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Sample records for weathering human hair

  1. Horse Shampoo for Human Hair?

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    Chiriac Anca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lately, a new idea has caught the attention of young people of both genders, being debated in consultation rooms, during classes, and especially on social media: is using horse shampoo for human hair wrong or not?

  2. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  3. Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection.

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    Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2012-06-23

    Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection.

  4. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

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    Kertesz, Zs. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary)]. E-mail: zsofi@atomki.hu; Szikszai, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Telek, A. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary); Biro, T. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary)

    2007-07-15

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  5. Human hair genealogies and stem cell latency

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    Tavaré Simon

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cells divide to reproduce themselves and produce differentiated progeny. A fundamental problem in human biology has been the inability to measure how often stem cells divide. Although it is impossible to observe every division directly, one method for counting divisions is to count replication errors; the greater the number of divisions, the greater the numbers of errors. Stem cells with more divisions should produce progeny with more replication errors. Methods To test this approach, epigenetic errors (methylation in CpG-rich molecular clocks were measured from human hairs. Hairs exhibit growth and replacement cycles and "new" hairs physically reappear even on "old" heads. Errors may accumulate in long-lived stem cells, or in their differentiated progeny that are eventually shed. Results Average hair errors increased until two years of age, and then were constant despite decades of replacement, consistent with new hairs arising from infrequently dividing bulge stem cells. Errors were significantly more frequent in longer hairs, consistent with long-lived but eventually shed mitotic follicle cells. Conclusion Constant average hair methylation regardless of age contrasts with the age-related methylation observed in human intestine, suggesting that error accumulation and therefore stem cell latency differs among tissues. Epigenetic molecular clocks imply similar mitotic ages for hairs on young and old human heads, consistent with a restart with each new hair, and with genealogies surreptitiously written within somatic cell genomes.

  6. The human hair: from anatomy to physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoli, Barbara; Rinaldi, Fabio; Labanca, Mauro; Sorbellini, Elisabetta; Trink, Anna; Guanziroli, Elena; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi F

    2014-03-01

    Hair is a unique character of mammals and has several functions, from protection of the skin to sexual and social communication. In literature, there are various studies about hair that take into consideration different aspects within many fields of science, including biology, dermatology, cosmetics, forensic sciences, and medicine. We carried out a search of studies published in PubMed up to 2013. In this review, we summarized the principal anatomical and physiological aspects of the different types of human hair, and we considered the clinical significance of the different structures and the distribution of the hair in the human body. This review could be the basis for improvement and progression in the field of hair research. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Biophysics of Human Hair Structural, Nanomechanical, and Nanotribological Studies

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    Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the biophysics of hair. It deals with the structure of hair, its mechanical properties, the nanomechanical characterization, tensile deformation, tribological characterization, the thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair surface. Another important topic of the book is the health of hair, human hair and skin, hair care, cleaning and conditioning treatments and damaging processes. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.

  8. Evaluation of human hairs with terahertz wave

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    Serita, Kazunori; Murakami, Hironaru; Kawayama, Iwao; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2014-03-01

    Single human hairs using a scanning laser terahertz (THz) imaging system are evaluated. The system features near-field THz emission and far-field THz detection. A sample is set in the vicinity of a two-dimensional THz emitter, and an excitation laser beam is scanned over the emitter via a galvanometer. By detecting the transmitted THz wave pulses that are locally generated at the irradiation spots of the excitation laser, we can obtain the THz transmission image and the spectrum of the sample with imaging time of 47 s for 512×512 pixels and maximum resolution of ˜27 μm. Using the system, we succeeded in observing the specific features of single human hairs in both the THz transmittance spectra and transmission images; it was found that the THz transmittance spectrum of gray hair shows a tendency of increase while that of black hair shows a decrease with increasing frequency above 1.2 THz. We could also observe the change of the moisture retention in the hair, and it is found that cuticles play one of the important roles in keeping moisture inside the hair. Those obtained data indicate that our system can be useful for evaluating single human hairs and those kinds of microscale samples.

  9. Human hair growth ex vivo is correlated with in vivo hair growth: selective categorization of hair follicles for more reliable hair follicle organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Oh, Jun Kyu; Kim, Mi Hyang; Park, So Hyun; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Kim, Kyu Han; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul

    2006-02-01

    Of the numerous assays used to assess hair growth, hair follicle organ culture model is one of the most popular and powerful in vitro systems. Changes in hair growth are commonly employed as a measurement of follicular activity. Hair cycle stage of mouse vibrissa follicles in vivo is known to determine subsequent hair growth and follicle behavior in vitro and it is recommended that follicles be taken at precisely the same cyclic stage. This study was performed to evaluate whether categorization of human hair follicles by the growth in vivo could be used to select follicles of the defined anagen stage for more consistent culture. Occipital scalp samples were obtained from three subjects, 2 weeks later after hair bleaching. Hair growth and follicle length of isolated anagen VI follicles were measured under a videomicroscope. Follicles were categorized into four groups according to hair growth and some were cultured ex vivo for 6 days. Follicles showed considerable variations with respect to hair growth and follicle length; however, these two variables were relatively well correlated. Hair growth in culture was closely related with hair growth rate in vivo. Moreover, minoxidil uniquely demonstrated a significant increase of hair growth in categorized hair follicles assumed at a similar early anagen VI stage of hair cycle. Selection of follicles at a defined stage based on hair-growth rate would permit a more reliable outcome in human hair follicle organ culture.

  10. To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that c...

  11. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

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    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  12. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Miao

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  13. To grow or not to grow: hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Fabrication of a Microneedle Using Human Hair

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    Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Takei, Tamotsu

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we developed a novel microneedle design to inject medication into the skin and to remove blood from a blood vessel. A drilling machine and chemicals were used to drill a hollow needle bore into the center of a strand of human hair. Our results demonstrate that a pen-shaped microneedle has been fabricated at a length of 1.1 mm, a base diameter of 80 µm, and a tip diameter of 40 µm. The hair microneedle was sufficiently strong to insert into the meat of a chicken leg.

