typical edema, serum amylase activity and morphologic changes of this acute pancreatitis model. Hyperthermia post-treatment ameliorated the pancreatic edema, whereas the histologic damage and the serum amylase level remained unchanged CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest a beneficial effect of the thermal stress on inflammatory edema in experimental acute pancreatitis.RACIONAL: Estudos recentes indicam que a hipertermia pode modificar mecanismos inflamatórios e proteger animais experimentais dos efeitos deletérios da pancreatite aguda induzida por secretagogos OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia da hipertermia como tratamento da pancreatite aguda induzida por ceruleína em ratos MÉTODOS: Vinte animais foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo I (n = 10, ratos com pancreatite aguda induzida por

  15. Directional microwave applicator and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A miniature microwave antenna is disclosed which may be utilized for biomedical applications such as, for example, radiation induced hyperthermia through catheter systems. One feature of the antenna is that it possesses azimuthal directionality despite its small size. This directionality permits targeting of certain tissues while limiting thermal exposure of adjacent tissue. One embodiment has an outer diameter of about 0.095'' (2.4 mm) but the design permits for smaller diameters.

  16. Investigation of particle accumulation, chemosensitivity and thermosensitivity for effective solid tumor therapy using thermosensitive liposomes and hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.M. Lokerse (Wouter); M. Bolkestein (Michiel); T.L.M. ten Hagen (Timo); M. de Jong (Marcel); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander); Grüll, H. (Holger); G.A. Koning (Gerben)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDoxorubicin (Dox) loaded thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs) have shown promising results for hyperthermia-induced local drug delivery to solid tumors. Typically, the tumor is heated to hyperthermic temperatures (41-42 °C), which induced intravascular drug release from TSLs within the tumor

  17. Effect of short-term scrotal hyperthermia on spermatological parameters, testicular blood flow and gonadal tissue in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henning, H; Masal, C; Herr, A; Wolf, K; Urhausen, C; Beineke, A; Beyerbach, M; Kramer, S; Günzel-Apel, A-R

    The objective was to assess the effect of a short-term scrotal hyperthermia in dogs on quantitative and qualitative ejaculate parameters, testicular blood flow and testicular and epididymal histology. After a control period, the scrotum of seven normospermic adult beagle dogs was insulated with a

  18. The effect of p53-function on the sensitivity to paclitaxel with or without hyperthermia in human colorectal carcinoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bree, C.; Savonije, J. H.; Franken, N. A.; Haveman, J.; Bakker, P. J.

    2000-01-01

    The importance of p53-function for the sensitivity to paclitaxel with and without hyperthermia (HT) was studied in an isogenic cell line system. The inactivation of p53 decreased sensitivity to paclitaxel (1.1-2.5-fold), which correlated with a lower induction of apoptosis. The magnitude of the G2/M

  19. Preparation of the Drager Fabius CE and Drager Zeus anaesthetic machines for patients susceptible to malignant hyperthermia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Hiliary

    2012-05-01

    Malignant hyperthermia may follow exposure to trace quantities of inhalational anaesthetics. In susceptible patients, the complete avoidance of these triggers is advised when possible; however, failing this, it is essential to washout or purge the anaesthesia machine of residual inhalational anaesthetics.

  20. Hyperthermia treatment of spontaneously occurring oral cavity tumors using a computer-controlled Nd:YAG laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.; Frazier, Donita L.; Klebanow, Edward R.

    1991-05-01

    Conventional hyperthermia treatment of superficial tumors in the oral cavity is difficult due to inability in accessing the lesion. A new hyperthermia technique employing near infrared Nd:YAG irradiation delivered through an optical fiber is introduced for heating oral and nasal tumors in animals. This system consisted of an Nd:YAG laser, a He-Ne laser, a computer controlled optical shutter, an interstitial thermometer, computer and a printer. The tumors were heated via surface illumination of the lesion. A thermocouple implanted in the base of the tumor provided temperature feedback for laser energy regulation. Three spontaneously occurring canine (two squamous cell carcinoma on the gum, one pigmented melanoma on the hard palate) and one feline tumor (squamous cell carcinoma on the nose) have been treated with the Nd:YAG laser-induced hyperthermia delivered following radiation therapy. The tumor temperature was maintained between 43.2-43.5 degree(s)C for one hour. Nd:YAG hyperthermia allowed efficient delivery of heat to veterinary oral and nasal lesions otherwise impossible to treat with conventional heating techniques.

  1. Magnetic Resonance–Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Hyperthermia for Recurrent Rectal Cancer: MR Thermometry Evaluation and Preclinical Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, William, E-mail: William.Chu@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Staruch, Robert M. [Clinical Sites Research Program, Philips Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Pichardo, Samuel [Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute, Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada); Physics and Electrical Engineering, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada); Tillander, Matti; Köhler, Max O. [MR Therapy, Philips Healthcare, Vantaa (Finland); Huang, Yuexi [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ylihautala, Mika [MR Therapy, Philips Healthcare, Vantaa (Finland); McGuffin, Merrylee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Czarnota, Gregory [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hynynen, Kullervo [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance–guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) mild hyperthermia in deep tissue targets for enhancing radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the context of recurrent rectal cancer. A preclinical study was performed to evaluate the safety and performance of MR-HIFU mild hyperthermia. A prospective imaging study was performed in volunteers with rectal cancer to evaluate MR thermometry quality near the rectum and accessibility of rectal tumors using MR-HIFU. Methods and Materials: Mild hyperthermia was performed in pig thigh (9 sonications, 6 pigs) using a clinical MR-HIFU system. Targets near the rectal wall and deep thigh were evaluated. Thermal maps obtained in 6 planes every 3.2 seconds were used to control sonications in 18-mm diameter treatment regions at temperatures of 42°C to 42.5°C for 10 to 60 minutes. Volunteer imaging-only studies to assess the quality of MR thermometry (without heating) were approved by the institutional research ethics board. Anatomic and MR thermometry images were acquired in consenting volunteers with rectal cancer. In 3 of 6 study participants, rectal filling with saline was used to reduce motion-related MR thermometry artifacts near the tumor. Results: In pigs, mean target temperature matched the desired hyperthermia temperature within 0.2°C; temporal standard deviation ≤0.5°C. With optimized control thresholds, no undesired tissue damage was observed. In human volunteers, MR temperature measurements had adequate precision and stability, especially when rectal filling was used to reduce bowel motion. Conclusions: In pigs, MR-HIFU can safely deliver mild hyperthermia (41°C-43°C) to a targeted volume for 30 minutes. In humans, careful patient selection and preparation will enable adequate targeting for recurrent rectal cancers and sufficient MR temperature mapping stability to control mild hyperthermia. These results enable human trials of MR-HIFU hyperthermia.

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitors sensitize lung cancer cells to hyperthermia: involvement of Ku70/SirT-1 in thermo-protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K Hassan

    Full Text Available This study describes the sensitization mechanism to thermal stress by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs in lung cancer cells and shows that Ku70, based on its acetylation status, mediates the protection of lung cancer from hyperthermia (42.5°C, 1-6 hrs. Ku70 regulates apoptosis by sequestering pro-apoptotic Bax. However, its role in thermal stress is not fully understood. The findings showed that, pre-treating lung cancer cells with HDACIs, nicotinamide (NM or Trichostatin A (TsA or both significantly enhanced hyperthermia-induced Bax-dependent apoptosis in PC-10 cells. We found that hyperthermia induces SirT-1, Sirtuin, upregulation but not HDAC6 or SirT-3, therefore transfection with dominant negative SirT-1 (Y/H also eliminated the protection and resulted in more cell death by hyperthermia, in H1299 cells through Bax activation. Hyperthermia alone primed lung cancer cells to apoptosis without prominent death. After hyperthermia Bax was upregulated, Bcl-2 was downregulated, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was inversed and Bax/Bcl-2 heterodimer was dissociated. Although hyperthermia did not affect total Ku70 expression level, it stimulated Ku70 deacetylation, which in turn could bind more Bax in the PC-10 cells. These findings suggest an escape mechanism from hyperthermia-induced Bax activation. To verify the role of Ku70 in this protection mechanism, Ku70 was silenced by siRNA. Ku70 silencing significantly sensitized the lung cancer cells to hyperthermia. The Ku70 KD cells underwent cytotoxic G1 arrest and caspase-dependant apoptosis when compared to scrambled transfectants which showed only G2/M cytostatic arrest in the cell lines investigated, suggesting an additional cell cycle-dependent, novel, role of Ku70 in protection from hyperthermia. Taken together, our data show a Ku70-dependent protection mechanism from hyperthermia. Targeting Ku70 and/or its acetylation during hyperthermia may represent a promising therapeutic approach for lung cancer.

  3. Magnetic resonance guided high-intensity focused ultrasound mediated hyperthermia improves the intratumoral distribution of temperature-sensitive liposomal doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Smet, Mariska; Hijnen, Nicole M; Langereis, Sander; Elevelt, Aaldert; Heijman, Edwin; Dubois, Ludwig; Lambin, Philippe; Grüll, Holger

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the intratumoral distribution of a temperature-sensitive liposomal carrier and its encapsulated compounds, doxorubicin, and a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agent after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-mediated hyperthermia-induced local drug release. (111)In-labeled temperature-sensitive liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin and [Gd(HPDO3A) (H(2)O)] were injected intravenously in the tail vein of rats (n = 12) bearing a subcutaneous rhabdomyosarcoma tumor on the hind leg. Immediately after the injection, local tumor hyperthermia (2 × 15 minutes) was applied using a clinical 3 T MR-HIFU system. Release of [Gd(HPDO3A)(H(2)O)] was studied in vivo by measuring the longitudinal relaxation rate R(1) with MR imaging. The presence of the liposomal carriers and the intratumoral distribution of doxorubicin were imaged ex vivo with autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy, respectively, for 2 different time points after injection (90 minutes and 48 hours). In hyperthermia-treated tumors, radiolabeled liposomes were distributed more homogeneously across the tumor than in the control tumors (coefficient of variation(hyp, 90 min) = 0.7 ± 0.2; coefficient of variation(cntrl, 90 min) = 1.1 ± 0.2). At 48 hours after injection, the liposomal accumulation in the tumor was enhanced in the hyperthermia group in comparison with the controls. A change in R(1) was observed in the HIFU-treated tumors, suggesting release of the contrast agent. Fluorescence images showed perivascular doxorubicin in control tumors, whereas in the HIFU-treated tumors, the delivered drug was spread over a much larger area and also taken up by tumor cells at a larger distance from blood vessels. Treatment with HIFU hyperthermia not only improved the immediate drug delivery, bioavailability, and intratumoral distribution but also enhanced liposomal accumulation over time. The sum of these effects may have a significant contribution to the therapeutic

  4. A seven-year disease-free survivor of malignant pleural mesothelioma treated with hyperthermia and chemotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonogi Noriyuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Malignant pleural mesothelioma was once a rare finding but its incidence is increasing worldwide, most likely because of widespread exposure to asbestos. Although complete surgical resection is considered the only curative treatment, the results of surgery have shown a median survival time of only one year. In inoperable cases, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and a combination of both have been considered as palliative therapy. Therefore, outcomes for inoperable cases have been poor. Here, we report the case of a long-term survivor treated with hyperthermia and chemotherapy. Case presentation A 61-year-old Japanese man with a performance status of 1 due to chest pain was referred to our hospital. He had a history of asbestos exposure for approximately five years. A computed tomography scan showed diffuse extensive right pleural thickening with small nodular lesions, and video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed tumor invasion of the ipsilateral chest wall muscles. The histopathologic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (sarcomatoid type. The tumor was diagnosed as being stage cT3N0M0. Our patient refused any invasive therapies including surgery and radiotherapy, and was therefore treated with hyperthermia and systemic chemotherapy with agents such as cisplatin and irinotecan. He underwent three hyperthermia sessions and a single course of chemotherapy without any severe complications. One month after treatment, a follow-up computed tomography scan showed no definitive abnormality in the thoracic space. Our patient has subsequently survived without any evident disease for more than seven years. Conclusions The combination of hyperthermia and chemotherapy may be a novel and safe therapeutic option for malignant pleural mesothelioma, and can be considered for patients ineligible for radical treatment. Further clinical studies of the combination of hyperthermia and chemotherapy are needed to

  5. Effect of intra-tumoral magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia and viral nanoparticle immunogenicity on primary and metastatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, P. Jack; Mazur, Courtney M.; Osterberg, Bjorn; Song, Ailin; Gladstone, David J.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Veliz, Frank A.; Bursey, Alicea A.; Wagner, Robert J.; Fiering, Steven N.

