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Sample records for webworm hyphantria cunea

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fang; Wang, Lin; Wu, Song; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Lei; Huang, Guo-Ming; Niu, Chun-Jing; Liu, Yan-Qun; Li, Ming-Gang

    2010-03-29

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was determined. The genome is a circular molecule 15 481 bp long. It presents a typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes, but differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of tRNA(Met). The nucleotide composition of the genome is also highly A + T biased, accounting for 80.38%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.010), indicating the occurrence of more As than Ts, as found in the Noctuoidea species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI, which is tentatively designated by the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopterans. Four of 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon, T or TA. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), the DHU arm of which could not form a stable stem-loop structure. The intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Ser)(AGN) and ND1 also contains the ATACTAA motif, which is conserved across the Lepidoptera order. The H. cunea A+T-rich region of 357 bp is comprised of non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Lepidoptera insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by an 18 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)(8) element preceded by the ATTTA motif, an 11 bp poly-A present immediately upstream tRNA(Met). The phylogenetic analyses support the view that the H. cunea is closerly related to the Lymantria dispar than Ochrogaster lunifer, and support the hypothesis that Noctuoidea (H. cunea, L. dispar, and O. lunifer) and Geometroidea (Phthonandria atrilineata) are monophyletic. However, in the phylogenetic trees based on mitogenome sequences among the lepidopteran superfamilies, Papillonoidea (Artogeia melete, Acraea issoria, and Coreana raphaelis) joined basally within the monophyly of Lepidoptera, which is different to the traditional classification.

  2. Temporal and Spatial Foraging Behavior of the Larvae of the Fall Webworm Hyphantria cunea

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    Terrence D. Fitzgerald

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During their first three larval stadia, caterpillars of Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae are patch-restricted foragers, confining their activity to a web-nest they construct in the branches of the host tree. Activity recordings of eight field colonies made over 46 colony-days showed that the later instars become central place foragers, leaving their nests at dusk to feed at distant sites and then returning to their nests in the morning. Colonies maintained in the laboratory showed that same pattern of foraging. In Y-choice laboratory experiments, caterpillars were slow to abandon old, exhausted feeding sites in favor of new food finds. An average of approximately 40% of the caterpillars in five colonies still selected pathways leading to exhausted sites at the onset of foraging bouts over those leading to new sites after feeding exclusively at the new sites on each of the previous four days. On returning to their nests in the morning, approximately 23% of the caterpillars erred by selecting pathways that led them away from the nest rather than toward it and showed no improvement over the course of the study. The results of these Y-choice studies indicate that, compared to other previously studied species of social caterpillars, the webworm employs a relatively simple system of collective foraging.

  3. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba leaf volatiles.

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    Rui Tang

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: β-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and β-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and β-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by β-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol.

  4. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba) leaf volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: β-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and β-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and β-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by β-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol.

  5. Electrophysiological Responses and Reproductive Behavior of Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea Drury are Influenced by Volatile Compounds from Its Mulberry Host (Morus alba L.

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    Rui Tang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyphantria cunea (Drury is an invasive pest of Morus alba L. in China. β-ocimene and cis-2-penten-1-ol among eleven electro-physiologically active leaf volatiles from M. alba have been reported to influence captures of Hyphantria cunea moths when added into sex pheromone traps. This study further investigated influences of volatile types and their dosages on the electro-physiological responses in the antennae of male and female moths, as well as on mating and oviposition behaviors. Females were, regardless of dosages, more sensitive to β-ocimene and cis-2-penten-1-ol in electro-physiological response tests than males. For males, a dose response was detected, i.e., a dosage of 10 μg and 100 μg of either chemical stimulated higher electric response in their antennae than 1 μg. Moth pairs either exposed respectively to a herbivore-induced M. alba volatile blend (HIPV, to a mechanically-damaged M. alba volatile blend (MDV, to β-ocimene, to cis-2-penten-1-ol, or to pentane as a control showed that pairs exposed to β-ocimene most likely mated, followed by HIPV blends and least by the other volatiles or the control. In contrast, β-ocimene induced about 70% of the female oviposition behaviors and was nearly 4.5 times the oviposition rate than cis-2-penten-1-ol and 2 times than the control. However, none of the chemicals had any effect on the 48 h fecundity or on egg sizes. In conclusion, β-ocimene from mulberry plants alone could promote mating and oviposition in H. cunea at a dosage of 1 mg. The results indicate that reproductive behaviors of H. cunea moths can be enhanced through HIPV blends and β-ocimene induced by feeding of larvae. This contra phenomenon has revealed a different ecology in this moth during colonizing China as local pests would commonly be repelled by herbivore induced chemicals. These chemicals can be used for the development of biological control approaches such as being used together with sex pheromone traps.

  6. Potential of Entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana for Controlling Fall Webworm Hyphantria cunea%应用白僵菌防治美国白蛾的潜力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会平; 黄秋娴; 王婧; 李雯

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]Hyphantria cunea ( Drury) is a serious destructive insect pest with widespread distribution in China. It usually lives and attacks fruit and ornamental trees,especially broad-leaved trees. The pest has become a big problem to agriculture and forestry in northern China. Up to now,control strategies for H. cunea populations still depend to a large extent on the use of insecticides. However,the resistance development to insecticides and the insecticide-caused environmental pollution stimulate people to search for safely alternative methods to control the pests. Beauveria bassiana, as one of the most common entomopathogenic fungi,has long been recognized as a potential biocontrol agent and actively been developed to control various pest insects. However,there is significant difference in pathogenicity among different strains of B. bassiana,and there exists obvious host specificity in different strains. Thus,it is feasible to enhance the specialization and the pathogenicity of B. bassiana to some kind of pests through artificial orientation training. The virulence of five B. bassiana isolates from different hosts or habitats to larvae of H. cunea was studied to exploit the potentiality of B. bassiana for controlling H. cunea. [Method] 5-instar larvae of H. cunea were used to investigate the effectiveness of five B. bassiana isolates,BS04,BS05 and BS08 from soil,BH01 from larvae of H. cunea,BI05 from larvae of Apriona germari (Hope). The larvae of H. cunea were sprayed with 1 × 108conidia·mL -1conidial suspension of diferent B. bassiana isolates using POTTER spray tower. Mortality was recorded daily for eight days. For the highly virulent isolates identified in the above bioassay,larvae were sprayed with five serial concentrations of conidia (1 × 104, 1 × 105 ,1 × 106 ,1 × 107 and 1 × 108 conidia · mL -1 ) to determine the lethal concentration ( LC50 ) . In the field experiment,there were three treatments,including 8 × 108 conidia·mL -1 of B

  7. Accumulation of 23 kDa lipocalin during brain development and injury in Hyphantria cunea.

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    Kim, Hong Ja; Je, Hyun Jeong; Cheon, Hyang Mi; Kong, Sun Young; Han, JikHyun; Yun, Chi Young; Han, Yeon Su; Lee, In Hee; Kang, Young Jin; Seo, Sook Jae

    2005-10-01

    The cDNA corresponding to a novel lipocalin was identified from the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea. This lipocalin cDNA encodes a 194 residue protein with a calculated molecular mass of 23 kDa. Sequence analyses revealed that the 23 kDa lipocalin cDNA is most similar to Drosophila lazarillo, human apolipoprotein D, and Bombyrin. Northern blot analyses showed that 23 kDa lipocalin transcript is expressed in the whole body only in 4- and 6-day-old pupae. By Western blot analysis it was confirmed that 23 kDa lipocalin is mainly accumulated in brain and subesophageal ganglion, though it is detected in a small amount in fat body and epidermis of Hyphantria cunea. The accumulation of 23 kDa lipocalin in brain tissue was upregulated in response to injury. The putative function of 23 kDa lipocalin in brain is discussed.

  8. Analysis of the Antennal Transcriptome and Insights into Olfactory Genes in Hyphantria cunea (Drury)

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    Wang, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Long; Yang, Yun-Qiu; Huang, Chang-Chun; Jiang, Li-Ya; Ding, De-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an invasive insect pest which, in China, causes unprecedented damage and economic losses due to its extreme fecundity and wide host range, including forest and shade trees, and even crops. Compared to the better known lepidopteran species which use Type-I pheromones, little is known at the molecular level about the olfactory mechanisms of host location and mate choice in H. cunea, a species using Type-II lepidopteran pheromones. In the present study, the H. cunea antennal transcriptome was constructed by Illumina Hiseq 2500TM sequencing, with the aim of discovering olfaction-related genes. We obtained 64,020,776 clean reads, and 59,243 unigenes from the analysis of the transcriptome, and the putative gene functions were annotated using gene ontology (GO) annotation. We further identified 124 putative chemosensory unigenes based on homology searches and phylogenetic analysis, including 30 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 52 odorant receptors (ORs), 14 ionotropic receptors (IRs), nine gustatory receptors (GRs) and two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). We also found many conserved motif patterns of OBPs and CSPs using a MEME system. Moreover, we systematically analyzed expression patterns of OBPs and CSPs based on reverse transcription PCR and quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) with RNA extracted from different tissues and life stages of both sexes in H. cunea. The antennae-biased expression may provide a deeper further understanding of olfactory processing in H. cunea. The first ever identification of olfactory genes in H. cunea may provide new leads for control of this major pest. PMID:27741298

  9. A Facile Synthetic Method for (3Z, 6Z, 9S, 10R)-9, 10-Epoxy-3, 6- heneicosadiene, Sex Pheromone Component of Hyphantria Cunea (Drug)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao CHE; Zhong Ning ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Total synthesis of (3Z, 6Z, 9S, 10R)-9, 10-epoxy-3, 6-heneicosadiene, sex pheromone component of Hyphantria cunea (Drug), was achieved using Sharpless AE kinetic resolution and alkylative epoxide rearrangement as key steps.

  10. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and medicinal plants on Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae

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    I Zibaee, AR Bandani, JJ Sendi, R Talaei-Hassanloei, B Kouchaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm, Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae is an insect native to NorthAmerica that was recently introduced into Iran resulting in severe damage to trees and agriculturalproduction. An experiment was conducted to examine potential effects of medicinal plants, Artemisiaannua and Lavandula stoechas and the insect pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var.kurstaki on activities of digestive enzymes (α-amylase, α- and β-glucosidase, lipase and proteasesand lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in H. cunea by using two hosts, mulberry and sycamore. Resultsshowed that B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki and plant extracts when administered orally, affected thedigestive enzyme profiles of H. cunea. Combined effect of B. thuringiensis, A. annua and L. stoechasextracts on mulberry decreased the activities of digestive enzymes in a dose-related manner, exceptfor β-glucosidase and lipase. When larvae were treated by different concentrations of the mentionedinsecticides, LDH activity increased i.e. the higher activity was obtained by B. thurengiensis alone andB. thurengiensis and L. stoechas extracts together. The least activity was observed in the case of L.stoechas extracts alone on both hosts. Physiological analysis would be particularly informative whenusing combination of biopesticides to enhance the efficiency of a safe management process.

  11. Visual Control System of a Spraying Robot for Hyphantria cunea Larva Nets

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    Ying Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement automatic spraying on Hyphantria cunea larva nets, a spraying robot system with monocular hand-eye coordination and smart targeting abilities was designed according to the target net features. The system realized spatial two-dimensional motions driven by step motors on linear guide rails. Images were processed in real-time to extract the net curtain targets defined using the border area, and the optimal spraying position was then determined. An identification algorithm based on the global net image to distinguish targets before and after spray was proposed. A simulation environment was designed to verify the correctness of this method. Results showed that the highest rate of over spray is 288.5%, and the spray miss rate is 0.

