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Sample records for weber buxb cactaceae

  1. New Alcamide and Anti-oxidant Activity of Pilosocereus gounellei A. Weber ex K. Schum. Bly. ex Rowl. (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Jéssica K S; Chaves, Otemberg S; Brito Filho, Severino G; Teles, Yanna C F; Fernandes, Marianne G; Assis, Temilce S; Fernandes, Pedro Dantas; de Andrade, Alberício Pereira; Felix, Leonardo P; Silva, Tania M S; Ramos, Nathalia S M; Silva, Girliane R; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei

    2015-12-22

    The Cactaceae family is composed by 124 genera and about 1438 species. Pilosocereus gounellei, popularly known in Brazil as xique-xique, is used in folk medicine to treat prostate inflammation, gastrointestinal and urinary diseases. The pioneering phytochemical study of P. gounellei was performed using column chromatography and HPLC, resulting in the isolation of 10 substances: pinostrobin (1), β-sitosterol (2), a mixture of sitosterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside/stigmasterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3a/3b), 13²-hydroxyphaeophytin a (4), phaeophytin a (5), a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (6a/6b), kaempferol (7), quercetin (8), 7'-ethoxy-trans-feruloyltyramine (mariannein, 9) and trans-feruloyl tyramine (10). Compound 9 is reported for the first time in the literature. The structural characterization of the compounds was performed by analyses of 1-D and 2-D NMR data. In addition, a phenolic and flavonol total content assay was carried out, and the anti-oxidant potential of P. gounellei was demonstrated.

  2. New Alcamide and Anti-oxidant Activity of Pilosocereus gounellei A. Weber ex K. Schum. Bly. ex Rowl. (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica K. S. Maciel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cactaceae family is composed by 124 genera and about 1438 species. Pilosocereus gounellei, popularly known in Brazil as xique-xique, is used in folk medicine to treat prostate inflammation, gastrointestinal and urinary diseases. The pioneering phytochemical study of P. gounellei was performed using column chromatography and HPLC, resulting in the isolation of 10 substances: pinostrobin (1, β-sitosterol (2, a mixture of sitosterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside/stigmasterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3a/3b, 132-hydroxyphaeophytin a (4, phaeophytin a (5, a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (6a/6b, kaempferol (7, quercetin (8, 7′-ethoxy-trans-feruloyltyramine (mariannein, 9 and trans-feruloyl tyramine (10. Compound 9 is reported for the first time in the literature. The structural characterization of the compounds was performed by analyses of 1-D and 2-D NMR data. In addition, a phenolic and flavonol total content assay was carried out, and the anti-oxidant potential of P. gounellei was demonstrated.

  3. Max Weber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2006-01-01

    Temaet er dels Webers teori om magt, herredømme og autoritet, herunder om en udøvende nagts disciplinære bureaukrati og dets retligt-legale legitimeringsform. Dels hvorledes Weber kunne tænke teorier om magt, og hvordan magt påvirkede tænkning. Hvorledes er det muligt at tænke magtens former, når...

  4. Weber and Durkheim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik S.

    Weber and Durkheim is a systematic , comparative analysis of the methodologies of Max Weber and Émile Durkheim.......Weber and Durkheim is a systematic , comparative analysis of the methodologies of Max Weber and Émile Durkheim....

  5. Use and knowledge of Cactaceae in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Camilla Marques de; Lucena, Reinaldo Farias Paiva de; Costa, Gabriela Maciel; Carvalho, Thamires Kelly Nunes; Costa, Gyslaynne Gomes da Silva; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Pereira, Daniel Duarte; Ribeiro, João Everthon da Silva; Alves, Carlos Antônio Belarmino; Quirino, Zelma Glebya Maciel; Nunes, Ernane Nogueira

    2013-08-28

    This study aimed to record the use, and knowledge that residents from São Francisco community (Paraiba, Brazil) have regarding the Cactaceae. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 118 informants; 50 men and 68 women. The cacti cited in this study were organised into use categories and use values were calculated. Differences in the values applied to species and use categories by men and women were compared via a G test (Williams). The nine species identified were: Cereus jamacaru DC., Melocactus bahiensis (Brtitton & Rose) Luetzelb., Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Salm-Dyck., Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill, Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Pilosocereus gounellei (F.A.C. Weber) Byles & Rowley, Pilosocereus pachycladus F. Ritter, Tacinga inamoena (K. Schum) N.P. Taylor & Stuppy, Tacinga palmadora (Britton & Rose) N.P. Taylor & Stuppy. In total, 1,129 use citations were recorded, divided into 11 categories. The use value categories with the highest scores were forage (0.42), food (0.30) and construction (building) (0.25). P. pachycladus showed the greatest use value, versatility and number of plant parts used. The survey showed that the Cactaceae is extremely important for several uses and categories attributed to different species. Apart from contributing to the ethnobotanical knowledge of the Cactaceae, another important focus of this study was to reinforce the necessity for further studies that record the traditional knowledge about this plant family, which has been lost in younger generations.

  6. Weber's alleged emotivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, K

    1999-12-01

    This paper seeks to refute Alasdair MacIntyre's contention that the sociology of Max Weber is emotivist. MacIntyre understands emotivism to involve the collapse of all moral judgment into statements of personal preference. It is shown that Weber's sociology analyses this condition and seeks to repudiate it. In no way does Weber embrace emotivism. MacIntyre misses Weber's repudiation because he misreads Weber's sociological project. The paper shows that MacIntyre's reading of Weber can be refuted if attention is paid to the 'Politics as a Vocation' lecture.

  7. Educational Administration's Weber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Max Weber's importance in Greenfield's work, particularly in Greenfield and Ribbins'"Greenfield on Educational Administration" (1993). In concentrating on human actors' subjective understanding, Greenfield was a faithful Weberian. However, he deviated from Weber by disavowing structural explanations of social and organizational…

  8. Max Weber and Robert Michels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaff, Lawrence A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper investigates the unique intellectual partnership of Max Weber and Robert Michels, with particular emphasis on Weber's influence on Michel's inquiry into the sociology of parties and organization. Concludes with an evaluation of the import of Weber's critique of Michels' work. (DB)

  9. "Weber-tesen"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Der er næppe nogen anden samfundsvidenskabelig tese der er blevet så berømt på et grundlag der som oftest er så misforstået som Max Webers (1864-1920) tese om sammenhængen mellem den protestantiske etik og kapitalismens ånd. Man har set ham som den der ”vender Marx på hovedet” ved at vise, at det...

  10. Max Weber - bedaget og aktuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eistrup, Jens

    2010-01-01

    undervisningsartiklen introducerer en række af Max Webers centrale begreber om herredømme, bureaukrati, social handlen, rationalitet og profession. dernæst illustreres hvorledes Webers begreber kan tjene til at belyse spændingsfeltet mellem politik og profession i en socialfaglig kontekst....

  11. Cactaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Stemsucculents, branched or unbranched, columnar, globose or with thick flattened stems or internodes, usually with very small scale-like and awl-shaped, rarely foliaceous leaves; stems and internodes often with warts or ribs, bearing areoles in the axils of the often absent leaves. Areoles mostly

  12. Sturge-Weber syndrome

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    Natarajan Manivannan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis (Sturge-Weber syndrome is a rather uncommon congenital condition characterized by the combination of venous angioma of the leptomeninges over the cerebral cortex with ipsilateral angiomatous lesions of the face, and sometimes the skull, jaws, and oral soft tissues. A case of portwine stain with intraoral gingival hemangioma is presented. There were no other systemic manifestations. Patient reported with a complaint of localized tumor-like swelling in gums. Based on the presence of sharply demarcated vascular lesion unilaterally on the face and with ipsilateral intraoral vascular hyperplasia in the lip and gingiva, a variant of encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis was diagnosed. Ultrasound Doppler flowmetry was used to determine the blood flow. Dental management included plaque control instructions, scaling, root planning, and excision of the lesion done under general anesthesia. Close follow-up and meticulous plaque control have kept the oral condition under fairly good control.

  13. Homoisoflavanones from Agave tequilana Weber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Serna, José Antonio; Jiménez, Armando; Estrada-Reyes, Rosa; Marquez, Carmen; Cárdenas, Jorge; Salmón, Manuel

    2010-05-04

    Three homoisoflavanones were isolated from the "piña" and leaves of Agave tequilana Weber. The compounds were identified as: 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyl)-chroman-4-one (1), 7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-chroman-4-one (2) and 4'-demethyl-3,9-dihydro-punctatin (3). This is the first phytochemical study carried out to Agave tequilana Weber.

  14. Homoisoflavanones from Agave tequilana Weber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Morales-Serna

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Three homoisoflavanones were isolated from the “piña” and leaves of Agave tequilana Weber. The compounds were identified as: 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyl-chroman-4-one (1, 7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl-chroman-4-one (2 and 4’-demethyl-3,9-dihydro-punctatin (3. This is the first phytochemical study carried out to Agave tequilana Weber.

  15. Cactaceae do Vale do Rio Jequitinhonha (Minas Gerais Cactaceae of Jequitinhonha river valley (Minas Gerais

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    Nigel P Taylor

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante as primeiras coletas relacionadas ao Projeto "Cactaceae no Brasil Oriental", ficou provada a grande diversidade de espércies dessa família na região do vale médio do Rio Jequitinhonha, tendo sido visitadas as localidades de Itinga, Itaobim e Pedra Azul. Foram coletadas 21 espécies distribuídas entre os gêneros Pereskia, Opuntia, Tacinga, Pseudoacanthocereus, Arrojadoa, Brasilicereus, Cereus, Coleocephalocereus, Melocactus, Pilosocereus e Selenicereus, representando as três subfamílias de Cactaceae, cujas afinidades taxonômicas e padrões de distribuição geográfica são discutidos a seguir.During an initial visit to collect material for the projected "Cacti of Eastern Brazil", a remarkable great diversity of species of Cactaceae in the region of middle drainage of the Rio Jequitinhonha (mainly in the localities of Itinga, Itaobim and Pedra Azul was noted. Twenty one species in the genera Pereskia, Opuntia, Tacinga, Pseudocanthocereus, Arrojadoa, Brasilicereus, Cereus, Coloecephalocereus, Melocactus, Pilosocereus e Selenicereus representing all three subfamilies of Cactaceae were recorted. The phytogeographic affinities of the Cactaceae from this region are discussed.

  16. Croatian Chemists. II. Karlo Weber

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    Soljačić, I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An account of Professor Karlo Weber's life is given. He was born January 25th, 1902 in Mramorak (Vojvodina and died September 1st, 1978 in Zagreb. He studied chemistry and physics in Graz and Freiburg and obtained his Ph. D. at the University of Graz in 1926. The first part of his career from 1927 to 1945 Weber spent at the Department of Chemical Technology, Technical Faculty. His advancement from assistantship to full-professorship was not smooth. After May 8th, 1945, Weber barely saved his life and on September 5th, 1945 was formally dismissed from the Technical Faculty. He was out of a job, but soon was employed in the bookstore Juraj Križanić first as a staff-member and then as a salesman. Weber was dismissed from this job on June 30th, 1946. Two weeks later, he joined the Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine in Zagreb. He again started at the bottom of the hierarchy as a low-paid lab-assistant, but being a very able researcher he advanced relatively quickly to the position of full research professor in 1960.Weber was a physical chemist whose main research interest were chemical kinetics, photochemistry and optical phenomena (luminescence, fluorescence, photography. The more important part of his research work was published while he was at the Department of Chemical Technology. In the Department of Forensic Medicine, Weber encountered research different kind of problems – problems from forensic medicine and toxicology. This change in research environment did not prevent Weber in his productivity, he published 159 research papers, more than 70 technical papers, and 4 monographs. Among them especially prominent is Inhibitorwirkungen – Eine Darstellung der Negative Katalyse in Lösungen (Ferdinand Enke-Verlag, Stuttgart, 1938., which was the first monograph on the subject.Under his supervision, 13 M. Sc. theses and 24 Ph. D. theses were produced. Data for the Ph. D. theses are given (although incomplete. Weber is

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Sturge-Weber syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Registry: Sturge-Weber syndrome Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Sturge-Weber Syndrome Clinic Children's Hospital of Philadelphia: Capillary Vascular Malformations: Port ...

  18. [Rendu-Osler-Weber disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sys, L.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Rendu-Osler-Weber disease or hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a multisystem autosomal dominant hereditary disorder. The disorder is manifested by multiple dysplasia of blood vessels of the skin and mucous membranes. This results in recurrent and sometimes severe bleeding, of which

  19. O pensamento de Max Weber

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    Maurício Tragtenberg

    1966-06-01

    Full Text Available Max Weber inicia sua carreira universitária em 1893, como professor extraordinário de Direito Mercantil e Romano, na Universidade de Berlim. Em 1894 assume a Cadeira de Economia Política na Universidade de Hamburgo e em 1897 leciona na Universidade de Heidelberg.

  20. Weber, Durkheim, and the comparative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsis, R E

    1977-10-01

    This essay compares and contrasts the means by which Durkheim and Weber dealt with methodological issues peculiar to the comparative study of societies, what Smelser has called "the problem of sociocultural variability and complexity." More specifically, it examines how Weber and Durkheim chose appropriate comparative units for their empirical studies. The approaches that Weber and Durkheim brought to theproblem of cross-cultural comparison have critical implications for more current procedures used in the comparative study of contemporary and historical societies.

  1. Further naturalised Cactaceae in northeastern Iberian Peninsula

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    Dana Sánchez, Elías D.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available During the floristic work carried out in 2004 in the Baix Camp region of Tarragona (NE Spain we found four new species of alien naturalised Cactaceae. Of these, three are reported for the second time from Europe and the other is new to Catalonia region. Southern Catalonia, with eleven species of Cactaceae, harbours the highest diversity of the family in Europe. Our results demonstrate that this diversity is even higher than previously believed. The introduction of these exotic taxa is, once again, due to the development of gardening based exclusively on foreign elements, to the unscrupulous and uncontrolled dumping of their remains in the natural environment, and to the existence of a favourable climate.Durante la campaña de prospección florística llevada a cabo en 2004 por la comarca del Baix Camp (Tarragona, NE de España hemos encontrado cuatro especies de cactáceas alóctonas naturalizadas. De ellas, tres se citan por segunda vez de Europa y la otra es nueva para Cataluña. Nuestros resultados aumentan aún más la diversidad de cactáceas del sur de Cataluña que, con once especies, es la mayor de toda Europa. La introducción de estos táxones exóticos que ahora damos a conocer se debe, una vez más, al desarrollo de una jardinería basada casi exclusivamente en elementos foráneos, en el vertido desaprensivo e incontrolado de sus restos en el medio natural y en la existencia de una climatología muy favorable.

  2. Max Weber and the Iron Cage of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, Terry

    2004-01-01

    Max Weber is seen by mainstream social scientists as a sociologist, social theorist, and theorist of bureaucracy. In this reassessment of Weber's social science and its methodology, it is suggested that Weber can also be seen as a compelling early 20th-century critic of science and technology. The theme of technology, and Webers ambivalence about…

  3. The Battle that Weber Lost: Exploring The Fate of Weber's Contribution to the Methodenstreit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper explores the outcome of Max Weber's contribution to the Methodenstreit between teh Austrian marginal utility economists and teh German historicist economists in his methodological writings. The main conclusion is the neither economists nor sociologists have found Weber's contribution...... worth a closer look. The result is that Weber's contribution never has found its way int the methodological discussions in economics as well as into economic sociology...

  4. Is Bauman's bureau Weber's bureau?: a comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Gay, P

    1999-12-01

    In his highly regarded and influential Modernity and the Holocaust Zygmunt Bauman launched one of the most passionate and sustained critiques of 'bureaucratic rationality' seen within social theory for some time. In so doing he drew heavily upon the work of Max Weber for support. In this brief paper I am interested in exploring the extent to which Weber really is the anti-bureaucratic ally Bauman claims him to be. In the first part of the paper I outline the main elements of Bauman's critique of bureaucratic rationality, drawing particular attention to its reliance upon a self-consciously Weberian theoretical lexicon. In the second part of the paper I seek to indicate that, despite his claims to be following in Weber's tracks, Bauman's conclusions regarding the moral vacuity of bureaucratic conduct are the very antithesis of Weber's own.

  5. Max Weber entre liberalismo y republicanismo

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    Villacañas Berlanga, José Luis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to analyze the differences between social democracy and political democracy as modern processes, as these were understood by Max Weber. The archetype of modernity resides, from this point of view, in a convergence of both processes, as occurred in countries like the USA and Great Britain. Weber's diagnosis is that, whereas social democracy can be organized around liberal arguments, political democracy cannot advance without republican concepts like those of virtue, rigour, responsability and representation. For Weber, these values could only become present in Germany thanks to an adequate and democratic reception of Nietzsche, and in some way this reception could make sense of the former's work.

    Este artículo pretende analizar las diferencias entre democracia social y democracia política como procesos modernos, tal y como fueron comprendidos por Max Weber. Lo arquetípico de la modernidad reside, desde este punto de vista, en una convergencia de ambos procesos, tal y como se dio en países como USA y Gran Bretaña. El diagnóstico de Weber es que, mientras la democracia social puede organizarse sobre argumentos liberales, la democracia política no puede avanzar sin conceptos republicanos como el de virtud, rigor, responsabilidad y representación. Para Weber, estos valores sólo podrían hacerse presentes en Alemania a partir de una recepción adecuada y democrática de Nietzsche y en cierto modo esta recepción daría sentido a su obra.

  6. Max Weber Visits America: A Review of the Video

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wise

    2006-01-01

    The North Carolina Sociological Society is proud to announce the long-awaited video of Max Weber's trip to North Carolina as retold by two of his cousins. Max Weber made a trip to visit relatives in Mount Airy, North Carolina, in 1904. This 2004 narrative by Larry Keeter and Stephen Hall is the story of locating and interviewing two living eyewitnesses (1976) to Max Weber's trip. The video includes information about Weber's contributions to modern sociology. Dowloadable files are provided...

  7. Max Weber e a crise do liberalismo

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    Ana Cleide Chiarotti Cesário

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show how Weber perceived the crisis of liberalism based on the analysis of the social and political conditions in Germany. Following Weberian thought, it seeks to indicate the shape of a political democracy in a "post-bourgeois society".

  8. Comparison between Weber's electrodynamics and classical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We analyse the relation between Weber's law and Maxwell's equations. Finally, .... which is so elegant, so mathematical, and so entirely different from anything in this paper, that I ... In these theories the force acting between the two bodies is treated with refer- .... The formula of Gauss is inconsistent with this principle, and.

  9. Comparison between Weber's electrodynamics and classical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    but not how these fields act on another test charge у moving with velocity з relative to an ... the force between two electric particles depends on their relative velocity, .... ment of magnetic quantities in the first rank of methods of precision, Weber.

  10. Weber e o advento do novo

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    Renan Springer de Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Établir la distinction entre le vieux et le neuf et montrer comment on passe de l'un à l'autre sont des enjeux primordiaux dans la sociologie de la religion de Max Weber. Dans cet article, on montre comment Weber les a traités ainsi que ses difficultés à les affronter. Pour Weber, la transition du vieux vers le neuf exige une certaine "transformation de l'âme humaine", ou bien une rupture tranchée avec les types de mentalités tenues pour traditionnelles. On propose que cette conception l'a mené à considérer des ruptures inexistantes (par exemple entre les esprits luthériens et calvinistes et à ne pas s'apercevoir de ruptures importantes (par exemple, entre la tolérance particulière à nos jours et celle d'époques précédentes. On conclut qu'il y a une analogie entre la sociologie webérienne de la religion et la physique aristotélicienne et que, à la lumière de cette analogie, on peut mieux comprendre ce que Weber veut signifier lorsqu'il affirme que des transitions historiquement significatives demandent une "transformation de l'âme humaine".

  11. Acercamiento a la actualidad de Max Weber

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    Javier E. Ortiz Cárdenas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El acercamiento a Weber, como científico social, nos permite encontrar aportaciones teóricas, de método, enfoques y estudios comparativos para entender el funcionamiento de instituciones actuales, tal es el cometido del presente artículo.

  12. Max Weber Visits America: A Review of the Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wise

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The North Carolina Sociological Society is proud to announce the long-awaited video of Max Weber's trip to North Carolina as retold by two of his cousins. Max Weber made a trip to visit relatives in Mount Airy, North Carolina, in 1904. This 2004 narrative by Larry Keeter and Stephen Hall is the story of locating and interviewing two living eyewitnesses (1976 to Max Weber's trip. The video includes information about Weber's contributions to modern sociology. Dowloadable files are provided using the .mp4 format. The video should appeal to students and professors interested in Max Weber. It can be included in courses ranging from introductory sociology to theory.

  13. Temperature-touch interaction: Weber's phenomenon revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J C; Green, B G

    1978-09-01

    The six experiments reported here stemmed from Weber's (E. H. Weber, In R. Wagner (Ed.), Handwnörterbuch der Physiologie, 1846. Vol. 3, pp. 481-588) report that cold objects on the forehead feel heavier than warm ones, implying an effect of temperature on the touch modality. The experiments arrived at first-order answers to how temperature, force of stimulation, areal size of stimulation, and body locus might influence the magnitude of touch sensation. Typically, concomitant cooling greatly intensifies touch magnitude as perceived via the forehead and the forearm. Warning has little or no effect via the forehead but gives a significant intensification (less pronounced than that of cooling) on the forearm. When the areal size of the stimulation becomes very small, the intensification effects cannot be reliably demonstrated. The findings are reviewed in the light of what is known about the physiology of the cutaneous nerves.

  14. Anticonvulsant Efficacy in Sturge-Weber Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Emma H.; Kossoff, Eric H.; Bachur, Catherine D.; Gholston, Milton; Hahn, Jihoon; Widlus, Matthew; Comi, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We analyzed individuals with epilepsy due to Sturge-Weber syndrome to determine which anticonvulsants provided optimal seizure control and which resulted in the fewest side effects. METHODS One-hundred-eight records from a single center were retrospectively analyzed for Sturge-Weber syndrome brain involvement, epilepsy, Sturge-Weber syndrome neuroscores, and currently used anticonvulsants. RESULTS Of the fourteen anticonvulsants that had been employed, the most often used agents were oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine, and levetiracetam. Individuals whose seizures at the most recent visit were fully controlled (seizure-free) for 6 months or longer were more likely to have ever tried, or currently used, oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine than those with uncontrolled seizures. Thirty-nine of 69 individuals (56.5%) were seizure-free with oxcarbazepine or carbamazepine history versus 11 of 35 individuals (31.4%) who had not taken these agents (P anticonvulsants versus 12 of 42 (28.6%) not taking them (P < 0.01). Patients with seizure control for 6 months or longer were less likely to have ever tried, or to currently be taking, levetiracetam than those without control. Sixteen of 56 individuals (28.6%) were seizure-free with levetiracetam history versus 34 of 48 (70.8%) without it (P < 0.001); 14 of 43 individuals (32.6%) were seizure-free and currently taking levetiracetam versus 36 of 61 (59.0%) not taking it (P < 0.01). When topiramate was added as second-line medication, five of nine patients (55.6%) experienced decreased seizure severity, and worsening of glaucoma was not reported. CONCLUSIONS Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine were associated with better seizure control than levetiracetam in this Sturge-Weber syndrome cohort and so may be preferred as the initial therapy. When used as adjunctive therapy, topiramate was effective in this limited analysis without a clear increased incidence of glaucoma. PMID:26997037

  15. Characterization of calcium oxalate biominerals in Pereskia species (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Paula V; Baran, Enrique J

    2009-01-01

    Calcium oxalate druses were isolated from the stems and leaves of six Pereskioideae family members and investigated by infrared spectroscopy, showing that in all samples the biomineral was present in the form of whewellite, CaC2O4 x H2O. As Pereskia is thought to represent the "ancestral" condition of the leafless stem-succulent cacti, these results suggest that the biomineralization of calcium oxalate in Cactaceae represents a primitive characteristic of the group and also support a close genetic relationship between Pereskia and Opuntia.

  16. Max Weber in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Scaff

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In his contribution L. Scaff outlines the reception history of Max Weber’s work from its beginnings down to the present. It highlights the importance of the first translations, including those by prominent American authors and particularly those who had studied in Germany; and then in the post-war years the role of emigrants familiar with Weber’s work. The establishment of Weber texts as compulsory reading in the curricula of American colleges also played a significant role. The striking readiness, even ease, with which Weber was received in America is something Scaff deduces from three “narratives that captured the imagination of the American audience”. The first is the narrative of voluntarism, i.e. “the way in which Weber developed his conception of the sect and its effects on the individual and society”. Next is the narrative of achievement, in the sense of “mastery of the world”, preceded by “mastery of the self”, which “when put into practice entailed the conquest of the New World’s primordial wilderness”. Finally there is the narrative of redemption as “the most potent founding myth of the American experience”: “The quest for salvation that began as a religiously inspired message became transformed into a secularized cultural theme: the search for the possibility of breaking free from constraints in order to create a better life, to renew the self, to gain a second chance by atoning for moral failures, and to find reconciliation with God, humankind, and the world.”

  17. Ascese e prazer: Weber vs. Sombart Ascesis and pleasure: Weber vs. Sombart

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    Glaucia Villas Bôas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available De que fontes retira o capitalismo moderno a energia para constituir-se e desenvolver-se? A resposta de Weber é mais lembrada do que a de Sombart, que mergulhou num esquecimento quase total. Mas o exame do contraste entre ambos esses mestres da fase heróica da Sociologia alemã no século XX fornece elementos preciosos para entender melhor não só o seu objeto de estudo como também a potência e os limites da análise sociológica que propunham, por ângulos opostos, o ''hedonista" Sombart e o "ascético" Weber.From which sources does modern capitalism get the energy for constituting and developing itself? Weber's answer is more readily remembered than Sombart's, which plunged into almost total oblivion. But an examination of the contrast between these two masters of the heroic phase of German Sociology in the 20th century gives precious elements for understanding not only the subject of study but also the power and the limits of the sociological analysis which was proposed from opposed angles by the "hedonist" Sombart and the "ascetic" Max Weber.

  18. Imaging of the sturge-weber syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Han, Moon Hee; Moon, Woo Kyung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1994-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to illustrate the typical imaging features of eight patients with this syndrome and to discuss the advantage of each imaging modality with a concise review of literatures. We retrospectively reviewed plain skull radiographs, computed tomographic (CT) scans, magnetic resonance (MR) images and cerebral angiograms of eight patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome. We analyzed the radiographic findings of Sturge-Weber syndrome and compared the findings of CT, MR and angiography. Plain radiographs showed characteristic gyriform calcification after 2 years of age. CT scans excellently demonstrated cortical calcifications, prominently enhancing choroid plexi and dilated periventricular veins. MR revealed dilated deep cerebral veins as tubular or spot-like signal void structures at periventricular areas and showed stripes of cortical enhancement after gadolinium infection. Angiography showed dilated tortuous medullary and deep cerebral veins as the collateral pathways of blood shunting. MR was superior to CT in the detection of parenchymal atrophy, venous abnormalities and the extent of angiomatous involvement. Angiography showed enlarged deep cerebral or medullary veins better than MR imaging. We think that each imaging modality including CT, MR or angiography has unique advantages in the diagnosis of this syndrome but MR will be used frequently because of its superior ability for the detection of atrophy, vascular abnormalities and direct visualization of leptomeningeal angiomatosis with contrast enhancement

  19. Imaging of the sturge-weber syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Han, Moon Hee; Moon, Woo Kyung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    The purposes of this article are to illustrate the typical imaging features of eight patients with this syndrome and to discuss the advantage of each imaging modality with a concise review of literatures. We retrospectively reviewed plain skull radiographs, computed tomographic (CT) scans, magnetic resonance (MR) images and cerebral angiograms of eight patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome. We analyzed the radiographic findings of Sturge-Weber syndrome and compared the findings of CT, MR and angiography. Plain radiographs showed characteristic gyriform calcification after 2 years of age. CT scans excellently demonstrated cortical calcifications, prominently enhancing choroid plexi and dilated periventricular veins. MR revealed dilated deep cerebral veins as tubular or spot-like signal void structures at periventricular areas and showed stripes of cortical enhancement after gadolinium infection. Angiography showed dilated tortuous medullary and deep cerebral veins as the collateral pathways of blood shunting. MR was superior to CT in the detection of parenchymal atrophy, venous abnormalities and the extent of angiomatous involvement. Angiography showed enlarged deep cerebral or medullary veins better than MR imaging. We think that each imaging modality including CT, MR or angiography has unique advantages in the diagnosis of this syndrome but MR will be used frequently because of its superior ability for the detection of atrophy, vascular abnormalities and direct visualization of leptomeningeal angiomatosis with contrast enhancement.

  20. A traumatic case of Weber's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakuni, Takayuki; Tamaki, Norihiko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Ishida, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Masayasu.

    1983-01-01

    The present authors encountered a rare traumatic case of Weber's syndrome in which computerized tomography (CT) revealed a hematoma localized in the tegmentum of the midbrain. This 49-year-old male was admitted because of a disturbed consciousness level caused by a hit on the right frontal area in a traffic accident. A neurological examination on admission disclosed Weber's syndrome: a dilatation of the right pupil, no reaction to direct or indirect light stimuli, ptosis of the right eyelid, lateral deviation of the right eyeball, and left hemiparesis with increased deep tendon reflexes and Babinski's sign. CT revealed a high-density area localized in the tegmentum of the midbrain, but interpeduncular and quadrigeminal cisterns were patent. After admission, his motor function and level of consciousness have showed improvement with medical treatment, but his right oculomotor palsy is unchanged. CT performed 7 days after admission showed a low-density area in place of the absorbed hematoma. In this case, we cannot explain the mechanism of the primary brain-stem injury. However, there are four possible mechanisms: nerve avulsion, neurovascular friction, localized contusion, and shear strain injury. Careful consideration of the anatomical relationship shows that it is likely that the lesion was a contusional hemorrhage caused by impact on the tentorial edge. (author)

  1. Max Weber's Critique of the Bureaucratisation of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Amman

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author discusses the critique by Max Weber and his views on bureaucratisation of education. The modern school, said Max Weber (1864-1920) over a hundred years ago, has as its educational ideal the bureaucrat and no longer the cultivated elite of older times. The shift to modernity and to its characteristic institution, the…

  2. Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome:A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Kyung Nam; Lee, Sun Wha; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University Hopital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    The Klippel-Trenauna-Weber Syndrome is characterized by a classical triad that includes unilateral cutaneous capillary hemangiomas, varicose veins, and local gigantism with both soft tissue and osseous overgrowth. Authors have experience on case of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome with hemangiomas of ipsilateral scrotum and foot.

  3. Cytotoxic components of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Sri Nurestri Abdul; Shin, Sim Kae; Wahab, Norhanom Abdul; Yaacob, Hashim

    2009-05-06

    Dihydroactinidiolide (1) and a mixture of sterols [campesterol (2), stigmasterol (3) and beta-sitosterol (4)], together with the previously isolated individual compounds beta-sitosterol (4), 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (5), alpha-tocopherol (6), phytol (7) were isolated from the active ethyl acetate fraction of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) leaves. Cytotoxic activities of the above mentioned compounds against five human carcinoma cell lines, namely the human nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma cell line (KB), human cervical carcinoma cell line (CasKi), human colon carcinoma cell line (HCT 116), human hormone-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF7) and human lung carcinoma cell line (A549); and non-cancer human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) were investigated. Compound 5 possessed very remarkable cytotoxic activity against KB cells, with an IC(50 )value of 0.81microg/mL. This is the first report on the cytotoxic activities of the compounds isolated from Pereskia bleo.

  4. A novel method of genomic DNA extraction for Cactaceae1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlberg, Shannon D.; Allen, Jessica M.; Church, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Genetic studies of Cactaceae can at times be impeded by difficult sampling logistics and/or high mucilage content in tissues. Simplifying sampling and DNA isolation through the use of cactus spines has not previously been investigated. • Methods and Results: Several protocols for extracting DNA from spines were tested and modified to maximize yield, amplification, and sequencing. Sampling of and extraction from spines resulted in a simplified protocol overall and complete avoidance of mucilage as compared to typical tissue extractions. Sequences from one nuclear and three plastid regions were obtained across eight genera and 20 species of cacti using DNA extracted from spines. • Conclusions: Genomic DNA useful for amplification and sequencing can be obtained from cactus spines. The protocols described here are valuable for any cactus species, but are particularly useful for investigators interested in sampling living collections, extensive field sampling, and/or conservation genetic studies. PMID:25202521

  5. Level of environmental threat posed by horticultural trade in Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Richardson, David M; Wilson, John R U

    2017-10-01

    Ornamental horticulture has been identified as an important threat to plant biodiversity and is a major pathway for plant invasions worldwide. In this context, the family Cactaceae is particularly challenging because it is considered the fifth most threatened large taxonomic group in the world; several species are among the most widespread and damaging invasive species; and Cactaceae is one of the most popular horticultural plant groups. Based on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna and the 11 largest online auction sites selling cacti, we documented the international cactus trade. To provide an in-depth look at the dynamics of the industry, we surveyed the businesses involved in the cactus trade in South Africa (a hotspot of cactus trade and invasions). We purchased seeds of every available species and used DNA barcoding to identify species to the genus level. Although <20% of this trade involved threatened species and <3% involved known invasive species, many species were identified by a common name. However, only 0.02% of the globally traded cacti were collected from wild populations. Despite a large commercial network, all South African imports (of which 15% and 1.5% were of species listed as threatened and invasive, respectively) came from the same source. With DNA barcoding, we identified 24% of the species to genus level. Based on our results, we believe that if trade restrictions are placed on the small proportion of cacti that are invasive and there is no major increase in harvesting of native populations, then the commercial trade in cactus poses a negligible environmental threat. However, there are currently no effective methods for easily identifying which cacti are traded, and both the illicit harvesting of cacti from the wild and the informal trade in invasive taxa pose on-going conservation challenges. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. The polymorphic weddellite crystals in three species of Cephalocereus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcenas-Argüello, María-Luisa; Gutiérrez-Castorena, Ma C-del-Carmen; Terrazas, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Mineral inclusions in plant cells are genetically regulated, have an ecological function and are used as taxonomic characters. In Cactaceae, crystals in epidermal and cortical tissues have been reported; however, few studies have conducted chemical and morphological analyses on these crystals, and even fewer have reported non-mineral calcium to determine its systematic value. Cephalocereus apicicephalium, C. totolapensis and C. nizandensis are Cactaceae species endemic to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico with abundant epidermal prismatic crystals. In the present study, we characterize the mineral cell inclusions, including their chemical composition and their morphology, for three species of Cephalocereus. Crystals of healthy branches of the three species were isolated and studied. The crystals were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), their morphology was described using a petrographic and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and their elemental composition was measured with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDXAR). The three species synthesized weddellite with different degrees of hydration depending on the species. The optical properties of calcium oxalate crystals were different from the core, which was calcium carbonate. We observed a large diversity of predominantly spherical forms with SEM. EDXAR analysis detected different concentrations of Ca and significant amounts of elements, such as Si, Mg, Na, K, Cl, and Fe, which may be related to the edaphic environment of these cacti. The occurrence of weddellite is novel for the genus according to previous reports. The morphological diversity of the crystals may be related to their elemental composition and may be a source of phylogenetic characters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Weber, Simmel e a morte sem sentido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Guedes Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    uma relação que se apresenta mais problemática e carente de significado. Duas características fundamentais da modernidade apontadas por dois clássicos da teoria social, Weber e Simmel, apresentam pistas para se pensar a nova (in compreensão sobre a morte: os processos de racionalização e de individualização. A obra destes autores não necessariamente circunda o tema da morte; no entanto, seus diagnósticos da modernidade acabam por, conseqüentemente, apontar para a falta de sentido da morte do homem moderno. Por fim, escritos poucos conhecidos de Simmel, do final de sua vida, demonstram sua tentativa de buscar o significado perdido.

  8. Max Weber o el enigma emocional del origen del capitalismo

    OpenAIRE

    EDUARDO BERICAT ALASTUEY

    2001-01-01

    Se analiza el trabajo clave de Max Weber, La ética protestante y el espíritu del capitalismo, desde la perspectiva de la Sociología de las Emociones. Aunque la inclusión de las emociones de los fenómenos sociales es clave para entender la idea de Weber sobre el dogma de la predestinación, los sociólogos han trivializado el papel de la emoción. Tras detallar la creencia de Weber en que el espíritu del capitalismo parte del conocimiento de que el destino del hombre está predeterminado (la ética...

  9. Low-copy nuclear primers and ycf1 primers in Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Alan R; Cochrane, Bruce J; Garey, James R

    2012-10-01

    To increase the number of variable regions available for phylogenetic study in the Cactaceae, primers were developed for a portion of the plastid ycf1 gene and intron-spanning regions of two low-copy nuclear genes (isi1, nhx1). • Primers were tested on several families within Caryophyllales, focusing on the Cactaceae. Gel electrophoresis indicated positive amplification in most samples. Sequences of these three regions (isi1, nhx1, ycf1) from Harrisia exhibited variation similar to or greater than two plastid regions (atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer and rpl16 intron). • The isi, nhx, and ycf1 primers amplify phylogenetically useful information applicable to the Cactaceae and other families in the Caryophyllales.

  10. [Max Weber's illness--sociologic aspects of the depressive structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, J; Frommer, S

    1993-05-01

    Between 1897 and 1902 the economist and sociologist Max Weber from Heidelberg suffered from a severe depressive crisis with multiple recurrences of its symptomatology in the following years. The biographic background of the disease process is examined. Questions regarding the specific diagnosis are discussed. Furthermore, his work shows that Weber was indirectly deeply concerned with the cultural, historical and social background conditions of depressive experience and behavior in the context of his study on Protestantic Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism. Weber's definition of modern society as an iron cage, determined by Occidental Rationalism, shows that this cultural background demands a great amount of role conformity from the individual. Weber's theoretical approach should spark interest in the current psychopathological discussion of the characteristic structural features of a depressed personality.

  11. Gynogenesis in the vine cacti Hylocereus and Selenicereus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Reinerio Benega; Cisneros, Aroldo; Schneider, Bert; Tel-Zur, Noemi

    2009-05-01

    Gynogenesis was investigated on the allotetraploid Selenicereus megalanthus and the diploid Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus vine cactus species. Unpollinated ovules from developing flower buds containing microspores at middle uninucleate developmental stage were cultured on MS basal medium containing 2,4-D/TDZ with different sucrose concentrations. Ovule size increased under dark culture conditions in all the three species and the level of response was species and sucrose concentration dependent. The best responses were achieved in the two S. megalanthus accessions, E-123 and J-80, at 0.18 and 0.26 M sucrose. Only ovule enlargement was obtained in H. undatus and both ovule enlargement and callus were obtained in H. polyrhizus. Development in both species ceased and embryoids were not formed. Plant regeneration was directly and indirectly obtained in both S. megalanthus accessions. Ploidy level was determined for a total of 29 S. megalanthus gynogenic plants using flow cytometry: 15 were found to be dihaploid (plants with the gametophytic chromosome number) and the other 14 were found to have higher ploidy levels. This is the first report of successful gynogenesis in Cactaceae. The dihaploids of S. megalanthus successfully produced by ovule culture techniques opens new perspectives in vine cacti breeding.

  12. Non-concerted ITS evolution in Mammillaria (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpke, Doerte; Peterson, Angela

    2006-12-01

    Molecular studies of 21 species of the large Cactaceae genus Mammillaria representing a variety of intrageneric taxonomic levels revealed a high degree of intra-individual polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2). Only a few of these ITS copies belong to apparently functional genes, whereas most are probably non-functional (pseudogenes). As a multiple gene family, the ITS region is subjected to concerted evolution. However, the high degree of intra-individual polymorphism of up to 36% in ITS1 and up to 35% in ITS2 suggests a non-concerted evolution of these loci in Mammillaria. Conserved angiosperm motifs of ITS1 and ITS2 were compared between genomic and cDNA ITS clones of Mammillaria. Some of these motifs (e.g., ITS1 motif 1, 'TGGT' within ITS2) in combination with the determination of GC-content, length comparisons of the spacers and ITS2 secondary structure (helices II and III) are helpful in the identification of pseudogene rDNA regions.

  13. Cytotoxic Components of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nurestri Abdul Malek

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dihydroactinidiolide (1 and a mixture of sterols [campesterol (2, stigmasterol (3 and β-sitosterol (4], together with the previously isolated individual compounds β-sitosterol (4, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (5, α-tocopherol (6, phytol (7 were isolated from the active ethyl acetate fraction of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae leaves. Cytotoxic activities of the above mentioned compounds against five human carcinoma cell lines, namely the human nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma cell line (KB, human cervical carcinoma cell line (CasKi, human colon carcinoma cell line (HCT 116, human hormone-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF7 and human lung carcinoma cell line (A549; and non-cancer human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5 were investigated. Compound 5 possessed very remarkable cytotoxic activity against KB cells, with an IC50 value of 0.81µg/mL. This is the first report on the cytotoxic activities of the compounds isolated from Pereskia bleo.

  14. Max Weber e a história cultural da modernidade Max Weber and the cultural history of modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangolf Hübinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo oferece um novo olhar sobre Weber como historiador. O fato de que a MWG reconstrói, de maneira bastante detalhada, o contexto histórico científico e intelectual torna mais evidente como os diferentes tópicos sobre os quais Weber trabalhou - a economia de mercado capitalista, as religiões do mundo ou o Estado moderno - foram abordados em última instância "do ponto de vista da história cultural". Diante desse quadro, meu artigo explora quatro aspectos principais: história econômica; ou mais precisamente o sentido cultural da ação econômica como ponto-chave para o pensamento histórico de Weber como um todo (I; a insistência de Weber na primazia de problemas analíticos e da escolha de perspectivas como pressupostos intelectuais do conhecimento histórico (II; a questão fundamental da história cultural em geral: como as ideias se atualizam em conflitos e constelações históricos e como a singularidade do desenvolvimento cultural europeu deve ser descrita em sua significação histórico-universal (III; a relevância da Primeira Guerra Mundial para os problemas e perspectivas de Weber: seu foco em uma teoria histórico-política do poder e da dominação e da gênese e estrutura do Estado moderno e da democracia (IV.This article takes a new look at Weber as a historian. The MWG's detailed reconstruction of the scientific and intellectual historical context provides a clear insight into how all the different topics on which Weber worked - the capitalist market economy, world religions, or the modern state - were ultimately treated "from the view-point of cultural history." In response the article examines four aspects: Economic history; or more precisely, the cultural meaning of economic action as a key to Weber's historical thinking as a whole (I; Weber's insistence on the primacy of analytical problems and of choices of perspectives as intellectual presuppositions of historical knowledge (II; the cardinal question of

  15. Bureaucracy and Education: an analysis since Max Weber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alfredo Costa de Campos Melo Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing a discussion on bureaucracy and education based on the comprehensive sociology developed by Weber. The choice of Max Weber seems to be the most appropriate due the diversity and depth of his intellectual production, what includes the issue of bureaucracy. The use of Weber should serve as a precise instrument of conceptual analysis on the theme addressed here. Certainly, this thinker has been one of the main scholars on bureaucracy, with focus on Germany at the time of the First World War (1914-1918. It is within such a productive theoretical framework that we intend to provide a few reflections about education and bureaucracy from a Weberian epistemological base.

  16. Weber and Kafka: The rational and the enigmatic bureaucracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Max Weber’s and Franz Kafka’s respective understandings of bureaucracy are as different as night and day. Yet, Kafka’s novel The Castle is best read with Max Weber at hand. In fact, Kafka relates systematically to all the dimensions in Weber’s ideal type of bureaucracy and give us a much......’s painting: Ascending and Descending. Nevertheless, Weber and Kafka can both be right. While Kafka looks at the bureaucratic phenomenon through persons who are marginalized, Weber’s perspective is historic-comparative and top-down. Are the observations of the one more correct than the other? The question...... is meaningless. As two opposite poles, Weber and Kafka ‘magnetize’ each other....

  17. MARX AND WEBER - POSSIBLE AFFINITIES IN LEGAL SOCIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nunes Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to draw parallels between the works of Max Weber and Karl Marx, demontrating their acquiescences and objections on Law and State. This study assumes that both authors are, each in their measures, critics of capitalism and the society that forms around its Mode of production. For such, this paper attempts to analyze the similarities, disagreements and parallel discussions between Marx and Weber regarding to outline what would be a so called possible "Weberian Marxism", and how it epistemologically occurs on Legal Sociology.

  18. Two-body problem for Weber-like interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, R.A.; Assis, A.K.T.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of two moving bodies interacting through a Weber-like force is presented. Trajectories are obtained analytically once relativistic and quantic considerations are neglected. The main results are that in the case of limited trajectories, in general, they are not closed and in the case of open trajectories, the deflection angles are not the same for similar particles with given energies and angular momenta but opposite potentials. This last feature suggests the possibility of a direct verification of the validity of Weber's law of force for electromagnetic interactions

  19. Reliability Of Kraus-Weber Exercise Test As An Evaluation Tool In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliability Of Kraus-Weber Exercise Test As An Evaluation Tool In Low Back ... strength and flexibility of the back, abdominal, psoas and hamstring muscles. ... Keywords: Kraus-Weber test, low back pain, muscle flexibility, muscle strength.

  20. Max Weber in the American Journal of Sociology: A case of circulating knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, Marlise

    2012-01-01

    By the middle of the 1970s, a Max Weber revival commenced in American sociology. Almost 75 percent of the articles on Weber in the American Journal of Sociology published in the past six decades appeared in the 1970s and 1980s. The Weber revival in American sociology is a phenomenon observed in leading literature. New translations and publications are frequently indicated reasons for the renewed interest in Weber. Without dismissing this factor, it is not an entirely satisfactory explanation. This article accounts for the Weber revival in a new way. Taking the American Journal of Sociology as a case study, I argue that the Weber revival was a case of circulating knowledge. Certain historically set issues led to a reorientation of Weber, which meant that knowledge about Weber was moved, extended, and transformed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Outcome of Hemispherectomy in Sturge-Weber Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire was mailed to the parents of 70 patients identified by the Sturge-Weber Foundation as recipients of hemispherectomy between 1979 and 2001, and responses obtained from 32 (46% were analysed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

  2. Weber, authority and the organisation of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaszewski, A; Manthorpe, J

    The third paper in the series on sociology discusses the work of Max Weber. It traces the origins and main themes of his work. The parallels between his work and contemporary issues in the organisation of health care are outlined, in particular, the insights provided into bureaucracy and authority.

  3. Characterization of a methionine-rich protein from the seeds of Cereus jamacaru Mill. (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.F.R. Aragão

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Cereus jamacaru (Cactaceae, to which we gave the trivial name of cactin. This protein has a molecular mass of 11.3 kDa and is formed by a light chain (3.67 kDa and a heavy chain (7.63 kDa. This protein was isolated using a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of cactin was determined and found to resemble that of the 2S seed reserve protein from the Brazil nut, a protein remarkable for its high methionine content. The usefulness of cactin as a molecular marker in the taxonomy of the Cactaceae is discussed.

  4. The theoretical root of Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology. Part 2: The influence of Max Weber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazaki, Tsutomu

    2013-09-01

    The present study explores and compares Jaspers' methodology of psychopathology with Weber's methodology of sociology. In his works, Weber incorporated the arguments of many other researchers into his own methodology. Jaspers respected Weber as a mentor and presented arguments that were very similar to Weber's. Both Weber and Jaspers began from empathic understanding, but at the same time aimed for a rational and ideal-typical conceptualization. In addition, their methodologies were similar with respect to their detailed terminology. Such similarities cannot be seen with any other scholars. This suggests that Weber may have played an integral role as a mediator between his contemporary scholars and Jaspers. Thus, Weber may have had the most significant influence on Jaspers.

  5. Isolation and Characterisation of a Reserve Protein from the Seeds of Cereus jamacaru (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itayguara Ribeiro da Costa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterisation of a major reserve protein from the seeds of Cereus jamacaru. (Cactaceae. This protein has a molecular mass of 5319 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of the protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The usefulness of this protein as a molecular marker in the Cactaceae is also discussed.A proteína de reserva mais abundante das sementes de Cereus jamacaru (Cactaceae foi isolada e caracterizada. Esta proteína tem uma massa molecular de 5319 kDa e foi isolada através de uma combinação de técnicas de filtração em gel e HPLC de fase reversa. A composição de aminoácidos da proteína foi determinada e possui similaridade com a composição de aminoácidos de diversas proteínas de reserva de sementes que pertencem à família das albuminas. A utilidade desta proteína como um marcador molecular para as cactáceas é também discutida.

  6. Cancer preventive and curative attributes of plants of the Cactaceae family: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlev, Eli; Nevo, Eviatar; Solowey, Elaine; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-06-01

    The ever-increasing occurrence of cancer and the severe side effects and limited efficacy of current cancer chemotherapy based on chemical drugs shift the attention toward drugs of plant origin. The Cactaceae family comprises more than 1500 species, but until recently only a few of them have been tested for their chemopreventive and anticancer attributes, leaving a wide unexplored area still waiting for researchers to investigate. Considering this fact, and also the promising results obtained with the relatively few plants of this family already tested, it should justly be expected that some plants of the Cactaceae family yet unexplored might possess outstanding anticancer attributes, exceeding those displayed by the plants already tested. This review presents in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence on cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of bioactive phytoconstituents and extracts derived from cactus plants. It also examines the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of plants of the Cactaceae family. Current limitation and future directions of research towards effective use of cacti to develop efficient and side effect-free future cancer-preventive and anticancer drugs are also discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. [Psychiatry as cultural science: considerations following Max Weber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormuth, M

    2010-11-01

    Psychiatry can be seen as a natural and cultural science. According to this the postulate of freedom is its strong value judgment. Since the times of enlightenment it has been described metaphorically by the myth of the expulsion from Paradise. Following Max Weber and Wilhelm Dilthey, Karl Jaspers has introduced this perspective into psychiatry. His strict dichotomy between explaining and understanding has later been critically revised by Werner Janzarik and Hans Heimann. Their concepts of structure dynamic, of pathography and of anthropology are closer to Max Weber who connected natural and cultural sciences in a much stronger way. Especially the pathographic example of Nietzsche allows to demonstrate the differences between Jaspers and the later psychopathologists of the Heidelberg and Tübingen schools.

  8. Historical Paths and Intellectual Projects: The Case of Max Weber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Eliaeson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Max Weber is an elusive classic, and competing traditions claim his legacy. As in other cases, the interpretation of this classic should take into account formative experiences, historical context and links to older traditions. Weber theorized rational modernity, albeit with a certain ambiguity (the “iron cage”. He reworked the legacy of German historicism, but took it in the direction of methodological individualism; at the same time, and through the very affiliation to historicism, he contributed to German nation-building. His emphasis on the state as a necessary unit of analysis now seems obsolete, and so does his inclination to take the imperialistic dominance of the European great powers for granted. He was not immune to the ideology that opposed Germany’s cultural calling to Western civilization and Russian barbarism.

  9. CLINICAL CASE OF PARKES-WEBER-RUBASHOV SYNDROME

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    Zhdonec S. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A clinical case of one variant of congenital venous angiodysplasia – Parkes Weber-Rubashov syndrome of the right lower extremity is presented in the article. The features of its clinical presentation and diagnosis difficulties are described. The analysis of the scientific data and own clinical observation showed that Parkes Weber-Rubashov syndrome belongs to the rare congenital disease of the vascular system, in some cases with the absence of typical clinical manifestations and combination with other disorders of the venous system. The best method for diagnosing the syndrome is radiopaque arteriography. The separation of the patent’s arteriovenous fistulas is justified as a radical method of its surgical treatment.

  10. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Shengnan; Zhao, Lindu; Yang, Shicai

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD). We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersectio...

  11. O historiador Max Weber: indologia e historicismo na obra weberiana

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    Arilson Silva de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Max Weber assumed the methodological requirements of German historicism against all natural illuminist philosophy and all the idealistic philosophy of history. He improved them in order to prevent the conclusions of the romanticism and the psychological deviations of the neo-historicism. Here, we observe how he equipped himself with a particular method, rescued rationality and applied it as a parameter to historically understand Indian society in opposition to the disenchanted historicism of his time.

  12. Interpreted Modernity. Weber and Taylor on Values and Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Reckling, Falk

    2001-01-01

    The writings of Weber and Taylor have some strong affinities. Both start from the anthropological idea that man evaluates his position in the world and constitutes the social world by values. Their analyses of values aim at an understanding of those intersubjective meanings that have constituted western modernity. But, at the same time, their anthropological starting point leads to different interpretations of modernity. Historically, both argue that rationalization (as instrumental rationali...

  13. Places de Max Weber et Gaston Bachelard chez Pierre Bourdieu

    OpenAIRE

    Colas, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Can we better understand Pierre Bourdieu's sociology by appealing to the intellectual references he made use of in his works? Not really, because confronting Bourdieu with the classical sources he relies on, as Marx, Weber or Bachelard, the reader can note a rather lax exercise of the concepts he is borrowing and he is making his. Or, this insight in Bourdieu's work takes the opposite way, as it tries to analytically read Bourdieu intellectual project on building sociology as science by start...

  14. Max Weber o el enigma emocional del origen del capitalismo

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    EDUARDO BERICAT ALASTUEY

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el trabajo clave de Max Weber, La ética protestante y el espíritu del capitalismo, desde la perspectiva de la Sociología de las Emociones. Aunque la inclusión de las emociones de los fenómenos sociales es clave para entender la idea de Weber sobre el dogma de la predestinación, los sociólogos han trivializado el papel de la emoción. Tras detallar la creencia de Weber en que el espíritu del capitalismo parte del conocimiento de que el destino del hombre está predeterminado (la ética protestante, se destaca que la angustia, más específicamente la humillación, invocada por esta creencia, debe figurar dentro de cualquier teoría acerca de la cultura. El sentimiento de humillación es explorado a través de los componentes cognitivos, evaluativos y emotivos de la cultura, proporcionando una mejor comprensión de la omnisciencia divina, la falta de respeto que la humanidad se merece y la ausencia de felicidad. A causa de la humillación y la falta de dignidad sufrida en muchos niveles, el hombre busca el orgullo personal, el éxito mundano y la modernidad, olvidando la humildad, la salvación eterna y la tradición.

  15. Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome presenting with pulmonary arteriovenous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halefoglu, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A pulmonary arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection between pulmonary arteries and veins. Patients with Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome may present with this vascular malformation, which is a typical finding of the disease. Approximately 5-15% of Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome patients have pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and there is usually a family history of AVM in these patients. The malformations are usually located in the lower lobes. In this paper, I describe a 49-year-old male patient with dyspnoea, cough, haemoptysis and epistaxis. Physical examination showed nasal telangiectasias, cyanosis of the lips and nails, and a systolic bruit over the left lung. Chest X-ray revealed a 5-cm mass in the left lower lobe and after magnetic resonance examination, together with 3-D magnetic resonance angiography, it was demonstrated to be a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula. The history of a niece with a similar history of suspected pulmonary arteriovenous fistula led me to consider the possibility of Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome presenting with a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula. Copyright (2005) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Zoochoric and hydrochoric maritime dispersal of the Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae

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    Angelo Martins Fraga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary adaptations in the morphology and physiology of cactus species have been associated to their mechanisms of dispersal and colonization. The dispersal mechanisms and modes of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae were characterized in two beaches in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. A marsupial from the genus Didelphis (Mammalia: Didelphidae was the only frugivorous and, thus, disperser of fruits, presenting specific eating places. The maritime hydrochory was due to the overwash on restinga vegetation, it is characterized by the dispersal of cladodes and fruits at various times of the year. It is here firstly described the sea action as a potential disperser for a cactus species.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a reserve protein from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae

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    Uchoa A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae. This protein has a molecular mass of 6.5 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of this protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein is Asp-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Glu-Gln-Arg.

  18. The biological activities and chemical composition of Pereskia species (Cactaceae)--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Scio, Elita

    2014-09-01

    The exploration of nature as a source of sustainable, novel bioactive substances continues to grow as natural products play a significant role in the search for new therapeutic and agricultural agents. In this context, plants of the genus Pereskia (Cactaceae) have been studied for their biological activities, and are evolving as an interesting subject in the search for new, bioactive compounds. These species are commonly used as human foodstuffs and in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases. This review focuses on the bioactivity and chemical composition of the genus Pereskia, and aims to stimulate further studies on the chemistry and biological potential of the genus.

  19. Regeneration of roots from callus reveals stability of the developmental program for determinate root growth in Sonoran Desert Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkova, Svetlana; García-Mendoza, Edith; Castillo-Díaz, Vicente; Moreno, Norma E; Arellano, Jesús; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2007-05-01

    In some Sonoran Desert Cactaceae the primary root has a determinate root growth: the cells of the root apical meristem undergo only a few cell division cycles and then differentiate. The determinate growth of primary roots in Cactaceae was found in plants cultivated under various growth conditions, and could not be reverted by any treatment tested. The mechanisms involved in root meristem maintenance and determinate root growth in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, we have shown that roots regenerated from the callus of two Cactaceae species, Stenocereus gummosus and Ferocactus peninsulae, have a determinate growth pattern, similar to that of the primary root. To demonstrate this, a protocol for root regeneration from callus was established. The determinate growth pattern of roots regenerated from callus suggests that the program of root development is very stable in these species. These findings will permit future analysis of the role of certain Cactaceae genes in the determinate pattern of root growth via the regeneration of transgenic roots from transformed calli.

  20. Sturge-Weber syndrome with no leptomeningeal enhancement on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, N.J.; Barkovich, A.J. [Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Wu, Y.; Berg, B.O. [Department Pediatric Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by a facial nevus flammeus associated with seizures, developmental delay, and, often, with hemiparesis and hemianopia. On MRI, the most characteristic finding has been reported to be leptomeningeal enhancement, believed to represent leakage of contrast medium through the anomalous pial vessels that characterize the disease. We present a case of SWS with no evidence of leptomeningeal enhancement. This case illustrates that leptomeningeal enhancement need not be present in SWS, and the absence of this characteristic finding does not preclude the diagnosis. (orig.) With 2 figs.

  1. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  2. Liquid-liquid phase transition in Stillinger-Weber silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaucage, Philippe; Mousseau, Normand

    2005-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that Stillinger-Weber silicon undergoes a liquid-liquid first-order phase transition deep into the supercooled region (Sastry and Angell 2003 Nat. Mater. 2 739). Here we study the effects of perturbations on this phase transition. We show that the order of the liquid-liquid transition changes with negative pressure. We also find that the liquid-liquid transition disappears when the three-body term of the potential is strengthened by as little as 5%. This implies that the details of the potential could affect strongly the nature and even the existence of the liquid-liquid phase

  3. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  4. Hemimegalencephaly in the Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urui, Seishiro; Oi, Shizuo

    1987-01-01

    The Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome is characterized by skeletal and soft-tissue hypertrophy, segmentally distributed cutaneous nevi, and vascular anomalies. Only a few cases of this syndrome associated with hemimegalencephaly have been reported previously. However, we have experienced such a case of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome with hemicranial hypertrophy, and so have analyzed this case from the neuroradiological point of view. The patient was a 6-month-old female with hemihypertrophy and hemimegalencephaly on the same, right side. A skull X-ray showed that the skull and facial bones were all hypertrophic on the right side and that all the sutures were open. A CT scan demonstrated that all the intracranial structures, including the ventricle on the right, were larger than those on the left. On the right side, we noticed a periventricular low-density area and spotted a calcified high-density region adjacent to the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. Metrizamide CT cisternography exhibited ventricular stasis at 6 hours and a delayed clear-up in the subarachnoid space over the cerebral convexity in 24 hours. When we used the inversion recovery method on magnetic resonance imaging, the white matter on the right, especially in the periventricular area, was shown by a lower signal intensity than was that on the left. This could be thought to indicate the poor progress of the myelination process on the right side of the cerebrum. (author)

  5. Grasping trajectories in a virtual environment adhere to Weber's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Aviad; Berman, Sigal; Ganel, Tzvi

    2018-06-01

    Virtual-reality and telerobotic devices simulate local motor control of virtual objects within computerized environments. Here, we explored grasping kinematics within a virtual environment and tested whether, as in normal 3D grasping, trajectories in the virtual environment are performed analytically, violating Weber's law with respect to object's size. Participants were asked to grasp a series of 2D objects using a haptic system, which projected their movements to a virtual space presented on a computer screen. The apparatus also provided object-specific haptic information upon "touching" the edges of the virtual targets. The results showed that grasping movements performed within the virtual environment did not produce the typical analytical trajectory pattern obtained during 3D grasping. Unlike as in 3D grasping, grasping trajectories in the virtual environment adhered to Weber's law, which indicates relative resolution in size processing. In addition, the trajectory patterns differed from typical trajectories obtained during 3D grasping, with longer times to complete the movement, and with maximum grip apertures appearing relatively early in the movement. The results suggest that grasping movements within a virtual environment could differ from those performed in real space, and are subjected to irrelevant effects of perceptual information. Such atypical pattern of visuomotor control may be mediated by the lack of complete transparency between the interface and the virtual environment in terms of the provided visual and haptic feedback. Possible implications of the findings to movement control within robotic and virtual environments are further discussed.