    2017-02-01

    Although there is long association of medical hyperthermia and immune stimulation, the relative lack of a quantifiable and reproducible effect has limited the utility and advancement of this relationship in preclinical/clinical cancer and non-cancer settings. Recent cancer-based immune findings (immune checkpoint modulators etc.) including improved mechanistic understanding and biological tools now make it possible to modify and exploit the immune system to benefit conventional cancer treatments such as radiation and hyperthermia. Based on the prior experience of our research group including; cancer-based heat therapy, magnetic nanoparticle (mNP) hyperthermia, radiation biology, cancer immunology and Cowpea Mosaic Virus that has been engineered to over express antigenic proteins without RNA or DNA (eCPMV/VLP). This research was designed to determine if and how the intra-tumoral delivery of mNP hyperthermia and VLP can work together to improve local and systemic tumor treatment efficacy. Using the C3H mouse/MTG-B mammary adenocarcinoma cell model and the C57-B6 mouse/B-16-F10 melanoma cancer cell model, our data suggests the appropriate combination of intra-tumoral mNP heat (e.g. 43°C /30-60 minutes) and VLP (100 μg/200 mm3 tumor) not only result in significant primary tumor regression but the creation a systemic immune reaction that has the potential to retard secondary tumor growth (abscopal effect) and resist tumor rechallenge. Molecular data from these experiments suggest treatment based cell damage and immune signals such as Heat Shock Protein (HSP) 70/90, calreticulin, MTA1 and CD47 are potential targets that can be exploited to enhance the local and systemic (abscopal effect) immune potential of hyperthermia cancer treatment

  6. Processing, properties and some novel applications of magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bare or surface-modified particles find applications in areas such as hyperthermia treatment of cancer and magnetic field-assisted radioactive chemical separation. We present here some of the salient features of processing of nanostructured magnetic materials of different sizes and shapes, their properties and some ...

  7. Peculiarities of tissue water fractional composition in case of experimental whole-body hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kuznetsova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study, using proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation (NMR method, was undertaken to compare the water fractional composition in nature tissues (group 1 with those damaged by experimental whole-body hyperthermia (group 2. We measured longitudinal or “spin-lattice” (T1 and transverse or “spin-spin” (T2 relaxation times of protons of tissues (brain, the atria of the heart, the kidneys and the renal cortex from adult Wistar rats. The differences in T1, T2 and percentage of the intra- and extracellular water between group 1 and 2 were studied to help understand how the water moves in tissues at hyperthermia. The results of this study and the literature data allow to make conclusions about tissue water fractional composition in case of experimental whole-body hyperthermia: (1 fractional composition of water and the distribution of intra- and extracellular fluid in the tissue of the atria of the heart did not change (T1 and T2 relaxation times remained unchanged; (2 the crystalline water fraction increased in brain (longer T1 relaxation rate and shorter T2 relaxation rate. This is obstructing the exchange of protons between free and bound water in brain. Thus, loss of water by brain cells is prevented. The distribution between intra- and extracellular fluid in brain remained unchanged; (3 fraction of free water increased in renal tissue (simultaneous longer T1 and T2 relaxation rates by reducing the volume of extracellular fluid; (4 thick hydration layer of water (longer T1 relaxation rate, T2 remained unchanged was formed in the extracellular fluid of renal cortex. This water layer is formed around the sodium ions which concentration is increased in renal cortex tissue of rats from group 2. Аs a result, the amount of fluid secreted by kidneys is reduced, i.e. there is a retention of water in the body. The relevance of our research for the understanding of high temperatures’ adaptation mechanisms is discussed in this paper.

  8. Parametric investigation of heating due to magnetic fluid hyperthermia in a tumor with blood perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liangruksa, Monrudee [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Ganguly, Ranjan [Department of Power Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Puri, Ishwar K., E-mail: ikpuri@vt.ed [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is a cancer treatment that can selectively elevate the tumor temperature without significantly damaging the surrounding healthy tissue. Optimal MFH design requires a fundamental parametric investigation of the heating of soft materials by magnetic fluids. We model the problem of a spherical tumor and its surrounding healthy tissue that are heated by exciting a homogeneous dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles infused only into the tumor with an external AC magnetic field. The key dimensionless parameters influencing thermotherapy are the Peclet, Fourier, and Joule numbers. Analytical solutions for transient and steady hyperthermia provide correlations between these parameters and the portions of tumor and healthy tissue that are subjected to a threshold temperature beyond which they are damaged. Increasing the ratio of the Fourier and Joule numbers also increases the tumor temperature, but doing so can damage the healthy tissue. Higher magnetic heating is required for larger Peclet numbers due to the larger convection heat loss that occurs through blood perfusion. A comparison of the model predictions with previous experimental data for MFH applied to rabbit tumors shows good agreement. The optimal MFH conditions are identified based on two indices, the fraction I{sub T} of the tumor volume in which the local temperature is above a threshold temperature and the ratio I{sub N} of the damaged normal tissue volume to the tumor tissue volume that also lies above it. The spatial variation in the nanoparticle concentration is also considered. A Gaussian distribution provides efficacy while minimizing the possibility of generating a tumor hot spot. Varying the thermal properties of tumor and normal tissue alters I{sub T}and I{sub N} but the nature of the temperature distribution remains unchanged. - Research highlights: > Analytical model of magnetic fluid hyperthermia of tumor tissue perfused with magnetic nanoparticles that is surrounded

  9. Medical applications of magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, C; Jurgons, R; Seliger, C; Iro, H

    2006-01-01

    In recent years biomedical research indicated, that magnetic nanoparticles can be a promising tool for several applications in vitro and in vivo. In medicine many approaches were investigated for diagnosis and therapy and offered a great variety of applications. Magnetic cell separation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic targeted delivery of therapeutics or magnetically induced hyperthermia are approaches of particular clinical relevance. For medical use, especially for in vivo application it is of great importance that these particles do not have any toxic effects or incompatibility with biological organism. Investigations on applicable particles induced a variability of micro- and nanostructures with different materials, sizes, and specific surface chemistry.

  10. Size-controlled heating ability of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, P. T.; Phuc, N. X.; Nam, P. H.; Chien, N. V.; Dung, D. D.; Linh, P. H.

    2018-02-01

    The magnetic properties and heating capacity of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles 13-24 nm in size were studied. Results showed that the specific absorption rate of the nanoparticles strongly depended on their magnetic properties and particle size. Specific absorption rate values decreased with increased particle size, and the smallest CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (13.5 nm) exhibited the highest specific absorption rate. The mechanism underlying the decrease in specific absorption rate of the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with increased particle size was also discussed.

  11. Biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles: Magnetic hyperthermia in dendritic cells and magnetofection in brain cells

    OpenAIRE

    Asín Pardo, Laura; Ibarra García, Manuel Ricardo; Goya, Gerardo Fabián

    2012-01-01

    La nanociencia es hoy en día un área de investigación que ofrece grandes avances a varias disciplinas, entre ellas, la biología es una de las más importantes por las posibles aplicaciones biomédicas que pueden ser desarrolladas gracias a la sinergia de ambos campos. Dichas aplicaciones pueden revolucionar los campos diagnóstico y terapéutico de la medicina. ¿Drug delivery¿ [1, 2], hipertermia magnética [3-5], transfección/transducción con complejos magnéticos [6], marcaje celular [7, 8] y Res...

  12. [Rhabdomyolysis syndrome and hyperthermia secondary to cocaine and/or ecstasy consumption. Report of 2 new cases and review of the problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallina Alvarez, E; Suárez Arias, R; García Diez, A; Arribas Castrillo, J M

    2002-02-01

    We describe two cases of hyperthermia and rhabdomyolysis related to cocaine and/or ecstasy consumption. The clinical and laboratory findings are characteristic of hyperthermia syndrome in both cases. The first patient consumed cocaine, ecstasy and alcohol and afterwards suffers from hyperthermia and rhabdomyolysis associated with decreased conscious level, labile blood pressure, severe renal insufficiency (needing hemodialysis) and important liver failure. The second patient consumed ecstasy and alcohol with intense physical activity and shows the same but moderate clinical picture rapidly responding to intravenous fluid therapy. The incidence of this drug-induced hyperthermia is low compared to the important use of these illicit drugs. Nevertheless its increasing consumption will lead physicians to attend more patients with this syndrome and other related complications. For this reason we have reviewed and up-dated this problematic subject.

  13. Is Limb Salvage With Microwave-induced Hyperthermia Better Than Amputation for Osteosarcoma of the Distal Tibia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kang; Dang, Peiye; Bian, Na; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Tongtao; Fan, QingYu; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Tingbao; Wang, Pingshan

    2017-06-01

    Amputation has been the standard surgical treatment for distal tibia osteosarcoma owing to its unique anatomic features. Preliminary research suggested that microwave-induced hyperthermia may have a role in treating osteosarcoma in some locations of the body (such as the pelvis), but to our knowledge, no comparative study has evaluated its efficacy in a difficult-to-treat location like the distal tibia. Does microwave-induced hyperthermia result in (1) improved survival, (2) decreased local recurrence, (3) improved Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scores, or (4) fewer complications than amputation in patients with a distal tibial osteosarcoma? Between 2000 and 2015, we treated 79 patients for a distal tibia osteosarcoma without metastases. Of those, 52 were treated with microwave-induced hyperthermia, and 27 with amputation. Patients were considered eligible for microwave-induced hyperthermia if they had an at least 20-mm available distance from the tumor edge to the articular surface, good clinical and imaging response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and no pathologic fracture. Patients not meeting these indications were treated with amputation. In addition, if neither the posterior tibial artery nor the dorsalis pedis artery was salvageable, the patients were treated with amputation and were not included in any group in this study. A total of 13 other patients were treated with conventional limb-salvage resections and reconstructions (at the request of the patient, based on patient preference) and were not included in this study. All 79 patients in this retrospective study were available for followup at a minimum of 12 months (mean followup in the hyperthermia group, 79 months, range 12-158 months; mean followup in the amputation group, 95 months, range, 15-142 months). With the numbers available, the groups were no different in terms of sex, age, tumor grade, tumor stage, or tumor size. All statistical tests were two-sided, and a probability less than 0.05 was

  14. [Prognosis of yeast cells recovery after simultaneous exposure to UV-radiation and hyperthermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, L N; Tkhabisimova, M D; Petin, V G