  12. Pest risk assessment of Dendroctonus valens, Hyphantria cunea and Apriona swainsoni in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Haijun; LUO Youqing; WEN Junbao; ZHANG Zhiming; FENG Jihua; TAO Wanqiang

    2006-01-01

    According to the international methods of pest risk analysis and urban forestry characteristics in Beijing,a quantitative risk assessment system in Beijing for three primary non-indigenous pests was proposed.This system was used to analyze three major non-indigenous species,Dendroctonus valens,Hyphantria cunea,and Apriona swainsoni.The results show that the risks of these three pests in the Beijing area were 2.46,2.30,and 2.02,which were all highly risky.Based on the result and extensive risk communications,combined with the management experience of the Beijing Forest Protection Station,the authors proposed some effective control measures to prevent the invasion of the three pests into Beijing.

  13. Purification and characterization of phenoloxidase from the hemolymph of Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae

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    M Ajamhassani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenoloxidase (PO is a key factor in insect immunity. On invasion of microorganisms and pathogens, prophenoloxidase changes to its active form to PO. This study investigated purification biochemical properties of PO from the hemolymph of 5th instar larvae of Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera. The purification fold was determined as 9.67 with a recovery of 0.12 and a specific activity of 23.28 U/mg protein identified. Kinetic parameters of purified PO from the insect H. cunea were determined. The Michaelis constant (Km and the maximal velocity (Vmax were 4.08 and 12.98 μmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme for oxidation of L-DOPA were 10.0 and 35 ºC, respectively. The ions Zn2+, Cu2+, K+ and Na+ significantly increased the enzyme activity and synthetic inhibitors such as diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC significantly decreased it. Finally, it was found that purified PO had a molecular mass of 33 kDa. This study demonstrated some PO properties and its inhibitory effects demonstrating that it can be employed as useful methods for developing novel insecticides to replace traditionally used ones.

  14. Molecular structure, chemical synthesis, and antibacterial activity of ABP-dHC-cecropin A from drury (Hyphantria cunea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Xiaolong; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria and fungi to currently available antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to enormous efforts to develop new antibiotics with new modes of actions. In this paper, cDNA encoding cecropin A was amplified from drury (Hyphantria cunea) (dHC) pupa fatbody total RNA using RT-PCR. The full-length dHC-cecropin A cDNA encoded a protein of 63 amino acids with a predicted 26-amino acid signal peptide and a 37-amino acid functional domain. We synthesized the antibacterial peptide (ABP) from the 37-amino acid functional domain (ABP-dHC-cecropin A), and amidated it via the C-terminus. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed its molecular weight to be 4058.94. The ABP-dHC-cecropin A was assessed in terms of its protein structure using bioinformatics and CD spectroscopy. The protein's secondary structure was predicted to be α-helical. In an antibacterial activity analysis, the ABP-dHC-cecropin A exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli K12D31 and Agrobacterium EHA105. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Toxicity Comparison of 27 Insecticides to Hyphantria cunea%27种杀虫剂对美国白蛾幼虫的室内毒力比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永强; 周超; 王伟; 慕卫; 胡延萍

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of 27 insecticides belonging to nine different types against the 3rd-instar and 5th-instar larvae of Hyphaniria cunea was investigated by the leaf dipping method. The results showed that the 3rd-instar and 5th-instar larvae of H. cunea were sensitive to pyrethroids and molting hormones insecticides (LC50values were between 0. 11 mg·L- and 18.81 mg · L-1 ). The toxicity of organochlorus and carbonates insecticides was related to the types of insecticides. Phoxim, Chlorpyrifos, Profenofos, Kthoprophos and Methomyl had higher toxicity to both 3rd-instar and 5th-instar larvae of H. cunea ( LC50 values were between 1.62 rag · L-1 and 42.74 mg·L-1 ). The 3 rd-instar larvae of H. cunea were sensitive to the benzoyl phenyl urea, phenylpyrazole, macrocyclic lactone and organochlorines insecticides ( LC50 values were hetween 3. 13 mg·L-1 and 30. 86 mg·L-1 ). However the 5th-instar larvae of H. cunea were less sensitive ( LC50 values were higher than 51.75 mg-L ).

  16. 苏云金杆菌和灭幼脲混剂对美国白蛾幼虫2种酶活性的影响%Effects of the Activity of Midgut Chitinase,Cuticle AChE on 4th Instar Larvae of Hyphantria cunea by the Treatment of Different Concentration of the Mixture of Bt and Chlorbenzuron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明; 徐福元; 吴小芹

    2015-01-01

    通过室内外毒力测定和防治试验发现,苏云金杆菌(Bt)+灭幼脲混剂对美国白蛾2~3代4龄幼虫有较强增效作用,在此基础上分析该混剂对白蛾4龄幼虫体内中肠几丁质酶和乙酰胆碱脂酶(AChE)活力的影响。结果表明:5种浓度的 Bt、灭幼脲及其混剂对白蛾4龄幼虫体内中肠几丁质酶活力的影响随处理浓度增高和处理时间延长抑制作用越明显,且差异极显著,说明 Bt +灭幼脲混剂均有抑制白蛾4龄幼虫中肠几丁质酶活力的作用,是该混剂对白蛾4龄幼虫提高毒杀效果的原因;5种浓度 Bt +灭幼脲及其混剂处理对白蛾4龄幼虫体壁 AChE 活性的影响随处理时间的增加有先升高后降低的趋势,36~96 h 具诱导幼虫体壁 AChE 活性逐渐增强的趋势,96 h 后活性明显减弱,AChE 活性减低后白蛾4龄幼虫很快死亡,对 AChE 活性抑制率为20.13%~90.00%,为Bt +灭幼脲混剂增效关键作用的另一个原因。%Based on the indoor virulence and field control test results showed that the mixture of Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)and chlorbenzuron had strong synergism to the second and third generation of the larvae of Hyphantria cunea.This paper analyzed the influence on the activity of midgut chitinase and cuticle AChE on the 4th instar larvae of Hyphantria cunea the result as following:As the concentration increased and treatment time pro-longed 5 concentrations of the mixture of Bt and chlorbenzuron treated,the midgut chitinase activity of the 4th instar larvae of Hyphantria cunea showed inhibitory effect more obvious and got significant differences (P <0.01).It in-dicated that Bt +chlorbenzuron mixture could improved the effect to the 4th instar larvae of Hyphantria cunea.As the treatment time increased 5 concentrations of the mixture of Bt and chlorbenzuron treated,the cuticle AChE ac-tivity of the 4th instar larvae of Hyphantria cunea increased first and then

  17. Pollution-Free Control Technology against Hyphantria cunea in Shenyang Area%沈阳地区美国白蛾无公害综合防治技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾宇书; 张贵学; 周志权; 高军; 韩友志; 陈军; 王淑坤

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pollution-free control technology (moving out net-curtain of Hyphantria cunea by manual style,pollution-free mixed pesticide by the way of artificial spray,agro-plane spray pollution-free mixed pesticide and release Chouioiacunea Yang)against Hyphantriacunea from 2013 to 2014 was analyzed.Result shows that:the decreased pest rate of second generation insect population by artificially removing net-curtain is from 88.41% to 97.03%;average corrected mortality in artificial mixed pesticide spraying is from 88.41% to 97.03%;insect decline rate with agro-plane spray is from 97.78% to 100%;the parasitism rate of Hyphantriacunea pupae by hanging bee is from 56.67% to 70%.%通过对沈阳地区2013—2014年人工摘除美国白蛾网幕、人工喷洒无公害混配农药、飞防喷洒混配农药和释放周氏啮小蜂等几种美国白蛾无公害防治技术效果的试验分析,结果表明:人工摘除网幕2代虫口减退率为88.41%~97.03%;人工喷洒无公害混配农药平均校正死亡率为88.41%~97.03%;飞防虫口减退率为97.78%~100%;挂蜂美国白蛾蛹寄生率为56.67%~70%。

  18. 不同生长条件下球孢白僵菌菌株的生长状况及对美国白蛾幼虫的致病力研究%Effect of Different Condition on Mycelium Growth of a Beauveria bassiana Strain and Its Pathogenicity against Hyphantria Cunea Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伦

    2011-01-01

    试验所用球孢白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana)是从受侵染的美国白蛾[Hyphantria Cunea(Drury)]蛹体内分离出的菌株,再进行纯化,获得球孢白僵菌纯菌落。研究测定了不同生长条件对球孢白僵菌菌株的营养生长、孢子萌发以及对不同龄期美国白蛾幼虫致病力的影响。结果表明:相对湿度为90%时,菌株的营养生长最好,随着相对湿度的增大,孢子萌发速度、萌发率也增高;相对湿度为100%时孢子萌发率达到最高。经紫外线照射后菌株的营养生长速度缓慢,孢子萌发率降低。相对湿度为90%时被该菌株感染的美国白蛾幼虫的死亡率最高,3龄幼虫的死亡率比6龄幼虫高。%In this experiment,the mycelium of Beauveria bassiana was separated from infected hyphantria cunea pupae before it was purified.The effect of humidity and ultraviolet radiation on the mycelium growth,spores germ ination and the pathogenicity against hyphantria cunea larvae of a Beauveria bassiana strain were tested.The results showed that the optmium relative humidity for mycelium growth and spores germ ination was RH 90%,and at RH 90% hyphantria cunea larvae had highest motality.The germ ination speed and rates of spores increased as the RH increasing,and the 3rd larvae died more quickly than the 6th under 90% RH.The rates of spores decreased for irradiated by ultraviolet radiation.

  19. 北京市丰台区美国白蛾发生特点与防治技术研究%Occurrence Characters and Control Techniques of the American White Moth, Hyphantria cunea (Drury), in Fengtai, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓燕

    2011-01-01

    美国白蛾Hyphantria cunea (Drury)属鳞翅目(Lepidoptera)灯蛾科(Arctiidae),是一种危害性极大的国际性植物检疫害虫。在北京市丰台区首次发现是2006年6月,发现地点位于南三环路旁,发现虫体为幼虫。2006-2010年,对美国白蛾在丰台区的发生规律、寄主植物、传播扩散、危害情况和防控技术进行了研究。美国白蛾在丰台区每年发生3代,在危害的树木周围枯枝落叶和土缝中化蛹越冬;6月上旬、8月上旬和9月上中旬是幼虫危害的主要时期,也是防治的关键时期。发现美国白蛾危害的植物35种,其中法桐、臭椿、桑树、榆树和白蜡受害最重。发现美国白蛾幼虫极易随人类活动进行远距离传播,通过布设45041诱捕器的监测,2010年在丰台区共发现疫点123个。行之有效的防治技术包括:(1)加强检疫控制人为传播;(2)剪除初龄幼虫群居网幕;(3)10月上旬于老熟幼虫下树前在树干距地面1m处集中消灭;(4)老熟幼虫期释放寄生性天敌周氏啮小蜂,寄生率可达55%;(5)树冠喷洒灭幼脲Ⅲ号、杀铃脲、除虫脲和高溴氯氰菊酯等杀灭幼虫,防治效果可达98%;(6)大范围发生区的飞机防治。2008-2010年受害林木逐年减少,分别为2567株、1428株和987株,防治效果明显。%The American white moth, Hyphantria cunea ( Drury ) ( Lepidoptera: Arctiidae ) is a severe international quarantive pest.The larval of American white moth was first found in South Third Ring Road in Beijing City Fengtai in June 2006.We investigated the occurrence, hosts, dispersal, spread, damage and control methods of this pest in 2006- 2010.In Fengtai, the American white moth had three generations per year.It overwintered as pupa in the soil and litter near the damaged plants.The larval mainly affected in the first ten days of June and August also in the middle ten days of

  20. Synergism of β-cypermethrin and Bacillus thuringiensis against Hyphantria cunea%苏云金杆菌与高效氯氰菊酯对美国白蛾的协同作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云飞; 陆秀君; 刘廷辉; 李瑞军; 赵焕丽; 郭巍