  6. Max Weber Revisited, the Verstehen of Migration through Qualitative Research

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    Jorge A. BUSTAMANTE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se incluye 1 una reinterpretación de un par de conceptos básicos ( Gemeinten Sinn y Verstehen de Max Weber. Se define a la migración internacional (inmigración como una relación social de carácter laboral. Se hace referencia al libro de Ernesto Galarza. La noción teórica de Verstehen entendida por Weber como un “entendimiento pro - fundo” de un fenómeno social, da lugar a la narración que hace el autor, derivada del uso del 2 método de “observación participante” de una experiencia personal. De ésta se deriva el concepto de vulnerabilidad que implica una innovación a los enfo - ques teóricos de la migración. Lo anterior se encuadra en un enfoque metodológico de investigación cualitativa de la cual 3 no se desprenden “hallazgos” en su sentido empírico, sino explicaciones complementarias del “sentido” de los hechos relatados. 4 El encuentro del autor con un compañero migrante en el centro de detención, se presenta como el origen empírico del concepto de vulnerabilidad.

  7. Weber's Critique of Advocacy in the Classroom: Critical Thinking and Civic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the four aspects of Max Weber's argument against including advocacy in the political science classroom. Believes that Weber's critique is a useful starting point for considering the issue in relation to contemporary education. Describes two models, critical thinking and civic education, that present advocacy in the political science…

  8. Weber on Education and Its Administration: Prospects for Leadership in a Rationalized World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samier, Eugenie

    2002-01-01

    Uses Max Weber's writings to reconstruct his views on education, administration, and leadership; relates these views to some recent significant changes in education, especially higher education. Discusses problems of educational leadership in modern universities from a Weberian perspective. Provides three conclusions from Weber's writing; draws…

  9. The Rationalization of Everything? Using Ritzer's McDonaldization Thesis To Teach Weber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Stephen; Aldrich, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Outlines a plan for helping undergraduate students appreciate Max Weber's theoretical achievements, teaching critical thinking about what constitutes 'the good life' in rationalized societies. Uses the book "The McDonaldization of Society" (George Ritzer) to encourage student interest in Weber's work. Describes field exercises and…

  10. Max Weber's Contribution to the Sociology of Education: A Critical Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. Srinivasa; Singh, Smriti

    2018-01-01

    Karl Emil Maximilian Weber (1864-1920), more widely known as Max Weber, is credited with numerous contributions to modern sociology and is considered one of the pillars of the discipline along with Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim. Marx (1818-1883) was an established predecessor from Germany whose study of the nineteenth-century European society was…

  11. Bilateral Sturge-Weber Syndrome and glaucoma controlled with Ahmed valve implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Jarczun Kac

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sturge-Weber Syndrome is a rare neuro-oculocutaneous disorder. The authors describe the case of a 13 years old boy, presented with bilateral Sturge-Weber Syndrome and glaucoma. Surgical treatment with Ahmed valve implantation in both eyes was carried out achieving lower levels of intraocular pressure.

  12. Diffuse choroidal haemangioma in Sturge-Weber syndrome treated with photodynamic therapy under general anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, EA; Muskens, RPHM; Ballast, A; Hooymans, JMM

    Purpose: To report the treatment outcome of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (PDT) for exudative retinal detachment associated with diffuse choroidal haemangioma in Sturge-Weber syndrome. Methods: An interventional case report of a 12-year-old girl with Sturge-Weber syndrome who developed an

  13. Unusual presentation of Sturge-Weber syndrome: Progressive megalencephaly with bilateral cutaneous and cortical involvement

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    Kundan Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sturge Weber syndrome is characterized by developmental delay, seizures in infancy, unilateral cutaneous lesions with ipsilateral leptomeningeal enhancement. We report an unusual presentation of Sturge Weber syndrome with bilateral port wine nevus on the trunk and face along with bilateral cortical involvement in a developmentally normal child with progressive megalencephaly.

  14. Síndrome de Klippel-Trenaunay-Parkes-Weber com angiomatose medular Klippel-Trénaunay-Parkes-Weber syndrome with spinal cord angioma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Pitagoras de Mattos

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de síndrome de Klippel-Trénaunay-Parkes-Weber associada a angiomatose medular. O autor salienta ter encontrado na literatura somente uma referência com tal associação.A case of Klippel-Trénaunay-Parkes-Weber syndrome associated with spinal cord angioma is reported. The author points out that it was found only one reference in literature with such association.

  15. Wide-band tracheids are present in almost all species of Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauseth, James D

    2004-02-01

    Wide-band tracheids (WBTs) have been found in seedlings of most species of cacti that have fibrous wood in their adult bodies. Consequently, this cell type is now known to be present in almost all cacti. Earlier studies of adult plants revealed WBTs to be present only in cacti with globose or short, broad bodies, whereas all species with large columnar or long slender bodies had fibrous wood without WBTs. However, even these species produce WBTs during the first several months after germination. In species with fibrous wood in their adult bodies (species with large or slender bodies), seedlings undergo a phase transition in wood morphogenesis after a few months and stop producing the juvenile (WBT) wood and begin producing adult (fibrous) wood. If adult plants have an intermediate size, the phase transition is delayed and the plant produces WBT wood for several years. Species with globose bodies repress the phase transition completely and never switch to producing adult (fibrous) wood. Because WBTs are so widespread, they probably originated only once in Cactaceae, not multiple times as suggested earlier, or there may have been just a single origin in the Cactaceae/Portulacaceae clade.

  16. Karyotypes, heterochromatin, and physical mapping of 18S-26S rDNA in Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Peñas, M L; Urdampilleta, J D; Bernardello, G; Forni-Martins, E R

    2009-01-01

    Karyotype analyses in members of the four Cactaceae subfamilies were performed. Numbers and karyotype formula obtained were: Pereskioideae = Pereskiaaculeata(2n = 22; 10 m + 1 sm), Maihuenioideae = Maihuenia patagonica (2n = 22, 9 m + 2 sm; 2n = 44, 18 m + 4 sm), Opuntioideae = Cumulopuntia recurvata(2n = 44; 20 m + 2 sm), Cactoideae = Acanthocalycium spiniflorum (2n = 22; 10 m + 1 sm),Echinopsis tubiflora (2n = 22; 10 m + 1 sm), Trichocereus candicans (2n = 22, 22 m). Chromosomes were small, the average chromosome length was 2.3 mum. Diploid species and the tetraploid C. recurvata had one terminal satellite, whereas the remaining tetraploid species showed four satellited chromosomes. Karyotypes were symmetrical. No CMA(-)/DAPI(+) bands were detected, but CMA(+)/DAPI(-) bands associated with NOR were always found. Pericentromeric heterochromatin was found in C. recurvata, A. spiniflorum, and the tetraploid cytotype of M. patagonica. The locations of the 18S-26S rDNA sites in all species coincided with CMA(+)/DAPI(-) bands; the same occurred with the sizes and numbers of signals for each species. This technique was applied for the first time in metaphase chromosomes in cacti. NOR-bearing pair no.1 may be homeologous in all species examined. In Cactaceae, the 18S-26S loci seem to be highly conserved. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Sturge Weber Syndrome: review of literature with case illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyarthee Guru Dutta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS also called as encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis, is a sporadically occurring rare neuro-cutaneous syndrome, characterized by vascular malformation with capillary venous angiomas involving face, choroidal layer of eye globe and leptomeninges responsible for ophthamological as well as neurological signs and symptoms. Authors report an interesting case, a six year old girl, who presented with seizures, facial port wine stain and normal psychomotor development. CT scan showed left cerebral hemiatrophy, left frontal and parieto occipital calcification with cortical calcification in left high frontal convexity. Cranial MRI scan also confirmed finding of left cerebral hemiatrophy and also revealed presence of gyriform cortical calcification, prominent flow voids seen in left basal ganglia. Her seizure is well controlled with antiepileptic medication. The pertinent literature is reviewed and management of such cases is discussed briefly.

  18. [Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula with Rendu-Osler-Weber disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Masataka; Touge, Masayoshi; Seki, Kouji; Kusajima, Yoshinori; Saito, Katsuhiko

    2012-09-01

    A 36-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for examination of a nodular shadow in the left lung. Chest 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) revealed a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) of 21 mm in diameter composed of the feeding artery (A4) and the draining vein (V4) in the left S4. Abdominal enhanced CT revealed multiple hepatic arteriovenous fistula. Brain CT revealed a cavernous hemangioma in right occipital cerebrum. He had a family history, habitual epistaxis, and oral telangiectasia and was diagnosed as Rendu-Osler-Weber disease (hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia:HHT). According to his family history, PAVF was likely to be a risk factor of brain infarction and abscess, and the wedge resection of the lingual lobe was performed to remove PAVF.

  19. BUROCRACIA E CRISE DE LEGITIMIDADE: A PROFECIA DE MAX WEBER

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Pedro H. Villas Bôas Castelo

    2016-01-01

    Resumo A sociologia da dominação e a do direito de Max Weber representam uma mudança de paradigma no campo da teoria política. Ao deslocarem o eixo de análise dos meios de aquisição e instituição do poder dos dominadores para a crença dos dominados, operam uma notável inversão no modo de compreensão da legitimidade do poder político. A exposição da tensão entre a expansão burocrática e a estrutura da dominação democrática conferiram à reflexão weberiana um tom profético, cuja repercussão se f...

  20. Noniterative Solution of Some Fermat-Weber Location Problems

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    Reuven Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fermat-Weber problem of optimally locating a service facility in the Euclidean continuous two-dimensional space is usually solved by the iterative process first suggested by Weiszfeld or by later versions thereof. The methods are usually rather efficient, but exceptional problems are described in the literature in which the iterative solution is exceedingly long. These problems are such that the solution either coincides with one of the demand points or nearly coincides with it. We describe a noniterative direct alternative, based on the insight that the gradient components of the individual demand points can be considered as pooling forces with respect to the solution point. It is demonstrated that symmetrical problems can thus be optimally solved with no iterations, in analogy to finding the equilibrium point in statics. These include a well-known ill-conditioned problem and its variants, which can now be easily solved to optimality using geometrical considerations.

  1. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-10-23

    Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  2. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  3. Weber's law, the magnitude effect and discrimination of sugar concentrations in nectar-feeding animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachev, Vladislav; Stich, Kai Petra; Winter, York

    2013-01-01

    Weber's law quantifies the perception of difference between stimuli. For instance, it can explain why we are less likely to detect the removal of three nuts from a bowl if the bowl is full than if it is nearly empty. This is an example of the magnitude effect - the phenomenon that the subjective perception of a linear difference between a pair of stimuli progressively diminishes when the average magnitude of the stimuli increases. Although discrimination performances of both human and animal subjects in various sensory modalities exhibit the magnitude effect, results sometimes systematically deviate from the quantitative predictions based on Weber's law. An attempt to reformulate the law to better fit data from acoustic discrimination tasks has been dubbed the "near-miss to Weber's law". Here, we tested the gustatory discrimination performance of nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina), in order to investigate whether the original version of Weber's law accurately predicts choice behavior in a two-alternative forced choice task. As expected, bats either preferred the sweeter of the two options or showed no preference. In 4 out of 6 bats the near-miss to Weber's law provided a better fit and Weber's law underestimated the magnitude effect. In order to test the generality of this observation in nectar-feeders, we reviewed previously published data on bats, hummingbirds, honeybees, and bumblebees. In all groups of animals the near-miss to Weber's law provided better fits than Weber's law. Furthermore, whereas the magnitude effect was stronger than predicted by Weber's law in vertebrates, it was weaker than predicted in insects. Thus nectar-feeding vertebrates and insects seem to differ in how their choice behavior changes as sugar concentration is increased. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of the observed patterns of sugar concentration discrimination.

  4. Weber's law, the magnitude effect and discrimination of sugar concentrations in nectar-feeding animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Nachev

    Full Text Available Weber's law quantifies the perception of difference between stimuli. For instance, it can explain why we are less likely to detect the removal of three nuts from a bowl if the bowl is full than if it is nearly empty. This is an example of the magnitude effect - the phenomenon that the subjective perception of a linear difference between a pair of stimuli progressively diminishes when the average magnitude of the stimuli increases. Although discrimination performances of both human and animal subjects in various sensory modalities exhibit the magnitude effect, results sometimes systematically deviate from the quantitative predictions based on Weber's law. An attempt to reformulate the law to better fit data from acoustic discrimination tasks has been dubbed the "near-miss to Weber's law". Here, we tested the gustatory discrimination performance of nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina, in order to investigate whether the original version of Weber's law accurately predicts choice behavior in a two-alternative forced choice task. As expected, bats either preferred the sweeter of the two options or showed no preference. In 4 out of 6 bats the near-miss to Weber's law provided a better fit and Weber's law underestimated the magnitude effect. In order to test the generality of this observation in nectar-feeders, we reviewed previously published data on bats, hummingbirds, honeybees, and bumblebees. In all groups of animals the near-miss to Weber's law provided better fits than Weber's law. Furthermore, whereas the magnitude effect was stronger than predicted by Weber's law in vertebrates, it was weaker than predicted in insects. Thus nectar-feeding vertebrates and insects seem to differ in how their choice behavior changes as sugar concentration is increased. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of the observed patterns of sugar concentration discrimination.

  5. Anti-proliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Hui Meng; Cheng, En-Hsiang; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

    2007-09-25

    The anti-proliferative effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) against a mouse mammary cancer cell line (4T1) and a normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were evaluated under an optimal (in culture medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS)) and a sub-optimal (in culture medium containing 0.5% FBS) conditions. Under the optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (pCactaceae) do not have appreciable anti-proliferative effect on the 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells as the EC(50) values obtained are greater than 50 microg/mL when tested under optimal culture condition. Moreover, the aqueous extract may form mutagenic compound(s) upon the metabolisation by liver enzymes.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Alberto, Maria Rosa; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria del Pilar Caramantin; Theoduloz, Cristina; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Isla, Maria Ines; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2015-06-01

    Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) is an endemic species occurring in northern Chile. The edible fruits of this plant are valued for its acidic and refreshing taste. Phenolic-enriched extracts from copao fruit pulp and epicarp, collected in the Elqui and Limari river valleys, were assessed by its in vitro ability to inhibit the pro-inflammatory enzymes lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). At 100 μg/mL, pulp extracts showed better effect towards LOX than epicarp extract, while COX-2 inhibition was observed for both epicarp and pulp samples. In general, the extracts were inactive towards COX-1. A positive correlation was observed between the anti-inflammatory activity and the main phenolic compounds found in this fruit. Copao fruits from the Limari valley, a main place of collection and commercialization, showed major activity, adding evidence on the possible health-beneficial effects of this native Chilean fruit.

  7. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae) extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, K. S.; Nurestri, A. M. Sri; Norhanom, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), commonly known as “Jarum Tujuh Bilah” in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of P. grandifolia crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) have been investigated, employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power assay and β-carotene method. The total phenolic content of the P. grandifolia extracts was also assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau’s method. The ethyl acetate extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging ability and antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay while the hexane extract possessed significantly strongest reducing power. The data obtained in these testing systems clearly establish the antioxidant potency of P. grandifolia. As such, this is the first report on the antioxidant activities of P. grandifolia. PMID:20931088

  8. Cylindropuntia rosea (DC. Backeb, (Cactaceae: a new generic alien record in the flora of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Asir Al-Robai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cylindropuntia rosea (DC. Backeb. (Cactaceae is a cactus and invasive species native to Mexico. This is the first record of the genus in Saudi Arabia. The alien species was found near Jebel Hizna, Baljurashi region, southwestern Saudi Arabia. Information about the species' habitat, distribution, and morphological description and its illustration are presented. The presence of Cylindropuntia rosea increased the probability of finding other species belonging to the genus Cylindropuntia in the country. However, if this species gets established in different areas of the Kingdom, it could become a serious invasive plant that has negative impacts on livestock and human. Therefore, tracking and controlling the invasion of this species is recommended.

  9. Expression of the KNOTTED HOMEOBOX Genes in the Cactaceae Cambial Zone Suggests Their Involvement in Wood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Rodríguez-Alonso, Gustavo; Petrone, Emilio; Vasco, Alejandra; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Shishkova, Svetlana; Terrazas, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The vascular cambium is a lateral meristem that produces secondary xylem (i.e., wood) and phloem. Different Cactaceae species develop different types of secondary xylem; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying wood formation in the Cactaceae. The KNOTTED HOMEOBOX (KNOX) gene family encodes transcription factors that regulate plant development. The role of class I KNOX genes in the regulation of the shoot apical meristem, inflorescence architecture, and secondary growth is established in a few model species, while the functions of class II KNOX genes are less well understood, although the Arabidopsis thaliana class II KNOX protein KNAT7 is known to regulate secondary cell wall biosynthesis. To explore the involvement of the KNOX genes in the enormous variability of wood in Cactaceae, we identified orthologous genes expressed in species with fibrous ( Pereskia lychnidiflora and Pilosocereus alensis ), non-fibrous ( Ariocarpus retusus ), and dimorphic ( Ferocactus pilosus ) wood. Both class I and class II KNOX genes were expressed in the cactus cambial zone, including one or two class I paralogs of KNAT1 , as well as one or two class II paralogs of KNAT3 - KNAT4 - KNAT5 . While the KNOX gene SHOOTMERISTEMLESS ( STM) and its ortholog ARK1 are expressed during secondary growth in the Arabidopsis and Populus stem, respectively, we did not find STM orthologs in the Cactaceae cambial zone, which suggests possible differences in the vascular cambium genetic regulatory network in these species. Importantly, while two class II KNOX paralogs from the KNAT7 clade were expressed in the cambial zone of A. retusus and F. pilosus , we did not detect KNAT7 ortholog expression in the cambial zone of P. lychnidiflora . Differences in the transcriptional repressor activity of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by the KNAT7 orthologs could therefore explain the differences in wood development in the cactus species.

  10. Variation in chromosome number and breeding systems: implications for diversification in Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae

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    Carina Gutiérrez-Flores

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy, the possession of more than two sets of chromosomes, is a major biological process affecting plant evolution and diversification. In the Cactaceae, genome doubling has also been associated with reproductive isolation, changes in breeding systems, colonization ability, and speciation. Pachycereus pringlei (S. Watson, 1885 Britton & Rose, 1909, is a columnar cactus that has long drawn the attention of ecologists, geneticists, and systematists due to its wide distribution range and remarkable assortment of breeding systems in the Mexican Sonoran Desert and the Baja California Peninsula (BCP. However, several important evolutionary questions, such as the distribution of chromosome numbers and whether the diploid condition is dominant over a potential polyploid condition driving the evolution and diversity in floral morphology and breeding systems in this cactus, are still unclear. In this study, we determined chromosome numbers in 11 localities encompassing virtually the entire geographic range of distribution of P. pringlei. Our data revealed the first diploid (2n = 22 count in this species restricted to the hermaphroditic populations of Catalana (ICA and Cerralvo (ICE Islands, whereas the tetraploid (2n = 44 condition is consistently distributed throughout the BCP and mainland Sonora populations distinguished by a non-hermaphroditic breeding system. These results validate a wider distribution of polyploid relative to diploid individuals and a shift in breeding systems coupled with polyploidisation. Considering that the diploid base number and hermaphroditism are the proposed ancestral conditions in Cactaceae, we suggest that ICE and ICA populations represent the relicts of a southern diploid ancestor from which both polyploidy and unisexuality evolved in mainland BCP, facilitating the northward expansion of this species. This cytogeographic distribution in conjunction with differences in floral attributes suggests the distinction of

  11. Wood Chemical Composition in Species of Cactaceae: The Relationship between Lignification and Stem Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level. PMID:25880223

  12. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  13. Variation in chromosome number and breeding systems: implications for diversification in Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Flores, Carina; la Luz, José L León-de; León, Francisco J García-De; Cota-Sánchez, J Hugo

    2018-01-01

    Polyploidy, the possession of more than two sets of chromosomes, is a major biological process affecting plant evolution and diversification. In the Cactaceae, genome doubling has also been associated with reproductive isolation, changes in breeding systems, colonization ability, and speciation. Pachycereus pringlei (S. Watson, 1885) Britton & Rose, 1909, is a columnar cactus that has long drawn the attention of ecologists, geneticists, and systematists due to its wide distribution range and remarkable assortment of breeding systems in the Mexican Sonoran Desert and the Baja California Peninsula (BCP). However, several important evolutionary questions, such as the distribution of chromosome numbers and whether the diploid condition is dominant over a potential polyploid condition driving the evolution and diversity in floral morphology and breeding systems in this cactus, are still unclear. In this study, we determined chromosome numbers in 11 localities encompassing virtually the entire geographic range of distribution of P. pringlei . Our data revealed the first diploid (2n = 22) count in this species restricted to the hermaphroditic populations of Catalana (ICA) and Cerralvo (ICE) Islands, whereas the tetraploid (2n = 44) condition is consistently distributed throughout the BCP and mainland Sonora populations distinguished by a non-hermaphroditic breeding system. These results validate a wider distribution of polyploid relative to diploid individuals and a shift in breeding systems coupled with polyploidisation. Considering that the diploid base number and hermaphroditism are the proposed ancestral conditions in Cactaceae, we suggest that ICE and ICA populations represent the relicts of a southern diploid ancestor from which both polyploidy and unisexuality evolved in mainland BCP, facilitating the northward expansion of this species. This cytogeographic distribution in conjunction with differences in floral attributes suggests the distinction of the diploid

  14. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Reyes-Rivera

    Full Text Available In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35% of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  15. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Terrazas, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  16. DNA barcodes for Mexican Cactaceae, plants under pressure from wild collecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesson, Chris; Bárcenas, Rolando T; Hernández, Héctor M; Ruiz-Maqueda, María de la Luz; Prado, Alberto; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Hawkins, Julie A

    2011-09-01

    DNA barcodes could be a useful tool for plant conservation. Of particular importance is the ability to identify unknown plant material, such as from customs seizures of illegally collected specimens. Mexican cacti are an example of a threatened group, under pressure because of wild collection for the xeriscaping trade and private collectors. Mexican cacti also provide a taxonomically and geographically coherent group with which to test DNA barcodes. Here, we sample the matK barcode for 528 species of Cactaceae including approximately 75% of Mexican species and test the utility of the matK region for species-level identification. We find that the matK DNA barcode can be used to identify uniquely 77% of species sampled, and 79-87% of species of particular conservation importance. However, this is far below the desired rate of 95% and there are significant issues for PCR amplification because of the variability of primer sites. Additionally, we test the nuclear ITS regions for the cactus subfamily Opuntioideae and for the genus Ariocarpus (subfamily Cactoideae). We observed higher rates of variation for ITS (86% unique for Opuntioideae sampled) but a much lower PCR success, encountering significant intra-individual polymorphism in Ariocarpus precluding the use of this marker in this taxon. We conclude that the matK region should provide useful information as a DNA barcode for Cactaceae if the problems with primers can be addressed, but matK alone is not sufficiently variable to achieve species-level identification. Additional complementary regions should be investigated as ITS is shown to be unsuitable. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships and evolution of growth form in Cactaceae (Caryophyllales, Eudicotyledoneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Tania; Hernández, Héctor M; De-Nova, J Arturo; Puente, Raul; Eguiarte, Luis E; Magallón, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Cactaceae is one of the most charismatic plant families because of the extreme succulence and outstanding diversity of growth forms of its members. Although cacti are conspicuous elements of arid ecosystems in the New World and are model systems for ecological and anatomical studies, the high morphological convergence and scarcity of phenotypic synapomorphies make the evolutionary relationships and trends among lineages difficult to understand. We performed phylogenetic analyses implementing parsimony ratchet and likelihood methods, using a concatenated matrix with 6148 bp of plastid and nuclear markers (trnK/matK, matK, trnL-trnF, rpl16, and ppc). We included 224 species representing approximately 85% of the family's genera. Likelihood methods were used to perform an ancestral character reconstruction within Cactoideae, the richest subfamily in terms of morphological diversity and species number, to evaluate possible growth form evolutionary trends. Our phylogenetic results support previous studies showing the paraphyly of subfamily Pereskioideae and the monophyly of subfamilies Opuntioideae and Cactoideae. After the early divergence of Blossfeldia, Cactoideae splits into two clades: Cacteae, including North American globose and barrel-shaped members, and core Cactoideae, including the largest diversity of growth forms distributed throughout the American continent. Para- or polyphyly is persistent in different parts of the phylogeny. Main Cactoideae clades were found to have different ancestral growth forms, and convergence toward globose, arborescent, or columnar forms occurred in different lineages. Our study enabled us to provide a detailed hypothesis of relationships among cacti lineages and represents the most complete general phylogenetic framework available to understand evolutionary trends within Cactaceae.

  18. Spatial variation in the community of insects associated with the flowers of Pachycereus weberi (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Castro, Dulce María; Valverde, Pedro Luis; Vite, Fernando; Carrillo-Ruiz, Hortensia

    2014-08-01

    The positive relationship between productivity and species diversity is well-known. Insect communities associated with the flowers of Cactaceae species represent an interesting system to explore the productivity-diversity relationship because branches facing the equator receive more photosynthetically active radiation and have higher productivity. Thus, flowers with contrasting orientations within an individual, and even within a single branch, might differ in productivity. Therefore, higher abundance, species richness, and diversity are expected for the insect communities associated with south-facing flowers. This hypothesis was tested in Pachycereus weberi (J.M. Coulter) Backeberg (Cactaceae). Insects within flowers with contrasting orientations were collected and its abundance, richness, and diversity were estimated. We also asked if insects prefer big flowers. Thus, flower volume was estimated and regression analyses were conducted to test if there is a positive relationship between flower size and insect abundance. Flower orientation did not affect species richness. However, species abundance and diversity were different in flowers with contrasting orientations. In general, species abundance was higher in flowers facing southwards than in north-facing flowers. On the contrary, species diversity was higher in north-facing flowers. Abundance of Coleoptera was explained by flower volume in south-facing flowers. Contrary to our hypothesis, total diversity was greater in the less productive oriented flowers. Three possible explanations are discussed to explain the low diversity found in the highly productive, south-facing flowers. Our study provides evidence for the effects of productivity on the structure of insect communities at a very small-scale.

  19. Transcriptomics insights into the genetic regulation of root apical meristem exhaustion and determinate primary root growth in Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alonso, Gustavo; Matvienko, Marta; López-Valle, Mayra L; Lázaro-Mixteco, Pedro E; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Dubrovsky, Joseph G; Shishkova, Svetlana

    2018-06-04

    Many Cactaceae species exhibit determinate growth of the primary root as a consequence of root apical meristem (RAM) exhaustion. The genetic regulation of this growth pattern is unknown. Here, we de novo assembled and annotated the root apex transcriptome of the Pachycereus pringlei primary root at three developmental stages, with active or exhausted RAM. The assembled transcriptome is robust and comprehensive, and was used to infer a transcriptional regulatory network of the primary root apex. Putative orthologues of Arabidopsis regulators of RAM maintenance, as well as putative lineage-specific transcripts were identified. The transcriptome revealed putative orthologues of most proteins involved in housekeeping processes, hormone signalling, and metabolic pathways. Our results suggest that specific transcriptional programs operate in the root apex at specific developmental time points. Moreover, the transcriptional state of the P. pringlei root apex as the RAM becomes exhausted is comparable to the transcriptional state of cells from the meristematic, elongation, and differentiation zones of Arabidopsis roots along the root axis. We suggest that the transcriptional program underlying the drought stress response is induced during Cactaceae root development, and that lineage-specific transcripts could contribute to RAM exhaustion in Cactaceae.

  20. [Max Weber. Poliitika kui elukutse ja kutsumus. Teadus kui elukutse ja kutsumus] / Hermo Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Hermo, 1976-

    2011-01-01

    Tutvustus: Weber, Max. Poliitika kui elukutse ja kutsumus ; Teadus kui elukutse ja kutsumus / tõlkijad: Jaan Isotamm, Henn Käärik, Kaia Sisask. Tallinn : TLU Press, 2010. (Bibliotheca controversiarum)

  1. Max Weber's Types of Rationality: Cornerstones for the Analysis of Rationalization Processes in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    Explores rationality in Max Weber's works and identifies four types of rationality which play major roles in his writing--practical, theoretical, substantive, and formal. Implications for society and education are discussed. (DB)

  2. Clinical Study on 1 Case of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Kil, Yoo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was performed to evaluate the treatment of Acupuncture therapy including Herbal Acupuncture theraphy and Korean Bee Venom Theraphy in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome. Methods : We treated 1 case of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome patient with mainly Korean Bee Venom Theraphy, and herbal Acupuncture, acupuncture theraphy from 27th August, 2001 to February, 2003. Results : After 3 weeks of Korean Bee Venom Theraphy, and herbal Acupuncture, acupuncture theraphy, a remarkable improvement was made for Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome. Conclusions : Korean Bee Venom Theraphy and other acupuncture therapies were effective in reducing the symptoms. We think that it need the further study and clinical trial for Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome.

  3. Hindemith: Symphonic Metamorphosis on Themes of Carl Maria von Weber / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Hindemith: Symphonic Metamorphosis on Themes of Carl Maria von Weber, Mathis der Maler - Symphony, Nobilissima visione - suite. Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, Yoel Levi" Telarc/ Conifer CD 80 195

  4. Sturge-Weber syndrome. Early manifestation and visualization of disease course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranzinger, E.; Huisman, T.A.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate ultrasound, MRI, and CT investigations in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome. From 1996 to 2005, a total of 15 investigations of the brain performed in 6 children with Sturge-Weber syndrome were reviewed. We evaluated four ultrasound, five CT, and six MRI exams. With ultrasound an increase of the echogenicity of the periventricular white matter was depicted in the first days of life. MRI is the best modality to demonstrate the vascular malformation, the impaired cerebral venous drainage, and the atrophy of one hemisphere. One-sided periventricular hyperechogenicity on ultrasound can be an early sign of Sturge-Weber syndrome in children with a nevus flammeus. MRI is the method of choice to diagnose Sturge-Weber syndrome and to follow up these children if the neurological status of the patients changes. (orig.) [de

  5. Síndrome de Sturge weber. Revisión

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    Otman Fernández Concepción

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available La angiomatosis encefalotrigeminal (síndrome de Sturge-Weber es el más frecuente de los síndromes neurocutáneos con predominio de anomalías vasculares. Es una enfermedad congénita, que aparece de manera esporádica y en su forma completa consiste en la asociación de angiomas cerebral, cutáneo y ocular que se caracterizan clínicamente por una mancha color vino en la cara, epilepsia, retraso mental, déficits neurológicos (hemiparesia y hemianopsia y glaucoma. Para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad resultan de mucha utilidad los estudios de tomografía axial computadorizada y resonancia magnética nuclear craneales, así como para estudiar la relación del angioma leptomeníngeo u atrofia subyacente, importantes para el pronóstico y la conducta médica que se debe seguir. El control de las crisis epilépticas constituye un elemento capital para una evolución favorable de los pacientes. El tratamiento quirúrgico debe ser reservado para enfermos de corta edad, con afectación unilateral exclusiva, con epilepsia refractaria y sin retraso mental profundo; mediante la resección del área afectada, lobectomía o hemisferectomía, siempre que el otro hemisferio esté intacto. Se profundiza en los aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos, patogénicos y terapéuticos de esta enfermedadThe encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis (Sterge-Weber syndrome is the commonest of the neurocutaneous syndromes with predominance of vascular anomalies. Its complete form consists in the association of cerebral, cutaneous and ocular angiomas, which are characterized by a wine-clored stain, epilepsy, mental retardation, neurological deficits (hemiparesis and hemianopsia and glaucoma. CAT and cranial magnetic resonance imaging are very useful for diagnosing the disease and for studying the extension of the leptomeningeal angioma or underlying atrophy. These studies are also important for the prognosis and medical conduct to be followed. The control of the epileptic seizures

  6. Os sentidos de compreensão nas teorias de Weber e Habermas The meanings of understanding in the theories of Weber and Habermas

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    José Geraldo A. B. Poker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Partindo do pressuposto de que a teoria social elaborada por Habermas em muito se assemelha àquela construída por M. Weber, procedeu-se a um estudo comparativo com a intenção de identificar as formas pelas quais Weber e Habermas elaboraram o conceito de compreensão, ao mesmo tempo em que e o elegeram, cada um a seu modo, como instrumento metodológico adequado às dificuldades da produção de conhecimento científico nas Ciências Sociais. Tanto para Weber, como para Habermas, o conhecimento nas Ciências Sociais não consegue escapar das influências diretas da subjetividade do cientista, como também não é capaz de se proteger das contingências histórico-culturais aos quais inevitavelmente toda ação humana está vinculada. Por isso, fundamentados em suas próprias razões, tanto Weber quanto Habermas apontam a compreensão como a forma possível de conhecimento, o que implica a renúncia às pretensões explicativas e à produção de teorias gerais de fundamentação última, que são típicas das ciências convencionais.Assuming that the social theory developed by Habermas is very similar to that constructed by M. Weber, this article performs a comparative study with the intention of identifying the ways in which Weber and Habermas built the concept of understanding. Both authors chose this concept, each in his own way, as a methodological tool appropriate to the difficulties of the production of scientific knowledge in the social sciences. As much for Weber as for Habermas, knowledge in the social sciences cannot escape the direct influences of the subjectivity of the scientist, as it also cannot protect itself from the historical and cultural contingencies to which every human action is inevitably linked. Therefore, based on their own reasons, both Weber and Habermas point to understanding as the possible form of knowledge, which implies the renunciation of the explanatory pretensions and general theories of ultimate

  7. The ontology of the questionnaire: Max Weber on measurement and mass investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, R M

    2001-12-01

    Although contemporary sociologists of science have sometimes claimed Max Weber as a methodological precursor, they have not examined Weber's own writings about science. Between 1908 and 1912 Weber published a series of critical studies of the extension of scientific authority into public life. The most notable of these concerned attempts to implement the experimental psychology or psycho-physics laboratory in factories and other real-world settings. Weber's critique centered on the problem of social measurement. He emphasized the discontinuities between the space of the laboratory and that of the factory, showing how several qualitative and historically conditioned differences between the two settings rendered the transfer of instruments and methods between them highly problematic. Weber's critical arguments prepared the ground for his greatest foray into empirical sociology, a survey he directed for the Verein für Sozialpolitik investigating the conditions and attitudes affecting the lives and performance of industrial workers. Using a different measuring instrument - the questionnaire - Weber tried to implement a concept of social measurement which implied a different ontology, drawn not from natural sciences but from the historical sciences. Copyright 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Weberized Mumford-Shah Model with Bose-Einstein Photon Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianhong; Jung, Yoon-Mo

    2006-01-01

    Human vision works equally well in a large dynamic range of light intensities, from only a few photons to typical midday sunlight. Contributing to such remarkable flexibility is a famous law in perceptual (both visual and aural) psychology and psychophysics known as Weber's Law. The current paper develops a new segmentation model based on the integration of Weber's Law and the celebrated Mumford-Shah segmentation model (Comm. Pure Appl. Math., vol. 42, pp. 577-685, 1989). Explained in detail are issues concerning why the classical Mumford-Shah model lacks light adaptivity, and why its 'weberized' version can more faithfully reflect human vision's superior segmentation capability in a variety of illuminance conditions from dawn to dusk. It is also argued that the popular Gaussian noise model is physically inappropriate for the weberization procedure. As a result, the intrinsic thermal noise of photon ensembles is introduced based on Bose and Einstein's distributions in quantum statistics, which turns out to be compatible with weberization both analytically and computationally. The current paper focuses on both the theory and computation of the weberized Mumford-Shah model with Bose-Einstein noise. In particular, Ambrosio-Tortorelli's Γ-convergence approximation theory is adapted (Boll. Un. Mat. Ital. B, vol. 6, pp. 105-123, 1992), and stable numerical algorithms are developed for the associated pair ofnonlinear Euler-Lagrange PDEs

  9. Sturge-Weber syndrome. The current neuro-imaging data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukobza, M.; Cambra, M.R.; Merland, J.J.; Enjolras, O.

    2000-01-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare congenital sporadic disease with neuro-ocular and cutaneous vascular findings. Clinically, the full-blown condition consists of a facial port-wine stain (PWS) the V1 facial trigeminal skin area, alone or in combination with V2 and V3 PWS, seizures and ocular abnormalities (glaucoma and choroidal angioma). Radiologically, a leptomeningeal (pial) capillary and venous malformation, mostly located in the parieto-occipital area, cerebral atrophy and calcifications are demonstrated. An ipsilateral enlarged choroid plexus may be an early anatomic symptom. Development neuro-diagnostic technique for the screening of infants with an at-risk V1 PWS, as well as for the follow-up of patients with evidence SWS. Accelerated myelination in the involved hemisphere may be early diagnostic feature before 6 months of age. Later, hyperintensity of white matter on T2 is considered a symptom of gliosis. Clinically, progression of the diseases is associated with anatomic changes and correlates with the extent of the pial vascular anomaly, extent and severity of cerebral atrophy, and white matter abnormalities. A neonatal neuro-imaging work-up, using CT or MRI, may not demonstrate the pial anomaly and should be repeated after 6 to 12 months in an at-risk infant with V1 PWS. (authors)

  10. Max Weber or Jesus Christ: in whose image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, A M; Gaylor, C C

    1985-10-01

    The bureaucratic model of organization and the model that emerges from the Gospel and Vatican Council II provide a stark contrast for Catholic health care administrators to ponder. As articulated by sociologist Max Weber, a bureaucracy is based on a hierarchical structure with sharply defined and protected levels of authority, centralized decision making, rules that govern personnel behavior, and an impersonalized view of employees that stresses their roles as functionaries. The Christian, Gospel-based model, on the other hand, places a premium on collegiality, shared authority, the mediation of conscience, the common good, and the work of the individual. Even though only a few will shape management policy in a large hospital, policymaking should be viewed as a service, a ministry that entails stewardship. Catholic health care leaders should reflect the spirit of collegiality by bringing various strata of staff together in a dynamic, united effort. Thus the institution's statement of mission will not be an abstract recitation of pieties but a living reality, a philosophy that is "owned" by the workers.

  11. Empreendedorismo religioso: quando Weber se associa a Granovetter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Silva Corrêa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O fenômeno religioso no Brasil vem atraindo crescente atenção da academia, impulsionado, em grande parte, pela expansão das seitas protestantes no país, sobretudo de vertente pentecostal. Na esteira dessa transformação, um tema, em particular, reveste-se de especial importância. Trata-se do papel dos chamados empreendedores religiosos aqui compreendidos como os novos pastores evangélicos. No entanto, tais atores não vêm sendo muito estudados. O presente trabalho busca preencher essa lacuna. Recorre-se, para isso, às contribuições teóricas clássicas derivadas de Weber, em associação às contribuições contemporâneas originárias de Granovetter, em particular, sobre acoplamento e desacoplamento. Conclui-se o trabalho propondo um novo referencial para a análise de certas dimensões do empreendedorismo religioso.

  12. [Cerebral ischemia in Rendu-Osler-Weber disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Reyes, S; García de la Rocha, M L; Fernández-Armayor Ajo, V; Sierra Sierra, I; Martín Araguz, A; Moreno Martínez, J M

    2000-02-01

    Neurologic manifestations occur in 8-12% of the patients with Rendu-Osler-Weber disease or hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), principally infectious and hemorrhagic and, less frequently, ischemic ones. More than a half of these neurologic complications are associated with pulmonary arterio-venous malformations (PAVM). The diagnosis of HHT is based on the presence of telangiectases, hemorrhagic events and a family history with an autosomal dominant pattern. We report a case of a patient diagnosed as having HHT with transient ischemic attacks and a PAVM, which was occluded by the use of embolotherapy. Cerebral ischemia in HHT is related to the existence of a PAVM and results from three mechanisms: 1) secondary poliglobulia and hyperviscosity because of the hypoxemia due to a right-left shunt; 2) communication between the airway and the pulmonary circulation during cough access, which produces gas embolism and hemoptysis; 3) and, finally, paradoxical embolism trough the PAVM, the same mechanism proposed to the infectious neurologic manifestations of the disease. When the diagnosis of HHT is suspected, early search and treatment of PAVM, with embolotherapy or surgery, are necessary in order to avoid respiratory problems (hemoptysis, exertional dyspnea, cianosis, clubbing) and neurologic complications.

  13. Sturge-Weber syndrome: Continued vigilance is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Saeed; Babiker, Amir; Bashiri, Fahad A; Hassan, Hamdi H; Husseini, Maha El; Salih, Mustafa A

    2015-01-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a non-hereditary congenital disorder due to somatic mosaic mutations in the GNAQ gene. The classical presentation relates to the brain lesion (cerebral angiomatous lesion of leptomeninges, which is responsible for epileptic seizures, hemiparesis and mental retardation), skin lesion (unilateral facial nevus), ocular and oral involvement. We present a 12-year-old boy who was referred to the Division of Pediatric Neurology, King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with left-sided hemiparesis. Physical examination showed a port wine stain involving the right side of the face, extending to the upper thorax, and enlargement of both the right eye globe and cornea (megalocornea), indicating the presence of glaucoma. Following urgent referral to ophthalmology service, his eye condition improved dramatically post surgery. Neuroradiological investigations, including cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRI) revealed the classical brain lesions of SWS, as well as right leptomeningeal choroidal angioma. Ten months later, he developed focal-onset seizures which responded to treatment. His cognition is normal with good school performance. Continued vigilance is needed to identify and manage the complications of SWS.

  14. Primer reporte del empleo de marcadores ISTR en Cactaceae (Pilosocereus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecia Montalvo Fernández

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: First report of the employment of ISTR markers in Cactaceae (Pilosocereus sp Resumen Pilosocereus sp es una especie en peligro crítico de extinción, la única población conocida se encuentra en una mina de mármol verde, hoy abandonada, en la que su explotación produjo la disminución del 80% de la población en 3 años; en la actualidad quedan 28 ejemplares, de ellos unos pocos son adultos, de los cuales solo dos producen frutos. Una de las etapas necesaria para su recuperación es la producción de plántulas para realizar el reforzamiento de la población natural. Como las plantas obtenidas serán plantadas en condiciones naturales, donde se enfrentarán a diversas situaciones ambientales, es conveniente realizar un estudio de diversidad genética. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar la variabilidad genética de plántulas de Pilosocereus sp empleando la técnica Inverse Sequence Tagged Repeat (ISTR. Se realizó la germinación in vitro de semillas y se determinó la variabilidad genética de las plántulas obtenidas. Con el análisis molecular se detectaron un total de 97 bandas, de ellas el 62,8% fueron polimórficas. El mayor porcentaje de bandas polimórficas (85,7% se obtuvo con la combinación de oligonucleótidos F6/B6. Con las combinaciones de oligonucleótidos empleados se detectaron de 4 a 6 patrones de banda diferentes. La heterocigosidad media esperada fue de 0,39. Palabras clave: Cactaceae; variabilidad; extinción; polimorfismo. Abstract Pilosocereus sp is a species in critical extinction danger, the only known population is in a mine of green marble, abandoned today, but it exploitation produced the decrease of the population's 80% in 3 years, at the present time they are 28 individuals, of them some few ones are mature, of those which alone two produce fruits. One of the necessary stages for their recovery is the seedlings production to carry out the natural population's reinforcement. As the

  15. Correction of Facial Deformity in Sturge–Weber Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuaki; Lonic, Daniel; Chen, Chit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although previous studies have reported soft-tissue management in surgical treatment of Sturge–Weber syndrome (SWS), there are few reports describing facial bone surgery in this patient group. The purpose of this study is to examine the validity of our multidisciplinary algorithm for correcting facial deformities associated with SWS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on orthognathic surgery for SWS patients. Methods: A retrospective chart review included 2 SWS patients who completed the surgical treatment algorithm. Radiographic and clinical data were recorded, and a treatment algorithm was derived. Results: According to the Roach classification, the first patient was classified as type I presenting with both facial and leptomeningeal vascular anomalies without glaucoma and the second patient as type II presenting only with a hemifacial capillary malformation. Considering positive findings in seizure history and intracranial vascular anomalies in the first case, the anesthetic management was modified to omit hypotensive anesthesia because of the potential risk of intracranial pressure elevation. Primarily, both patients underwent 2-jaw orthognathic surgery and facial bone contouring including genioplasty, zygomatic reduction, buccal fat pad removal, and masseter reduction without major complications. In the second step, the volume and distribution of facial soft tissues were altered by surgical resection and reposition. Both patients were satisfied with the surgical result. Conclusions: Our multidisciplinary algorithm can systematically detect potential risk factors. Correction of the asymmetric face by successive bone and soft-tissue surgery enables the patients to reduce their psychosocial burden and increase their quality of life. PMID:27622111

  16. Stem and root anatomy of two species of Echinopsis (Trichocereeae: Cactaceae Anatomía de la raíz y del tallo de dos especies de Echinopsis (Trichocereeae: Cactaceae

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    Joelma dos Santos Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes and compares the stem and root anatomy of Echinopsis calochlora and E. rhodotricha (Cactaceae occurring in the Central-Western Region of Brazil, in Mato Grosso do Sul State. Three individuals of each species were collected, fixed, stored and prepared following usual anatomy techniques, for subsequent observation in light and scanning electronic microscopy. Echinopsis calochlora revealed uniseriated epidermis, while E. rhodotricha had patches of bisseriated epidermis; all species showed thick cuticle, parallelocytic stomata at the epidermis level, and a well-developed hypodermis. Cortical and medullary bundles are present in the studied species, as well as mucilage cells in the cortex region. The secondary phloem is composed by sieve tube elements, companion cells, axial and radial parenchyma. Sclereids were found at the outer regions of phloem in the roots. The secondary xylem is non fibrous in the stems of E. calochlora, and fibrous in the stems of E. rhodotricha and in the roots of both species. Many of these characteristics are commonly found in Cactaceae, and represent important adaptations for survival in xeric environments.Este estudio está enfocado a caracterizar y comparar la anatomía de tallos y raíces de Echinopsis calochlora y E. rhodotricha (Cactaceae que habitan en la región centro-oeste de Brasil, en el Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Se recolectaron 3 individuos de cada especie, los cuales fueron fijados, almacenados y preparados siguiendo las técnicas comunes de anatomía, para observarlos en microscopía de luz y electrónica de barrido. Echinopsis calochlora mostró epidermis uniseriada, mientras que la de E. rhodotricha fue biseriada; todas las especies presentaron cutícula gruesa, estomas paralelocíticos a nivel de la epidermis y una hipodermis bien desarrollada. Se presentaron haces vasculares corticales y medulares en las especies estudiadas, así como células mucilaginosas en la regi

  17. Lineage-specific evolutionary rate in plants: Contributions of a screening for Cereus (Cactaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiro-Brito, Monique; Moraes, Evandro M.; Taylor, Nigel P.; Zappi, Daniela C.; Franco, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Predictable chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences have been listed for the shallowest taxonomic studies in plants. We investigated whether plastid regions that vary between closely allied species could be applied for intraspecific studies and compared the variation of these plastid segments with two nuclear regions. Methods: We screened 16 plastid and two nuclear intronic regions for species of the genus Cereus (Cactaceae) at three hierarchical levels (species from different clades, species of the same clade, and allopatric populations). Results: Ten plastid regions presented interspecific variation, and six of them showed variation at the intraspecific level. The two nuclear regions showed both inter- and intraspecific variation, and in general they showed higher levels of variability in almost all hierarchical levels than the plastid segments. Discussion: Our data suggest no correspondence between variation of plastid regions at the interspecific and intraspecific level, probably due to lineage-specific variation in cpDNA, which appears to have less effect in nuclear data. Despite the heterogeneity in evolutionary rates of cpDNA, we highlight three plastid segments that may be considered in initial screenings in plant phylogeographic studies. PMID:26819857

  18. Phylogenetic relationships in Peniocereus (Cactaceae) inferred from plastid DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Salvador; Terrazas, Teresa; Arreola-Nava, Hilda J; Vázquez-Sánchez, Monserrat; Cameron, Kenneth M

    2005-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Peniocereus (Cactaceae) species were studied using parsimony analyses of DNA sequence data. The plastid rpl16 and trnL-F regions were sequenced for 98 taxa including 17 species of Peniocereus, representatives from all genera of tribe Pachycereeae, four genera of tribe Hylocereeae, as well as from three additional outgroup genera of tribes Calymmantheae, Notocacteae, and Trichocereeae. Phylogenetic analyses support neither the monophyly of Peniocereus as currently circumscribed, nor the monophyly of tribe Pachycereeae since species of Peniocereus subgenus Pseudoacanthocereus are embedded within tribe Hylocereeae. Furthermore, these results show that the eight species of Peniocereus subgenus Peniocereus (Peniocereus sensu stricto) form a well-supported clade within subtribe Pachycereinae; P. serpentinus is also a member of this subtribe, but is sister to Bergerocactus. Moreover, Nyctocereus should be resurrected as a monotypic genus. Species of Peniocereus subgenus Pseudoacanthocereus are positioned among species of Acanthocereus within tribe Hylocereeae, indicating that they may be better classified within that genus. A number of morphological and anatomical characters, especially related to the presence or absence of dimorphic branches, are discussed to support these relationships.

  19. Lineage-specific evolutionary rate in plants: Contributions of a screening for Cereus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiro-Brito, Monique; Moraes, Evandro M; Taylor, Nigel P; Zappi, Daniela C; Franco, Fernando F

    2016-01-01

    Predictable chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences have been listed for the shallowest taxonomic studies in plants. We investigated whether plastid regions that vary between closely allied species could be applied for intraspecific studies and compared the variation of these plastid segments with two nuclear regions. We screened 16 plastid and two nuclear intronic regions for species of the genus Cereus (Cactaceae) at three hierarchical levels (species from different clades, species of the same clade, and allopatric populations). Ten plastid regions presented interspecific variation, and six of them showed variation at the intraspecific level. The two nuclear regions showed both inter- and intraspecific variation, and in general they showed higher levels of variability in almost all hierarchical levels than the plastid segments. Our data suggest no correspondence between variation of plastid regions at the interspecific and intraspecific level, probably due to lineage-specific variation in cpDNA, which appears to have less effect in nuclear data. Despite the heterogeneity in evolutionary rates of cpDNA, we highlight three plastid segments that may be considered in initial screenings in plant phylogeographic studies.

  20. Acute Toxicity and Cytotoxicity of Pereskia aculeata, a Highly Nutritious Cactaceae Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Debora O; Seifert, Mauricio; Nora, Fabiana R; Bobrowski, Vera L; Freitag, Rogerio A; Kucera, Heidi R; Nora, Leonardo; Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2017-04-01

    Pereskia aculeata is a Cactaceae plant with valuable nutritional properties, including terrific amounts of protein, minerals, vitamins, and fiber. However, P. aculeata is reported to contain antinutrients and alkaloids in its leaves. In addition, in a study on growth and development, Wistar rats fed with P. aculeata and casein as protein source grew less than the control group (fed with casein only). Therefore, in this study, we evaluated, for the first time, the oral acute toxicity of P. aculeata in rats and also the cytotoxicity behavior of the plant on lettuce seeds. The acute toxicity research was carried out using dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract, in three different doses, administered by gavage to 24 female Wistar rats. The rats were then examined for signs of toxicity, food intake, body weight, and fecal excretion fluctuations, as well as histopathological alterations, using eight different body tissues. The acute toxicity study did not show any difference among the groups in either clinical evaluation or histopathological analyses. For the cytotoxicity study, dried P. aculeata ethanolic extract was applied on lettuce seeds in five different concentrations. These seeds were evaluated for germination, root and shoot length, and mitotic index. The results show that P. aculeata extract affects lettuce root and shoot growth, but not germination or mitotic index. In conclusion, the acute toxicity on rats and the cytogenotoxicity on lettuce of P. aculeata are neglectable, validating the potential of this plant to be used as a functional food.

  1. Ants interacting with fruits of Melocactus conoideus Buining & Brederoo (Cactaceae in southwestern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katielle Silva Brito-Kateivas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n3p153   Formigas que interagem com frutos de Melocactus conoideus Buining & Brederoo (Cactaceae no sudoeste da Bahia, Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar quais espécies de formigas interagem com os frutos de Melocactus conoideus e se existe remoção. O estudo foi realizado no Parque Municipal Serra do Periperi, município de Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, área de ocorrência da espécie. Frutos de 30 indivíduos foram marcados e observados durante o dia para identificação do comportamento das formigas. Sete espécies de cinco subfamílias de formigas foram observadas interagindo com os frutos e os gêneros mais envolvidos em interações foram Camponotus e Pheidole. Três eventos de remoção foram observados e realizados apenas pela espécie Pheidole sp. 2. Apesar de M. conoideus não ser uma espécie mirmecocórica, formigas foram registradas como dispersoras oportunistas, atividade que pode ter importantes consequências para a dinâmica populacional da espécie.

  2. Classical macroautophagy in Lobivia rauschii (Cactaceae) and possible plastidial autophagy in Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) tapetum cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Alessio; Mosti, Stefano; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2014-05-01

    The tapetum in anthers is a tissue that undergoes programmed cell death (PCD) during the production of pollen. We observed two types of autophagy prior to cell death. In Lobivia rauschii (Cactaceae), tapetum cells showed plant-type autophagosomes-autolysosomes, which have been found previously exclusively in root meristem cells. The autophagic structures were formed by a network of tubules which apparently merged laterally, thereby sequestering a portion of the cytoplasm. The organelles observed in the sequestered material included multilamellar bodies, which have not been reported earlier in these organelles. By contrast, Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) tapetum cells contained no such organelles but showed plastids that might possibly carry out autophagy, as they contained portions of the cytoplasm similar to the phenomenon reported earlier in Phaseolus and Dendrobium. However, the ultrastructure of the T. albida plastids was different from that in the previous reports. It is concluded that in L. rauschii classical plant macroautophagy was involved in degradation of the cytoplasm, while in T. albida such classical macroautophagy was not observed. Instead, the data in T. albida suggested the hypothesis that plastids are able to carry out degradation of the cytoplasm.

  3. Molecular phylogeny and character evolution in terete-stemmed Andean opuntias (Cactaceae-Opuntioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, C M; Reiker, J; Charles, G; Hoxey, P; Hunt, D; Lowry, M; Stuppy, W; Taylor, N

    2012-11-01

    The cacti of tribe Tephrocacteae (Cactaceae-Opuntioideae) are adapted to diverse climatic conditions over a wide area of the southern Andes and adjacent lowlands. They exhibit a range of life forms from geophytes and cushion-plants to dwarf shrubs, shrubs or small trees. To confirm or challenge previous morphology-based classifications and molecular phylogenies, we sampled DNA sequences from the chloroplast trnK/matK region and the nuclear low copy gene phyC and compared the resulting phylogenies with previous data gathered from nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. The here presented chloroplast and nuclear low copy gene phylogenies were mutually congruent and broadly coincident with the classification based on gross morphology and seed micro-morphology and anatomy. Reconstruction of hypothetical ancestral character states suggested that geophytes and cushion-forming species probably evolved several times from dwarf shrubby precursors. We also traced an increase of embryo size at the expense of the nucellus-derived storage tissue during the evolution of the Tephrocacteae, which is thought to be an evolutionary advantage because nutrients are then more rapidly accessible for the germinating embryo. In contrast to these highly concordant phylogenies, nuclear ribosomal DNA data sampled by a previous study yielded conflicting phylogenetic signals. Secondary structure predictions of ribosomal transcribed spacers suggested that this phylogeny is strongly influenced by the inclusion of paralogous sequence probably arisen by genome duplication during the evolution of this plant group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies on betaxanthin profiles of vegetables and fruits from the Chenopodiaceae and Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Florian; Graneis, Stephan; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2007-01-01

    The present study provides an update on the betaxanthin (bx) compositions of red and yellow beetroots, yellow-coloured Swiss chard petioles, and yellow-orange cactus pear. Applying RP-HPLC coupled with positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry and by comparison with UV-vis and mass spectrometric characteristics as well as retention times of semi-synthesized reference compounds, 24 betaxanthins were identified in red and yellow beetroot hypocotyls. Twenty-five and thirteen betaxanthins were present in yellow Swiss chard petioles and the cactus pear cultivar 'Gialla', respectively. Ethanolamine-bx and threonine-bx were found to be novel betaxanthins in Chenopodiaceae representatives, which to the best of our knowledge have not been reported as genuine pigments so far. Furthermore, aspartic acid-bx (miraxanthin II), lysine-bx, and methionine-bx, hitherto found in other families, were identified in the Chenopodiaceae for the first time. Additionally, tyrosine-bx (portulacaxanthin II) and tryptophan-bx have not been earlier reported to occur in the Cactaceae. These findings provide valuable phytochemical information and may be useful for a better understanding of the functional properties of betaxanthins in plants.

  5. Direct anthelmintic effects of Cereus jamacaru (Cactaceae) on trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep: in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, A F; Kandu-Lelo, C; Ademola, I O; Eloff, J N

    2011-08-25

    Following claims of anthelmintic activity of Cereus jamacaru DC (Cactaceae) by a commercial farmer, in vivo studies were conducted to determine the possible direct anthelmintic effects of the plant on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes. Eighteen sheep were infected with 4000 Haemonchus contortus and 6000 Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae given in three divided doses over a period of three days. Once the infections were patent, the sheep were allocated to three groups and were drenched once a week for six weeks with fresh blended C. jamacaru plant material at a single (32.3g/sheep) or double dose (64.6g/sheep) or they remained as undrenched controls. Faeces were collected from individual animals on the day of treatment and three days thereafter on a weekly basis for seven weeks for faecal egg count. While there were no statistically significant differences in the egg counts between the groups, a double dose of C. jamacaru was effective in reducing the egg counts in the sheep by 18-65% over the 49 days of the experiment. Given that all animals remained in good health throughout the course of the experiment, with no adverse events occurring during the study, further experiments using higher doses or administering the plant material for a longer period of time than in the present study would be warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlated evolution of stem and leaf hydraulic traits in Pereskia (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erika J

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated significant correlations between stem and leaf hydraulic properties when comparing across species within ecological communities. This implies that these traits are co-evolving, but there have been few studies addressing plant water relations within an explicitly evolutionary framework. This study tests for correlated evolution among a suite of plant water-use traits and environmental parameters in seven species of Pereskia (Cactaceae), using phylogenetically independent contrasts. There were significant evolutionary correlations between leaf-specific xylem hydraulic conductivity, Huber Value, leaf stomatal pore index, leaf venation density and leaf size, but none of these traits appeared to be correlated with environmental water availability; only two water relations traits - mid-day leaf water potentials and photosynthetic water use efficiency - correlated with estimates of moisture regime. In Pereskia, it appears that many stem and leaf hydraulic properties thought to be critical to whole-plant water use have not evolved in response to habitat shifts in water availability. This may be because of the extremely conservative stomatal behavior and particular rooting strategy demonstrated by all Pereskia species investigated. These results highlight the need for a lineage-based approach to understand the relative roles of functional traits in ecological adaptation.