    2007-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of survival of diploid yeast cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain XS800) after simultaneous exposure to UV-radiation (254 nm) and hyperthermia (53-57 degrees C) have been described. It was shown that the portion of cells capable of recovery in innutrient medium after the action of these agents decreased with the increasing of temperature under which the irradiation was occurred. Mathematical model taking into account the synergistic interaction was suggested for quantitative prediction of irreversible component after combined actions of these agents. A good correspondence between experimental data and model predictions has been demonstrated. The importance of the results obtained for the interpretation of the synergistic interaction mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Hyperthermia studies using inductive and ultrasound methods on E. coli bacteria and mouse glioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral–Prieto, A., E-mail: agustin.cabral@inin.gob.mx; López-Callejas, R., E-mail: regulo.lopez@inin.gob.mx; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G., E-mail: benjamin.rodriguez@inin.gob.mx; Santos-Cuevas, C. L., E-mail: clara.cuevas@inin.gob.mx [Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Celis-Almazán, J., E-mail: jony-jac-5@hotmail.com; Olea-Mejía, O., E-mail: oleaoscar@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable (Mexico); Gómez-Morales, J. L. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Campus El Cerrillo, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico); Peña-Eguiluz, R., E-mail: rosendo.eguiluz@inin.gob.mx; Valencia-Alvarado, R., E-mail: raul.valencia@inin.gob.mx; Mercado-Cabrera, A., E-mail: antonio.mercado@inin.gob.mx; Muñoz-Castro, A. E., E-mail: arturo.munoz@inin.gob.mx [Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); García-Santibañez, F., E-mail: fegasa2@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Campus El Cerrillo, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico)

    2017-11-15

    The survival of Escherichia coli bacteria and mouse glioma cells were studied under different temperatures using direct heating in water, ultrasound, and magnetic fluid hyperthermia. The survival of these microorganisms depended on whether the heating mode was continuous or discontinuous, surviving more in the former than in the discontinuous heating mode. Whereas Escherichia coli bacteria did not survive at temperatures ≥50{sup ∘}C, the mouse glioma cells did not survive at temperatures ≥48{sup ∘}C. The survival of both these microorganisms was independent of the presence or absence of the magnetic nanoparticles of magnetite, suggesting that these, having mean particle sizes of 9.5, 8.5 and 5, did not show any apparent cytotoxicity effect. Present results also showed that the inductive heating system which used a radiofrequency of 13.56 MHz, providing a maximum magnetic field strength of 160 A/m, the electric rather than magnetic heating predominated.

  16. RGD-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S W; Huang, M; Hong, R Y; Deng, S M; Cheng, L F; Gao, B; Badami, D

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a specific targeting magnetic nanoparticle probe for magnetic resonance imaging and therapy in the form of local hyperthermia. Carboxymethyl dextran-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with carboxyl groups were coupled to cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic peptides for integrin α(v)β₃ targeting. The particle size, magnetic properties, heating effect, and stability of the arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide were measured. The arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide demonstrates excellent stability and fast magneto-temperature response. Magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity of Bcap37 cells incubated with arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide was significantly decreased compared with that incubated with plain ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide. The preferential uptake of arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide by target cells was further confirmed by Prussian blue staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  17. Modulation of the counts and functions of neutrophils and monocytes under in vivo hyperthermia conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, M; Kharazmi, A; Nielsen, H

    1994-01-01

    The present work was designed to examine the effect of in vivo hyperthermia on the cell number and functions of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) and monocytes in human beings. Eight healthy volunteers were immersed into a waterbath (WI) (water temperature 39.5 degrees C) for 2 h, whereby...... their rectal temperature rose to 39.5 degrees C. On a later day they served as their own controls, being immersed into thermoneutral water (34.5 degrees C) for 2 h. Blood samples were collected before immersion, at body temperatures of 38, 39 and 39.5 degrees C as well as 2 h after water immersion...... of blood was significantly enhanced 2 h after hot WI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  18. Hyperthermia studies using inductive and ultrasound methods on E. coli bacteria and mouse glioma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Prieto, A.; López-Callejas, R.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.; Santos-Cuevas, C. L.; Celis-Almazán, J.; Olea-Mejía, O.; Gómez-Morales, J. L.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Muñoz-Castro, A. E.; García-Santibañez, F.

    2017-11-01

    The survival of Escherichia coli bacteria and mouse glioma cells were studied under different temperatures using direct heating in water, ultrasound, and magnetic fluid hyperthermia. The survival of these microorganisms depended on whether the heating mode was continuous or discontinuous, surviving more in the former than in the discontinuous heating mode. Whereas Escherichia coli bacteria did not survive at temperatures ≥50∘C, the mouse glioma cells did not survive at temperatures ≥48∘C. The survival of both these microorganisms was independent of the presence or absence of the magnetic nanoparticles of magnetite, suggesting that these, having mean particle sizes of 9.5, 8.5 and 5, did not show any apparent cytotoxicity effect. Present results also showed that the inductive heating system which used a radiofrequency of 13.56 MHz, providing a maximum magnetic field strength of 160 A/m, the electric rather than magnetic heating predominated.

  19. Educational intervention on malignant hyperthermia with nursing professionals of the operating room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Silva Sousa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention on malignant hyperthermia with operating room nurses. METHOD A quasi-experimental study, aimed at an educational intervention of short duration with the nursing staff in the operating room of the institution hosting the research in the city of São Paulo, with the participation of 96 professionals. Pre-intervention tests and post-intervention tests were applied, which consisted of a lecture followed by simulation. RESULTS Considering the overall results of the intervention, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.00. After the educational intervention, there was an increase of the minimum and maximum scores, and average growth of 2.64 points in the knowledge of professionals when compared to the previous step. CONCLUSION The educational intervention strategy favors the concept of the content developed by everyone involved and qualifies professionals to work safely.

  20. Changing of the HSP70 Content in the Baikal Endemic Sponges Lubomirskiidae Under Conditions of Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itskovich V.B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Baikal endemic sponges (Lubomirskiidae make up the bulk of the benthos biomass of the lake. For the first time the changes in the content of HSP70 in response to elevated environment temperature were analyzed in three endemic species of Baikal sponges: Baikalospongia bacillifera (Dybowski, 1880, B. intermedia (Dybowski, 1880 and Swartschewskia papyracea (Dybowski, 1880. Interspecific variability of constitutive HSP70 level was revealed for representatives of the three analyzed Lubomirskiidae species. After exposure at 13 °С for 3 and 7 days opposite changes were noted in the amount of HSP70. Under conditions of hyperthermia the protein level decrease at Baikalospongia species, while at the S. papyracea HSP70 content slightly increased. The differences in the mechanisms of stress adaptation probably affect the thermal resistance of the species, as well as are evidence supporting their specific status.

  1. Preparation and characterization of manganese ferrite-based magnetic liposomes for hyperthermia treatment of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Pallab [School of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Mumbai (India); Giri, Jyotsnendu [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400076 (India); Banerjee, Rinti [School of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Mumbai (India); Bellare, Jayesh [School of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Mumbai (India); Bahadur, Dhirendra [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400076 (India)]. E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in

    2007-04-15

    Comparative evaluation of two different methods of magnetic liposomes preparation, namely thin film hydration (TFH) and double emulsion (DE) with different molar ratios of egg-phosphatidyl choline (egg-PC) and cholesterol using lauric acid coated manganese ferrite-based aqueous magnetic fluid, is reported. TFH was found to be a better method of encapsulation and TFH 2:1 (egg-PC: cholesterol) magnetic liposomes showed the highest encapsulation efficiency and comparable heating ability to that of magnetic fluids. Stealth TFH 2:1 magnetic liposomes containing DSPE-PEG{sub 2000} were three-fold more cytocompatible as compared to the magnetic fluid. Stealth TFH 2:1 manganese ferrite-based magnetic liposomes might be useful for hyperthermia treatment of cancer.

  2. Malignant hyperthermia-like reaction in a family with a sodium channel mutation at residue 1306

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vita, G.M.; Jedlicka, A.E.; Levitt, R.C. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is an autosomal dominant, hypermetabolic disorder, triggered by potent inhalational anesthetics. We have previously suggeste the skeletal muscle sodium channel {alpha}-subunit (SCN4A) as a gene candidate to explain some forms of MHS. To evaluate this gene for mutations that might lead to a MHS-like episode, we amplified genomic DNA by PCR and used SSCP to screen each exon. We studied multiple MHS families which may be linked to this gene. The proband and a sibling from one of these families suspected of having MHS experienced trismus and body rigidity after induction of anesthesia. The caffiene and halothane contracture test proved diagnostic in these individuals and EMG studies suggested a form of myotomia. A mutation co-segregating with the myotonia/MHS phenotype was found in the region of exon 22.

  3. Phonon-assisted radiofrequency absorption by gold nanoparticles resulting in hyperthermia

    CERN Document Server

    Postnikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    It is suggested that in gold nanoparticles (GNPs) of about 5 nm sizes used in the radiofrequency (RF) hyperthermia, an absorption of the RF photon by the Fermi electron occurs with involvement of the longitudinal acoustic vibrational mode (LAVM), the dominating one in the distribution of vibrational density of states (VDOS). This physical mechanism helps to explain two observed phenomena: the size dependence of the heating rate (HR) in GNPs and reduced heat production in aggregated GNPs. The argumentation proceeds within the one-electron approximation, taking into account the discretenesses of energies and momenta of both electrons and LAVMs. The heating of GNPs is thought to consist of two consecutive processes: first, the Fermi electron absorbs simultaneously the RF photon and the LAVM available in the GNP; hereafter the excited electron gets relaxed within the GNP's boundary, exciting a LAVM with the energy higher than that of the previously absorbed LAVM. GNPs containing the Ta and/or Fe impurities are pr...

  4. Magnetic hyperthermia heating of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prepared by low temperature ferrous sulfate based method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejabhiram Yadavalli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile low temperature co-precipitation method for the synthesis of crystalline cobalt ferrite nanostructures using ferrous sulfate salt as the precursor has been discussed. The prepared samples were compared with nanoparticles prepared by conventional co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods using ferric nitrate as the precursor. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of cubic spinel cobalt ferrites when dried at 110 °C as opposed to conventional methods which required higher temperatures/pressure for the formation of the same. Field emission scanning electron microscope studies of these powders revealed the formation of nearly spherical nanostructures in the size range of 20-30 nm which were comparable to those prepared by conventional methods. Magnetic measurements confirmed the ferromagnetic nature of the cobalt ferrites with low magnetic remanance. Further magnetic hyperthermia studies of nanostructures prepared by low temperature method showed a rise in temperature to 50 °C in 600 s.

  5. Hyperthermia and exercise. [plasma fluid and electrolyte effects on human thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The paper emphasizes fluid and electrolyte parameters that affect the hyperthermia of physical exercise (metabolic heat production). The major hypothesis discussed is that fluid and electrolyte changes influence thermal regulation within the fine control boundaries. A second working hypothesis is that the elevation of core temperature during exercise is a regulated phenomenon that is beneficial to the organism in terms of efficiency and potential for survival and is not merely a failure of the thermoregulatory control system. The central thermoregulatory mechanism seems more responsive to the hypothermic effect of calcium than to the hyperthermic effect of sodium. The mechanisms controlling plasma fluid-electrolyte shifts, particularly during exercise and recovery from exercise, may play an important part in exercise thermoregulation.

  6. Combined Parameter and State Estimation Problem in a Complex Domain: RF Hyperthermia Treatment Using Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermeo Varon, L. A.; Orlande, H. R. B.; Eliçabe, G. E.

    2016-09-01

    The particle filter methods have been widely used to solve inverse problems with sequential Bayesian inference in dynamic models, simultaneously estimating sequential state variables and fixed model parameters. This methods are an approximation of sequences of probability distributions of interest, that using a large set of random samples, with presence uncertainties in the model, measurements and parameters. In this paper the main focus is the solution combined parameters and state estimation in the radiofrequency hyperthermia with nanoparticles in a complex domain. This domain contains different tissues like muscle, pancreas, lungs, small intestine and a tumor which is loaded iron oxide nanoparticles. The results indicated that excellent agreements between estimated and exact value are obtained.