    2012-01-01

    为了明确苏云金杆菌Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)和高效氯氰菊酯的协同作用,采用Bt预处理及直接混用2种方式施药,室内饲毒法测定了2种药剂对美国白蛾Hyphantria cunea( Drury)2龄幼虫的活性,同时研究了高效氯氰菊酯对Bt生长曲线的影响.结果表明:试虫先用每mL含1×106个孢子的Bt S19菌悬液预处理,1d后再用系列浓度的高效氯氰菊酯处理,其48 h的LC50值为0.76 mg/L,而未经预处理,仅用高效氯氰菊酯处理48 h的LC50值为1.28 mg/L;2种处理在高效氯氰菊酯质量浓度为2.25 mg/L时对试虫的半致死时间(LT50值)分别为9.2h和34.7 h,两者间增效作用明显.对于直接混用,采用1×106个/mL的Bt S19与6 mg/L的高效氯氰菊酯混剂处理,增效作用明显,72 h的共毒系数为122.5,此后再增加高效氯氰菊酯的浓度则表现出轻微的拮抗作用.高效氯氰菊酯处理可使Bt生长对数期延迟,且浓度越高影响越大,说明高效氯氰菊酯可影响Bt芽孢萌发,使菌体增殖延迟.研究表明,先用Bt预处理后再使用高效氯氰菊酯对美国白蛾的作用效果优于二者直接混用.%The synergetic effect of β-cypermethrin and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was studied by bioassay through Bt pre-treatment before y3-cypermethrin application or mixing together with β-cypermethrin in the lab. At the same time, the effect of β-cypermethrin on the growth-curve of Bt was determined. The results showed that the LC50 values of β-cypermethrin against 2nd larvae of Hacillus cunea, pre-treated by Bt S19 at 1 x 106cell/mL one day before the treatment of β-cypermethrin or not, were 0. 76 and 1.28 mg/L in 48 h respectively. And the LT50 values of the two treatments were 9.23 h and 30. 67 h, respectively, when the concentration of β-cypermethrin was 2. 25mg/L. These resultsdemonstrated that there were synergized action between Bt and β-cypermethrin by Bt pre-treatment. When β-cypermethrin mixed together with Bt,the co

  1. Transcriptome and Expression Patterns of Chemosensory Genes in Antennae of the Parasitoid Wasp Chouioia cunea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Zhao

    Full Text Available Chouioia cunea Yang is an endoparasitic wasp that attacks pupae of Hyphantria cunea (Drury, an invasive moth species that severely damages forests in China. Chemosensory systems of insects are used to detect volatile chemical odors such as female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. The antennae of parasite wasps are important for host detection and other sensory-mediated behaviors. We identified and documented differential expression profiles of chemoreception genes in C. cunea antennae. A total of 25 OBPs, 80 ORs, 10 IRs, 11 CSP, 1 SNMPs, and 17 GRs were annotated from adult male and female C. cunea antennal transcriptomes. The expression profiles of 25 OBPs, 16 ORs, and 17 GRs, 5 CSP, 5 IRs and 1 SNMP were determined by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR for the antenna, head, thorax, and abdomen of male and female C. cunea. A total of 8 OBPs, 14 ORs, and 8 GRs, 1 CSP, 4 IRs and 1 SNMPs were exclusively or primarily expressed in female antennae. These female antennal-specific or dominant expression profiles may assist in locating suitable host and oviposition sites. These genes will provide useful targets for advanced study of their biological functions.

  2. Growth simulation of Fraxinus chinensis stands damaged by Hyphandria cunea in Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Ting-fang; LUO Youqing; XU Zhi-chun; SHI Juan; LIU Yu

    2008-01-01

    Hyphandria cunea is an insect that can damage hundreds of plants in its larval phase and needs to be placed under quarantine at an international level. Its hosts involve 600 plant species, including forest and fruit trees, shrubs, crops, vegetables, weeds and others. In 2006, we surveyed two Fraxinus chinensis Roxb stands, damaged to different degrees, after the invasion of H. cunea in the Changping district of the Beijing area. Given our survey of individual trees and investigation of bio-environmental factors, we provide a preliminarily simulation of the growth situation of F. chinensis stands, damaged by H. cunea, by using the Forest Vegetation Simulator software (FVS), which is supported by the "948" project from the State Forestry Administration of China. The results will provide a valuable reference in foreeasting the effect of H. cunea and other invasive pests in China on forest ecological values.

  3. 美国白蛾的危害及可持续防治技术%The damage caused by (Hyphantria cunea)and its sustainable control technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂芝

    2007-01-01

    美国白蛾是一种严重危害林木的食叶性害虫,被列为世界性检疫对象.美国白蛾1995年传入天津,给农林业生产和人民生活造成严重危害.在各级政府和有关部门的高度重视下,经过多年来周密的查治,取得很大成就,同时也总结出一系列有效防治技术.

  4. 降温速率和反复冻融对白蛾周氏啮小蜂过冷却点测定的影响%Effects of Cooling Rate and Repeated Freezing and Thawing on Determination of Supercooling Point in Chouioia cunea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙守慧; 许哲; 王亚斌; 杨宏光; 祁金玉; 郑雅楠; 刘振凯

    2011-01-01

    Hyphantria cunea were effectively controlled by using Chouioia cunea as a natural enemy. In order to determine coldresistance indices of the mature larvae of Chouioia cunea,,the supercooling point and freezing point were tested with reference to substitute host Tenebrio molitor and Antheraea pernyi by using the different cooling rate and repeated freeze-thaw methods.The results showed that the supercooling point and freezing point measurements on the mature larvae of Chouioia cunea and Tenebrio molitor in the cooling rate range from 0.1℃·min-1 to 15.0℃·min-1, the supercooling point were (-18.44±0.93)℃ and (-8.16± 3.15)℃, the freezing point were (-14.27±1.25)℃ and (-2.19±2.03)℃, respectively. It was found that the supercooling point and freezing point of the nature larvae of Chouioia cunea, Tenebrio molitor and the pupae of Antheraea pernyi was determinated in repeated freeze-thaw, no obvious difference was found in the first three cycles of repeated freeze-thaw. They still maintained a stable cold resistance of physiological characteristics after being repeated freeze-thaw, this provides a basis for study on cold resistance mechanism.%白蛾周氏啮小蜂(Chouioia cunea Yang)是防治美国白蛾的重要天敌,为研究其耐寒性,采用不同的降温速率和反复冻融的方法对其老熟幼虫的耐寒性生理指标过冷却点(SCP)和冰点(FP)进行了测定,并以其替代寄主柞蚕(Antheraea pernyi GuérinMéneville)和黄粉甲(Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus)做为参照.结果表明:白蛾周氏啮小蜂及黄粉甲虫老熟幼虫在0.1~15.0℃·min-1降温范围内均可有效地测定出SCP与FP,其SCP分别为(-18.44±0.93)℃和(-8.16±3.15)℃,FP分别为(-14.27±1.25)℃和(-2.19±2.03)℃;试验还发现白蛾周氏啮小蜂老熟幼虫、黄粉甲老熟幼虫和柞蚕蛹的过冷却点与冰点均能进行反复冻融测定,且冻融的前3个循环的数值差异不显著(α=0.05),3种昆虫在反复冻融后

  5. Response of reproductive traits and longevity of beet webworm to temperature, and implications for migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a facultative long-distance migratory insect pest of crops in many regions between latitudes 36-55°N. Reproductive performance of L. sticticalis is very sensitive to thermal conditions, such that outbreaks of larvae are clos...

  6. Cunea n. g. (Amoebozoa, Dactylopodida) with two cryptic species isolated from different areas of the ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. This paper describes a new genus, Cunea n. g., of marine naked amoebae with two cryptic species, Cunea profundata and Cunea thuwala, isolated from distant localities in the ocean and different depths (Brazilian abyssal plain, Western Atlantic Ocean, depth >5. km and the Red Sea off the Saudi Arabian coast, depth ca. 58.7. m). Both species are very similar to each other in the set of light microscopic and ultrastructural characters and might be described as a single species, yet their genetic divergence based on 3 molecular markers (small-subunit ribosomal RNA, actin and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) corresponds to the level of variation typically observed between different morphospecies of Amoebozoa. In addition, the studied strains differ strongly in their temperature tolerance ranges, C. profundata isolated from the cold Atlantic deep-sea habitat being able to reproduce under lower temperatures than C. thuwala isolated from the warm Red Sea benthos. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rRNA gene shows that the new genus robustly branches within the Dactylopodida, but forms an independent clade within this order that does not group with any of its known genera.

  7. 十九种林业检疫性有害生物简介(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉双

    2005-01-01

    美国白蛾Hyphantria cunea(Drury),异名Bombyx cunea Drury、Phalrna punctissima Abbot & Smith、Cycnia budea Htibn、Hyphantria textor Harris.、Spilosoma mutans Wlk.、Hyphantria puctata Fitch.、Spilosoma candida Wlk.、Hyphantria pallida Paek.,隶属鳞翅目Lepidoptera夜蛾总科Noctuoidea灯蛾科Arctiidae白蛾属Hyphantria。

  8. Egg hatch and survival and development of beet webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae at different combinations of temperature and relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatchability, survival of 1st - 5th instars, survival of the complete larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were inve...

  9. The cactus webworm, Loxomorpha flavidissimalis (Grote, 1878) (Pyraloidea, Crambidae): its distribution and a potential pest in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report Loxomorpha flavidissimalis, the cactus webworm, for the first time from Tamaulipas, Mexico, as an herbivore of the cultivated cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica. We observed larvae over a four year period (2010-2014) during the months of March to November and found young cladode losses attributa...

  10. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  11. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the cabbage webworm, Hellula undalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wan-Wei; Feng, Xiao-Jing; Huang, Guo-Hua; Jiang, Guo-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced mitochondrial genome of the cabbage webworm Hellula undalis includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) (nad1-6, cox1-3, atp6, atp8, nad4L and cob), two ribosomal RNAs (12S and 16S) and 19 transfer RNAs, which is 14,678 bp in length. Its gene order and orientation are identical to the common types found in most of the other completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes. Thirteen PCGs start with a typical ATN codon, while cox1 uses CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs use the standard TAA as their termination codon, while others use the incomplete termination codon T (cox1, cox2 and nad4).

  12. Effect of extracts Melia azedarach on ovicidal activity of Hyphantria cunea Drury%苦楝果提取物对美国白蛾生物活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏红霞; 王志刚; 黄大庄; 卜志国; 李国栋; 黄秋娴

    2008-01-01

    为了探讨苦楝果作为杀虫剂的效果,对苦楝果的乙醇和乙酸乙酯提取的活性物质对美国白蛾4龄幼虫的影响进行了研究.结果表明:苦楝果乙醇和乙酸乙酯提取物对美国白蛾幼虫具有明显的拒食、生长抑制和触杀作用,其生物活性与浓度成正相关.乙醇提取物的拒食和生长抑制作用要优于乙酸乙酯提取物的,但是乙酸乙酯提取物的触杀作用比乙醇提取物的要好.处理24、48和72 h乙醇提取物和乙酸乙酯提取物的拒食中浓度分别为1.10 mg/mL、0.87 mg/mL、0.62 mg/mL和1.88 mg/mL、1.29 mg/mL、1.04 mg/mL;处理24h,5.00 mg/mL浓度下乙醇提取物处理的幼虫体重成负增长状态,抑制率为100%,而乙酸乙酯提取物的抑制率为83.55%;处理48 h乙醇提取物和乙酸乙酯提取物的致死中浓度分别是4.35 mg/mL和1.99 mg/mL.