  7. Geographic distribution and taxonomic circumscription of populations within Coryphantha section Robustispina (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Marc A; Butterworth, Charles A

    2013-05-01

    Taxonomic circumscription of subspecific taxa within Coryphantha robustispina was evaluated with morphological data and microsatellites. This study was the first to compare adequately sampled morphological and DNA analyses at the population level in the Cactaceae. This comparison was important to test reliability of both methods and to gain a better understanding of phytogeography, evolution, and systematics of the species, knowledge that could prove useful for other taxa as well. Populations of C. robustispina subsp. robustispina are listed as endangered by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our primary goal was to explore correlations among geographical distribution, morphology, and genetics of selected populations throughout the range of the species and the outgroup, C. poselgeriana. • Stem characters were measured for 638 individuals among 16 populations. Flower characters were measured for 180 individuals among 12 populations. Ten microsatellite DNA loci were isolated and characterized for 204 individuals among 13 populations. Data were analyzed using various multivariate analyses. • Our results indicated that, within Coryphantha robustispina, there were three morphologically, genetically, and geographically coherent groups represented by the names C. robustispina subsp. robustispina, C. robustispina subsp. uncinata, and C. robustispina subsp. scheeri. For most analyses, distinctions among the three groups were primarily not as great as those between any one of them and the outgroup. • Results suggested that the three subspecific taxa within Coryphantha robustispina are good subspecies but should not be elevated to species rank. The closely aligned results between morphology and microsatellite data support the design and utility of both methods.

  8. The Effect of Agave tequilana Weber Inulin on Postprandial Ghrelin Concentration in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Haro, Betsabe; Robles-Cervantes, Jose A; Gonzalez-Ortiz, Manuel; Martinez-Abundis, Esperanza; Espinel-Bermudez, Claudia; Gallegos-Arreola, Martha P; Morgado-Castillo, Karina C

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of Agave tequilana Weber inulin on postprandial ghrelin levels in obese patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over design was performed. A total of 14 patients were allocated into two groups: one group received a drink that contained 500 mL lemon water, 24 g of A. tequilana Weber inulin, and 75 g glucose and the other group received a placebo drink with 500 mL lemon drink and 75 g of glucose. After a 7-day washout period, the groups were crossed. The primary outcome measure was postprandial ghrelin levels between minute 240 and minute 270. A. tequilana Weber inulin did not change postprandial ghrelin concentration in obese patients.

  9. Environmental Setting of the Sugar Creek and Leary Weber Ditch Basins, Indiana, 2002-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    The Leary Weber Ditch Basin is nested within the Sugar Creek Basin in central Indiana. These basins make up one of the five study sites in the Nation selected for the Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate topical study, a part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. In this topical study, identifying the natural factors and human influences affecting water quality in the Leary Weber Ditch and Sugar Creek Basins are the focus of the assessment. A detailed comparison between the environmental settings of these basins is presented. Specifics of the topical study design as implemented in the Leary Weber Ditch and Sugar Creek Basins are described.

  10. [Max Weber's disease. Research on the disease and therapeutic management at the turn of the century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, J; Frommer, S

    1998-05-01

    This article on the German economist and sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920) continues our pathographic and psychohistoric studies on the interrelations between his life, his illness, and his work on "Protestantic Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism". In a former paper (Frommer u. Frommer, 1993) we focussed on Weber's definition of modern society as an "iron cage" determined by Western rationalism. His theory, which shows that this cultural background demands a great amount of role conformity from the individual, converges with current psychopathological approaches on the personality of depressed patients. In the second article we report on results of our research on further personal documents, and some medical certificates by Weber's physicians. These documents demonstrate the diagnosis of a severe depression in a narcisstic and hypernomic personality.

  11. [Triatominae and Cactaceae: a risk for the transmission of the American trypanosomiasis in the peridomicilary space (Northeast Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emperaire, L; Romaña, C A

    2006-06-01

    Field observations carried in semi-arid Brazil Northeast point out the frequent association, in the peridomiciliary space, between a cactus, Cereus jamacaru, the occurrence of nests in its branches and the occurrence of two species of insects vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, pathogenic agent of Chagas disease: Rhodnius neglectus and Triatoma pseudomaculata. The analysis of the architectural variables of this Cactaceae shows that the presence of nests, and thus of insects, depends on the traditional practices of management of this cactus. This study underlines the relevance of an integrated approach of the ecology of Triatominae for the identification of factors of risk.

  12. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-05-26

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015).

  13. Patterns of growth and mortality in the endangered Nichol's Turk's Head Cactus (Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholii L. Benson; Cactaceae) in Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. McIntosh; L. A. McDade; A. E. Boyd; P. D. Jenkins

    2007-01-01

    Nichol’s Turk’s Head Cactus (Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholii L. Benson; Cactaceae) occurs in a few isolated populations in the Sonoran desert of southcentral Arizona (Pima and Pinal counties). The populations of this variety are disjunct from the more widespread variety that occurs in the Chihuahuan desert of Texas and...

  14. Um mapeamento das aproximações entre Weber e Nietzsche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo um levantamento dos principais tópicos de aproximação entre a Sociologia de Max Weber (1864-1920 e a Filosofia de Friedrich W. Nietzsche (1844-1900. Para tanto, sublinharam-se os pontos mais expressivos e correntemente observados na literatura acerca das aproximações entre Weber e Nietzsche. Nesse sentido, os traços de maior afinidade foram encontrados nos seguintes temas: poder, conhecimento, modernidade e ética.

  15. Max Weber and the atom of Sociology: a moderate methodological individualism?

    OpenAIRE

    Sell, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Qual a natureza do individualismo metodológico de Max Weber? Para esclarecer essa questão o artigo revisa o debate entre holistas e individualistas, destacando as tentativas de aproximação entre essas posições. Em seguida, com base em Economia e sociedade, busca-se determinar, de maneira imanente, a compreensão weberiana sobre o individualismo como método. Na parte final discutem-se criticamente as tentativas de releitura da Sociologia de Max Weber à luz da controvérsia entre as perspectivas ...

  16. Talcott Parsons’ Early Essay on Capitalism. An American Interpretation of Werner Sombart and Max Weber

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    Mariano Longo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes Talcott Parsons’ early essay published in two issues of The Journal of Political Economy in 1928 and 1929. ““Capitalism” in recent German Literature: Sombart and Weber”, which introduces both Sombart and Weber to the American public. It represents a relevant moment in the development of Parsons as a sociologist. After discussing Parsons’ interpretation of both Sombart’s and Weber’s theories about the origin of Capitalism, the paper gives an interpretation of Parsons’ role in the establishment of Weber as a founding father of sociology and the relative irrelevance of Sombart as a sociological classic.

  17. A Contingent Affinity: Max Weber, Carl Schmitt, and the Challenge of Modern Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Pedro T

    2016-01-01

    The thesis that the theory of charismatic-plebiscitary democracy developed by Max Weber in the wake of the Weimar Republic was developed to its ultimate consequences by Carl Schmitt in the final crisis of Weimar has been hotly debated since it was first advanced in the 1950s. This paper proposes a fresh look at the controversy. By comparing both authors' concepts of politics in their relation to the problem of modernity, it argues that the Weber-Schmitt affair is neither a baseless legend nor a case of natural continuity. Instead, it should rather be understood in terms of a contingent affinity.

  18. Weber, Nietzsche and the ethical answers to the critique of modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Renarde Freire

    2003-01-01

    O artigo consiste num estudo comparativo entre as concepções de cultura de Friedrich Nietzsche e Max Weber, suas análises críticas da modernidade e as respostas éticas que as acompanham. Apesar das importantes afinidades encontradas entre os autores, o artigo procura mostrar que o caráter principal da comparação entre os seus pensamentos é o do desencontro e da incompatibilidade.The article consistes in a comparative study between Friedrich Nietzsche's and Max Weber's conceptions of culture, ...

  19. A Course between Bureaucracy and Charisma: A Pedagogical Reading of Max Weber's Social Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantuzzo, John

    2015-01-01

    Philosophers of education tend to mention Max Weber's social theory in passing, assuming its importance and presuming its comprehension, but few have paused to consider how Weber's social theory might consciously inform educational theory and research, and none have done so comprehensively. The aim of this article is to begin this…

  20. Weber, Nietzsche e as respostas éticas à crítica da modernidade Weber, Nietzsche and the ethical answers to the critique of modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renarde Freire Nobre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo consiste num estudo comparativo entre as concepções de cultura de Friedrich Nietzsche e Max Weber, suas análises críticas da modernidade e as respostas éticas que as acompanham. Apesar das importantes afinidades encontradas entre os autores, o artigo procura mostrar que o caráter principal da comparação entre os seus pensamentos é o do desencontro e da incompatibilidade.The article consistes in a comparative study between Friedrich Nietzsche's and Max Weber's conceptions of culture, their critical analyses of modernity and the ethical answers that follow from them. In spite of the important affinities between the two authors, the article tries to show that the main character of the comparison is that of the divergence and incompatibility.

  1. Religião, educação e economia em Max Weber = Religion, education and the economy in Max Weber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Filho, Juarez Lopes de

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe relacionar a religião, a educação e a economia em Max Weber. Apesar de não ter escrito uma obra específica sobre a educação, é possível verificar em escritos como Confucionismo e taoísmo um esboço de tipos ideais da educação encontrados em qualquer sistema de formação, que Weber articulava aos tipos de dominação legitima (racional-legal, tradicional, carismática, seja política seja religiosa. Cada tipo de educação desenvolve nos alunos uma cultura, uma conduta de vida, ou as qualidades que convêm a um tipo de dominação político-religiosa. Esses elementos dos tipos ideais de educação articulados a uma cultura religiosa exercem um papel importante na formação de sistemas econômicos, notadamente de uma cultura capitalista. Como Weber demonstrou na Ética protestante e o “espírito” do capitalismo, existe uma real adaptação, de uma educação religiosa (ascética ao capitalismo e à sua cultura

  2. Determinate primary root growth as an adaptation to aridity in Cactaceae: towards an understanding of the evolution and genetic control of the trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkova, Svetlana; Las Peñas, María Laura; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Matvienko, Marta; Kozik, Alex; Montiel, Jesús; Patiño, Anallely; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2013-07-01

    Species of Cactaceae are well adapted to arid habitats. Determinate growth of the primary root, which involves early and complete root apical meristem (RAM) exhaustion and differentiation of cells at the root tip, has been reported for some Cactoideae species as a root adaptation to aridity. In this study, the primary root growth patterns of Cactaceae taxa from diverse habitats are classified as being determinate or indeterminate, and the molecular mechanisms underlying RAM maintenance in Cactaceae are explored. Genes that were induced in the primary root of Stenocereus gummosus before RAM exhaustion are identified. Primary root growth was analysed in Cactaceae seedlings cultivated in vertically oriented Petri dishes. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified after reverse northern blots of clones from a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library. All species analysed from six tribes of the Cactoideae subfamily that inhabit arid and semi-arid regions exhibited determinate primary root growth. However, species from the Hylocereeae tribe, which inhabit mesic regions, exhibited mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Preliminary results suggest that seedlings of members of the Opuntioideae subfamily have mostly determinate primary root growth, whereas those of the Maihuenioideae and Pereskioideae subfamilies have mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Seven selected transcripts encoding homologues of heat stress transcription factor B4, histone deacetylase, fibrillarin, phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase, cytochrome P450 and gibberellin-regulated protein were upregulated in S. gummosus root tips during the initial growth phase. Primary root growth in Cactoideae species matches their environment. The data imply that determinate growth of the primary root became fixed after separation of the Cactiodeae/Opuntioideae and Maihuenioideae/Pereskioideae lineages, and that the genetic regulation of RAM maintenance and its loss in Cactaceae is

  3. Is in vitro micrografting a possible valid alternative to traditional micropropagation in Cactaceae? Pelecyphora aselliformis as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamenti, Ornella; Carra, Angela; Oddo, Elisabetta; Carimi, Francesco; Sajeva, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Several taxa of Cactaceae are endangered by overcollection for commercial purposes, and most of the family is included in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES). Micropropagation may play a key role to keep the pressure off wild populations and contribute to ex situ conservation of endangered taxa. One of the limits of micropropagation is the species-specific requirement of plant regulators for each taxon and sometimes even for different genotypes. With the micrografting technique the rootstock directly provides the scion with the necessary hormonal requirements. In this paper we present data on in vitro grafting of Pelecyphora aselliformis Ehrenberg, an Appendix I CITES listed species critically endangered and sought after by the horticultural trade, on micropropagated Opuntia ficus-indica Miller. Apical and sub-apical scions of P. aselliformis were used to perform micrografting with a successful rate of 97 and 81 % respectively. Survival rate after ex vivo transfer was 85 %. We hypothesize that this method could be applied to other endangered, slow growing taxa of Cactaceae thus contributing to the conservation of this endangered family.

  4. Síndrome de Klippel-Trenaunay-Parkes-Weber com angiomatose medular

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    James Pitagoras de Mattos

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de síndrome de Klippel-Trénaunay-Parkes-Weber associada a angiomatose medular. O autor salienta ter encontrado na literatura somente uma referência com tal associação.

  5. Brain Perfusion SPECT Imaging in Sturge - Weber Syndrome : Comparison with MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jin Sook; Choi, Yun Young; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Yang, Seoung Oh; Ko, Tae Sung; Yoo, Shi Joon; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluate the characteristic perfusion changes in patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome by comparison of the findings of brain MR images and perfusion SPECT images. 99m Tc-HMPAO or 99m Tc-ECD interictal brain SPECTs were performed on 5 pediatric patients with Struge-Weber syndrome within 2 weeks after MR imaging. Brain SPECTs of three patients without calcification showed diminished perfusion in the affected area on MR image. A 3 month-old patient without brain atrophy or calcification demonstrated paradoxical hyperperfusion in the affected hemisphere, and follow-up perfusion SPECT revealed decreased perfusion in the same area. The other patient with advanced calcified lesion and atrophy on MR image showed diffusely decreased perfusion in the affected hemisphere, but a focal area of increased perfusion was also noted in the ipsilateral temporal lobe on SPECT. In conclusion, brain perfusion of the affected area of Sturge-Weber syndrome patients was usually diminished, but early or advanced patients may show paradoxical diffuse or focal hyperperfusion in the affected hemisphere. Further studies are needed for better understanding of these perfusion changes and pathophysiology of Struge-Weber syndrome.

  6. On Legal Authority, Crisis of Legitimacy and Schooling in the Writings of Max Weber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Gero

    In an attempt to gain a better perspective on the relationship between education and the modern state, this paper reopens the theoretical debate on the key role of formal rationality in Max Weber's interpretation of the capitalist economy and the modern bureaucratic state. Against the background of an extensive review of the development and the…

  7. From Weber to Parsons and Shutz: The Eclipse of History in Modern Social Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaret, David

    1980-01-01

    Compares the relationship between theoretical synthesis and historical research in light of research by Max Weber, Talcott Parsons, and Alfred Schutz. Traces theoretical developments within one subfield of sociology (action theory) and relates these developments to research problems confronting contemporary theoretical work in sociology. (DB)

  8. Freud, Weber, Durkheim: A Philosophical Foundation for Writing in the Humanities and Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFevre, Karen B.; Larkin, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a continuum of lines of inquiry applicable to many of the human sciences. Illustrates the continuum by discussing the approaches of Sigmund Freud, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim. Suggests uses of the continuum as an aid to invention and as a method of analysis. (RAE)

  9. Ultrasonographic findings of Weber-Christian disease of the breast: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ji Youn; Chang, Yun Woo; Lee, Dong Wha

    2005-01-01

    Weber-Christian disease is a rare inflammatory disease of subcutaneous fat necrosis that may or may not involve systemic disease. We report the results of a breast sonograph of a case diagnosed as a form of an acute lobular panniculitis affecting the breast and upper limbs

  10. Some preliminary notes on the Algae collection Weber-van Bosse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1936-01-01

    This extensive collection, famous among algologists both of the Old and the New World, forms part of the collections of the National Herbarium (Rijksherbarium) Leiden since 1934. About fifty years ago it was started by Mrs. Dr. A. A. WEBER-VAN BOSSE (1852—hodie), an enthusiastic pupil of HUGO DE

  11. Durkheim's and Weber's notions of the State in Marxist political theory: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Alejandra Inda

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a contribution to the comparatively scarce literature on how Durkheim and Weber - those canonical sociological theorists - conceived of the State. I shall examine just what relation each of their conceptions has to Marxist theory, and ask to what degree they coincide or diverge.    

  12. Angiography, gingival hyperplasia and Sturge-Weber syndrome: report of case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S; Venzel, J M; Miller, R

    1986-01-01

    This syndrome, also known as encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis, is a condition with multiple clinical findings, including vascular anomalies and intraoral involvement. The patient was a nine-year-old black boy with Sturge-Weber syndrome. He had a lesion removed and diagnosed as pyogenic granuloma. There were no complications and the tissue healed normally.

  13. Moving the Weber fraction: the perceptual precision for moment of inertia increases with exploration force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debats, N.B.; Kingma, I.; Beek, P.J.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    How does the magnitude of the exploration force influence the precision of haptic perceptual estimates? To address this question, we examined the perceptual precision for moment of inertia (i.e., an object's "angular mass") under different force conditions, using the Weber fraction to quantify

  14. 75 FR 3955 - Environmental Impact Statement: Davis and Weber Counties, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... and Weber Counties, UT AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent... FHWA, in cooperation with UDOT, will prepare an EIS on a proposal to address projected transportation... east of the Great Salt Lake. To provide for local and regional travel demands, the regional...

  15. From Mill via von Kries to Max Weber: Causality, Explanation, and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Michael

    In the second part of his "Critical studies in the logic of the cultural sciences" published in 1906, which carries the title "Objective possibility and adequate causation in historical explanation" (Weber 1906, 164-188/266-290)1 Max Weber (1864-1920) wrote that he feels "almost embarrassed in view of the extent to which here again, as in so much of the preceding argument, I am 'plundering' von Kries' ideas" (Weber 1906, 186/288).2 Weber thus admits a very strong influence on his approach by the physiologist, philosopher, and theoretician of probability, von Kries (1853-1928), who was for sometime his colleague in Freiburg in southwest Germany. Von Kries had suggested a legal criterion for attributing a deed to an agent that exerted a strong influence on German civil law and was also taken up by the legal system of other countries. This earned him the title of an honorary doctor of the law faculty of the University of Erlangen in 1897.

  16. Was Weber Wrong? A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economic History. PEPG/07-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sascha O.; Wohmann, Ludger

    2007-01-01

    Max Weber attributed the higher economic prosperity of Protestant regions to a Protestant work ethic. We provide an alternative theory, where Protestant economies prospered because instruction in reading the Bible generated the human capital crucial to economic prosperity. County-level data from late 19th-century Prussia reveal that Protestantism…

  17. Determinants of outcome in operatively and non-operatively treated Weber-B ankle fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie-van der Weert, E. M.; van Lieshout, E. M. M.; de Vries, M. R.; van der Elst, M.; Schepers, T.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of ankle fractures is often based on fracture type and surgeon's individual judgment. Literature concerning the treatment options and outcome are dated and frequently contradicting. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and functional outcome after AO-Weber B-type ankle

  18. Weber's Illusion and Body Shape: Anisotropy of Tactile Size Perception on the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R.; Haggard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The perceived distance between touches on a single skin surface is larger on regions of high tactile sensitivity than those with lower acuity, an effect known as "Weber's illusion". This illusion suggests that tactile size perception involves a representation of the perceived size of body parts preserving characteristics of the somatosensory…

  19. Genealogie della legittimità. Città e Stato in Max Weber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furio Ferraresi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the theme of the legitimacy of power in Weber from the standpoints of social science, historical investigation and political reflection. It investigates how Weber develops this theme in Kategorienaufsatz (1913, Soziologische Grundbegriffe (1920, Die Stadt (1911-14 and Politische Schriften (1917-19. Power, as a relationship of command/obedience, is founded on the representations of legitimacy of the individuals involved and on the Einverständnis (consent which is the condition of possibility of this relationship. It is back to the medieval city that Weber traces the genesis and interweaving of various forms of legitimation, which continue to exist as possibilities even within the modern State. The memory of medieval events re-emerges when Weber, after Germany’s defeat in the First World War and the threat of revolution that followed, tries to lay a foundation for the legitimacy of “leader democracy” by reintroducing the command/obedience relationship between leaders and masses.

  20. Reproducibility of the Lauge-Hansen, Danis-Weber, and AO classifications for ankle fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Lopes da Fonseca

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluated the reproducibility of the three main classifications of ankle fractures most commonly used in emergency clinical practice: Lauge-Hansen, Danis-Weber, and AO-OTA. The secondary objective was to assess whether the level of professional experience influenced the interobserver agreement for the classification of this pathology. Methods: The study included 83 digitized preoperative radiographic images of ankle fractures, in anteroposterior and lateral views, of different adults that had occurred between January and December 2013. For sample calculation, the estimated accuracy was approximately 15%, with a sampling error of 5% and a sampling power of 80%. The images were analyzed and classified by six different observers: two foot and ankle surgeons, two general orthopedic surgeons, and two-second-year residents in orthopedics and traumatology. The Kappa statistical method of multiple variances was used to assess the variations. Results: The Danis-Weber classification indicated that 40% of the agreements among all observers were good or excellent, whereas only 20% of good and excellent agreements were obtained using the AO and Lauge Hansen classifications. The Kappa index was 0.49 for the Danis-Weber classification, 0.32 for Lauge Hansen, and 0.38 for AO. Conclusion: The Hansen-Lauge classification presented the poorest interobserver agreement among the three systems. The AO classification demonstrated a moderate agreement and the Danis-Weber classification presented an excellent interobserver agreement index, regardless of professional experience.

  1. Os sentidos de compreensão nas teorias de Weber e Habermas

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    José Geraldo A. B. Poker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Partindo do pressuposto de que a teoria social elaborada por Habermas em muito se assemelha àquela construída por M. Weber, procedeu-se a um estudo comparativo com a intenção de identificar as formas pelas quais Weber e Habermas elaboraram o conceito de compreensão, ao mesmo tempo em que e o elegeram, cada um a seu modo, como instrumento metodológico adequado às dificuldades da produção de conhecimento científico nas Ciências Sociais. Tanto para Weber, como para Habermas, o conhecimento nas Ciências Sociais não consegue escapar das influências diretas da subjetividade do cientista, como também não é capaz de se proteger das contingências histórico-culturais aos quais inevitavelmente toda ação humana está vinculada. Por isso, fundamentados em suas próprias razões, tanto Weber quanto Habermas apontam a compreensão como a forma possível de conhecimento, o que implica a renúncia às pretensões explicativas e à produção de teorias gerais de fundamentação última, que são típicas das ciências convencionais.

  2. Involvement of arginine-vasopressin in the diuretic and hypotensive effects of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Caroline Calixto; Uchida, Denise Thiemi; Canzi, Karina Natally; de Souza, Priscila; Crestani, Sandra; Gasparotto, Arquimedes; Laverde, Antonio

    2012-10-31

    Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), popularly known as "ora-pro-nobis" is well recognized in Brazilian traditional medicine as a diuretic agent, although no scientific data have been published to support this effect. The aim of this work is to evaluate the diuretic and hypotensive activities of the infusion (INFPG) and the ethanol extract (HEPG) of Pereskia grandifolia and possible mechanism of action. The infusions (2.5-10%) and the HEPG (3-100 mg/kg) were orally administered in a single dose or daily (for seven days) to rats. The urine excretion rate, pH, density, conductivity and content of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. In collected serum samples the concentration of electrolytes, urea, creatinine, aldosterone, vasopressin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity were evaluated. The involvement of V(2) vasopressin receptor in the diuretic activity and the hypotensive effect of HEPG were also determined. Water excretion rate was significantly increased by HEPG, while the urinary K(+) and Cl(-) excretion was significantly reduced in acute and prolonged treatment. The oral administration of the HEPG (30mg/kg) significantly reduced serum levels of vasopressin and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) in normotensive rats. All other evaluated parameters have not been affected by any treatment. The results showed that HEPG could present compound(s) responsible for aquaretic activities with no signs of toxicity, and this effect could involve a reduction in the arginine-vasopressin release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-nociceptive activity of Pereskia bleo Kunth. (Cactaceae) leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Guilhon, Carolina Carvalho; Fernandes, Patricia Dias; Boylan, Fabio

    2012-12-18

    Local communities in Malaysia consume Pereskia bleo Kunth. (Cactaceae) leaves as raw vegetables or as a concoction and drink as a tea to treat diabetes, hypertension, rheumatism, cancer-related diseases, inflammation, gastric pain, ulcers, and for revitalizing the body. To evaluate anti-nociceptive activity of the extracts and vitexin, isolated for the first time in this species, in two analgesic models; formalin-induced licking and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing. Three and a half kilos of P. bleo leaves were extracted using Soxhlet apparatus with ethanol for 72 h. The crude ethanol extract was treated with activated charcoal overnight and subjected to a liquid-liquid partition yielding hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts. All extracts, including the crude ethanol and vitexin isolated from the ethyl acetate partition were tested for peripheral anti-nociceptive activity using formalin test and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, besides having their acute toxicity assays performed. The phytochemical analyses resulted in the isolation of vitexin (1), β-sitosterol glucoside (2) and β-sitosterol (3) isolated from the ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and hexane extracts, respectively. This is the first time vitexin and β-sitosterol glucoside are isolated from this species. The anti-nociceptive activities for all extracts were only moderate. Vitexin, which was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract did not show any activity in all models tested when used alone at the same concentration as it appears in the extract. This study showed that all the extracts possess moderate anti-nociceptive activity. Vitexin is not the compound responsible for the anti-nociceptive effect in the ethyl acetate extract. Further investigations are needed to identify the compound(s) that might be responsible for the anti-nociceptive activity in this plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spine micromorphology of normal and hyperhydric Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peharec, P; Posilović, H; Balen, B; Krsnik-Rasol, M

    2010-07-01

    Artificial conditions of tissue culture affect growth and physiology of crassulacean acid metabolism plants which often results in formation of hyperhydric shoots. In in vitro conditions Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) growth switches from organized to unorganized way, producing a habituated organogenic callus which simultaneously regenerates morphologically normal as well as altered hyperhydric shoots. In this study, influence of tissue culture conditions on morphology of cactus spines of normal and hyperhydric shoots was investigated. Spines of pot-grown Mammillaria plants and of in vitro regenerated shoots were examined with stereo microscope and scanning electron microscope. The pot-grown plants had 16-17 spines per areole. In vitro grown normal shoots, even though they kept typical shoot morphology, had lower number of spines (11-12) and altered spine morphology. This difference was even more pronounced in spine number (six to seven) and morphology of the hyperhydric shoots. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed remarkable differences in micromorphology of spine surface between pot-grown and in vitro grown shoots. Spines of in vitro grown normal shoots showed numerous long trichomes, which were more elongated on spines of the hyperhydric shoots; the corresponding structures on spine surface of pot-grown plants were noticed only as small protrusions. Scanning electron microscopy morphometric studies showed that the spines of pot-grown plants were significantly longer compared to the spines of shoots grown in tissue culture. Moreover, transverse section shape varies from elliptical in pot-grown plants to circular in normal and hyperhydric shoots grown in vitro. Cluster and correspondence analyses performed on the scanning electron microscope obtained results suggest great variability among spines of pot-grown plants. Spines of in vitro grown normal and hyperhydric shoots showed low level of morphological variation among themselves despite the

  5. Estudo anatômico de folha e caule de Pereskia aculeata Mill. (Cactaceae

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    M.R. Duarte

    Full Text Available Pereskia aculeata Mill. (Cactaceae é uma trepadeira arbustiva conhecida comumente como ora-pro-nobis. Apresenta elevado teor de mucilagem e proteína, sendo empregada na indústria alimentícia e farmacêutica. Na medicina popular, é utilizada externamente como emoliente. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a anatomia foliar e caulinar da planta, a fim de fornecer informações complementares à sua identificação e aplicáveis ao seu controle de qualidade. Folhas adultas e fragmentos de caules foram fixados, seccionados à mão livre e corados com azul de astra e fucsina básica ou com azul de toluidina. Testes histoquímicos e análise ultra-estrutural de superfície foram realizados. A folha é simples e elíptica. Possui epiderme uniestratificada, estômatos paracíticos em ambas as faces, mesofilo que tende a ser dorsiventral, contendo numerosas drusas de oxalato de cálcio e células isodiamétricas grandes com conteúdo mucilaginoso. A nervura central é percorrida por um feixe vascular colateral em arco aberto. O pecíolo tem secção plano-convexa e um feixe colateral em formato de arco fechado. O caule, em estrutura secundária incipiente, possui epiderme unisseriada, colênquima angular, parênquima cortical com muitos amiloplastos, calotas de fibras perivasculares e organização vascular colateral. No córtex e na medula, são observadas numerosas cavidades com conteúdo mucilaginoso e drusas de oxalato de cálcio, estas também presentes no floema.

  6. How and why does the areole meristem move in Echinocereus (Cactaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Daniel; Grego-Valencia, Dalia; Terrazas, Teresa; Arias, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, the areole is the organ that forms the leaves, spines and buds. Apparently, the genus Echinocereus develops enclosed buds that break through the epidermis of the stem adjacent to the areole; this trait most likely represents a synapomorphy of Echinocereus. The development of the areole is investigated here in order to understand the anatomical modifications that lead to internal bud development and to supplement anatomical knowledge of plants that do not behave according to classical shoot theory. The external morphology of the areole was documented and the anatomy was studied using tissue clearing, scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy for 50 species that represent the recognized clades and sections of the traditional classification of the genus, including Morangaya pensilis (Echinocereus pensilis). In Echinocereus, the areole is sealed by the periderm, and the areole meristem is moved and enclosed by the differential growth of the epidermis and surrounding cortex. The enclosed areole meristem is differentiated in a vegetative or floral bud, which develops internally and breaks through the epidermis of the stem. In Morangaya pensilis, the areole is not sealed by the periderm and the areole meristem is not enclosed. The enclosed areole meristem and internal bud development are understood to be an adaptation to protect the meristem and the bud from low temperatures. The anatomical evidence supports the hypothesis that the enclosed bud represents one synapomorphy for Echinocereus and also supports the exclusion of Morangaya from Echinocereus. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Vivipary and offspring survival in the epiphytic cactus Epiphyllum phyllanthus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota-Sánchez, J Hugo; Abreu, Deusa D

    2007-01-01

    Vivipary, the germination of seeds before they are shed from the parent plant, is a rare event in angiosperms involving complex ecophysiological processes. Pseudovivipary and cryptovivipary occur in approximately 30 (2%) species of the cactus family. A remarkable case of vivipary in Epiphyllum phyllanthus is described here. Information is provided regarding the biology of viviparous fruits, morphology, mortality, survival rates of viviparous offspring, and some eco-evolutionary implications of this reproductive strategy in the Cactaceae. This epiphytic cactus has no host-specific relationship. A low proportion (33.3%) of individuals produced viviparous fruits. Seed number/fruit varied from 197 to 230 with percentage of viviparous germination from 97.5% to 99%. The viviparous seedlings exhibited normal development and were no different from non-viviparous offspring. Transplanting experiments showed that the first week is critical for seedling establishment, and high mortality occurred in the three treatments used: 69% on the phorophyte surface, 58.6% on the ground, and 44.8% under controlled conditions. The number of survivors gradually stabilized, and the contribution to establishment was comparable in each of the treatments after the acclimation phase. It is suggested that vivipary is associated with thermoregulation, parental care, conspecific nursing, and rapid seedling establishment. Germination is not a limiting factor in the perpetuation of this viviparous species, but seedling establishment is. In viviparous individuals of E. phyllanthus, seedling mortality during establishment rather than failure to germinate within the fruit is a limiting factor affecting local population density. Overall, viviparity is an intrinsic, genetic event involving high metabolic costs favouring germination and dispersal of the fittest offspring regardless of substrate and environmental conditions.

  8. Morphological, cytological and metabolic consequences of autopolyploidization in Hylocereus (Cactaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagai; Fait, Aaron; Tel-Zur, Noemi

    2013-11-04

    Genome doubling may have multi-level effects on the morphology, viability and physiology of polyploids compared to diploids. We studied the changes associated with autopolyploidization in two systems of somatic newly induced polyploids, diploid-autotetraploid and triploid-autohexaploid, belonging to the genus Hylocereus (Cactaceae). Stomata, fruits, seeds, embryos, and pollen were studied. Fruit pulp and seeds were subjected to metabolite profiling using established gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) Q-TOF-MS/MS (time of flight)-protocols. Autopolyploid lines produced lower numbers of tetrads, larger pollen grains with lower viability, larger stomata with lower density, and smaller fruits with lower seed numbers and decreased seed viability. The abundance of sugars was lower in the fruits and seeds of the two duplicated lines than in their donor lines, accompanied by increased contents of amino acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, organic acids and flavonoids. Betacyanins, the major fruit pigments in diploid and triploid donors, decreased following genome doubling. Both autopolyploid Hylocereus lines thus exhibited unfavorable changes, with the outcome being more dramatic in the autohexaploid than in the autotetraploid line. Induced autotetraploid and autohexaploid lines exhibited morphological and cytological characteristics that differed from those of their donor plants and that were accompanied by significant metabolic alterations. It is suggested that a developmental arrest occurs in the fruits of the autohexaploid line, since their pericarp shows a greater abundance of acids and of reduced sugars. We conclude that genome doubling does not necessarily confer a fitness advantage and that the extent of alterations induced by autopolyploidization depends on the genetic background of the donor genotype.

  9. A proposed national strategic framework for the management of Cactaceae in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haylee Kaplan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a long history of managing biological invasions. The rapid increase in the scale and complexity of problems associated with invasions calls for new, more strategic management approaches. This paper explores strategic management approaches for cactus invasions in South Africa. Cacti (Cactaceae have had a long history of socio-economic benefits, considerable negative environmental and socio-economic impacts, and a wide range of management interventions in South Africa. Objectives: To guide the future management of cactus invasions, a national strategic framework was developed by the South African Cactus Working Group. The overarching aim of this framework is to reduce the negative impacts of cacti to a point where their benefits significantly outweigh the losses. Method: Four strategic objectives were proposed: (1 all invasive and potentially invasive cactus species should be prevented from entering the country, (2 new incursions of cactus species must be rapidly detected and eradicated, (3 the impacts of invasive cacti must be reduced and contained and (4 socio-economically useful cacti (both invasive and non-invasive species must be utilised sustainably to minimise the risk of further negative impacts. Results: There are currently 35 listed invasive cactus species in the country; 10 species are targeted for eradication and 12 are under partial or complete biological control. We discuss approaches for the management of cactus species, their introduction and spread pathways and spatial prioritisation of control efforts. Conclusion: A thorough understanding of context-specific invasion processes and stakeholder support is needed when implementing strategies for a group of invasive species.

  10. Thermal buffering capacity of the germination phenotype across the environmental envelope of the Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Charlotte E; Daws, Matthew I; Flores, Joel; Ortega-Baes, Pablo; Galíndez, Guadalupe; León-Lobos, Pedro; Sandoval, Ana; Ceroni Stuva, Aldo; Ramírez Bullón, Natali; Dávila-Aranda, Patricia; Ordoñez-Salanueva, Cesar A; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura; Ulian, Tiziana; Amosso, Cecilia; Zubani, Lino; Torres Bilbao, Alberto; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2017-12-01

    Recruitment from seeds is among the most vulnerable stage for plants as global temperatures change. While germination is the means by which the vast majority of the world's flora regenerate naturally, a framework for accurately predicting which species are at greatest risk of germination failure during environmental perturbation is lacking. Taking a physiological approach, we assess how one family, the Cactaceae, may respond to global temperature change based on the thermal buffering capacity of the germination phenotype. We selected 55 cactus species from the Americas, all geo-referenced seed collections, reflecting the broad environmental envelope of the family across 70° of latitude and 3700 m of altitude. We then generated empirical data of the thermal germination response from which we estimated the minimum (T b ), optimum (T o ) and ceiling (T c ) temperature for germination and the thermal time (θ 50 ) for each species based on the linearity of germination rate with temperature. Species with the highest T b and lowest T c germinated fastest, and the interspecific sensitivity of the germination rate to temperature, as assessed through θ 50 , varied tenfold. A left-skewed asymmetry in the germination rate with temperature was relatively common but the unimodal pattern typical of crop species failed for nearly half of the species due to insensitivity to temperature change at T o . For 32 fully characterized species, seed thermal parameters correlated strongly with the mean temperature of the wettest quarter of the seed collection sites. By projecting the mean temperature of the wettest quarter under two climate change scenarios, we predict under the least conservative scenario (+3.7°C) that 25% of cactus species will have reduced germination performance, whilst the remainder will have an efficiency gain, by the end of the 21st century. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Max Weber: o processo de racionalização e o desencantamento do trabalho nas organizações contemporâneas Max Weber: rationalization process and the disenchantment of work in contemporary organizations

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    Hermano Roberto Thiry-Cherques

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo indica algumas implicações do pensamento weberiano sobre a compreensão do trabalho e da forma de administrá-lo. Com base nos conceitos weberianos de racionalidade e de racionalização, é feita uma apreciação do trabalho na história ocidental, com ênfase no momento da passagem do capitalismo tradicional para o contemporâneo. A tese central é a de que as teorias de Weber são um modo válido para compreender o trabalho desencantado da atualidade.This article discusses some implications of Weber's thoughts about understanding and managing labor. Based on Weber's concepts of rationality and rationalization, the article develops an account of the transformations of labor in Western history, stressing the shift from early to contemporary capitalism. The central thesis is that Weber's theories are a well grounded way to explain today's disenchanted work.

  12. THE WEBER THESIS OF CALVINISM AND CAPITALISM--ITS VARIOUS VERSIONS AND THEIR "FATE" IN SOCIAL SCIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafirovski, Milan

    2016-01-01

    The paper identifies and examines various multiple renditions of the so-called Weber Thesis of an historical association and convergence between ascetic Protestantism, above all Calvinism, and the emergence and development of modern capitalism as an economic spirit and system. Specifically, it detects at least four different versions and formulations or interpretations, thus casting doubt in the common view of the Weber Thesis as a single and monolithic theory or hypothesis. The paper also considers the status of the multiple versions of the Weber Thesis in post-Weberian and contemporary sociology and related disciplines like economics and history. It concludes that the weaker, relaxed renditions of the Weber Thesis have attained a greater success and more endured in contemporary social science than have its stronger, stricter versions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Hemiparesis is a clinical correlate of general adaptive dysfunction in children and adolescents with Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesman, Jennifer; Gray, Robert; Suskauer, Stacy J; Ferenc, Lisa M; Kossoff, Eric H; Lin, Doris D M; Turin, Elizabeth; Comi, Anne M; Brice, Patrick J; Zabel, T Andrew

    2009-06-01

    This study sought to identify neurologic correlates of adaptive functioning in individuals with Sturge-Weber syndrome. A total of 18 children, adolescents, and young adults with Sturge-Weber syndrome with brain involvement were recruited from our Sturge-Weber center. All underwent neurologic examination (including review of clinical brain magnetic resonance imaging) and neuropsychological assessment. Neuropsychological assessment included measures of intellectual ability and standardized parent report of adaptive functioning. Overall, Full Scale IQ and ratings of global adaptive functioning were both lower than the population-based norms (P adaptive functioning ratings, clinician ratings of cortical abnormality, and ratings of neurologic status. Hemiparesis (minimal versus prominent) was the only individual component of the rating scales that differentiated between individuals with nonimpaired and impaired adaptive functioning scores. Information obtained during neurological examination of children and adolescents with Sturge-Weber syndrome particularly hemiparetic status is useful for identifying children who may need additional intervention.

  14. Optimization study of fructans extraction from Agave tequilana Weber azul variety

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    Jesús Aarón SALAZAR-LEYVA

    Full Text Available Abstract Agave tequilana Weber azul variety is a valuable source of fructans. In this study, a response surface methodology was employed to optimize the extraction yield of fructans from agave pines. A Box Behnken factorial design was applied to evaluate the effects of several conditions such as extraction temperature, water raw material ratio and extraction time on extraction yield. Under the optimum extraction conditions (extraction temperature of 79.1 °C, water raw material ratio of 5.13 mL/g, and extraction time of 1.48 h fructans extraction yield was 83.12%. The chromatographic profile of the agave crude extract presented four peaks, out of which fructans were the most preponderant (~87%. The obtained results suggest that the response surface methodology is adequate to optimize fructans extraction from Agave tequilana Weber azul variety.

  15. The Rendu-Osler-Weber Disease Revealed by a Refractory Hypoxemia and Severe Cerebral Fat Embolism

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    Leonel Barreto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is a genetic disease which may lead to severe hemorrhage and less frequently to severe organ dysfunction. We report the case of a 22-year-old patient with no personal medical history who was involved in a motorcycle accident and exhibited severe complications related to large arteriovenous pulmonary shunts during his ICU stay. The patient developed an unexplained severe hypoxemia which was attributed to several arteriovenous shunts of the pulmonary vasculature by a contrast study during a transesophageal echocardiographic examination. The course was subsequently complicated by a prolonged coma associated with hemiplegia which was attributed to a massive paradoxical fat embolism in the setting of an untreated femoral fracture. In addition to hemorrhagic complications which may lead to intractable shock, arteriovenous malformations associated with the Rendu-Osler-Weber disease may involve the pulmonary vasculature and result in unexpected complications, such as hypoxemia or severe cerebral fat embolism in high-risk patients.

  16. Max Weber, la borsa e la ‘crisi del credito’ del 2008

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    Carlo Rossetti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A partire da una rilettura di opere, come Die Protestantische Ethik und der Geist der Kapitalismus e Die Boersenequete, l'articolo mostra che – in linea con quanto Max Weber aveva descritto – l'assenza di regole generali condivise e di controlli pubblici mette in crisi le fondamenta del sistema finanziario. La privatizzazione neoliberista degli organi di controllo della finanza e la creazione di oscuri strumenti finanziari hanno contribuito alla regressione dell'organizzazione giuridica dello Stato, mettendo a serio rischio il principio di calcolabilità razionale che per secoli ha costituito il fondamento della teoria economica. In conclusione, Weber contribuisce a cogliere uno dei nodi fondamentali della crisi americana contemporanea: l'erosione dell’autorità indipendente posta a tutela dell’integrità del sistema.

  17. Wandering ethos and romantic spirit: Reflections following the trail of Max Weber's sociology

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    Jeremić-Molnar Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available First part of the article is devoted to the main categories of Max Weber's historicist sociology: ethos and spirit. The authors are examining his concepts of capitalist spirit and protestant spirit and, relaying especially on Weber's unfinished treatise on music, contemplating the missing concept of romantic spirit, which could be tied with wandering ethos. In the second part of article, they are separating the phenomena of wandering (moving without purpose or goal from travelling (moving towards the determined end and analysing the possibilities of re-constructing the wandering ethos in context of emerging early Romanticism. In the end they are dealing with the main change the wandering underwent in 18th Century and early 19th Century: from despised activity practiced by social outcasts only (with few exceptions such as journeymen and merchants to the tool of regeneration.

  18. A new model for quantum games based on the Marinatto–Weber approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The Marinatto–Weber approach to quantum games is a straightforward way to apply the power of quantum mechanics to classical game theory. In the simplest case, the quantum scheme is that players manipulate their own qubits of a two-qubit state either with the identity 1 or the Pauli operator σ x . However, such a simplification of the scheme raises doubt as to whether it could really reflect a quantum game. In this paper we put forward examples which may constitute arguments against the present form of the Marinatto–Weber scheme. Next, we modify the scheme to eliminate the undesirable properties of the protocol by extending the players’ strategy sets. (paper)

  19. Anaesthesia for caesarean section in a patient with Sturge-Weber syndrome following acute neurological deterioration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tadrous, R

    2011-07-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome consists of facial capillary malformation (port-wine stain) and abnormal blood vessels in the brain or eye. Seizures, developmental delay and intracranial and airway angiomata are principal concerns. We report a 28-year-old primiparous woman at 41 weeks of gestation with Sturge-Weber syndrome who developed unilateral weakness, aphasia, blurred vision and confusion. Preeclampsia was excluded. Neuroimaging showed left sided cerebral oedema and a right parieto-occipital lesion, most likely an angioma. Caesarean section was planned to avoid the risk of angioma rupture during labour. General anesthesia was avoided due to the haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and reports of seizure-related mortality. Despite the possibility of raised intracranial pressure and precipitation of cerebral herniation, a lumbar epidural block was administered but failed. A subarachnoid block was successfully performed and a healthy infant delivered. The choice of anaesthesia was strongly influenced by detailed radiological investigations and multidisciplinary participation.

  20. El nuevo ideal del matrimonio en la autobiografía de Marianne Weber

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    Montserrat Bascoy Lamelas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La socióloga Marianne Weber fue una de las teóricas más importantes del feminismo burgués en Alemania. Uno de los temas que le preocuparon especialmente fue la revisión del concepto de matrimonio, ante los cambios sociales en torno a 1900. A pesar de las nuevas necesidades de la mujer en este momento de transformaciones que conduce a los movimientos por la emancipación femenina y al rechazo generalizado del matrimonio, Marianne Weber, impulsada también por sus propias experiencias vitales, afirma la relevancia y la necesidad del mismo como ideal de las relaciones sexuales, y lo define nuevamente.

  1. Anaesthesia for caesarean section in a patient with Sturge-Weber syndrome following acute neurological deterioration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tadrous, R

    2012-02-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome consists of facial capillary malformation (port-wine stain) and abnormal blood vessels in the brain or eye. Seizures, developmental delay and intracranial and airway angiomata are principal concerns. We report a 28-year-old primiparous woman at 41 weeks of gestation with Sturge-Weber syndrome who developed unilateral weakness, aphasia, blurred vision and confusion. Preeclampsia was excluded. Neuroimaging showed left sided cerebral oedema and a right parieto-occipital lesion, most likely an angioma. Caesarean section was planned to avoid the risk of angioma rupture during labour. General anesthesia was avoided due to the haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and reports of seizure-related mortality. Despite the possibility of raised intracranial pressure and precipitation of cerebral herniation, a lumbar epidural block was administered but failed. A subarachnoid block was successfully performed and a healthy infant delivered. The choice of anaesthesia was strongly influenced by detailed radiological investigations and multidisciplinary participation.

  2. Prinsip-prinsip Dasar Rasionalisasi Birokrasi Max Weber Pada Organisasi Perangkat Daerah Kota Kendari Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    : This research entitled Fundamental Principles of Max Weber's Rational Bureaucracy in Kendari City, South- East Sulawesi Province. The purpose of study is to explain and interpret the characteristics of Max Weber's bureaucracy that canastas an imperative control for officials ‘actions of Kendari City, South-East Sulawesi Province. This study utilizes a rational system perspective and applies qualitative research strategy with ethnography. The phenomenon of bureaucracy was explored naturally ...

  3. Prinsip-prinsip Dasar Rasionalisasi Birokrasi Max Weber pada Organisasi Perangkat Daerah Kota Kendari Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    : This research entitled Fundamental Principles of Max Weber's Rational Bureaucracy in Kendari City, South- East Sulawesi Province. The purpose of study is to explain and interpret the characteristics of Max Weber's bureaucracy that canastas an imperative control for officials ‘actions of Kendari City, South-East Sulawesi Province. This study utilizes a rational system perspective and applies qualitative research strategy with ethnography. The phenomenon of bureaucracy was explored naturally ...

  4. Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome complicated with pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: A case report and review of literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Yu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome is a hereditary disease which is diagnosed by criterions of clinical symptoms and examinations. Here, we report a definite case of Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome who had epistaxis, skin telangiectasia, and pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM. His initial clinical presentations were growing pulmonary nodule with cough and occasional chest pain. PAVM with rupture of aneurysm was diagnosed histologically after wedge resection of the nodule in his right lower lung.

  5. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M B; Diaz-Soltero, H; Claps, L E; Saracho Bottero, A; Triapitsyn, S; Hasson, E; Logarzo, G A

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  6. Addressing the Specificity of Social Concepts: Rickert, Weber, and the Dual contrast Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dewalque, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, it is argued that Weber's particular combination of Von Kries' naturalistic paradigm and Rickert's antinaturalistic paradigm might become less puzzling if we return to the interpretation that emerged in the middle of the nineteen-twenties within the South-Western School of neo-Kantianism. The basic intuition which underlies this interpretation is that the social sciences are best understood as generalizing cultural sciences. On this understanding, they differ both from the na...

  7. Osler-Weber-Rendu disease presenting with hepatocellular carcinoma: radiologic and genetic findings

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joo Ho; Lee, Yung Sang; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu-Whan; Yoo, Han-Wook; Heo, Nae-Yun; Lim, Young-Suk; Lee, Han Chu; Chung, Young-Hwa; Suh, Dong Jin

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a 68-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accompanied by hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu disease, and hepatic vascular malformation. HHT is an autosomal dominant disorder of the fibrovascular tissue that is characterized by recurrent epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectasias, and visceral arteriovenous malformations. HHT is caused by mutation of the genes involved in the signaling pathway of transforming growth f...

  8. Rectal and splenic vascular malformation in klippel trenaunay weber syndrome: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ha Youn; Chang, Yun Woo; Lee, Dong Hwan [Soonchunhyang Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Klippel Trenaunay Weber syndrome (KTWS) is a rare congenital disorder, characterized by a cutaneous vascular nevus of the involved extremity, vascular malformations, bone and soft tissue hypertrophy of the extremity. We present the case of an 18 year old female patient with KTWS, showing a marked rectosigmoid wall thickening and phlebolith, and also variable sized cystic masses in the spleen, as a result of vascular malformations.

  9. THE USE OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR α INHIBITORS IN PATIENTS WITH WEBER-CHRISTIAN DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Nikolayevna Egorova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weber-Christian disease (WCD, also known as idiopathic lobular panniculitis, is a rare disease belonging to the group of diffuse connective tissue diseases. No therapy for WCD has been developed; empirical treatment is typically used. The first description of the use of tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors in a female patient with infiltrative WCD is presented. The tactics of managing this patient category are analyzed.

  10. Patterns of structural reorganization of the corticospinal tract in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamson, David O; Juhász, Csaba; Shin, Joseph; Behen, Michael E; Guy, William C; Chugani, Harry T; Jeong, Jeong-Won

    2014-04-01

    Reorganization of the corticospinal tract after early damage can limit motor deficit. In this study, we explored patterns of structural corticospinal tract reorganization in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome. Five children (age 1.5-7 years) with motor deficit resulting from unilateral Sturge-Weber syndrome were studied prospectively and longitudinally (1-2 years follow-up). Corticospinal tract segments belonging to hand and leg movements were separated and their volume was measured by diffusion tensor imaging tractography using a recently validated method. Corticospinal tract segmental volumes were normalized and compared between the Sturge-Weber syndrome children and age-matched healthy controls. Volume changes during follow-up were also compared with clinical motor symptoms. In the Sturge-Weber syndrome children, hand-related (but not leg-related) corticospinal tract volumes were consistently decreased in the affected cerebral hemisphere at baseline. At follow-up, two distinct patterns of hand corticospinal tract volume changes emerged. (1) Two children with extensive frontal lobe damage showed a corticospinal tract volume decrease in the lesional hemisphere and a concomitant increase in the nonlesional (contralateral) hemisphere. These children developed good hand grasp but no fine motor skills. (2) The three other children, with relative sparing of the frontal lobe, showed an interval increase of the normalized hand corticospinal tract volume in the affected hemisphere; these children showed no gross motor deficit at follow-up. Diffusion tensor imaging tractography can detect differential abnormalities in the hand corticospinal tract segment both ipsi- and contralateral to the lesion. Interval increase in the corticospinal tract hand segment suggests structural reorganization, whose pattern may determine clinical motor outcome and could guide strategies for early motor intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Syndrome de Sturge-Weber : A propos d'un cas a Lome. | Adigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le syndrome de Sturge-Weber est une rare maladie congénitale, sporadique et non héréditaire. Il implique des malformations vasculaires de la peau (angiome cutané plan), des yeux et du cerveau (angiome leptoméningé). Les auteurs rapportent un cas révélé à l'âge adulte et dont le traitement a été médical ...

  12. Absceso intramedular en paciente con enfermedad de Rendu-Osler-Weber Spinal abscess in a patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena V Maldonado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Rendu-Osler-Weber es una enfermedad autosómica dominante que se manifiesta por telangiectasias en piel y mucosas y malformaciones arteriovenosas en diversos órganos. El compromiso neurológico puede ocurrir por la presencia de malformaciones arterio-venosas cerebrales, hemorragia intracraneal, y más habitualmente por accidentes cerebrovasculares isquémicos y abscesos cerebrales secundarios a embolia paradojal, en pacientes con malformaciones arteriovenosas pulmonares. El absceso intramedular es una entidad rara, inusual como complicación de la enfermedad de Rendu-Osler-Weber. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 56 años de edad, con antecedentes familiares de enfermedad de Rendu-Osler- Weber, que ingresó a Terapia Intensiva con cuadriplejia aguda e hipoxemia, en quien se diagnosticó fístulas arteriovenosas pulmonares y un absceso intramedular cervical.Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple skin and mucosal telangiectasis and multiorgan arteriovenous malformations. Neurological manifestations may occur because of cerebral arteriovenous malformations, intracranial hemorrhage, and most commonly by ischemic stroke and brain abscess secondary to paradoxical embolization in patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Intramedullary abscess is a rare, unusual condition, in Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome. We report the case of a 56 years old woman, with a familial history of Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, admitted to intensive care with acute quadriplegia and hypoxemia. Our diagnosis was pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and intramedullary abscess.

  13. Values on Paper, in the Head, and in Action: On Max Weber and Value Freedom Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betta, Michela; Swedberg, Richard

    2017-11-01

    This article starts out with a summary of Weber's views on value freedom, by emphasizing: (1) that value freedom constitutes a special constellation of values; and (2) that value freedom makes it possible for the social scientist to theorize on the basis of new and more extensive knowledge than if she had simply stated her own values and focused the analysis around these. The latter point emerges most clearly in Weber's instructions for how a social scientist should proceed when carrying out an analysis of her own preferred social policy. After the section on Weber's views on value freedom, an attempt is made to update his views. This is done by arguing that the impact of values (and value freedom) differs, depending on where these can be found: on paper, in the head of the social scientist, or in her actions. "Actions," in the context of value freedom, refer to the research process and especially to the element of theorizing. Value freedom helps to guide the research into new and fruitful directions and to steer it clear of propaganda. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  14. [Thought Experiments in Historiographic Function: Max Weber on Eduard Meyer and the Question of Counterfactuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Florian

    2015-03-01

    Thought Experiments in Historiographic Function: Max Weber on Eduard Meyer and the Question of Counterfactuality. Max Weber's remarks on his colleague Eduard Meyer regarding counterfactual reasoning in history reflects a significant shift during the Methodenstreit around 1900. The question of attributing historical change strictly to either individual causes or abstract general laws has been tackled in a new way: By counterfactual reasoning a historian should be able to detect the most significant (and therefore meaningful) cause, event, or action for a certain historical outcome. Following Fritz Ringer, this paper argues that given the predominating methods of the natural sciences, scholars of the humanities conducted historical research by counterfactual thought experiments. This way, Weber pried open contemporary narratives (e.g. historicism), and by employing a unique historical causal analysis he made way for refined concepts to offer a model of interpretation that gave hope for a more feasible, practice-oriented approach to historical research than the epistemological discussions had hitherto offered. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. MAX WEBER AND ERNEST BERNEA UNIVERSAL AND LOCAL VISIONS OF THE SPIRITUAL DIMENSION OF SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA MĂNDIŢĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze two ways of understanding the role and importance of the spiritual dimension of social reality: first from a universal point of view with the sociology of Max Weber concerning the research of the religious phenomenon, and secondly from a local point of view, aided by the contributions of Eugeniu Sperantia, Petre Andrei and especially Ernest Bernea relative to the basic elements necessary to understand society. Both in comprehensive sociology and in Romanian interwar sociology we find the necessity of a complex research of social reality, in order to avoid the perils represented by the materialistic or idealistic views of sociology. If Weber rejects these two limited positions by making efforts to understand social actions, and thus coming to be labeled a causalist, Bernea also advocates for a sociology that reaches a synthesis of society, considering himself to be an adherent of integral realism. A common element of these two ways of conceiving and applying sociology (that of Weber – which has demonstrated its universal capability, and that developed by Bernea – which has proved its local capability is the recognition of the importance of the spiritual dimension and the imperative of multiple conditionality in the scientific understanding of social realities. In this article we are concerned with the way and the incentive of these two sociologists for an interpretative knowledge of society and for a whole realistic knowledge of social reality

  16. The dynamics of the water droplet impacting onto hot solid surfaces at medium Weber numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrakusuma, Windy H.; Kamal, Samsul; Indarto; Dyan Susila, M.; Hermawan; Deendarlianto

    2017-10-01

    The effects of the wettability of a droplet impacting onto a hot solid surface under medium Weber numbers were studied experimentally. The Weber numbers used in the present experiment were 52.1, 57.6, and 63.1. Three kinds of solid surfaces with different wettability were used. These were normal stainless steel (NSS), TiO2 coated NSS, and TiO2 coated NSS radiated with ultraviolet rays. The surface temperatures were varied from 60 to 200 °C. The image of side the view and 30° from horizontal were taken to explain the spreading and the interfacial behavior of a single droplet during impact the hot solid surfaces. It was found that under medium Weber numbers, the surface wettability plays an important role on the droplet spreading and evaporation time during the impact on the hot solid surfaces. The higher the wettability, the larger the droplet spreading on the hot surface, and the lower the evaporation time.

  17. Dynamic Impacts of Water Droplets onto Icephobic Soft Surfaces at High Weber Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liqun; Liu, Yang; Hu, Hui; Wang, Wei; Kota, Arun

    2017-11-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to examine the effects of the stiffness of icephobic soft PDMS materials on the impact dynamics of water drops at high weber numbers pertinent to aircraft icing phenomena. The experimental study was performed in the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT). During the experiments, both the shear modulus of the soft PDMS surface and the Weber numbers of the impinging water droplets are controlled for the comparative study. While the shear modulus of the soft PDMS surface was changed by tuning the recipes to make the PDMS materials, the Weber number of the impinging water droplets was altered by adjusting the airflow speed in the wind tunnel. A suite of advanced flow diagnostic techniques, which include high-speed photographic imaging, digital image projection (DIP), and infrared (IR) imaging thermometry, were used to quantify the transient behavior of water droplet impingement, unsteady heat transfer and dynamic ice accreting process over the icephobic soft airfoil surfaces. The findings derived from the icing physics studies can be used to improve current icing accretion models for more accurate prediction of ice formation and accretion on aircraft wings and to develop effective anti-/deicing strategies for safer and more efficient operation of aircraft in cold weather.