  7. Mg shallow doping effects on the ac magnetic self-heating characteristics of γ-Fe2O3 superparamagnetic nanoparticles for highly efficient hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jung-tak; Bae, Seongtae

    2017-10-01

    The effects of Mg doping on the magnetic and AC self-heating temperature rising characteristics of γ-Fe2O3 superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNPs) were investigated for hyperthermia applications in biomedicine. The doping concentration of nonmagnetic Mg2+ cation was systematically controlled from 0 to 0.15 at. % in Mgx-γFe2O3 SPNPs during chemically and thermally modified one-pot thermal decomposition synthesis under bubbling O2/Ar gas mixture. It was empirically observed that the saturation magnetization (Ms) and the out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility ( χm″)of Mgx-γFe2O3 SPNPs were increased by increasing the Mg2+ cation doping concentration from 0.05 to 0.13 at. %. Correspondingly, the AC magnetically induced self-heating temperature (Tac,max) in solid state and the intrinsic loss power in water were increased up to 184 °C and 14.2 nH m2 kg-1 (Mgx-γFe2O3, x = 0.13), respectively, at the biologically and physiologically safe range of AC magnetic field (Happl × fappl = 1.2 × 109 A m-1 s-1). All the chemically and physically analyzed results confirmed that the dramatically improved AC magnetic induction heating characteristics and the magnetic properties of Mgx-γFe2O3 SPNPs (x = 0.13) are primarily due to the significantly enhanced magnetic susceptibility (particularly, χm″) and the improved AC/DC magnetic softness (lower AC/DC magnetic anisotropy) resulting from the systematically controlled nonmagnetic Mg2+ cation concentrations and distributions (occupation ratio) in the Fe vacancy sites of γ-Fe2O3 (approximately 12% vacancy), instead of typically well-known Fe3O4 (no vacancy) SPNPs. The cell viability and biocompatibility with U87 MG cell lines demonstrated that Mgx-γFe2O3 SPNPs (x = 0.13) has promising bio-feasibility for hyperthermia agent applications.

  8. High-frequency EEG oscillations in hyperthermia-induced seizures of Scn1a mutant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Ohmori, Iori; Hayashi, Keiichiro; Kitagawa, Yuichiro; Ouchida, Mamoru; Inoue, Takushi; Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2013-02-01

    We examined high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the ictal cortical EEGs of hyperthermia-induced seizures in a rat model of febrile seizures with an SCN1A mutation as a means of investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the generation of febrile seizures. We used 13 male homozygous Scn1a-N1417H mutant rats (F344/NSlc-Scn1a(Kyo811)) and 10 wild-type control rats. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures were induced in all mutant rats, and HFOs with frequencies ranging from 200 to 400 Hz were found to precede spikes during the clonic phases of these seizures in the ictal EEGs. The proportion of all spikes in each seizure that were associated with HFOs increased with age. In time-frequency spectra of the EEG data, the HFOs had a mean peak frequency of 301.1 ± 65.4 Hz (range: 156.3-468.8Hz) and a mean peak power of 24.6 ± 3.8 dB (range: 11.4-33.4 dB); the peak power increased with age. Regarding the wild-type rats, a brief seizure without unmistakable HFOs was exceptionally induced in only one rat. The generation mechanism of febrile seizures is still an unanswered question. The detection of HFOs from the ictal EEGs of hyperthermia-induced seizures may provide a cue to answering this open question, although in this research we were unable to provide sufficient evidence to prove that the generation of HFOs depended on the mutation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of Non-Invasive Radiofrequency Treatment and Hyperthermia on Malignant and Nonmalignant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Curley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of biological subjects to electromagnetic fields with a high frequency is associated with temperature elevation. In our recent studies, we reported that non-invasive radiofrequency (RF treatment at 13.56 MHz with the field ranging from 1 KeV to 20 KeV/m2 inhibits tumor progression in animals with abdominal tumor xenografts and enhances the anticancer effect of chemotherapy. The RF treatment was followed by temperature elevation in tumors to approximately 46 °C during 10 min of exposure. In contrast, the temperature of normal tissues remained within a normal range at approximately 37 °C. Whether all biological effects of RF treatment are limited to its hyperthermic property remains unclear. Here, we compared how RF and hyperthermia (HT treatments change the proliferation rate, oxygen consumption and autophagy in malignant and nonmalignant cells. Methods: In the current study, cancer and nonmalignant cells of pancreatic origin were exposed to the RF field or to conventional HT at 46 °C, which was chosen based on our previous in vivo studies of the tumor-specific RF-induced hyperthermia. Results: Only RF treatment caused declines in cancer cell viability and proliferation. RF treatment also affected mitochondrial function in cancer cells more than HT treatment did and, unlike HT treatment, was followed by the elevation of autophagosomes in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. Importantly, the effects of RF treatment were negligible in nonmalignant cells. Conclusion: The obtained data indicate that the effects of RF treatment are specific to cancer cells and are not limited to its hyperthermic property.

  10. In vitro hyperthermia with improved colloidal stability and enhanced SAR of magnetic core/shell nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, R M; Thorat, N D; Shete, P B; Otari, S V; Tiwale, B M; Pawar, S H

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic core/shell nanostructures of Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and betaine-HCl were studied for their possible use in magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). Their colloidal stability and heat induction ability were studied in different media viz. phosphate buffer solution (PBS), saline solution and glucose solution with different physiological conditions and in human serum. The results showed enhanced colloidal stability in these media owing to their high zeta potential values. Heat induction studies showed that specific absorption rates (SAR) of core/shells were 82-94W/g at different pH of PBS and concentrations of NaCl and glucose. Interestingly, core/shells showed 78.45±3.90W/g SAR in human serum. The cytotoxicity of core/shells done on L929 and HeLa cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and trypan blue dye exclusion assays showed >89% and >80% cell viability for 24 and 48h respectively. Core/shell structures were also found to be very efficient for in vitro MFH on cancer cell line. About 95% cell death was occurred in 90min after hyperthermia treatment. The mechanism of cell death was found to be elevated ROS generation in cells after exposure to core/shells in external magnetic field. This study showed that these core/shells have a great potential to be used in in vivo MFH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of the caffeine-halothane contracture test for the diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Sudo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic disease triggered by volatile anesthetics and succinylcholine. Deaths due to MH have been reported in Brazil. The first Malignant Hyperthermia Diagnostic and Research Center in Latin America was inaugurated in 1993 at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The center followed the diagnostic protocols of the North America MH Group, in which the contractures of biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle are analyzed after exposure to caffeine and halothane (CHCT. CHCT was performed in individuals who survived, their relatives and those with signs/symptoms somewhat related to MH susceptibility (MHS. Here, we report data from 194 patients collected over 16 years. The Southeast (N = 110 and South (N = 71 represented the majority of patients. Median age was 25 (4-70 years, with similar numbers of males (104 and females (90. MHS was found in 90 patients and 104 patients were normal. Abnormal responses to both caffeine and halothane were observed in 59 patients and to caffeine or halothane in 20 and 11 patients, respectively. The contracture of biopsies from MHS exposed to caffeine and halothane was 1.027 ± 0.075 g (N = 285 and 4.021 ± 0.255 g (N = 226, respectively. MHS was found in patients with either low or high blood creatine kinase and also, with a low score on the clinical grading scale. Thus, these parameters cannot be used with certainty to predict MHS. We conclude that the CHCT protocol described by the North America MH Group contributed to identification of MHS in suspected individuals at an MH center in Brazil with 100% sensitivity and 65.7% specificity.

  12. Magnetic stent hyperthermia for esophageal cancer: an in vitro investigation in the ECA-109 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Yi; Zhao, Ling-Yun; Wang, Yu-Ying; Li, Dan-Ye; Tao, Dan; Li, Li-Ya; Tang, Jin-Tian

    2012-03-01

    Magnetic stent hyperthermia (MSH) is a novel approach for targeted thermotherapy for esophageal cancer, which is based on the mechanism that inductive heat can be generated by the esophageal stent upon exposure under an alternative magnetic field (AMF). A positive effect of MSH on esophageal cancer has been demonstrated, however, there is no study on the in vitro effects of heating treatment or of the effects of AMF exposure on human esophageal cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MSH and of AMF exposure in esophageal cancer cells. Inductive heating characteristics of esophageal stents were assessed by exposing the stents under AMF. A rather rapid temperature rise of the Ni-Ti stent when subjected to AMF exposure was observed and the desired hyperthermic temperature could be controlled by adjusting the field parameter of the AMF. Human esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC) ECA-109 cells were divided into four groups: the control group, the water-bath heating group, the MSH group and the AMF exposure group. Hyperthermic temperatures were 43, 48 and 53˚C and the treatment time was in the range of 5-30 min. The MTT assay, apoptotic analysis and TUNEL staining were applied in the current investigation. Exposure of ECA-109 cells under AMF with a field intensity of 50 to 110 kA/m had negligible effect on cell viability, cell necrosis and apoptosis. Hyperthermia had a remarkable inhibitory effect on the cell viability and the effect was dependent on the thermal dose (temperature and time). The optimal thermal dose of MSH for ECA-109 cells was 48˚C for 20-30 min. The study also elucidated that there was a difference in the effects on cell necrosis and apoptosis between the heating mode of water bath and MSH. The data suggest that MSH may have clinical significance for esophageal cancer treatment.

  13. Parametric investigation of heating due to magnetic fluid hyperthermia in a tumor with blood perfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangruksa, Monrudee; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is a cancer treatment that can selectively elevate the tumor temperature without significantly damaging the surrounding healthy tissue. Optimal MFH design requires a fundamental parametric investigation of the heating of soft materials by magnetic fluids. We model the problem of a spherical tumor and its surrounding healthy tissue that are heated by exciting a homogeneous dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles infused only into the tumor with an external AC magnetic field. The key dimensionless parameters influencing thermotherapy are the Péclet, Fourier, and Joule numbers. Analytical solutions for transient and steady hyperthermia provide correlations between these parameters and the portions of tumor and healthy tissue that are subjected to a threshold temperature beyond which they are damaged. Increasing the ratio of the Fourier and Joule numbers also increases the tumor temperature, but doing so can damage the healthy tissue. Higher magnetic heating is required for larger Péclet numbers due to the larger convection heat loss that occurs through blood perfusion. A comparison of the model predictions with previous experimental data for MFH applied to rabbit tumors shows good agreement. The optimal MFH conditions are identified based on two indices, the fraction IT of the tumor volume in which the local temperature is above a threshold temperature and the ratio IN of the damaged normal tissue volume to the tumor tissue volume that also lies above it. The spatial variation in the nanoparticle concentration is also considered. A Gaussian distribution provides efficacy while minimizing the possibility of generating a tumor hot spot. Varying the thermal properties of tumor and normal tissue alters ITand IN but the nature of the temperature distribution remains unchanged.