  15. Depletion of CD200+ hair follicle stem cells in human prematurely gray hair follicles

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    Sujata Mohanty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melanocyte stem cells (MelSCs are known to be depleted in gray hair follicles. Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs are important for maintenance of stemness of MelSCs. Methods: We compared the proportion of CD200+ (Cluster of Differentiation 200 positive stem cells in the outer root sheath cell suspension of gray and pigmented hair follicles of three patients with the premature graying of hair. In addition, explants culture for HFSCs was also carried out from gray and pigmented hair follicles. Cultured HFSCs were also differentiated into melanocytes. Results: The mean ± SD CD200+ HFSCs population were 9.4 ± 1.4% and 3.5 ± 0.5% for pigmented and gray hair follicles, respectively ( P = 0.002. In explants culture, the growth of HFSCs from the gray hair follicle stopped at around day 20-22, whereas the growth of the cells from the pigmented follicle continued. Conclusion: CD200+ HFSCs are depleted in prematurely gray hair in the humans. CD200+ hair follicle stem cell yield is poorer in gray hair explant culture than pigmented hair explant culture.

  16. Depletion of CD200+ Hair Follicle Stem Cells in Human Prematurely Gray Hair Follicles.

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    Mohanty, Sujata; Kumar, Anil; Dhawan, Jyoti; Sharma, Vinod K; Gupta, Somesh

    2013-04-01

    Melanocyte stem cells (MelSCs) are known to be depleted in gray hair follicles. Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are important for maintenance of stemness of MelSCs. We compared the proportion of CD200+ (Cluster of Differentiation 200 positive) stem cells in the outer root sheath cell suspension of gray and pigmented hair follicles of three patients with the premature graying of hair. In addition, explants culture for HFSCs was also carried out from gray and pigmented hair follicles. Cultured HFSCs were also differentiated into melanocytes. The mean ± SD CD200+ HFSCs population were 9.4 ± 1.4% and 3.5 ± 0.5% for pigmented and gray hair follicles, respectively (P = 0.002). In explants culture, the growth of HFSCs from the gray hair follicle stopped at around day 20-22, whereas the growth of the cells from the pigmented follicle continued. CD200+ HFSCs are depleted in prematurely gray hair in the humans. CD200+ hair follicle stem cell yield is poorer in gray hair explant culture than pigmented hair explant culture.

  17. Temporary hair removal by low fluence photoepilation: histological study on biopsies and cultured human hair follicles.

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    Roosen, Guido F; Westgate, Gillian E; Philpott, Mike; Berretty, Paul J M; Nuijs, Tom A M; Bjerring, Peter

    2008-10-01

    We have recently shown that repeated low fluence photoepilation (LFP) with intense pulsed light (IPL) leads to effective hair removal, which is fully reversible. Contrary to permanent hair removal treatments, LFP does not induce severe damage to the hair follicle. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the impact of LFP on the structure and the physiology of the hair follicle. Single pulses of IPL with a fluence of 9 J/cm(2) and duration of 15 milliseconds were applied to one lower leg of 12 female subjects, followed by taking a single biopsy per person, either immediately, or after 3 or 7 days. Additionally, we present a novel approach to examine the effects of LFP, in which ex vivo hairy human scalp skin was exposed to IPL pulses with the same parameters as above, followed by isolation and culturing of the hair follicles over several days. Samples were examined histologically and morphologically. The majority of the cultured follicles that had been exposed to LFP treatment showed a marked treatment effect. The melanin containing part of the hair follicle bulb was the target and a catagen-like transformation was observed demonstrating that hair formation had ceased. The other follicles that had been exposed to LFP showed a less strong or no response. The skin biopsies also revealed that the melanin-rich region of the hair follicle bulb matrix was targeted; other parts of the follicle and the skin remained unaffected. Catagen/telogen hair follicles were visible with unusual melanin clumping, indicating this cycle phase was induced by the IPL treatment. Low fluence photoepilation targets the pigmented matrix area of the anagen hair follicle bulb, causing a highly localized but mild trauma that interrupts the hair cycle, induces a catagen-like state and eventually leads to temporary loss of the hair. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The influence of hair bleach on the ultrastructure of human hair with special reference to hair damage.

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    Imai, Takehito

    2011-05-01

    The influence of human hair bleaching agents with different bleaching strength on the ultrastructure of human hair was studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer equipped with TEM (EDS-TEM). Two kinds of bleaching agents were used: a lightener agent with a weak bleaching effect and a powder-bleach with a stronger bleaching effect. From the comparison of the bleaching properties obtained by the electronic staining of black and white hair samples, it was suggested that the permeability of hair was increased by bleaching, and there was an increase of the stainability of hair subjected to electronic staining. The bleaching action provoked the decomposition of melanin granules and the flow out of granular contents into the intermacrofibrillar matrix. Some metal elements were detected in the melanin granular matrix by EDS-TEM. As a result, the diffusion of metal elements into the intermacrofibrillar matrix promoted further damage to the hair by catalytic action with the hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching agents outside the melanin granules. Further study will lead us to the edge of the development of a new bleaching agent, which reacts only with melanin granules and causes the minimum of damage to outside the melanin granules.

  19. The uptake of water hardness metals by human hair.

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    Evans, A O; Marsh, J M; Wickett, R R

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the variables that influence the interaction between water hardness metals and human hair. Hair extracts various constituents from the tap water used during daily hygiene practices and chemical treatments. Calcium and magnesium metal ions are the most prevalent and give water "hardness." Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was employed to quantify the metal content of hair, which was studied as a function of the following variables: hair condition (oxidative damage), level of water hardness, and water pH. We have demonstrated that these variables impact water hardness metal uptake to varying extents, and the effects are driven primarily by the binding capacity (available anionic sites) of the hair. The condition of the hair, a key representation of the binding capacity, was most influential. Interestingly, water hardness levels had only a small effect on uptake; hair became saturated with notable amounts of water hardness metals even after repeated exposure to soft water. Water pH influenced metal uptake since side chains of hair proteins deprotonate with increasing alkalinity. These insights highlight the importance to the hair care industry of understanding the interaction between water hardness metals and hair.

  20. Comparative analysis of mercury content in human hair and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were analysed in human hairs and cosmetic products sold in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The average total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations in the scalp hair of females using mercury based cosmetic creams and soaps ranged from 7.0 ± 0.4 to 880 ± 12 ppm. Highest T-Hg concentrations ...