  18. AZÚCARES EN AGAVES (Agave tequilana Weber CULTIVADOS EN EL ESTADO DE GUANAJUATO Azúcares en agaves (Agave tequilana Weber cultivados en el Estado de Guanajuato

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    L. A. Parra-Negrete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work was to determine if the quality of Guanajuato agaves is equal to the agaves cultivated in Jalisco. A comparative study was made of the sugar content of the agave (A. tequilana Weber cultivated in both states. Used were data of total reducing sugars (%TRS and Brix degrees (ºBx of raw juice samples provided by a tequilera of the region between August and December, 1998 and January and May, 2000. The data were statistically processed, applying an ANOVA analysis and a Tukey test to compare the media and the correlation between °Bx and %TRS was made. In the first period, the media %TRS from the supplier of Manuel Doblado, Gto. was 24.43 ±2.29 and did not show a significant statistical difference (p El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si la calidad de los agaves guanajuatenses es igual a la de los cultivados en Jalisco. Se realizó un estudio comparativo del contenido de azúcares de los agaves (A. tequilana Weber cultivados en ambos estados. Se emplearon datos de azúcares reductores totales (%ART agrupados en dos períodos y grados Brix (°Bx de muestras de jugo crudo, proporcionados por una tequilera de la región: agosto a diciembre de 1998 y de enero a mayo del 2000. Los datos se procesaron estadísticamente aplicando un análisis de varianza y prueba de Tukey para comparación de medias. Se determinó la correlación entre los °Bx y el %ART. En el primer período, la media del %ART para el proveedor de Manuel Doblado, Gto. fue de 24.43 ±2.29 y no presentó diferencia estadística significativa (p

  19. Moving the Weber Fraction: The Perceptual Precision for Moment of Inertia Increases with Exploration Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, Nienke B.; Kingma, Idsart; Beek, Peter J.; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

    2012-01-01

    How does the magnitude of the exploration force influence the precision of haptic perceptual estimates? To address this question, we examined the perceptual precision for moment of inertia (i.e., an object's “angular mass”) under different force conditions, using the Weber fraction to quantify perceptual precision. Participants rotated a rod around a fixed axis and judged its moment of inertia in a two-alternative forced-choice task. We instructed different levels of exploration force, thereby manipulating the magnitude of both the exploration force and the angular acceleration. These are the two signals that are needed by the nervous system to estimate moment of inertia. Importantly, one can assume that the absolute noise on both signals increases with an increase in the signals' magnitudes, while the relative noise (i.e., noise/signal) decreases with an increase in signal magnitude. We examined how the perceptual precision for moment of inertia was affected by this neural noise. In a first experiment we found that a low exploration force caused a higher Weber fraction (22%) than a high exploration force (13%), which suggested that the perceptual precision was constrained by the relative noise. This hypothesis was supported by the result of a second experiment, in which we found that the relationship between exploration force and Weber fraction had a similar shape as the theoretical relationship between signal magnitude and relative noise. The present study thus demonstrated that the amount of force used to explore an object can profoundly influence the precision by which its properties are perceived. PMID:23028437

  20. History and sociology – the First Century. From Ranke to Weber

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrell, Hartmann

    2010-01-01

    The contribution deals with the complicated history of the sciences of history and sociology (predominantly in Germany). It shows, firstly, how Ranke formulated one of his essential world-historical insights as definitely closing off from contemporary discourses of the social and the »social movement«. Almost one hundred years later Max Weber integrated this insight of Ranke in his early days into his sociology. Secondly, Tyrell highlights the importance of Dilthey’s »studies of society and h...

  1. MARCUSE CRÍTICO DE WEBER. A política no capitalismo tardio

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcellos, Caio Eduardo Teixeira

    2018-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é analisar aspectos da leitura de Herbert Marcuse da sociologia de Max Weber, privilegiando suas considerações sobre transformações na esfera política desencadeadas com o fim do período liberal do capitalismo. A partir de uma crítica imanente do pensamento weberiano, Marcuse correlaciona sua interpretação da imbricação entre a forma de dominação racional-burocrática e as lideranças de tipo carismático aos pressupostos materiais das sociedades modernas em seu decurso ta...

  2. Les Ecrits politiques de Max Weber: esquisse d’une lecture sociologique

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    François Chazel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The author argues that Max Weber in his Politische Schriften (from 1906 to 1919 is using a sociological approach to the prevailing problems of Russia and Germany, grounded on categories of his political sociology. Weber’s in-depth analysis of the Russian Revolution of 1905 and of its outcome brilliantly illustrates this approach. In the first of his memoirs, overviewing Russian society as a whole, he highlights the multiple impediments to a success of bourgeois democracy in Russia; in the second one, he points out the political factors, as symbolized by “pseudo-constitutionalism”, that caused the failure of the liberal Revolution. In his “Parliament and Government in a reorganized Germany”, Weber rests on the analysis of bureaucracy in his first “sociology of domination”, pointing out that bureaucracy is unavoidable in modern society as well as it threatens to be overpowering. It is therefore required, in Weber’s view, to build institutions assuming a counterpoising function: he first conferred this role on a strong parliament, on the model of the English Parliament. Then, after the fall of the Wilhelminian Empire, he emphasized the plebiscitary power of a Reichspräsident. As a whole, Weber’s analyses bring out the dilemma between oligarchy and democracy but also the subtle relations linking them in the context of political modernity. Oligarchy is a threat to democracy because bureaucracy’s power can, if not checked, extend into the political field and because political parties are more and more oligarchic organizations. Large-scale socialism can only worsen the situation and lead to “bureaucracy’s dictatorship”. Therefore, Weber argues for the setting up of counterweights on the societal level. There is a way out of Michels’ dilemma in the national competition between bureaucratized parties. Weber is faced again with an authoritarian danger when he emphasizes in his last political writings the plebiscitary

  3. Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome: what radiologists should know. Literature review and three cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Moraes Agnollitto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome or hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is an autosomal dominant vascular disease involving multiple systems whose main pathological change is the presence of abnormal arteriovenous communications. Most common symptoms include skin and mucosal telangiectasias, epistaxis, gastrointestinal, pulmonary and intracerebral bleeding. The key imaging finding is the presence of visceral arteriovenous malformations. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and can be confirmed by molecular biology techniques. Treatment includes measures for management of epistaxis, as well as surgical excision, radiotherapy and embolization of arteriovenous malformations, with emphasis on endovascular treatment. The present pictorial essay includes a report of three typical cases of this entity and a literature review.

  4. Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome: what radiologists should know. Literature review and three cases report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnollitto, Paulo Moraes; Barreto, Andre Rodrigues Facanha; Barbieri, Raul Fernando Pinsetta; Junior, Jorge Elias; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome or hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is an autosomal dominant vascular disease involving multiple systems whose main pathological change is the presence of abnormal arteriovenous communications. Most common symptoms include skin and mucosal telangiectasias, epistaxis, gastrointestinal, pulmonary and intracerebral bleeding. The key imaging finding is the presence of visceral arteriovenous malformations. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and can be confirmed by molecular biology techniques. Treatment includes measures for management of epistaxis, as well as surgical excision, radiotherapy and embolization of arteriovenous malformations, with emphasis on endovascular treatment. The present pictorial essay includes a report of three typical cases of this entity and a literature review. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the Stillinger-Weber classical interaction potential for tetragonal semiconductors in nonideal atomic configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    A classical potential incorporating two- and three-body interaction terms has recently been introduced by Stillinger and Weber (SW) for simulation of the liquefaction transition of silicon. The equilibrium mechanical properties of this potential are determined and found to agree well with experimental values. The potential also seems to be adequate for problems involving computation of defect energies, such as the stability of strained-layer superlattice interfaces. However, inadequate treatment of configurations with low coordination number makes modeling of the epitaxial growth of (111) silicon impossible. Simple modifications of the SW potential form do allow for (111) epitaxial growth, but the earliest stages of growth then become unphysical

  6. Max Weber : uma leitura da sociologia da religião

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Maria de Souza Rodrigues

    2001-01-01

    Resumo: A religião é, para Weber, a chave de interpretação para o entendimento de processos culturais mais amplos, como o desencantamento do mundo e a secularização. Além disso, ele a define como estilo de vida próprio fomentado pelo indivíduo, que, conseqüentemente, interfere na conduta de um grupo ou de uma coletividade historicamente determinados. A análise da religião possibilita também a compreensão interpretativa de "individualidades históricas", ou seja, das seis religiões ou sistemas ...

  7. RELAÇÕES DE PODER E ESTRUTURA ORGANIZACIONAL EM WEBER E CHIAVENATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Calmon Vinícius de Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo discutir a relação entre poder e estrutura organizacional buscando apontar a importância das relações de poder para a estruturação da organização. Para isso recorreu-se às contribuições de Max Weber (1979 e de Chiavenato (2003, ambos teóricos que trataram de questões envolvendo poder e estrutura organizacional.

  8. Intrahepatic porto-hepatic venous shunts in Rendu-Osler-Weber disease: imaging demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shunro; Mori, Hiromu; Yamada, Yasunari; Hayashida, Tomoko; Hori, Yuzo; Kiyosue, Hiro

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the imaging features of the intrahepatic portohepatic venous (PHV) shunt, which is a potential cause of portosystemic encephalopathy in Rendu-Osler-Weber disease. Six patients with Rendu-Osler-Weber disease (two men, four women; age range 42-73 years) were retrospectively studied. There were two from one family and three from another family. Of these patients, one was diagnosed with definitive portosystemic encephalopathy because of a psychiatric disorder. We retrospectively reviewed the radiological examinations, including abdominal angiography (n=6), three-phase dynamic helical computed tomography (CT; n=3), and conventional enhanced CT (n=1). In one patient, CT during angiography and CT angioportography were also performed. Evaluation was placed on the imaging features of intrahepatic PHV shunts. On angiography, intrahepatic PHV shunts showing multiple and small shunts <5 mm in diameter in an apparent network were detected in all patents. In two patients, a large shunt with a size of either 7 or 10 mm was associated. These intrahepatic PHV shunts were predominantly distributed in the peripheral parenchyma. Intrahepatic PHV shunts would be characterized by small and multiple shunts in an apparent network on the periphery with or without a large shunt. (orig.)

  9. Generation of Maillard compounds from inulin during the thermal processing of Agave tequilana Weber Var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; López, Mercedes G

    2002-02-13

    During the cooking process of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul to produce tequila, besides the hydrolysis of inulin to generate fermentable sugars, many volatiles, mainly Maillard compounds, are produced, most of which may have a significant impact on the overall flavor of tequila. Exudates (agave juice) from a tequila company were collected periodically, and color, Brix, fructose concentration, and reducing sugars were determined as inulin breakdown took place. Maillard compounds were obtained by extraction with CH(2)Cl(2), and the extracts were analyzed by GC-MS. Increments in color, Brix, and reducing sugars were observed as a function of time, but a decrease in fructose concentration was found. Many Maillard compounds were identified in the exudates, including furans, pyrans, aldehydes, and nitrogen and sulfur compounds. The most abundant Maillard compounds were methyl-2-furoate, 2,3-dihydroxy-3,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. In addition, a series of short- and long-chain fatty acids was also found. A large number of the volatiles in A. tequilana Weber var. azul were also detected in tequila extracts, and most of these have been reported as a powerful odorants, responsible for the unique tequila flavor.

  10. Operationalizing Max Weber's probability concept of class situation: the concept of social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken

    2007-03-01

    In this essay I take seriously Max Weber's astonishingly neglected claim that class situation may be defined, not in categorial terms, but probabilistically. I then apply this idea to another equally neglected claim made by Weber that the boundaries of social classes may be determined by the degree of social mobility within such classes. Taking these two ideas together I develop the idea of a non-categorial boundary 'surface' between classes and of a social class 'corridor' made up of all those people who are still to be found within the boundaries of the social class into which they were born. I call social mobility within a social class 'intra-class social mobility' and social mobility between classes 'inter-class social mobility'. I also claim that this distinction resolves the dispute between those sociologists who claim that late industrial societies are still highly class bound and those who think that this is no longer the case. Both schools are right I think, but one is referring to a high degree of intra-class social mobility and the other to an equally high degree of inter-class mobility. Finally I claim that this essay provides sociology with only one example among many other possible applications of how probability theory might usefully be used to overcome boundary problems generally in sociology.

  11. A Recepção Controversa de Max Weber no Brasil (1940-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Villas Bôas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza cómo se recibieron las ideas de Max Weber en las primeras décadas de la institucionalización de la sociología en Brasil, y argumenta que la apropiación de los postulados del autor alemán se hizo a partir de las cuestiones propias de la sociología brasileña. Este punto de vista permitió observar que proposiciones centrales de la sociología weberiana, como, por ejemplo, la formulación de los tipos ideales y del sentido de la ciencia, se recibieron con mucha parsimonia y se reelaboraron a medida que los textos del autor se fueron leyendo en contraste con otros autores. Inicialmente, se retoman textos de la revista Sociología; en seguida se discute la valorización de las proposiciones de Hans Freyer y Karl Mannheim en detrimento de las posiciones de Max Weber sobre el papel del sociólogo y, finalmente, se trata la controversia sobre los tipos ideales, liderada por Maria Sylvia de Carvalho Franco, que involucra los escritos de Florestan Fernandes y Fernando Henrique Cardoso.

  12. En busca de las sociólogas fundadoras: Marianne Weber

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    Luz Gabriela Arango Gaviria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con miras a difundir el trabajo de las académicas norteamericanas por rescatar la obra de Mlarianne Weber, entre otras sociólogas fundadoras, hemos traducido un fragmento de su ensayo: "Autoridad y autonomía en el matrimonio". En éste, la autora analiza las distintas configuraciones culturales del matrimonio en la historia occidental, desde el "patriarcado primitivo" hasta las formas modernas de matrimonio civil y religioso. La autora destaca la influencia de las doctrinas católicas y protestantes en la transformación de esta institución hacia una mayor equidad entre los sexos y señala críticamente las con tradicciones de las formas modernas de contra to matrimonial que preservan la primacía masculina y contradicen las enseñanzas éticas del idealismo alemán en torno a la libertad. Marianne \\V'cber defiende un ideal matrimonial que respete y reconozca plenamente la individualidad y autonomía de la mujer. Palabras clave: Marianne Weber, matrimonio, mujeres, igualdad.

  13. TRANSMITTING CHARISMA: Re-reading Weber through the Traditional Islamic Leader in Modern Java

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    Achmad Zainal Arifin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to reconsidering the theory of authority, propounded by Max Weber, a pioneer of classical theory of sociology, particularly on his idea of charisma. Weber predicted that modernisation, as represented by the rationalisation process which is unstoppable phenomena for modern world lead the changing process of charismatic authority into other forms of authorities, especially the legal-rational one. By describing the dynamics of Kyai’s charismatic authority within the pesantren milieu, the rationalisation process tends to enhance the existence of charismatic authority of kyai. Based on a case study of a famous traditional pesantren in Yogyakarta, this paper elaborates the process of rationalisation describes how all instruments of traditional pesantren, including those that are resulted from the process, have contribution in preserving and maintaining the charismatic authority o kyai. Most members of traditional pesantren even believe that the quality of charisma, which is laid on the foundation of supernatural power, can be transmitted to the next successor through the institutionalisation of practices to gain that power.

  14. Max Weber: la racionalización del mundo como proceso histórico-universal

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    Eduardo Weisz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina la sociología de la religión de Max Weber centrándose en el surgimiento de las religiones de salvación. La tendencia universal a la racionalización se presenta allí como una fuerza que en cada caso histórico debe confrontar con otras variables. El judaísmo antiguo puede verse entonces no solo como antecedente de Occidente, sino también como el producto de una combinación de factores históricos que permitió que la fuerza racionalizadora se haya desplegado con mayor intensidad. Esto permite constituirlo en herramienta heurística para estudiar otras civilizaciones. En China e India, la racionalización se vio impedida o inhibida por distintas variables. La ratio, entonces, es para Weber una fuerza motriz universal, en torno a la que construye su fi losofía de la historia. Así, la mirada weberiana sobre la modernidad queda enmarcada metahistóricamente.

  15. Stewart-Bluefarb acroangiodermatitis in a case of Parkes-Weber syndrome

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    Deepti H Ghia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stewart-Bluefarb acroangiodermatitis is the occurrence of pseudo-kaposiform changes with an underlying arterio-venous malformation. Parkes-Weber syndrome is a triad of arterio-venous malformation with varicose veins with bony and soft-tissue hypertrophy involving the extremity. A 13 year-old-female presented with ulcerated growth with bleeding episodes on right leg since past four years. A reddish discoloration over right leg was noticed at four years of age which remained unchanged until nine years of age, after which it showed rapid increase in size along with disproportionate increase in length and girth of right lower limb. Examination revealed hyperpigmented soft verrucous plaque over the right lower one-third of leg, along with presence of ulcers and dilated tortuous veins in the right lower leg with thrill and bruit over the right popliteal and inguinal region. A differential diagnosis of verrucous hemangioma and arterio-venous malformation with pseudo-kaposiform change was considered. Skin biopsy showed multiple fenestrated capillaries with perivascular lymphocyte infiltrate suggestive of capillary malformations. X-ray showed osteolytic defect in right tibia. Duplex ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging of right leg showed multiple fast flowing small and medium sized arterio-venous malformations of small to moderate size. Thus, on the basis of clinical and radiological features, we made a diagnosis of Stewart-Bluefarb type of acroangiodermatitis with Parkes-Weber syndrome. She was managed conservatively with compression stockings.

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow characteristics of the Sturge-Weber syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riela, A.R.; Stump, D.A.; Roach, E.S.; McLean, W.T. Jr.; Garcia, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Four patients with the Sturge-Weber syndrome were studied using the non-invasive Xenon-133 inhalation technique. All four patients had decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the area of their lesion, and in two patients who were subsequently tested with 5% carbon dioxide inhalation, impaired vasomotor reactivity was documented. Diminished regional cerebral blood flow is consistent with previously described nuclide flow studies which demonstrated a delay in the initial perfusion blush in the region of the abnormal vasculature. The focal decrease in blood flow was greatest in the most severely affected patient, but was also prominent in the two younger patients, both of whom have excellent neurologic function. These studies suggest that localized decrease in blood flow and vasomotor dysfunction in Sturge-Weber syndrome can precede the occurrence of severe neurologic impairment and extensive cerebral atrophy and possibly be a major contributing factor in progressive dysfunction. A secondary observation was that the blood flow in the unaffected hemisphere was significantly greater in two children compared to the two adults and was similar to the age-related differences reported for normal children and adults

  17. Le concept de « configuration » et ses implications empiriques : Elias avec et contre Weber

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    André Ducret

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Comment se fait-il que Norbert Elias ait autant cherché à prendre ses distances avec la conception de la sociologie que se faisait Max Weber alors que leurs démarches paraissent si proches ? On évaluera d’abord la portée des arguments avancés contre ce « bourgeois libéral » que serait demeuré le second. Puis on en dégagera les implications empiriques à partir d’extraits choisis dans l’œuvre du premier. On s’arrêtera enfin sur la démarche dite « synoptique » que Norbert Elias propose à tout sociologue d’adopter. En fin de compte, il apparaîtra que ce dernier défend une approche relationnelle de la contrainte sociale que n’aurait pas désavouée Max Weber.The notion of « configuration » and its empirical implications: Elias with or against WeberWhy is it that Norbert Elias went to such lengths to distance himself from Max Weber’s conception of sociology whilst their respective approaches seem so close? I will first evaluate the relevance of his arguments against the “liberal bourgeois” that Weber was to the end. I will then bring out the empirical implications from a number of extracts selected from his works. I will conclude by examining his “synoptic” approach, one to be followed by all sociologists. All things considered, it appears that Elias defends a relational approach of social constraint that Max Weber would not have disowned.El concepto de « configuración » y sus consecuencias empíricas: ¿Es Norbert Elias partidario o opuesto a  Weber?¿Como es posible que Norbert Elias haya tomado tanto la distancia con respecto a la visión sociológica de Max Weber a pesar de que su propia concepción se le asemeje mucho? Evaluaremos en primer lugar el alcance de los argumentos dirigidos del primero contra el «burgués liberal». Seguidamente subrayaremos las implicaciones empíricas a partir de citas escogidas de los escritos de Elias. Finalmente haremos hincapié en el encaminamiento

  18. Max Weber, educación para las ciencias y formación democrática

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    Javier Benito Seoane Cobas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo explora la relación que hay entre la educación para las ciencias y la educación para la democracia en el pensamiento de Max Weber, un problema no tratado por el sociólogo de Erfurt. Ello se realiza a partir del análisis del plano epistemológico y del análisis sobre la ética del científico de Weber. Al final, se elaboran dos interpretaciones razonables sobre el objeto del ensayo y se selecciona una de las mismas sobre la base de una apuesta pluralista.

  19. Novel seed coat lignins in the Cactaceae: structure, distribution and implications for the evolution of lignin diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Jackson, Lisa; Nakashima, Jin; Ralph, John; Dixon, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    We have recently described a hitherto unsuspected catechyl lignin polymer (C-lignin) in the seed coats of Vanilla orchid and in cacti of one genus, Melocactus (Chen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2012, 109, 1772-1777.). We have now determined the lignin types in the seed coats of 130 different cactus species. Lignin in the vegetative tissues of cacti is of the normal guaiacyl/syringyl (G/S) type, but members of most genera within the subfamily Cactoidae possess seed coat lignin of the novel C-type only, which we show is a homopolymer formed by endwise β-O-4-coupling of caffeyl alcohol monomers onto the growing polymer resulting in benzodioxane units. However, the species examined within the genera Coryphantha, Cumarinia, Escobaria and Mammillaria (Cactoideae) mostly had normal G/S lignin in their seeds, as did all six species in the subfamily Opuntioidae that were examined. Seed coat lignin composition is still evolving in the Cactaceae, as seeds of one Mammillaria species (M. lasiacantha) possess only C-lignin, three Escobaria species (E. dasyacantha, E. lloydii and E. zilziana) contain an unusual lignin composed of 5-hydroxyguaiacyl units, the first report of such a polymer that occurs naturally in plants, and seeds of some species contain no lignin at all. We discuss the implications of these findings for the mechanisms that underlie the biosynthesis of these newly discovered lignin types. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Seed vigor and germination of facheiro plants (Pilosocereus catingicola (Gurke Byles & Rowley Subsp. Salvadorensis (Werderm. Zappi (Cactaceae at different temperatures

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    Robson Luis Silva de Medeiros

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several species of endemic Cactaceae are found in northeastern Brazil, which are important plants to the local fauna and flora; nevertheless, there are only a few studies assessing the germination of this plant genus. Understanding the germination of species native to the Caatinga is essential to subsidize conservation actions for such ecosystem. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of three localities and different temperatures on the vigor and germination of facheiro seeds. The experiment was conducted by evaluating seed vigor and germination in three distinct areas (Arara, Bananeiras, and Boa Vista at different temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 20-30 ºC. Quantitative data were submitted to polynomial regression analysis at 5% significance with four replicates of 50 seeds. In Arara, germination rates at 20 and 25 ºC reached 96% and, at 30 ºC, 86%. The temperatures of 25 and 30 ºC presented the best germination speed index. For the three studied areas, the highest germination rates were recorded at a constant temperature of 25 ºC and at the alternating temperature (20-30 ºC. Yet the highest germination speed was reached at 30 ºC. Based on its sexual propagation, the taxon in question is able to survive in environments with temperatures ranging from 20 to 30 ºC, as seen in the studied habitats.

  1. Seed reserve composition and mobilization during germination and early seedling establishment of Cereus jamacaru D.C. ssp. jamacaru (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Nara L M; Innecco, Renato; Gomes-Filho, Enéas; Gallão, Maria Izabel; Alvarez-Pizarro, Juan C; Prisco, José T; Oliveira, Alexandre B De

    2012-09-01

    Cereus jamacaru, a Cactaceae found throughout northeast Brazil, is widely used as cattle food and as an ornamental and medicinal plant. However, there has been little information about the physiological and biochemical aspects involved in its germination. The aim of this study was to investigate its reserve mobilization during germination and early seedling growth. For this, C. jamacaru seeds were germinated in a growth chamber and collected at 0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 12 days after imbibition for morphological and biochemical analyses. Dry seeds had wrinkled seed coats and large, curved embryos. Lipids were the most abundant reserve, comprising approximately 55% and 65% of the dry mass for cotyledons and the hypocotylradicle axis, respectively. Soluble sugars and starch were the minor reserves, corresponding to approximately 2.2% of the cotyledons' dry mass, although their levels showed significant changes during germination. Soluble proteins corresponded to 40% of the cotyledons' dry mass, which was reduced by 81% at the final period of germination compared to dry seeds. C. jamacaru seed can be classified as an oil seed due to its high lipid content. Moreover, lipids were the main reserve mobilized during germination because their levels were strongly reduced after seed germination, while proteins were the second most utilized reserve in this process.

  2. Molecular phylogenetics of Echinopsis (Cactaceae): Polyphyly at all levels and convergent evolution of pollination modes and growth forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumpberger, Boris O; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-08-01

    In its current circumscription, Echinopsis with 100-150 species is one of the largest and morphologically most diverse genera of Cactaceae. This diversity and an absence of correlated characters have resulted in numerous attempts to subdivide Echinopsis into more homogeneous subgroups. To infer natural species groups in this alliance, we here provide a plastid phylogeny and use it to infer changes in growth form, pollination mode, and ploidy level. We sequenced 3800 nucleotides of chloroplast DNA from 162 plants representing 144 species and subspecies. The sample includes the type species of all genera close to, or included in, Echinopsis as well as a dense sample of other genera of the Trichocereeae and further outgroups. New and published chromosome counts were compiled and traced on the phylogeny, as were pollination modes and growth habits. A maximum likelihood phylogeny confirms that Echinopsis s.l. is not monophyletic nor are any of the previously recognized genera that have more than one species. Pollination mode and, to a lesser extent, growth habit are evolutionarily labile, and diploidy is the rule in Echinopsis s.l., with the few polyploids clustered in just a few clades. The use of evolutionary labile floral traits and growth habit has led to nonnatural classifications. Taxonomic realignments are required, but further study of less evolutionary labile traits suitable for circumscribing genera are needed. Surprisingly, polyploidy seems infrequent in the Echinopsis alliance and hybridization may thus be of minor relevance in the evolution of this clade.

  3. Populational characterization of Melocactus zehntneri (Britton & Rose Luetzelburg (Cactaceae present in an inselberg of the Paraiban Caatinga

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    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inselbergs are rocky outcrops that are characterized by the fact that they form isolated ecosystems with a high degree of endemism. However, these environments remain little studied. The present work aimed to characterize a population of Melocactus zehntneri (Britton & Rose Luetzelburg (Cactaceae occurring on an inselberg in the municipal district of Pocinhos, PB. Over the whole extension of the inselberg, 50 plots of 1m² were allocated. The sampled individuals were classified according to ontogenetic stadium, evaluating the number of individuals, the height, the diameter in the central section, and the number of dead. To evaluate the pattern of space distribution of the species, the Index of Dispersion of Morisita (Id was calculated, and to verify the influence of one ontogenetic stadium on another, the coefficient of linear correlation was applied (ρ. A total of 869 individuals were sampled, of which 635 were young and 234 were adults. The value of Id was 1.28, indicating that the population distribution was clumped. The value of ρ = -0.3872 demonstrated a negative linear correlation among the ontogenetic stadiums. The accumulation of rocky sediment on some points of the inselberg certainly favored the distribution of the species on it. The population demonstrated stability, with a great number of stock individuals.

  4. New mescaline concentrations from 14 taxa/cultivars of Echinopsis spp. (Cactaceae) ("San Pedro") and their relevance to shamanic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbodede, Olabode; McCombs, Douglas; Trout, Keeper; Daley, Paul; Terry, Martin

    2010-09-15

    The aim of the present study is to determine in a procedurally uniform manner the mescaline concentrations in stem tissue of 14 taxa/cultivars of the subgenus Trichocereus of the genus Echinopsis (Cactaceae) and to evaluate the relationship (if any) between mescaline concentration and actual shamanic use of these plants. Columnar cacti of the genus Echinopsis, some of which are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes by South American shamans in traditional medicine, were selected for analysis because they were vegetative clones of plants of documented geographic origin and/or because they were known to be used by practitioners of shamanism. Mescaline content of the cortical stem chlorenchyma of each cactus was determined by Soxhlet extraction with methanol, followed by acid-base extraction with water and dichloromethane, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). By virtue of the consistent analytical procedures used, comparable alkaloid concentrations were obtained that facilitated the ranking of the various selected species and cultivars of Echinopsis, all of which exhibited positive mescaline contents. The range of mescaline concentrations across the 14 taxa/cultivars spanned two orders of magnitude, from 0.053% to 4.7% by dry weight. The mescaline concentrations reported here largely support the hypothesis that plants with the highest mescaline concentrations - particularly E. pachanoi from Peru - are most associated with documented shamanic use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A survey for potential biological control agents of Pereskia aculeata Miller (Cactaceae) in Brazil reveals two new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikart, Tiago G; Costa, Valmir A; Hansson, Christer; Cristo, Sandra C DE; Vitorino, Marcelo D

    2017-05-30

    This paper deals with the description of two new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Brazil, parasitoids of larvae of Adetus analis (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Both species are similar to Horismenus steirastomae (Girault), a species that also parasitizes cerambycids. Adetus analis is a pest of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae), a minor crop in Brazil, Argentina and U.S.A., but also feeds in stems of Pereskia aculeata Miller (Cactaceae), an ornamental plant that has become a problematic weed species in Africa, where it was introduced. The two new Horismenus species are described, diagnosed, and compared to H. steirastomae.

  6. Sturge-Weber syndrome. The current neuro-imaging data; Syndrome de Sturge-Weber. Donnees actuelles de l'imagerie neuroradiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukobza, M.; Cambra, M.R.; Merland, J.J.; Enjolras, O. [Hopital Lariboisiere, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare congenital sporadic disease with neuro-ocular and cutaneous vascular findings. Clinically, the full-blown condition consists of a facial port-wine stain (PWS) the V1 facial trigeminal skin area, alone or in combination with V2 and V3 PWS, seizures and ocular abnormalities (glaucoma and choroidal angioma). Radiologically, a leptomeningeal (pial) capillary and venous malformation, mostly located in the parieto-occipital area, cerebral atrophy and calcifications are demonstrated. An ipsilateral enlarged choroid plexus may be an early anatomic symptom. Development neuro-diagnostic technique for the screening of infants with an at-risk V1 PWS, as well as for the follow-up of patients with evidence SWS. Accelerated myelination in the involved hemisphere may be early diagnostic feature before 6 months of age. Later, hyperintensity of white matter on T2 is considered a symptom of gliosis. Clinically, progression of the diseases is associated with anatomic changes and correlates with the extent of the pial vascular anomaly, extent and severity of cerebral atrophy, and white matter abnormalities. A neonatal neuro-imaging work-up, using CT or MRI, may not demonstrate the pial anomaly and should be repeated after 6 to 12 months in an at-risk infant with V1 PWS. (authors)

  7. "Economia e sociedade": a herança de Max Weber à luz da edição de sua Obra completa (MWG "Economy and society": Max Weber's legacy following the publication of his Complete works (MWG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rainer Lepsius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo relata o entendimento atual do conjunto de textos conhecido como Economia e sociedade, procurando esclarecer em que consistia originalmente; como foi organizado nas edições anteriores por Marianne Weber e Johannes Winckelmann; como foi tratado no âmbito da nova edição da MWG. Para tanto, procura indicar como Max Weber situava os diversos textos, as diversas versões e fases de concepção e composição desses escritos. A partir daí, sistematiza os principais aspectos dos textos evidenciados na MWG, assim como os principais campos de discussão que se abrem para a pesquisa, em especial a sociologia econômica.The article reviews the current understanding of the set of texts known as Economy and Society, looking to identify the original content, how these texts were edited in previous editions by Marianne Weber and Johannes Winckelmann, and how they have been dealt with in the new edition of the MWG. These aims in mind, the text looks to show how Max Weber himself situated the various texts, including the different versions and phases of conception and composition of the writings. The article then summarizes the main aspects of the works, as evinced in the MWG, as well as the principal fields of discussion opened up for research, especially in economic sociology.

  8. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE SOCIAL ETHICS OF LUTERO AND THE CONCEPTION OF WEBER ON THE PROTESTANT ETHICS IN THE EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT

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    ALVORI AHLERT

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This text has as objective to understand the differences between the social ethics of Luther and the conceptions on the protestant ethics developed by Max Weber. The lutheran social ethics do not enroll in the religious ascetism of the pietism and in the ethical vision of the calvinist protestantism of the analysis of Max Weber on the protestant ethics. The thesis of Weber does not allow to credit to the social ethics of Luther bonds with the spirit of the development of the capitalism. The proper Weber, in moment, believes that the spirit of the capitalism if must the influences of the Reformation Lutheran or that the capitalism as system is a product of the Reformation. Therefore, a conception of lutheran ethics, established in the social ethics of Luther, remains as important instrument of critical in a society in which the human being comes losing its ethical referent and its citizencommunitarian base for the absence of the practical learning of these values, for being it delivers to the individualism and he process of coisificação accomplished for the industrial capitalism and its current marketing face that an limited citizenship imposes the majority of the population of the planet, lead for those that they control the economy and the politics (the money and the power and for the ethics of the market.

  9. Cerebrofacial venous metameric syndrome (CVMS) 3: Sturge-Weber syndrome with bilateral lymphatic/venous malformations of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, N.; Sachet, M.; Bao, C.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2003-01-01

    We present a case of Sturge-Weber syndrome with a bilateral lymphatic/venous malformation of the mandible. Modern biology suggests an explanation for such a case. The classification of cerebrofacial venous metameric syndromes (CVMS) enables us to recognise this lesion as involving the most caudal of the cranial metamere (CVMS 3). (orig.)

  10. Feng shui väärtus on vaimujõus / Marika Tomberg ; komment. Lea Eermann, komment. Rein Weber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomberg, Marika

    1999-01-01

    Feng shui järgi korraldatud Lea Eermanni kodust Nõmmel. Feng shui- ja geobioloogia-alase nõustamisega tegelev arhitekt Rein Weber keskkonna mõjust tervisele, magamistoast. Enda ja maja kaitsmisest halbade mõjude eest. 10 illustratsiooni

  11. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae associated with Rendu-Osler-Weber disease: report of two cases and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Setubal, Roger; Soares, Ademir Humberto; Gomes, Marcio Rogerio Alcala; Mayo, Suzete Varela

    1996-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) is an uncommon disease with approximately 500 cases report in the literature and its association with Rendu-Osler-Weber (ROW) disease is well established. This study relates two cases of PAVF associated with ROW disease and proceeds a literature review with particularly emphasis on imaging diagnosis modalities used nowadays. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs

  12. Long-term results of the Weber operation for chronic ankle instability: 37 patients followed for 20-30 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jasper; Struijs, Peter A. A.; Raaymakers, Ernst L. F. B.; Marti, René K.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Weber operation is an anatomical reconstruction of the anterior talofibular ligament with the plantaris tendon. Few long-term studies have been published. METHODS: We evaluated 40 ankles in 37 patients (19 women) at an average of 24 years after the procedure. RESULTS: At follow-up,

  13. Reproductive biology of a highly endemic species: Cipocereus laniflorus N.P. Taylor & Zappi (Cactaceae Biologia reprodutiva de uma espécie altamente endêmica: Cipocereus laniflorus Taylor & Zappi (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ordones Rego

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cipocereus laniflorus N.P. Taylor & Zappi is an endemic species from the Serra do Caraça, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to propose conservation strategies for this species, its reproductive strategies were investigated, including reproductive phenology, floral biology, floral visitors and breeding system. The flowering and fruiting period extends from May to October. Few flowers per plant open each night, producing up to 0.4 ml nectar, but 30% of them are nectarless. Probably pollen is also offered as a resource. Fruiting efficiency of C. laniflorus (47% is close to that found in other Cactaceae species. Pollen of this species was detected in Anoura geoffroy, Soricina glossophaga and Pygoderma bilabiatum bats. Amongst the characteristics related to bat-pollination syndrome found in C. laniflorus, the cream-white colouring of the internal part of the flower, the numerous stamens and the nocturnal anthesis of short duration can be highlighted. Flowers of C. laniflorus are also visited by Nitidulidae beetles, Trigona fulviventris bees and hummingbirds, however bats are the main pollinators of this species. Finally, as a self-sterile species, C. laniflorus needs a pollinator and is more susceptible to the risk of extinction if local disturbances affect its pollination system.Cipocereus laniflorus N.P. Taylor & Zappi é uma espécie endêmica da Serra do Caraça, Minas Gerais, Brasil. A fim de se propor estratégias de conservação para esta espécie, estudos sobre sua biologia reprodutiva foram realizados, incluindo fenologia reprodutiva, biologia floral, visitantes florais e o sistema reprodutivo. O período de floração e frutificação ocorre de maio a outubro. Poucas flores abrem-se por planta a cada noite, podendo produzir até 0.4 ml de néctar, poré 30% destas não apresentam néctar. Cipocereus laniflorus provavelmente oferece também pólen como recurso. A eficiência de frutificação sob condições naturais de poliniza

  14. Staphylococcus cohnii as a cause of multiple brain abscesses in Weber-Christian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Yonemura, Kiminobu; Sugimoto, Ryoko; Tokunaga, Makoto; Uchino, Makoto

    2005-11-15

    We report a patient with multiple brain abscesses due to Staphylococcus cohnii. While these brain abscesses markedly responded to the antibiotics, this patient was subsequently suffered from subcutaneous inflammatory nodules in the adipose tissue, which diagnosed him as having Weber-Christian disease (WCD). This is the first report that subcutaneous inflammatory nodules in the adipose tissue, which lead the diagnosis of WCD, followed multiple brain abscesses. To our knowledge, S. cohnii has not yet been reported to cause multiple brain abscesses in humans. Although the etiology of WCD is unknown, an immune mechanism has been implicated in the pathogenesis. Therefore, we should notice that patients with WCD could be immunocompromised hosts with a higher risk to suffer from severe opportunistic infections.

  15. Bevacizumab for Refractory Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Rendu-Osler-Weber Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Carlos; Santos, Sara; Loureiro, Rafaela; Borges, Verónica; Ramos, Gonçalo

    2018-01-01

    Rendu-Osler-Weber disease, also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, is a rare autosomal dominant disorder which is often characterized by recurrent epistaxis, mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and visceral arteriovenous malformations. Patients with gastrointestinal involvement can present with a wide spectrum of severity, which may vary from uncomplicated iron deficiency anemia to continuous and refractory bleeding. We present the case of a 62-year-old female, who was admitted with anemia following several episodes of melena, and whose endoscopic examination revealed multiple angiodysplasias in the stomach and small bowel. Despite endoscopic and medical treatment attempts with hormonal agents and octreotide, she developed persistent hemorrhage and severe anemia, requiring frequent red blood cell transfusions. Immediately after initiating bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg, every 3 weeks), complete cessation of bleeding episodes was observed. Currently, after 1 year of follow-up, she maintained sustained remission without the occurrence of adverse events. PMID:29662934

  16. [History of the tuning fork. II: Evolution of the classical experiments by Weber, Rinne and Schwabach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H

    1997-05-01

    Since the 17th centrury it was known that sounds could be perceived via air conduction and bone conduction and that this provided a means of differentiating between hearing disorders located in the middle ear and those located in the acoustic nerve. For a long time to come, however, there was no need for such a differential diagnosis. After the invention of the tuning fork in 1711 this instrument had soon become widely used in music, but it took well over 100 years until it was introduced into physiology and otology. FROM DIRECTIONAL HEARING TO WEBER'S TEST: J. B. Venturi, a physicist in Modena, Italy, in 1802 had shown that the perception of the direction from which a sound is coming is governed by the fact that one ear is hit by the sound more intensely than the other ear. C. T. Tourtual, a physician in Münster, Germany, demonstrated in 1827 that this also holds true for sound conducted via the skull bones. He used a watch as sound source. He found that occlusion of both ear canals would increase the sensation in both ears equally, but that occlusion of only one ear would increase the sensation only in the occluded ear, thus giving the impression that the sound were coming from that side. He was interested in a comparison between vision and audition, and he concluded that with regard to recognizing the direction of a sensory signal vision was superior to audition. In the same year 1827 C. Wheatstone, a physicist in London, investigating the mode of vibration of the tympanic membrane and using a tuning fork found the same phenomena as Tourtual and some more effects. E. H. Weber, an anatomist and physiologist in Leipzig, Germany, described the very same phenomena as Tourtual and Wheatstone once more in 1834. He wanted to prove that airborne sound is perceived by the vestibulum and the semicircular canals, bone conducted sound by the cochlea. None of these investigators was thinking of a clinical use of their findings and made no such suggestion. E. Schmalz, an

  17. RELIGIÓN Y MODERNIDAD EN LOS SISTEMAS TEÓRICOS DE PARSONS Y WEBER

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    Carlos Acevedo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el sistema teórico parsoniano, el lugar de la religión en este y su papel en la modernidad. Debido a que Parsons afirma basarse en Weber en gran parte de esta propuesta,desarrollamos elsistema teórico weberianoy lo ponemos en diálogo con la perspectiva parsoniana. Sobre esta base,se ahonda enlas diferencias de ambas construcciones analíticas. Si bien a primera vista las diferencias de ambos sistemas los convierte en sistemas encontrados, en las conclusiones esbozamos algunas razones por las cuales estos sistemas se pueden complementar, lo cualotorgaríauna perspectiva compleja para aprehender el rol de los “sentidos últimos”en la acción social.

  18. Embolotherapy for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P E; Kjeldsen, A D; Oxhøj, H

    1998-01-01

    experienced an improved functional level. One patient experienced severe pleurisy and another a rise in temperature following treatment, but otherwise no symptomatic complications were observed. CONCLUSION: Embolotherapy is a definitive treatment for PAVMs: it is very effective with a high success rate......PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical results of embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), the Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve patients in the county of Fyn, Denmark, were treated...... with transcatheter embolization of 20 PAVMs using 12 detachable silicone balloons and 26 steel coils. RESULTS: All PAVMs were completely occluded and we observed a significant rise in PaO2 after treatment and a significant decrease in right-to-left shunt estimated by contrast echocardiography. All patients...

  19. Oscillation and non-oscillation criterion for Riemann–Weber type half-linear differential equations

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    Petr Hasil

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By the combination of the modified half-linear Prüfer method and the Riccati technique, we study oscillatory properties of half-linear differential equations. Taking into account the transformation theory of half-linear equations and using some known results, we show that the analysed equations in the Riemann–Weber form with perturbations in both terms are conditionally oscillatory. Within the process, we identify the critical oscillation values of their coefficients and, consequently, we decide when the considered equations are oscillatory and when they are non-oscillatory. As a direct corollary of our main result, we solve the so-called critical case for a certain type of half-linear non-perturbed equations.

  20. Durkheim e Weber: inspiração para uma nova sociabilidade, o neotribalismo

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    Sílvia Jurema Quaresma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como principal finalidade ampliar um pouco mais o conhecimento sobre o conceito de neotribalismo idealizado pelo sociólogo francês Michel Maffesoli. Este autor considera o neotribalismo como uma das características da pós-modernidade, porém estas características nos fazem retornar as idéias de Durkheim e Weber. Sendo assim, neste artigo pretendemos mostrar como Maffesoli introduz a nova concepção de sociabilidade das tribos, mas apoiada nos clássicos da Sociologia. Também expomos algumas idéias de autores como: Anthony Giddens, Boaventura de Souza Santos, Edgar Morin referentes ao paradigma da modernidade.

  1. Summer sudden Na number density enhancements measured with the ALOMAR Weber Na Lidar

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    D. Heinrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present summer Na-densities and atmospheric temperatures measured 80 to 110 km above the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR. The Weber Na Lidar is part of ALOMAR, located at 69° N in Norway, 150 km north of the Arctic Circle. The sun does not set here during the summer months, and measurements require a narrowband Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Filter (FADOF.

    We discuss an observed sudden enhancement in the Na number density around 22:00 UT on 1 to 2 June 2006. We compare this observation with previous summer measurements and find a frequent appearance of Na number density enhancements near local midnight. We describe the time of appearance, the altitude distribution, the duration and the strength of these enhancements and compare them to winter observations. We investigate possible formation mechanisms and, as others before, we find a strong link between these Na number density enhancements and sporadic E layers.

  2. Summer sudden Na number density enhancements measured with the ALOMAR Weber Na Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Heinrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present summer Na-densities and atmospheric temperatures measured 80 to 110 km above the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR. The Weber Na Lidar is part of ALOMAR, located at 69° N in Norway, 150 km north of the Arctic Circle. The sun does not set here during the summer months, and measurements require a narrowband Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Filter (FADOF. We discuss an observed sudden enhancement in the Na number density around 22:00 UT on 1 to 2 June 2006. We compare this observation with previous summer measurements and find a frequent appearance of Na number density enhancements near local midnight. We describe the time of appearance, the altitude distribution, the duration and the strength of these enhancements and compare them to winter observations. We investigate possible formation mechanisms and, as others before, we find a strong link between these Na number density enhancements and sporadic E layers.

  3. Idiopathic pleural panniculitis with recurrent pleural effusion not associated with Weber-Christian disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laperuta Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 82-year-old patient with dyspnea and a recurrent history of pleural effusion was admitted into our unit. He performed a Chest computed tomography showing right pleural effusion. Video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS exploratory showed parietal pleural thickening of adipose tissue. The surgical procedure consisted, therefore, in the execution of multiple biopsies of the parietal pleura which appeared covered, on the whole surface, by islands of adipose tissue, without macroscopic pathological aspects. After the procedure was performed pleurodesis with talc. The definitive histological examination consisted of normal mesothelial cells surrounded by fatty tissue infiltrated by small lymphocytes in a patient without skin lesions or visceral or systemic signs of inflammatory involvement of the adipose tissue. We reported a rare case of idiopathic pleural panniculitis with recurrent pleural effusion not associated with Weber-Christian disease.

  4. Max Weber y Georg Simmel: ¿Dos teorías sociológicas de la modernidad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ Mª GONZÁLEZ GARCÍA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de reconocer las diferencias entre Simmel y Weber en el análisis de la modernidad, el artículo aboga por la complementariedad de los dos enfoques: el análisis fragmentario y ensayístico de la sociedad moderna realizado por Simmel tendría su complemento más sistemático en el análisis del proceso de racionalización occidental hecho por Weber: Después de señalar la matriz intelectual común marcada por la herencia de Goethe y de Kant, así como por la recepción crítica de Marx y de Nietzsche, se estudian las críticas que Weber realizó de la obra de su amigo y colega Simmel, así como la influencia que la concepción Simmeliana de la tragedia de la cultura moderna ejerció sobre el diagnóstico desencantado de Weber acerca de la sociedad moderna como "jaula de hierro" de la razón burocratizada. Finalmente se contraponen la perspectiva de Weber en el análisis de la modernidad desde "el paradigma de la producción" con el análisis de Simmel desde "el paradigma del consumo", señalando las novedades introducidas por éste en el estudio de la mercancía, del consumidor y de la moda o de los cambios en la gran ciudad. Simmel construye una teoría de la modernidad basada en las vivencias del individuo, en lo "nuevo", en la fragmentación y en la estética.

  5. Vision for action and perception elicit dissociable adherence to Weber's law across a range of 'graspable' target objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Matthew; Manzone, Joseph; Khan, Michaela; Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin

    2017-10-01

    A number of studies have reported that grasps and manual estimations of differently sized target objects (e.g., 20 through 70 mm) violate and adhere to Weber's law, respectively (e.g., Ganel et al. 2008a, Curr Biol 18:R599-R601)-a result interpreted as evidence that separate visual codes support actions (i.e., absolute) and perceptions (i.e., relative). More recent work employing a broader range of target objects (i.e., 5 through 120 mm) has laid question to this claim and proposed that grasps for 'larger' target objects (i.e., >20 mm) elicit an inverse relationship to Weber's law and that manual estimations for target objects greater than 40 mm violate the law (Bruno et al. 2016, Neuropsychologia 91:327-334). In accounting for this finding, it was proposed that biomechanical limits in aperture shaping preclude the application of Weber's law for larger target objects. It is, however, important to note that the work supporting a biomechanical account may have employed target objects that approached -or were beyond-some participants' maximal aperture separation. The present investigation examined whether grasps and manual estimations differentially adhere to Weber's law across a continuous range of functionally 'graspable' target objects (i.e., 10,…,80% of participant-specific maximal aperture separation). In addition, we employed a method of adjustment task to examine whether manual estimation provides a valid proxy for a traditional measure of perceptual judgment. Manual estimation and method of adjustment tasks demonstrated adherence to Weber's law across the continuous range of target objects used here, whereas grasps violated the law. Thus, results evince that grasps and manual estimations of graspable target objects are, respectively, mediated via absolute and relative visual information.

  6. Port-wine vascular malformations and glaucoma risk in Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Sapna; Swamy, Brighu; Taranath, Deepa Ajay; Jamieson, Robyn; Yu, Tao; Wargon, Orli; Grigg, John R

    2009-08-01

    Treatment of the capillary vascular malformation (port-wine stain) in Sturge-Weber syndrome with the use of a laser is helpful cosmetically. However, concerns have been raised that laser obliteration of port-wine stains may result in ocular hypertension. The aim of this study was to review clinical features and management of ocular complications of SWS and assess the effects of dermatological laser treatment on the incidence of glaucoma or ocular hypertension. This retrospective cohort study was conducted in an institutional setting. All patients had involvement of the face. Patients who underwent skin laser to the port-wine vascular malformation were analyzed further. Ocular involvement, glaucoma, and skin laser treatment and the relationship to ocular hypertension/glaucoma were observed. Forty-one Sturge-Weber syndrome patients with port-wine vascular malformation were analyzed. Glaucoma was observed in 24 patients (58.5%) at mean age of 2.9 years (range, 0.0-16.5). Of these, 18 (75.0%) were treated with medical therapy, and 10 (41.7%) required trabeculectomy, with 2 of these requiring Seton implant. Of the 41 patients, 28 (68.3%) underwent laser to face/forehead. Mean age of laser commencement was 5 years (range, 0.4-16.5). Thirteen did not undergo laser treatment. Fourteen of the 28 and 10 of the 13 developed ocular hypertension/glaucoma. This retrospective review did not find evidence to suggest that laser treatment of port-wine vascular malformations causes glaucoma or that it can worsen a preexisting ocular hypertension or glaucoma. Statistical analysis was inconclusive.

  7. Evaluation of the syndesmotic-only fixation for Weber-C ankle fractures with syndesmotic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R; Syed, S; Metikala, S; Ali, Sa

    2011-09-01

    With the length of the fibula restored and the syndesmosis reduced anatomically, internal fixation using a plating device may not be necessary for supra-syndesmotic fibular fractures combined with diastasis of inferior tibio-fibular joint. A retrospective observational study was performed in patients who had this injury pattern treated with syndesmosis-only fixation. 12 patients who had Weber type-C injury pattern were treated with syndesmosis only fixation. The treatment plan was followed only if the fibular length could be restored and if the syndesmosis could be anatomically reduced. Through a percutaneous or mini-open reduction and clamp stabilization of the syndesmosis, all but one patient had a single tricortical screw fixation across the syndesmosis. Patients were kept non-weight-bearing for 6 weeks, followed by screw removal at an average of 8 weeks. Outcomes were assessed using an objective ankle scoring system (Olerud and Molander scale) and by radiographic assessment of the ankle mortise. At a mean follow-up of 13 months, the functional outcome score was 75. Excellent to good outcomes were noted in 83% of the patients. Ankle mortise was reduced in all cases, and all but one fibular fracture united without loss of fixation. Six patients had more than one malleolar injury, needing either screw or anchor fixations. One patient had late diastasis after removal of the syndesmotic screw and underwent revision surgery with bone grafting of the fibula. This was probably due to early screw removal, before union of the fibular fracture had occurred. We recommend syndesmosis-only fixation as an effective treatment option for a combination of syndesmosis disruption and Weber type-C lateral malleolar fractures.

  8. Hemodynamics in the Sturge-Weber syndrome utilizing stable Xe-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okudaira, Yojiro; Bandoh, Kuniaki; Ito, Masanori; Sato, Kiyoshi; Tsuji, Masahiro

    1993-01-01

    In 4 Sturge-Weber-syndrome child patients with calcified lesions mainly in the occipital lobe, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined with stable Xe-CT in the resting state and after iv injection of acetazolamide (AA) and megimide (M), with the purpose of examining factors affecting deterioration of neurologic manifestations and the influence of lobectomy. In the resting state, rCBF of the temporal and occipital areas was significantly lower on the affected than unaffected sides. The side-to-side asymmetry of rCBF in the affected and unaffected sides decreased from the frontal to temporal and occipital areas. It was indistinct after AA injection because cerebral vasoreactivity became higher on the affected side. A low rCBF in association with a high cerebral vasoreactivity on the lesion side suggested that the low rCBF matched the low cerebral metabolism of the brain area affected by leptomeningeal angiomatosis. However, cerebral vasoreactivity to AA depended on clinical presentations. Two patients presented with progressive mental retardation. The other two patients were in clinically stable condition. Cerebral vasoreactivity to AA in the former two cases was poorer on both the affected and unaffected sides than that in the latter two cases. M administration was associated with a significantly decreased rCBF in the area of leptomeningeal angiomatosis and cerebral calcification and with a significantly increased rCBF of the 'pericalcified' area. In one patient undergoing extended occipital lobectomy on the affected side, no decrease in rCBF was noted in the resting state in either affected or unaffected side, and cerebral vasoreactivity to AM on the unaffected side was apparently increased. Both circulatory disturbance and seizure appear to play a role in clinical presentations, as well as their deterioration in Sturge-Weber-Syndrome patients. (N.K.)

  9. Gravity Reduction View: A Radiographic Technique for the Evaluation and Management of Weber B Fibula Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Ehrlichman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: While various radiographic parameters and application of manual/gravity stress have been proposed to elucidate instability for Weber B fibula fractures, the prognostic capability of these modalities remains unclear. Determination of anatomic positioning of the mortise is paramount. We propose a novel view, the Gravity Reduction View (GRV, which helps elucidate non-anatomic positioning and reducibility of the mortise.Methods: The patient is positioned lateral decubitus with the injured leg elevated on a holder with the fibula directed superiorly. The x-ray cassette is placed posterior to the heel, with the beam angled at 15˚ of internal rotation to obtain a mortise view. Our proposed treatment algorithm is based upon the measurement of the medial clear space (MCS on the GRV versus the static mortise view (and in comparison to the superior clear space (SCS and is based on reducibility of the MCS. A retrospective review of patients evaluated utilizing the GRV was performed.Results: 26 patients with Weber B fibula fractures were managed according to this treatment algorithm. Mean age was 50.57 years old (range: range:18-81, SD=19. 17 patients underwent operative treatment and 9 patients were initially treated nonoperatively. 2 patients demonstrated late displacement and were treated surgically. Using this algorithm, at a mean follow-up of 26 weeks, all patients had a final MCS that was less than the SCS (final mean MCS 2.86 mm vs. mean SCS of 3.32 indicating effectiveness of the treatment algorithm.Conclusion: The GRV is a novel radiographic view in which deltoid competency, reducibility and initial positioning of the mortise are assessed by comparing a static mortise view with the appearance of the mortise on the GRV. We have developed a treatment algorithm based on the GRV and have found it to be useful in guiding treatment and successful at achieving anatomic mortise alignment.

  10. Patterns of structural reorganization of the corticospinal tract in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamson, David O.; Juhász, Csaba; Shin, Joseph; Behen, Michael E.; Guy, William C.; Chugani, Harry T.; Jeong, Jeong-Won

    2014-01-01

    Background Reorganization of the corticospinal tract (CST) after early damage can limit motor deficit. In this study, we explored patterns of structural CST reorganization in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome. Methods Five children (age 1.5-7 years) with motor deficit due to unilateral Sturge-Weber syndrome were studied prospectively and longitudinally (1-2 years follow-up). CST segments belonging to hand and leg movements were separated, and their volume was measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography using a recently validated method. CST segmental volumes were normalized and compared between the SWS children and age-matched healthy controls. Volume changes during follow-up were also compared to clinical motor symptoms. Results In the SWS children, hand-related (but not leg-related) CST volumes were consistently decreased in the affected cerebral hemisphere at baseline. At follow-up, two distinct patterns of hand CST volume changes emerged: (i) Two children with extensive frontal lobe damage showed a CST volume decrease in the lesional hemisphere and a concomitant increase in the non-lesional (contralateral) hemisphere. These children developed good hand grasp but no fine motor skills. (ii) The three other children, with relative sparing of the frontal lobe, showed an interval increase of the normalized hand CST volume in the affected hemisphere; these children showed no gross motor deficit at follow-up. Conclusions DTI tractography can detect differential abnormalities in the hand CST segment both ipsi- and contralateral to the lesion. Interval increase in the CST hand segment suggests structural reorganization, whose pattern may determine clinical motor outcome and could guide strategies for early motor intervention. PMID:24507695

  11. EL Agave tequilana Weber Y LA PRODUCCIÓN DE TEQUILA EL Agave tequilana Weber Y LA PRODUCCIÓN DE TEQUILA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Barboza Corona

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tequila is one of the most famous drinks on a national and worldwide level. It is obtained from the Agave tequilana Weber plant, better known as Agave Azul. The part of the plant used for making tequila is the core. Once the cores are cut, they are taken away to an oven where a cooking operation is made, this with the object of degrading the complex sugars of the core into simple sugars that can be used as yeasts in the fermentation process. The principal complex carbohydrate present in agave is inulin, which is a polymeric fructose with a terminal glucose residue. When the inulin is degraded by action of the juice´s acidity and the heat of cooking, fructose and glucose are obtained. Next, the cores are milled to extract the juice which is placed in vats and inoculated with a yeast culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, responsible for the fermentation of the sugars present in the juice. After fermentation, the juice is distilled to obtain ethanol and vinazes (a mixture of dead yeasts, nonfermentable sugars, and minerals. Tequila can be bottled immediately after distillation or it can be aged in the wooden casks wich confer characteristic flavor and color to tequila.El tequila es una de las bebidas más famosas a nivel nacional y mundial. Se obtiene de la planta Agave tequilana Weber, mejor conocido como Agave azul. La parte de la planta que es utilizada para la elaboración del tequila es la piña. Una vez que las piñas son cortadas, se llevan a un horno en donde se realiza la operación del cocimiento; éste tiene la finalidad de degradar los azúcares complejos presentes en la piña en azúcares simples para que puedan ser utilizados por la levadura en la operación de fermentación. El principal carbohidrato complejo presente en el agave es la inulina, el cual es un polímero de fructosa con un residuo terminal de glucosa. Cuando la inulina se degrada por la acción de la acidez del jugo y del calor en el cocimiento, se obtienen

  12. Pollination and seed dispersal of Melocactus ernestii Vaupel subsp. ernestii (Cactaceae) by lizards: an example of double mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, V G N; Quirino, Z G M; Machado, I C

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies show that the mutualistic role of lizards as pollinators and seed dispersers has been underestimated, with several ecological factors promoting such plant-animal interactions, especially on oceanic islands. Our aim is to provide a quantitative assessment of pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms with lizards in continental xeric habitats. We carried out focal observations of natural populations of Melocactus ernestii (Cactaceae) in the Caatinga, a Brazilian semiarid ecosystem, in order to record the frequency of visits, kind of resource searched and behaviour of visiting animals towards flowers and/or fruits. We made a new record of the lizard Tropidurus semitaeniatus foraging on flowers and fruits of M. ernestii. During the search for nectar, T. semitaeniatus contacted the reproductive structures of the flowers and transported pollen attached to its snout. Nectar production started at 14:00 h, with an average volume of 24.4 μl and an average concentration of solutes of 33%. Approximately 80% of the seeds of M. ernestii found in the faeces of T. semitaeniatus germinated under natural conditions. The roles of T. semitaeniatus as pollinator and seed disperser for M. ernestii show a clear relationship of double mutualism between two endemic species, which may result from the environmental conditions to which both species are subject. Seasonality, low water availability and arthropod supply in the environment, high local lizard densities, continuous nectar production by the flower and fruits with juicy pulp may be influencing the visits and, consequently, pollination and seed dispersal by lizards in this cactus. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Influence of Pleistocene glacial/interglacial cycles on the genetic structure of the mistletoe cactus Rhipsalis baccifera (Cactaceae) in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Rodríguez-Gómez, Flor

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographical work on cloud forest-adapted species provides inconsistent evidence on cloud forest dynamics during glacial cycles. A study of Rhipsalis baccifera (Cactaceae), a bird-dispersed epiphytic mistletoe cactus, was conducted to investigate genetic variation at sequence data from nuclear [internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 677 bp] and chloroplast (rpl32-trnL, 1092bp) DNA for 154 individuals across the species range in Mesoamerica to determine if such patterns are consistent with the expansion/contraction model of cloud forest during glacial cycles. We conducted population and spatial genetic analyses as well as gene flow and divergence time estimates between 24 populations comprising the distribution of R. baccifera in Mexico and Guatemala to gain insight of the evolutionary history of these populations, and a complementary species distribution modeling approach to frame information derived from the genetic analyses into an explicit paleoecological context. The results revealed a phylogeographical break at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and high levels of genetic diversity among populations and cloud forest areas. Despite the genetic differentiation of some R. baccifera populations, the widespread ITS ribotypes suggest effective nuclear gene flow via pollen and population differentiation shown by the rpl32-trnL suggests more restricted seed flow. Predictions of species distribution models under past last glacial maximum (LGM) climatic conditions and a significant signal of demographic expansion suggest that R. baccifera populations experienced a range expansion tracking the conditions of the cloud forest distribution and shifted to the lowlands with population connectivity during the LGM. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Insect growth regulatory effects of some extracts and sterols from Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Salazar, J Rodrigo; Martínez, Mariano; Aranda, Eduardo

    2005-10-01

    A methanol extract from the roots and aerial parts of Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) yielded peniocerol 1, macdougallin 2, and chichipegenin 3. The natural products 1, 2 their mixtures, MeOH and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts showed insecticidal and insect growth regulatory activity against fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)], an important insect pest of corn, and [Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera)], a pest of stored grains in Mexico. The most active compounds were 1, 2, and a mixture (M(2)) of 1 and 2 (6:4). All these extracts, compounds and the mixture had insect growth regulating (IGR) activity between 5.0 and 50.0 ppm and insecticidal effects between 50 and 300 ppm in diets. The extracts were insecticidal to larvae, with lethal doses between 100 and 200 ppm. These compounds appear to have selective effects on the pre-emergence metabolism of Coleoptera, because in all treatments of the larvae of T. molitor, pupation were shortened and this process show precociousness in relation to controls. In contrast to S. frugiperda larvae, onset of pupation was noticeably delayed. Emergence in both cases was drastically diminished. In both pupae and in the few adults that were able to emerge, many deformations were observed. The results of these assays indicated that the compounds were more active than other known natural insect growth inhibitors such as gedunin and methanol extracts of Cedrela salvadorensis and Yucca periculosa. Peniocerol, macdougallin and chichipegenin, as well as mixtures of these substances, may be useful as natural insecticidal agents.