  14. Effect of Passive Hyperthermia on Working Memory Resources during Simple and Complex Cognitive Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Gaoua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that hyperthermia represents a cognitive load limiting available resources for executing concurrent cognitive tasks. Electroencephalographic activity (EEG: alpha and theta power was obtained in 10 hyperthermic participants in HOT (50°C, 50% RH conditions and in a normothermic state in CON (25°C, 50% RH conditions in counterbalanced order. In each trial, EEG was measured over the frontal lobe prior to task engagement (PRE in each condition and during simple (One Touch Stockings of Cambridge, OTS-4 and complex (OTS-6 cognitive tasks. Core (39.5 ± 0.5 vs. 36.9 ± 0.2°C and mean skin (39.06 ± 0.3 vs. 31.6 ± 0.6°C temperatures were significantly higher in HOT than CON (p < 0.005. Theta power significantly increased with task demand (p = 0.017, η2 = 0.36 and was significantly higher in HOT than CON (p = 0.041, η2 = 0.39. The difference between HOT and CON was large (η2 = 0.40 and significant (p = 0.036 PRE, large (η2 = 0.20 but not significant (p = 0.17 during OTS-4, and disappeared during OTS-6 (p = 0.87, η2 = 0.00. Those changes in theta power suggest that hyperthermia may act as an additional cognitive load. However, this load disappeared during OTS-6 together with an impaired performance, suggesting a potential saturation of the available resources.

  15. Regional hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy in paediatric, adolescent and young adult patients: current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Georg; Budach, Volker; Keilholz, Ulrich; Wust, Peter; Eggert, Angelika; Ghadjar, Pirus

    2016-04-30

    Here we evaluate the current status of clinical research on regional hyperthermia (RHT) in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy in paediatric oncology.Data were identified in searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using medical subject headings including hyperthermia, cancer, paediatric oncology, children, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Currently, only two RHT centres exist in Europe which treat children. Clinical RHT research in paediatric oncology has as yet been limited to children with sarcomas and germ cell tumours that respond poorly to or recur after chemotherapy. RHT is a safe and effective treatment delivering local thermic effects, which may also stimulate immunological processes via heat-shock protein reactions. RHT is used chiefly in children and adolescents with sarcomas or germ cell tumours located in the abdomino-pelvic region, chest wall or extremities to improve operability or render the tumour operable. It could potentially be combined with radiation therapy in a post-operative R1 setting where more radical surgery is not possible or combined with chemotherapy instead of radiation therapy in cases where the necessary radiation dose is impossible to achieve or would have mutilating consequences. RHT might also be an option for chemotherapy intensification in the neoadjuvant first-line treatment setting for children and adolescents, as was recently reflected in the promising long-term outcome data in adults with high-risk soft tissue sarcomas (EORTC 62961/ESHO trial).The limited data available indicate that combining RHT with chemotherapy is a promising option to treat germ cell tumours and, potentially, sarcomas. RHT may also be beneficial in first-line therapy in children, adolescents and young adults. The research should focus on optimising necessary technical demands and then initiate several clinical trials incorporating RHT into interdisciplinary treatment of children

  16. Hyperthermia sensitizes Rhizopus oryzae to posaconazole and itraconazole action through apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Fazal; Pontikos, Michael A; Walsh, Thomas J; Albert, Nathaniel; Lewis, Russell E; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-09-01

    The high mortality rate of mucormycosis with currently available monotherapy has created interest in studying novel strategies for antifungal agents. With the exception of amphotericin B (AMB), the triazoles (posaconazole [PCZ] and itraconazole [ICZ]) are fungistatic in vitro against Rhizopus oryzae . We hypothesized that growth at a high temperature (42°C) results in fungicidal activity of PCZ and ICZ that is mediated through apoptosis. R. oryzae had high MIC values for PCZ and ICZ (16 to 64 μg/ml) at 25°C; in contrast, the MICs for PCZ and ICZ were significantly lower at 37°C (8 to 16 μg/ml) and 42°C (0.25 to 1 μg/ml). Furthermore, PCZ and ICZ dose-dependent inhibition of germination was more pronounced at 42°C than at 37°C. In addition, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased significantly when fungi were exposed to antifungals at 42°C. Characteristic cellular changes of apoptosis in R. oryzae were induced by the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with hyperthermia (42°C) exhibited characteristic markers of early apoptosis: phosphatidylserine externalization visualized by annexin V staining, membrane depolarization visualized by bis-[1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid] trimethine oxonol (DiBAC) staining, and increased metacaspase activity. Moreover, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining demonstrated DNA fragmentation and condensation, respectively. The addition of N-acetylcysteine increased fungal survival, prevented apoptosis, reduced ROS accumulation, and decreased metacaspase activation. We concluded that hyperthermia, either alone or in the presence of PCZ or ICZ, induces apoptosis in R. oryzae. Local thermal delivery could be a therapeutically useful adjunct strategy for these refractory infections.

  17. Malignant hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood when muscle is destroyed during a bout of the illness) Genetic testing to look for ... blood flow and nerve function ( compartment syndrome ) Death Abnormal blood clotting and bleeding Heart rhythm problems Kidney ...

  18. Web Lectures - ATLAS Overview Week

    CERN Multimedia

    Tushar Bhatnagar; Jeremy Herr; Mitch McLachlan; Homer A. Neal

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS Web Archives Web Archives of the ATLAS Overview Week in Glasgow are now available from the University of Michigan portal here. Archives of ATLAS Plenary Sessions, Workshops, Meetings, and Tutorials recorded over the past two years are available via the University of Michigan Lecture Portal. Other recent additions include the ROOT Workshop held at CERN on March 26-27, the Physics Analysis Tools Workshop held in Bergen, Norway on April 23-27, and the CTEQ Workshop: "Physics at the LHC: Early Challenges" held at Michigan State University on May 14-15. Viewing requires a standard Web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the Web or downloaded locally. In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal. Feedback & Suggestions Welcome Suggestions for events or tutorials to record in 2007, as well as feedback on existing archives, is always welcome...

  19. Biomedical applications of magnetic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Mefford, Thompson

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic particles are increasingly being used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. Written by a team of internationally respected experts, this book provides an up-to-date authoritative reference for scientists and engineers. The first section presents the fundamentals of the field by explaining the theory of magnetism, describing techniques to synthesize magnetic particles, and detailing methods to characterize magnetic particles. The second section describes biomedical applications, including chemical sensors and cellular actuators, and diagnostic applications such as drug delivery, hyperthermia cancer treatment, and magnetic resonance imaging contrast.

  20. The effect of cell-cluster size on intracellular nanoparticle-mediated hyperthermia: is it possible to treat microscopic tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Mohammad; Thomas, Owen; Abubaker-Sharif, Budri; Zhou, Haoming; Cornejo, Christine; Zhang, Yonggang; Wabler, Michele; Mihalic, Jana; Gruettner, Cordula; Westphal, Fritz; Geyh, Alison; Deweese, Theodore l; Ivkov, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Aim To compare the measured surface temperature of variable size ensembles of cells heated by intracellular magnetic fluid hyperthermia with heat diffusion model predictions. Materials & methods Starch-coated Bionized NanoFerrite (Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Rostock, Germany) iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles were loaded into cultured DU145 prostate cancer cells. Cell pellets of variable size were treated with alternating magnetic fields. The surface temperature of the pellets was measured in situ and the associated cytotoxicity was determined by clonogenic survival assay. Results & conclusion For a given intracellular nanoparticle concentration, a critical minimum number of cells was required for cytotoxic hyperthermia. Above this threshold, cytotoxicity increased with increasing cell number. The measured surface temperatures were consistent with those predicted by a heat diffusion model that ignores intercellular thermal barriers. These results suggest a minimum tumor volume threshold of approximately 1 mm3, below which nanoparticle-mediated heating is unlikely to be effective as the sole cytotoxic agent. PMID:23173694

  1. The effect of cell cluster size on intracellular nanoparticle-mediated hyperthermia: is it possible to treat microscopic tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Mohammad; Thomas, Owen; Abubaker-Sharif, Budri; Zhou, Haoming; Cornejo, Christine; Zhang, Yonggang; Wabler, Michele; Mihalic, Jana; Gruettner, Cordula; Westphal, Fritz; Geyh, Alison; Deweese, Theodore L; Ivkov, Robert

    2013-01-01

    To compare the measured surface temperature of variable size ensembles of cells heated by intracellular magnetic fluid hyperthermia with heat diffusion model predictions. Starch-coated Bionized NanoFerrite (Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Rostock, Germany) iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles were loaded into cultured DU145 prostate cancer cells. Cell pellets of variable size were treated with alternating magnetic fields. The surface temperature of the pellets was measured in situ and the associated cytotoxicity was determined by clonogenic survival assay. For a given intracellular nanoparticle concentration, a critical minimum number of cells was required for cytotoxic hyperthermia. Above this threshold, cytotoxicity increased with increasing cell number. The measured surface temperatures were consistent with those predicted by a heat diffusion model that ignores intercellular thermal barriers. These results suggest a minimum tumor volume threshold of approximately 1 mm(3), below which nanoparticle-mediated heating is unlikely to be effective as the sole cytotoxic agent.

  2. Physics responsible for heating efficiency and self-controlled temperature rise of magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic hyperthermia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaterabadi, Zhila; Nabiyouni, Gholamreza; Soleymani, Meysam

    2017-10-06

    Magnetic nanoparticles as heat-generating nanosources in hyperthermia treatment are still faced with many drawbacks for achieving sufficient clinical potential. In this context, increase in heating ability of magnetic nanoparticles in a biologically safe alternating magnetic field and also approach to a precise control on temperature rise are two challenging subjects so that a significant part of researchers' efforts has been devoted to them. Since a deep understanding of Physics concepts of heat generation by magnetic nanoparticles is essential to develop hyperthermia as a cancer treatment with non-adverse side effects, this review focuses on different mechanisms responsible for heat dissipation in a radio frequency magnetic field. Moreover, particular attention is given to ferrite-based nanoparticles because of their suitability in radio frequency magnetic fields. Also, the key role of Curie temperature in suppressing undesired temperature rise is highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermally responsive nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin and its combination with mild hyperthermia for enhanced cancer cell destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Wei; Zhang, Wujie; Poventud-Fuentes, Izmarie; Wang, Yongchen; Lei, Yifeng; Agarwal, Pranay; Weekes, Benjamin; Li, Chenglong; Lu, Xiongbin; Yu, Jianhua; He, Xiaoming

    2014-02-01

    In this study, thermally responsive polymeric nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin (nCCM) was prepared and characterized. The nCCM is ≈ 22 and 300 nm in diameter at 37 and 22 °C, respectively. The smaller size of the nCCM at 37 °C was found to significantly facilitate its uptake in vitro by human prostate adenocarcinoma PC-3 cancer cells. However, the intracellular nCCM decreases rapidly (rather than plateaus) after reaching its peak at ≈ 1.5 h during a 3-day incubation of the PC-3 cells with nCCM. Moreover, a mild hyperthermia (with negligible cytotoxicity alone) at 43 °C applied between 1 and 1.5 h during the 3-day incubation not only increases the peak uptake but also alters intracellular distribution of nCCM (facilitating its delivery into cell nuclei), which helps to retain a significantly much higher level of intracellular curcumin. These effects of mild hyperthermia could be due in part to the thermal responsiveness of the nCCM: they are more positively charged at 43 °C and can be more easily attracted to the negatively charged nuclear membrane to enter nuclei as a result of electrostatic interaction. Ultimately, a combination of the thermally responsive nCCM and mild hyperthermia significantly enhances the anticancer capability of nCCM, resulting in a more than 7-fold decrease in its inhibitory concentration to reduce cell viability to 50% (IC50). Further mechanistic studies suggest injury pathways associated with heat shock proteins 27 and 70 should contribute to the enhanced cancer cell destruction by inducing cell apoptosis and necrosis. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of combining mild hyperthermia and thermally responsive nanodrugs such as nCCM for augmented cancer therapy.