  1. Quantifying variation in human scalp hair fiber shape and pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Tina; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Shaw, Colin N

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of quantitative methods of measuring variation in scalp hair fiber shape and pigmentation and carry out exploratory data analysis on a limited sample of individuals from diverse populations in order to inform future avenues of research for the evolution of modern human hair variation. Cross-sectional area and shape and average curvature of scalp hair fibers were quantified using ImageJ. Pigmentation was analyzed using chemical methods estimating total melanin content through spectrophotometric methods, and eumelanin and pheomelanin content through HLPC analysis of melanin-specific degradation products. The initial results reinforced findings from earlier, traditional studies. African and African Diaspora scalp hair was significantly curled, (East) Asian hair was significantly thick, and European hair was significantly lighter in color. However, pigmentation analyses revealed a high level of variability in the melanin content of non-European populations and analysis of curvature found a large range of variation in the average curvature of East African individuals. Overall, these results suggest the usefulness of chemical methods for the elucidation of nonperceptible differences in scalp hair color and highlight the need for improvements in our assessment and understanding of hair fiber curvature. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:341-352, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. New approach for assessing human perfluoroalkyl exposure via hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Jacobs, Griet; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years hair has been increasingly used as alternative matrix in human biomonitoring (HBM) of environmental pollutants. Sampling advantages and time integration of exposure assessment seems the most attractive features of hair matrix. In the current study, a novel miniaturized method was developed and validated for measuring 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluoro n-butanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluoro n-hexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoro n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluor n-octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoro n-nonanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoro tetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro pentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononane sulfonic acid (PFNS), perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) and perfluorododecane sulfonic acid (PFDoS) in human hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After extraction using ethyl acetate, dispersive ENVI-Carb was used for clean-up. Good intra- and inter-day precision for low (LQ 5 ng/g hair) and high spike (HQ 15n g/g) levels were achieved (in general RSD hair and 3-13 pg/g hair, respectively. The method limit of quantification (LOQm) ranged between 6 and 301 pg/g hair. The PFAS levels were measured in 30 human hair samples indicating that the levels are low (14-1534 pg/g hair). Some PFAS were not present in any hair sample (e.g. PFHpA, PFTeDA, PFNA, PFPeS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFNS), while other PFAS were frequently detected (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS and PFDoS) in human hair. Although levels in general were low, there is evidence of higher human exposure to some analytes, such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, and PFDoS. The current study shows that hair is a suitable alternative non-invasive matrix for exposure assessment of PFAS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. New approach for assessing human perfluoroalkyl exposure via hair

    OpenAIRE

    Alves,Andreia; Jacobs, Griet; VANERMEN Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: In the recent years hair has been increasingly used as alternative matrix in human biomonitoring (HBM) of environmental pollutants. Sampling advantages and time integration of exposure assessment seems the most attractive features of hair matrix. In the current study, a novel miniaturized method was developed and validated for measuring 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluoro n-butanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluoro n-hexanoic acid (PFHx...

  4. Genetics of human isolated hereditary hair loss disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, S; Khan, S; Ahmad, W

    2015-09-01

    Hereditary hair loss in human is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders. It is characterized by sparse to complete absence of hair on the scalp and other parts of the body. In few cases tightly curled twisted wooly hair (WH) on the scalp has been reported as well. The hair loss disorders, including both syndromic and non-syndromic (isolated) forms, segregate either in autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive pattern. To date, seven autosomal dominant and equal numbers of autosomal recessive isolated forms of hair loss disorders have been characterized. Genes responsible for causing most of these disorders have been identified. In this review, we have provided an update on clinical and genetic aspects of isolated hereditary hair loss disorders manifesting with hypotrichosis and/or WHs. Because most of the recessive genes have been mapped using consanguineous families of Pakistani origin, therefore emphasis is given to mutations identified in these families. OMIM nomenclature has been followed to indicate different forms of hair loss disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schembri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm. The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future.

  6. Structure and mechanical behavior of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Wen; Wang, Bin; Meyers, Marc André

    2017-04-01

    The understanding of the mechanical behavior of hair under various conditions broadens our knowledge in biological materials science and contributes to the cosmetic industry. The hierarchical organization of hair is studied from the intermediate filament to the structural levels. The effects of strain rate, relative humidity, and temperature are evaluated. Hair exhibits a high tensile strength, 150-270MPa, which is significantly dependent on strain rate and humidity. The strain-rate sensitivity, approximately 0.06-0.1, is comparable to that of other keratinous materials and common synthetic polymers. The structures of the internal cortex and surface cuticle are affected by the large tensile extension. One distinguishing feature, the unwinding of the α-helix and the possible transformation to β-sheet structure of keratin under tension, which affects the ductility of hair, is analytically evaluated and incorporated into a constitutive equation. A good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. This model elucidates the tensile response of the α-keratin fibers. The contributions of elastic and plastic strains on reloading are evaluated and correlated to structural changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tryptophan and kynurenine determination in human hair by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, Michelli F; Freire, Thamires Batello; Pinto, Claudinéia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira; Prado, María Segunda Aurora; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2017-10-15

    Tryptophan, an amino acid found in hair proteinaceous structure is used as a marker of hair photodegradation. Also, protein loss caused by several chemical/physical treatments can be inferred by tryptophan quantification. Kynurenine is a photo-oxidation product of tryptophan, expected to be detected when hair is exposed mainly to UVB (290-320nm) radiation range. Tryptophan from hair is usually quantified directly as a solid or after alkaline hydrolysis, spectrofluorimetrically. However, these types of measure are not sufficiently specific and present several interfering substances. Thus, this work aimed to propose a quantification method for both tryptophan and kynurenine in hair samples, after alkali hydrolysis process, by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric and UV detection. The tryptophan and kynurenine quantification method was developed and validated. Black, white, bleached and dyed (blond and auburn) hair tresses were used in this study. Tryptophan and kynurenine were separated within ∼9min by HPLC. Both black and white virgin hair samples presented similar concentrations of tryptophan, while bleaching caused a reduction in the tryptophan content as well as dyeing process. Unexpectedly, UV/vis radiation did not promote significantly the conversion of tryptophan into its photo-oxidation product and consequently, kynurenine was not detected. Thus, this works presented an acceptable method for quantification of tryptophan and its photooxidation metabolite kynurenine in hair samples. Also, the results indicated that bleaching and dyeing processes promoted protein/amino acids loss but tryptophan is not extensively degraded in human hair by solar radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural change of human hair induced by mercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xueqing; Du, Rong; Li, Yufeng; Li, Bai; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Gong, Yu; Chen, Zhongjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Mercury is one of the most hazardous pollutants in the environment. In this paper, the structural change of human hair induced by mercury exposure was studied. Human hair samples were, respectively, collected from the normal Beijing area and the Hg-contaminated Wanshan area of the Guizhou Province, China. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy was used to detect the element contents. A small angle X-ray scattering technique was used to probe the structural change. Three reflections with 8.8, 6.7, and 4.5 nm spacing were compared between the normal and the Hg-contaminated hair samples. The results confirm that the 4.5 nm reflection is from the ordered fibrillar structure of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in proteoglycan (PG) that composes the matrix around the intermediate filaments. The increase of Ca content makes the regular oriented fibrillar structure of GAG transform to a random oriented one, broadening the angular extent of the reflection with 4.5 nm spacing. However, overdose Hg makes the core proteins where the ordered fibrils of GAG are attached become coiled, which destroys the ordered arrangements of fibrillar GAG in PG, resulting in the disappearance of the reflections with 4.5 nm spacing. The disappearance of the 4.5 nm reflection can be used as a bioindicator of overdose Hg contamination to the human body. A supercoiled-coil model of hair nanoscale structure and a possible mechanism of mercury effect in human hair are proposed in this paper.