  13. The pharmacodynamic trial of 3% cartap powder "Yunli" brand controlling Hyphantria cunea%"云力"3%杀螟丹粉剂防治美国白蛾药效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治刚; 何文通; 李玉籫

    2008-01-01

    在室内用"云力"3%杀螟丹粉剂对美国白蛾幼虫进行药效测定,结果表明:施药后5d幼虫死亡率达95.04%.应用该药剂于美国白蛾幼虫进入越冬前在林间喷粉,结果表明:施药区7d相对防治效果达85.2%.

  14. Non-target effects of transgenic blight-resistant American chestnut (Fagales: Fagaceae) on insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, K H; Parry, D

    2011-08-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen], a canopy dominant species across wide swaths of eastern North America, was reduced to an understory shrub after introduction of the blight fungus [Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr] in the early 1900s. Restoration of American chestnut by using biotechnology is promising, but the imprecise nature of transgenesis may inadvertently alter tree phenotype, thus potentially impacting ecologically dependent organisms. We quantified effects of genetic engineering and fungal inoculation of trees on insect herbivores by using transgenic American chestnuts expressing an oxalate oxidase gene and wild-type American and Chinese (C. mollissima Blume) chestnuts. Of three generalist folivores bioassayed, only gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] was affected by genetic modification, exhibiting faster growth on transgenic than on wild-type chestnuts, whereas growth of polyphemus moth [Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer)] differed between wild-type species, and fall webworm [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)] performed equally on all trees. Inoculation of chestnuts with blight fungus had no effect on the growth of two herbivores assayed (polyphemus moth and fall webworm). Enhanced fitness of gypsy moth on genetically modified trees may hinder restoration efforts if this invasive herbivore's growth is improved because of transgene expression.

  15. Dispersal patterns of exotic forest pests in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Won II Choi; Young-Seuk Park

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species have potentially devastating effects on ecological communities and ecosystems.To understand the invasion process of exotic forest pests in South Korea,we reviewed four major species of exotic forest pests:the pine needle gall midge (Thecodiplosis japonensis),pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus),the fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea) and the black pine bast scale (Matsucoccus thunbergianae).We consider their biology,ecology,invasion history,dispersal patterns and related traits,and management as exotic species.Among these species,the dispersal process of fall webworm was linear,showing a constant range expansion as a function of time,whereas the other three species showed biphasic patterns,rapidly increasing dispersal speed after slow dispersal at the early invasion stage.Moreover,human activities accelerated their expansion,suggesting that prevention of the artificial movement of damaged trees would be useful to slow expansion of exotic species.We believe that this information would be useful to establish management strategies for invasion species.

  16. Molecular Characterization of a Lysozyme Gene and Its Altered Expression Profile in Crowded Beet Webworm (Loxostege sticticalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hailong; Lv, Min; Mao, Nian; Wang, Cheng; Cheng, Yunxia; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Xingfu; Luo, Lizhi

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that insects living in high-density populations exhibit an increase in immune function to counter a higher risk of disease. This phenomenon, known as density-dependent prophylaxis, has been experimentally tested in a number of insect species. Although density-dependent prophylaxis is especially prevalent in insects exhibiting density-dependent phase polyphenism, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that the antibacterial activity of lysozyme is important for this process in the beet webworm Loxostege sticticalis. In this study, a lysozyme cDNA from L. sticticalis was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA is 1078 bp long and contains an open reading frame of 426 bp that encodes 142 amino acids. The deduced protein possesses structural characteristics of a typical c-type lysozyme and clusters with c-type lysozymes from other Lepidoptera. LsLysozyme was found to be expressed throughout all developmental stages, showing the highest level in pupae. LsLysozyme was also highly expressed in the midgut and fat body. Elevated LsLysozyme expression was observed in L. sticticalis larvae infected by Beauveria bassiana and in larvae reared under crowding conditions. In addition, the expression level of LsLysozyme in infected larvae reared at a density of 10 larvae per jar was significantly higher compared to those reared at a density of l or 30 larvae per jar. These results suggest that larval crowding affects the gene expression profile of this lysozyme. This study provides additional insight into the expression of an immune-associated lysozyme gene and helps us to better understand the immune response of L. sticticalis under crowding conditions. PMID:27575006

  17. Bioassay of Bt Vip3A-LS1 Protein against Hyphantria cunea and Clostera anachoreta%苏云金杆菌营养期杀虫蛋白Vip3A-LS1对2种林业害虫活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳琳; 陆秀君; 靳爱荣; 郝会海; 杜克久

    2008-01-01

    以实验室克隆的苏云金芽孢杆菌Vip3A-LS1基因为材料,利用原核表达载体pET-21b,构建重组载体表达蛋白,并测定了表达蛋白对美国白蛾和杨扇舟蛾幼虫的活性.结果表明:表达重组质粒pEV113经IPTG诱导得到了约88kD的Vip3A-LS1蛋白;该蛋白对美国白蛾和杨扇舟蛾均有一定的杀虫活性,80μg蛋白对初孵美国白蛾平均校正死亡率达到(53.02±0.43)%,体质量抑制率达到了80.60%,对杨扇舟蛾初孵幼虫平均校正死亡率达到(68.00±0.60)%,抑制作用均达到80%以上.

  18. Reproduction of Chouioia cunea Yang on Tenebrio molitor L.Pupae%利用黄粉虫蛹人工繁殖白蛾周氏啮小蜂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明禄; 李时建

    2011-01-01

    Reproduction of Chouioia cunea Yang using pupa of Tenebrio molitor L.as factitious host at(28±0.5) ℃ in laboratory were investigated.Developmental period of C.cunea from egg to adult was 17.2-22.9 d at 28 ℃;proportion of wasps that successfully parasitized host pupa was about 75%.Wasp to host pupa rate significantly influenced percentage of parasitism and pupae with wasp emergence and number of wasps emerged,which achieved maximum value when the ratio of wasp to pupa was 2∶1.The wasp could oviposit on host pupae frozen dead,but only few eggs and larvae of the wasp were found,and they would die within 72 h.%以黄粉虫Tenebrio molitor L.蛹作为白蛾周氏啮小蜂Chouioia cunea Yang的人工寄主,在(28±0.5)℃条件下观察其发育历期,以不同蜂蛹比例进行接种,观察小蜂的寄生情况。结果表明,黄粉虫蛹能够满足白蛾周氏啮小蜂发育的营养需求,发育历期为17.2~22.9d,虽然成功寄生率只有75%左右,但基本可以满足常年大规模繁蜂的需要。不同接蜂比例对寄生率、出蜂蛹率和出蜂量有显著影响,蜂蛹比在2∶1以上较好。白蛾周氏啮小蜂在冷冻致死的黄粉虫蛹上也有产卵行为,但蛹内卵和幼虫量很少,它们在死

  19. A taxonomic review of Attevidae (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea) from China with descriptions of two new species and a revised identity of the Ailanthus webworm moth, Atteva fabriciella, from the Asian tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Wu, Chun-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    This review describes four species of Atteva (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Attevidae) from China, including two new species: A. wallengreni n. sp. and A. yanguifella n. sp. The taxonomic identity of the Ailanthus webworm moth from South and Southeast Asia is revised with a designation of neotype for Phalaena (Tinea) fabriciella Swederus. Lectotypes of Atteva brucea Moore and A. niviguttella Walker are designated. Atteva brucea is synonymized with A. fabriciella. Synonymy of Atteva niviguttella and A. fabriciella is reconfirmed. The previous Chinese records of A. fabriciella were based on confusions with A. wallengreni n. sp. Confirmed specimens of A. fabriciella from China are reported. A pair of confused species, A. fabriciella and A. wallengreni n. sp., are distinguished by the number of white dots on the forewings and the genital features. Another confused pair, A. niveigutta and A. yanguifella n. sp., are compared by external and genital features. All type specimens of the described species are illustrated and compared with the conspecific specimens from various countries of the Asian tropics. Keys to all the species from China are provided.

  20. Adaptation to the new land or effect of global warming? An age-structured model for rapid voltinism change in an alien lepidopteran pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takehiko; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Shimada, Masakazu

    2008-05-01

    1. Hyphantria cunea Drury invaded Japan at Tokyo in 1945 and expanded its distribution gradually into northern and south-western Japan. All populations in Japan were bivoltine until the early 1970s, at which time trivoltine populations appeared in several southern regions. Presently, H. cunea exists as separate bivoltine and trivoltine populations divided around latitude 36 degrees . In the course of this voltinism change, the mean surface temperature in Japan rose by 1.0 degrees C. 2. To determine whether and how this temperature increase might be responsible for the voltinism change, we constructed an age-structured model incorporating growth speed driven by actual daily temperature and detailed mechanisms of diapause induction triggered by both daily photoperiod and temperature. 3. The simulation result suggests that both the acceleration of the growth speed and the prolongation of diapause induction are necessary to cause changes in voltinism, regardless of temperature increase. We concluded that the H. cunea population changed its life-history traits as an adaptation parallel with its invasion into the south-western parts of Japan. 4. Though the temperature increase had little effect on the fitness and heat stress in bivoltine and trivoltine populations, the trivoltine life cycle has become advantageous at least in marginal regions such as Tokyo.

  1. Characterization of a novel chitinase, DkChi, from Dendrolimus kikuchii nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Qu, Liangjian; Zhang, Zhilin; Wang, Yuzhu; Zhang, Yongan

    2013-12-01

    Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura nucleopolyhedrovirus (DkNPV) is a novel nucleopolyhedrovirus strain that has exhibited high potential as biological control agent against D. kikuchii. In this work, a 1755-bp DkChi gene with sequence homology to a chitinase gene was cloned from the genomic DNA of DkNPV using a DNA fragment library. The DkChi gene, encoding 558 residues protein with a predicted mass of 61.6 kDa, was expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. We confirmed that the prepared protein was the DkChi protein by mass spectrometry analysis. Enzyme activity analysis showed that DkChi had both endo- and exo-chitinase activities. Interestingly, the DkChi protein displayed a strong insecticidal activity against Spodoptera exigua, Hyphantria cunea, Helicoverpa armigera and Lymantria dispar. The results suggest that DkChi is a good candidate protein for significantly contributing to pest control.

  2. A trypsin inhibitor from snail medic seeds active against pest proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceciliani, F; Tava, A; Iori, R; Mortarino, M; Odoardi, M; Ronchi, S

    1997-02-01

    A protein trypsin inhibitor from seeds of snail medic (Medicago scutellata), MsTI, has been purified by ion-exchange chromatography, gel-filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The protein inhibits the catalytic activity of bovine beta-trypsin, with an apparent Kd of 1.8 x 10(-9), but exhibits no activity towards bovine alpha-chymotrypsin. Moreover, MsTI inhibits the trypsin-like proteinase activity present in larvae of the crop pests Adoxophyes orana, Hyphantria cunea, Lobesia botrana and Ostrinia nubilalis. The complete amino acid sequence of MsTI consists of 62 residues corresponding to a M(r) of 6925. Sequence comparison shows that MsTI exhibits significant similarity to other proteins belonging to the Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor family, and the closest identity (81%) with the wound-induced trypsin inhibitor from Medicago sativa leaves.

  3. PESTS OF ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS IN THE PARKS OF PITEŞTI AND METHODS OF FIGHTING THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bărbuceanu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The observations carried-out in 2008 to ornamental trees and shrubs from parks of ADP Pitesti conducted to identified of the follows pests species: Macrosiphum rosae (L., Aphis spiraephaga Müll., Cinara cupressi Buckton, Hyphantria cunea Drury, Oxycarenus lavaterae (F.. Cinara cupressi and Oxycarenus lavaterae are mentioned for the first time in Romania. Cinara cupressi was noticed on an imported Abies nordmanniana specimen in a park from this city. O. lavaterae, a Mediterranean species from Tilia sp., currently it is expanding his area in northern regions. We recommend carefully monitoring of imported ornamental plants, because they can be infested and open ways to invasion for the pests with devastated potential.