  4. Cell-delivered magnetic nanoparticles caused hyperthermia-mediated increased survival in a murine pancreatic cancer model

    OpenAIRE

    Basel MT; Balivada S; Wang H.; Shrestha TB; Seo GM; Pyle M; Abayaweera G; Dani R.; Koper OB; Tamura M; Chikan V; Bossmann SH; Troyer DL

    2012-01-01

    Matthew T Basel1, Sivasai Balivada1, Hongwang Wang2, Tej B Shrestha1, Gwi Moon Seo1, Marla Pyle1, Gayani Abayaweera2, Raj Dani2, Olga B Koper2, Masaaki Tamura1, Viktor Chikan2, Stefan H Bossmann2, Deryl L Troyer11Department of Anatomy and Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Chemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USAAbstract: Using magnetic nanoparticles to absorb alternating magnetic field energy as a method of generating localized hyperthermia has been show...

  5. Pulp hyperthermia during tooth preparation: the effect of rotary--instruments, lasers, ultrasonic devices, and airborne particle abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Manuel S; Kundabala, M

    2012-09-01

    The rise in pulp temperature during restorative therapy can compromise vitality of the dental pulp. Of the various reasons for the increase in intrapulpal temperature, tooth preparation is considered to be the primary cause. This article describes the reasons for the rise in pulp temperature during various modalities of tooth preparation. The article also comments on the measures that need to be taken to avoid the risk of pulp hyperthermia during tooth preparation.

  6. Protocols for Assessing Radiofrequency Interactions with Nanoparticles and Biological Systems for Non-Invasive Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Corr, Stuart J.; Cisneros, Brandon T.; Green, Leila; Raoof, Mustafa; Curley, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer therapies which are less toxic and invasive than their existing counterparts are highly desirable. The use of RF electric-fields that penetrate deep into the body, causing minimal toxicity, are currently being studied as a viable means of non-invasive cancer therapy. It is envisioned that the interactions of RF energy with internalized nanoparticles (NPs) can liberate heat which can then cause overheating (hyperthermia) of the cell, ultimately ending in cell necrosis.

  7. Critical role of peripheral vasoconstriction in fatal brain hyperthermia induced by MDMA (Ecstasy) under conditions that mimic human drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Kim, Albert H; Wakabayashi, Ken T; Baumann, Michael H; Shaham, Yavin

    2014-06-04

    MDMA (Ecstasy) is an illicit drug used by young adults at hot, crowed "rave" parties, yet the data on potential health hazards of its abuse remain controversial. Here, we examined the effect of MDMA on temperature homeostasis in male rats under standard laboratory conditions and under conditions that simulate drug use in humans. We chronically implanted thermocouple microsensors in the nucleus accumbens (a brain reward area), temporal muscle, and facial skin to measure temperature continuously from freely moving rats. While focusing on brain hyperthermia, temperature monitoring from the two peripheral locations allowed us to evaluate the physiological mechanisms (i.e., intracerebral heat production and heat loss via skin surfaces) that underlie MDMA-induced brain temperature responses. Our data confirm previous reports on high individual variability and relatively weak brain hyperthermic effects of MDMA under standard control conditions (quiet rest, 22-23°C), but demonstrate dramatic enhancements of drug-induced brain hyperthermia during social interaction (exposure to male conspecific) and in warm environments (29°C). Importantly, we identified peripheral vasoconstriction as a critical mechanism underlying the activity- and state-dependent potentiation of MDMA-induced brain hyperthermia. Through this mechanism, which prevents proper heat dissipation to the external environment, MDMA at a moderate nontoxic dose (9 mg/kg or ~1/5 of LD50 in rats) can cause fatal hyperthermia under environmental conditions commonly encountered by humans. Our results demonstrate that doses of MDMA that are nontoxic under cool, quiet conditions can become highly dangerous under conditions that mimic recreational use of MDMA at rave parties or other hot, crowded venues. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347754-09$15.00/0.

  8. Identification of Key Genes Affecting Results of Hyperthermia in Osteosarcoma Based on Integrative ChIP-Seq/TargetScan Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuxia; Yang, Fan; Wei, Shuqing; Xu, Gang

    2017-04-28

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to research the effects of hyperthermia on osteosarcoma (OS) by integrating the Chromatin Immunoprecipitation with the generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and TargetScan analysis of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). MATERIAL AND METHODS The HSF1 ChIP-seq dataset of GSE60984 was downloaded from the Gene Expressed Omnibus (GEO) database. The HSF1-binding sites were screened by MACS2 in OS cells after 10 and 20 min of hyperthermia, and they were annotated using the ChIPseeker package. The overlapped genes were selected out when HSF1-binding sites were located in the promoter region. The Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) was used to perform Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of the overlaps. The miRNA-gene pairs of the overlaps were screened out via TargetScan, and the miRNA-gene-regulated network was constructed by Cytoscape software. RESULTS 1880 and 1283 genes of promoter regions were obtained in the osteosarcoma cells after 10 and 20 min of hyperthermia, respectively, and 889 of them were overlapped. The overlapped genes were enriched in 122 GO terms and 3 KEGG pathways. There were 13 657 pairs involved in the miRNA-gene regulated network of the overlaps. CONCLUSIONS Some biomarkers were identified for OS treated with hyperthermia. Moreover, some GO terms (regulation of programmed cell death and regulation of cell death) and pathways (p53 signaling pathway, methane metabolism, and viral myocarditis) might be involved.

  9. Nano-engineering of 5-fluorouracil-loaded magnetoliposomes for combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy against colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clares, Beatriz; Biedma-Ortiz, Rafael A; Sáez-Fernández, Eva; Prados, José C; Melguizo, Consolación; Cabeza, Laura; Ortiz, Raúl; Arias, José L

    2013-11-01

    The present investigation aimed to develop magnetoliposome nanoparticles loaded with 5-fluorouracil by following a reproducible thin film hydration technique. The physicochemical characterization (including electron microscopy analysis, dynamic light scattering, infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, electrophoresis, and surface thermodynamics) suggested that superparamagnetic magnetite nuclei were successfully embedded into a multilamellar lipid vesicle. Magnetic responsiveness of these nanocomposites was quantitatively analyzed by determining the hysteresis cycle and qualitatively confirmed by microscopic visualizations. A high frequency alternating electromagnetic field was further used to define their heating properties. The absence of cytotoxicity in human colon fibroblast CCD-18 and in human colon carcinoma T-84 cell lines and excellent hemocompatibility of these core/shell particles were demonstrated. Additionally, 5-fluorouracil incorporation was investigated by two procedures: (i) entrapment into the nanoparticulate matrix and (ii) surface deposition onto already formed magnetoliposome particles. The former method reported greater drug loading values and a sustained release profile. Interestingly, 5-fluorouracil release was also triggered by the heating properties of the nanoparticles (hyperthermia-triggered drug release). Hence, we put forward that magnetoliposome particles hold important properties, that is, magnetically targeted delivery, hyperthermia inducing capability, high 5-fluorouracil loading capability, and hyperthermia-triggered burst drug release, suggestive of their potential for a combined antitumor therapy against colon cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biotin-Containing Reduced Graphene Oxide-Based Nanosystem as a Multieffect Anticancer Agent: Combining Hyperthermia with Targeted Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Nicolò; Scialabba, Cinzia; Cavallaro, Gennara; Licciardi, Mariano; Giammona, Gaetano

    2015-09-14

    Among the relevant properties of graphene derivatives, their ability of acting as an energy-converting device so as to produce heat (i.e., thermoablation and hyperthermia) was more recently taken into account for the treatment of solid tumors. In this pioneering study, for the first time, the in vitro RGO-induced hyperthermia was assessed and combined with the stimuli-sensitive anticancer effect of a biotinylated inulin-doxorubicin conjugate (CJ-PEGBT), hence, getting to a nanosystem endowed with synergic anticancer effects and high specificity. CJ-PEGBT was synthesized by linking pentynoic acid and citraconic acid to inulin. The citraconylamide pendants, used as pH reversible spacer, were exploited to further conjugate doxorubicin, whereas the alkyne moiety was orthogonally functionalized with an azido PEG-biotin derivative by copper(II) catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. DSC measures, AFM, and UV spectrophotometry were employed to systematically investigate adsorption of CJ-PEGBT onto RGO and its physicochemical stability in aqueous media, demonstrating that a stable π-staked nanosystem can be obtained. In vitro tests using cancer breast cells (MCF-7) showed the ability of the RGO/CJ-PEGBT of efficiently killing cancer cells both via a selective laser beam thermoablation and hyperthermia-triggered chemotherapy. If compared with the nonbiotinylated nanosystem, including virgin RGO and the free conjugate, RGO/CJ-PEGBT is endowed with a smart combination of properties which warrant potential as an anticancer nanomedicine.

  11. Study on the usefulness of high-frequency analysis of the combined treatment of cancer with hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Youn Sang; Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Hwa Yeon [Dept. of of Radiology, Nambu University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In order to understand the usefulness to the high-frequency thermal therapy of cancer staging according to the TNM classification treatment, was to evaluate the effect of high frequency hyperthermia treatment approach through other means and whether other organs, according to the combined presence of transition. Targeted to receive more than a total of 1 cycle high frequency heat treatment at C hospital that performed the high-frequency hyperthermia cancer patients 92 people out stage, depending on the presence or absence of metastasis, combined hyperthermia patients for statistics before and after treatment the therapeutic effect of the therapeutic classification. Out of a total of 92 patients decrease 11 patients, stable 71 patients, with increase 10 patients, the rate of increase is the result of about 11% patients showed a decrease of about 89% is occupied by patients and a stable rate. There is strong evidence for the usefulness as a secondary therapy to maintain the quality of life, while slowing the progression of cancer by a high-frequency heat treatment.

  12. Combination of hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy on mesenchymal stem cell line treated with chloroaluminum phthalocyanine magnetic-nanoemulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Leonardo B.; Primo, Fernando L.; Pinto, Marcelo R.; Morais, Paulo C.; Tedesco, Antonio C.

    2015-04-01

    The present study reports on the preparation and the cell viability assay of two nanoemulsions loaded with magnetic nanoparticle and chloroaluminum phthalocyanine. The preparations contain equal amount of chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (0.05 mg/mL) but different contents of magnetic nanoparticle (0.15×1013 or 1.50×1013 particle/mL). The human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell line was used as the model to assess the cell viability and this type of cell can be used as a model to mimic cancer stem cells. The cell viability assays were performed in isolated as well as under combined magnetic hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy treatments. We found from the cell viability assay that under the hyperthermia treatment (1 MHz and 40 Oe magnetic field amplitude) the cell viability reduction was about 10%, regardless the magnetic nanoparticle content within the magnetic nanoparticle/chloroaluminum phthalocyanine formulation. However, cell viability reduction of about 50% and 60% were found while applying the photodynamic therapy treatment using the magnetic nanoparticle/chloroaluminum phthalocyanine formulation containing 0.15×1013 or 1.50×1013 magnetic particle/mL, respectively. Finally, an average reduction in cell viability of about 66% was found while combining the hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy treatments.

  13. Nanoparticles of Molybdenum Chlorophyllin Photosensitizer and Magnetic Citrate-Coated Cobalt Ferrite Complex Available to Hyperthermia and Photodynamic Therapy Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Fernando L.; Cordo, Paloma L. A. G.; Neto, Alberto F.; Morais, Paulo C.; Tedesco, Antonio C.