  9. Feasibility of rat hair as a quality control material for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Kim, Jihyun; In, Sanghwan; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2011-04-01

    A quality control material (QCM) is a necessity in hair drug analysis, but it is not always easy to have an authentic hair sample containing various target drugs and metabolites. In the present study, the feasibility of rat hair as a QCM was examined for its application in the determination of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AP) in human hair. MA was administered to lean Zucker rats, from which only pigmented hair was collected for the preparation of a QCM. The rat hair was then washed, homogenized and finally bottled. Both homogeneity and stability were examined in order to demonstrate the suitability of rat hair as a QCM in hair drug analysis. The concentrations of MA and AP in each bottle were determined using extraction with 1% HCl in methanol at 38°C followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride. Furthermore, the prepared QCM was used in an inter-laboratory quality assurance program. In the homogeneity test, no significant difference was observed between bottles of the QCM. The statistical results also showed no significant trends in stability for three months at room temperature. An inter-laboratory quality assurance program was also performed successfully using this material. Thus, rat hair will be useful as an alternative QCM sample for the determination of a variety of drugs and their metabolites in human hair.

  10. Senile hair graying: H2O2-mediated oxidative stress affects human hair color by blunting methionine sulfoxide repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J M; Decker, H; Hartmann, H; Chavan, B; Rokos, H; Spencer, J D; Hasse, S; Thornton, M J; Shalbaf, M; Paus, R; Schallreuter, K U

    2009-07-01

    Senile graying of human hair has been the subject of intense research since ancient times. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in hair follicle melanocyte apoptosis and DNA damage. Here we show for the first time by FT-Raman spectroscopy in vivo that human gray/white scalp hair shafts accumulate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in millimolar concentrations. Moreover, we demonstrate almost absent catalase and methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B protein expression via immunofluorescence and Western blot in association with a functional loss of methionine sulfoxide (Met-S=O) repair in the entire gray hair follicle. Accordingly, Met-S=O formation of Met residues, including Met 374 in the active site of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis, limits enzyme functionality, as evidenced by FT-Raman spectroscopy, computer simulation, and enzyme kinetics, which leads to gradual loss of hair color. Notably, under in vitro conditions, Met oxidation can be prevented by L-methionine. In summary, our data feed the long-voiced, but insufficiently proven, concept of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage in the entire human hair follicle, inclusive of the hair shaft, as a key element in senile hair graying, which does not exclusively affect follicle melanocytes. This new insight could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process.

  11. Effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeck, SeungKyung; Han, EunYoung; Chung, HeeSun; Pyo, MyoungYun

    2011-03-20

    The effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in hair samples of MA addicts were studied. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples collected from male (n = 24, 24-51 yrs) and female abusers (n = 7, 17-46 yrs) were evaluated for MA and AM concentration's changes after repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples, no additional treatment hair sample group (NAT), were treated in vitro with liquid soap or three kinds of hair dyes which were black, brown and yellow color hair dye, respectively. Quantitation of AM and MA in hair samples was utilized GC-MS using selected ion monitoring. MA and AM concentrations in NAT were 10.41 ± 8.91 ng/mg (range 1.50-30.0 ng/mg) and 2.24 ± 2.75 ng/mg (range 0.41-12.90 ng/mg). And, their concentrations were decreased about 23.3 ± 4.5% (range 16.7-32.8%) in hair repeated washing group (WAS) and 32.6 ± 4.82 (22.2-41.9) in three kinds of a single hair dyeing groups in comparison to original concentrations of MA and AM in NAT. A statistically significant difference was found between NAT and WAS or three hair dyeing groups (p 0.05). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Qualitative investigation of fresh human scalp hair with full-field optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pi, Long-Quan; Min, Gihyeon; Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated depth-resolved cellular structures of unmodified fresh human scalp hairs with ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). The Linnik-type white light interference microscope has been home-implemented to observe the micro-internal layers of human hairs in their natural environment. In hair shafts, FF-OCT has qualitatively revealed the cellular hair compartments of cuticle and cortex layers involved in keratin filaments and melanin granules. No significant difference between black and white hair shafts was observed except for absence of only the melanin granules in the white hair, reflecting that the density of the melanin granules directly affects the hair color. Anatomical description of plucked hair bulbs was also obtained with the FF-OCT in three-dimensions. We expect this approach will be useful for evaluating cellular alteration of natural hairs on cosmetic assessment or diagnosis of hair diseases.

  13. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in paired human hair and serum from e-waste recycling workers: source apportionment of hair PBDEs and relationship between hair and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Chen, Ke-Hui; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yan, Xiao; He, Chun-Tao; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Peng, Xiao-Wu; Ren, Ming-Zhong; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Human hair has been widely used as a bioindicator for human persistent organic pollutants (POPs) exposure, but studies on the sources of hair POPs and the relationship between hair and body burden are limited. This study analyzed the possible source apportionment of hair PBDEs and examined the relationship between PBDE concentrations in paired hair and serum from e-waste recycling workers. Using the ratio of BDE 99/47 and BDE 209/207 as indices, we calculated that only 15% of the highly brominated congeners (nona- and deca-BDE congeners) comes from exogenous (external) exposure for both female and male hair, but an average of 64% and 55% of the lower-brominated congeners (tetra- to penta-BDE congeners) come from exogenous exposure for female and male hair, respectively. The higher contribution of exogenous exposure for less-brominated congeners could be related to their relatively lower log KOW and higher volatility than higher-brominated congeners, which make them more readily to evaporate from dust and then to be adsorbed on hair. Higher hair PBDE levels and higher exogenous exposure of less-brominated congeners in females than in males can be attributed to a longer exogenous exposure time for females than males. Significant positive relationships were found in tri- to hepta-BDE congeners (BDE 28, 47, 66, 85, 100, 153, 154, and 183) (R = 0.36-0.55, p hair and serum, but this relationship was not found for octa- to deca-BDE. Difference in the half-lives between highly brominated congeners and less-brominated congeners could be a reason. This result also implied that we should treat the results of correlation analyses between hair and other organs cautiously.