  4. 全球植物重要害虫种类数量及中国发生比例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乃中; 杨晓军; 马菲; 安榆林

    2006-01-01

    近年来,湿地松粉蚧[Oracella acuta(Lobdell)]、美国白蛾(Hyphantria cunea Drury)、松突圆蚧(Herniberlesia pitysophila Takagi)、稻水象甲(Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel)、美洲斑潜蝇(Liriomyza sativae Blanchard)、马铃薯叶甲(Leptinotarsa decernlineata Say)和红脂大小蠹(Dendroctonus valens LeConte)等重要植物害虫先后入侵我国,部分种类在新发现时并不在我国进境植物检疫有害生物名单内,也不为我国植保植检工作者所熟悉。

  5. 柞蚕蛹期灵菌败血病Serratia marcescens C3菌株分离鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Serratia marcescens C3:The Pathogen Causing an Antheraea pernyi Pupal Bacterial Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程瑞春; 崔建国; 王洪魁; 高国平; 孙守慧; 祁金玉; 王月

    2010-01-01

    以柞蚕(Antheraea pernyi)蛹为替代寄主繁殖白蛾周氏啮小蜂(Chouioia cunea)技术在辽宁、北京、天津、上海、河北、山东等地美国白蛾(Hyphantria cunea)的生物防治中发挥了重要作用.利用柞蚕蛹繁殖白蛾周氏啮小蜂时,柞蚕蛹期软化病是繁蜂的主要障碍.通过对利用柞蚕蛹繁蜂时蛹内组织液化后呈粉红色这一未知软化病的典型症状进行病原细菌的分离和纯化,得到C3菌株.经Biolog系统和16S rRNA序列分析,鉴定C3菌株为灵菌(Serratia marcescens),经过柯赫法则检验,确定灵菌C3菌株是导致柞蚕蛹期灵菌败血病的病原菌.描述了繁蜂时柞蚕蛹期灵菌败血病发病期的认别特征.

  6. Genetic transformation and expression of transgenic lines of Populus x euramericana with insect-resistance and salt-tolerance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R L; Wang, A X; Zhang, J; Dong, Y; Yang, M S; Wang, J M

    2016-04-29

    We characterized new transgenic varieties of poplar with multiple insect-resistant and salt stress tolerant genes. Two insect-resistant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes, Cry1Ac and Cry3A, and a salt-tolerant gene, Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) were inserted into a vector, p209-Cry1Ac-Cry3A-BADH. The clone of Populus x euramericana was transformed by the vector using the Agrobacterium-mediated method. Three transgenic lines were assessed using genetic detection and resistance expression analysis. PCR revealed that exogenous genes Cry1Ac, Cry3A, BADH and selective marker gene NPTII were present in three transgenic lines. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) showed significant differences in the transcriptional abundance of three exogenous genes in different lines. Results of assays for Bt toxic proteins showed that the Cry1Ac and Cry3A toxic protein content of each line was 12.83-26.32 and 2108.91-2724.79 ng/g, respectively. The Cry1Ac toxic protein content of different lines was significantly different; the Cry3A toxic protein content was about 100 times higher than that of the Cry1Ac toxic protein. The insect-resistance test revealed the mortality rate of transgenic lines to Hyphantria cunea L1 larvae varied by 42.2-66.7%, which was significantly higher than non-transgenic lines. The mortality rate of L1 and L2 Plagiodera versicolora larvae was 100%. The insecticidal effect of transgenic lines to P. versicolora larvae was higher than that to H. cunea larvae. NaCl stress tolerance of three transgenic lines under 3-6% NaCl concentration was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic lines.

  7. Noi semnalări ale unor specii de insecte forestiere invazive în România [ New records of some invasive forest insect species in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olenici N

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New records of ten invasive insect species in Romania are presented. The studied species are: Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic 1986, Parectopa robiniella Clemens 1863, Phyllonorycter robiniella (Clemens 1859, Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata 1963, Hyphantria cunea (Drury 1773, Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldeman 1847, Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann 1910, Eopineus strobus (Hartig 1837, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl 1893 and Harmonia axyridis Pallas 1773. The native range of each species, the first report and the present distribution in Europe and in Romania are discussed. The new records suggest that all the analysed species have established populations in our country and a more widespread distribution than that previously known. Some of them attain sometimes locally or zonally high population levels and are regarded as important pests. For the most species, new observations are necessary, both concerning their presence in the areas where they were not found so far, but also to assess the impact of insect populations on their hosts and on the recipient biocoenoses. A particular attention should be paid to the species H. axyridis, whose swarms invade the houses of the people during the autumn and could cause annoyance and possibly allergy. Citizen participation in observing and reporting of these new ”guests” is encouraged.

  8. Resistance to BmNPV via overexpression of an exogenous gene controlled by an inducible promoter and enhancer in transgenic silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Jiang

    Full Text Available The hycu-ep32 gene of Hyphantria cunea NPV can inhibit Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV multiplication in co-infected cells, but it is not known whether the overexpression of the hycu-ep32 gene has an antiviral effect in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Thus, we constructed four transgenic vectors, which were under the control of the 39 K promoter of BmNPV (39 KP, Bombyx mori A4 promoter (A4P, hr3 enhancer of BmNPV combined with 39 KP, and hr3 combined with A4P. Transgenic lines were created via embryo microinjection using practical diapause silkworm. qPCR revealed that the expression level of hycu-ep32 could be induced effectively after BmNPV infection in transgenic lines where hycu-ep32 was controlled by hr3 combined with 39 KP (i.e., HEKG. After oral inoculation of BmNPV with 3 × 10(5 occlusion bodies per third instar, the mortality with HEKG-B was approximately 30% lower compared with the non-transgenic line. The economic characteristics of the transgenic lines remained unchanged. These results suggest that overexpression of an exogenous antiviral gene controlled by an inducible promoter and enhancer is a feasible method for breeding silkworms with a high antiviral capacity.

  9. An improved PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for the identification of cry1-type genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Changlong; Liu, Dongming; Zhou, Zishan; Cai, Jilin; Peng, Qi; Gao, Jiguo; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-01

    The cry1-type genes of Bacillus thuringiensis represent the largest cry gene family, which contains 50 distinct holotypes. It is becoming more and more difficult to identify cry1-type genes using current methods because of the increasing number of cry1-type genes. In the present study, an improved PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method which can distinguish 41 holotypes of cry1-type genes was developed. This improved method was used to identify cry1-type genes in 20 B. thuringiensis strains that are toxic to lepidoptera. The results showed that the improved method can efficiently identify single and clustered cry1-type genes and can be used to evaluate cry1-type genes in novel strain collections of B. thuringiensis. Among the detected cry1-type genes, we identified four novel genes, cry1Ai, cry1Bb, cry1Ja, and cry1La. The bioassay results from the expressed products of the four novel cry genes showed that Cry1Ai2, Cry1Bb2, and Cry1Ja2 were highly toxic against Plutella xylostella, whereas Cry1La2 exhibited no activity. Moreover, Cry1Ai2 had good lethal activity against Ostrinia furnacalis, Hyphantria cunea, Chilo suppressalis, and Bombyx mori larvae and considerable weight loss activity against Helicoverpa armigera.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in black poplar roots after defoliation by a non-native and a native insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zampieri E

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A major goal in ecology is to understand how interactions among organisms influence ecosystem services. This work compares the effects of two Lepidoptera defoliators, one non-native (Hyphantria cunea and one native (Lymantria dispar to Europe, on the colonization of black poplar (the Populus nigra clone “Jean Pourtet” roots by an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiotic fungus (Funneliformis mosseae in a pot experiment. The effects of defoliation have also been assessed on the expression of fungal and plant genes playing a role during symbiosis. Both control and defoliated poplars have shown a low level of mycorrhization. Additionally, neither the non-native nor the native insect seem to strongly affect the AM colonization, at least at the time of observation (eight days from the end of the defoliation. Concerning the gene expression analysis, our results suggest that defoliation does not influence neither the expression of genes coding for a fungal and a plant phosphate transporter nor that of a gene coding for a fungal ATPase, and that there were no differences between defoliation carried out by the non-native and the native insect.

  11. 日本追寄蝇的发育起点温度和有效积温的研究%The developmental threshold temperaturae and effective accumulated temperature of Exorista japonica Townsend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 李会; 孟向东; 王艳华; 周苗新; 孙绪艮

    2011-01-01

    日本追寄蝇(Exorista japonica Townsend)是美国白蛾(Hyphantria cunea Drury)等多种鳞翅目(Lepidoptera)食叶害虫蛹期的重要寄生性天敌,本文对该蝇的发育起点温度和有效积温进行了观察,结果表明在18℃~30℃范围内,日本追寄蝇发育历期随温度的升高而缩短.卵期、幼虫期、蛹期、产卵前期的发育起点温度分别为10.12℃、8.86℃、7.81℃、9.88℃,有效积温分别为59.89日·度、100.2日·度、189.47日·度、20.43日·度;全世代的发育起点温度为8.15℃,有效积温为383.25日·度.

  12. Studies about Bacillus thuringiensis Strain Containing New cry Gene %一株含cry新基因的苏云金杆菌菌株的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋萍; 郭丽伟; 苏俊平; 王勤英

    2011-01-01

    A high toxicity Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)strain XPZ-9 against Lepidoptera pests was isolated and studied further. The strain formed the bipyramidal crystal and spherical crystal observed by optical microscope. SDSPAGE analysis revealed molecular weight of insecticidal crystal protein in this strain was 70 kDa. By using of PCRRFLP identification method,new crylAh gene was found in this strain. The bioassay results indicated Bt XPZ-9 toxin protein had high insecticidal activity against several Lepidoptera pests,such as 2 instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera,Plutella xylostella, Ostrinia furnacalis, Hyphantria cunea.%苏云金杆菌XPZ-9菌株是从土壤中分离的对鳞翅目幼虫有特异杀虫活性的新菌株.光学显微镜下观察到该菌株可产生菱形和圆形伴胞晶体,SDS-PAGE 检测表达的主要蛋白条带分子量约为70 kDa.PCR-RFLP分析结果表明该菌株含有新基因cry1Ah.生物活性测定表明该菌株对鳞翅目害虫棉铃虫、小菜蛾、亚洲玉米螟和美国白蛾的二龄幼虫都具有较强的杀虫活性.

  13. Identification and Molecular Characterization of a Chitin-Binding Protein from the Beet Webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Yin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the first crucial barrier in the midgut of insects, the peritrophic membrane (PM plays an important role in preventing external invasion. PM proteins, as the major components of the PM, determine the structure and function of this membrane. A new PM protein, named LstiCBP, from the PM of Loxostege sticticalis larvae was identified using cDNA library screening. The full cDNA of LstiCBP is 2606 bp in length and contains a 2403 bp ORF that encodes an 808-amino acid preprotein with a 15-amino acid as signal peptide. The deduced protein sequence of the cDNA contains 8 cysteine-rich chitin-binding domains (CBDs. Recombinant LstiCBP was successfully expressed in BL21 cells using recombinant plasmid DNA and showed high chitin-binding activity. LstiCBP expression was detected in the midgut at both the transcriptional and translational levels; however, the biochemical and physiological functions of LstiCBP in L. sticticalis require further investigation.