  15. Desvendando a religião e as religiões mundiais em Max Weber (Revealing religion and the world religions in Max Weber - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2009v7n14p136

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arilson Silva Oliveira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos Max Weber como um dos sociólogos e historiadores mais importantes dentre aqueles que se dedicaram ao estudo do fenômeno religioso. Na verdade, é possível afirmar que a análise da religião compreende um dos aspectos mais fundamentais de sua obra sócio-histórica. De modo geral, esse tema aparece em seus textos de duas maneiras diferentes, quais sejam: enquanto um objeto analisado em sua singularidade e enquanto uma manifestação social que influencia de maneira significativa os demais aspectos da vida comunitária. Aqui, observamos como ele muniu-se de um método particular e o utilizou como parâmetro para compreender historicamente a religião. Ao se debruçar sobre as religiões mundiais (confucionismo-taoísmo, judaísmo-cristianismo e hinduísmo-budismo, Weber estuda a racionalização cultural de suas cosmovisões. Todavia, para ele, a influência da religião sobre a vida prática varia muito segundo o caminho da salvação/libertação que é prescrito e segundo a qualidade psíquica (ou imaginada da salvação que se pretende alcançar. Palavras-chave: Max Weber; Religião; Religiões Mundiais; Racionalização.   AbstractWe present Max Weber as one of the most important sociologists and historians among those who dedicated themselves to the study of the religious phenomenon. Actually, it is possible to say that the analysis of religion involves one of the most fundamental aspects of his socio-historical work. As a whole, this subject appears in his texts in two different forms, i.e., as an analyzed object in its particularities, and as a social manifestation which influences, in a significant way, the other aspects of communitarian life. Here, we observe how he equipped himself with a particular method, rescued Kantian rationality and applied it as a parameter to historically understand religion. While he dedicated himself to study world religions (Confucianism-Taoism, Judaism-Christianity, and Hinduism

  16. The Power of the Stage and the Dignity of the Academic Calling in Imperial Germany: The Writings of Max Weber on University Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Contains Max Weber's writings on the problems of the German university in the face of political and bureaucratic authority and on the fundamental principles of university autonomy and academic freedom. (PG)

  17. Sindrome de Sturge – Weber - Os síndromes raros também existem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Canelas

    2015-12-01

    Recorreu ao serviço de urgência por crises convulsivas tónico-clónicas generalizadas quase diárias desde há 1 mês. Ao exame físico o doente apresentava-se pouco colaborante mas hemodinamicamente estável. Ao nível da cabeça eram evidentes diversas alterações: macrocefalia, hipertrofia dos tecidos moles da face com manchas em vinho do porto exuberantes bilaterais com distribuição oftálmica, maxilar e mandibular do nervo trigémio, e hemangiomas conjuntivais bilaterais (Fig. 1. Ao exame neurológico apresentava hemiparesia esquerda grau 3/5 em ambos os membros. Realizou tomografia computorizada crânio-encefálica que mostrou atrofia do hemisfério encefálico direito com calcificação cortical de configuração giriforme de predomínio frontal e occipital e maior volume do plexo coroide do ventrículo lateral direito (Fig.2, aspetos descritos na literatura como característicos de SSW4. Analiticamente sem alterações nomeadamente da função tiroideia. O doente foi observado por oftalmologia tendo sido diagnosticado glaucoma bilateral com perda visual acentuada. Trata-se então de um caso de síndrome de Sturge-Weber tipo I (angiomas da face e das leptomeninges e glaucoma segundo a The Roach Scale, que por falta de seguimento médico apresentava as diversas complicações da síndrome não controladas, convulsões frequentes, perda visual acentuada, história de episódios semelhantes a AVC com hemiparésia sequelar, cefaleias, défice cognitivo e isolamento social. Apesar da forma de apresentação grave com sintomas desde a infância o diagnóstico foi estabelecido numa idade muito pouco comum. A síndrome de Sturge-Weber é uma entidade a ter presente no diagnóstico diferencial das manchas vinho do porto e das crises convulsivas. O diagnóstico precoce e o seguimento/vigilância médica apertada são as únicas formas de melhorar o prognóstico sombrio das manifestações e complicações desta síndrome que são verdadeiramente limitadoras de

  18. Lateral malleolus hook plate for comminuted Weber A and B fractures: A retrospective study

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    Fang Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of managing the comminuted fracture of lateral malleolus is to restore length, rotation and alignment which might be more challenging with extensive comminution around the area of the distal tip. The common osteosynthesis techniques such as the one-third tubular plate, tension band wiring, K-wires, screws, or intramedullary nail may be insufficient in cases with a comminuted lateral malleolus. The anatomical hook plate is an alternative implant in such cases. We present our results of the comminuted lateral malleolar fractures (Weber A, B, managed by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF with an anatomical hook plate of lateral malleolus (Königsee Implant Company, Germany. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients of comminuted fracture of distal lateral malleolus between 2008 and 2010. There were 12 males and 8 females, right side was involved in 18 patients and left in 2. The mean age was 51.9 years (range 18-75 years. The fractures were categorized by Denis-Weber classification type A (n=1, B1 (n=1, B2 (n=13 and B3 (n=5. Nineteen cases were of closed injury and one of open injury (Gustilo Anderson type II. These patients underwent ORIF with a lateral malleolus anatomical hook plate. Followup including radiographs and clinical examinations were performed. The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS ankle hindfoot scores were documented at followups. Results: The mean followup was 21.4 months (range 16-27 months. The average AOFAS score was 94.3 (range 78-100 points. A stable anatomic reduction and bony union were obtained in all the cases. The average time was 3.1 months (range 2.5-4 months. Four cases had complications like posttraumatic osteoarthritis, hardware impingement and superficial wound infection. Conclusion: A reasonably good stability can be obtained in distal most comminuted fractures of lateral malleolus with a lateral malleolus anatomical hook plate. We believe this

  19. Max Weber y Georg Simmel: ¿Dos teorías sociológicas de la modernidad?

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ Mª GONZÁLEZ GARCÍA

    2000-01-01

    A pesar de reconocer las diferencias entre Simmel y Weber en el análisis de la modernidad, el artículo aboga por la complementariedad de los dos enfoques: el análisis fragmentario y ensayístico de la sociedad moderna realizado por Simmel tendría su complemento más sistemático en el análisis del proceso de racionalización occidental hecho por Weber: Después de señalar la matriz intelectual común marcada por la herencia de Goethe y de Kant, así como por la recepción crítica de Marx y de Nietzsc...

  20. Georg Simmel y Max Weber: ¿Dos teorías sociológicas de la modernidad?

    OpenAIRE

    González García, José M.

    2000-01-01

    A pesar de reconocer las diferencias entre Simmel y Weber en el análisis de la modernidad, el artículo aboga por la complementariedad de los dos enfoques: el análisis fragmentario y ensayístico de la sociedad moderna realizado por Simmel tendría su complemento más sistemático en el análisis del proceso de racionalización occidental hecho por Weber. Después de señalar la matriz intelectual común marcada por la herencia de Goethe y de Kant, así como por la recepción crítica de Ma...

  1. WEBER AND THE LUXURY CONSUMPTION: A DISCUSSION ABOUT “THE PROTESTANT ETHIC AND THE SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Schramm Portugal

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the sociologist Max Weber’s studies is undeniable in the Social Sciences history, but does his book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, explain the luxury consumption nowadays? In this article, it is going to be demonstrated some critiques of this book of Weber, made by authors who believe that the sociologist has disdained some important data that influenced the whole society in the 17th century, as the fashion, the value of romantic love and the European society outlook in general. Campbell, for example, says that because this “historical segmentation” Weber had ignored important social changes. If, when it was written, Weber’s book could not explain the luxury consumption, this fact is more evident nowadays, whereas the asceticism is not predominant in the occidental societies and even developing countries have consumed luxury articles.

  2. [The Concept of Typology in Psychiatry in the Context of Historical Contributions of Max Weber and Karl Jaspers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, M; Becker, T; Wigand, M E

    2016-08-01

    Against the background of Max Weber's and Karl Jaspers' outstanding historical contributions to the conceptual development of different typologies, the importance of a psychiatric typology is examined. The term "ideal type" was introduced into social science by Weber as an analytical construct to describe and classify cultural phenomena. This concept was adopted for the psychiatric context by Jaspers who proposed to establish a typological system in the field of psychotic disturbances without an organic correlate. He emphasized the importance of the course of psychopathological symptoms for such a typological system. The concept of typology can be regarded as a promising heuristic approach in psychiatry, providing a classification system for complex psychopathological symptoms. Even though several historic typologies exist in psychopathology, their usefulness in the fields of therapy and prognosis needs to be critically assessed. Also, new typologies will have to be developed, taking into account neurobiological knowledge now available. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Weber e o desencantamento do mundo: uma interlocução com o pensamento de Nietzsche

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    Renarde Freire Nobre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, on oppose la pensée de Max Weber à celle de Friedrich Nietzsche à propos de l'Occident moderne, en prenant comme point de départ les notions de "mort de Dieu" et de "désenchantement du monde". On y examine leurs affinités et différences, surtout sous l'angle du diagnostic de Weber sur la "culture de la technique" et ses effets inéluctables sur la subjectivité. L'hypothèse centrale, c'est que, malgré les points de contact qu'on peut et qu'on doit établir entre ces deux penseurs, il reste un fossé infranchissable, dû surtout à la reconnaissance des pouvoirs de la raison et à la vue du monde culturel construites sous la direction des orientations conscientes.

  4. Weber, Schutz e a busca de "sentido" na ação social: uma análise comparativa

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Fioravante Garcez

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1806-5023.2014v11n1p63   O artigo discorre sobre as teorias de Max Weber e de Alfred Schutz e a aproximação desses mundos teóricos com a fenomenologia do filósofo Edmund Husserl. No texto são explorados os conceitos de sentido, compreensão, ação, ação social, relação social dentre outros. São apresentados também a tipologia da ação e os dois níveis de análise sociológica (microssocial e macrossocial) na concepção de Weber, para quem a ação é fruto da subjetiv...

  5. Democracia com liderança: Max Weber e o conceito de democracia plebiscitária

    OpenAIRE

    Sell, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    As complexas relações entre regimes políticos (burocracia) e liderança política (carisma) ocupam o centro da reflexão sociopolítica de Max Weber. Este artigo propõe-se a examinar esta temática a partir do conceito weberiano de democracia plebiscitária. O trabalho está dividido em quatro partes. A primeira examina a trajetória do conceito nos escritos políticos e sociológicos de Weber. Após reconstruir a biografia do conceito, o segundo tópico analisa o tema do ponto de vista sistemático. Dist...

  6. Arte, erotismo y redención, la esfera estética en el pensamiento de Max Weber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez Sierra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La prolífica obra de Max Weber ha sido estudiada ampliamente, sin embargo, la concepción que tenía del arte, aunque presente en sus escritos, no ha sido indagada. En Sociología de la religión Weber aborda la esfera estética de un modo que vale la pena conocer y destacar, allí se presenta una concepción filosófica del arte, amplia y ahistórica, en la que el arte y el erotismo se ligan y se muestran como medios de redención en un mundo desencantado. Este artículo expone la filosofía del arte que subyace en los últimos textos del científico social alemán.

  7. Juan Daniel Weber en Aullagas (1790: De minero de segunda en Europa a experto en Potosí

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    María Concepción Gavira Marquez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda la expedición de metalúrgicos centro europeos comisionados por la Corona española para modernizar la minería americana a fines del siglo XVIII. En concreto, nos centraremos en un personaje especial, Juan Daniel Weber, miembro de la comisión destinada a la región andina liderada por Nordenflycht y que pasó por Potosí sin ningún éxito en cuanto a sus objetivos prioritarios. Aunque Weber en principio no estaba destinado a Alto Perú, permaneció en Potosí, donde se distinguió por dedicarse a defender sus intereses particulares en Aullagas, Chayanta, concretamente invirtiendo en empresas para el desagüe de la veta de Colquechaca y San Bartolomé.   This paper addresses the issue of Central European metal workers commissioned by the Spanish Crown to modernize the American mining activity in the late 18th century. In particular, we focus on a special character, Juan Daniel Weber, a member of the commission sent to the Andean region led by Nordenflycht and that passed by Potosí without achieving any of its main goals. Although, initially, Weber was not destined to go to Upper Peru, he stayed in Potosí, where he stood out for defending his own interests in Aullagas, Chayanta, investing specifically in companies dedicated to seam drainage in Colquechaca and San Bartolomé.

  8. The Intermediate Set and Limiting Superdi erential for Coalition Games: Between the Core and the Weber Set

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, Lukáš; Kroupa, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 4 (2017), s. 891-918 ISSN 0020-7276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00735S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : coalition game * limiting superdi erential * intermediate set * core * Weber set Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 0.713, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/adam-0467365.pdf

  9. A case report with Weber-Christian disease which recognized interesting abdominal lesions by abdominal ultrasonography and computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Jin; Chiba, Junko; Ota, Kei; Mori, Kazuo; Toyota, Takayoshi; Goto, Yoshio

    1984-01-01

    A 59-year-old woman who had Weber-Christian disease associated with typical histological findings such as panniculitis was reported. The patient had painful subcutaneous nodules as the first symptom. She had diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis, which are reported to be rare complications of this disease. Abdominal ultrasonography and CT scanning revealed various sized cystic lesions and masses in the tail of pancreas. These findings have not yet been reported and seems to be rare in this disease. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. An unusual presentation of pediatric osteoblastoma in a patient with Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Scott A; Ignacio, Romeo C; Klugh, Arnett; Gates, Gregory; Henry, Marion C W

    2015-06-01

    Osteoblastoma is an uncommon primary bone tumor that usually presents as a painful lesion in a long bone or in the spine. Osteoblastoma has been reported only twice in the literature in conjunction with systemic fibromatosis. The authors report the case of an 8-year-old girl with suspected Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome, a rare syndrome of systemic fibromatosis, who presented with a painless thoracic rib lesion that was found to be an osteoblastoma.

  11. Growing skull hemangioma: first and unique description in a patient with Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Loo, Lars E; Beckervordersandforth, Jan; Colon, Albert J; Schijns, Olaf E M G

    2017-02-01

    We present the first and unique case of a rapid-growing skull hemangioma in a patient with Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome. This case report provides evidence that not all rapid-growing, osteolytic skull lesions need to have a malignant character but certainly need a histopathological verification. This material offers insight into the list of rare pathological diagnoses in an infrequent syndrome.

  12. Nanofibers of cellulose bagasse from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul by electrospinning: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-García, Miguel Ángel; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique; Barrera-Rodríguez, Arturo; Aguilar, Jacobo; Aguilar, José A; Reynoso-Marín, Francisco Javier; Ceja, I; Dórame-Miranda, R; Rodríguez-Félix, Francisco

    2018-07-15

    In this study, cellulose of bagasse from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul was extracted to elaborate nanofibers by the electrospinning technique. Fiber characterization was performed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), x-ray, Fournier Transform-InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermal analysis by Differential Scanning Calorimetry-Thermogravimetric Analysis (DSC-TGA). Different diameters (ranging from 54.57 ± 0.02 to 171 ± 0.01 nm) of nanofibers were obtained. Cellulose nanofibers were analyzed by means of x-ray diffraction, where we observed a total loss of crystallinity in comparison with the cellulose, while FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that the hemicellulose and lignin present in the agave bagasse were removed. Thermal analysis showed that nanofibers exhibit enhanced thermal properties, and the zeta potential value (-32.5 mV) demonstrated moderate stability in the sample. In conclusion, the nanofibers obtained provide other alternatives-of-use for this agro-industrial residue and could have potential in various industrial applications, among these encapsulation of bioactive compounds and reinforcing material, to mention a few. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A clinical and neurological study on the Sturge-Weber syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Takako

    1987-01-01

    The author studied the relationship between facial nevus and intracranial changes seen on cranial computed tomography (CCT) scannings in 12 children with typical Sturge-Weber syndrome. The evaluation of epileptic attacks, repeat EEG and cranial CT examinations with or without enhancement during the follow-up period of 8 years in average were analysed. In 7 cases (58.3 %), the dominant side of facial hemangioma was identical with that of calcification on CCT. Three cases of central facial nevus showed calcification in one hemisphere, on either side. One who had facial nevus on one side showed dominant calcification on the other side on CT. The area and side of the facial nevus did not always coincide with those of the intracranial lesion. In 4 of the 9 patients who were followed up by repeat CCT, we recognized increases in degree of brain atrophy with or without increases in the area of calcification. In the enhancement study, 6 patients (89 %) showed positive choroid plexus images with abnormal enhancement on the same side as the calcification. On EEG 5 cases showed epileptiform activity over the hemisphere with calcification, and 3 showed it on the intact side of the brain. (author)

  14. Osler-Weber-Rendu disease presenting with hepatocellular carcinoma: radiologic and genetic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Ho; Lee, Yung Sang; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu Whan; Yoo, Han Wook; Heo, Nae Yun; Lim, Young Suk; Lee, Han Chu; Chung, Young Hwa; Suh, Dong Jin

    2011-12-01

    This is a case report of a 68-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accompanied by hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu disease, and hepatic vascular malformation. HHT is an autosomal dominant disorder of the fibrovascular tissue that is characterized by recurrent epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectasias, and visceral arteriovenous malformations. HHT is caused by mutation of the genes involved in the signaling pathway of transforming growth factor-β, which plays an important role in the formation of vascular endothelia. Hepatic involvement has been reported as occurring in 30-73% of patients with HHT. However, symptomatic liver involvement is quite rare, and the representative clinical presentations of HHT in hepatic involvement are high-output heart failure, portal hypertension, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and symptoms of biliary ischemia. Some cases of HCC in association with HHT have been reported, but are very rare. We present herein the characteristic radiologic and genetic findings of HHT that was diagnosed during the evaluation and treatment of HCC.

  15. Optimization of Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul Juice Spray Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Chávez-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the response surface methodology was employed to optimize the microencapsulation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul juice with whey protein isolated using a spray drying technique. A Box-Behnken design was used to establish optimum spray drying conditions for Agave tequilana juice. The process was optimized to obtain maximum powder yield with the best solubility time, hygroscopicity, bulk density, water activity, and reducing sugars. The independent parameters for the spray drying process were outlet temperature of 70–80°C, atomizer speed of 20000–30000 rpm, and airflow of 0.20–0.23 m3 s−1. The best spray drying condition was at outlet temperature of 80°C, atomizer speed of 20000 rpm, and air flow rate of 0.23 m3 s−1 to obtain maximum powder yield (14.65%bm, minimum solubility time (352.8 s, maximum bulk density (560 kg m−3, minimum hygroscopicity (1.9×10-7 kgwater s−1, and minimum aw (0.39. The Agave tequilana powder may be considered as an interesting source of dietary fiber used as food additive in food and nutraceutical industries.

  16. Stillinger-Weber potential for elastic and fracture properties in graphene and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. Z.; Hao, T.; Silverman, B.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a new framework for determining the Stillinger-Weber (SW) potential parameters for modeling fracture in graphene and carbon nanotubes. In addition to fitting the equilibrium material properties, the approach allows fitting the potential to the forcing behavior as well as the mechanical strength of the solid, without requiring ad hoc modification of the nearest-neighbor interactions for avoiding artificial stiffening of the lattice at larger deformation. Consistent with the first-principles results, the potential shows the Young’s modulus of graphene to be isotropic under symmetry-preserving and symmetry-breaking deformation conditions. It also shows the Young’s modulus of carbon nanotubes to be diameter-dependent under symmetry-breaking loading conditions. The potential addresses the key deficiency of existing empirical potentials in reproducing experimentally observed glass-like brittle fracture in graphene and carbon nanotubes. In simulating the entire deformation process leading to fracture, the SW-potential costs several factors less computational time compared to the state-of-the-art interatomic potentials that enables exploration of the fracture processes in large atomistic systems which are inaccessible otherwise.

  17. Vertical parasagittal hemispherotomy for Sturge-Weber syndrome in early infancy: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyu; Otsuki, Taisuke; Takahashi, Akio; Kaido, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    The authors here present a rare case of a 3-month-old infant with unilateral Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) who had excellent seizure control and no aggravation of previous existed neurological deficits after vertical parasagittal hemispherotomy (VPH). To our knowledge, this patient with SWS was the youngest one who received VPH. The use of VPH results in a successful treatment of intractable epilepsy in a patient with seizure onset in early infancy. At follow-up, the patient's neurodevelopmental status has been improved since the surgery. It is generally accepted that early-onset seizures in children with SWS are associated with worse neurological and developmental outcomes. However, when surgical treatment should be considered and how it should be performed remain a longstanding controversy. We promote early surgery in children with SWS and early-onset epilepsy. We suggest that VPH may be a useful adjuvant in the management of SWS with refractory epilepsy in early infancy and this procedure carries low neurological risk.

  18. A girl of Klippel-Trenaunay Weber syndrome coexistence of recurrent bloody vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Mehmet; Kavukçu, Salih; Çakmakci, Handan; Soylu, Alper; Aktan, Sebnem; Çağan, Yeliz

    2010-09-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay Weber syndrome (KTWS) is the coexistence of capillary vascular malformations, varicose veins, dilated arteries and arteriovenous fistulas, soft tissue and/or bone hypertrophy. We present a girl of KTWS associated with hypertrophied left kidney, enlargement in venous structures of the left kidney, recurrent bloody vaginal discharge and angiokeratomas. A 6-year-old girl was admitted to our department with complaints of recurrent bloody vaginal discharge and swelling in the left inguinal region. Physical examination revealed hypertrophy of the left lower extremity. Vaginoscopy and cystoscopy revealed normal findings. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an enlarged left kidney. Enlargement in the venous structures of the hypertrophied left kidney was detected by abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, and arteriovenous fistulas were revealed by conventional angiography. The patient was diagnosed KTWS. Ophthalmic examination was normal. Galactosidase A (GLA) level was found to be at the lower limit of the normal range, and mutation was not detected in the GLA gene. In conclusion, we have emphasized that the girls with recurrent vaginal discharge might be KTWS. Angiokeratoma may be considered as a dermatological finding of KTWS. KTWS may also have enlarged kidney and enlargement in venous structures of the kidney in hypertrophied side.

  19. Possible dendritic contribution to unimodal numerosity tuning and Weber-Fechner law-dependent numerical cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Morita

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans and animals are known to share an ability to estimate or compare the numerosity of visual stimuli, and this ability is considered to be supported by the cortical neurons that have unimodal tuning for numerosity, referred to as the numerosity detector neurons. How such unimodal numerosity tuning is shaped through plasticity mechanisms is unknown. Here I propose a testable hypothetical mechanism based on recently revealed features of the neuronal dendrite, namely, cooperative plasticity induction and nonlinear input integration at nearby dendritic sites, on the basis of the existing proposal that individual visual stimuli are represented as similar localized activities regardless of the size or the shape in a cortical region in the dorsal visual pathway. Intriguingly, the proposed mechanism naturally explains a prominent feature of the numerosity detector neurons, namely, the broadening of the tuning curve in proportion to the preferred numerosity, which is considered to underlie the known Weber-Fechner law-dependent accuracy of numerosity estimation and comparison. The simulated tuning curves are less sharp than reality, however, and together with the evidence from human imaging studies that numerical representation is a distributed phenomenon, it may not be likely that the proposed mechanism operates by itself. Rather, the proposed mechanism might facilitate the formation of hierarchical circuitry proposed in the previous studies, which includes neurons with monotonic numerosity tuning as well as those with sharp unimodal tuning, by serving as an efficient initial condition.

  20. Weber no Século XXI: Desafios e Dilemas de um Paradigma Weberiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Sell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Después de décadas de intensivo trabajo de exegesis de la obra de Weber, una amplia investigación realizada en Alemania sobre este autor condujo a la caracterización de su obra en torno al tema de la racionalización. A partir de este presupuesto, una nueva generación de investigadores viene intentando formular una propuesta de actualización de la teoría weberiana, por medio de su confrontación con los principales problemas de análisis de la sociología contemporánea. ¿Cuáles son las características del "paradigma weberiano" y cómo evaluarlo en términos de agenda teórica contemporánea? Con base en estas cuestiones, se examina, en primer lugar, cómo el programa de investigación weberiano se inserta en la disputa alrededor de la articulación entre agencia (plano micro y estructura (macro en la teoría social. El segundo eje de análisis trata la teoría de la modernidad y evalúa el intento de sus intérpretes de desplegar las investigaciones weberianas del plano de la génesis al plano de la diversificación de la modernidad (modernidades múltiples.

  1. Facial expression recognition based on weber local descriptor and sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Automatic facial expression recognition has been one of the research hotspots in the area of computer vision for nearly ten years. During the decade, many state-of-the-art methods have been proposed which perform very high accurate rate based on the face images without any interference. Nowadays, many researchers begin to challenge the task of classifying the facial expression images with corruptions and occlusions and the Sparse Representation based Classification framework has been wildly used because it can robust to the corruptions and occlusions. Therefore, this paper proposed a novel facial expression recognition method based on Weber local descriptor (WLD) and Sparse representation. The method includes three parts: firstly the face images are divided into many local patches, and then the WLD histograms of each patch are extracted, finally all the WLD histograms features are composed into a vector and combined with SRC to classify the facial expressions. The experiment results on the Cohn-Kanade database show that the proposed method is robust to occlusions and corruptions.

  2. O gênero Rhipsalis Gärtner (Cactaceae, no Estado de São Paulo I: espécies com ramos cilíndricos ou subcilíndricos The genus Rhipsalis Gärtner (Cactaceae in the State of São Paulo-I: species with cylindrical or subcilindrical joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Antonio Lombardi

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhipsalis Gärtner é um gênero de Cactaceae de hábito epífita ou rupícola, de ampla distribuição nas Américas do Sul e Central, atingindo inclusive a África tropical e ilhas do Oceano Índico. Este trabalho procurou caracterizar morfologicamente as espécies do gênero Rhipsalis que ocorrem no Estado de São Paulo, possibilitando deste modo o reconhecimento das espécies. Entre as espécies do gênero que possuem artículos cilíndricos e subcilíndricos foram reconhecidas 16 espécies ocorrentes no Estado de São Paulo, incluindo uma espécie nova, R. spinescens Lombardi, além de uma espécie de determinação incerta.Rhipsalis Gärtner is a genus of epiphytic or rupicolous Cactaceae, with a wide distribution in South and Central America. It also occurs in tropical Africa and the islands of the Indie Ocean. This study describes the morphology of the species ocurring in São Paulo state (Brazil. A total of 16 species with cylindrical and subcylindrical joints were recognized for São Paulo state, including an new species R. spinescens Lombardi, and another of uncertain affinity.

  3. What does it take to resolve relationships and to identify species with molecular markers? An example from the epiphytic Rhipsalideae (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, Nadja; Borsch, Thomas; Quandt, Dietmar; Taylor, Nigel P; Müller, Kai F; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-09-01

    The Cactaceae are a major New World plant family and popular in horticulture. Still, taxonomic units and species limits have been difficult to define, and molecular phylogenetic studies so far have yielded largely unresolved trees, so relationships within Cactaceae remain insufficiently understood. This study focuses on the predominantly epiphytic tribe Rhipsalideae and evaluates the utility of a spectrum of plastid genomic regions. • We present a phylogenetic study including 52 of the 53 Rhipsalideae species and all the infraspecific taxa. Seven regions (trnK intron, matK, rbcL, rps3-rpl16, rpl16 intron, psbA-trnH, trnQ-rps16), ca. 5600 nucleotides (nt) were sequenced per sample. The regions used were evaluated for their phylogenetic performance and performance in DNA-based species recognition based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) defined beforehand. • The Rhipsalideae are monophyletic and contain five clades that correspond to the genera Rhipsalis, Lepismium, Schlumbergera, Hatiora, and Rhipsalidopsis. The species-level tree was well resolved and supported; the rpl16 and trnK introns yielded the best phylogenetic signal. Although the psbA-trnH and trnQ-rps16 spacers were the most successful individual regions for OTU identification, their success rate did not significantly exceed 70%. The highest OTU identification rate of 97% was found using the combination of psbA-trnH, rps3-rpl16, trnK intron, and trnQ-rps16 as a minimum possible marker length (ca. 1660 nt). • The phylogenetic performance of a marker is not determined by the level of sequence variability, and species discrimination power does not necessarily correlate with phylogenetic utility.

  4. WIRED BY WEBER: The Story of the First Searcher and Searches for Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Joe Weber, the last child of eastern European immigrants, had a ham radio license at age 10. He also wired the mess hall of the US Naval Academy for sound, causing the chatter and clashing crockery of his fellow midshipmen to be drowned out by Schubert's Great C Major symphony. He kept a 6 cm radar (not standard equipment on submarine chasers) working before and during the Sicilian landing and ended ``his'' war in charge of electronic countermeasures for the Navy. Hired as a full professor of electrical engineering and ordered to get a PhD in something, somewhere, by the University of Maryland in 1949, he talked with George Gamow (a story for a different time), but ended up working with Keith Laidler at Catholic University of America on the inversion spectrum of ammonia, building and using a 2-meter traveling wave tube. That, plus a lecture by Karl Herzfeld on the Einstein A and B coefficients, led him to think about inverted populations as amplifiers and spectrometers. His talk at an IEEE conference and the subsequent paper were the first ``open source'' presentations of what we now call masers and lasers. Then came his interest in General Relativity and the desire to bring this beautiful theory into contact with laboratory science. He started building and then operating bar detectors for gravitational waves in 1965-66, and reporting results from 1968-69. The scientific community first took an enormous interest in his work, then ``voted him off the island'' starting in about 1973. He continued to operate bar detectors, and later perfect crystal detectors for neutrinos, until his death on 30 September 2000 (Rosh Hashonah that year). The first LIGO event was recorded on his 15th Jarhzeit. We had, by that time, been married for 28.5 years, and it was a joy to watch him pick the right resistor or capacitor out of a box of miscellaneous electronic components.

  5. New vascular classification of port-wine stains: improving prediction of Sturge-Weber risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelchli, R; Aylett, S E; Robinson, K; Chong, W K; Martinez, A E; Kinsler, V A

    2014-10-01

    Facial port-wine stains (PWSs) are usually isolated findings; however, when associated with cerebral and ocular vascular malformations they form part of the classical triad of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). To evaluate the associations between the phenotype of facial PWS and the diagnosis of SWS in a cohort with a high rate of SWS. Records were reviewed of all 192 children with a facial PWS seen in 2011-13. Adverse outcome measures were clinical (seizures, abnormal neurodevelopment, glaucoma) and radiological [abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)], modelled by multivariate logistic regression. The best predictor of adverse outcomes was a PWS involving any part of the forehead, delineated at its inferior border by a line joining the outer canthus of the eye to the top of the ear, and including the upper eyelid. This involves all three divisions of the trigeminal nerve, but corresponds well to the embryonic vascular development of the face. Bilateral distribution was not an independently significant phenotypic feature. Abnormal MRI was a better predictor of all clinical adverse outcome measures than PWS distribution; however, for practical reasons guidelines based on clinical phenotype are proposed. Facial PWS distribution appears to follow the embryonic vasculature of the face, rather than the trigeminal nerve. We propose that children with a PWS on any part of the 'forehead' should have an urgent ophthalmology review and a brain MRI. A prospective study has been established to test the validity of these guidelines. © The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of glaucoma associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Usman; Ali, Muhammad Hassaan; Jamal, Samreen; Butt, Nadeem Hafeez

    2018-02-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), also known as encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis, is a condition which includes leptomeningeal hemangioma, facial angiomatosis or nevus flammeus, and ocular changes. SWS can lead to severe complications of anterior segment involving conjunctiva and eyelids, whereas posterior segment of the eye may also be affected by diffuse choroidal hemorrhages. This article was written with the objectives to determine the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of glaucoma associated with this rare and challenging disorder. A detailed literature search was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar using the key words. Forty-five articles matched our inclusion criteria that were included in this systematic review. Glaucoma is the one of the commonest ocular manifestations of SWS. It is caused by anterior chamber malformations, increased pressure in the episcleral veins, and changes in ocular hemodynamics. Glaucoma associated with SWS is usually congenital but can develop adults as well. The treatment of glaucoma associated with SWS is quite challenging because of early-onset, severe visual field impairment at the time of diagnosis, and unresponsiveness to standard medical treatment. Several surgical procedures have been devised but the long-term control of the intraocular pressure and visual function remain unsatisfactory. Modifications in the filtration surgery techniques and use of newer anti-fibrotic agents have produced good control of intraocular pressure. Management of glaucoma associated with SWS is multi-dimensional and needs both medical and surgical interventions for better control. The treatment should be devised on case to case basis depending upon the intraocular pressure, stage of the disease, and type of glaucoma.

  7. Inhibitory actions of the gamma-aminobutyric acid in pediatric Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyzio, Roman; Khalilov, Ilgam; Represa, Alfonso; Crepel, Valerie; Zilberter, Yuri; Rheims, Sylvain; Aniksztejn, Laurent; Cossart, Rosa; Nardou, Romain; Mukhtarov, Marat; Minlebaev, Marat; Epsztein, Jérôme; Milh, Mathieu; Becq, Helene; Jorquera, Isabel; Bulteau, Christine; Fohlen, Martine; Oliver, Viviana; Dulac, Olivier; Dorfmüller, Georg; Delalande, Olivier; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Khazipov, Roustem

    2009-08-01

    The mechanisms of epileptogenesis in Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) are unknown. We explored the properties of neurons from human pediatric SWS cortex in vitro and tested in particular whether gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) excites neurons in SWS cortex, as has been suggested for various types of epilepsies. Patch-clamp and field potential recordings and dynamic biphoton imaging were used to analyze cortical tissue samples obtained from four 6- to 14-month-old pediatric SWS patients during surgery. Neurons in SWS cortex were characterized by a relatively depolarized resting membrane potential, as was estimated from cell-attached recordings of N-methyl-D-aspartate channels. Many cells spontaneously fired action potentials at a rate proportional to the level of neuronal depolarization. The reversal potential for GABA-activated currents, assessed by cell-attached single channel recordings, was close to the resting membrane potential. All spontaneously firing neurons recorded in cell-attached mode or imaged with biphoton microscopy were inhibited by GABA. Spontaneous epileptiform activity in the form of recurrent population bursts was suppressed by glutamate receptor antagonists, the GABA(A) receptor agonist isoguvacine, and the positive allosteric GABA(A) modulator diazepam. Blockade of GABA(A) receptors aggravated spontaneous epileptiform activity. The NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide had little effect on epileptiform activity. SWS cortical neurons have a relatively depolarized resting membrane potential and spontaneously fire action potentials that may contribute to increased network excitability. In contrast to previous data depicting excitatory and proconvulsive actions of GABA in certain pediatric and adult epilepsies, GABA plays mainly an inhibitory and anticonvulsive role in SWS pediatric cortex.

  8. Glioblastoma multiforme in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Tevfik; Cikla, Ulas; Kirst, Alice; Baskaya, Mustafa K

    2015-04-17

    Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) is a rare syndrome in which patients usually present with cutaneous hemangiomas, venous varicosities, and bone and soft tissue hypertrophy of the affected limb. Intracranial lesions in patients with KTWS are extremely rare, and are generally reported as single cases in the literature. We describe a rare case, where a patient with KTWS was found with a hemorrhagic grade IV astrocytoma. Although central nervous system abnormalities such as intracranial aneurysms and cerebral and spinal cord cavernomas have been described in patients with KTWS, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between glioblastoma multiforme (grade IV astrocytoma) and KTWS in the English-language medical literature. A 61-year-old white Caucasian man with a history of KTWS presented with seizures. Left upper and lower extremity hypertrophy, left foot, leg and ear gigantism and left-sided abdominal capillary hemangiomas were noted in the physical examination. Cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained, showing a heterogeneous lesion in the cingulate gyrus, with peripheral and central areas of T1 hyperintensity and layering T2 hypointensity consistent with a hemorrhage. A right parasagittal frontal craniotomy was performed with an interhemispheric approach. We had difficulty controlling the bleeding with bipolar electrocautery during surgery and finally were able to stop the bleeding using surgicel and gelfoam. Postoperative cranial CT and MRI scans showed intraparenchymal hemorrhage centered within the medial right frontal lobe. There was no increase in hematoma size in consecutive CT scans. Co-occurrence of vascular abnormalities with KWTS should be taken into consideration to avoid perilous preoperative and postoperative complications.

  9. Imaging increased glutamate in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome: Association with epilepsy severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Csaba; Hu, Jiani; Xuan, Yang; Chugani, Harry T

    2016-05-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is strongly associated with epilepsy. Brain tissue studies have suggested that epileptic activity in SWS is driven by glutamatergic synaptic activity. Here, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to test if glutamate (GLU) concentrations are increased in the affected hemisphere and if such increases are associated with severity of epilepsy in children with SWS. We also studied the metabolic correlates of MRSI abnormalities, using glucose positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. 3T MRI and glucose PET were performed in 10 children (age: 7-78 months) with unilateral SWS and a history of epilepsy. MRSI data were acquired from the affected (ipsilateral) and non-affected (contralateral) hemispheres. GLU, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and creatine (Cr) were quantified in multiple voxels; GLU/Cr and NAA/Cr ratios were calculated and compared to seizure frequency as well as glucose PET findings. The highest GLU/Cr ratios were found in the affected hemisphere in all children except one with severe atrophy. The maximum ipsilateral/contralateral GLU/Cr ratios ranged between 1.0 and 2.5 (mean: 1.6). Mean ipsilateral/contralateral GLU/Cr ratios were highest in the youngest children and showed a strong positive correlation with clinical seizure frequency scores assessed at the time of the scan (r=0.88, p=0.001) and also at follow-up (up to 1 year, r=0.80, p=0.009). GLU increases in the affected hemisphere coincided with areas showing current or previous increases of glucose metabolism on PET in 5 children. NAA/Cr ratios showed no association with clinical seizure frequency. Increased glutamate concentrations in the affected hemisphere, measured by MRSI, are common in young children with unilateral SWS and are associated with frequent seizures. The findings lend support to the role of excess glutamate in SWS-associated epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome: what radiologists should know. Literature review and three cases report; Sindrome de Rendu-Osler-Weber: o que o radiologista precisa saber: revisao da literatura e apresentacao de tres casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnollitto, Paulo Moraes; Barreto, Andre Rodrigues Facanha; Barbieri, Raul Fernando Pinsetta; Junior, Jorge Elias; Muglia, Valdair Francisco, E-mail: agno53@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC/FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2013-05-15

    Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome or hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is an autosomal dominant vascular disease involving multiple systems whose main pathological change is the presence of abnormal arteriovenous communications. Most common symptoms include skin and mucosal telangiectasias, epistaxis, gastrointestinal, pulmonary and intracerebral bleeding. The key imaging finding is the presence of visceral arteriovenous malformations. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and can be confirmed by molecular biology techniques. Treatment includes measures for management of epistaxis, as well as surgical excision, radiotherapy and embolization of arteriovenous malformations, with emphasis on endovascular treatment. The present pictorial essay includes a report of three typical cases of this entity and a literature review. (author)

  11. Visually and memory-guided grasping: aperture shaping exhibits a time-dependent scaling to Weber's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Scott A; Mulla, Ali; Binsted, Gordon; Heath, Matthew

    2011-09-01

    The 'just noticeable difference' (JND) represents the minimum amount by which a stimulus must change to produce a noticeable variation in one's perceptual experience and is related to initial stimulus magnitude (i.e., Weber's law). The goal of the present study was to determine whether aperture shaping for visually derived and memory-guided grasping elicit a temporally dependent or temporally independent adherence to Weber's law. Participants were instructed to grasp differently sized objects (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60mm) in conditions wherein vision of the grasping environment was available throughout the response (i.e., closed-loop), when occluded at movement onset (i.e., open-loop), and when occluded for a brief (i.e., 0ms) or longer (i.e., 2000ms) delay in advance of movement onset. Within-participant standard deviations of grip aperture (i.e., the JNDs) computed at decile increments of normalized grasping time were used to determine participant's sensitivity to detecting changes in object size. Results showed that JNDs increased linearly with increasing object size from 10% to 40% of grasping time; that is, the trial-to-trial stability (i.e., visuomotor certainty) of grip aperture (i.e., the comparator) decreased with increasing object size (i.e., the initial stimulus). However, a null JND/object size scaling was observed during the middle and late stages of the response (i.e., >50% of grasping time). Most notably, the temporal relationship between JNDs and object size scaling was similar across the different visual conditions used here. Thus, our results provide evidence that aperture shaping elicits a time-dependent early, but not late, adherence to the psychophysical principles of Weber's law. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pyogenic Granuloma in a Patient of Sturge-Weber Syndrome with Bilateral Port Wine Stain- A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantala Arunkumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS also known as encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis. It is a neurocutaneous syndrome, characterized by a facial vascular birthmark and neurological abnormalities. An ipsilateral or bilateral facial cutaneous vascular malformation Port Wine Stain (PWS usually affects the upper face. Other clinical manifestations are seizures, glaucoma, hemiparesis, mental retardation and delayed developmental milestones. The main objective of this case report is to unravel such a rarest syndrome with bilateral port-wine stain, which has intraoral manifestation of pyogenic granuloma involving gingiva in an 11 year old boy.

  13. Early Sociology of the Business Enterprise: Max Weber's Theory of the Modern Business Enterprise in Economy and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    be explained as the unfolding of a sociological theory of the modern business enterprise. Some of the most important features of Weber’s theory of the modern business enterprise are presented. Weber points to the multidimensional institutional embeddedness of the modern business enterprise and to the crucial...... importance of ongoing tensions between formal and substantive rationality. Weber’s theory of the modern business enterprise in chapter 2 of Economy and Society may then be seen as an important but still unexplored early contribution to a sociological theory of the modern business enterprise....

  14. SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGY FOR THE APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES: CRITICAL ANALYSES ABOUT RESEARCH METHODS, TYPOLOGIES AND CONTRIBUTIONS FROM MARX, WEBER AND DURKHEIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Corrêa da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss the importance of the scientific method to conduct and advertise research in applied social sciences and research typologies, as well as to highlight contributions from Marx, Weber and Durkheim to the scientific methodology. To reach this objective, we conducted a review of the literature on the term research, the scientific method,the research techniques and the scientific methodologies. The results of the investigation revealed that it is fundamental that the academic investigator uses a scientific method to conduct and advertise his/her academic works in applied social sciences in comparison with the biochemical or computer sciences and in the indicated literature. Regarding the contributions to the scientific methodology, we have Marx, dialogued, the dialectical, striking analysis, explicative of social phenomenon, the need to understand the phenomena as historical and concrete totalities; Weber, the distinction between “facts” and “value judgments” to provide objectivity to the social sciences and Durkheim, the need to conceptualize very well its object of study, reject sensible data and imbue with the spirit of discovery and of being surprised with the results.

  15. Guidelines of the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology (SFORL) (short version). Specific treatment of epistaxis in Rendu-Osler-Weber disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robard, L; Michel, J; Prulière Escabasse, V; Bequignon, E; Vérillaud, B; Malard, O; Crampette, L

    2017-02-01

    The authors present the guidelines of the French Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society (Société Française d'Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie et de Chirurgie de la Face et du Cou: SFORL) concerning specific treatment of epistaxis in Rendu-Osler-Weber disease. A multidisciplinary work-group was entrusted with a review of the scientific literature on the above topic. Guidelines were drawn up, based on the articles retrieved and the group members' individual experience. They were then read over by an editorial group independent of the work group. The final version was established in a coordination meeting. The guidelines were graded as A, B, C or expert opinion, by decreasing level of evidence. Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is diagnosed from the presence of at least three of Curaçao's four criteria. In acute epistaxis, bidigital compression is recommended. Embolization is reserved for resistant epistaxis. Non-resorbable nasal packing and cauterization are contraindicated. Patient education is essential. Telangiectasia of the nasal mucosa can be treated by various local means. In the event of insufficient control, systemic administration of tranexamic acid is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. High fidelity simulation and analysis of liquid jet atomization in a gaseous crossflow at intermediate Weber numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoyi, E-mail: lixy2@utrc.utc.com; Soteriou, Marios C. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, Connecticut 06108 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Recent advances in numerical methods coupled with the substantial enhancements in computing power and the advent of high performance computing have presented first principle, high fidelity simulation as a viable tool in the prediction and analysis of spray atomization processes. The credibility and potential impact of such simulations, however, has been hampered by the relative absence of detailed validation against experimental evidence. The numerical stability and accuracy challenges arising from the need to simulate the high liquid-gas density ratio across the sharp interfaces encountered in these flows are key reasons for this. In this work we challenge this status quo by presenting a numerical model able to deal with these challenges, employing it in simulations of liquid jet in crossflow atomization and performing extensive validation of its results against a carefully executed experiment with detailed measurements in the atomization region. We then proceed to the detailed analysis of the flow physics. The computational model employs the coupled level set and volume of fluid approach to directly capture the spatiotemporal evolution of the liquid-gas interface and the sharp-interface ghost fluid method to stably handle high liquid-air density ratio. Adaptive mesh refinement and Lagrangian droplet models are shown to be viable options for computational cost reduction. Moreover, high performance computing is leveraged to manage the computational cost. The experiment selected for validation eliminates the impact of inlet liquid and gas turbulence and focuses on the impact of the crossflow aerodynamic forces on the atomization physics. Validation is demonstrated by comparing column surface wavelengths, deformation, breakup locations, column trajectories and droplet sizes, velocities, and mass rates for a range of intermediate Weber numbers. Analysis of the physics is performed in terms of the instability and breakup characteristics and the features of downstream

  17. Dispersão zoocórica e hidrocórica marítima de Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Lenzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n1p47 Adaptações evolutivas na morfologia e fisiologia das cactáceas têm sido associadas aos seus mecanismos de dispersão e colonização. Os mecanismos e modos de dispersão de Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae foram caracterizados em duas praias de Florianópolis, SC, Brasil. Um marsupial do gênero Didelphis (Mammalia: Didelphidae foi o único frugívoro e, portanto, dispersor de frutos, apresentando locais específicos para alimentação. A hidrocoria marítima ocorreu após a invasão marinha sobre a vegetação de restinga, caracterizando-se pela dispersão de cladódios e frutos em várias épocas do ano. Descreve-se pela primeira vez a ação do mar como potencial dispersor para uma espécie de cactos.

  18. Molecular phylogeny of Gymnocalycium (Cactaceae): assessment of alternative infrageneric systems, a new subgenus, and trends in the evolution of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Pablo H; Barfuss, Michael H J; Kiesling, Roberto; Till, Walter; Chiapella, Jorge O

    2011-11-01

    The South American genus Gymnocalycium (Cactoideae-Trichocereae) demonstrates how the sole use of morphological data in Cactaceae results in conflicts in assessing phylogeny, constructing a taxonomic system, and analyzing trends in the evolution of the genus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed using parsimony and Bayesian methods on a 6195-bp data matrix of plastid DNA sequences (atpI-atpH, petL-psbE, trnK-matK, trnT-trnL-trnF) of 78 samples, including 52 species and infraspecific taxa representing all the subgenera of Gymnocalycium. We assessed morphological character evolution using likelihood methods to optimize characters on a Bayesian tree and to reconstruct possible ancestral states. The results of the phylogenetic study confirm the monophyly of the genus, while supporting overall the available infrageneric classification based on seed morphology. Analysis showed the subgenera Microsemineum and Macrosemineum to be polyphyletic and paraphyletic. Analysis of morphological characters showed a tendency toward reduction of stem size, reduction in quantity and hardiness of spines, increment of seed size, development of napiform roots, and change from juicy and colorful fruits to dry and green fruits. Gymnocalycium saglionis is the only species of Microsemineum and a new name is required to identify the clade including the remaining species of Microsemineum; we propose the name Scabrosemineum in agreement with seed morphology. Identifying morphological trends and environmental features allows for a better understanding of the events that might have influenced the diversification of the genus.

  19. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for a Rendu-Osler-Weber Disease Patient with Recurrent Severe Epistaxis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Niyazi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a Rendu-Osler-Weber disease patient with recurrent life threatening epistaxis demanding multiple blood transfusions despite of repetitive endoscopic laser and electrocoagulations, endovascular embolisation, septodermoplasty, and long-term intranasal dressings. As alternative treatment modalities repeatedly failed and the patient became almost permanently dependent on nasal dressing, we performed a highly conformal intensity-modulated radiotherapy of the nasal cavity; a total dose of 50 Gy in 2 Gy single fractions was applied. The therapy was very well tolerated, no acute toxicities occurred. Two weeks after the last radiation dose had been applied, the nasal dressing could be removed without problems. Endoscopical control revealed an almost avascular white mucosa without any trace of bleeding spots; previously existing hemangiomas and crusts had disappeared. After a 1-year-follow up, the patient had no significant recurrent epistaxis.

  20. AGRONOMIC MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR SUSTAINABILITY: CHARACTERISTICS AND MEASUREMENT IN Agave tequilana Weber IN THE SIERRA DE AMULA REGION, JALISCO

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    Arturo Moreno Hernández

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article qualitative evaluation of the sustainable management in blue agave (Agave tequilana Weber agroecosystems, in Sierra Amula region of the Jalisco state, Mexico. Sixteen sites were evaluated in an altitudinal gradient ranging from 777 to 1345 masl. Six principles considered by Altieri (1999 as the basic elements of a sustainable management of the agroecosystem, were used to construct an Index of Agroecosystem Sustainable Management (IMSA. Four levels of this index were identified: values lower than 50 % were considered unsustainable management, 51 to 66.6 % scarcely sustainable management, 66.7 to 83.2 % mediumly sustainable management and 83.3 to 100 % highly sustainable management. Of the 16 sites evaluated, two were classified as unsustainable management, six was scarcely sustainable management, five as medially sustainable management and three as highly sustainable management.

  1. The debate between Weber and Sombart on the Protestant ethic and the development of capitalism: Author Antikritiken as footnote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariachiara Spagnolo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1904/05 the first edition of Weber’s Protestant Ethics was issued, where the thematic framing is ‘uncertain’ and not yet completed: religion is linked to a certain kind of ethos (of the economic system and of ethic (rational, the ethic of «ascetic Protestantism». Around the same years, Sombart outlines the expository path contained in Modern Capitalism, a detailed «picture of the general economic development», which seems to be a ‘more serious’ work – for its content and set of problems – when compared to the research conducted by his friend and colleague Max Weber. Both scholars view the question of the rise and development of capitalism as a rhythmic research: from the historic origins of the phenomenon, to the elaboration, synthesis and change of the economic process that becomes an autonomous and corrosive force in the modern stage. In the Sombartian discourse, however, the particular ‘attitude’ of the Protestant ethic as analysed by Weber can be regarded at most as one of the possible forms of heresy that justifies a certain approach (moral/punitive to money – and not as the only movement which has roused and regulated the economic or capitalistic processes in the strict meaning of economic surplus, profitable and to be reinvested following entrepreneurial logics. Whereas, what the two sociologists have in common is not only the use of sources (almost identical, but the very concept of Geist and individual predisposition of the subjects who accept the modes of action of this ordering spirit that gives an ethical/psychological boost to men endowed with charisma or with particular energy.

  2. La presencia de Max Weber en el pensamiento español. Historia de una doble recepción

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    Ruano de la Fuente, María Yolanda

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines two diverse and confronted receptions of Max Weber’s thought in the Hispanic world which we have described as “conservative” and “liberal” lines of interpretation. This analytical scheme allows us to group and highlight some of the most distinguished Spanish intellectuals whose work was influenced by Max Weber’s thought. We will review the context and the particular mode in which these intellectuals assimilated the German author’s work, the meaning of their interpretations and their labour of translation. In short, we will focus on the works of some renowned Hispanic philosophers, jurists and sociologists belonging to the “first interpretative generation” at work from the 1920’s to the 1940’s.Este artículo examina una doble y contrapuesta línea de recepción del pensamiento de Max Weber en el mundo hispanoparlante, que hemos denominado línea “conservadora” y línea “liberal”. Este esquema interpretativo permite agrupar y reseñar a algunos de los más destacados intelectuales españoles, cuyas obras estuvieron marcadas por la influencia del pensamiento de Max Weber. Revisamos el contexto, el sentido de la recepción, la labor de traducción y el modo peculiar en que asimilaron el trabajo del autor alemán. Nos centramos, en suma, en la obra de algunos renombrados filósofos, juristas y sociólogos de habla hispana, si bien limitamos nuestro análisis a la “primera generación receptora”, que fechamos en las décadas de los años 20 a los 40 del siglo XX.

  3. Weber, Schutz e a busca de "sentido" na ação social: uma análise comparativa

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    Eliane Fioravante Garcez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1806-5023.2014v11n1p63   O artigo discorre sobre as teorias de Max Weber e de Alfred Schutz e a aproximação desses mundos teóricos com a fenomenologia do filósofo Edmund Husserl. No texto são explorados os conceitos de sentido, compreensão, ação, ação social, relação social dentre outros. São apresentados também a tipologia da ação e os dois níveis de análise sociológica (microssocial e macrossocial na concepção de Weber, para quem a ação é fruto da subjetividade. Já para Schutz, a ação é intersubjetiva, socializada e a compreensão está por detrás da ação, quer para o sentido que o ator dá a sua própria ação (subjetivo, quer para a ação de seu semelhante (intersubjetivo. Tendo em vista essas teorias, este trabalho apresenta os pontos divergentes e convergentes entre elas, mas acima de tudo, registra o quanto são complementares na busca de compreensão do sentido da ação social.  Além dos preceitos conceituais, o texto discute a construção e a aplicação do modelo “tipo ideal” (TI amparados numa concepção schutziana.

  4. The emergence of Islam through the theoretical prism of Max Weber: The role of spatial context, social actors and social strata in the process of defining and expansion of the Islamic religion

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    Jovanović Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weber's theoretical legacy contains only fragments of thinking about Islam, primarily in the texts and monographs that as the main object of study did not have this religion. This fact is a big problem to contemporary researchers who want to reconstruct Weber's perception of Islam and positioning it in its theoretical and methodological coordinates. However, this barrier gives rise to modern researchers to engage in the challenge of reconstruction of the mentioned segment Weber's thoughts. This paper is an attempt of such a reconstruction. The paper analyzes the emergence of Islam, ie. spatial and social context of the founding of the Islamic religious dogma. The author starts from the hypothesis that in Weber's theoretical and analytical equation the importance of urban areas for the development and spread of Islam is absent. Also, in the paper author points to another error that Weber makes. Weber classified Islam in the category of warrior religion, and ignored the role of trade and commercial bed in the formulation of Islamic dogma and the (economic practices. In order to more adequately respond to the request 'placement' of Islam in the theoretical coordinates of Weber's sociology (of religion, author of the paper emphasizes the universality of the rationalization process, proving that Islam is one of the better examples of substantive rationality in the religious domain (because Islamic dogma implies a holistic approach to the believer and the high level of submission to the sacred text in all areas of its life.

  5. Desencantamento do mundo e ética na ação pedagógica: reflexões a partir de Max Weber Disenchantment of the world and ethics in pedagogical action: reflections upon Max Weber

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    Alonso Bezerra de Carvalho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, de caráter teórico, apresenta ideias do pensamento weberiano, destacando aquelas que fornecem elementos para se pensar a educação na atualidade, sobretudo a partir de sua compreensão da modernidade. Desencantamento do mundo é o conceito-chave de sua sociologia, tomado como referência para refletir sobre o significado que a ciência e o professor podem ter hoje. Autor clássico, a interpretação que Max Weber faz do mundo moderno traz às nossas reflexões temas os mais diversos, influenciando sobremaneira o pensamento e a prática da cultura contemporânea, ao se preocupar em compreender as ações e os valores humanos. Ao estudar o processo de racionalização no Ocidente, provoca discussões na área da ciência, da ética e, correlativamente, na educação, possibilitando ampliarmos nosso entendimento sobre qual o sentido, o significado e o papel que devemos cumprir em relação ao conhecimento e ao ensino. O objetivo principal da educação é proporcionar aos alunos um conteúdo que incentive a liberdade de reflexão. Para isso, é preciso que o professor adote uma ética não partidária na sala de aula, apresentando um conteúdo que não exponha a sua opinião política e, se o fizer, que tenha a honestidade de dizer que o está fazendo. Assim, é de extrema importância que o professor mantenha uma posição "neutra" para que, não só na sala de aula, mas também fora dela, o aluno possa refletir e questionar o que observa, experimenta e decide. Somente assim a conduta do professor estaria condizente com o processo de racionalização de nossa cultura.This article has a theoretical character and presents some of Weber's ideas, with emphasis on those that can supply elements to reflect on the current state of education, more particularly based on his understanding of modernity. Disenchantment of the world is the key concept in his sociology, and is taken as the basis for a reflection about the meaning that science

  6. Distinguishing suitable biotypes of Dactylopius tomentosus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) for biological control of Cylindropuntia fulgida var. fulgida (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae) in South Africa.