  14. The population of coloured fibres in human head hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R; Oliver, S

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 a population study of textile fibres in human hair was carried out using 26 volunteers in Cambridgeshire, UK. Over 12,000 fibres were recovered from a variety of hair lengths using low adhesive tape and classified according to colour, generic type and fibre length. The results of the study showed that the most common fibre colours were black/grey (48%), blue (29.1%) and red (12.7%), the least common being green, orange/brown and yellow which each accounted for less than 5% of the total. Natural fibres (mainly cotton) were predominant (72.3%) and man-made fibres were considerably less frequent. When colour and generic type were classified together, the most common combinations were black and blue cottons. The least common were the man-made fibre/colour combinations with the most frequent of these accounting for less than 7% of the sample. Fibre loads carried by long hair were found to be significantly less than that carried by short hair. The results of this study are in accordance with previous fibre population studies using other types of recipient surfaces and are likely to be influenced by factors such as seasonal and geographical variation.

  15. Depletion of CD200+ Hair Follicle Stem Cells in Human Prematurely Gray Hair Follicles

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Sujata; Kumar, Anil; Dhawan, Jyoti; Sharma, Vinod K; Gupta, Somesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Melanocyte stem cells (MelSCs) are known to be depleted in gray hair follicles. Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are important for maintenance of stemness of MelSCs. Methods: We compared the proportion of CD200+ (Cluster of Differentiation 200 positive) stem cells in the outer root sheath cell suspension of gray and pigmented hair follicles of three patients with the premature graying of hair. In addition, explants culture for HFSCs was also carried out from gray and pigmented h...

  16. Towards expansion of human hair follicle stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J H; Mohebi, P; Farkas, D L; Tajbakhsh, J

    2011-06-01

    Multipotential human hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into various cell lineages and thus are investigated here as potential autologous sources for regenerative medicine. Towards this end, we have attempted to expand these cells, directly isolated from minimal amounts of hair follicle explants, to numbers more suitable for stem-cell therapy. Two types of human follicle stem cells, commercially available and directly isolated, were cultured using an in-house developed medium. The latter was obtained from bulge areas of hair follicles by mechanical and enzymatic dissociation, and was magnetically enriched for its CD200(+) fraction. Isolated cells were cultured for up to 4 weeks, on different supports: blank polystyrene, laminin- and Matrigel(TM) -coated surfaces. Two-fold expansion was found, highlighting the slow-cycling nature of these cells. Flow cytometry characterization revealed: magnetic enrichment increased the proportion of CD200(+) cells from initially 43.3% (CD200+, CD34: 25.8%; CD200+, CD34+: 17.5%) to 78.2% (CD200+, CD34: 41.5%; CD200+, CD34+: 36.7%). Enriched cells seemed to have retained and passed on their morphological and molecular phenotypes to their progeny, as isolated CD200(+) presenting cells expanded in our medium to a population with 80% of cells being CD200(+): 51.5% (CD200(+), CD34(-)) and 29.6% (CD200(+), CD34(+)). This study demonstrates the possibility of culturing human hair follicle stem cells without causing any significant changes to phenotypes of the cells. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Is there any relationship between decreased AgNOR protein synthesis and human hair loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroz, R; Tasdemir, S; Dogan, H

    2012-11-01

    Argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region associated proteins (AgNORs) play roles in cell proliferation and a variety of diseases. We attempted to determine whether decreased NOR protein synthesis causes human hair loss. We studied 21 healthy males who suffered hair loss on the frontal/vertex portion of the head. Hair root cells from normal and hair loss sites were stained for AgNOR. One hundred nuclei per site were evaluated and the AgNOR number and NORa/TNa proportions of individual cells were determined using a computer program. The cells from normal sites had significantly higher AgNOR counts than those from hair loss sites. Also, the cells from the normal sites had significantly higher NORa/TNa than cells from the hair loss sites. In the normal sites, the cells demonstrated more NOR protein synthesis than cells in hair loss sites. Therefore, decreased NOR protein synthesis appears to be related to hair loss in humans.

  18. Strontium and lead isotope ratios in human hair: investigating a potential tool for determining recent human geographical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font Morales, L.; van der Peijl, G.J.Q.; van Wetten, I.A.; Vroon, P.Z.; van der Wagt, B.; Davies, G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Three cleaning techniques that remove external contamination of human hair are assessed to investigate the potential use of Sr and Pb isotope composition of hair for human provenancing. These techniques are; (i) a centrifugation technique using diiodomethane where hair and soil particles are

  19. Development of a Stiffness-Angle Law for Simplifying the Measurement of Human Hair Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, I K; Park, S C; Lee, Y R; Bin, S A; Hong, Y D; Eun, D; Lee, J H; Roh, Y S; Kim, B M

    2018-01-25

    This research examines the benefits of caffeine absorption on hair stiffness. In order to test hair stiffness, we have developed an evaluation method that is not only accurate, but also inexpensive. Our evaluation method for measuring hair stiffness culminated in a model, called the Stiffness-Angle Law, which describes the elastic properties of hair and can be widely applied to the development of hair care products. Small molecules (≤ 500 g/mol) such as caffeine can be absorbed into hair. A common shampoo containing 4% caffeine was formulated and applied to hair 10 times, after which the hair stiffness was measured. The caffeine absorption of the treated hair was observed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) with a Focal Plane Array (FPA) detector. Our evaluation method for measuring hair stiffness consists of a regular camera and a support for single strands of hair. After attaching the hair to the support, the bending angle of the hair was observed with a camera and measured. Then the hair strand was weighed. The stiffness of the hair was calculated based on our proposed Stiffness-Angle law using three variables: angle, weight of hair, and the distance the hair was pulled across the support. The caffeine absorption was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The concentration of amide bond in the hair certainly increased due to caffeine absorption. After caffeine was absorbed into the hair, the bending angle and weight of the hair changed. Applying these measured changes to the Stiffness-Angle law, it was confirmed that the hair stiffness increased by 13.2% due to caffeine absorption. The theoretical results using the Stiffness-Angle law agree with the visual examinations of hair exposed to caffeine, and also the known results of hair stiffness from a previous report. Our evaluation method combined with our proposed Stiffness-Angle Law effectively provides an accurate and inexpensive evaluation technique for measuring bending stiffness of human hair. This