  14. Identity of the ailanthus webworm moth (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae, a complex of two species: evidence from DNA barcoding, morphology and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wilson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During extensive ongoing campaigns to inventory moths of North America and Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG, northwestern Costa Rica, we discovered that morphologically similar yponomeutid moths were assigned two different names, Atteva ergatica Walsingham in Costa Rica and A. punctella (Stoll in North America, but had identical DNA barcodes. Combining DNA barcoding, morphology and food plant records also revealed a complex of two sympatric species that are diagnosable by their DNA barcodes and their facies in Costa Rica. However, neither of the names could be correctly applied to either species, as A. ergatica is a junior synonym and A. punctella a junior homonym. By linking our specimens to type material through morphology and DNA barcoding, we determined that the ACG dry forest species, distributed from Costa Rica to southern Quebec and Ontario, should be called A. aurea, whereas the similar and marginally sympatric ACG rain forest species found in Central America should be called A. pustulella. Neotypes are designated for Phalaena Tinea punctella Stoll, 1781 and Deiopeia aurea Fitch, 1857. Atteva floridana has identical barcodes to A. aurea and provisionally maintained as a synonym.

  15. Juvenile hormone changes associated with diapause induction, maintenance, and termination in the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingfu; Huang, Shaohong; Luo, Lizhi

    2011-07-01

    At 22°C and under a long-day photoperiod of L:D 16:8, all the last fifth instar Loxostege sticticalis larvae undergo prepupal stage and pupate without diapause. Under a short-day photoperiod of L:D 12:12, in contrast, they all enter diapause with approximately 36 days diapause maintenance and then terminate diapause spontaneously, although only 44% of the larvae terminated diapause successfully. Changes in hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH I) titers of diapause-destined larvae across diapause induction, maintenance and termination were examined using HPLC, and were compared with those of non-diapause-destined larvae from the fifth instar through pupation. JH I titer of the earliest fifth instar diapause-destined larvae remained at a high level with a peak of 220.4 ng/ml, though it decreased continuously to a minimum of 69.0 ng/ml on day 5 in the fifth instar when the larvae stopped feeding to enter diapause. During the diapause maintenance, JH I titer of the mature larvae increased significantly and maintained a high level until day 31 in prepupae. JH I titer declined and fluctuated at low level from 5 days before pupation. In contrast, JH I titer of both the fifth instar non-diapause-destined larvae and prepupae remained and fluctuated at low level consistently, as well as decreased before pupation. These results indicate that diapause induction and maintenance in this species might be a consequence of high JH, whereas diapause termination can be attributed to low JH titer, which was in agreement with the hormonal regulation observed in many other larval-diapausing insects.

  16. Nucleopolyhedrovirus detection and distribution in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats of Appledore Island, Gulf of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Ian; Brown, Julia M; Gitlin, Shari A; Doud, Devin F

    2011-07-01

    Viruses in aquatic ecosystems comprise those produced by both autochthonous and allochthonous host taxa. However, there is little information on the diversity and abundance of viruses of allochthonous origin, particularly from non-anthropogenic sources, in freshwater and marine ecosystems. We investigated the presence of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV) (Baculovirus), which commonly infect terrestrial lepidopteran taxa, across the landscape of Appledore Island, Gulf of Maine. PCR and qPCR primers were developed around a 294-bp fragment of the polyhedrin (polH) gene, which is the major constituent protein of NPV multivirion polyhedral occlusion bodies. polH was successfully amplified from several aquatic habitats, and recovered polH sequences were most similar to known lepidopteran NPV. Using quantitative PCR designed around a cluster of detected sequences, we detected polH in Appledore Island soils, supratidal freshwater ponds, nearshore sediments, near- and offshore plankton, and in floatsam. This diverse set of locations suggests that NPVs are widely dispersed along the terrestrial--marine continuum and that free polyhedra may be washed into ponds and eventually to sea. The putative hosts of detected NPVs were webworms (Hyphantria sp.) which form dense nests in late summer on the dominant Appledore Island vegetation (Prunus virginiana). Our data indicate that viruses of terrestrial origin (i.e., allochthonous viruses) may be dispersed widely in coastal marine habitats. The dispersal of NPV polH and detection within offshore net plankton (>64 μm) demonstrates that terrestrial viruses may interact with larger particles and plankton of coastal marine ecosystem, which further suggests that viral genomic information may be transported between biomes.

  17. 转双Bt基因巨霸杨外源基因表达及抗虫性检测%Exogenous Gene Expression and Insect Resistance Detection of Transgenic Populus deltocdes ‘55/56’ ×P.deltoc-descv‘2KEN8’ with Double Bt Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洁; 杜沙沙; 邱彤; 杨敏生; 王进茂

    2016-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of genetically modified ( gm) polar Bt gene expression and expand the insect-resistant spec-trum, we chose the Populu s deltocdes‘55/56’ ×P.deltocdescv‘2KEN8’ with doubleB t gene of Cr y1Ac and Cry3A of one-year seedlings as materials , and tested the expression of exogenous genes and insect resistance .The purpose gene was inte-grated into the genome in the P.deltocdes‘ 55/56’ ×P.deltocdecsv ‘2KEN8’ by PCR identification .We used the fluores-cent quantitative PCR technique and ELISA to detect the four gm strains transcription abundance Bt toxic protein gene ex-pression content in the leaves .The difference existed between the two Bt gene transcription abundance in different strains:Cry3A gene transcription abundance was significantly higher than Cry1Ac.Two kinds of Bt toxic protein expression quantity were significantly different between each strain .Cry3A toxic protein levels in each strain were significantly higher than Cry1Ac.Each strains’ insect-resistant effect to lepidoptera pests , larvae (Hyphantria cunea) was not obvious with no sig-nificant difference between different strains .The strains showed very high insect-resistant effect to coleoptera pests ( Pla-giodera versicolora), and were significantly higher than that of single gene Cry3A poplars high strain CC84, and there was significant difference between different strains .%为提高转基因杨树中Bt基因的表达效率并扩大抗虫谱,以同时转入Cry1Ac和Cry3A基因的转双Bt基因巨霸杨( Populus deltocdes‘55/56’×P.deltocdes‘2KEN8’)株系1年生苗为材料,对外源基因的表达和抗虫性进行检测。经PCR检测,证明目的基因已被整合到巨霸杨基因组中。利用荧光定量PCR和ELISA技术检测了4个转基因株系叶片中Bt基因的转录丰度和毒蛋白表达量。结果表明:不同株系间Bt基因的转录丰度存在显著差异,Cry3A基因的转录丰度显著高于Cry1Ac

  18. 1株对多种害虫高活性的苏云金杆菌Bt CYZ-4%Insecticidal Characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis Strain CYZ 4 with High Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵焕丽; 陆秀君; 刘云飞; 张建光; 李保国; 安文义; 王颖

    2009-01-01

    通过生物测定得到了对多种重要农林害虫高活性的苏云金杆菌菌株Bt CYZ-4,对其基因型鉴定表明:该菌株基因型较丰富.该菌株对粘虫(Mythimna separata)初孵幼虫48h LC50为6.6×106个/mL(芽孢密度);对美国白蛾(Hyphantria cunea)、甜菜夜蛾(Spodoptera exigua)和棉铃虫(Helicoverpa armigera)初孵幼虫72h LC50分别为2.9×106、2.25×105和4.7×106个/mL;对林业害虫杨扇舟蛾(Clostera anachoreta)二龄幼虫72h LC50为1.7×106个/mL,同时该菌株对卫生害虫淡色库蚊(Culex pipiens paliens)也表现出较好的活性,24h LC50为2.01×105个/mL.利用cry1、cry2、cry3、cry7、cry8、cry9和vip3A基因引物对该菌株进行基因型鉴定,并对其扩增片段进行限制性酶切分析,结果表明,该菌株含有cry1Ac、cry1Ab、cry2Ab和vip3A基因,不存在cry3、cry7、cry8、cry9基因,其它基因型仍有待鉴定.SDS-PAGE分析表明,晶体蛋白质的分子质量主要为130、70、57、27ku,营养期为88ku.该菌株是一株具有应用潜力的Bt野生株.

  19. Comparison of exogenous gene expression and insect-resistance ability of transgenic 741 poplars with single and double Bt genes%转单、双Bt基因741杨外源基因表达和抗虫性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂英; 杨敏生; 霍雪梅; 刘晓杰

    2012-01-01

    detection of exogenous gene, the expressions of insecticidal proteins and the assessment of insect-resistance ability of plant. [ Results ] The expected electrophoretic bands from the transgenic lines appeared in PCR amplification. EL1SA detection showed that the expression of insecticidal proteins was consistent with the exogenous genes in each line. Toxicity tests were performed in the laboratory with Plagiodera versicolora and Hyphantria cunea on fresh detached leaves. Transgenic poplar lines carrying different insect-resistance genes demonstrated selective resistance to target insects, but showed no toxic effects towards non-target insects. Transgenic 741 poplar lines with double Bt transgenes had double insect-resistance ability, and individual lines showed resistance ranging from high, medium to low. Five lines ( pCCA1, pCCA2, pCCA5, pCCA6 and pCCA9 ) selected with high resistance against P. versicolora showed higher toxicity than three single Cry3Aa gene lines with high resistance ( pCC11, pCC53, and pCC84). As regard to resistance toward H. cunea, seven lines ( pCCA2 - pCCA7 and pCCA9) exhibited similar effectiveness as the single Bt line (pB29) and only one line (pCCA1 ) showed an extremely low level of resistance. [ Conclusion ] The combination of multiple insect-resistance genes in 741 poplars exerts gene stacking effects which not only expand its insect-resistance spectrum but also improve its insect-resistance ability largely.

  20. Investigation on the Trapping Effect of Solar Insecticide Lamp on Hy phantria cunea in Urban Gardens%城市园林中太阳能杀虫灯对美国白蛾的诱杀效果调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑红; 张运峰; 刘海英; 刘凤敏; 范永山

    2015-01-01

    Trapping Hyphantriacunea by the solar insecticide lamp dropping sex pheromone at the same time in South Lake Ecological Park of Tangshan .The survey found solar insecticidal lamp had strong trapping effect on Hyphantriacunea and small effect on natural enemies .Adding sex pheromone can significantly enhance the trapping effect of solar insecticide lamp .%为了安全环保地防治园林害虫 ,在唐山市南湖生态区采用太阳能杀虫灯 ,同时投放性诱剂诱芯 ,调查其对美国白蛾的诱杀效果.结果表明 :太阳能杀虫灯防治美国白蛾 ,诱杀力强 ,对天敌影响小 ,投放性诱剂诱芯能够明显增强太阳能杀虫灯对美国白蛾的诱杀效果.

  1. 草地螟选择大画眉草而非藜产卵的证据及原因%Evidences and causes for selecting stinkgrass rather than lambsquarters as ovipositing plants by the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 罗礼智; 潘贤丽; 康爱国

    2010-01-01

    为了阐明草地螟对产卵寄主的选择性,为改善其测报、防治技术提供科学依据,笔者于2008年8月在河北康保对草地螟的产卵寄主植物进行了系统的调查.主要结果为:在所调查的9科23种植物中,查到有草地螟产卵的有7科13种.成虫对禾本科的大画眉草[Eragrostis cilianensis(All.)Link ex Vignolo-Lutati]具有显著的偏好.大画眉草的单株着卵量、有卵株率、卵密度及相对着卵量均显著高于藜(Chenopodium album Linnaeus)等其他产卵寄主的对应值,并比藜上的对应值多10倍到100倍以上.对此次草地螟成虫主要选择大画眉草产卵的可能原因进行了探讨分析.

  2. 寄生美国白蛾的啮小蜂一新种(膜翅目,姬小蜂科)%A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS TETRASTICHUS (HYMENOPTERA, EULOPHIDAE) PARASITIZING FALL WEBWORM IN QINHUANGDAO, HEBEI PROVINCE, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠岐; 乔秀荣; 韩义生

    2003-01-01

    记述了从美国白蛾蛹中养出的姬小蜂科啮小蜂亚科1新种,即白蛾短角啮小蜂Tetrastichus litoreus sp.nov..本种群集内寄生于美国白蛾蛹中,以老熟幼虫在寄主蛹中越冬,成蜂的雌雄性比为5:1.新种的模式标本保存于中国林业科学研究院昆虫标本馆.