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    Mathenge, C W; Holford, P; Hoffmann, J H; Zimmermann, H G; Spooner-Hart, R; Beattie, G A C

    2009-12-01

    Cylindropuntia fulgida (Engelmann) F.M. Knuth var. fulgida (Engelmann) F.M. Knuth (Cff) (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae) is native to Mexico and Arizona and was introduced into South Africa for ornamental purposes. It subsequently became highly invasive, necessitating control. The cochineal insect, Dactylopius tomentosus (Lamarck) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae), was selected as a potential biological control agent based on its restricted host range among Cylindropuntia species and previous success in controlling C. imbricata (DC.) F. Knuth (Ci). Eight D. tomentosus provenances (Cholla, Cholla E, Fulgida, Mamillata, Imbricata, Tunicata U, Tunicata V and Rosea) from Cylindropuntia species in their native ranges were reared on Cff, whilst Cholla and Imbricata were also reared on Ci. Large differences were found in the development and survival of crawlers, and in the reproductive capacity of females. Three subjective categories of provenance interaction with host plants were identified based on a fitness index (FI) calculated from data relating to crawler survival, female development time and fecundity: (i) thriving (FI > or = 1) - insects had shorter developmental times, high crawler survival and highly fecund females (Cholla); (ii) surviving (FI0) - insects had extended development times, low crawler survival and low fecundity (Imbricata, Fulgida and Mamillata); and (iii) dying (FI = 0) - insects died before or at the second instar (Rosea, Tunicata U and Tunicata V). Cholla, therefore, is highly suitable for biological control of Cff in South Africa. In addition, Cholla thrived on Cff but only survived on Ci whilst, in contrast, Imbricata thrived on Ci but only survived on Cff. This differential ability of provenances to thrive or survive on different host plants demonstrated that host adapted biotypes of D. tomentosus exist; therefore, biotypes should be taken into account when considering this species as a biological control agent of cactus weeds.

  7. Allozyme diversity and morphometrics of Melocactus paucispinus (Cactaceae) and evidence for hybridization with M. concinnus in the Chapada Diamantina, North-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sabrina Mota; Borba, Eduardo Leite; Machado, Marlon Câmara; Da Silva Andrade, Sónia Cristina

    2006-03-01

    Melocacatus paucispinus (Cactaceae) is endemic to the state of Bahia, Brazil, and due to its rarity and desirability to collectors it has been considered threatened with extinction. This species is usually sympatric and inter-fertile with M. concinnus, and morphological evidence for hybridization between them is present in some populations. Levels of genetic and morphological variation and sub-structuring in populations of these species were assessed and an attempt was made to verify the occurrence of natural hybridization between them. Genetic variability was surveyed using allozymes (12 loci) and morphological variability using multivariate morphometric analyses (17 vegetative characters) in ten populations of M. paucispinus and three of M. concinnus occurring in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia. Genetic variability was low in both species (P = 0.0-33.3, A = 1.0-1.6, H(e) = 0.000-0.123 in M. paucispinus; P = 0.0-25.0, A = 1.0-1.4, H(e) = 0.000-0.104 in M. concinnus). Deficit of heterozygotes within the populations was detected in both species, with high values of F(IS) (0.732 and 0.901 in M. paucispinus and M. concinnus, respectively). Evidence of hybridization was detected by the relative allele frequency in the two diaphorase loci. High levels of genetic (F(ST) = 0.504 in M. paucispinus and 0.349 in M. concinnus) and morphological (A = 0.20 in M. paucispinus and 0.17 in M. concinnus) structuring among populations were found. The Melocactus spp. displayed levels of genetic variability lower than the values reported for other cactus species. The evidence indicates the occurrence of introgression in both species at two sites. The high F(ST) values cannot be explained by geographical substructuring, but are consistent with hybridization. Conversely, morphological differentiation in M. paucispinus, but not in M. concinnus, is probably due to isolation by distance.

  8. Treatment of severe neuropatic pain for patients with the syndrome of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber: case report

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    Danielle Cristina de Oliveira Soares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly whose etiology has not yet been elucidated. It is characterized by the triad of vascular malformations, cutaneous hemangiomas and overgrowth of bone and soft tissue adjacent. Pain is a common symptom and can be triggered in the following situations: venous disease, scoliosis by the different members and hemangiomas that affect the body surface, the deep planes or viscera. Case report: A female patient, 17, sent from the SARAH Hospital - Fortaleza to the Institute of Clinic Pain José Frota diagnosed with cerebral palsy type triplegia on right eye and anophthalmia featuring an expansive process of vascular origin extending to the paraspinal region, surpassing sciatic foramen and affecting posterior muscles of the left thigh and leg. There are signs of involvement of the sciatic nerve and deep femoral vessels. He was diagnosed with Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome. She had continuous pain in shock and burning, EVA 10, extending from the lower back, groin and left leg region. The source of hospital treatment consisted of gabapentin 180mg 12/12h, codeine 10mg 12/12h, ibuprofen 300mg 12/12h, codeine/paracetamol 30mg 12/12h and morphine oral 10mg while in pain, but without pain relief. She also used paroxetine 20mg daily, due to depression. The painful condition prevented sleep, caused irritation and worsened the quality of life of the patient. She continued treatment with gabapentin 300mg 12/12h, dipyrone 500mg 12/12h, Methadone 5mg 12/12h and reassessed two weeks showing significant improvement in pain symptoms and sleep, EVA 2. Conclusion: Pain is a symptom commonly described in the clinical picture of patients with this syndrome. The treatment of this disease is still a challenge. The malformations great gifts made it not always possible embolization or painkillers locks. The therapeutic results with strong opioid were satisfactory and have improved the quality of life of

  9. Karl Marx vis-à-vis Max Weber: perspectiva comparada das visões acerca do Estado

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    Felippe Ramos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda a distinção analítica entre Marx e Weber, em relação ao tema do Estado. A hipótese é de que ambos os autores, a despeito do que pode parecer à primeira vista, estavam imbuídos da impossibilidade de um Estado impessoal, o que remete, em última instância, à politização do Estado. O que parece claro na visão de Marx é, contudo, obscurecido pela construção metodológica (e epistemológica de Weber, com base na busca constante da objetividade do conhecimento, a partir de uma ciência que se afasta do engajamento político e da importância das categorias analíticas da burocracia e racionalização. Essa dificuldade de construir uma análise crítica da proposta weberiana pode ser esclarecida, contudo, constituindo uma análise do Estado, em oposição à esfera de legitimação do Estado moderno que se encontra claramente na burocracia, cuja característica maior é a impessoalidade, a partir da descrição de suas instâncias de decisão – um elemento político sobre a burocracia. A análise marxiana do Estado classista, por sua vez, também precisa ter suas nuances analisadas de acordo com o próprio amadurecimento teórico do autor, que, em suas obras de análise de eventos históricos escritas tardiamente, torna complexa a classificação do Estado, demonstrando suas aporias e disputas internas, para além de sua visão inicialmente instrumental do Estado.

  10. Infraslow status epilepticus: A new form of subclinical status epilepticus recorded in a child with Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Espinosa, Luis E

    2015-08-01

    Analysis of infraslow EEG activity (ISA) has shown potential in the evaluation of patients with epilepsy and in the differentiation between focal and generalized epilepsies. Infraslow EEG activity analysis may also provide insights into the pathophysiology of refractory clinical and subclinical status epilepticus. The purpose of this report is to describe a girl with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) who presented with a 96-h refractory encephalopathy and nonischemic hemiparesis and who was identified to have infraslow status epilepticus (ISSE), which successfully resolved after midazolam administration. The continuous EEG recording of a 5-year-old girl with known structural epilepsy due to Sturge-Weber syndrome is presented. The patient presented to the ED with acute confusion, eye deviation, and right hemiparesis similar to two previous admissions. Despite administration of lorazepam, fosphenytoin, phenobarbital, and valproic loads, the patient showed no improvement in the clinical condition after 48 h. The continuous video-EEG monitoring (VEM) showed continuous severe diffuse nonrhythmic asymmetric slowing but no apparent ictal activity on continuous conventional EEG recording settings. As brain CT, CTA, CTV, and complete MRI scans including DWI obtained within 72 h of presentation failed to demonstrate any ischemic changes, analysis of the EEG infraslow (ISA) activity was undertaken using LFF: 0.01 Hz and HFF: of 0.1 Hz, respectively. Continuous subclinical unilateral rhythmic ictal ISA was identified. This was only evident on the left hemisphere which correlated with the structural changes due to SWS. A trial of continuous 120 to 240 μg/kg/h of IV midazolam resulted in immediate resolution of the contralateral hemiparesis and encephalopathy. Continuous prolonged rhythmic ictal infraslow activity (ISA) can cause super-refractory subclinical focal status epilepticus. This has not been previously reported, and we propose that this be called infraslow status

  11. Angiome plan de la face: À propos de deux cas dont l’un révélant un syndrome de Sturge Weber et Krabb

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    Bénilde Marie Ange Tiemtoré-Kambou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sturge Weber and Krabbe syndrome or Sturge weber Syndrome (SWS is a rare and sporadic disease. It associates with a variety of degrees a flat facial skin angioma in the V1 territory of the trigeminal, a pial angioma and a choroidal angioma all in the one side. The neurological involvement of epileptic seizures in fact all the gravity. The authors report two cases of angiomas plane of the face. The first case presents a complete association of the 3 signs in a 5 year old child. The second case presents an association of angioma and choroidal involvement without cerebral damage to imaging in a 25-year-old adult. They thus highlight the interest of imaging examinations in particular MRI in the diagnosis through the classification and follow-up of this pathology.

  12. La teoría pura del derecho y la secularización incompleta del derecho: Hans Kelsen y Max Weber

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    Isaac de León Beltrán

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo trata de mostrar algunas similitudes entre los pensamientos teóricos de Hans Kelsen y de "'Max Weber en torno a la noción de derecho-Estado. Se muestra que la discusión en torno a la validez y al valor del derecho se puede plantear en términos de la consolidación del Estado moderno. También se propone una explicación de las tensiones entre el iusnaturalismo al que se enfrenta Kclsen y aquello que he denominado la secularización incompleta del derecho. Palabras clave: Weber, Kelsen, formación del Estado, teoría del derecho.

  13. A questão universitária em Max Weber: entre escritos metodológicos e Sociologia Política

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    Mariana Toledo Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca tratar da concepção de educação em Max Weber e, mais especificamente, em como ele aborda a questão universitária, em uma série de seus escritos. Além de textos mais conhecidos, tal qual Ciência como vocação, o estudo incorpora conferências e artigos de intervenção escritos por Weber e alguns de seus trabalhos identificados com sua Sociologia Política. Assim, se o processo de desencantamento do mundo é vital para que se consiga interpretar os diagnósticos elaborados à época, também ocupam lugar central o papel do docente e o conceito de probidade intelectual. Analogamente, o avanço da burocracia – em alguns casos, de maneira a cercear o trabalho intelectual e acadêmico – é tematizado pelo autor, notadamente pela análise crítica do “caso Bernhard” e do “sistema Althoff”. Este artigo busca, então, retraçar essas discussões de Weber, inserindo-as em um quadro analítico mais amplo, ao relacionar sua discussão sobre a educação a conceitos elaborados tanto no âmbito de sua Sociologia da religião quanto de sua Sociologia política. Por fim, delineia-se brevemente o modo como Weber reflete sobre o sentido da liberdade, sobretudo aquela de cunho acadêmico, para destacar a relevância que assumiriam formas de organização dos professores que pudessem atuar em defesa da autonomia exigida pelo trabalho científico-intelectual sério.

  14. El cambio social y la 'Constitución moderna' en los clásicos de la Sociología. Durkheim y Weber en perspectiva comparada

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    Santiago, José

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the conception of social change of Durkheim and Weber from a comparative perspective. It proposes a reading of their works attending to the place these authors occupy in what, following Bruno Latour, may be named as “Modern Constitution”. From this metatheoretical level, the comparison brings to light the tools and resources of the “Modern Critique” which they utilise to build their theories of social change. From this comparative perspective, the article examines how Durkheim and Weber theorize on the “fourth guarantee” of the “Modern Constitution”, that refers to God’s presence in modernity. Finally, this “guarantee” is problematized in the frame of the contemporary society attending to current theories.

    El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la concepción del cambio social de Durkheim y Weber desde una perspectiva comparada. Se propone una lectura de sus obras prestando atención al lugar que ambos ocupan en lo que, siguiendo a Bruno Latour, llamaremos “Constitución moderna”. Desde este nivel metateórico, la comparación permitirá mostrar las herramientas y recursos de la “Crítica moderna” de los que estos autores se sirven para construir sus teorías del cambio social. Con esta perspectiva comparada, el artículo examina de qué manera Durkheim y Weber teorizan sobre la “cuarta garantía” de la “Constitución moderna”, que hace referencia al lugar que ocupa Dios en la modernidad. Por último, esta “garantía” es problematizada en el marco de la sociedad contemporánea a partir de las propuestas de algunos teóricos actuales.

  15. O tema da morte trágica de Liev Tolstói e seu impacto em Max Weber e György Lukács: sobre a autonomia nas ciências e na arte * Leo Tolstoy´s tragic death and his impacts on Max Weber and György Lukács: on autonomy of arts and science

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    LUIS FELIPE DE SALLES ROSELINO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O tema da morte trágica, presente nos escritos de Liev Tolstói, auxiliou tanto a Max Weber como a György Lukács a caracterizarem o pathos moderno de pressentimento da morte como uma contemplação do vazio. Weber e Lukács encontraram, através das leituras de Tolstói, uma interessante maneira de questionar a autonomia da arte e da ciência moderna, considerando pela esfera estética, como se mostra sem sentido a recente realidade imanente. Ambos assumiram o tema central das obras de Tolstói segundo uma mesma imagem, derivada do contraste entre o mundo antigo e o moderno. Max Weber adequou esse tema a sua teoria do desencantamento do mundo e Lukács, de modo muito semelhante, seguindo seu conceito do paradoxo da necessidade religiosa.Palavras-chave: Tolstói – Weber – Lukács – Desencantamento – Necessidade Religiosa – L’Art Pour l’Art. Abstract: The tragic death in Tolstoy's writings has helped both Max Weber and György Lukács in characterizing the modern pathos as a tragic contemplation of the emptiness of life. Through Tolstoy's readings, Weber and Lukács found an interesting source of denying arts and modern sciences autonomy, considering, from the aesthetics sphere, the meaningless of this new immanent reality. Both has assumed Tolstoy main theme from the same perspective, contrasting ancient and modern worldviews. Max Weber presented this theme in his disenchantment of world theory and Lukács, in a very similar way, following the paradox of religious needing as a mainline.Keywords: Tolstoy – Weber – Lukács – Disenchantment – Religious Needing – L’Art Pour l’Art.

  16. Application of a Box-Behnken design for optimizing the extraction process of agave fructans (Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul).

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    Flores-Girón, Emmanuel; Salazar-Montoya, Juan Alfredo; Ramos-Ramírez, Emma Gloria

    2016-08-01

    Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul) is an industrially important crop in México since it is the only raw material appropriate to produce tequila, an alcoholic beverage. Nowadays, however, these plants have also a nutritional interest as a source of functional food ingredients, owing to the prebiotic potential of agave fructans. In this study, a Box-Behnken design was employed to determine the influence of temperature, liquid:solid ratio and time in a maceration process for agave fructan extraction and optimization. The developed regression model indicates that the selected study variables were statistical determinants for the extraction yield, and the optimal conditions for maximum extraction were a temperature of 60 °C, a liquid:solid ratio of 10:1 (v/w) and a time of 26.7 min, corresponding to a predicted extraction yield of 37.84%. Through selective separation via precipitation with ethanol, fructans with a degree of polymerization of 29.1 were obtained. Box-Behnken designs are useful statistical methods for optimizing the extraction process of agave fructans. A mixture of carbohydrates was obtained from agave powder. This optimized method can be used to obtain fructans for use as prebiotics or as raw material for obtaining functional oligosaccharides. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effects of sodium hypochlorite on Agave tequilana Weber bagasse fibers used to elaborate cyto and biocompatible hydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Carrillo, Karla Lizette; Nakasone, Kazuki; Sugita, Satoshi; Tagaya, Motohiro; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2014-09-01

    Waste bagasse of Agave tequilana-Weber fibers treated with sodium hydroxide was used to elaborate hydrogel films. The bagasse was offered in an alternative use for the preparation of hydrogel films by phase inversion method without crosslinking and further purification of cellulose. The effect on the properties of the obtained films was studied when the chemical treatment of the agave fibers was changed. It was found that the resultant hydrogels showed increment in tensile from 40 N/mm(2) to 56 N/mm(2) with the increase of sodium hypochlorite concentration from 1 to 10 vol.%, respectively. With regard to biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel films, platelet adhesion, clotting time and protein adsorption were investigated. Analysis of the morphology of adherent NIH3T3 fibroblast indicated that the projected cell area, aspect ratio and long axis gradually increased with the increment of sodium hypochlorite content in the agave treatment. It was presented that the chemical treatment affects cell adhesion and morphology and lignin content remains in the brown fibers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Polymorphism and methylation patterns in Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' plants propagated asexually by three different methods.

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    Díaz-Martínez, Miriam; Nava-Cedillo, Alejandro; Guzmán-López, José Alfredo; Escobar-Guzmán, Rocío; Simpson, June

    2012-04-01

    Genetic variation in three forms of asexually propagated Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' plants namely offsets, bulbils and in vitro cultured individuals was studied by AFLP analysis. Low levels of variation were observed between mother plants and offsets and a higher level between mother plant and bulbils. Families obtained from commercial plantations showed lower levels of variation in comparison to families grown as ornamentals. No variation was observed between the original explant and four generations of in vitro cultured plants. Epigenetic variation was also studied by analyzing changes in methylation patterns between mother plants and offspring in each form of asexual reproduction. Offsets and bulbils showed an overall decrease in methylation whereas in vitro cultured plants showed patterns specific to each generation: Generations 1 and 4 showed overall demethylation whereas Generations 2 and 3 showed increased methylation. Analysis of ESTs associated with transposable elements revealed higher proportions of ESTs from Ty1-copia-like, Gypsy and CACTA transposable elements in cDNA libraries obtained from pluripotent tissue suggesting a possible correlation between methylation patterns, expression of transposable element associated genes and somaclonal variation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ensemble clustering in visual working memory biases location memories and reduces the Weber noise of relative positions.

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    Lew, Timothy F; Vul, Edward

    2015-01-01

    People seem to compute the ensemble statistics of objects and use this information to support the recall of individual objects in visual working memory. However, there are many different ways that hierarchical structure might be encoded. We examined the format of structured memories by asking subjects to recall the locations of objects arranged in different spatial clustering structures. Consistent with previous investigations of structured visual memory, subjects recalled objects biased toward the center of their clusters. Subjects also recalled locations more accurately when they were arranged in fewer clusters containing more objects, suggesting that subjects used the clustering structure of objects to aid recall. Furthermore, subjects had more difficulty recalling larger relative distances, consistent with subjects encoding the positions of objects relative to clusters and recalling them with magnitude-proportional (Weber) noise. Our results suggest that clustering improved the fidelity of recall by biasing the recall of locations toward cluster centers to compensate for uncertainty and by reducing the magnitude of encoded relative distances.

  20. A prospective study of risk for Sturge-Weber syndrome in children with upper facial port-wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Anne-Sophie; Ezzedine, Khaled; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Barbarot, Sébastien; Vabres, Pierre; Miquel, Juliette; Balguerie, Xavier; Martin, Ludovic; Boralevi, Franck; Bessou, Pierre; Chateil, Jean-François; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine

    2015-03-01

    Upper facial port-wine stain (PWS) is a feature of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). Recent studies suggest that the distribution of the PWS corresponds to genetic mosaicism rather than to trigeminal nerve impairment. We sought to refine the cutaneous distribution of upper facial PWS at risk for SWS. This was a prospective multicenter study of consecutive cases of upper facial PWS larger than 1 cm² located in the ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve distribution in infants aged less than 1 year, seen in 8 French pediatric dermatology departments between 2006 and 2012. Clinical data, magnetic resonance imaging, and photographs were systematically collected and studied. PWS were classified into 6 distinct patterns. In all, 66 patients were included. Eleven presented with SWS (magnetic resonance imaging signs and seizure). Four additional infants had suspected SWS without neurologic manifestations. Hemifacial (odds ratio 7.7, P = .003) and median (odds ratio 17.08, P = .008) PWS patterns were found to be at high risk for SWS. A nonmedian linear pattern was not associated with SWS. Small number of patients translated to limited power of the study. Specific PWS distribution patterns are associated with an increased risk of SWS. These PWS patterns conform to areas of somatic mosaicism. Terminology stipulating ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve territory involvement in SWS should be abandoned. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Max Weber e Martin Heidegger: a centralidade da razão e a perda da liberdade

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    Edilene Maria de Carvalho Leal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A intenção desse artigo é analisar algumas ambivalências da modernidade, com destaque para a que consideramos a principal delas: a centralidade da razão como categoria analítica e como modelo das práticas sociais. Essa proposta é, evidentemente, uma proposta de análise teórica que se dará no âmbito específico da teoria social e da filosofia, principalmente desde interpretações produzidas por Max Weber e Martin Heidegger. Trata-se, em uma primeira instância, da tentativa de discutir criticamente as “autodescrições” que esses pensadores fizeram da modernidade. De um lado, a defesa weberiana da centralidade da razão; de outro, a crítica pós-metafísica heideggeriana dessa centralidade. Desse flagrante desencontro, podemos destacar um possível encontro analítico entre eles, ou seja, a crítica à perda da liberdade no contexto moderno.

  2. Max Weber e Martin Heidegger: a centralidade da razão e a perda da liberdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Maria de Carvalho Leal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A intenção desse artigo é analisar algumas ambivalências da modernidade, com destaque para a que consideramos a principal delas: a centralidade da razão como categoria analítica e como modelo das práticas sociais. Essa proposta é, evidentemente, uma proposta de análise teórica que se dará no âmbito específico da teoria social e da filosofia, principalmente desde interpretações produzidas por Max Weber e Martin Heidegger. Trata-se, em uma primeira instância, da tentativa de discutir criticamente as “autodescrições” que esses pensadores fizeram da modernidade. De um lado, a defesa weberiana da centralidade da razão; de outro, a crítica pós-metafísica heideggeriana dessa centralidade. Desse flagrante desencontro, podemos destacar um possível encontro analítico entre eles, ou seja, a crítica à perda da liberdade no contexto moderno.

  3. Application of Heuristic and Metaheuristic Algorithms in Solving Constrained Weber Problem with Feasible Region Bounded by Arcs

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    Igor Stojanović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous planar facility location problem with the connected region of feasible solutions bounded by arcs is a particular case of the constrained Weber problem. This problem is a continuous optimization problem which has a nonconvex feasible set of constraints. This paper suggests appropriate modifications of four metaheuristic algorithms which are defined with the aim of solving this type of nonconvex optimization problems. Also, a comparison of these algorithms to each other as well as to the heuristic algorithm is presented. The artificial bee colony algorithm, firefly algorithm, and their recently proposed improved versions for constrained optimization are appropriately modified and applied to the case study. The heuristic algorithm based on modified Weiszfeld procedure is also implemented for the purpose of comparison with the metaheuristic approaches. Obtained numerical results show that metaheuristic algorithms can be successfully applied to solve the instances of this problem of up to 500 constraints. Among these four algorithms, the improved version of artificial bee algorithm is the most efficient with respect to the quality of the solution, robustness, and the computational efficiency.

  4. Long-term intraocular pressure after combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy in glaucoma associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Devindra; Rathore, Aanchal; Sood, Ishaana; Kumar, Dinesh; Sood, Narender N

    2018-03-01

    Vision loss in Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), a rare congenital disorder, is primarily due to glaucoma. We reviewed the data of all consecutive SWS-associated glaucoma cases in patients who had undergone combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy (CTT) at a tertiary glaucoma facility between January 1993 and December 2015. We analyzed the preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal clarity, visual acuity, success rate, need for repeat surgery, and number of topical antiglaucoma medications needed at last follow-up. Twenty-six eyes of 20 patients with SWS (surgical age 0.7-96 months; mean 18.64 ± 29.74 months) had undergone primary CTT. The mean preoperative IOP was 32.76 ± 7.86 mm Hg (range 22-54 mm Hg) with medication (mean 3.11 ± 1.17; range 1-5). At the last follow-up (61-288 months); mean SD 134.73 ± 67.77 months), two eyes had IOP glaucoma in children. Long-term visual and surgical outcomes are encouraging.

  5. ISSUES OF LEGITIMIZING POLITICAL POWER IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY: MAX WEBER AND KARL JASPERS

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    Nicolae IUGA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of legitimizing political power has specific dimensions determined by the historical context. In the period following the First World War, democratic regimes dramatically collapsed due to ample protest movements against the political establishment from different countries, but also as a result of a serious political legitimation crisis, thus making way for the rise of totalitarian regimes of Fascism and Nazism. That time debates on the problem of legitimization political power are symptomatic. Due to the general perception regarding corruption in politics and to the political incapacity to deal with social problems, we can witness a decrease of trust in contemporary democratic regimes.In order to exemplify, in a brief expositive manner, my paper will present the topic of political legitimation approached by Max Weber and Karl Jaspers, in a selection of relevant texts issued by both authors during 1919-1931. The aim of this paper is to highlight the actuality, the validity of Weber’s and Jasper’s statements and also their capacity to give pertinent responses to questions such as: What role do the common values play in the legitimating of power in a democratic society? Are there any kinds of limits regarding the electoral legitimation? How can we make the difference between a legitimate appeal and an illegitimate one, between civism and terrorism?

  6. Complications from office sclerotherapy for epistaxis due to hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT or Osler-Weber-Rendu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, John E; Hunter, David; Goding, George S; Boyer, Holly C

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate adverse clinical outcomes following office-based sclerotherapy using sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) for epistaxis due to hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasias (HHT or Osler-Weber-Rendu). A retrospective chart review of 36 adult patients treated with STS sclerotherapy for severe and/or recurrent epistaxis due to HHT was performed. A total of 153 separate treatment sessions were analyzed. Each patient underwent an average of 4.3 sessions with an average of 7 intralesional injections per session. Bleeding during the procedure was experienced by 8 patients with a maximum reported blood loss of 200 mL in 1 patient, but less than 50 mL in all others. Seven patients reported some postinjection pain, which included nasal, cheek, and eye pain. Nasal congestion, sneezing, and vasovagal responses were each noted to occur 2 times. No complications of postprocedural visual loss, deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolus, transient ischemic attack (TIA)/stroke, or anaphylaxis were encountered. Conventional therapies used in the management of HHT-related epistaxis, such as laser coagulation, septodermoplasty, selective arterial embolization, and Young's occlusion each have specific associated complications, including worsened epistaxis, septal perforation, foul odor, nasal crusting, and compromised nasal breathing. STS is a safe office-based treatment option for HHT-mediated epistaxis that is associated with exceedingly few of the aforementioned serious sequelae. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  7. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Senyawa Flavonoid Ekstrak Etanol Buah Naga Merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus (F.A.C.Weber Briton & Rose

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    Siti Nuari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian mengenai isolasi dan identifikasi senyawa flavonoid dari ekstrak etanol buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus (F.A.C.Weber Briton & Rose.  Ekstrak buah naga merah diperoleh melalui maserasi serbuk buah naga merah dengan pelarut etanol 96%. Ekstrak etanol yang diperoleh di partisi dengan metode partisi cair-cair menggunakan pelarut n-heksana, etil asetat dan air. Hasil partisi ekstrak etil asetat  kemudian dilakukan pemisahan dengan Kromatografi vakum cair, sedangkan ekstrak air dihidrolisis terlebih dahulu dengan HCl lalu dipartisi dengan etil asetat (fraksi etil asetat. Berdasarkan  hasi pemurnian ekstrak etil asetat dan fraksi etil asetat dengan KLT Preparatif diperoleh 5 isolat tetapi hanya isolat 3 yang positif senyawa flavonoid. Hasil spektroskopi UV-Vis isolat 3 menghasilkan puncak pada 330 nm (pita I dan 280 nm (pita II, sedangkan pada penambahan pereaksi geser tidak mengalami pergeseran batokromik dan hipsokromik. Berdasarkan data-data yang diperoleh isolat 3 diduga merupakan golongan senyawa flavanon.

  8. MULTIPHASE DROPLET/SLUG BREAK-UP MECHANISM IN MICROFLUIDIC T-JUNCTIONS AT VARIOUS WEBER NUMBERS

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    Wan Leng (Dawn Leow

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE X-NONE The formation of immiscible liquid droplets, or slugs, in microchannels features the advantages of volume control and mixing enhancement over single-phase microflows. Although the applications of droplet-based microfluidics have been widely demonstrated, the fundamental physics governing droplet break-up remains an area of active research. This study defines an effective Weber (Weeff number that characterizes the interplay of interfacial tension, shear stress and channel pressure drop in driving slug formation in T-junction microchannel for a relative range of low, intermediate and high flow rates. The immiscible fluid system in this study consists of Tetradecane slug formation in Acetonitrile. The progressive deformation of slug interfaces during break-up events is observed. Experimental results indicate that, at a relatively low Weeff, clean slug break-up occurs at the intersection of the side and main channels. At intermediate Weeff, the connecting neck of the dispersed phase is stretched to a short and thin trail of laminar flow prior to breaking up a short distance downstream of the T-junction. At a relatively high Weeff, the connecting neck develops into a longer and thicker trail of laminar flow that breaks up further downstream of the main channel.

  9. Síndrome de Sturge-Weber: relato de caso dos achados da avaliação fonoaudiológica Sturge-Weber syndrome: a case report on the results of the phonoaudiological evaluation

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    Sara Virgínia Paiva Santos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: avaliação fonoaudiológica em síndrome de rara ocorrência. PROCEDIMENTOS: descrever o desempenho apresentado na avaliação fonoaudiológica clínica de uma paciente com diagnóstico genético de Síndrome de Sturge-Weber. Para isso, utilizou-se de avaliação da motricidade e funções orofaciais, das habilidades pragmática e semântica da linguagem oral, processos perceptuais visual e auditivo, funções cognitivas e aplicação do Denver II. RESULTADOS: na avaliação da motricidade orofacial a paciente apresentou anomalias de estruturas ósseas da face, inadequação quanto à morfologia, mobilidade e tônus de todos os órgãos fonoarticulatórios, presença de reflexos de procura e sucção primitivos. Na avaliação das habilidades pragmática e semântica da linguagem oral, processos perceptuais visual e auditivo, funções cognitivas, a paciente apresentou exploração sensoriomotora, com pouca interação e atenção compartilhada e dificuldade de contato de olhos; comunicação predominantemente gestual, não havendo registros de atos comunicativos verbais. Apresentou funções comunicativas de pedido de ação, exclamativa, exploratória e protesto, e grande uso de função não focalizada. A compreensão oral mostrou-se alterada, gestos representativos esporádicos, processos perceptuais funcionais e lateralidade indefinida. No Denver II, falhou nas áreas pessoal-social, linguagem, motor fino e grosseiro. CONCLUSÃO: a paciente apresentou diagnóstico fonoaudiológico de Distúrbio de Linguagem e Disfagia Neurogênica Orofaríngea moderada sendo necessária intervenção fonoaudiológica a fim de maximizar a comunicação, bem como adequar as estruturas e funções motoras orofaciais.BACKGROUND: phonoaudiological evaluation of rare occurrence syndrome. PROCEDURES: describe the performance shown in phonoaudiological clinical evaluation of a patient with genetic diagnosis of Sturge-Weber Syndrome. Evaluation of the drive

  10. Triatominae et Cactaceae : un risque pour la transmission de la Trypanosomose américaine dans le péridomicile (nord-est du Brésil

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    Emperaire L.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Les observations de terrain réalisées dans le nord-est du Brésil ont montré la fréquente association, dans l’espace péridomiciliaire, entre un cactus, le Cereus jamacaru, la présence de nids dans ses branches et celle de Rhodnius neglectus et de Triatoma pseudomaculata, espèces vectrices du parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, agent de la maladie de Chagas. L’analyse des variables architecturales de cette Cactaceae montre que la présence de nids, et donc d’insectes, est inféodée aux pratiques traditionnelles de gestion de ce cactus. Cette étude souligne l’intérêt d’une approche intégrée de l’écologie des Triatominae pour l’identification des variables indicatrices de risque.

  11. Uso, manejo y conservación de Stenocereus griseus (Haworth Buxb. en la Alta Guajira colombiana

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    Soraya Villalobos Hernández

    2006-07-01

    categorías de daño, de las cuales las más importantes son las ocasionadas por corte con machete (tipo I, insectos (Tipo II y cabras (Tipo III. El uso actual de Stenocereus griseus se restringe a la colecta de la madera seca (“yotojoro” para construcción de viviendas tradicionales en la cultura Wayuu; la colecta de frutos en temporada de cosecha y la cosecha de tallos jóvenes para alimento de cabras y cercas vivas. La demanda anual de “yotojoro” está sujeta a la necesidad de construcción de los habitantes del área, que es definida como ocasional. El método actual de cosecha y extracción del mismo no está generando desequilibrio local en el mantenimiento de la especie. La demanda de cardones para cercas vivas y pastoreo es constante durante todo el año y generan el mayor impacto de daño. Finalmente, se discuten los principales problemas de conservación de la especie, y se recomienda establecer alternativas de manejo para las actividades de pastoreo, dado que con el ritmo actual de extracción, la población de cactus está expuesta a una inminente disminución local.

  12. The Role of Leaf Volatiles of Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven in the Attraction of Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Saubhik; Karmakar, Amarnath; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Barik, Anandamay

    2017-07-01

    Larvae and adults of Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feed on the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae), commonly known as willow primrose, which is considered a biocontrol agent of the weed. Volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 4, 12, and 36 h of continuous feeding by A. cyanea larvae or adult females and after mechanical damaging were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. Twenty nine compounds were identified from undamaged plants. 2Z-Penten-1-ol, geraniol, and 1-tridecanol were present in all plants damaged by larvae. In contrast, feeding by adults caused the release of 2Z-penten-1-ol only after 12 and 36 h; whereas geraniol and 1-tridecanol appeared only after 36 h. Farnesyl acetone was detected after 12 and 36 h of feeding by larvae and after 36 h of feeding by adults. Farnesene was detected after 36 h of feeding by larvae and adults. Linalool was unique after 36 h of feeding by larvae. In Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays, A. cyanea females were attracted to volatiles after 36 h of feeding by larvae or adults compared to volatiles released by undamaged plants. The insects were attracted to five synthetic compounds: 3-hexanol, α-pinene, linalool oxide, geraniol, and phytol. Synthetic blends were more attractive than individual compounds. Compared to undamaged plants, volatiles released by plants, damaged by conspecific individuals, were more attractive to A. cyanea females, due to elevated emissions of 3-hexanol, α-pinene, linalool oxide, geraniol, and phytol.

  13. Síndrome de Rendu-Osler-Weber: presentación de un caso clínico

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    Freyli Bustamante

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Rendu-Osler-Weber (SROW, conocido también como Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditaria (THH, es un desorden vascular infrecuente. Se trata de una alteración vascular displásica multisistémica de carácter autosómico dominante, con diversas complicaciones, siendo las malformaciones arterio-venosas (MAV responsables de la morbi-mortalidad de los pacientes cuando no son diagnosticadas ni tratadas a tiempo. Muchas veces este síndrome presenta síntomas sutiles, por lo que puede pasar desapercibida clínicamente. Presentamos un caso de una paciente femenina de 51 años, con historia de epistaxis frecuentes quien acude a nuestro hospital por presentar cefalea de fuerte intensidad, meningismo y pérdida de la consciencia. La tomografía axial computada (TAC de cráneo identificó hemorragia sub aracnoidea (HSA difusa. La angiografía cerebral permitió identificar aneurisma arteria comunicante anterior (AcoA roto que fue tratado por vía endovascular, sin eventualidades. Además, se observó telangectasias mucosas nasales múltiples y fistula arterio-venosa (FAV dural occipital izquierda. Estudios ulteriores permitieron identificar MAV pulmonares múltiples. Se confirmó el diagnóstico de SROW, con criterios de diagnóstico vigentes (criterios de Curazao. Durante los tres meses posteriores a su egreso el paciente presentó hemoptisis severa y disnea, que no pudo ser tratada a tiempo por lo que falleció.

  14. La comunidad según Max Weber: desde el tipo ideal de la Vergemeinschaftung hasta la comunidad de los combatientes

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    Pablo de Marinis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La problematización de la comunidad es omnipresente en la contemporaneidad. Tanto en la forma de artefactos construidos "desde arriba" por la programática estatal, como en la forma de agrupamientos identitarios conformados "desde abajo", proliferan por doquier las referencias comunitarias. Pero no es la primera vez que esto sucede: también a finales del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX la problemática de la comunidad estaba al orden del día en la agenda político-intelectual. De maneras diversas, los sociólogos clásicos intentaron dar cuenta de ella. Este texto pondrá el foco en el pensamiento de Max Weber. Allí, no sólo se verá una concepción de la comunidad entendida como antecedente histórico de la sociedad moderna (rasgo que justamente las historias de la sociología suelen enfatizar en mayor medida, sino también otras dos nociones de la comunidad: en una, ella aparece como concepto sociológico fundamental, como un tipo ideal abstracto y general de relaciones sociales; en la otra, la comunidad adquiere un carácter político-utópico de primer rango, y es el nombre que se le pone a aquellos acontecimientos que quizás puedan recalentar el lazo social en un contexto societal signado por la racionalización y el desencanto. De la mano de este análisis, se espera encontrar en aquellas viejas elaboraciones weberianas alguna inspiración para comprender los perfiles de estas variadas configuraciones comunitarias del presente.

  15. Natural history and magnetic resonance imaging follow-up in 9 Sturge-Weber Syndrome patients and clinical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Vrajesh; Pujar, Suresh; Munot, Pinki; Maheshwari, Shailendra; Mehta, Nirad

    2007-04-01

    The natural history of Sturge-Weber Syndrome is variable where some patients have refractory epilepsy and persistent neurologic deficits while others do well. Also, evolution of MRI abnormalities is largely unknown. This long-term follow-up study tries to address these two issues. This retrospective and later prospective study followed 9 children with confirmed SWS. Clinical details of seizures, stroke-like episodes, neurologic and developmental deficits were ascertained specifically. Patients were divided into those with onset below or after 6 months of age for analysis. Disease was classified as active or inactive and correlations were made with the use of aspirin. All past, as well as prospectively acquired imaging was reviewed by two independent blinded neuroradiologists and the images were analysed as ictal (temporally related to seizure/stroke-like event) or interictal. Degree and extent of leptomeningeal enhancement was specifically looked for. Four boys and five girls were followed up for a mean of 6.1 years. Disease activity subsided in 8/9. Early-onset patients had a severe early course with significant residual deficits while late-onset patients did uniformly well. In 6 patients where aspirin was used, a stable course ensued. There was a significant increase in degree/extent of leptomeningeal enhancement during an ictus which returned to the baseline in the interictal state in all 7 patients where both images were available. Focal cerebral atrophy worsened in early-onset cases. In conclusion, SWS patients with onset of seizures/stroke-like events before 6 months of age seem to do worse with a severe early course and persistent neurologic deficits. However the course stabilizes after 5 years of age in most. Late-onset SWS patients have a benign course. Aspirin use is associated with a stable course though further studies are needed. The leptomeningeal enhancement appears to increase during acute events before returning to baseline suggesting that extent

  16. [Osteosynthesis of Weber B ankle fractures using the one-third tubular plate and refixation of the syndesmosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, C; Lesche, V; Dresing, K

    2015-08-01

    Anatomical reconstruction and recovery to complete range of function of the upper ankle joint. Therefore, the most stable but least invasive osteosynthesis is required to enable the patient early functional mobilization. Supination and pronation fracture with luxation mechanism of the upper ankle joint with or without rupture of the syndesmosis. Open fracture of the distal fibula including displaced and instable fractures. Severe peripheral arterial occlusive disease; contaminated open fractures (≥ 2nd degree); pediatric fractures with open epiphyseal plate. Supine position with ipsilateral slightly elevated hip and knee. Incision of about 8 cm length along the dorsal edge of the distal fibula. When reaching the lateral malleolus, a slight ventral angulation is necessary. Open reduction through this posterolateral approach. Secure the reposition using an interfragmentary lag screw and anatomically adjusted third tubular plate. Followed by a revision of the syndesmosis and transfixation using a tricortical position screw. Mobilization on day 1 after surgery with reduced weight-bearing when position screw is not applied; when position screw is implanted with ground contact for 6 weeks. Removal of position screw under local anesthesia after 6 weeks and pain-controlled full weight-bearing. Removal of metal after 1.5 years. Open reduction using the third tubular plate and an interfragmentary lag screw through a dorsolateral approach used in 90 % of all Weber B fractures in our clinic. Additional revision of a ruptured syndesmosis performed in 70 % and transfixation through a position screw in 40 %. Persisting instability in the upper ankle joint significantly reduced after surgical treatment compared to a conservative approach. Revisions necessary in 3.7 % of patients and pseudarthrosis diagnosed in 0.9 %. It has been shown that the preoperative x-ray and clinical examination is limited in detecting a ruptured syndesmosis.

  17. Significant variations in Weber fraction for changes in inter-onset interval of a click train over the range of intervals between 5 and 300 ms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungan, Pekcan; Yagcioglu, Suha

    2014-01-01

    It is a common psychophysical experience that a train of clicks faster than ca. 30/s is heard as one steady sound, whereas temporal patterns occurring on a slower time scale are perceptually resolved as individual auditory events. This phenomenon suggests the existence of two different neural mechanisms for processing of auditory sequences with fast and slow repetition rates. To test this hypothesis we used Weber's law, which is known to be valid for perception of time intervals. Discrimination thresholds and Weber fractions (WFs) for 12 base inter-click intervals (ICIs) between 5 and 300 ms were measured from 10 normal hearing subjects by using an "up-down staircase" algorithm. The mean WF, which is supposed to be constant for any perceptual mechanism according to Weber's law, displayed significant variation with click rate. WFs decreased sharply from an average value of around 5% at repetition rates below 20 Hz to about 0.5% at rates above 67 Hz. Parallel to this steep transition, subjects reported that at rates below 20 Hz they perceived periodicity as a fast tapping rhythm, whereas at rates above 50 Hz the perceived quality was a pitch. Such a dramatic change in WF indicated the existence of two separate mechanisms for processing the click rate for long and short ICIs, based on temporal and spectral features, respectively. A range of rates between 20 and 33 Hz, in which the rate discrimination threshold was maximum, appears to be a region where both of the presumed time and pitch mechanisms are relatively insensitive to rate alterations. Based on this finding, we speculate that the interval-based perception mechanism ceases to function at around 20 Hz and the spectrum-based mechanism takes over at around 33 Hz; leaving a transitional gap in between, where neither of the two mechanisms is as sensitive. Another notable finding was a significant drop in WF for ICI = 100 ms, suggesting a connection of time perception to the electroencephalography alpha rhythm.

  18. Multimodal Imaging in Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber Syndrome: Clinical Photography, Computed Tomoangiography, Infrared Thermography, and 99mTc-Phytate Lymphoscintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Wan; Song, Heesung

    2017-12-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old man who presented with a 12-year history of progressive fatigue, feeling hot, excessive sweating, and numbness in the left arm. He had undergone multimodal imaging and was diagnosed as having Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS). This is a rare congenital disease, defined by combinations of nevus flammeus, venous and lymphatic malformation, and hypertrophy of the affected limbs. Lower extremities are affected mostly. Conventional modalities for evaluating KTWS are ultrasonography, CT, MRI, lymphoscintigraphy, and angiography. There are few reports on multimodal imaging of upper extremities of KTWS patients, and this is the first report of an infrared thermography in KTWS.

  19. Aportaciones de la mitología nórdica para comprender la modernidad: revisión de Max Weber

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    Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La antropología nos ha enseñado que se pueden alcanzar interesantes conclusiones cuando se llevan a cabo estudios en forma interdisciplinar y cuando se observa las diferencias de los “otros” desde una posición “de nativo”. Además, la diferencia de estos otros puede ser contrastada con las “nuestras” y de esa forma conocer las contradicciones y estructuraciones de la cultura en forma introspectiva. En concordancia con ello y luego del desarrollo expuesto, consideramos oportuno señalar que Max Weber ha omitido, en parte por razones que desconocemos el rol de la mitología germánica antigua en la configuración del Ethos Protestante. Misteriosamente o mejor dicho por la propia influencia familiar, el profesor de Friburgo giró su cabeza hacia el mundo de la piedad, la humildad y la predestinación insertas en la reforma. Si bien nuestro sociólogo no equivocó la identificación de los elementos que han conformado al capitalismo, evitó claramente formular mayores consideraciones sobre el papel de la mitología germánica de la antigüedad clásica en el pensamiento indo-europeo. En ese contexto, nuestro artículo pretende ser una contribución que sea desarrollada en futuros abordajes por otros autores.Palabras Claves: Weber; Capitalismo; Secularización; Modernidad; Mitología Germánica._________________________AbstractAnthropology has taught us that interesting conclusions can be reached when carrying out interdisciplinary studies. Also, when looking at the differences in the "other" from a position "native". Furthermore, unlike these others may be contrasted with "our". In this connection, it should be noted that Max Weber has omitted the role of the ancient germanic mythology in shaping the protestant ethos. By family influence, Professor of Freiburg turned his head toward the world of piety, and predestination own reform. Although no mistake in identifying the elements that have made capitalism, avoided making further

  20. Sturge-Weber syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person's signs and symptoms, and may include: Anticonvulsant medicines for seizures Eye drops or surgery to ... JW III, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 596.

  1. Weber County Hydrology Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. Jochem Weber | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer at NREL's Water Power Program, where he pursues a holistic deductive system approach to problem solving in research, science, engineering, technology, innovation, and management. He holds degrees in

  3. Roland Weber second part

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity of storage rot in Denmark and Northern Germany. A new look at Hot-Water treatments of apples.......Biodiversity of storage rot in Denmark and Northern Germany. A new look at Hot-Water treatments of apples....

  4. Roland Weber first part

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The Sooty bloch complex - species identity, infection biology and control options. Rubbery rot and Black summer rot - two new diseases of apple......The Sooty bloch complex - species identity, infection biology and control options. Rubbery rot and Black summer rot - two new diseases of apple...

  5. Fructan active enzymes (FAZY) activities and biosynthesis of fructooligosaccharides in the vacuoles of Agave tequilana Weber Blue variety plants of different age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-Mojica, Erika; González de la Vara, Luis E; López, Mercedes G

    2017-02-01

    Biosynthesis of agave fructans occurs in mesontle vacuoles which showed fluctuations in FAZY activities and synthesized a diverse spectrum of fructooligosaccharide isomers. Agave tequilana Weber Blue variety is an important agronomic crop in Mexico. Fructan metabolism in A. tequilana exhibits changes in fructan content, type, degree of polymerization (DP), and molecular structure. Specific activities of vacuolar fructan active enzymes (FAZY) in A. tequilana plants of different age and the biosynthesis of fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) were analyzed in this work. Vacuoles from mesontle (stem) protoplasts were isolated and collected from 2- to 7-year-old plants. For the first time, agave fructans were identified in the vacuolar content by HPAEC-PAD. Several FAZY activities (1-SST, 6-SFT, 6G-FFT, 1-FFT, and FEH) with fluctuations according to the plant age were found in protein vacuolar extracts. Among vacuolar FAZY, 1-SST activities appeared in all plant developmental stages, as well as 1-FFT and FEH activities. The enzymes 6G-FFT and 6-SST showed only minimal activities. Lowest and highest FAZY activities were found in 2- and 6-year-old plants, respectively. Synthesized products (FOS) were analyzed by TLC and HPAEC-PAD. Vacuolar FAZYs yielded large FOS isomers diversity, being 7-year-old plants the ones that synthesized a greater variety of fructans with different DP, linkages, and molecular structures. Based on the above, we are proposing a model for the FAZY activities constituting the FOS biosynthetic pathways in Agave tequilana Weber Blue variety.

  6. Ecos da contribuição de Guerreiro Ramos para a divulgação da obra de Weber no campo de estudos organizacionais (EOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Moreira Camara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Em 1946, Guerreiro Ramos publica a resenha "A sociologia de Max Weber - sua importância para a teoria e a prática da administração", na Revista do Serviço Público - RSP. Nela, mais do que apresentar ao leitor a obra de Weber Economia e sociedade, com foco em sua metodologia, também procura demonstrar sua aplicabilidade no trato das questões da administração pública e sua relevância num país "culturalmente colonial" como o Brasil. A considerar as especificidades da produção de conhecimento no campo de estudos organizacionais e o fato de Guerreiro Ramos expressar, no ensaio, uma visão que não é a que prevaleceu no campo, mas que é fiel à sociologia compreensiva e à metodologia ideal-típica, cabe aqui o esforço de reiterar o referido trabalho de Guerreiro Ramos a partir da proposição de uma discussão de caráter teórico conceitual com base no conteúdo resenhado relacionado à construção metodológica da crítica ideal-típica.

  7. MICROPROGAPACIÓN DE AGAVE (Agave tequilana Weber. var. Azul A TRAVÉS DE YEMAS AXILARES

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    A. Angeles-Espino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, se le conoce comúnmente como “Agave Azul o Agave Tequilero”. La planta de agave es un producto económicamente importante de México debido a que es el ingrediente base del Tequila, el cual es una bebida popular destilada. La micropropagación es una técnica importante para la multiplicación masiva en agave y la respuesta a los reguladores de crecimiento debe considerarse en el desarrollo de cada protocolo. El objetivo del trabajo fue obtener plántulas de agave a partir del cultivo de meristemos in vitro. Se colectaron hijuelos de seis meses en plantaciones de 3 años de edad. Los meristemos se lavaron y desinfestaron con alcohol al 70% y una solución de hipoclorito al 3% por 15 minutos y se dio triple enjuague en condiciones de asepsia en la cámara de flujo laminar. Los explantes se sembraron en el medio Murashige y Skoog (MS, suplementado con 24.6 µM de AIB y 46.46 μM de Cinetina, 30 g/L de sacarosa y 8 g/L de agar para su solidificación. El medio se vertió en frascos de 100 mL de capacidad a razón de 25 mL y se esterilizó en autoclave por 15 min a 121°C. Se sembró un explante por frasco y se colocaron en la cámara de crecimiento a 27°C con 16 horas luz. La inducción de los brotes se presentó a partir de la cuarta semana posterior a la siembra. Los brotes obtenidos se multiplicaron transfiriéndose a medio MS suplementado con 0.1 mg L-1 de AIB y 46.46 μM de Cinetina. El desarrollo de las plántulas se obtuvo a la cuarta semana después del inicio de la inducción de los brotes. La micropropagación de plántulas de agave a partir de yemas axilares, se completó en un lapso de 10 semanas a partir de la siembra de los meristemos. Al considerar el tiempo requerido para la obtención de vitroplántulas de agave, se confirmó que la técnica de micropropagación es un proceso eficiente para la obtenci

  8. DIAGNÓSTICO TARDÍO DE INTOXICACIÓN POR FENITOÍNA EN UN PACIENTE CON SÍNDROME DE STURGE-WEBER

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    Yesenia M Huerta-Collado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La Fenitoína es un fármaco antiepiléptico utilizado comúnmente en crisis focales y tónico-clónicas generalizadas. Este fármaco tiene una cinética no lineal compleja, alta unión a proteínas y una ventana terapéutica estrecha, por lo cual la intoxicación se convierte en un riesgo latente. El cuadro clínico de intoxicación por fenitoína está conformado por alteración de la función cerebelosa y vestibular, somnolencia, debilidad generalizada, visión bo­rrosa, movimientos coreo-atetósicos y coma. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 20 años de edad con diagnóstico de síndrome de Sturge-Weber asociado a crisis epilépticas parciales complejas tratado con 300 mg de fenitoína diaria durante tres meses, tiempo en el que presenta síntomas progresivos caracterizados por somnolencia, visión borrosa, imposibilidad para la marcha, disartria y movimientos involuntarios coreo-atetósicos que fueron interpretados como parte de su enfermedad hasta antes de su ingreso al Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú. El paciente ingresa con un título de 75,6 ug/ml de fenitoína en plasma, por lo que se decide el retiro del fármaco y su reemplazo por fenobarbital. El cuadro clínico fue remitiendo conforme disminuían los títulos de fenitoína en el paciente. Interpretación: La evaluación de factores asociados al metabolismo y monitorización periódica de los niveles séricos de fenitoína en los pacientes que reciben este fármaco es crucial, asimismo es importante el conocimiento de síntomas que indiquen toxicidad para que no sean confundidos con manifestaciones presentes en enfermedades subyacentes como el síndrome de Sturge-Weber en este caso. Palabras Clave: Atetosis, Fenitoína, síndrome cerebeloso, síndrome Sturge-Weber, toxicidad

  9. Historicismo, sujeto y moral (Max Weber y el «mito de la transparencia de la razón»

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    Valdecantos, Antonio

    1990-11-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Recurso frecuente de lo que hoy reconstruimos como Ilustración fue desarbolar supersticiones y mitos. Es, sin embargo. lugar común redargüir que quien derriba ídolos no está libre de edificar otros nuevos (ni -tópico éste que cunde por doquier- de convertir su gesto iconoclasta en mito fundacional. No menos acostumbrado es apuntar a Max Weber como al primer desvelador de algún que otro episodio sobresaliente de la historia de la razón ilustrada, ya sea para abundar en su diagnóstico, ya para intentar salir de lo que se tiene por su «círculo hechizado ». En lo que sigue, se trata de rastrear algunas de las claves configuradoras de la crítica weberiana de la cultura procurando retrotraer a su desmantelamiento metodológico del ideal historicista, los términos en que elabora su problematízacíón del sujeto rnoderno. La inversión semántica de las categorías centrales de la epistemología y la Weltanschauung del historicísmo alemán decimonónico permite a Max Weber descubrir patologías del paradigma ilustrado allí donde se suele situar un momento de critica del mismo. Siguiendo los pasos de esta estrategia weberiana, nos es posible reconstruir la noción hípostasiada de racionalidad y de sujeto que Weber parece denunciar como tentación dogmática de la razón ilustrada. El programa weberiano constituye así el desenmascaramiento de un relato complaciente de lo moderno -al que llamo el «mito de la transparencia de la razóns-ey sobre ese supuesto cabe releer sus propuestas éticas más controvertidas, en particular la distinción entre «ética de convicción» y "ética de responsabílidad ».

  10. Anatomy of Brazilian Cereeae (subfamily Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger and Brasilicereus Backeberg Anatomia de espécies brasileiras pertencentes à tribo Cereeae (subfamília Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger and Brasilicereus Backeberg

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    Patricia Soffiatti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available (Anatomy of Brazilian Cereeae (subfamily Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger wâBrasilicereus Backeberg. Arrojadoa, Stephanocereus and Brasilicereus are endemic Brazilian Cereeae, occurring along the Espinhaço Range, in the campos rupestres, cerrados and caatingas, from northern Minas Gerais to southern Bahia. The genera are columnar, erect to semi-erect cacti, except for one species, A bahiensis, which is globose. This study describes the anatomy of dermal, fundamental and vascular systems, aiming to find diagnostic characters for the genera and species. Basal portions of stems were sectioned transversely and longitudinally, and stained with Astrablue and Safranin. The species share a uniseriate epidermis, with thick cuticle; well developed collenchymatic hypodermis, containing prismatic crystals; cortex with numerous mucilage cells, druses and vascular bundles; outside cortex as a palisade parenchyma; periderm composed of lignified cork cells alternating with suberized cells; pheloderm consisting of a few layers of thin-walled cells; phloem composed of solitary or multiple of two to three sieve tube elements, companion cells, axial and radial parenchyma; secondary xylem with solitary to multiple vessels, with simple perforation plates and alternate bordered to semi-bordered pits; axial parenchyma scanty vasicentric to incomplete; libriform septate fibres; large rays. Unlignified parenchyma is seen in the secondary xylem, varying from a few cells to bands among axial and radial elements. The following are considered diagnostic characters: the shape of lignified phellem cells, cubic to radially elongate, which individualizes S. leucostele; an underdeveloped hypodermis and the occurrence of sclereids in the cortex are exclusive to Brasilicereus markgrqfii.(Anatomia de espécies brasileiras pertencentes à tribo Cereeae (subfamília Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger and

  11. Una revisión histórica de los métodos clásicos de resolución del problema de Fermat-Weber.

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    Ma Belén Cobacho Tornel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El problema de Weber consiste en calcular la localizaci´on ´optima de un punto de modo que sea m´ınima la suma ponderada de las distancias desde dicho punto a un conjunto de puntos dados. Este problema, que tiene su aplicacion economica en el ambito de la localizaci´on y que ha sido ampliamente tratado en la literatura cientıfica, tiene como origen una cuestion matematica formulada en el siglo XVII por Fermat. Los primeros algoritmos de resolucion, propuestos por Torricelli y Simpson, estaban basados en razonamientos puramente geometricos, aunque tambien es destacable la existencia la denominada m´aquina de Varignon, un ingenio mecanico que permite determinar el ´optimo del problema de Weber. A pesar de que estos m´etodos son citados en numerosas fuentes bibliograficas, las demostraciones de los teoremas en los que se sustentan no son tan accesibles para investigadores y docentes por tratarse de textos clasicos con varios siglos de antig¨uedad. En este trabajo, ademas de realizar una revisi´on de diversos m´etodos empleados a lo largo de la historia para resolver el problema de Weber, se presentan demostraciones basadas en argumentos geometricos y fısicos que demuestran la veracidad de estos algoritmos, ası como algunas conclusiones y deducciones sobre el problema de Weber que se extraen de los razonamientos presentados.

  12. Burocratización y racionalización en Max Weber a la luz de las interpretaciones actuales de su obra

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    Alexis Emanuel Gros

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone presentar de forma sucinta y sistemática la teoría de la burocracia de Max Weber y problematizar el rol que esta juega en sus reflexiones sobre el proceso de racionalización occidental (okzidentale Rationalisierung. Para ello, se analizan textos centrales del autor como Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, Politik als Beruf y Die protestantische Ethik und der "Geist“ des Kapitalismus, entre otros. La exposición se guía en las más recientes interpretaciones germanoparlantes de la obra weberiana, a saber: las de Dirk Kaesler, Hans-Peter Müller, Uwe Barrelmeyer y Volker Kruse; y Harmut Rosa, David Strecker y Andreas Kottmann.

  13. Imaging findings of arteriovenous malformations involving lung and liver in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia(Osler-weber-rendu disease): two cases report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Jeong Geun; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Seong, Su Ok

    1999-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) or Osler-Weber-Rendu disease is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by repeated episodes of bleeding. Multiple telangiectases consisting of thin-walled, dilated vascular channels with arteriovenous communication may involve, for example, mucocutaneous tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, and the liver, lung, and brain. We report the imaging findings of two cases of HHT involving arteriovenous malformation of both the lungs and liver, a rare condition. Chest radiography revealed a round mass, while helical CT showed a feeding artery and draining vein with arteriovenous malformation in the lung. Color Doppler sonography revealed an enlarged and tortuous hepatic artery with high systolic velocity. CT demonstrated an enlarged hepatic artery, arteriovenous shunt, and early draining hepatic vein in the liver. Celiac angiography showed arteriovenous malformation

  14. Weber Stefan, Damascus. Ottoman Modernity and Urban Transformation, 1808-1918, Aarhus, Aarhus University Press, 2009, 2 volumes, 464 + 664 p., 7 planches.

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    Brigitte Marino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage monumental en deux volumes est issu d’une thèse de doctorat que Stefan Weber a élaborée alors qu’il était membre du Deutsche Archäologische Institut (DAI, à Damas, et soutenue à l’Université de Berlin en 2001. Comme ses prédécesseurs allemands –d’abord K. Wulzinger et C. Watzinger (1924, puis D. Sack (1989 –, l’auteur apporte une importante contribution à notre connaissance de la ville de Damas. Il s’interroge sur la modernité ottomane qui a transformé la ville au cours du xixe...