  20. Particulate matter adheres to human hair exposed to severe aerial pollution: consequences for certain hair surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliano, A; Ye, C; Su, F; Wang, C; Wang, Y; Liu, C; Wagle, A; Guerin, M; Flament, F; Steel, A

    2017-07-26

    The deposit and adherence of particulate matter (PM) from aerial pollution onto the surface of human hair is a poorly studied phenomenon. (i) To reproduce in vitro the deposit of known PM on standardized hair swatches in a closed box, (ii) to compare in vitro data with those obtained under 'real-life' conditions of severe aerial pollution and (iii) to assess the changes of the hair surface properties, potentially caused by the adherence of airborne PM onto the hair. In vitro: a PM was sprayed onto untreated or sebum-coated hair swatches. Real-life conditions: other swatches were exposed to a severely polluted environment, for 24 to 72 h, in Baoding (PR China). In both cases, swatches were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The shine, the frictional properties and the level of metals were measured and compared to those same properties for the unexposed swatches. This work clearly indicates that, under real-life conditions, a large number of PM of various sizes are deposited onto the hair surface. This phenomenon is increased by the presence of sebum and longer exposure times. The in vitro level of PM deposited onto the hair surface is comparable to the in vivo level. The presence of sebum seems to favour the deposit of larger PM. The shine of the exposed swatches is significantly decreased, whereas their respective friction coefficients are significantly increased. Both the presence of sebum and length of exposure time increased the amount of analysed metals present on the exposed hair surface (Al, Fe, Cu, Ba and Zn). This work indicates that a very high amount (e.g. billions) of PM can be deposited on a full head of hair for subjects living in a severely aerially polluted environment. This process can be reproduced in vitro. In real-life, pollution has a strong impact on hair surface properties, leading to a modification of the visual aspect (loss of shine) and the alteration of hair surface (increase in friction force). This work may be used to pave the

  1. Human hair follicle organ culture: theory, application and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Ewan A; Philpott, Michael P; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, ex vivo studies of human scalp hair follicles (HFs) have permitted major advances in hair research, spanning diverse fields such as chronobiology, endocrinology, immunology, metabolism, mitochondrial biology, neurobiology, pharmacology, pigmentation and stem cell biology. Despite this, a comprehensive methodological guide to serum-free human HF organ culture (HFOC) that facilitates the selection and analysis of standard HF biological parameters and points out both research opportunities and pitfalls to newcomers to the field is still lacking. The current methods review aims to close an important gap in the literature and attempts to promote standardisation of human HFOC. We provide basic information outlining the establishment of HFOC through to detailed descriptions of the analysis of standard read-out parameters alongside practical examples. The guide closes by pointing out how serum-free HFOC can be utilised optimally to obtain previously inaccessible insights into human HF biology and pathology that are of interest to experimental dermatologists, geneticists, developmental biologists and (neuro-) endocrinologists alike and by highlighting novel applications of the model, including gene silencing and gene expression profiling of defined, laser capture-microdissected HF compartments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Detection of basic drugs (methamphetamine, antidepressants, and nicotine) from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, I; Nagai, T; Toshida, S

    1983-04-01

    Human hair contains methamphetamine, amitriptyline, imipramine, nicotine, and their metabolites in some amount, which can be detected by routine toxicological methods. Sometimes, the level of drugs reaches over 100 micrograms/g. Animal experiments indicate that these drugs are found solely in sections of hair grown after administration of the drugs. The negative stage after the administration of drugs means that the hair section containing drugs has not come out of the hair follicle. Toxicological examination of the hairs may give some clue helping to identify the chronology of the intoxication.

  3. Analysis of aging effects on chemical property of human hair by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-02-01

    In the previous work, we investigated the aging effect on morphology and mechanical property of the hair by using atomic force microscopy. The effects of aging on chemical properties of human hair were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Healthy hair samples with no diseases were collected from 60 Koreans (30 males and 30 females) and they were grouped by age: 1-10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, and 51-60 years. The characteristic parameters of FT-IR absorbance bands including center frequency, half width, height, and area were analyzed using the Gaussian model. To quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of hair, the height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652-1659 and 1654-1658 cm(-1), for male and female hairs, respectively. In all male and female hairs, the spectra of specific components of the hair keratin showed to have the same dependence on aging. The center positions of the bands arising from amide A, CH(3) mode, and amide I were altered by aging. The female hair contains more cystein than the male hair. Changes in the amount of amide II and amide A by aging were more significant in male hair than in female hair. The changes in chemical components of the hair according to the ages were shown at the inflection point at 30 s. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Topical Products for Human Hair Regeneration: A Comparative Study on an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasan, Meda Sandra; Bolfa, Pompei; Coneac, Andrei; Muresan, Adriana; Mihu, Carmen

    2016-02-01

    Hair loss and hair growth is the subject of tremendous amount of research. This study investigated the efficacy of three chemical treatments used in humans for hair loss, using a rat model of hair regrowth. The products tested were 2% minoxidil, Hairgrow (Dar-Al-Dawa Pharma), Aminexil, Dercos (Vichy Laboratoires), and Kerium, Anti-chute (La Roche-Posay). Thirty-two adult female Wistar-Bratislava rats were assigned to 4 groups. Two rectangular areas (2×4 cm) were shaved on either sides of the mid dorsal line (left side - control; right side - test area). Group I was treated topically with 2% minoxidil, group II with Aminexil, and group III with Kerium. Each rat received 0.3 ml of substance applied topically to the shaved dorsal skin every day for 28 days. Rats in group IV served as sham controls receiving no treatment. Hair regrowth was evaluated by trichoscopy (with a dermatoscope), grown hair weight (from a surface area of 1 cm(2)), and histopathological examination for skin thickness, follicle count, and percentage of anagen induction (morphometric assessment). Treatment with 2% minoxidil significantly induced hair regrowth as assessed by trichoscopy, hair weight examination, and morphometric evaluation. Hair weight examination and morphometric assessment demonstrated the lowest hair growth effect with Aminexil among the tested products. Treatment with Kerium was found to significantly induce hair regrowth (pproducts recommended for human use is not similar when tested on an animal model.