    2010-12-01

    This study report on the synthesis and characterization of molybdenum chlorophyllin (Mo-Chl) compounds associated in a complex with magnetic nanoparticles (citrate-coated cobalt ferrite), the latter prepared as a biocompatible magnetic fluid (MF). The complex material was developed for application as a synergic drug for cancer treatment using Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and Hyperthermia (HPT). Chlorophyllin was obtained from alkaline extraction of Ilex paraguariensis following molybdenum insertion from hydrolysis with molybdate sodium. Fluorescence quantum yield (Φf) of Mo-Chl/dimethyl-sulphoxide (DMSO) was lower than 0.1, with a lifetime of 5.0 ns, as obtained from time-correlated single-photon counting technique. The oxygen quantum yield of Mo-Chl was carried out using laser flash-photolysis studies in homogeneous medium saturated with O2(g) (ΦΔ = 0.50). Cellular viability was also evaluated via the classical MTT assay using gingival fibroblasts cells as a biological model. Studies performed with the complex Mo-Chl (5.0 μmol.L-1)/MF at different magnetic nanoparticle concentrations (ranging from 1012 to 1015 particle.mL-1) revealed a cellular viability of approximately 95% for the ideal magnetic material concentration of 1×10 particle.mL-1. The present study shows that natural photosensitizers molecules Mo-Chl used in association with magnetic nanoparticles represent a promising generation of drug developed to work synergistically in the treatment of neoplastic tissues using PDT and HPT.

  14. How to prepare head tissue-equivalent liquids for SAR calculations, dosimetry and hyperthermia researches at 900 and 1800 MHz GSM frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgucu, Ugur; Develi, Ibrahim; Ozen, Sukru

    2016-03-01

    The potential harmful effect of electromagnetic fields on human health is an important issue that has been widely discussed in the scientific community. The investigation of temperature rise in human body following exposure to electromagnetic fields has been found impractical in many aspects. Therefore, fabrication of the tissue-equivalent liquids (TELs) is required. TELs have been widely employed in specific absorption rate calculations, dosimetry and hyperthermia researches. In this study, two separate head tissue-equivalent liquids (HELs) were prepared for 900 and 1800 MHz frequencies. The conductivity and relative permittivity of the HEL prepared for 900 MHz frequency were found to deviate from The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards at the rates of 6.20 and 2.70 %, whereas the HEL prepared for 1800 MHz applications exhibited 1.83 and 3.22 % deviations from IEEE standards, respectively. This study provides a method for researchers to prepare their own HELs in a practical way. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. SU-F-J-05: The Effect of Air Pockets in the Urinary Bladder During Bladder Hyperthermia Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooneveldt, G.; Kok, H.P.; Bakker, A.; Geijsen, E.D.; Reijke, T.M. de; Crezee, J. [Academisch Medisch Centrum / Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Hyperthermia combined with Mitomycin C is used for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), using a phased array system of microwave antennas for bladder heating. Often some air is present in the bladder, which effectively blocks the microwave radiation, potentially preventing proper treatment of that part of the bladder. Air can be a relevant fraction of the bladder content and large air pockets are expected to have a noticeable influence on achieved temperatures. Methods: We analysed 14 NMIBC patients treated at our institute with our AMC-4 hyperthermia device with four 70MHz antennas around the pelvis. A CT scan was made after treatment and a physician delineated the bladder on the CT scan. On the same scan, the amount of air present in the bladder was delineated. Using our in-house developed hyperthermia treatment planning system, we simulated the treatment using the clinically applied device settings. We did this once with the air pocket delineated on the CT scan, and once with the same volume filled with bladder tissue. Results: The patients had on average 4.2ml (range 0.8–10.1ml) air in the bladder. The bladder volume was delineated by the physician, that is including air pocket and bladder wall, was on average 253ml (range 93–452ml). The average volume in which changes exceeded 0.25°C was 22ml (range 0–108 ml), with the bladder being up to 2°C cooler when an air pocket was present. Except for extreme cases, there was no evident relation between the quantity of air and the difference in temperature. Conclusion: The effect of an air pocket in the bladder during bladder hyperthermia treatment varies strongly between patients. Generally, this leads to lower temperatures in the bladder, potentially affecting treatment quality, and suggesting that care need be taken to minimise the size of air pockets during hyperthermia treatments. The KWF Dutch Cancer Society financially supported this work, grant UVA 2012-5539.

  16. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species induced by hyperthermia in biological fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Megumi; Nyui, Minako; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Anzai, Kazunori; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Uto, Yoshihiro

    2014-03-01

    The scavenging activity of rat plasma against hyperthermia-induced reactive oxygen species was tested. The glutathione-dependent reduction of a nitroxyl radical, 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl, which was restricted by adding superoxide dismutase or by deoxygenating the reaction mixture, was applied to an index of superoxide (O2 (•-)) generation. A reaction mixture containing 0.1 mM 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl and 1 mM glutathione was prepared using 100 mM phosphate buffer containing 0.05 mM diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. The reaction mixture was kept in a screw-top vial and incubated in a water bath at 37 or 44°C. The time course of the electron paramagnetic resonance signal of 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl in the reaction mixture was measured by an X-band EPR spectrometer (JEOL, Tokyo, Japan). When the same experiment was performed using rat plasma instead of 100 mM PB, the glutathione-dependent reduction of 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl, i.e., generation of O2 (•-), was not obtained. Only the first-order decay reduction of 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl, which indicates direct reduction of 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl, was obtained in rat plasma. Adding 0.5% albumin to the phosphate buffer reaction mixture could almost completely inhibit O2 (•-) generation at 37°C. However, addition of 0.5% albumin could not inhibit O2 (•-) generation at 44°C, i.e., hyperthermic temperature. Ascorbic acid also showed inhibition of O2 (•-) generation by 0.01 mM at 37°C, but 0.02 mM or more could inhibit O2 (•-) generation at 44°C. A higher concentration of ascorbic acid showed first-order reduction, i.e., direct one-electron reduction, of 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl. Hyperthermia-induced O2 (•-) generation in rat plasma can be mostly inhibited by albumin and ascorbic acid in the plasma.

  17. Exercise-induced hyperthermia syndrome (canine stress syndrome in four related male English springer spaniels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrift E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Thrift,1 Justin A Wimpole,2 Georgina Child,2 Narelle Brown,1 Barbara Gandolfi,3 Richard Malik4 1Animal Referral Hospital, 2Small Animal Specialist Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; 4Centre for Veterinary Education, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Objective: This retrospective study describes the signalment, clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, and mode of inheritance in four young male English springer spaniel dogs with presumptive canine stress syndrome.Materials and methods: Appropriate cases were located through medical searches of medical records of two large private referral centers. Inclusion criteria comprised of English springer spaniel dogs with tachypnea and hyperthermia that subsequently developed weakness or collapse, with or without signs of hemorrhage, soon after a period of mild-to-moderate exercise. The pedigrees of the four affected dogs, as well as eleven related English springer spaniels, were then analyzed to determine a presumptive mode of genetic inheritance.Results: Four dogs met the inclusion criteria. All four were male, suggesting the possibility of a recessive sex-linked heritable disorder. Pedigree analysis suggests that more dogs may be potentially affected, although these dogs may have never had the concurrent triggering drug/activity/event to precipitate the clinical syndrome. There was complete resolution of clinical signs in three of the four dogs with aggressive symptomatic and supportive therapy, with one dog dying during treatment.Conclusion: Dogs with canine stress syndrome have the potential for rapid recovery if treated aggressively and the complications of the disease (eg, coagulopathy are anticipated. All four dogs were male, suggesting the possibility of a recessive sex-linked mode of inheritance. Further genetic analyses should be strongly considered by those

  18. Optimizing Cold-Water Immersion for Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia: An Evidence-Based Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Emma A; Edler, Jessica R; Eberman, Lindsey E; Games, Kenneth E

    2016-06-02

    Reference: Zhang Y, Davis JK, Casa DJ, Bishop PA. Optimizing cold water immersion for exercise-induced hyperthermia: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(11):2464-2472. Clinical Questions: Do optimal procedures exist for implementing cold-water immersion (CWI) that yields high cooling rates for hyperthermic individuals? One reviewer performed a literature search using PubMed and Web of Science. Search phrases were cold water immersion, forearm immersion, ice bath, ice water immersion, immersion, AND cooling. Studies were included based on the following criteria: (1) English language, (2) full-length articles published in peer-reviewed journals, (3) healthy adults subjected to exercise-induced hyperthermia, and (4) reporting of core temperature as 1 outcome measure. A total of 19 studies were analyzed. Pre-immersion core temperature, immersion water temperature, ambient temperature, immersion duration, and immersion level were coded a priori for extraction. Data originally reported in graphical form were digitally converted to numeric values. Mean differences comparing the cooling rates of CWI with passive recovery, standard deviation of change from baseline core temperature, and within-subjects r were extracted. Two independent reviewers used the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale to assess the risk of bias. Cold-water immersion increased the cooling rate by 0.03°C/min (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03, 0.04°C/min) compared with passive recovery. Cooling rates were more effective when the pre-immersion core temperature was ≥38.6°C (P = .023), immersion water temperature was ≤10°C (P = .036), ambient temperature was ≥20°C (P = .013), or immersion duration was ≤10 minutes (P < .001). Cooling rates for torso and limb immersion (mean difference = 0.04°C/min, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.06°C/min) were higher (P = .028) than those for forearm and hand immersion (mean difference = 0.01°C/min, 95% CI = -0.01, 0.04°C/min). Hyperthermic

  19. 75 FR 70999 - National Entrepreneurship Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Proclamation 8600--National Entrepreneurship Week, 2010 Proclamation 8601--America Recycles Day, 2010 #0; #0... 15, 2010 National Entrepreneurship Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... and work hard enough, the American dream is within your reach. During National Entrepreneurship Week...

  20. Understanding Infidelity: An Interview with Gerald Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Travis

    2011-01-01

    In this interview, Gerald Weeks shares his expertise on the topic of infidelity and couples counseling. Dr. Weeks defines infidelity, presents assessment strategies for treating the issue of infidelity, and discusses an intersystemic model for infidelity treatment when counseling couples. Dr. Weeks also provides insight into common mistakes made…

  1. Clinical applications of custom-made vaginal cylinders constructed using three-dimensional printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Rajni; Cunha, Adam; Mellis, Katherine; Siauw, Timmy; Diederich, Chris; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I-Chow

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology allows physicians to rapidly create customized devices for patients. We report our initial clinical experience using this technology to create custom applicators for vaginal brachytherapy. Three brachytherapy patients with unique clinical needs were identified as likely to benefit from a customized vaginal applicator. Patient 1 underwent intracavitary vaginal cuff brachytherapy after hysterectomy and chemotherapy for stage IA papillary serous endometrial cancer using a custom printed 2.75 cm diameter segmented vaginal cylinder with a central channel. Patient 2 underwent interstitial brachytherapy for a vaginal cuff recurrence of endometrial cancer after prior hysterectomy, whole pelvis radiotherapy, and brachytherapy boost. We printed a 2 cm diameter vaginal cylinder with one central and six peripheral catheter channels to fit a narrow vaginal canal. Patient 3 underwent interstitial brachytherapy boost for stage IIIA vulvar cancer with vaginal extension. For more secure applicator fit within a wide vaginal canal, we printed a 3.5 cm diameter solid cylinder with one central tandem channel and ten peripheral catheter channels. The applicators were printed in a biocompatible, sterilizable thermoplastic. Patient 1 received 31.5 Gy to the surface in three fractions over two weeks. Patient 2 received 36 Gy to the CTV in six fractions over two implants one week apart, with interstitial hyperthermia once per implant. Patient 3 received 18 Gy in three fractions over one implant after 45 Gy external beam radiotherapy. Brachytherapy was tolerated well with no grade 3 or higher toxicity and no local recurrences. We established a workflow to rapidly manufacture and implement customized vaginal applicators that can be sterilized and are made of biocompatible material, resulting in high-quality brachytherapy for patients whose anatomy is not ideally suited for standard, commercially available applicators.