  15. GC-MS characterization of n-hexane soluble fraction from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H. Wigg.) aerial parts and its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan; Petkova, Nadezhda; Tumbarski, Julian; Dincheva, Ivayla; Badjakov, Ilian; Denev, Panteley; Pavlov, Atanas

    2018-01-26

    A comparative investigation of n-hexane soluble compounds from aerial parts of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H. Wigg.) collected during different vegetative stages was carried out. The GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane (unpolar) fraction showed the presence of 30 biologically active compounds. Phytol [14.7% of total ion current (TIC)], lupeol (14.5% of TIC), taraxasteryl acetate (11.4% of TIC), β-sitosterol (10.3% of TIC), α-amyrin (9.0% of TIC), β-amyrin (8.3% of TIC), and cycloartenol acetate (5.8% of TIC) were identified as the major components in n-hexane fraction. The unpolar fraction exhibited promising antioxidant activity - 46.7 mmol Trolox equivalents/g extract (determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method). This fraction demonstrated insignificant antimicrobial activity and can be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Imaging findings of arteriovenous malformations involving lung and liver in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia(Osler-weber-rendu disease): two cases report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jeong Geun; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Seong, Su Ok [Cheongju St. Mary' s Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) or Osler-Weber-Rendu disease is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by repeated episodes of bleeding. Multiple telangiectases consisting of thin-walled, dilated vascular channels with arteriovenous communication may involve, for example, mucocutaneous tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, and the liver, lung, and brain. We report the imaging findings of two cases of HHT involving arteriovenous malformation of both the lungs and liver, a rare condition. Chest radiography revealed a round mass, while helical CT showed a feeding artery and draining vein with arteriovenous malformation in the lung. Color Doppler sonography revealed an enlarged and tortuous hepatic artery with high systolic velocity. CT demonstrated an enlarged hepatic artery, arteriovenous shunt, and early draining hepatic vein in the liver. Celiac angiography showed arteriovenous malformation.

  17. Possible Threat for Middle East Inland Water: an Exotic and Invasive Species, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991) in Asi River, Turkey (Pisces: Loricariidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Şükran Yalçın Özdilek

    2015-01-01

    Ortadoğu iç suları için muhtemel tehdit: Asi Nehri’nde egzotik ve işgalci bir tür Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991) (Pisces: Loricariidae). Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus bireyleri Güney Amerika kökenli olup, bu egzotik ve işgalci türü bireyleri Kuzey Amerika ve Uzakdoğu ülkelerine dağılmışlardır. Orta Doğu’da yer alan Asi Nehri’nin Türkiye sınırları dahilinde daha önce kayıtlarda bulunmayan bir P. disjunctivus bireyi yakalanmıştır. P. disjunctivus Asi Nehri’nde potansiyel olarak işg...

  18. Hemodynamics in the Sturge-Weber syndrome utilizing stable Xe-CT; With special reference to the perfusion reserve and the epileptic focus activated by megimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okudaira, Yojiro; Bandoh, Kuniaki; Ito, Masanori; Sato, Kiyoshi; Tsuji, Masahiro (Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-02-01

    In 4 Sturge-Weber-syndrome child patients with calcified lesions mainly in the occipital lobe, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined with stable Xe-CT in the resting state and after iv injection of acetazolamide (AA) and megimide (M), with the purpose of examining factors affecting deterioration of neurologic manifestations and the influence of lobectomy. In the resting state, rCBF of the temporal and occipital areas was significantly lower on the affected than unaffected sides. The side-to-side asymmetry of rCBF in the affected and unaffected sides decreased from the frontal to temporal and occipital areas. It was indistinct after AA injection because cerebral vasoreactivity became higher on the affected side. A low rCBF in association with a high cerebral vasoreactivity on the lesion side suggested that the low rCBF matched the low cerebral metabolism of the brain area affected by leptomeningeal angiomatosis. However, cerebral vasoreactivity to AA depended on clinical presentations. Two patients presented with progressive mental retardation. The other two patients were in clinically stable condition. Cerebral vasoreactivity to AA in the former two cases was poorer on both the affected and unaffected sides than that in the latter two cases. M administration was associated with a significantly decreased rCBF in the area of leptomeningeal angiomatosis and cerebral calcification and with a significantly increased rCBF of the 'pericalcified' area. In one patient undergoing extended occipital lobectomy on the affected side, no decrease in rCBF was noted in the resting state in either affected or unaffected side, and cerebral vasoreactivity to AM on the unaffected side was apparently increased. Both circulatory disturbance and seizure appear to play a role in clinical presentations, as well as their deterioration in Sturge-Weber-Syndrome patients. (N.K.).

  19. Propuesta de una cosechadora-desmenuzadora de Agave tequilana Weber para la producción de bioetanol y revisión de los procedimientos existentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador García Barrón

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agave crop (Agave tequilana Weber is an option to produce bioethanol as biofuel. By-hand-harvesting of agave is 75 % of crop production costs, resulting in a higher production cost of bioethanol than for other crops. This paper presents a proposal of agave shredder-harvester, for which are considered: existing proposals, the methodology of current crop harvest, agricultural machines and mechanisms of interest, requirements of the raw material for bioethanol production. Agave harvester proposed considers shredding of leaves and pineapple retaking ideas of gridding mechanisms such as milling of agave, shredding crop residues machines. The mechanization of the harvest of agave for production of bioethanol presents feasibility that will require a research to design, the crushing mechanism, its blades, geometry and dimensions, and the power required to measure different elements of the combine harvester in the crushing operation, as well as other variables.El Agave tequilana Weber es una opción para la producción de bioetanol combustible. La cosecha manual del agave representa el 75 % de los costos de producción del cultivo, lo que ocasiona un mayor costo de producción del bioetanol que para otros cultivos. En este trabajo se presenta una propuesta de cosechadora-desmenuzadora de agave, para lo cual se consideran: propuestas existentes, la metodología de cosecha actual, máquinas agrícolas con mecanismos de interés y los requerimientos de la materia prima para producir bioetanol. La cosechadora propuesta considera el desmenuzado de hojas y piña en campo, retomando ideas de mecanismos empleados en molinos de piña de agave y desmenuzadoras agrícolas. La cosecha mecanizada de agave para producción de bioetanol presenta viabilidad técnica que requerirá una investigación para diseñar el mecanismo desmenuzador, su disposición geométrica y dimensiones, así como la potencia requerida en el desmenuzado, con el fin de dimensionar distintos

  20. DIAGNÓSTICO TARDÍO DE INTOXICACIÓN POR FENITOÍNA EN UN PACIENTE CON SÍNDROME DE STURGE-WEBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesenia M Huerta-Collado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La Fenitoína es un fármaco antiepiléptico utilizado comúnmente en crisis focales y tónico-clónicas generalizadas. Este fármaco tiene una cinética no lineal compleja, alta unión a proteínas y una ventana terapéutica estrecha, por lo cual la intoxicación se convierte en un riesgo latente. El cuadro clínico de intoxicación por fenitoína está conformado por alteración de la función cerebelosa y vestibular, somnolencia, debilidad generalizada, visión bo- rrosa, movimientos coreo-atetósicos y coma. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 20 años de edad con diagnóstico de síndrome de Sturge-Weber asociado a crisis epilépticas parciales complejas tratado con 300 mg de fenitoína diaria durante tres meses, tiempo en el que presenta síntomas progresivos caracterizados por somnolencia, visión borrosa, imposibilidad para la marcha, disartria y movimientos involuntarios coreo-atetósicos que fueron interpretados como parte de su enfermedad hasta antes de su ingreso al Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú. El paciente ingresa con un título de 75,6 ug/ml de fenitoína en plasma, por lo que se decide el retiro del fármaco y su reemplazo por fenobarbital. El cuadro clínico fue remitiendo conforme disminuían los títulos de fenitoína en el paciente. Interpretación: La evaluación de factores asociados al metabolismo y monitorización periódica de los niveles séricos de fenitoína en los pacientes que reciben este fármaco es crucial, asimismo es importante el conocimiento de síntomas que indiquen toxicidad para que no sean confundidos con manifestaciones presentes en enfermedades subyacentes como el síndrome de Sturge-Weber en este caso.

  1. Max Weber: posición política, posición teórica y relación con el marxismo en la primera etapa de su producción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celia Duek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Max Weber redactó sus primeros trabajos en tre 1889 y 1898. Si bien las obras más conocidas del sociólogo alemán fueron escritas en tre 1903 y 1920, es en la producción de la primera etapa en donde ponemos la atención en este artículo. Particularmente nos interesa responder a la siguiente interrogante: ¿cuál fue la relación teórica de Weber con Marx o con el materialismo histórico en dicha fase de su carrera y cómo se vincula esto con las posiciones políticas de ambos clásicos?.

  2. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Becerra, Ezequiel; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; Del Real, Alicia; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rodríguez-García, Mario; Rubio, Efraín; Quintero-García, Michelle; Rojas-Molina, Isela

    2017-02-04

    Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively) and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively) for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet). The failure load of femurs was significantly lower ( p ≤ 0.05) in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher ( p ≤ 0.05) than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  3. Commonalities and Differences Between Max Weber and Michael Foucault on the Theme of “Rationalization of the Body”(“Bedenin Ussallaşması” Teması Üzerinde Max Weber ve Michael Foucault Arasındaki Yakınsamalar ve Farklılıklar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buğra ÖZER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to elucidate the very nature of ‘the rationalization of the body’ in regard to the convergence and divergences as envisioned in the works of Max Weber and Michael Foucault. While both of the thinkers may be deemed to be important critiques of the modernity process, their insights reveal certain commonalities as the came to deal with the rationalization of the body and individuation of the body along with differences that can be traced back to their roots in their critiques about the modernity project. In such respect, the study emphasizes that rationalization of the body has been a complex process and it italicizes that different dynamics came to redefine the body and individuate the individual along with the continuation of the process.

  4. Overexpression of smORF YNR034W-A/EGO4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases the fermentative efficiency of Agave tequilana Weber must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Maya, Naurú Idalia; González-Hernández, Gloria Angélica; Padilla-Guerrero, Israel Enrique; Torres-Guzmán, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Fermentative processes are widely used to produce food, beverages and biofuels. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an efficient ethanol-producing microorganism. However, a concentration of high ethanol and other metabolites can affect yeast viability and decrease the ethanol yield. Many studies have focused on improving the fermentative efficiency, mostly through the genetic engineering of genes that have a direct impact on specific metabolic pathways. In the present study, we characterized a small open reading frame encoding a protein with an unknown function and biological role termed YNR034W-A. We analyzed the expression profile of the YNR034W-A gene during growth and glucose treatment, finding that it is expressed during the diauxic shift and stationary phase and is negatively regulated by glucose. We overexpressed the YNR034W-A gene in the BY4741 laboratory strain and a wild-type yeast strain (AR5) isolated during the Tequila fermentation process. Transformant derivatives of the AR5 strain showed an improved fermentative efficiency during fermentation of Agave tequilana Weber juice. We suggest that the improved fermentative efficiency is the result of a higher stress tolerance response in the YNR034W-A overexpressing transformant.

  5. The total body length and body weight examination among gabus Sentani fish population, Oxyeleotris heterodon, Weber 1907 (Pisces: Eleotridae) of Sentani lake, Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyani, E. D.; Abinawanto, Bowolaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    The gabus Sentani fish lived in the Sentani Lake, Papua, since million years ago. Nowadays, the population of those species is getting extinct because of the overexploitation, whereas the culture effort of this species has not been developed, yet. The purpose of the study was to examine the total body length and body weight collected from some villages surrounding Sentani Lake such as Ifar village, Sosiri village, and Putali village. The body weight average of gabus fish from Ifar village, Sosiri village, and Putali village were 373.53 g, 426.86 g, and 118.34 g respectively. While the total body length average of gabus Sentani fish from Ifar village, Sosiri village, and Putali village were 279.30 mm, 223.30 mm and 222.06 mm, respectively. The growth model was W = 0.021067L3.086 with R2 value was 35.8 %, and r value was 0.598. Gabus Sentani fish, Oxyeleotris heterodon (Weber 1907) exhibited positive allometric (b > 3).

  6. Biomechanical study: resistance comparison of posterior antiglide plate and lateral plate on synthetic bone models simulating Danis-Weber B malleolar fractures

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    Bruna Buscharino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : The purpose of this study was to compare different positions of plates in lateral malleolar Danis-Weber B fractures on synthetic bone: a lateral plate and a posterior antiglide plate. METHODS : Short oblique fractures of distal fibula at the level of the syndesmosys were simulated with a fibular osteotomy in sixteen synthetic fibula bones (Synbone®. Eight fractures were fixed with lateral plating associated with an independent lag screw, and the other eight were fixed with posterior antiglide plating with a lag screw through the plate. A strain gage was installed at the center of each plate at the osteotomy site. Supination and external rotation forces were applied to each of the two groups at the bend. RESULTS : The lateral position plate group suffered more deformity in response to supination forces compared to the group with the posterior antiglide plate, but this result was not statistically significant. In the tests with external rotation forces, the posterior antiglide plating group had significantly higher resistance (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION : When subjected to external rotation forces, osteosynthesis with posterior antiglide plate models simulating type B fractures of the lateral malleolus of the ankle is more resistant than that of the neutralization plate.

  7. Empirical models of structure of personal qualities of heads: affective type of social action by M. Weber (results of applied researches

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    A. A. Oseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methodological foundations of research of leader’s personal qualities. In difference from the previous work, which was devoted to a research of personal qualities of heads, including civil officers, at works of Plato, Aristotle and M. Weber, where were shown empirical models of structure of personal qualities of heads: instrumental-rational and value-rational social actions. This publication presents the empirical models of structure of personal qualities of heads of affective type of M. Weber’s social action. Thanks to it, M. Weber’s concept about social action receives one more approach to verification in practice. The following directions of social researches are allocated. The first direction. When in structure of personal qualities the emotional component is a dominant (“emotional unbalance”, in comparison with intellectual, moral, strong-willed and other personal qualities (diplomacy, social experience, and so forth. Those people, whose indicators of emotional unbalance are in extreme, in maximum borders - carry to psychopaths and they are an object of clinical psychology and medicine. The second direction. When in structure of personal qualities emotional unbalance competes on equal terms (equally has bright difference, a deviation from average values to intellectual, moral and strong-willed qualities. The third direction. When in structure of personal qualities intellectual, moral and strong-willed and others personal qualities dominate over affective lines.

  8. A force-matching Stillinger-Weber potential for MoS2: Parameterization and Fisher information theory based sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Mingjian; Shirodkar, Sharmila N.; Plecháč, Petr; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Elliott, Ryan S.; Tadmor, Ellad B.

    2017-12-01

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a promising material for the next generation of switchable transistors and photodetectors. In order to perform large-scale molecular simulations of the mechanical and thermal behavior of MoS2-based devices, an accurate interatomic potential is required. To this end, we have developed a Stillinger-Weber potential for monolayer MoS2. The potential parameters are optimized to reproduce the geometry (bond lengths and bond angles) of MoS2 in its equilibrium state and to match as closely as possible the forces acting on the atoms along a dynamical trajectory obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics. Verification calculations indicate that the new potential accurately predicts important material properties including the strain dependence of the cohesive energy, the elastic constants, and the linear thermal expansion coefficient. The uncertainty in the potential parameters is determined using a Fisher information theory analysis. It is found that the parameters are fully identified, and none are redundant. In addition, the Fisher information matrix provides uncertainty bounds for predictions of the potential for new properties. As an example, bounds on the average vibrational thickness of a MoS2 monolayer at finite temperature are computed and found to be consistent with the results from a molecular dynamics simulation. The new potential is available through the OpenKIM interatomic potential repository at https://openkim.org/cite/MO_201919462778_000.

  9. Two Phase Non-Rigid Multi-Modal Image Registration Using Weber Local Descriptor-Based Similarity Metrics and Normalized Mutual Information

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    Feng Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-rigid multi-modal image registration plays an important role in medical image processing and analysis. Existing image registration methods based on similarity metrics such as mutual information (MI and sum of squared differences (SSD cannot achieve either high registration accuracy or high registration efficiency. To address this problem, we propose a novel two phase non-rigid multi-modal image registration method by combining Weber local descriptor (WLD based similarity metrics with the normalized mutual information (NMI using the diffeomorphic free-form deformation (FFD model. The first phase aims at recovering the large deformation component using the WLD based non-local SSD (wldNSSD or weighted structural similarity (wldWSSIM. Based on the output of the former phase, the second phase is focused on getting accurate transformation parameters related to the small deformation using the NMI. Extensive experiments on T1, T2 and PD weighted MR images demonstrate that the proposed wldNSSD-NMI or wldWSSIM-NMI method outperforms the registration methods based on the NMI, the conditional mutual information (CMI, the SSD on entropy images (ESSD and the ESSD-NMI in terms of registration accuracy and computation efficiency.

  10. Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis: Implications for severity with special reference to Mongolian spots associated with Sturge-Weber and Klippel-Trenaunay syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bryan D; Cadle, Ronald G; Morrill-Cornelius, Shannon M; Bay, Carolyn A

    2007-12-15

    In 1947 the term phakomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) was coined to represent the association of widespread, aberrant, and persistent nevus flammeus and pigmentary abnormalities. Four types of PPV have been recognized with type II (nevus flammeus and Mongolian spots) being the most common. Most early cases were of Asian or African descent. Many cases were subsequently associated with Sturge-Weber (S-W) and Klippel-Trenaunay (K-T) syndromes. Almost no literature reports have appeared in the genetic or dysmorphology literature! We present six cases of PPV in which five were either African, Asian or Hispanic, and five of six had an admixture of K-T and S-W. Four had macrocephaly, and one had microcephaly. Four had CNS abnormalities (three with hydrocephalus, one with Arnold-Chiari and one with polymicrogyria), three had mental retardation, and one had seizures. One each had thumb hypoplasia, hydronephrosis, glaucoma, coronal synostosis, and 3-4 finger syndactyly. It is our suspicion and hypothesis that in the presence of persistent, extensive and aberrant Mongolian spots, vascular abnormalities as are seen in K-T and S-W carry a worse prognosis. This may be particularly true either of children of Asian, Hispanic or African heritage or any individuals from darker pigmented skin groups. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. ENTRE AS FLORES DA PAIXÃO E OS ESPINHOS DA RAZÃO: MAX WEBER NOS JARDINS DAS CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS

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    Cristina Maria Silva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste ensaio abordamos o pensamento de Max Weber para refletirmos sobre como temos vivido e construído nossos conhecimentos sobre a realidade social. Muitas vezes esquecemos que a vida ultrapassa nossos autores, teses e paradigmas e que a linguagem que utilizamos é apenas o nosso esforço limitado para revelar tudo o que vemos diante da elaboração das ações humanas. Somente nossa imaginação é que pode reunir o que vemos, lemos e ouvimos para elaborarmos diferentes rumos para esta estrada do conhecimento. O pretenso caminho límpido da ciência é na verdade movido pela razão, mas impulsionado pela chamas da paixão, pois é através desta que o cientista delimita uma trilha a seguir, fazendo prevalecer alguns valores e rejeitando outros, sendo assim buscamos perceber como a vocação científica não se restringe somente a pôr em práticas regras estabelecidas, mas que também que precisamos estar abertos à intuição e à paixão pelo o que fazemos.

  12. Possible Threat for Middle East Inland Water: an Exotic and Invasive Species, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991 in Asi River, Turkey (Pisces: Loricariidae.

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    Şükran Yalçın Özdilek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ortadoğu iç suları için muhtemel tehdit: Asi Nehri’nde egzotik ve işgalci bir tür Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991 (Pisces: Loricariidae. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus bireyleri Güney Amerika kökenli olup, bu egzotik ve işgalci türü bireyleri Kuzey Amerika ve Uzakdoğu ülkelerine dağılmışlardır. Orta Doğu’da yer alan Asi Nehri’nin Türkiye sınırları dahilinde daha önce kayıtlarda bulunmayan bir P. disjunctivus bireyi yakalanmıştır. P. disjunctivus Asi Nehri’nde potansiyel olarak işgalci bir tür olabilir. Eğer bu türün bireyleri Asi Nehri’ne yayılırsa, buradaki türlerden Garra rufa üyeleri muhtemelen ilk etkilenen doğal türlerden olacaktır. Çünkü P. disjunctivus ile aynı trofik düzeyde yer almaktadırlar

  13. Reflexión teórica sobre la validez de los preceptos de acción social de Max Weber para el análisis del campesinado actual Theoretical reflection on the validity of the rules of social action of Max Weber for the analysis of the present peasantry

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    Diosey Ramón Lugo Morin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En un fin de siglo marcado por un nuevo orden mundial, los campesinos no pueden quedarse al margen; la nueva socialidad rural ya no sólo tiene sus nudos en barrios y comunidades, también en proyectos y aparatos económicos gestionados por las organizaciones. Las empresas medianas o grandes de carácter asociativo son parte del nuevo perfil campesino y los conocimientos y las habilidades necesarias para operarlos se están incorporando a su cultura. El campesino no es una persona o familia, el campesino es un fenómeno social, él se ubica en el contexto histórico, ético, folklórico y religioso y difícilmente puede ser definible, ni siquiera indefinible, debido a la multiplicidad de roles que cumple en la sociedad actual. El campesino actual es una mezcla de pasado, presente y futuro, esta afirmación en definitiva es la clave de su reproducción. En este sentido, tratar de entender y comprender las organizaciones campesinas a través de teorías sociológicas propuestas en el pasado, en especial el concepto de acción social de Max Weber sería poco prudente, ya que las estructuras de valores de estos individuos ha cambiado sustancialmente o de lo contrario ha desaparecido. Aunque el concepto de los valores impera, el mismo está inmerso dentro un momento histórico distinto al de Weber. La finalidad del presente ensayo es hacer una reflexión teóricaacerca de los preceptos de acción social de Weber y mostrar que los mismos no son una herramienta de análisis válida ni adecuada para entender al individuo actual, en especial al campesino. La acción en este sentido se origina en una interacción de individuos o grupos, los cuales a su vez de manera individual o grupal están caracterizados por su sistema psíquico (no solamente se considera la estructura de valores delindividuo, también existen otros elementos tales como las necesidades e impulsos. Este micro-entorno que se genera debe estar en contacto con la complejidad del mundo o

  14. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet

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    Ezequiel Hernández-Becerra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet. The failure load of femurs was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05 than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  15. Manuseio anestésico de paciente portador de telangiectasia hemorrágica hereditária (síndrome de Rendu-Osler-Weber: relato de caso Manoseo anestésico de paciente portador de telangiectasia hemorrágica hereditaria (síndrome de Rendu - Osler - Weber: relato de caso Anesthetic management of a patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome: case report

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    Alexandre Palmeira Goulart

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A telangiectasia hemorrágica hereditária (THH, também conhecida como síndrome de Rendu-Osler-Weber, é uma doença autossômica dominante, caracterizada por displasia vascular mucocutânea e visceral associada a episódios freqüentes de epistaxe e sangramentos gastrintestinais. O objetivo do presente relato foi descrever a anestesia em paciente portador dessa síndrome. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 25 anos, submetido à correção cirúrgica de fratura de órbita esquerda. Portador da tríade epistaxe recorrente, histórico familiar e telangectasia, apresentava diagnóstico de THH. Durante a investigação pré-operatória não foram encontradas malformações vasculares pulmonares, encefálicas ou do trato gastrintestinal. O paciente foi submetido à anestesia venosa total, uma hora após a administração profilática de antifibrinolítico. O sangramento foi considerado normal para a operação proposta e não houve instabilidade hemodinâmica ou necessidade de transfusão sanguínea perioperatória. A extubação ocorreu na sala cirúrgica e o paciente foi liberado para o quarto após 60 minutos e a alta hospitalar foi após 24 horas. CONCLUSÕES: A THH é uma doença autossômica dominante que provoca displasia vascular musculocutânea e visceral. Pode haver perda sanguínea perioperatória acima da esperada para pacientes portadores dessa síndrome. Como o sangramento não é resultado de defeito na cascata de coagulação mas da exposição cirúrgica da estrutura vascular malformada, a conduta perioperatória inclui o emprego de antifibrinolíticos, a realização de hemostasia adequada e da hipotensão arterial induzida, quando não houver contra-indicação. A avaliação pré-anestésica deve incluir a pesquisa de malformações vasculares encefálicas, pulmonares ou do trato gastrintestinal.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La telangiectasia hemorrágica hereditaria (THH, también conocida como

  16. Detección de restricciones en la producción de agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul mediante percepción remota

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    Ramón Ceja Ramírez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber, var. azul se utiliza, principalmente, para la producción del Tequila; una bebida espirituosa. El estado de Jalisco, México, contribuye con el 90% de la producción; esto constituye un importante apoyo a la economía del Estado. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar la superficie ocupada por agave azul, que presentó restricciones en su producción en la región Valles, correspondiente a los municipios de Tequila, Amatitán y El Arenal, en el estado de Jalisco, México, por medio de percepción remota. Se utilizó una imagen adquirida por el satélite LANDSAT 5 el 2 de abril de 2011, la cual se procesó para su calibración radiométrica, corrección atmosférica y georreferenciación. La interpretación digital se hizo a través del proceso de clasificación supervisada utilizando la opción de máxima probabilidad. Los campos de entrenamiento se seleccionaron de información de campo y de la base de datos del Consejo Regulador del Tequila (CRT. Los resultados se plasmaron en mapas temáticos; distribución de agave y no agave y distribución de agave con restricciones. El 45% del área ocupada por el cultivo presentó restricciones relacionadas con: aspectos económicos (restricción tipo 1, plagas y enfermedades (restricción tipo 2 y efectos por exceso de humedad del suelo (restricción tipo 3. Para evaluar la precisión de estos datos se aplicó una matriz de error que reportó una precisión general del 73%. Este valor es aceptable considerando la resolución a 30 m del sensor (LANDSAT 5 y la peculiaridad del cultivo. El uso de imágenes LANDSAT por su resolución espectral y radiométrica es aceptable para el estudio del cultivo del agave azul según lo observado en campo y lo expresado por el procesamiento de la imagen.

  17. Significant variations in Weber fraction for changes in inter-onset interval of a click train over the range of intervals between 5 ms and 300 ms

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    Pekcan eUngan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a common psychophysical experience that a train of clicks faster than ca. 30 per second is heard as one steady sound, whereas temporal patterns occurring on a slower time scale are perceptually resolved as individual auditory events. This phenomenon suggests the existence of two different neural mechanisms for processing of auditory sequences with fast and slow repetition rates. To test this hypothesis we used Weber’s law, which is known to be valid for perception of time intervals. Discrimination thresholds and Weber fractions (WF for twelve base inter-click intervals (ICI between 5 ms and 300 ms were measured from ten normal hearing subjects by using an up-down staircase algorithm. The mean WF, which is supposed to be constant for any perceptual mechanism according to Weber’s law, displayed significant variation with click rate. WFs decreased sharply from an average value of around 5% at repetition rates below 20 Hz to about 0.5% at rates above 67 Hz. Parallel to this steep transition, subjects reported that at rates below 20 Hz they perceived periodicity as a fast tapping rhythm, whereas at rates above 50 Hz the perceived quality was a pitch. Such a dramatic change in WF indicated the existence of two separate mechanisms for processing the click rate for long and short ICIs, based on temporal and spectral features, respectively. A range of rates between 20 Hz and 33 Hz, in which the rate discrimination threshold was maximum, appears to be a region where both of the presumed time and pitch mechanisms are relatively insensitive to rate alterations. Based on this finding, we speculate that the interval-based perception mechanism ceases to function at around 20 Hz and the spectrum-based mechanism takes over at around 33 Hz; leaving a transitional gap in between, where neither of the two mechanisms is as sensitive. Another notable finding was a significant drop in WF for ICI=100 ms, suggesting a connection of time perception to the EEG

  18. Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 98. McDonald J, Wooderchak-Donahue W, VanSant Webb C, Whitehead ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  19. Max Weber e a objetividade do conhecimento nas ciências da cultura: um breve guia para o texto A ‘Objetividade’ do Conhecimento na Ciência Social e na Ciência Política (1904

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    Jean Henrique Costa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente artigo objetiva discutir o sentido da objetividade do conhecimento empírico-social na obra de Max Weber, especificamente no texto “A ‘Objetividade’ do Conhecimento na Ciência Social e na Ciência Política”, de 1904. Discute-se, no primeiro momento, a distinção entre conhecimento empírico e juízo de valor; no segundo momento, faz-se uma rápida crítica às idéias de “lei” e “conexão regular” nas ciências sociais para, em seguida, na terceira parte, discutir a estrutura da formação dos conceitos típico-ideais como recursos metodológicos, nos quais, para Weber, expressam a possibilidade da validade objetiva do conhecimento nas ciências da cultura.

  20. Tres pilares epistemológicos en sociología: método, teoría y subjetividad del investigador. Una mirada desde Max Weber y Paul Feyerabend

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    Augusto Ricardi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo que se presenta pretende brindar un examen de talante analítico sobre la relación entre dimensión teórica y dimensión empírica, la inducción y la deducción como caminos posibles de un método científico, el concepto y uso del recurso teórico de ‘tipos ideales’ y el impacto de la subjetividad del investigador en la investigación. El abordaje que se realiza toma en cuenta los aportes de autores como Max Weber y Paul Feyerabend. En el desarrollo del trabajo el lector podrá identificar elementos y tópicos que son compartidos por ambos autores, otros donde las posiciones de éstos, sin ser compartidas, se hacen rayanas, y otras veces encontrará posiciones originales antinómicas.

  1. Contribuições sociológicas para a história da educação: a religião como fio condutor de um diálogo com Pierre Bourdieu e Max Weber

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    Evelyn de Almeida Orlando

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo põe em relevo as contribuições da Sociologia para a pesquisa em História da Educação na perspectiva da Nova História Cultural, com ênfase nos estudos acerca da religião católica. As leituras de Pierre Bourdieu e Max Weber são os fios condutores que permitem estabelecer um diálogo teórico acerca do funcionamento do campo religioso tentando compreender nessa lógica a produção da coleção de catecismos Álvaro Negromonte pela Igreja Católica em consonância com os ideais de modernidade que circularam no país.

  2. Atividade antibacteriana de Cereus jamacaru DC, Cactaceae

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    Aline Davet

    Full Text Available A procura por novos agentes antimicrobianos a partir de plantas vem sendo intensificada e não existem estudos direcionados à avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de C. jamacaru frente a microrganismos prejudiciais ao homem. Em vista disso, avaliou-se o efeito antimicrobiano do extrato bruto etanólico do lenho (EBLE e do córtex (EBCO desta espécie frente a colônias puras de oito microrganismos patogênicos. Neste estudo foram utilizados os métodos difusão em ágar (meio sólido e CIM (concentração inibitória mínima. Os resultados obtidos neste ensaio preliminar mostraram que EBCO apresentou atividade antimicrobiana mais pronunciada que EBCE e que os microrganismos cujo crescimento foi mais influenciado por EBCO foram Streptococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli.

  3. Triterpenoid saponins from Echinopsis macrogona (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Sachie; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Ito, Satoru; Koyama, Kiyotaka; Yuasa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Triterpene saponins, pachanosides C1, E1, F1 and G1 (1-4), and bridgesides A1, C1, C2, D1, D2, E1 and E2 (5-11) were isolated from Echinopsis macrogona. Compounds 1-4 were saponins with pachanane type triterpene saponins, while the others (5-11) were oleanane type triterpene saponins. While the aglycones of 2-4 and 8-11 were hitherto unknown, the structure of pachanol C was revised in this paper. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  5. Heterologous expression of Fusarium oxysporum tomatinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases its resistance to saponins and improves ethanol production during the fermentation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul and Agave salmiana must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cira, Luis Alberto; González, Gloria Angélica; Torres, Juan Carlos; Pelayo, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Melesio; Ramírez, Jesús

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the effect of the heterologous expression of tomatinase from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp lycopersici in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The gene FoTom1 under the control of the S. cerevisiae phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1) promoter was cloned into pYES2. S. cerevisiae strain Y45 was transformed with this vector and URA3 transformant strains were selected for resistance to alpha-tomatine. Two transformants were randomly selected for further study (designated Y45-1 and Y45-2). Control strain Y45 was inhibited at 50 muM alpha-tomatine, in contrast, transformants Y45-1 and Y45-2 did not show inhibition at 200 muM. Tomatinase activity was detected by HPLC monitoring tomatine disappearance and tomatidine appearance in the supernatants of culture medium. Maximum tomatinase activity was observed in the transformants after 6 h, remaining constant during the following 24 h. No tomatinase activity was detected in the parental strain. Moreover, the transformants were able to grow and produce ethanol in a mix of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul and Agave salmiana must, contrary to the Y45 strain which was unable to grow and ferment under these conditions.

  6. Falla cardíaca de alto débito por fístulas arteriovenosas sistémicas en paciente con síndrome de Osler-Weber-Rendu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M Senior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de 65 años, con historia de epistaxis a repetición, sin otros antecedentes patológicos de importancia, quien presentó síntomas de un año de evolución consistentes en disnea de esfuerzo progresiva hasta el reposo, acompañado de ortopnea y edemas que iniciaron en miembros inferiores y progresaron hasta la anasarca. Al examen clínico llamó la atención ingurgitación yugular, hepatomegalia, ascitis y edemas periféricos. La piel presentó telangiectasias en extremidades y mucosas. Se realizaron estudios que reportaron falla cardiaca con severa dilatación de las cavidades derechas, con función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo conservada. Se demostraron fístulas arteriovenosas en hígado y pulmón. Se estableció el diagnóstico de síndrome de Osler-Weber-Rendu o telangiectasia hemorrágica hereditaria (THH. Se propuso cierre de fístulas por vía percutánea y se planteó posible trasplante hepático como tratamiento; sin embargo, el paciente tuvo una evolución tórpida, presentó fibrilación auricular y embolismo al sistema nervioso central y falleció por enfermedad cerebrovascular.

  7. Os clássicos da “literatura” sociológica infantil: as crianças e a infância de acordo com Marx, Weber, Durkheim e Mauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Lima e Cunha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é mostrar que, apesar de ser um tema secundário e recente, é possível desenvolver uma Sociologia da Infância de acordo com aquilo que foi discutido pelos principais fundadores dessa ciência sobre as crianças. Para isso serão analisadas as considerações de Karl Marx, Max Weber, Émile Durkheim e Marcel Mauss sobre as crianças e as relações delas com as sociedades e com o pensamento sociológico tradicional. Pretende-se com isso afirmar que as crianças também são, assim como os adultos, sujeitos relevantes para as análises sociológicas. Ademais, acrescenta-se que é de fundamental importância compreender a constituição das sociedades por meio da infância e de suas personagens, as crianças.

  8. KARTEZYEN DÜALİZM’İN ‘DEMİR KAFES’İ VE WEBER’İN ANLADIĞI İSLAM TOPLUMU / IRON CAGE OF “CARTESIAN DUALISM” AND THE ISLAMIC SOCIETY UNDERSTOOD BY WEBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejder ULUTAŞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bryan S. Turner, “Max Weber ve İslam” adlı eserinde Weber’in İslam’a ve İslam toplumlarına yaklaşırken kendi yorumcu sosyolojisinin ölçütlerine uymadığını belirtmektedir. Ona göre Weber’in İslam’a yönelik değerlendirmeleri Marx’ınkinden pek de farklı değildir. Turner, Weber’in doğuya özgü bir toplum modeli olarak tasarımladığı patrimonyalizm kuramına sık sık atıfta bulunmaktadır. Bu düşüncenin, Weber’in oryantalist bir ön yargıya derin bağlılığından kaynaklandığını düşünmektedir. Dolayısıyla bu yazıda, bilim felsefesinde kendisine büyük bir taraftar ve izleyici kitlesi ve geniş hacimli bir tartışma alanı açan Kartezyen felsefenin kısa bir açıklama ve tartışması yapılmaktadır. ‘Batı Aklı’nın düştüğü çıkmazların bir örneği üzerinde durulmaktadır. Weber’in bilim anlayışı hakkında bir değerlendirme yapılmaktadır. İslam toplumlarını incelerken, pozitivist paradigmanın pek de dışına çıkamadığını dile getiren Turner’in eseri üzerinden de bir tartışma yürütülmektedir. Weber’in de kapıldığı düşünülen bu düalizm açmazı ele alınmaktadır.

  9. Enumeration of small collections violates Weber's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, H; Franconeri, S L

    2014-02-01

    In a phenomenon called subitizing, we can immediately generate exact counts of small collections (one to three objects), in contrast to larger collections, for which we must either create rough estimates or serially count. A parsimonious explanation for this advantage for small collections is that noisy representations of small collections are more tolerable, due to the larger relative differences between consecutive numbers (e.g., 2 vs. 3 is a 50 % increase, but 10 vs. 11 is only a 10 % increase). In contrast, the advantage could stem from the fact that small-collection enumeration is more precise, relying on a unique mechanism. Here, we present two experiments that conclusively showed that the enumeration of small collections is indeed "superprecise." Participants compared numerosity within either small or large visual collections in conditions in which the relative differences were controlled (e.g., performance for 2 vs. 3 was compared with performance for 20 vs. 30). Small-number comparison was still faster and more accurate, across both "more-fewer" judgments (Exp. 1), and "same-different" judgments (Exp. 2). We then reviewed the remaining potential mechanisms that might underlie this superprecision for small collections, including the greater diagnostic value of visual features that correlate with number and a limited capacity for visually individuating objects.

  10. The Profit-Maximizing Weber Problem

    OpenAIRE

    HANSEN, Pierre; PEETERS, Dominique; THISSE, Jacques-François

    1994-01-01

    We consider the location of a single-plant firm in a continuous space under five different pricing policies: (i) spatial discriminatory pricing; (ii) uniform delivered pricing; (iii) uniform mill pricing; (iv) zone pricing; and (v) mixed pricing where clients have the choice between pick-up or delivery. Global optimization methods are proposed for solving the cOlTesponding problems and numerical experiments are reported on.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Parkes Weber syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute: How the Heart Works National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Arteriovenous Malformation Educational Resources (6 links) Boston Children's Hospital Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center: Arteriovenous Malformations ...

  12. Weber's dictionary. Pocket edition. Vol. 2. Renewable energy sources. Webers Taschenlexikon. Bd. 2. Erneuerbare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R

    1986-01-01

    Reserves of our major energy sources natural gas, petroleum and coal are limited. Their combustion essentially contributes to air pollution widh all its health hazards and environmental impacts. Apart from the fact that power plants supplying energy with the help of nuclear fission are disputed, uranium reserves are limited, too. The developmental state of nuclear fusion, an the other hand, still defies concrete statements as the future availability of fusion-based energy. Considering above facts it is evident that renewable energy sources will be gaining in importance. The book above all intends to give a consistent survey on the forms and capacities of renewable energy sources, existing technologies and technologies currently being developed, historical aspects, the social and environmental compatibility of renewable energy sources, economic aspects, and future prospects. The dictionary contains 197 independent alphabetically arranged and basically coherent chapters which are to provide the basis for profound reflections on the subject.

  13. Assessing local scale impacts of Opuntia stricta (Cactaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... assemblages were significantly different from uninvaded control sites. This study suggests that the current density of O. stricta does not significantly affect spider species richness, density or assemblages but that beetle assemblages are significantly affected. Key words: Araneae, arthropods, Coleoptera, invasion impacts, ...

  14. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  15. Taxonomic revalidation and potential distribution of Armatocereus brevispinus Madsen (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R. Loaiza S.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the first confirmed record for northern Peru of Armatocereus brevispinus Madsen, a species of cactus regarded as endemic to the province of Loja, in the southern region of Ecuador. The record corresponds to a locality placed near the km 18 of the route to Ayabaca (04º42’21.0”S and 79º48’51.0”W, in the district of Ayabaca, within the province of Ayabaca, in the Department of Piura. This records represents an extension of the distributional range known for this species in Ecuador. We analyze its taxonomy and the distribution and conservation status and comments on its biogeography in the Andean region.

  16. How specialised is bird pollination in the Cactaceae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostiague, P; Ortega-Baes, P

    2016-01-01

    Many cactus species produce 'bird' flowers; however, the reproductive biology of the majority of these species has not been studied. Here, we report on a study of the pollination of two species from the Cleistocactus genus, cited as an ornithophilous genus, in the context of the different ways in which they are specialised to bird pollination. In addition, we re-evaluate the level of specialisation of previous studies of cacti with bird pollination and evaluate how common phenotypic specialisation to birds is in this family. Both Cleistocactus species exhibited ornithophilous floral traits. Cleistocactus baumannii was pollinated by hummingbirds, whereas Cleistocactus smaragdiflorus was pollinated by hummingbirds and bees. Pollination by birds has been recorded in 27 cactus species, many of which exhibit ornithophilous traits; however, they show generalised pollination systems with bees, bats or moths in addition to birds being their floral visitors. Of all cactus species, 27% have reddish flowers. This trait is associated with diurnal anthesis and a tubular shape. Phenotypic specialisation to bird pollination is recognised in many cactus species; however, it is not predictive of functional and ecological specialisation in this family. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Population viability of Pediocactus bradyi (Cactaceae) in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shryock, Daniel F; Esque, Todd C; Hughes, Lee

    2014-11-01

    A key question concerns the vulnerability of desert species adapted to harsh, variable climates to future climate change. Evaluating this requires coupling long-term demographic models with information on past and projected future climates. We investigated climatic drivers of population growth using a 22-yr demographic model for Pediocactus bradyi, an endangered cactus in northern Arizona. We used a matrix model to calculate stochastic population growth rates (λs) and the relative influences of life-cycle transitions on population growth. Regression models linked population growth with climatic variability, while stochastic simulations were used to (1) understand how predicted increases in drought frequency and extreme precipitation would affect λs, and (2) quantify variability in λs based on temporal replication of data. Overall λs was below unity (0.961). Population growth was equally influenced by fecundity and survival and significantly correlated with increased annual precipitation and higher winter temperatures. Stochastic simulations increasing the probability of drought and extreme precipitation reduced λs, but less than simulations increasing the probability of drought alone. Simulations varying the temporal replication of data suggested 14 yr were required for accurate λs estimates. Pediocactus bradyi may be vulnerable to increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events, particularly drought. Biotic interactions resulting in low survival during drought years outweighed increased seedling establishment following heavy precipitation. Climatic extremes beyond historical ranges of variability may threaten rare desert species with low population growth rates and therefore high susceptibility to stochastic events. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  18. Population viability of Pediocactus brady (Cactaceae) in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shryock, Daniel F.; Esque, Todd C.; Huges, Lee

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: A key question concerns the vulnerability of desert species adapted to harsh, variable climates to future climate change. Evaluating this requires coupling long-term demographic models with information on past and projected future climates. We investigated climatic drivers of population growth using a 22-yr demographic model for Pediocactus bradyi, an endangered cactus in northern Arizona.

  19. Seed morphology and variation in the genus Pachycereus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Salvador; Terrazas, Teresa

    2004-08-01

    Seeds of 13 Pachycereus species and two Stenocereus species that have been suggested as closely related were examined with the scanning electron microscope. Quantitative features were evaluated using multivariate analysis in order to identify characters that distinguish them. Several species groups were recognized on the basis of 16 qualitative characters. All species studied are keeled. Stenocereus aragonii and S. eichlamii share with most Pachycereus species large size, glossy appearance, and a flat relief on periclinal cells in the lateral region. Pachycereus gatesii and P. schottii are unique in having the smallest seeds and a deeply impressed hilum-micropylar region. P. hollianus does not exhibit micro-relief on periclinal walls in the lateral region, and P. fulviceps has no expanded testa border. Multivariate analysis showed that four characters, length, breadth, hilum-micropylar region length, and angle, made the greatest contribution to distinguishing among species groups. More than 80% of P. fulviceps, P. hollianus, P. tepamo, P. weberi, and S. eichlamii seeds could be classified correctly using four seed features and the percentage was even higher using just two or three features for P. gatesii, P. grandis, P. militaris, P. pringlei, and P. schottii. Testa appearance, testa cell-pattern, and position relative to the rim of the hilum-micropylar region were found to be potentially informative and should be combined with other sources of data in future phylogenetic analyses.

  20. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-09-03

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  1. Structure–Function Relationships in Highly Modified Shoots of Cactaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAUSETH, JAMES D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. • Scope Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus ‘flower’ is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels. PMID:16820405

  2. Structure-function relationships in highly modified shoots of cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauseth, James D

    2006-11-01

    Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus 'flower' is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels.

  3. Rhipsalis grandiflora Haw. (Cactaceae propagation by setem cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancato Giulio Cesare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhipsalis is being cultivated as a potted plant since the view of the pendant branches with coloured flowers and fruit is very appreciated. Considering that there is no information about the production of rooted propagules of these species, the goal of this work was to evaluate the development of stem cuttings, stimulated by the application of plant growth regulators. The indolebutyric acid (IBA was tested at 0; 4.07; 5.81, and 11.63 mmol L-1 and the naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA at 0; 4.53; 6.47, and 12.94 mmol L-1 for their activity in promoting roots on apical stem segments of Rhipsalis grandiflora Raw. The base of stem cuttings was dipped into auxin solutions mixed with talc and each one was partially embedded in fir bark (Pinus sp and fern fiber (1:1 in polystyrene propagation flats, placed throughout the rooting period in a greenhouse (50% shading, at 60-90% of relative humidity and temperatures from 20 to 25ºC. The experimental design was a completely randomised with eight treatments (twelve replicates, with samplings at 0; 20; 50; 80, and 150 days. The results indicate no differences between IBA and NAA regarding the dry mass of roots, but an increase in for concentrations of 0 and 4.07 mmol L-1 of IBA and 0 and 4.53 mmol L-1 of NAA, in relation to treatments with auxins. Stem cuttings treated with 4.07 mmol L-1 of IBA and 4.53 mmol L-1 of NAA, had greater dry mass of shoot bud differentiation in relation to those treated with 0 mmol L-1.

  4. Compatibilidad sexual entre dos tipos de Hylocerus (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Castillo M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Dos de los tipos de pitahaya mas cultivados en la Península de Yucatán, México, difieren principalmente por el color de su cáscara, el primero es de color rojo (Uqroo1, perteneciente a Hylocereus undatus, mientras que en el segundo es color amarillo claro (Uqroo2, hasta el momento también identificado como H. undatus; este último es mas dulce. En ambos tipos de pitahayas, se realizaron autopolinizaciones y polinizaciones cruzadas directas y recíprocas, con el propósito de evaluar el efecto en la cantidad de frutos que lograron su desarrollo. Se midieron algunas variables para detectar la influencia del progenitor paterno en algunas características del fruto. Los testigos se obtuvieron de flores polinizadas libremente. El diseño experimental utilizado fue completamente al azar, con 15 repeticiones por tratamiento. Se encontró que Uqroo1 es autocompatible, mientras que Uqroo2 es autoincompatible. Los testigos de ambos tipos alcanzaron el mismo peso, y los frutos de Uqroo2 logrados por polinización cruzada tuvieron un peso similar al de los testigos o fueron significativamente mas pesados. Algunas variables resultaron positivamente correlacionados; el coeficiente entre el número de semillas y el peso total del fruto fue de r = 0.84. La correlación mas alta (r = 0.97 resultó entre el peso total y el peso de la pulpa. En los frutos obtenidos por polinización cruzada prevalecieron las características del progenitor materno. Se recomienda cultivar la Pitahaya blanca con otro tipo de pitahaya, además de Uqroo1There are two types of pitahaya that are cultivated in Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. They differ mainly in the skin color of the fruit, one of them has a red skin (Uqroo1, while the other has a light yellow skin (Uqroo2 both belong to Hylocereus undatus (Haworth Britt. & Rose. The yellow skin pitahaya is the sweetest. The studies were conducted using the methods of self pollination and cross pollination, with direct crosses and reciprocal pollination in order to evaluate the effect related to the quantity of fruits that accomplish their growing process. Some characteristic parameters of fruits, thus obtained, were used to detect the possible xenic effect. The control samples were collected from naturally pollinated flowers. The experimental design used was completely random and the experiment was repeated fifteen times. The results revealed that the Uqroo1 turned out to be self-compatible, and their fruits reached one hundred percent of development. On the other hand, Uqroo2 was self-incompatible, that is, it did not accept self pollen. The control samples of both types reached the same weight, and the fruits of the Uqroo2 produced by cross pollination had the same or more weight than the control samples. Several parameters were positively correlated. The coefficient between the number of seeds and the fruit weight was r= 0.84. The highest correlation that was found (r = 0.97 in the fruit weight and the pulp weight within both types. The fruits obtained by cross-pollination maintained the characteristic of the female progenitor. It is suggest intercalate the yellow pitahaya plants with another types or species of pitahaya, other than the Uqroo1

  5. [Sexual compatibility between two types of Hylocerus (Cactaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Roberta; Livera, Manuel; Brechú, Alicia E; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith

    2003-01-01

    There are two types of pitahaya that are cultivated in Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. They differ mainly in the skin color of the fruit, one of them has a red skin (Uqroo1), while the other has a light yellow skin (Uqroo2) both belong to Hylocereus undatus (Haworth) Britt. & Rose. The yellow skin pitahaya is the sweetest. The studies were conducted using the methods of self pollination and cross pollination, with direct crosses and reciprocal pollination in order to evaluate the effect related to the quantity of fruits that accomplish their growing process. Some characteristic parameters of fruits, thus obtained, were used to detect the possible xenic effect. The control samples were collected from naturally pollinated flowers. The experimental design used was completely random and the experiment was repeated fifteen times. The results revealed that the Uqroo1 turned out to be self-compatible, and their fruits reached one hundred percent of development. On the other hand, Uqroo2 was self-incompatible, that is, it did not accept self pollen. The control samples of both types reached the same weight, and the fruits of the Uqroo2 produced by cross pollination had the same or more weight than the control samples. Several parameters were positively correlated. The coefficient between the number of seeds and the fruit weight was r = 0.84. The highest correlation that was found (r = 0.97) in the fruit weight and the pulp weight within both types. The fruits obtained by cross-pollination maintained the characteristic of the female progenitor. It is suggest intercalate the yellow pitahaya plants with another types or species of pitahaya, other than the Uqroo1.

  6. Discurso e prática religiosa nas Comunidades Eclesiais de Base italianas e brasileiras: um estudo comparativo com base na teoria da mudança social de Max Weber (Speech and religious practice in the Basic Ecclesial Communities in Italy and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinete Luzia Francisca de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo é uma reflexão sobre  o discurso e a prática nas comunidades Eclesiais de Base no Brasil e na Itália. Buscamos demonstrar, a partir de uma pesquisa empírica e teórica, as relações entres duas Comunidades Eclesiais de Base, a Comunidade San Paolo (Roma-IT e a Prelazia de São Félix (Mato Gross-BR, demonstrando que estas baseiam-se em dois elementos: resultam das discussões  advindas do Concílio Vaticano II e estão fortemente ligadas a seus líderes. E, ainda, que tais comunidades ligam-se por fortes laços simbólicos. Este fato permitiu-nos concluir  que a Teologia da Libertação empenhou-se em promover mudanças sociais e em criar um corpo simbólico que a corroborasse. Tais análises foram sustentadas pela teoria da transformação social de Max Weber e, ainda, pelos estudos  de Karl Mannheim e de  Glock e Stark. Palavras-chaves:Transformação social, Teologia da Libertação, prática, discurso. Abstract This study is a reflection of the discourse and practice on the Basic Ecclesial communities in Brazil and Italy. We try to show, from an empirical and theoretical research, the relations between two Christian Base Communities: the San Paolo Community (Rome – IT and the Prelature of São Félix (BR – Mato Grosso, based on two factors: the result of discussions arising out of Vatican II, and the strong link to its leaders. Such communities bind by strong symbolic ties that really allowed us to conclude that Liberation Theology endeavored to promote social changes and to create a symbolic body that corroborates it. Such analysis was supported by the theory of social transformation of Max Weber, by the studies of Karl Mannheim and Glock and Stark. Keywords: Social Transformation; Liberation Theology, Practice, Discourse.

  7. Max Weber o el enigma emocional del origen del capitalismo

    OpenAIRE

    Bericat Alastuey, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    Un minucioso análisis metateórico de las teorías sociológicas elaboradas por los sociólogos clásicos revela el hecho, sorprendente para la mentalidad «moderna» de los sociólogos que les han sucedido, de que la estructura teórica de cualquier teoría sociociológica resulta a la postre ininteligible si no se consideran las emociones implicadas en los fenómenos sociales que tales teorías tratan de explicar o comprender. La afirmación precedente puede constatarse en La étic...

  8. Beyond Weber and Straight Cucumbers : bureaucratic politics in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoonacker, S.M.R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Oratie uitgesproken ter gelegenheid van de aanvaarding van het ambt van bijzonder hoogleraar ‘Administrative Governance in the EU’ aan de Faculteit der Cultuur- en Maatschappijwetenschappen van de Universiteit Maastricht

  9. Nuclear genome size analysis of Agave tequilana Weber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palomino, G.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Méndez, I.; Rubluo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2003), s. 37-46 ISSN 0008-7114 Grant - others:Itálie(IT) Z5038910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Flow cytometry * nuclear genome size * Agave tequilana Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.337, year: 2003

  10. Concepts of Work in Marx, Durkheim, and Weber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ch. Karlsson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The extremely dramatic social transformation – called ‘the great transformation’ by Polanyi (1985 – that the full emergence of capitalism and industrialism meant in Europe led to the birth of modern social theory. The attention of the classics of the studies was taken up by trying to describe, understand, and explain this social change: What is actually going on? What does it mean to people and society? What does the development depend on? And what can be done about all social problems that this new society creates? Changes in working life are at the center of the analyses of social science from the start. Even when the analyses concern religion, culture, music, and the family, the emergence of a labor market, capitalist wage labor, and the concentration of production in large industries provide the reference point. Working life is the central arena of the classics of social theory. There is, however, no common definition of the key concept ‘work’ or ‘labor’ among the classical social scientists – as little as among current ones. Why is that? (...

  11. Concepts of Work in Marx, Durkheim, and Weber

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Ch. Karlsson; Per Månson

    2017-01-01

    The extremely dramatic social transformation – called ‘the great transformation’ by Polanyi (1985) – that the full emergence of capitalism and industrialism meant in Europe led to the birth of modern social theory. The attention of the classics of the studies was taken up by trying to describe, understand, and explain this social change: What is actually going on? What does it mean to people and society? What does the development depend on? And what can be done about all social problems that ...

  12. [Weber-Christian syndrome and chronic pancreatitis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval-Jeantet, M; Puissant, A; Gombergh, R; Blanchet-Bardon, C; Delmas, P F; Sohier, J

    1982-04-22

    The authors describe a case of cytosteatonecrosis associated with chronic pancreatitis. Clinical, biological (amylasemia and amylasuria) and radiological (arteriography) signs of pancreatic disease are noticed as well as important radiological lesions of the limbs. The cutaneous lesions are hypodermic nodules located on the lower limbs with swelling of the right big toe and a cutaneous abrasion.

  13. Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome: Case report | Akintayo | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is an under-recognized disorder that results from multisystem vascular dysplasia. It is characterized by telangiectasias and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of skin, mucosa and viscera. Most affected persons present with recurrent epistaxis which increases in frequency and severity with age. We report a 35 year old ...

  14. Immagini del mondo e forme della politica in Max Weber

    OpenAIRE

    Alagna, Mirko Domenico

    2014-01-01

    L’idea della redenzione era di per sé antichissima, se in essa si include la liberazione dal bisogno, dalla fame, dalla siccità, dalla malattia e – infine – dalla sofferenza e dalla morte. Tuttavia la redenzione acquistò un significato specifico soltanto dove fu espressione di un’''immagine del mondo'' razionalizzata sistematicamente e di una presa di posizione in base a questa. Infatti ciò che la redenzione, secondo il suo senso e la sua qualità psicologica, voleva e poteva significare, dipe...

  15. Micro-morphology and anatomy of Turbinicarpus (Cactaceae spines Micromorfología y anatomía de las espinas de Turbinicarpus (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mosco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Spines are a striking feature of cacti and display wide variation in size, number, shape, and texture. This study showed that Turbinicarpus species exhibit not only a high variability in the gross morphology of the spines, but also in their micro-morphology. Their surface can be smooth or ornamented with projections that can be low, conical, pinnate, or long trichomes. The epidermis can be continuous, broken up into single cell elements or transversely fissured, the fissures extending deeply into the underlying sclerenchyma. The mechanical properties of the spines are related to their anatomy, here documented for the first time. The woody rigid spines being made up of fibers with thick walls (> 3 µm, while papery or corky spines have a sclerenchyma made up of fibers with thin walls (Las espinas son una de las características más distintivas de las cactáceas y se distinguen por su variación en tamaño, número, forma y textura. Este estudio muestra que las especies de Turbinicarpus no sólo tienen variación en la morfología de sus espinas, sino también en su micro-morfología. Su superficie puede ser lisa u ornamentada con proyecciones bajas, cónicas, pinadas o bien con tricomas largos. En las espinas, la epidermis se mantiene continua, separada en sus células o transversalmente fisurada. Las fisuras de la epidermis pueden prolongarse hasta el esclerénquima más interno. Las propiedades mecánicas de las espinas están relacionadas con su anatomía, aquí documentada por primera vez. Las espinas rígidas están constituidas de fibras con paredes gruesas (> 3 µm, mientras que las espinas suaves o corchosas, también denominadas cerdas tienen esclerénquima de fibras con paredes delgadas (< 2 µm. Además, algunas espinas en su madurez tienen 2 tipos de fibras, las pobremente lignificadas en la parte externa y en la interna las de paredes gruesas y lignificadas. La taxonomía de Turbinicarpus se basa principalmente en las espinas y los datos aquí generados contribuyen a un mejor entendimiento de sus relaciones interespecíficas. El conocimiento de las características epidermales como los tricomas largos, la carencia de ornamentación o las modificaciones anatómicas de las espinas corchosas pueden interpretarse como caracteres apomórficos en el género.

  16. La Historia de una especie del patrimonio holguinero: Escobaria cubensis (Cactaceae "el cactus enano". Primera parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Reyes Fornet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenta una investigación sobre la historia taxonómica y estudios sobre la ecología del "cactus enano de Holguín", Escobaria cubensis (Britton & Rose Hunt, 1978 desde 1909 hasta 1990, elementos importantes, para la conservación y como contribución al conocimiento de la historia del patrimonio natural holguinero, con datos históricos sobre visitas de personalidades del mundo y Holguín. Se estudiaron 37 materiales correspondientes a notas de viajes, cartas y publicaciones. Se señala la posibilidad de que el colector, J. Shafer estuvo en dos zonas de distribución. Las contribuciones al conocimiento de su ecología hasta 1990 se basaron en la observación y descripción.

  17. Anatomical and morphological features of seedlings of some Cactoideae Eaton (Cactaceae Juss. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna Kalashnyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-month-old seedlings of 11 species of the subfamily Cactoideae (Melocactus bahiensis, Melocactus curvispinus, Echinopsis eyriesii, E. mirablis, E. peruviana, Oreocereus celsianus, Rebutia flavistyla, Rebutia minuscula, Astrophytum myriostigma, Mamillaria columbiana, and M. prolifera have been studied. These plants exhibit a uniseriate epidermis, covered by a thin cuticle. Except for E. peruviana and A. myriostigma, no hypodermis could be detected. The shoots of all studied specimens consist mainly of cortex parenchyma with large thin-walled cells. The pith parenchyma is composed of much smaller cells. Due to the fact that the cortex parenchyma comprises the largest portion of the cross-sectional area, it can be concluded that it is the main water-storing tissue. The extent of vascular tissue development varies. Collateral vascular bundles are present in the stele. The studied seedlings contain various ergastic substances, in particular inclusions of calcium oxalate (all studied species, starch (Mammillaria prolifera, E. mirabilis, and the genus Melocactus, inulin-like inclusions, and occasionally lipid drops (some Echinopsis species. Thus, it was found that all studied plants have a highly specialized anatomical and morphological structure. At the same time, the epidermis and hypodermis are poorly developed. Accordingly, the adaptation to arid conditions of the examined seedlings involves an increased growth of the water-storing tissue and the production of ergastic substances.