  5. Hair root characteristics of the human scalp hair in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.R. Peereboom-Wynia

    1982-01-01

    textabstractMorphological data on hair follicles have been available for over a hundred years, but only in recent years has a substantial advance been made in our knowledge of types and distribution of hair, its structure, metabolism, biochemistry and clinical patterns, and hormonal influences on

  6. Brief communication: Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Aaron A

    2013-09-01

    Humans are unusual among mammals in appearing hairless. Several hypotheses propose explanations for this phenotype, but few data are available to test these hypotheses. To elucidate the evolutionary history of human "hairlessness," a comparative approach is needed. One previous study on primate hair density concluded that great apes have systematically less dense hair than smaller primates. While there is a negative correlation between body size and hair density, it remains unclear whether great apes have less dense hair than is expected for their body size. To revisit the scaling relationship between hair density and body size in mammals, I compiled data from the literature on 23 primates and 29 nonprimate mammals and conducted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares regressions. Among anthropoids, there is a significant negative correlation between hair density and body mass. Chimpanzees display the largest residuals, exhibiting less dense hair than is expected for their body size. There is a negative correlation between hair density and body mass among the broader mammalian sample, although the functional significance of this scaling relationship remains to be tested. Results indicate that all primates, and chimpanzees in particular, are relatively hairless compared to other mammals. This suggests that there may have been selective pressures acting on the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees that led to an initial reduction in hair density. To further understand the evolution of human hairlessness, a systematic study of hair density and physiology in a wide range of species is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The detection of cortisol in human sweat: implications for measurement of cortisol in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan H M

    2014-02-01

    Hair cortisol analysis has been shown to be an effective measure of chronic stress. Cortisol is assumed to incorporate into hair via serum, sebum, and sweat sources; however, the extent to which sweat contributes to hair cortisol content is unknown. Sweat and saliva samples were collected from 17 subjects after a period of intensive exercise and analyzed by salivary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Subsequently, an in vitro test on exposure of hair to hydrocortisone was conducted. Residual hair samples were immersed in a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution for periods lasting 15 minutes to 24 hours, followed by a wash or no-wash condition. Hair cortisol content was determined using our modified protocol for a salivary ELISA. Postexercise control sweat cortisol concentrations ranged from 8.16 to 141.7 ng/mL and correlated significantly with the log-transformed time of day. Sweat cortisol levels significantly correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations. In vitro hair exposure to a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution (mimicking sweat) for 60 minutes or more resulted in significantly increased hair cortisol concentrations. Washing with isopropanol did not affect immersion-increased hair cortisol concentrations. Human sweat contains cortisol in concentrations comparable with salivary cortisol levels. This study suggests that perfuse sweating after intense exercise may increase cortisol concentrations detected in hair. This increase likely cannot be effectively decreased with conventional washing procedures and should be considered carefully in studies using hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress.

  8. Measurement of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of human hair using optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenxing; Li, Gaosheng; Xie, Huimin; Hua, Tao; Chen, Pengwan; Huang, Fenglei

    2010-03-01

    Human hair is a complex nanocomposite fiber whose physical appearance and mechanical strength are governed by a variety of factors like ethnicity, cleaning, grooming, chemical treatments and environment. Characterization of mechanical properties of hair is essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Hence the behavior of hair under tension is of interest to beauty care science. Human hair fibers experience tensile forces as they are groomed and styled. Previous researches about tensile testing of human hair were seemingly focused on the longitudinal direction, such as elastic modulus, yield strength, breaking strength and strain at break after different treatment. In this research, experiment of evaluating the mechanical properties of human hair, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, was designed and conducted. The principle of the experimental instrument was presented. The system of testing instrument to evaluate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was introduced. The range of Poisson's ratio of the hair from the identical person was evaluated. Experiments were conducted for testing the mechanical properties after acid, aqueous alkali and neutral solution treatment of human hair. Explanation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was conducted base on these results of experiments. These results can be useful to hair treatment and cosmetic product.

  9. Evidence of the direct adsorption of mercury in human hair during occupational exposure to mercury vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queipo Abad, Silvia; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2016-07-01

    We have found clear evidence of direct adsorption of mercury in human hair after the occupational exposure to mercury vapour. We have performed both longitudinal analysis of human hair by laser ablation ICP-MS and speciation analysis by gas chromatography ICP-MS in single hair strands of 5 individuals which were occupationally exposed to high levels of mercury vapour and showed acute mercury poisoning symptoms. Hair samples, between 3.5 and 11cm long depending on the individual, were taken ca. three months after exposure. Single point laser ablation samples of 50μm diameter were taken at 1mm intervals starting from the root of the hairs. Sulfur-34 was used as internal standard. The ratio (202)Hg/(34)S showed a distinct pattern of mercury concentration with much lower levels of mercury near the root of the hair and high levels of mercury near the end of the hair. In all cases a big jump in the concentration of mercury in hair occurred at a given distance from the root, between 32 and 42mm depending on the individual, with a high and almost constant concentration of mercury for longer distances to the root. When we took into account the rate of hair growth in humans, 9-15mm/month, the jump in mercury concentration agreed approximately with the dates when the contamination occurred with the new growing hair showing much lower mercury concentration. In some cases the concentration of mercury at the tip of the hair was ca. 1000 times higher than that near the root. Additionally, speciation studies confirmed that mercury in all hair samples was present as inorganic mercury. The only explanation for these results was the direct adsorption of mercury vapour in hair at the time of exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation and Properties of Human Hair Keratin Film Lacking Keratin-Associated Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    藤井, 敏弘; 伊藤, 弓子

    2015-01-01

    Human hair keratin film has been used as an alternative to hair samples to evaluate various damages. This film consisted of keratin and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs). The function of KAPs on the molecular constitution of hair and keratin film remains unclear. Recently, we have developed a selective isolation method for keratin and KAPs from human hair. In this study, we proposed a novel keratin film lacking KAPs using the Pre-cast method. The concentration of acetic acid in the casting s...