  3. Changes in the Contents of Proteins and Amino Acids of Apriona germari Larvae Infected by Beauveria bassiana%桑天牛幼虫感染球孢白僵菌后蛋白质和氨基酸含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会平; 黄大庄; 唐秀光

    2012-01-01

    ;Felipe et al.,2004).近年来,利用白僵菌防治松毛虫(Dendrolimus spp,)、玉米螟(Pyrausta nubilalis)、棉铃虫(Helicoverpa armigera)、美国白蛾(Hyphantria cunea)、天牛等农林害虫的研究和应用均取得很大进展,在控制农林害虫的严重发生和减少环境污染方面,发挥着不可替代的作用(赫英伟,2010;王滨,2003;丁德贵等,2004;张爱文等,1992;孙鲁娟等,2001;郭志红等,2001;刘洪剑等,2007;Shmazu,1995;徐均焕等,2003;林庆源,2005;刘洪剑等,2009;王云滨,2007;陆秀君等,2008).

  4. TWO NEW SPECIES OF HOWARDI SPECIES GROUP IN THE GENUS TETRASTICHUS (HYMENOPTERA:EULOPHIDAE) PARASITIZING FALL WEBWORM FROM CHINA%寄生于美国白蛾的黑棒啮小蜂中国二新种(膜翅目:姬小蜂科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠岐; 魏建荣

    2003-01-01

    报道和记述了在中国发现的寄生于美国白蛾的姬小蜂科啮小蜂属黑棒啮小蜂种团(Tetrastichus howardi species group)的2个新种:山东白蛾啮小蜂Tetrastichus shandongensis Yang,白蛾黑基啮小蜂T. nigricoxae Yang.这2种啮小蜂均群集内寄生于美国白蛾蛹中,每寄主蛹平均出蜂分别为77头和124头,平均寄生率分别为6.2% 和9.8%, 在生物防治上具有良好的利用前景.文末列出了啮小蜂属黑棒啮小蜂种团中国已知3个种的检索表.新种的模式标本保存于中国林业科学研究院昆虫标本馆.

  5. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Alligatorweed Survey of Ten Southern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    alligatorweed in South America for candidate biocon - trol agents, with funding provided largely by the Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP), CE...Alabama, and Georgia. Control was reported to be unsat- P’ isfactory in Tennessee and the TVA, and no control of alligatorweed by biocon - _ trol insects...to the reduced water levels. None of the biocon - trol agents were collected from any of the sites; however, a native webworm species was found to be

  6. Metabolism of myristicin by Depressaria pastinacella CYP6AB3v2 and inhibition by its metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenfu; Zangerl, Arthur R; Berenbaum, May R; Schuler, Mary A

    2008-06-01

    Although methylenedioxyphenyl (MDP) compounds, such as myristicin, are useful in the management of insecticide-resistant insects, the molecular mechanisms for their action in mammals and insects have not been elucidated. In this study, GC-MS analyses of methanol extracts of foliage of wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) have identified myristicin as a substrate for CYP6AB3v2, an imperatorin-metabolizing cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Depressaria pastinacella (parsnip webworm). In contrast with its strong inhibitory effects on many mammalian P450s, myristicin is effectively metabolized by CYP6AB3v2 (V(max) and K(m) of 97.9 pmol/min/pmol P450 and 17.9 microM, respectively) at a rate exceeding that recorded previously for imperatorin, the only other known substrate for this highly specialized enzyme. The myristicin metabolite of CYP6AB3v2 is 1-(3',4'-methylenedioxy-5'-methoxyphenyl)-2,3-epoxypropane. Molecular dockings have indicated that, unlike other epoxide metabolites of furanocoumarins, this epoxide metabolite is likely to remain in the CYP6AB3v2 catalytic site due to its low binding energy (-31.0 kcal/mol). Inhibition assays indicate that myristicin acts as a mixed inhibitor of this insect P450 and suggest that the epoxide metabolite may be an intermediate involved in the formation of P450-methylenedioxyphenyl complexes.

  7. 187-gene phylogeny of protozoan phylum Amoebozoa reveals a new class (Cutosea) of deep-branching, ultrastructurally unique, enveloped marine Lobosa and clarifies amoeba evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E; Lewis, Rhodri

    2016-06-01

    Monophyly of protozoan phylum Amoebozoa, and subdivision into subphyla Conosa and Lobosa each with different cytoskeletons, are well established. However early diversification of non-ciliate lobose amoebae (Lobosa) is poorly understood. To clarify it we used recently available transcriptomes to construct a 187-gene amoebozoan tree for 30 species, the most comprehensive yet. This robustly places new genus Atrichosa (formerly lumped with Trichosphaerium) within lobosan class Tubulinea, not Discosea as previously supposed. We identified an earliest diverging lobosan clade comprising marine amoebae armoured by porose scaliform cell-envelopes, here made a novel class Cutosea with two pseudopodially distinct new families. Cutosea comprise Sapocribrum, ATCC PRA-29 misidentified as 'Pessonella', plus from other evidence Squamamoeba. We confirm that Acanthamoeba and ATCC 50982 misidentified as Stereomyxa ramosa are closely related. Discosea have a strongly supported major subclade comprising Thecamoebida plus Glycostylida (suborders Dactylopodina, Stygamoebina; Vannellina) phylogenetically distinct from Centramoebida. Stygamoeba is sister to Dactylopodina. Himatismenida are either sister to Centramoebida or deeper branching. Discosea usually appear holophyletic (rarely paraphyletic). Paramoeba transcriptomes include prokinetoplastid Perkinsela-like endosymbiont sequences. Cunea, misidentified as Mayorella, is closer to Paramoeba than Vexillifera within holophyletic Dactylopodina. Taxon-rich site-heterogeneous rDNA trees confirm cutosan distinctiveness, allow improved conosan taxonomy, and reveal previous dictyostelid tree misrooting.

  8. 利用黄粉虫蛹人工繁殖白蛾周氏啮小蜂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明禄; 李时建

    2011-01-01

    以黄粉虫Tenebrio molitor L.蛹作为白蛾周氏啮小蜂Chouioia cunea Yang的人工寄主,在(28±0.5)℃条件下观察其发育历期,以不同蜂蛹比例进行接种,观察小蜂的寄生情况。结果表明,黄粉虫蛹能够满足白蛾周氏啮小蜂发育的营养需求,发育历期为17.2~22.9d,虽然成功寄生率只有75%左右,但基本可以满足常年大规模繁蜂的需要。不同接蜂比例对寄生率、出蜂蛹率和出蜂量有显著影响,蜂蛹比在2∶1以上较好。白蛾周氏啮小蜂在冷冻致死的黄粉虫蛹上也有产卵行为,但蛹内卵和幼虫量很少,它们在死亡寄主体内存活不超过72h。

  9. Wpływ czynników antropogenicznych na bioróżnorodność owadów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Boroń

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The human impact on the natural environment and subjugation of all its elements are often accompanied by negative effects of ecological imbalance in nature, transformation of ecosystems, and the extinction of many species originally associated with a particular ecological niche. In Poland strongly transformed areas are industrial districts, while fragments of the original landscape can be found only in a few places in the country. Anthropogenic factors affecting insects are most often chemical contamination of air, water and soil. A fall in the number of light forms of a butterfly dwelling on trees and a rise in the number of its dark forms are a result of air pollution in industrialized areas. Results of anthropogenic pressure can be seen in the decline in the Apollo butterfly population and the extinction of many species of monophagous and oligophagous Curculionoidea beetles. Anthropopressure is also expressed in the spread of species in new areas: the invasion of Europe by the Colorado beetle, ant pharaoh or fall webworm moth. Environmental engineering enables interference in the species composition of the ecosystem in order to achieve the desired effect, introducing completely new species to ecosystems: Australian ladybugs to South America, or African killer bees to Latin America, which are currently spread in North America. But the most important human influence on insects is a decrease in the number of pollinating insects: honeybees and bumblebees. These insects react with increased mortality in contact with plant protection products, particularly pesticides, which results in lower agricultural yields and, if no attempt is made to improve environmental quality, in a catastrophic vision of their scarcity.

  10. Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) biology and techniques for rearing on leaves of the blackberry (Rubus spp., Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Hübner, L K; Antunes, L E C; Nava, D E

    2013-02-01

    The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794) damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult) period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days). These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms.

  11. Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae biology and techniques for rearing on leaves of the blackberry (Rubus spp., Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI. Diez-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794 damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days. These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms.

  12. Indoor breeding Zhou Tetrastichus white moth pupation (former) cryopreservation of%室内繁育白蛾周氏啮小蜂化蛹(前)低温保存的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮效东; 刘发邦; 王绍文; 冯敬奎; 谢广科; 李增磊; 谭翠朋

    2012-01-01

    Zhou Nie small white moth colony set in the fall webworm pupae in parasitic, their eggs, larvae, pupae and eggs are in the early pupa inside the host spent. In nature, the mature larvae overwinter in the host pupa. After many years of research we learned that the local white moth Zhou Tetrastichus developmental threshold temperature: 6.28℃ (6.28 ± 0.60) effective temperature is: 365.12 day--degrees (365.12 ± 15.56). Zhou Tetrastichus white moth pupation (front), 6 degrees of cold storage in the next, after 30 days; a bee on the effective temperature of 436.6 degrees.%白蛾周氏啮小蜂群集内寄生于美国白蛾蛹中,其卵、幼虫、蛹及产卵前期均在寄主蛹内度过。在自然界中,以老熟幼虫在寄主蛹内越冬。作者经多年研究得知,在当地白蛾周氏啮小蜂发育起点温度是:6.28℃(6.28±0.60);有效积温是:365.12日度(365.12±15.56)。白蛾周氏啮小蜂化蛹(前),在6℃的低温保存下,历经30天的时间;出蜂的有效积温为436.6日度。

  13. 青檀林伴生生物及主要有害生物种类初步研究%Preliminary Study on Associated Organism of Pteroceltis Tatarinowii and Main Type of pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洋民; 安广池; 刘和风; 王光照; 安瑞; 胡乐强

    2014-01-01

    2003~2013年,对山东枣庄青檀寺青檀林伴生生物和山东枣庄、泰安、济南,北京市妙峰山、上方山,山西灵丘县花塔,安徽青阳、泾县、全椒、滁州琅琊山等地青檀林主要有害生物种类进行调查研究。结果表明:枣庄地区青檀林伴生生物共有129种,其中病原微生物类8种,腹足纲动物1科2种,蛛形纲动物4科5种,昆虫纲动物7目、38科、55种,植物35科、59种。调查中发现的一种绵叶蚜经中国科学院动物研究所乔格侠研究员鉴定为绵叶蚜属一新种,定名为青檀绵叶蚜(Shivaphis pterocelti Qiao,Jiang and An,sp.nov.)。青檀林主要有害生物有腹足纲灰巴蜗牛[Bradybaena ravida (Benson)]和同型巴蜗牛[Bradybaena similaris (Ferussac)],蛛形纲山楂红蜘蛛(Tetranychus viennensis Zacher),昆虫纲鳞翅目灯蛾科美国白蛾[Hlyphantria cunea (Drury)]、半翅目斑蚜科青檀绵叶蚜(新种)(Shivaphis pterocelti Qiao,Jiang and An,sp.nov.)、鞘翅目天牛科桑天牛[Apriona germari (Hope)]。同时,对青檀苗圃地杂草进行调查,共有17科37种。%Since 2003, investigation has been carried out on associated organism of pteroceltis tatarinowii forest in Zaozhuang Qingtan Temple and main type of pests of pteroceltis tatarinowii forest in Zaozhuang, Taian, Jinan of Shandong province, Miaofeng Mountain and Shangfang Mountain in Beijing, Folwer Tower in Ling county, Shanxi province, Qingyang county, Jing county, Quanjiao county, and Langya Mountain of Anhui province. The results show that there are 129 species associated organism in pteroceltis tatarinowii forest of Zaozhuang, among which pathogenic microbes accounts for 8 species;gastropod mollusks accounts for 1 family, 2 species;arachnida accounts for 4 families, 5 species;insecta accounts for 7 orders, 38 families, 55 species;plants accounts for 35 families, 59 species. A new specie of Shivaphis was found in investigation, which was named