  18. Diurnal and Nocturnal Pollination of Marginatocereus marginatus (Pachycereeae: Cactaceae) in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAR, SALEEM; ARIZMENDI, Ma. del CORO; VALIENTE-BANUET, ALFONSO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Chiropterophillous and ornithophillous characteristics can form part of a single reproductive strategy in plants that have flowers with diurnal and nocturnal anthesis. This broader pollination strategy can ensure seed set when pollinators are scarce or unpredictable. This appears to be true of hummingbirds, which presumably pollinate Marginatocereus marginatus, a columnar cactus with red nocturnal and diurnal flowers growing as part of dense bat-pollinated columnar cacti forests in arid regions of central Mexico. The aim of this study was to study the floral biology of M. marginatus, and evaluate the effectiveness of nocturnal vs. diurnal pollinators and the contribution of each pollinator group to overall plant fitness. • Methods Individual flower buds were marked and followed to evaluate flower phenology and anthesis time. Flowers and nectar production were measured. An exclusion experiment was conducted to measure the relative contribution of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators to seed set. • Key Results Marginatocereus marginatus has red hermaphroditic flowers with nocturnal and diurnal anthesis. The plant cannot produce seeds by selfing and was pollinated during the day by hummingbirds and during the night by bats, demonstrating that both pollinator groups were important for plant reproduction. Strong pollen limitation was found in the absence of one of the pollinator guilds. • Conclusions Marginatocereus marginatus has an open pollination system in which both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators are needed to set seeds. This represents a fail-safe pollination system that can ensure both pollination, in a situation of low abundance of one of the pollinator groups (hummingbirds), and high competition for nocturnal pollinators with other columnar cacti that bloom synchronously with M. marginatus in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico. PMID:16394025

  19. Dynamic Analysis of the Evolution of Cereus peruvianus (Cactaceae Areas Attacked by Phoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy FESZT

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereus Peruvianus (night blooming Cereus, or peruvian apple is one of the sensitive species to Phoma attack. Photographic images can intercept a certain phytopathology, at a certain moment. The computerized analysis of such an image turns into a value the spread which the phytopathological process has at that moment. The purpose of this study is to assimilate the technique of achieving successions of digital photos of Cereus peruvianus f. monstruosa attacked by Phoma sp. Parallely with recording the images, with the help of Rhythm digital temperature humidity controller, were recorded data about the green house microclimate (air humidity-minimum and maximum, temperature-minimum and maximum. In the first stage of the study, the attack presents small fluctuations, reaching a high level in days with low temperatures. So, the most significant growths were recorded in the periods: 10. 02. 2005-20. 02. 2005 with an affected area of 10.97-8.82 = 2.15 and 11. 03. 2005-22. 04. 2005 with growth differences of 14.67-13.32 = 1.35. Generally, the affected areas grow in days with low minimum temperatures. The great advantage of this technique is represented by the possibility of using in situ in home areas of species or crop plants in fields. Repeated images, achieved in time, then overlapped, can provide important data on the evolution of affected areas.

  20. Development and Characterization of 10 Microsatellite Loci in the Giant Cardon Cactus, Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Gutiérrez Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the cardon, a giant columnar cactus (Pachycereus pringlei of the Sonoran Desert, to investigate intraspecific genetic patterns of diversity and population structure. Methods and Results: Using 454 GS-FLX technology and bioinformatics tools, microsatellite primers were successfully identified on 282 reads, including di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotides. A set of 10 primers were characterized on 80 individuals collected in two areas of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. All 10 loci were polymorphic, with a mean of 6.3 alleles per locus and overall levels of observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.41 to 0.59 and from 0.40 to 0.57, respectively. Alleles per individual plant ranged from one to four, suggesting a polyploidal genome. Conclusions: These loci should be useful for future investigations of population structure, genetic diversity, and gene flow in the cardon cactus.

  1. Generative period in development of Mammillaria Haw. (Cactaceae Juss. plants in greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Baglay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic composition of the collection of the genus Mammillariain O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden, as well as the peculiarities of blooming and seed germination have been considered. The list of the plants from the genus Mammillariain this collection which are included into IUCN Red List have been represented. The optimal conditions of seed conservation have been determined.

  2. Notes on the Cactaceae of Curaçao, Aruba, Bonaire and North Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar Hummelinck, P.

    1938-01-01

    La flora de cactos de las islas situadas entre Trinidad y la península de La Goajira comprende trece especies silvestres, aparte del género Melocactus: Pereskia Guamacho, Opuntia caribaea, O. curassavica, O. Wentiana, O. elatior, Rhipsalis cassutha, Hylocereus Lemairei, Acanthocereus pentagonus,

  3. THE GENERATIVE REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF RED DRAGON FRUIT (Hylocereus.polyrhizus (Web. Britton & Rose, CACTACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniek Kriswiyanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the generative reproductive characteristics of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Web. Britton & Rose, that is the characteristics and the development of male and female reproductive system and the embryo. The flowering morphology was observed through the gametogenesis process and the process of embryogenesis was observed using the methods of squash, cytolysis, and embedding of flower before anthesis, during and after anthesis. The results showed that the flower funnelled form with many calyxes, stamens and crowns. The pollen was circular, sulcus, trilate, reticulate, and spheroid. The development of microgametophyte was at the 2nd stages with three nucleuses and the pistil developed after anthesis.  Anthesis was taken place at night time, fertilization and pollen developed before anthesis and has not germinating. A single pistil, the head of pistil with many branches, the style longer than the stamen, open type.  Seeds anathrophus, endosperm and embryo with the globular shaped, developed 5 days after anthesis, the embryo torpedo likes and the differentiation of primer tissues seen in the seeds 7 days after anthesis, and arilus generated from development of megasporangium. Keywords: embedding, self incompatibility, sferoidal, anatrophus, arillus.

  4. Agrobiodiversity of cactus pear (Opuntia, Cactaceae in the Meridional Highlands Plateau of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Reyes-Agüero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico is characterized by a remarkable richness of Opuntia, mostly at the Meridional Highlands Plateau; it is also here where the greatest richness of Opuntia variants occurs. Most of these variants have been maintained in homegardens; however, the gathering process which originated these homegardens has been disrupted over the past decades, as a result of social change and the destruction of large wild nopaleras. If the variants still surviving in homegardens are lost, these will be hard to recover, that is, the millenary cultural heritage from the human groups that populated the Mexican Meridional Highland Plateau will be lost forever. This situation motivated the preparation of a catalogue that records the diversity of wild and cultivated Opuntia variants living in the meridional Highlands Plateau. To this end, 379 samples were obtained in 29 localities, between 1998 and 2003. The information was processed through Twinspan. All specimens were identified and preserved in herbaria. Botanical keys and descriptions were elaborated. The catalogue includes information on 126 variants comprising 18 species. There were species with only one variant (Opuntia atropes, O. cochinera, O. jaliscana, O. leucotricha, O. rzedowskii and O. velutina, two (O. durangensis, O. lindheimeri, O. phaeacantha and O. robusta, five (O. joconostle and O. lasiacantha, seven (O. chavena, 12 (O. hyptiacantha and O. streptacantha, 15 (O. ficus-indica, 22 (O. albicarpa, and up to 34 (O. megacantha. Additionally, 267 common cactus pear names were related to those variants.

  5. Invasion of Opuntia humifusa and O. phaeacantha (Cactaceae into plant communities of the Karadag Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina V. Fateryga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study of Opuntia humifusa and O. phaeacantha naturalised in the Karadag Nature Reserve (southeastern part of the Crimean Peninsula are presented. There, the largest coenopopulations of Opuntia plants are confined to the «biostation» territory (bordering with the park, administrative buildings and housing estate. Twelve localities were described in the Karadag Reserve. These differ by phytocoenotic characteristics, area and floristic composition. Seven localities include only O. humifusa plants; four ones include only O. phaeacantha individuals; and both the species are present on the twelfth locality. The total number of individuals of each species and ontogenetic structure of the population were studied in each locality. The total number of O. humifusa individuals in the Karadag Reserve is more than 600 plants within the «biostation» territory, while the total number of O. phaeacantha plants is about 400 individuals. Studying of the plant communities has been carried out according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Opuntia plants form derivate communities within degraded steppes, phryganoid-steppes, and semi-desert badland phytocoenoses almost at all studied localities. A significant number of synanthropic species (including alien plants was found within these communities. Opuntia plants are able to self-reproduce predominantly vegetatively. Self-seeding reproduction occurs less frequently. Both species can be considered as invasive plants because they have a high adaptive capacity.

  6. [Bacillus isolates from rhizosphere of cacti improve germination and bloom in Mammillaria spp. (Cactaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Ambriz, Lluvia A; Hernández-Morales, Alejandro; Cabrera-Luna, José A; Luna-Martínez, Laura; Pacheco-Aguilar, Juan R

    Cacti are the most representative vegetation of arid zones in Mexico where rainfall is scarce, evapotranspiration is high and soil fertility is low. Plants have developed physiological strategies such as the association with microorganisms in the rhizosphere zone to increase nutrient uptake. In the present work, four bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Mammillaria magnimamma and Coryphantha radians were obtained and named as QAP3, QAP19, QAP22 and QAP24, and were genetically identified as belonging to the genus Bacillus, exhibiting in vitro biochemical properties such as phosphate solubilization, indoleacetic acid production and ACC deaminase activity related to plant growth promotion, which was tested by inoculating M. magnimamma seeds. It was found that all isolates increased germination from 17 to 34.3% with respect to the uninoculated control seeds, being QAP24 the one having the greatest effect, accomplishing the germination of viable seeds (84.7%) three days before the control seeds. Subsequently, the inoculation of Mammillari zeilmanniana plants with this isolate showed a positive effect on bloom, registering during two months from a one year period, an increase of up to 31.0% in the number of flowering plants compared to control plants. The characterized Bacillus spp. isolates have potential to be used in conservation programs of plant species from arid zones. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Rhipsalideae (Cactaceae) and taxonomic implications for Schlumbergera and Hatiora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvente, Alice; Zappi, Daniela C; Forest, Félix; Lohmann, Lúcia G

    2011-03-01

    Tribe Rhipsalideae is composed of unusual epiphytic or lithophytic cacti that inhabit humid tropical and subtropical forests. Members of this tribe present a reduced vegetative body, a specialized adventitious root system, usually spineless areoles and flowers and fruits reduced in size. Despite the debate surrounding the classification of Rhipsalideae, no studies have ever attempted to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among its members or to test the monophyly of its genera using DNA sequence data; all classifications formerly proposed for this tribe have only employed morphological data. In this study, we reconstruct the phylogeny of Rhipsalideae using plastid (trnQ-rps16, rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH) and nuclear (ITS) markers to evaluate the classifications previously proposed for the group. We also examine morphological features traditionally used to delimit genera within Rhipsalideae in light of the resulting phylogenetic trees. In total new sequences for 35 species of Rhipsalideae were produced (out of 55; 63%). The molecular phylogeny obtained comprises four main clades supporting the recognition of genera Lepismium, Rhipsalis, Hatiora and Schlumbergera. The evidence gathered indicate that a broader genus Schlumbergera, including Hatiora subg. Rhipsalidopsis, should be recognized. Consistent morphological characters rather than homoplastic features are used in order to establish a more coherent and practical classification for the group. Nomenclatural changes and a key for the identification of the genera currently included in Rhipsalideae are provided. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Implications of seed size for seedling survival in Carnegiea gigantea and Ferocactus wislizeni (Cactaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Janice E.; Pierson, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Larger seeds have been shown to convey benefits for seedling survival but the mechanisms of this process are not well understood. In this study, seed size and seedling survival were compared for 2 sympatric cactus species, Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose and Ferocactus wislizeni (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose, in laboratory and field experiments in the northern Sonoran Desert. Both species have small seeds, but Ferocactus seeds are nearly twice as long and 3 times as heavy as those of Carnegiea. The difference in size is perpetuated after germination: new Ferocactus seedlings have 4 times the estimated volume of new Carnegiea seedlings. In an outdoor experiment, annual survivorship of both species was low but was 6 times higher for Ferocactus (6 seedlings, 8.1%) than Carnegiea (1 seedling, 1.4%). The pattern of seedling mortality in relation to temperature and rain suggests that, after the initial flush of seed and seedling predation, drought and heat took a greater toll on Carnegiea than Ferocactus seedlings, probably because the larger seedling volume of Ferocactus conferred greater drought tolerance. In addition, F. wislizeni could become established without benefit of nurse plants whereas C. gigantea could not; this might reflect differential tolerance to high soil temperatures.

  9. Physical characterization of Rhipsalis (Cactaceae fruits and seeds germination in different temperatures and light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Lone

    Full Text Available Abstract The germination characteristics of the native cactus species are poorly known, being the temperature and the light the factors that the most interferes in that process. Thus, the objective of the present work was to characterize the fruits and evaluate the influence of the temperature and the light in the seed germination of Rhipsalis floccosa, Rhipsalis pilocarpa and Rhipsalis teres. The tested constant temperatures were 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and the alternate of 20-30 °C and 25-35 °C in a photoperiod of 10 hours, and with determination of the most appropriate temperature, the germination was tested in light absence. The germination percentage, the index of germination speed and medium time of germination were evaluated. For R. floccosa, the highest germination percentage was at 20 °C. For R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the highest germination percentages occurred in 15 °C and 20 °C. There was correlation to germination percentage between the three species, indicating that they had similar germination behavior. Total absence of germination was verified for the three species in condition of light absence. In conclusion, the temperature of 20 °C is the most suitable for the seed germination of R. floccosa. For the species R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the temperatures of 15 and 20 °C are the most suitable.

  10. Genomic relations among 31 species of Mammillaria haworth (Cactaceae) using random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattagajasingh, Ilwola; Mukherjee, Arup Kumar; Das, Premananda

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-one species of Mammillaria were selected to study the molecular phylogeny using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. High amount of mucilage (gelling polysaccharides) present in Mammillaria was a major obstacle in isolating good quality genomic DNA. The CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) method was modified to obtain good quality genomic DNA. Twenty-two random decamer primers resulted in 621 bands, all of which were polymorphic. The similarity matrix value varied from 0.109 to 0.622 indicating wide variability among the studied species. The dendrogram obtained from the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis revealed that some of the species did not follow the conventional classification. The present work shows the usefulness of RAPD markers for genetic characterization to establish phylogenetic relations among Mammillaria species.

  11. Isolation, characterization, and cross-species amplification of polymorphic microsatellite markers for Pilosocereus machrisii (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Manolo F; Téo, Mariana F; Zappi, Daniela C; Taylor, Nigel P; Moraes, Evandro M

    2011-08-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in Pilosocereus machrisii, a columnar cactus with a patchy distribution in eastern tropical South America, to assess its genetic diversity and population structure. Eleven microsatellite markers were developed, of which one was monomorphic among 51 individuals from two populations. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from two to eight, and the total number of alleles was 57. From the 11 isolated loci, nine were successfully amplified in the other four Pilosocereus species. The results showed that these markers will be useful for studies of genetic diversity, patterns of gene flow, and population genetic structure in P. machrisii, as well as across other congeneric species.

  12. Variation in the local population dynamics of the short-lived Opuntia macrorhiza (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, C V; Keeler, Kathleen H; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variation in demographic rates can have profound effects for population persistence, especially for dispersal-limited species living in fragmented landscapes. Long-term studies of plants in such habitats help with understanding the impacts of fragmentation on population persistence but such studies are rare. In this work, we reanalyzed demographic data from seven years of the short-lived cactus Opuntia macrorhiza var. macrorhiza at five plots in Boulder, Colorado. Previous work combining data from all years and all plots predicted a stable population (deterministic log lamda approximately 0). This approach assumed that all five plots were part of a single population. Since the plots were located in a suburban-agricultural interface separated by highways, grazing lands, and other barriers, and O. macrorhiza is likely dispersal limited, we analyzed the dynamics of each plot separately using stochastic matrix models assuming each plot represented a separate population. We found that the stochastic population growth rate log lamdaS varied widely between populations (log lamdaS = 0.1497, 0.0774, -0.0230, -0.2576, -0.4989). The three populations with the highest growth rates were located close together in space, while the two most isolated populations had the lowest growth rates suggesting that dispersal between populations is critical for the population viability of O. macrorhiza. With one exception, both our prospective (stochastic elasticity) and retrospective (stochastic life table response experiments) analysis suggested that means of stasis and growth, especially of smaller plants, were most important for population growth rate. This is surprising because recruitment is typically the most important vital rate in a short-lived species such as O. macrorhiza. We found that elasticity to the variance was mostly negligible, suggesting that O. macrorhiza populations are buffered against large temporal variation. Finally, single-year elasticities to means of transitions to the smallest stage (mostly due to reproduction) and growth differed considerably from their long-term elasticities. It is important to be aware of this difference when using models to predict the effect of manipulating plant vital rates within the time frame of typical plant demographic studies.

  13. Directional orientation of reproductive tissue of Eulychnia breviflora (Cactaceae) in the hyperarid Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Warren; Lorgio E. Aguilera; Scott Baggett

    2016-01-01

    Our explanation of the phenomenon differs from other researchers. Inasmuch as reproductive tissue contains little or no chlorophyll, we suggest that the flowers emerge from areas of the stems that receive abundant PAR, not because the reproductive tissue itself requires exposure to PAR. Because the translocation of photosynthates in cacti is difficult and...

  14. Genetic Relationships among Hylocereus and Selenicereus Vine Cacti (Cactaceae): Evidence from Hybridization and Cytological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEL-ZUR, NOEMI; ABBO, SHAHAL; BAR-ZVI, DUDY; MIZRAHI, YOSEF

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Hylocereus and Selenicereus are native to tropical and sub-tropical America. Based on its taxonomic status and crossability relations it was postulated that H. megalanthus (syn. S. megalanthus) is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 44) derived from natural hybridization between two closely related diploid taxa. The present work aimed at elucidating the genetic relationships between species of the two genera. • Methods Crosses were performed and the putative hybrids were analysed by chromosome counts and morphological traits. The ploidy level of hybrids was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of rDNA sites. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used in an attempt to identify the putative diploid genome donors of H. megalanthus and an artificial interploid hybrid. • Key Results Reciprocal crosses among four diploid Hylocereus species (H. costaricensis, H. monacanthus (syn. H. polyrhizus), H. undatus and Hylocereus sp.) yielded viable diploid hybrids, with regular chromosome pairing. Reciprocal crosses between these Hylocereus spp. and H. megalanthus yielded viable triploid, pentaploid, hexaploid and aneuploid hybrids. Morphological and phenological traits confirm the hybrid origin. In situ detection of rDNA sites was in accord with the ploidy status of the species and hybrid studied. GISH results indicated that overall sequence composition of H. megalanthus is similar to that of H. ocamponis and S. grandiflorus. High sequence similarity was also found between the parental genomes of H. monacanthus and H. megalanthus in one triploid hybrid. • Conclusions The ease of obtaining partially fertile F1 hybrids and the relative sequence similarity (in GISH study) suggest close genetic relationships among the taxa analysed. PMID:15329334

  15. Development of microsatellite markers using next-generation sequencing for the columnar cactus Echinopsis chiloensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Carmen G; Larridon, Isabel; Peralta, Gioconda; Asselman, Pieter; Pérez, Fernanda

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop microsatellite markers as a tool to study population structure, genetic diversity and effective population size of Echinopsis chiloensis, an endemic cactus from arid and semiarid regions of Central Chile. We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for E. chiloensis using next-generation sequencing and tested them in 60 individuals from six sites, covering all the latitudinal range of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 8, while the observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity ranged from 0.0 to 0.80 and from 0.10 to 0.76, respectively. We also detected significant differences between sites, with F ST values ranging from 0.05 to 0.29. Microsatellite markers will enable us to estimate genetic diversity and population structure of E. chiloensis in future ecological and phylogeographic studies.

  16. Using Next Generation RAD Sequencing to Isolate Multispecies Microsatellites for Pilosocereus (Cactaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel A S Bonatelli

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers (also known as SSRs, Simple Sequence Repeats are widely used in plant science and are among the most informative molecular markers for population genetic investigations, but the development of such markers presents substantial challenges. In this report, we discuss how next generation sequencing can replace the cloning, Sanger sequencing, identification of polymorphic loci, and testing cross-amplification that were previously required to develop microsatellites. We report the development of a large set of microsatellite markers for five species of the Neotropical cactus genus Pilosocereus using a restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq on a Roche 454 platform. We identified an average of 165 microsatellites per individual, with the absolute numbers across individuals proportional to the sequence reads obtained per individual. Frequency distribution of the repeat units was similar in the five species, with shorter motifs such as di- and trinucleotide being the most abundant repeats. In addition, we provide 72 microsatellites that could be potentially amplified in the sampled species and 22 polymorphic microsatellites validated in two populations of the species Pilosocereus machrisii. Although low coverage sequencing among individuals was observed for most of the loci, which we suggest to be more related to the nature of the microsatellite markers and the possible bias inserted by the restriction enzymes than to the genome size, our work demonstrates that an NGS approach is an efficient method to isolate multispecies microsatellites even in non-model organisms.

  17. Nonlinear models applied to seed germination of Rhipsalis cereuscula Haw (Cactaceae

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    Terezinha Aparecida Guedes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this analysis was to fit germination data of Rhipsalis cereuscula Haw seeds to the Weibull model with three parameters using Frequentist and Bayesian methods. Five parameterizations were compared using the Bayesian analysis to fit a prior distribution. The parameter estimates from the Frequentist method were similar to the Bayesian responses considering the following non-informative a priori distribution for the parameter vectors: gamma (10³, 10³ in the model M1, normal (0, 106 in the model M2, uniform (0, Lsup in the model M3, exp (μ in the model M4 and Lnormal (μ, 106 in the model M5. However, to achieve the convergence in the models M4 and M5, we applied the μ from the estimates of the Frequentist approach. The best models fitted by the Bayesian method were the M1 and M3. The adequacy of these models was based on the advantages over the Frequentist method such as the reduced computational efforts and the possibility of comparison.

  18. Physical characterization of Rhipsalis (Cactaceae) fruits and seeds germination in different temperatures and light regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, A B; Colombo, R C; Andrade, B L G; Takahashi, L S A; Faria, R T

    2016-06-01

    The germination characteristics of the native cactus species are poorly known, being the temperature and the light the factors that the most interferes in that process. Thus, the objective of the present work was to characterize the fruits and evaluate the influence of the temperature and the light in the seed germination of Rhipsalis floccosa, Rhipsalis pilocarpa and Rhipsalis teres. The tested constant temperatures were 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and the alternate of 20-30 °C and 25-35 °C in a photoperiod of 10 hours, and with determination of the most appropriate temperature, the germination was tested in light absence. The germination percentage, the index of germination speed and medium time of germination were evaluated. For R. floccosa, the highest germination percentage was at 20 °C. For R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the highest germination percentages occurred in 15 °C and 20 °C. There was correlation to germination percentage between the three species, indicating that they had similar germination behavior. Total absence of germination was verified for the three species in condition of light absence. In conclusion, the temperature of 20 °C is the most suitable for the seed germination of R. floccosa. For the species R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the temperatures of 15 and 20 °C are the most suitable.

  19. Gamma ray induced effects in in vitro mammillaria san angelensis (CACTACEAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, I.; Rubluo, A.; De la Cruz, E.; Gonzalez, J.

    2001-01-01

    The nearly extinct Mammillaria san angelensis has been recovered in vitro and large quantities of individuals are growing successfully in the greenhouse, however due to its axillary shoot proliferation origin the genetic make-up of this species is extremely narrow. For this reason is urgently required to increase its genetic variability. The induction of point mutations through irradiation of in vitro plantlets can favour the survival of this plant. Radiosensibility experiments using gamma rays were performed in order to determine the primary effects of radiation in in vitro plantlets of this species as a necessary preliminary for the use of the mutation induction strategy

  20. Seed germination of Stenocereus thurberi (Cactaceae) under different solar irradiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolasco, H.; Vega-Villasante, F.; Diaz-Rondero, A.

    1997-01-01

    Germination of Stenocereus thurberi seeds was evaluated under different conditions of solar irradiation and humidity. Seed germination increased under higher humidity and low solar irradiation which provided cooler temperatures and higher water availability. Seedlings were also greener and more turgid under these conditions. Increased solar irradiation reduced seed germination and decreased seedling size and water content. The results of this study support the importance of natural shelter systems in the arid zones in providing better conditions for S. thurberi seeds germination and seedling establishment, particularly in the desert of Baja California. (author)

  1. Species delimitation in the Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae) species complex reveals a new species, S. huastecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Sizzo, Hernán; Casas, Alejandro; Parra, Fabiola; Arreola-Nava, Hilda Julieta; Terrazas, Teresa; Sánchez, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC) has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S. pruinosus from central Mexico, S. laevigatus from southern Mexico, and S. griseus from northern South America. A fourth species, previously considered to be S. griseus and commonly misidentified as S. pruinosus in northern Mexico showed significant genetic, ecological, and morphological differentiation suggesting that it should be considered a new species, S. huastecorum, which we describe here. We show that population genetic analyses, ecological niche modeling, and morphological studies are complementary approaches for delimiting species in taxonomically challenging plant groups such as the SGSC.

  2. Characterization of calcium oxalate biominerals in some (non-Cactaceae) succulent plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Paula V; Baran, Enrique J

    2010-01-01

    The water-accumulating leaves of crassulacean acid metabolism plants belonging to five different families were investigated for the presence of biominerals by infrared spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. Spectroscopic results revealed that the mineral present in succulent species of Agavaceae, Aizoaceae, and Asphodelaceae was calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite, CaC2O4 x H2O). Crystals were predominantly found as raphides or solitary crystals of various morphologies. However, representative Crassulaceae members and a succulent species of Asteraceae did not show the presence of biominerals. Overall, these results suggest no correlation between calcium oxalate generation and crassulacean acid metabolism in succulent plants.

  3. Factors affecting establishment success of the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia

    2012-06-01

    Early plant stages may be the most vulnerable within the life cycle of plants especially in arid ecosystems. Interference from exotic species may exacerbate this condition. We evaluated germination, seedling survival and growth in the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis, as a function of sunlight exposure (i.e., growing under open and shaded areas), different shade providers (i.e., growing under two native shrubs and one exotic grass species), two levels of predation (i.e., exclusion and non-exclusion) and variable microenvironmental conditions (i.e., temperature, PAR, humidity). Field experiments demonstrated that suitable conditions for germination and establishment of H. portoricensis seedling are optimal in shaded areas beneath the canopy of established species, but experiments also demonstrated that the identity of the shade provider can have a significant influence on the outcome of these processes. Harrisia portoricensis seedlings had higher probabilities of survival and grew better (i.e., larger diameters) when they were transplanted beneath the canopy of native shrubs, than beneath the exotic grass species, where temperature and solar radiation values were on average much higher than those obtained under the canopies of native shrubs. We also detected that exclusion from potential predators did not increase seedling survival. Our combined results for H. portoricensis suggested that the modification of microenvironmental conditions by the exotic grass may lower the probability of recruitment and establishment of this endangered cactus species.

  4. An open door for illegal trade: online sale of Strombocactus disciformis (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania R. Olmos-Lau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Online trade of CITES listed species has become a persistent threat which is difficult to measure and control. The use of online markets is growing day by the day as technology becomes more available and familiar to people of all ages and interests. Species trade can now be propagated remotely hardly without any real human interaction. We develop a quick-easy method to assess the online availability of the genus Strombocactus, a highly collectible cactus, to understand the real magnitude of this new form of threat and the possible menace it could be for these Mexican cacti. We used the Google.com site to do an online search in four languages (Spanish, English, French and German for the offer of adult plants or seeds. We found specimens and seeds available in major online markets like ebay, amazon, cactusplaza.com and mercado libre. Plant price range from €10.00 to €30.00 plus shipping and handling. The plants were also offered in local online stores in countries like the USA, France, Germany, Australia, Czech Republic, the United Kingdom, and others; some sellers claim they have no obstacles for “shipping across countries” and others openly declare the natural localities where seeds were extracted. Only a minority of these online stores openly stated that the cacti were obtained from CITES registered nurseries or that the cacti were grown through propagules or seeds. Our method is easily transferable to estimate the illegal market for any species. There is an active online trade of Strombocactus species and other species listed in CITES without the necessary documentation. Compliance or other regulation mechanisms are needed in order to promote species conservation.

  5. Distribution and habitat in Mexico of Dactylopius Costa (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) and their cacti hosts (Cactaceae: Opuntioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Moreno, C K; Tecante, A; Casas, A; Claps, L E

    2011-01-01

    The distribution pattern of species of the genus Dactylopius Costa in Mexico was analyzed in relation to the distribution of their host plants (subfamily Opuntioideae) to evaluate the specificity of the insect-host association. The distribution of Dactylopius currently recognized is narrower than that of its hosts and probably is not representative. Therefore, a broader distribution of the Dactylopius species in correspondence with those of their hosts was hypothesized. Insects and their hosts were collected and georeferenced in 14 states of Mexico from 2005 to 2007. The distribution areas, maps, and habitat characteristics of Dactylopius, Opuntia sensu stricto, Nopalea and Cylindropuntia were determined on the basis of field collections and examination of museum collections. This information was complemented with information from the exhaustive examination of microscope slides from a local insect collection, plants from local herbaria, and literature reviews. The current distribution of the genus Dactylopius and its hosts included 22 and 25 states of Mexico, respectively, and Dactylopius had a continuous distribution according to its hosts, broader than recognized hitherto. The new georeferenced records of the five Mexican Dactylopius species are reported. Insects with morphological characteristics of D. confusus combined with those of D. salmianus were identified, as well as insects with characteristics of D. opuntiae combined with those of D. salmianus. These records suggest that the number of local Dactylopius species could be higher than previously thought or that possible new processes of hybridization between native and introduced species may be occurring.

  6. Reproductive biology and mating system estimates of two Andean melocacti, Melocactus schatzlii and M. andinus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Jafet M; Ramírez, Nelson; Lampo, Margarita; González, José Antonio; Casado, Roberto; Nava, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The genus Melocactus comprises 36 species of globose cacti with the most derived traits in the Cereeae tribe. It is the proper study system to examine what are the most derived reproductive strategies within that tribe. This study aims to characterize the reproductive biology and to estimate the mating system parameters of two Andean melocacti, Melocactus schatzlii and M. andinus. The reproductive attributes of the two species were described, including floral morphology, anthesis patterns, floral rewards, floral visitors and visitation patterns. Levels of self-compatibility and autonomous self-pollination were estimated by hand-pollination experiments. Mating system estimates were obtained by conducting progeny array analyses using isozymes. The flowers of the two species present the typical hummingbird-pollination syndrome. Despite their morphological resemblance, the two species differ in flower size, pollen and ovule production and anthesis pattern. Their main pollinator agents are hummingbirds, four species in M. schatzlii and one species in M. andinus. Both cacti are self-compatible and capable of self-pollination without the aid of pollen vectors. Population-level outcrossing rate was higher for M. schatzlii (t(m)=0.9) than for M. andinus (t(m)=0.4). At the family level, outcrossing rates for most mothers of M. schatzlii were higher (t(m)>0.8) than for M. andinus (t(m)<0.5). Although the two cacti are capable of selfing, M. schatzlii is a predominantly outcrossing species, while M. andinus behaves as a mixed-mating cactus. Hummingbirds are the only pollinators responsible for outcrossing and gene flow events in these species. In their absence, both melocacti set seeds by selfing. Based on its low population size, restricted distribution in Venezuela, low rates of floral visits, and high levels of inbreeding, M. andinus is considered to be an endangered species deserving further study to define its conservation status.

  7. Ecological longevity of Polaskia chende (Cactaceae) seeds in the soil seed bank, seedling emergence and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez-Salanueva, C A; Orozco-Segovia, A; Canales-Martínez, M; Seal, C E; Pritchard, H W; Flores-Ortiz, C M

    2017-11-01

    Soil seed banks are essential elements of plant population dynamics, enabling species to maintain genetic variability, withstand periods of adversity and persist over time, including for cactus species. However knowledge of the soil seed bank in cacti is scanty. In this study, over a 5-year period we studied the seed bank dynamics, seedling emergence and nurse plant facilitation of Polaskia chende, an endemic columnar cactus of central Mexico. P. chende seeds were collected for a wild population in Puebla, Mexico. Freshly collected seeds were sown at 25 °C and 12-h photoperiod under white light, far-red light and darkness. The collected seeds were divided in two lots, the first was stored in the laboratory and the second was use to bury seeds in open areas and beneath a shrub canopy. Seeds were exhumed periodically over 5 years. At the same time seeds were sown in open areas and beneath shrub canopies; seedling emergence and survival were recorded over different periods of time for 5 years. The species forms long-term persistent soil seed banks. The timing of seedling emergence via germination in the field was regulated by interaction between light, temperature and soil moisture. Seeds entered secondary dormancy at specific times according to the expression of environmental factors, demonstrating irregular dormancy cycling. Seedling survival of P. chende was improved under Acacia constricta nurse plants. Finally, plant facilitation affected the soil seed bank dynamics as it promoted the formation of a soil seed bank, but not its persistence. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Survival dynamics of Melocactus conoideus Buining & Brederoo (Cactaceae, a threatened species endemic to northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hévila Prates Luz-Freire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the survival of species are essential to understanding their biology and to developing effective conservation and management plans. This study aimed to determine the best model to explain the survival of the species Melocactus conoideus on the basis of time, density, age structure and habitat location, as well as to describe the interactions among those factors. The study was conducted in three M. conoideus habitat patches in the municipality of Vitória da Conquista, in the state of Bahia, Brazil, only one of which was within a "conservation unit" (protected area. In each patch, we selected 120 specimens of M. conoideus, which were marked with identification plates and classified by developmental stage and density. The survival of those individuals was monitored for a period of one year. The overall survival of M. conoideus was 87.5% and was found to correlate with the month, as well as with the interaction between the factors Patch and Density. Our results show that the survival of M. conoideus individuals is related to the intrinsic characteristics of each habitat patch and suggest that more areas should be set aside for the conservation of this species.

  9. Species delimitation in the Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae species complex reveals a new species, S. huastecorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alvarado-Sizzo

    Full Text Available The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S. pruinosus from central Mexico, S. laevigatus from southern Mexico, and S. griseus from northern South America. A fourth species, previously considered to be S. griseus and commonly misidentified as S. pruinosus in northern Mexico showed significant genetic, ecological, and morphological differentiation suggesting that it should be considered a new species, S. huastecorum, which we describe here. We show that population genetic analyses, ecological niche modeling, and morphological studies are complementary approaches for delimiting species in taxonomically challenging plant groups such as the SGSC.

  10. Reproductive biology of Echinopsis terscheckii (Cactaceae): the role of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Baes, P; Saravia, M; Sühring, S; Godínez-Alvarez, H; Zamar, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the reproductive biology of Echinopsis terscheckii, a species endemic to northwest Argentina that has nocturnal flowers. We expected that this species had a generalised pollination system, with moths and diurnal visitors as the primary pollinators. To test this, we studied the floral biology, breeding system and floral visitors of this species and the effectiveness of nocturnal and diurnal visitors. Floral biology was defined based on floral morphology, floral cycle and nectar production of the flowers. The breeding system and relative contributions of diurnal and nocturnal visitors to fruit and seed set were analysed through field experiments. E. terscheckii flowers opened at sunset and closed the following day. The peak of nectar production occurred at midnight. Flowers were determined to be self-incompatible. Moths, bees and birds were identified as floral visitors. Moths were the most frequent visitors at night, whereas bees were the most frequent visitors during the day. Fruit production by diurnal pollinators was less than that by nocturnal pollinators; among all floral visitors, moths were the most effective pollinators. We have demonstrated for the first time that moths are the primary pollinators of columnar cacti of the genus Echinopsis. Our results suggest that moths might be important pollinators of columnar cactus species with nocturnal flowers in the extra-tropical deserts of South America. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Does Ferocactus wislizeni (Cactaceae) have a between-year seed bank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Janice E.

    2000-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments at Tumamoc Hill, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A., demonstrated that Ferocactus wislizeni, a common perennial cactus in the northern Sonoran Desert, has a between-year seed bank. In laboratory studies, F. wislizeni seeds lost dormancy during storage at room temperature and had a light requirement for germination. Field experiments suggested that as much as 2% of the annual seed crop might escape post-dispersal predation even when unprotected; where suitable safe sites exist, a higher percentage might escape. Germination of seed recovered monthly from above- and below-ground components of an artificial seed bank showed that seeds can survive at least 18 months in and on the soil. Seed banks enable F. wislizeni to take advantage of favorable rains and temperatures throughout the growing season, thus increasing the number of opportunities for germination. Moreover, seed banks enable F. wislizeni to respond hugely when the climate seems especially favorable, thus producing the large cohorts necessary to compensate for high seedling mortality. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Using Next Generation RAD Sequencing to Isolate Multispecies Microsatellites for Pilosocereus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatelli, Isabel A S; Carstens, Bryan C; Moraes, Evandro M

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite markers (also known as SSRs, Simple Sequence Repeats) are widely used in plant science and are among the most informative molecular markers for population genetic investigations, but the development of such markers presents substantial challenges. In this report, we discuss how next generation sequencing can replace the cloning, Sanger sequencing, identification of polymorphic loci, and testing cross-amplification that were previously required to develop microsatellites. We report the development of a large set of microsatellite markers for five species of the Neotropical cactus genus Pilosocereus using a restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) on a Roche 454 platform. We identified an average of 165 microsatellites per individual, with the absolute numbers across individuals proportional to the sequence reads obtained per individual. Frequency distribution of the repeat units was similar in the five species, with shorter motifs such as di- and trinucleotide being the most abundant repeats. In addition, we provide 72 microsatellites that could be potentially amplified in the sampled species and 22 polymorphic microsatellites validated in two populations of the species Pilosocereus machrisii. Although low coverage sequencing among individuals was observed for most of the loci, which we suggest to be more related to the nature of the microsatellite markers and the possible bias inserted by the restriction enzymes than to the genome size, our work demonstrates that an NGS approach is an efficient method to isolate multispecies microsatellites even in non-model organisms.

  13. Seed size and photoblastism in species belonging to tribe Cacteae (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana; Mandujano, María C; Golubov, Jordan K

    2013-05-01

    The response of seed germination towards light and the relationship to seed traits has been studied particularly well in tropical forests. Several authors have shown a clear adaptive response of seed size and photoblastism, however, the evolutionary significance of this relationship for species inhabiting arid environments has not been fully understood and only some studies have considered the response in a phylogenetic context. We collected seeds from 54 cacti species spread throughout the tribe Cacteae to test whether there was correlated evolution of photoblastism, seed traits and germination using a reconstructed phylogeny of the tribe. For each species we determined the photoblastic response under controlled conditions, and seed traits, and analyzed the results using phylogenetically independent contrasts. All studied species were positive photoblastic contrasting with the basal Pereskia suggesting an early evolution of this trait. Seeds from basal species were mostly medium-sized, diverging into two groups. Seeds tend to get smaller and lighter suggesting an evolution to smaller sizes. No evidence exists of a relationship between seed size and photoblastic response suggesting that the photoblastic response within members of this tribe is not adaptive though it is phylogenetically fixed and that is coupled with environmental cues that fine tune the germination response.

  14. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the rare and endangered cactus Uebelmannia pectinifera (Cactaceae) and its congeneric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, E M; Cidade, F W; Silva, G A R; Machado, M C

    2014-12-04

    The cactus genus Uebelmannia includes 3 narrow endemic species associated with rocky savanna habitats in eastern South America. Because of their rarity and illegal over-collection, all of these species are endangered. Taxonomic uncertainties resulting from dramatic local variation in morphology within Uebelmannia species preclude effective conservation efforts, such as the reintroduction or translocation of plants, to restore declining populations. In this study, we developed and characterized 18 perfect, dinucleotide simple-sequence repeat markers for U. pectinifera, the most widely distributed species in the genus, and tested the cross-amplification of these markers in the remaining congeneric species and subspecies. All markers were polymorphic in a sample from 2 U. pectinifera populations. The effective number of alleles ranged from 1.6 to 8.7, with an average per population of 3.3 (SE ± 0.30) and 4.5 (SE ± 0.50). Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.375 to 0.847 and 8-10 loci showed departures from Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium in the analyzed populations. Based on the observed polymorphism level of each marker, as well as the analysis of null allele presence and evidence of amplification of duplicate loci, a subset of 12 loci can be used as reliable markers to investigate the genetic structure, diversity, and species limits of the Uebelmannia genus.

  15. Programmed cell death promotes male sterility in the functional dioecious Opuntia stenopetala (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Orozco-Arroyo, Gregorio; Cruz-García, Felipe; García-Campusano, Florencia; Alfaro, Isabel; Vázquez-Santana, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    The sexual separation in dioecious species has interested biologists for decades; however, the cellular mechanism leading to unisexuality has been poorly understood. In this study, the cellular changes that lead to male sterility in the functionally dioecious cactus, Opuntia stenopetala, are described. The spatial and temporal patterns of programmed cell death (PCD) were determined in the anthers of male and female flowers using scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological observations, focusing attention on the transition from bisexual to unisexual development. In addition, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assays were used as an indicator of DNA fragmentation to corroborate PCD. PCD was detected in anthers of both female and male flowers, but their patterns differed in time and space. Functionally male individuals developed viable pollen, and normal development involved PCD on each layer of the anther wall, which occurred progressively from the inner (tapetum) to the outer layer (epidermis). Conversely, functional female individuals aborted anthers by premature and displaced PCD. In anthers of female flowers, the first signs of PCD, such as a nucleus with irregular shape, fragmented and condensed chromatin, high vacuolization and condensed cytoplasm, occurred at the microspore mother cell stage. Later these features were observed simultaneously in all anther wall layers, connective tissue and filament. Neither pollen formation nor anther dehiscence was detected in female flowers of O. stenopetala due to total anther disruption. Temporal and spatial changes in the patterns of PCD are responsible for male sterility of female flowers in O. stenopetala. Male fertility requires the co-ordination of different events, which, when altered, can lead to male sterility and to functionally unisexual individuals. PCD could be a widespread mechanism in the determination of functionally dioecious species.

  16. Stability of some Cactaceae proteins based on fluorescence, circular dichroism, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, S; Zemser, M; Vargas-Albores, F; Ochoa, J L; Paredes-Lopez, O; Scheler, C; Aksu, S; Salnikow, J

    1999-02-01

    Characterization of three cactus proteins (native and denatured) from Machaerocereus gummosus (Pitahaya agria), Lophocereu schottii (Garambullo), and Cholla opuntia (Cholla), was based on electrophoretic, fluorescence, CD (circular dichroism), DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared) measurements. The obtained results of intrinsic fluorescence, DSC, and CD were dissimilar for the three species of cactus, providing evidence of differences in secondary and tertiary structures. Cactus proteins may be situated in the following order corresponding to their relative stability: Machaerocereus gummosus (Pitahaya agria) > Cholla opuntia (Cholla) > Lophocereu schottii (Garambullo). Thermodynamic properties of proteins and their changes upon denaturation (temperature of denaturation, enthalphy, and the number of ruptured hydrogen bonds) were correlated with the secondary structure of proteins and disappearance of alpha-helix.

  17. Structure of fructo-oligosaccharides from leaves and stem of Agave tequilana Weber, var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praznik, Werner; Löppert, Renate; Cruz Rubio, Josè M; Zangger, Klaus; Huber, Anton

    2013-11-15

    Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) of a six year old agave plant variety, Agave tequilana, were isolated and fractionated by 2D preparative chromatography (SEC and rpHPLC). Structural analyses of different FOS-fractions were performed by reductive methylation analysis connected to GC/FID identification and NMR-analysis. FOSs from leaves (d.p. 3-8) contain single α-d-Glcp residues as well in terminal as internal position, however (2→1)-linked β-d-Fruf residues only. FOSs from stem, however, contain as well (2→1)- and (2→6)-linked β-d-Fruf residues with branched oligomeric repeating units. These characteristics indicate an enzymatically catalyzed metabolic regulation for the biosynthesis and transformation of fructans in A. tequilana which strongly depends on location and transport activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A proposed chemical structure for fructans from blue agave plant (Tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Toriz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una estructura química para las fructanas de agave Tequilana con base en los resultados combinados de las técnicas de permetilación y ruptura reductiva acopladas a cromatografía gas-líquido asi como también a cromatografía de exclusión de tamaños/dispersión de luz.

  19. Fructan metabolism in A. tequilana Weber Blue variety along its developmental cycle in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G

    2012-11-28

    Fructan, as reserve carbohydrate, supplies energy needs during vegetative development, thereby exhibiting variations in its content and composition. Fructan metabolism in Agave tequilana Blue variety from 2- to 7-year-old plants was analyzed in this work. Soluble carbohydrates were determined at all ages. Fructan (328-711 mg/g), sucrose (14-39 mg/g), fructose (11-20 mg/g), glucose (4-14 mg/g), and starch (0.58-4.98 mg/g) were the most abundant carbohydrates. Thin-layer chromatography exhibited that 2-5-year-old plants mainly stored fructooligosaccharides, while 6-7-year-old plants mainly contained long-chain fructans. The fructan degree of polymerization (DP) increased from 6 to 23 throughout plant development. The 7-year-old plants mainly stored highly branched agavins. Partially methylated alditol acetate analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry reveals that fructan molecular structures became more complex with plant age. For the first time, we report the presence of a large number of DP3 (seven forms), DP4 (eight forms), and DP5 (six forms) isomers for agave fructans. Overall, fructan metabolism in A. tequilana displays changes in its soluble carbohydrates, DP, type, and fructan structures stored, along its developmental cycle in the field.

  20. Labour market access for asylum seekers and refugees under the common European asylum system / Franziska Weber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Weber, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu asüüli- ja tööturupoliitika vasturääkivustest. Euroopa Liidu praegustest ja tulevikus tekkivatest majanduslikest väljakutsetest, rahvastiku vananemisest ja madalast iibest. Sinise kaardi süsteemist, Euroopa Liidu tööjõu rändest ja asüüli taotlejate piirangutest tööturul

  1. Primary ankle arthrodesis for neglected open weber B ankle fracture dislocation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thomason, Katherine

    2014-07-01

    Primary ankle arthrodesis used to treat a neglected open ankle fracture dislocation is a unique decision. A 63-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a 5-day-old open fracture dislocation of his right ankle. After thorough soft tissue debridement, primary arthrodesis of the tibiotalar joint was performed using initial Kirschner wire fixation and an external fixator. Definitive soft tissue coverage was later achieved using a latissimus dorsi free flap. The fusion was consolidated to salvage the limb from amputation. The use of primary arthrodesis to treat a compound ankle fracture dislocation has not been previously described.

  2. Constituents of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A Source of Artemisia Ketone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, S. Z.; Andola, H. C.; Mohan, M.

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.34%) followed by α-thujone (9.91%) and 1,8-cineole (6.57%), Similarly, the first major compound in Jhelum oil was artemesia ketone (40.87%), whereas ar-curcumene (8.54%) was identified as a second major compound followed by α-thujone (4.04%). Artemisia ketone can be useful for perfumery and fragrance to introduce new and interesting herbaceous notes. PMID:23439844

  3. Purification and characterization of chymotrypsin from viscera of vermiculated sailfin catfish, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus, Weber, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba-Villalba, Ana Gloria; Ramírez-Suárez, Juan Carlos; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa Miriam; Lugo-Sánchez, María Elena; Figueroa-Soto, Ciria Guadalupe

    2013-04-01

    Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus viscera chymotrypsin was purified by fractionation with ammonium sulfate (30-70 % saturation), gel filtration, affinity, and ion exchange chromatography. Chymotrypsin molecular weight was approximately 29 kDa according to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), shown a single band in zymogram. Electrofocusing study suggested being an anionic enzyme (pI ≈ 3.9), exhibiting maximal activity at pH 9 and 50 °C, using Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide (SAAPNA) as substrate. Enzyme was effectively inhibited by phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) (99 %), and N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) (94 %). Enzyme activity was affected by the following ions in decreasing order: Hg(2+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), Li(1+), Mg(2+), K(1+), Mn(2+), while Ca(2+) had no effect. Chymotrypsin activity decreased continuously as NaCl concentration increased (from 0 to 30 %). K m and V max values were 0.72 ± 1.4 mM and 1.15 ± 0.06 μmol/min/mg of protein, respectively (SAAPNA as substrate). Results suggest the enzyme has a potential application where low processing temperatures are needed, such as in fish sauce production.

  4. Just Noticeable Differences and Weber fraction of oral thickness perception of model beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, S.; Dop, M.C.; Graaf, de C.; Stieger, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Rheological properties of beverages contribute considerably to texture perception. When developing new beverages, it is important to have knowledge on the smallest differences of viscosity which a consumer can discriminate. Thickness is the sensory attribute most commonly used to describe the

  5. Notice to Mariners. The Spanish Translation of Economy and Society by Max Weber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Morcillo Laiz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Any scholarly reading of Max Weber’s Economía y sociedad may substantially benefi t from a comparison between the German and the Spanish version of the work. This article fulfi lls this task. In order to accomplish it, the following aspects are examined: the external outlook of Economía y sociedad, its shortcomings in terms of oversights, changes in the word sequence, omissions, biased translations of a concept, and the rendering of Weber’s terms of the art, like Verband organization, Ordnung order y Betrieb establishment. In Economía y sociedad these terms are sometimes translated in ways that suggets connotations absent from the German original, suppress others that were actually implicit, without the required consistency. These shortcomings set hurdles to a proper understanding of the work and speak for a new translation.

  6. Racionalidade e tragédia cultural no pensamento de Max Weber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renarde Freire Nobre

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available O texto constitui-se numa série de argumentações a favor da tese de que há uma estreita relação entre racionalidade e tragédia no pensamento weberiano. Tal relação só pode ser desvendada numa modernidade que se apresenta hegemonizada por um "racionalismo de domínio do mundo". Procurarei evidenciá-la relacionando o caráter trágico da cultura ao método racionalista, às racionalizações modernas e à responsabilidade ética.The text argues that there is a close relationship between rationality and tragedy in Weberian thought. Such a relationship can only be understood in the context of modernity which is ruled by a "world domination rationalism". I will try to make this relationship evident by relating the tragic character of culture to the rationalistic method, to modern rationalizations and, finally, to ethical responsibility.

  7. Weber's Historical Urban Sociology: City as a Base of Modern Society

    OpenAIRE

    Sunar, Lütfi

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of modernity, discussions concerning the development and characteristics of occidental city in the West have played a central role in defining modern society and exploring its origins. In that, both the synchronous emergence of modern society with urbanization and the manifestation of modernity-triggering capitalism as an urban phenomenon have been instrumental. In that regard, early sociologists have focused their attention on urban development and characteristics of occi...

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the hedgehog seahorse Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber, 1933 (Gasterosteiformes:Syngnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Yanhong; Wang, Changming; Lin, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the hedgehog seahorse Hippocampus spinosissimus was first determined in this article. The total length of H. spinosissimus mitogenome is 16 527 bp and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The gene order and composition of H. spinosissimus were similar to those of most other vertebrates. The overall base composition of H. spinosissimus is 32.1% A, 30.3% T, 14.9% G and 22.7% C, with a slight A + T-rich feature (62.4%). Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial genome sequence showed that H. spinosissimus has a close genetic relationship to H. ingens and H. kuda.

  9. Hydrogeologic implications of increased septic-tank-soil-absorption system density, Ogden Valley, Weber County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mike; Miner, Michael L.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Ground water in Ogden Valley occurs in perched, confined, and unconfined aquifers in the valley fill to depths of 600 feet and more. The confined aquifer, which underlies only the western portion of the valley, is overlain by cleyey silt lacustrine sediments probably deposited during the Bonneville Basin's Little Valley lake cycle sometime between 90,000 and 150,000 years ago. The top of this cleyey silt confining layer is generally 25 to 60 feet below the ground surface. Unconfined conditions occur above and beyond the outer margin of the confining layer. The sediments overlying the confining layer are primarily Lake Bonneville deposits. Water samples from springs, streams, and wells around Pineview Reservoir, and from the reservoir itself, were collected and analyzed. These samples indicate that water quality in Ogden Valley is presently good. Average nitrate concentrations in the shallow unconfined aquifer increase toward the center of Ogden Valley. This trend was not observed in the confined aquifer. There is no evidence, however, of significant water-quality deterioration, even in the vicinity of Huntsville, a town that has been densely developed using septic-tank-soil-absorption systems for much of the time since it was founded in 1860.

  10. Confucius meets Weber or "Managerialism takes all"? Comparing civil servant values in China and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Z.; Yang, L.

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the validity of normative claims on how civil servant values in East Asian and Western European administrations differ. By triangulating quantitative and qualitative survey data from a sample of Chinese (n = 508) and Dutch (n = 238) civil servants, we aim to answer two main

  11. Antichrist as (AntiCharisma: Reflections on Weber and the ‘Son of Perdition’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Edward Whalen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The figure of Antichrist, linked in recent US apocalyptic thought to President Barack Obama, forms a central component of Christian end-times scenarios, both medieval and modern. Envisioned as a false-messiah, deceptive miracle-worker, and prophet of evil, Antichrist inversely embodies many of the qualities and characteristics associated with Max Weber’s concept of charisma. This essay explores early Christian, medieval, and contemporary depictions of Antichrist and the imagined political circumstances of his reign as manifesting the notion of (anticharisma, compelling but misleading charismatic political and religious leadership oriented toward damnation rather than redemption.

  12. Newtonian semiclassical gravity in the Ghirardi–Rimini–Weber theory with matter density ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derakhshani, Maaneli

    2014-01-01

    We propose a Newtonian semiclassical gravity theory based on the GRW collapse theory with matter density ontology (GRWm), which we term GRWmN. The theory is proposed because, as we show from previous arguments in the literature, the standard Newtonian semiclassical gravity theory based on the Schroedinger–Newton equations does not have a consistent Born rule probability interpretation for gravitationally self-interacting particles and implies gravitational cat states for macroscopic mass superpositions. By contrast, we show that GRWmN has a consistent statistical description of gravitationally self-interacting particles and adequately suppresses the cat states for macroscopic superpositions. Two possible routes to experimentally testing GRWmN are also considered. We conclude with a discussion of possible variants of GRWmN, what a general relativistic extension would involve, and various objections that might be raised against semiclassical gravity theories like GRWmN.

  13. Determinants of outcome in operatively and non-operatively treated Weber-B ankle fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van Schie- van der Weert; E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); M.R. de Vries (Mark); M. van der Elst (Maarten); T. Schepers (Tim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Treatment of ankle fractures is often based on fracture type and surgeon's individual judgment. Literature concerning the treatment options and outcome are dated and frequently contradicting. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and functional outcome after

  14. Newtonian semiclassical gravity in the Ghirardi–Rimini–Weber theory with matter density ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derakhshani, Maaneli, E-mail: maanelid@yahoo.com

    2014-03-01

    We propose a Newtonian semiclassical gravity theory based on the GRW collapse theory with matter density ontology (GRWm), which we term GRWmN. The theory is proposed because, as we show from previous arguments in the literature, the standard Newtonian semiclassical gravity theory based on the Schroedinger–Newton equations does not have a consistent Born rule probability interpretation for gravitationally self-interacting particles and implies gravitational cat states for macroscopic mass superpositions. By contrast, we show that GRWmN has a consistent statistical description of gravitationally self-interacting particles and adequately suppresses the cat states for macroscopic superpositions. Two possible routes to experimentally testing GRWmN are also considered. We conclude with a discussion of possible variants of GRWmN, what a general relativistic extension would involve, and various objections that might be raised against semiclassical gravity theories like GRWmN.

  15. Trypsin from viscera of vermiculated sailfin catfish, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus, Weber, 1991: its purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba-Villalba, Ana Gloria; Ramírez-Suárez, Juan Carlos; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa Miriam; Sánchez, Guillermina García; Ruiz, Gisela Carvallo; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón

    2013-11-15

    Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus viscera trypsin was purified by fractionation with ammonium sulphate, gel filtration, affinity and ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose). Trypsin molecular weight was approximately 27.5kDa according to SDS-PAGE, shown a single band in zymography. It exhibited maximal activity at pH 9.5 and 40°C, using N-benzoyl-dl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA) as substrate. Enzyme was effectively inhibited by phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride (PMSF) (100%), N-α-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) (85.4%), benzamidine (80.2%), and soybean trypsin inhibitor (75.6%) and partially inhibited by N-tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) (10.3%), ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (8.7%) and pepstatin A (1.2%). Enzyme activity was slightly affected by metal ions (Fe(2+)>Hg(2+)>Mn(2+)>K(+)>Mg(2+)>Li(+)>Cu(2+)). Trypsin activity decreased continuously as NaCl concentration increased (0-30%). Km and kcat values were 0.13mM and 1.46s(-1), respectively. Results suggest the enzyme have a potential application where room processing temperatures (25-35°C) or high salt (30%) concentration are needed, such as in fish sauce production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for Siphamia tubifer Weber (Perciformes: Apogonidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Alpermann, Tilman J.

    2014-07-14

    The cardinalfish Siphamia tubifer has been selected as a model for the study of genetic connectivity in reef-associated fishes among marine-protected-areas in Socotra Island in the northwestern Indian Ocean (part of the Socotra Archipelago, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008). Twenty-six novel microsatellite markers are described for S. tubifer and are now available for studies on its genetic population structure. In a population sample from Socotra Island, the newly developed markers possessed between three and 20 alleles. Expected and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.56–0.96 to 0.55–0.95, respectively. The markers did not show deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and were not in linkage disequilibrium.

  17. Opera in the Foreign Language Classroom: Learning German with Mozart, Wagner, Weber, and Johann Strauss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Solveig M.

    2010-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) has been part of the foreign language curriculum for many years at US colleges, leading to courses that combine language instruction with specific content domains, such as film, literature, politics, sports and many others. This article presents a rather unusual choice of content domain for a second-year language…

  18. Further investigations on the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale Weber growing on mine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleci, Laura; Bini, Claudio; Spiandorello, Massimo; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effect of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of T. officinale growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: - to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; - to highlight possible damage at anatomical and cytological level; - to assess the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale after three years of pot cultivation. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from four sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). Plants were cultivated in pots at the botanical garden of the University of Florence (HBF), and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor structural organisations, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are related to soil contamination. Differences in roots micromorphology concern the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, all the samples examined present mycorrhiza. Ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing metal content. Instead, chloroplast organization does not present significant differences, particularly in number and compartmentalization of thylakoids. Although macromorphology does not present evidence of phytotoxicity, the recorded observations of the micromorphological characteristics of leaves and roots, show a suffering state of the plants, strictly related to HM content. Leaching reduced partly the HM content of the soil, therefore decreasing their phytotoxic effect. A gradual restoration of leaf organization suggests that somewhat resilience occurred in plants. Moreover, the presence of stress-tolerant mycorrhizal fungi could contribute to reduce metal toxicity. The resilience capacity suggests that Taraxacum could be a useful species in remediation projects. Keywords: Heavy metals • Mine soils • Plant morphology • Taraxacum officinale • Ultrastructure

  19. Diagnostic criteria for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shovlin, C L; Guttmacher, A E; Buscarini, E

    2000-01-01

    Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is easily recognized in individuals displaying the classical triad of epistaxis, telangiectasia, and a suitable family history, but the disease is more difficult to diagnosis in many patients. Serious consequences may result if visceral arteriovenous ma...... in this disorder. These criteria may be refined as molecular diagnostic tests become available in the next few years....... of the HHT Foundation International, Inc., we present consensus clinical diagnostic criteria. The four criteria (epistaxes, telangiectasia, visceral lesions and an appropriate family history) are carefully delineated. The HHT diagnosis is definite if three criteria are present. A diagnosis of HHT cannot...

  20. Primary ankle arthrodesis for neglected open Weber B ankle fracture dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Katherine; Ramesh, Ashwanth; McGoldrick, Niall; Cove, Richard; Walsh, James C; Stephens, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    Primary ankle arthrodesis used to treat a neglected open ankle fracture dislocation is a unique decision. A 63-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a 5-day-old open fracture dislocation of his right ankle. After thorough soft tissue debridement, primary arthrodesis of the tibiotalar joint was performed using initial Kirschner wire fixation and an external fixator. Definitive soft tissue coverage was later achieved using a latissimus dorsi free flap. The fusion was consolidated to salvage the limb from amputation. The use of primary arthrodesis to treat a compound ankle fracture dislocation has not been previously described. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.