  2. Refresher Course in Mathematics Science Academies Two Week ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 2. Refresher Course in Mathematics Science Academies Two Week Refresher Course on Analysis and its Applications. Information and Announcements Volume 21 Issue 2 February 2016 pp 199-200 ...

  3. Physical mechanism and modeling of heat generation and transfer in magnetic fluid hyperthermia through Néelian and Brownian relaxation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyanto; Ng, E Y K; Kumar, S D

    2017-03-23

    Current clinically accepted technologies for cancer treatment still have limitations which lead to the exploration of new therapeutic methods. Since the past few decades, the hyperthermia treatment has attracted the attention of investigators owing to its strong biological rationales in applying hyperthermia as a cancer treatment modality. Advancement of nanotechnology offers a potential new heating method for hyperthermia by using nanoparticles which is termed as magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). In MFH, superparamagnetic nanoparticles dissipate heat through Néelian and Brownian relaxation in the presence of an alternating magnetic field. The heating power of these particles is dependent on particle properties and treatment settings. A number of pre-clinical and clinical trials were performed to test the feasibility of this novel treatment modality. There are still issues yet to be solved for the successful transition of this technology from bench to bedside. These issues include the planning, execution, monitoring and optimization of treatment. The modeling and simulation play crucial roles in solving some of these issues. Thus, this review paper provides a basic understanding of the fundamental and rationales of hyperthermia and recent development in the modeling and simulation applied to depict the heat generation and transfer phenomena in the MFH.

  4. Fatal recrudescence of malignant hyperthermia in an infant with Moebius syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Cláudia Regina; Pinto Filho, Washington Aspiculeta; Cezar, Lia Cavalcante; Alves Gomes, Josenília Maria; Florencio da Cunha, Glauco Kleming

    2013-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic skeletal muscle disorder characterized by a hypermetabolic state after anesthesia with succinylcholine and/ or volatile anesthetics. Various neuromuscular syndromes are associated with susceptibility; however, Moebius syndrome has not been reported. Dantrolene is the drug of choice for treatment. Recurrence may occur in up to 20% of cases after the initial event treatment. Male infant, fi rst twin, 7 months old, weighing 6.5kg and presenting with Moebius syndrome was admitted for clubfoot repair. The patient had MH after exposure to sevoflurane and succinylcholine, which was readily reversed with dantrolene maintained for 24 hours. Ten hours after dantrolene discontinuation, there was recrudescence of MH that did not respond satisfactorily to treatment, and the patient died. Musculoskeletal disorders in children are associated with increased risk of developing MH, although Moebius syndrome has not yet been reported. Dantrolene is the drug of choice for treating this syndrome; prophylaxis is indicated during the fi rst 24-48 hours of the episode onset. The main risk factors for recurrence are muscular type, long latency after anesthetic exposure, and increased temperature. The child had only one risk factor. This case leads us to reflect on how we must be attentive to children with musculoskeletal disease and maintain treatment for 48 hours. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term behavioral outcome after early-life hyperthermia-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Evi M P; Aendekerk, Brenda; Schijns, Olaf E M G; Blokland, Arjan; Beuls, Emile A M; Hoogland, Govert

    2009-02-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are among the most common types of seizures in the developing brain. It has been suggested that FS cause cognitive deficits that proceed into adulthood, but the information is conflicting. The aim of the present study was to determine whether experimental FS have long-term cognitive or behavioral deficits. FS were induced by hyperthermia (30 minutes, approximately 41 degrees C) in 10-day-old rat pups, and behavioral testing was performed. Hippocampus-dependent water maze learning, locomotor activity, and choice reaction time parameters (e.g., reaction time) were generally not affected by FS. However, more detailed analysis revealed that reaction times on the right side were slower than those on the left in controls, whereas this was not observed after FS. Early-life experimental FS did not cause overt cognitive and behavioral deficits, which is in line with previous work, but eliminated the lateralization effect in reaction time known to occur in normal controls, an effect that may be due to the combination of FS and kainic acid or to FS alone.

  6. Malignant Hyperthermia during Thoracoscopic Pulmorrhaphy in a 70-Year-Old Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Sakai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a rare but potentially fatal complication that may develop under general anesthesia (GA and is rarely reported in elderly patients. We encountered a case of mild-onset MH in a 70-year-old patient who was receiving an elective thoracoscopic pulmorrhaphy and had a history of several GA procedures. Anesthesia was induced with propofol, fentanyl, and rocuronium and maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. His body temperature (BT was 37.9°C after induction. During the procedure, the end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2 increased steadily to 47–50 mmHg, presumably in response to the single lung ventilation. At the end, BT was 38.1°C and ETCO2 was 47 mmHg under spontaneous breathing. After extubation, the patient wheezed on inspiration and expiration, and his trachea was reintubated. Sixty minutes after surgery, BT increased to 40.5°C and the arterial blood gas analysis showed severe metabolic acidosis. Based on these findings, MH was suspected and a bolus dose of dantrolene was administered. He responded to the dantrolene, and no complications or recurrence of MH was observed postoperatively. In this patient, the initial signs of MH were so subtle that making the diagnosis of MH was difficult. A high degree of suspicion is necessary to prevent a fulminant MH crisis.

  7. Heat Transfer Simulation for Optimization and Treatment Planning of Magnetic Hyperthermia Using Magnetic Particle Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Banura, Natsuo; Nishimoto, Kohei; Murase, Kenya

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a system for heat transfer simulation for optimization and treatment planning of magnetic hyperthermia treatment (MHT) using magnetic particle imaging (MPI). First, we performed phantom experiments to obtain the regression equation between the MPI pixel value and the specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), from which the MPI pixel value was converted to the SAR value in the simulation. Second, we generated the geometries for use in the simulation by processing X-ray computed tomography (CT) and MPI images of tumor-bearing mice injected intratumorally with MNPs (Resovist). The geometries and MPI images were then imported into software based on a finite element method (COMSOL Multiphysics) to compute the time-dependent temperature distribution for 20 min after the start of MHT. There was an excellent correlation between the MPI pixel value and the SAR value (r = 0.956). There was good agreement between the time course of the temperature rise in the t...

  8. Alarm pheromone that aggravates stress-induced hyperthermia is soluble in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2005-07-01

    We previously reported that stressed male Wistar rats released alarm pheromone from the perianal region, which aggravated stress-induced hyperthermia and increased Fos expression in the mitral/tufted cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb in recipient rats. In this study, we attempted to obtain this pheromone in water using these responses as bioassay parameters. Water droplets were collected from the ceiling of a box in which no animal was placed, or from a box in which an anesthetized donor rat was given electrical stimulation to either the neck or perianal regions in order to induce neck odor or alarm pheromone release, respectively. Then we placed one of the three kinds of water-containing filter papers on the wall of a recipient's home cage and observed heart rate, body temperature and behavioral responses, as well as Fos expression in the main and accessory olfactory bulbs of the recipient. The water collected from the box containing the alarm pheromone was found to generate a reproduction of all of the responses seen in the animal that had been directly exposed to alarm pheromone in our previous studies. These results suggest that the alarm pheromone is soluble in water.

  9. United States radiation safety and regulatory considerations for radiofrequency hyperthermia systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassen, H I; Coakley, R F

    1981-06-01

    The control of Radiofrequency (RF) radiation (including microwave radiation) that is emitted by therapeutic medical devices is the responsibility of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Bureau of Radiological Health (BRH). Several studies of RF emissions from various shortwave (27 MHz) and microwave (2450 MHz) diathermy devices have been conducted by the Electromagnetics Branch of the Bureau's Division of Electronic Products. BRH studies have led to a proposed standard for microwave diathermy devices operating above 900 MHz. Shortwave diathermy devices used in physical therapy situations have been found to produce relatively high levels of unintended exposures (sometimes exceeding present U.S. exposure standards) to device operators and to the nonprescribed tissues of the patient. BRH is initiating further studies to ascertain the need for controls to be placed on these shortwave devices to ensure safety and medical effectiveness. Radiation safety standards, which presently exist in the United States, allow much higher unintended human exposures than do the standards existing in the several eastern European countries. A trend to lower permissible exposures to 5 mW/cm2 or even 1 mW/cm2 is under way in the U.S. The various provisions of FDA's Medical Device regulations apply to investigational as well as commercially-marketed RF/microwave devices and require both safety and medical effectiveness aspects of performance to be addressed by their manufacturer. A set of microwave radiation safety considerations has been developed by BRH for newly emerging cancer therapy protocols which utilize microwave hyperthermia devices.

  10. A Theranostic Imaging prototype based on SiPM detectors for nanoparticles imaging during hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loudos George

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of imaging and therapy has opened the very promising Theranostics domain with magnetic hyperthermia being a very promising domain. However, imaging systems should not interact with the magnetic field. In this work we have tested the recent C-series of SensL SiPM with 3mm pixel size, 4×4 arrays, coupled to different scintillators and irradiated with various gamma energies. The evaluation of the SiPM arrays shows that 1x1mm pixel size can be clearly resolved at PET energies for GAGG:Ce and CsI:Na and 1.5×1.5mm in SPECT imaging for CsI:Na. The best energy resolution was measured equal to 10.5% under 511keV irradiation for the 2×2mm GAGG:Ce; 16% under 511keV irradiation for the 1×1mm GAGG:Ce and 22% under 120keV irradiation for the 1×1mm CsI:Na. In addition, measurements with position sensitive photomultipliers have been carried out, to evaluate the effect of the magnetic field on the imaging performance of the system. While the effect of the magnetic field outside the coil is small, optimal images will be obtained if the imaging system is placed inside the coil, something that can be achieved only by using SiPMs.

  11. Hybrid nanomaterials based on gum Arabic and magnetite for hyperthermia treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, M Fernanda; Coral, Diego F; Fernández van Raap, Marcela B; Alvarez, Mariana; Lassalle, Verónica

    2017-05-01

    In this study, one-step co-precipitation method was conveniently adapted to obtain novel nanomaterials based on Gum Arabic and magnetite. Two synthesis procedures were evaluated: one employing the solid biopolymer in the co-precipitation media; a second using an aqueous solution of the polysaccharide. An exhaustive characterization of both formulations was performed using several specific techniques. The obtained data confirmed the successful incorporation of the gum Arabic on the magnetic core. Values of hydrodynamic diameters, measured by dynamic light scattering, in aqueous dispersions were about 70-80nm, while sizes lower than 20nm were registered by TEM microscopy. Surface charge of gum Arabic coated magnetic nanoparticles was significantly different from the corresponding to raw materials (magnetite and GA). This fact confirmed the formation of hybrid nanosystems with novel and specific properties. The potential utility of these materials was tested regarding to magnetic hyperthermia therapy under radiofrequency fields. Magnetocalorimetric measurements were performed in a wide range of field amplitude and frequency. Specific absorption rate of 218W/gFe was determined at field frequency of 260kHz and amplitude of 52kA/m. These results demonstrate their viability to be applied in tumor ablation treatments. Using the linear response theory and restricting field parameters to the accepted biomedical window, maximum useful value of 74w/gFe is predicted at 417kHz and 12kA/m. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Conventional and novel body temperature measurement during rest and exercise induced hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towey, Colin; Easton, Chris; Simpson, Robert; Pedlar, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Despite technological advances in thermal sensory equipment, few core temperature (TCORE) measurement techniques have met the established validity criteria in exercise science. Additionally, there is debate as to what method serves as the most practically viable, yet upholds the proposed measurement accuracy. This study assessed the accuracy of current and novel TCORE measurement techniques in comparison to rectal temperature (TREC) a