  14. Ecology of a bolas spider, Mastophora hutchinsoni: phenology, hunting tactics, and evidence for aggressive chemical mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargan, Kenneth V

    1988-01-01

    Bolas spiders are relatively rare members of the large family known as orb weavers. Instead of using a typical web to capture prey, late-stadia and adult female bolas spiders swing a droplet of adhesive on a thread at flying insects. Mastophora hutchinsoni (Araneae: Araneidae) is one of five Mastophora species known from the United States and occurs over much of eastern North America. It is univoltine in Kentucky and overwinters in the egg stage. Spiderling emerged in May, the diminutive males matured in late June and early July, and females matured in early September. Eggs were produced from late September to late October or early November. This report is the first complete documentation of the population phenology of any bolas spider. Newly-emerged M. hutchinsoni spiderlings did not use a bolas, but instead hunted by positioning themselves on the underside of leaf margins where they ambushed small arthropods that crawled along the leaf margins. Subadult and adult female M. hutchinsoni used a bolas to capture moths. Only male moths were captured, specifically three species of Noctuidae (bristly cutworm, bronzed cutworm, and smoky tetanolita) and one species of Pyralidae (bluegrass webworm). Among 492 prey captured by more than twenty spiders at two sites during 1985 and 1986, smoky tetanolita moths and bristly cutworm moths accounted for 93% of the total. The flight behavior of approaching moths, the limited taxa caught from a large available moth fauna, and the fact that only males were caught support the hypothesis that the spider attracts its prey by producing chemicals which mimic the sex pheromones of these moth species. Adult female M. hutchinsoni frequently captured more than one moth species on a given night. The two most common prey species were active at different times of night, the bristly cutworm soon after nightfall and the smoky tetanolita generally between 11:00 p.m. and dawn. This pattern suggests that mating activity of these moth species may be

  15. Preliminary study of the bionomics of Agrypon flexorius%草地螟阿格姬蜂生物学特性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐忠宝; 刘爱萍; 徐林波; 高书晶; 崔智林

    2013-01-01

    草地螟阿格姬蜂Agrypon flexorius Thunberg是草地螟Loxostege sticticalisL.老龄幼虫的优势寄生蜂,国内外对其研究报道较少.通过田间调查和室内试验,结果表明:雌雄蜂形态相似,雌蜂个体比雄峰略大.23℃下,草地螟阿格姬蜂经卵、幼虫、蛹发育到成虫,一个世代历期为30 ~ 37 d.田间寄生率为3.04%,自然平均雌雄性比为3.97:1.羽化在寄主成虫出现一周后开始,第5天达到高峰.交尾时间一般5~10 min.产卵时间一般为1~2min,卵多产在草地螟头、胸部两侧.草地螟阿格姬蜂大多进行两性生殖,少数进行孤雌生殖.在雌蜂不产卵情况下,补充各种营养的成蜂寿命均在16℃时最长;22℃,补充蔗糖,雌蜂寿命平均为17.11 d.在雌蜂产卵情况下,20%蜂蜜水最适合繁殖.草地螟阿格姬蜂在草地螟4龄幼虫的寄生率最高,平均为40.23%.%A series of experiments on the bionomics of Agrypon flexorius Thunberg (Ichneumonidae),a dominant parasitoid of the sugar-beet webworm,Loxostege sticticalis L.,were conducted both in field and laboratory.The developmental duration from egg to adult is 30-37 days at 23℃.In Inner Mongolia in autumn 2010,the percentage parasitism of L.sticticalis by A.flexorius was found to be only 3.04%.The sex ratio (female/male) of A.flexorius was approximately 3.97∶ 1.Females and males paired readily 24 hours after emergence.Mating generally lasted 5-10 min and peaked when the sex ratio was 1∶ 1.Mated females began to oviposit one day after mating and the oviposition period was relatively short 1-2 min.Eggs were laid in the head and thorax of the host.For the most part,adults adopted bisexual reproduction,but in the absence of males,parthenogenesis occurred,which was arrhenotokous.In studies with unmated females,longevity of females on various diets was highest at 16℃,but at a constant temperature,females lived longest on a diet of cane sugar and shortest when no food was provided

  16. Characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis strain YX-1 with high toxicity to Lepidopteran apple pests%一株对苹果树鳞翅目害虫高毒力的苏云金芽胞杆菌YX-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏俊平; 葛东华; 郭丽伟; 宋萍; 曹克强; 王勤英

    2012-01-01

    A strain of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strain, YX-1, with high toxicity to apple tree pests was isolated from soil in Hebei. In order to explore the feasibility of using this to control apple pests the toxicity of Bt YX-1 to some apple . Tree pests was assayed. The crystal shape, protein type, genotype and growth characteristics of Bt YX-1 were also observed and analyzed. A light microscope indicated that Bt XY-1 has crystals with a bipyramidal shape. SDS-PAGE analysis indicates that this strain produced 130 ku and 60 ku protein bands. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed the presence of crylAc, cry2Ac, cryll, vip3Aa and cry34 -35 genes. The bioassay results show that Bt YX-1 was highly toxic to larvae of Hlyphantria cunea, Helicoverpa armigera, Prodenia litura, Grapholitha molesta, Adoxophyes orana and Phalera flavescens with respective LC50 of 14. 48 mg/L, 2. 72×103 mg/L, 6. 24 × 104 mg/L, 1. 01 × 102mg/L, 3. 52 × 104 mg/L and 4. 73 × 103 mg/L. The toxicity of Bt YX-1 was higher than that of Bt HD-1. Although supernatant from a culture broth of Bt YX-1 showed very low insecticidal activity (8.33% mortality) against 2nd instar larvae of H. Armigera it markedly improved the toxicity of a mixture of spores and crystals. Our results show that the Bt YX-1 may prove valuable as a microbial control agent for lepidopteran pests or apple crops.%苏云金芽胞杆菌Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) YX-1是从土壤中分离的对多种鳞翅目害虫具有杀虫活性的新菌株.为了探索该菌株在果树上应用的可行性,本研究测定了Bt YX-1菌株对苹果树上6种鳞翅目害虫的杀虫毒力,同时对该菌株的晶体形态特征、蛋白型、生长特性、基因型等进行了分析.结果表明,Bt YX-1菌株产生菱形伴胞晶体,SDS-PAGE分析表明该菌株表达的主要蛋白条带分子量约为130 ku和60 ku;基因型鉴定表明,Bt YX-1菌株含有crylAc、cry2Ac、cryl、vip3Aa和cry34 - 35基因;生物活性测定表明,Bt YX-1菌株的孢

  17. Studies on the substitute diet of Oenopia conglobata%菱斑巧瓢虫替代饲料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明禄; 王淑君; 李雨; 朱臣

    2012-01-01

    瓢虫成虫饥饿24 h后,通过室内对菱斑巧瓢虫Oenopia conglobata (Linnaeus)成虫饲喂24种人工饲料,研究菱斑巧瓢虫的取食行为;以桃蚜(MP)作对照,选择羊肝+蔗糖( SLS)、猪肝+蔗糖(PLS)、黄粉虫蛹+蔗糖(TMPS)3种饲料研究瓢虫产卵量;以白蛾周氏啮小蜂蛹(CCP)、SLS、PLS和MP对瓢虫成虫进行交叉饲喂试验,每周期7d,研究饥饿后恢复产卵时间和产卵量的差异;最后以CCP和MP饲喂瓢虫幼虫,观察其发育历期.结果表明:在羊肝、鸡心、菜蛾幼虫、鸡肝和黄粉虫蛹组中,无论是否添加蔗糖,瓢虫取食情况较好.瓢虫成虫饲喂SLS、TMPS、PLS及MP后,MP组的14 d单雌产卵量为166.25粒、SLS组为18.15粒、PLS为9.65粒和TMPS组3.90粒,瓢虫恢复产卵的时间也有差异,MP组仅需要1d,而其它组需要3d至至5d.交叉饲喂试验发现,CCP组产卵量(40.67 ~46.87粒/雌)明显高于常用饲料- PLS组(4.53 ~7.13粒/雌),但与MP组(61.80 ~82.07粒/雌)仍有一定差距.利用CCP饲喂瓢虫幼虫,可以完成整个发育历期,但是存活率较低,1~4龄幼虫各龄期内存活率在63.64% ~ 87.50%之间,并且发育历期(21.23 d)明显长于饲喂MP组( 15.71 d).%After fasting for 24 h, through feeding 24 kinds of artificial diets to Oenopia conglobate indoor, their feeding behavior was studied. And with the control of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (MP) group, it was chose 3 kinds of diets to study the egg amount of ladybug, including sheep liver + sucrose ( SLS) , porcine liver + sucrose ( PLS) , Tenebrio molitor L. pupa + sucrose (TMPS). Then selecting the diet of Chouioia cunea yang pupa (CCP) , SLS, PLS and MP to conduct the cross experiment, 7 days per period, the difference of laying time and egg amount were researched. Finally, through feeding the CCP and MP diet to ladybug larva, and it was investigated the developmental period. The results showed that; in the group of feeding sheep liver, chicken heart, Plutella

  18. Effect of plum-peach intercropping on community composition and trophic structure of carabids ( Coleoptera: Carabidae) in North China%中国北方桃李间作对步甲群落组成和营养级结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雅辉; 刘小侠; 赵章武; 张青文

    2011-01-01

    their similar ecological environments. The experiment was carried out to clarify the effect of plum-peach intercropping on trophic structure of ground beetles, and to assess whether plum-peach intercropping is beneficial to pest control. [ Methods] Ground beetles were investigated with pitfall trapping method in three mono-peach orchards and three plum-peach intercropping orchards in linfen, Shanxi from April to October in 2006 and 2007, of which each experimental orchard is about 0. 3 hm2. The Carabidae species richness was compared between the two kinds of orchards. For the six dominant Carabidae species determined, two different species in combination were placed in one glass bottle with 10 beet webworms as food, and the bottles were placed under peach trees. The results of beetle attacking recorded from these bottles were used to determine the trophic level of Carabidae species. The relative abundances of carabids from each trophic level were compared between the two kinds of orchards. [ Results ] The 24 species of ground beetles were found, and the number of species showed no significant difference between in mono-peach orchard and in plum-peach intercropping orchard (P≥0. 38). In addition, the six dominant species could be classified into four trophic levels; Lesticus magnus ( Motschulsky) belongs to the senior predator, Scarites acutides Chaudoir the intermediate predator, Chlaenius bioculatus Chaudoir and Calathus halensis (Schaller) junior predators, and Harpalus tschiliensis Schauberger and Harpalus griseus ( Panzer) herbivores. The relative abundance of carabids at different trophic levels was higher in plum-peach intercropping orchard than in mono-peach orchard. The results of T test showed that extremely significant difference (P≤0.002) and significant difference (P=0.013) in relative abundances of herbivores and junior predators existed between the two kinds of peach orchards in 2006, respectively, but no significant difference (P≤0. 085) in relative