  11. Isolation of strontium pools and isotope ratios in modern human hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipple, Brett J., E-mail: brett@isoforensics.com [IsoForensics Inc, 421 Wakara Way, Suite 100, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); University of Utah, Department of Biology, 257 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Chau, Thuan [IsoForensics Inc, 421 Wakara Way, Suite 100, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Chesson, Lesley A. [IsoForensics Inc, 421 Wakara Way, Suite 100, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); University of Utah, Department of Biology, 257 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Fernandez, Diego P. [University of Utah, Department of Geology and Geophysics, 115 South 1460 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Ehleringer, James R. [IsoForensics Inc, 421 Wakara Way, Suite 100, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); University of Utah, Department of Biology, 257 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical methodologies were developed to analyze the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of human hair. •Interior and exterior Sr signals to human hair were distinguished. •Environmental {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr signals could be isolated from internal {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr signatures. •{sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios across the transverse cross-section profile of a hair varied. •Cleaning method must be considered when comparing {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of hair. -- Abstract: The elements of human hair record specific information about an individual's health, diet, and surrounding environment. Strontium isotope ratios of human hair have attracted interest as they potentially record an individual's environment. Yet, separating the external environmental signals from the internal dietary indicators has remained a challenge. Here, we examined the effects of five different hair-cleaning methodologies to determine the extent that internal and external strontium signals can be isolated from human hair. In the first study of its kind, we employed an in-line strontium purification methodology and a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to obtain high-precision strontium isotope ratio of human hair and of leachates of the different washing treatments. We found that the different applications of an individual treatment removed a consistent amount of strontium from hair and that replicate analyses showed each treatment altered the strontium isotope ratios of hair consistently. A mass-balance approach was applied to demonstrate that strontium was quantitatively removed and was accounted for in either the treated hair or the leachate. We observed that strontium isotope ratio varied as a function of treatment aggressiveness so as to suggest that there was a fine-scale structuring of strontium within hair (transverse cross-sectional variations); these variations existed as differences in strontium concentrations

  12. Nanotribological and nanomechanical characterization of human hair using a nanoscratch technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Guohua [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS, Ohio State University, 650 Ackerman Road, Suite 255, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States); Bhushan, Bharat [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS, Ohio State University, 650 Ackerman Road, Suite 255, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States)]. E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu

    2006-06-15

    Human hair ({approx}50-100 {mu}m in diameter) is a nanocomposite biological fiber with well-characterized microstructures, and is of great interest for both cosmetic science and materials science. Characterization of nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of human hair including the coefficient of friction and scratch resistance is essential to develop better shampoo and conditioner products and advance biological and cosmetic science. In this paper, the coefficient of friction and scratch resistance of Caucasian and Asian hair at virgin, chemo-mechanically damaged, and conditioner-treated conditions are measured using a nanoscratch technique with a Nano Indenter II system. The scratch tests were performed on both the single cuticle cell and multiple cuticle cells of each hair sample, and the scratch wear tracks were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after the scratch tests. The effect of soaking on the coefficient of friction, scratch resistance, hardness and Young's modulus of hair surface were also studied by performing experiments on hair samples which had been soaked in de-ionized water for 5 min. The nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of human hair as a function of hair structure (hair of different ethnicity), damage, treatment and soaking are discussed.

  13. Ageing effects on the diameter, nanomechanical properties and tactile perception of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W; Zhang, S G; Zhang, J K; Chen, S; Zhu, H; Ge, S R

    2016-04-01

    The typical changes to hair associated with ageing are greying, thinning, dryness and brittleness. Research on the influence of ageing on hair properties will enable a detailed understanding of the natural ageing process. The studies were carried out using an SEM (scanning electron microscope), a TriboIndenter and an artificial finger. Three characteristic features of tactile perception that could reflect the perceptual dimensions of the fineness, roughness and slipperiness of hair were extracted. The influences of ageing on the diameter, surface topography, nanomechanical properties and tactile perception of hair were determined. In the three age group hair samples, the children's group hair samples have the smallest diameter. The hair cuticles in the children and young adult groups were relatively complete and less damaged than in the elderly group. The hardness and elastic modulus of the young adult group's hair samples were higher than those in the elderly and children's groups. For all groups, loss modulus E" was smaller than storage modulus E'. Vertical deviations (R) and coefficient of friction (μ) increased, and spectral centroid (SC) decreased, with the increase in age. Ageing decreased the tactile perception of hair. Ageing influences the diameter, surface topography, hardness, loss modulus, storage modulus and tactile perception of human hair. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Spermidine promotes human hair growth and is a novel modulator of human epithelial stem cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Ramot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapidly regenerating tissues need sufficient polyamine synthesis. Since the hair follicle (HF is a highly proliferative mini-organ, polyamines may also be important for normal hair growth. However, the role of polyamines in human HF biology and their effect on HF epithelial stem cells in situ remains largely unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have studied the effects of the prototypic polyamine, spermidine (0.1-1 µM, on human scalp HFs and human HF epithelial stem cells in serum-free organ culture. Under these conditions, spermidine promoted hair shaft elongation and prolonged hair growth (anagen. Spermidine also upregulated expression of the epithelial stem cell-associated keratins K15 and K19, and dose-dependently modulated K15 promoter activity in situ and the colony forming efficiency, proliferation and K15 expression of isolated human K15-GFP+ cells in vitro. Inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, ornithine decarboyxlase (ODC, downregulated intrafollicular K15 expression. In primary human epidermal keratinocytes, spermidine slightly promoted entry into the S/G2-M phases of the cell cycle. By microarray analysis of human HF mRNA extracts, spermidine upregulated several key target genes implicated e.g. in the control of cell adherence and migration (POP3, or endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial functions (SYVN1, NACA and SLC25A3. Excess spermidine may restrict further intrafollicular polyamine synthesis by inhibiting ODC gene and protein expression in the HF's companion layer in situ. CONCLUSIONS: These physiologically and clinically relevant data provide the first direct evidence that spermidine is a potent stimulator of human hair growth and a previously unknown modulator of human epithelial stem cell biology.

  15. From conditioning shampoo to nanomechanics and haptics of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claudia; Sugiharto, Albert Budiman; Max, Eva; Fery, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Shampoo treatment and hair conditioning have a direct impact on our wellbeing via properties like combability and haptic perception of hair. Therefore, systematic investigations leading to quality improvement of hair care products are of major interest. The aim of our work is a better understanding of complex testing and the correlation with quantitative parameters. The motivation for the development of physical testing methods for hair feel relates to the fact that an ingredient supplier like BASF can only find new, so far not yet toxicologically approved chemistries for hair cosmetics, if an in-vitro method exists.In this work, the effects of different shampoo treatments with conditioning polymers are investigated. The employed physical test method, dry friction measurements and AFM observe friction phenomena on a macroscopic as well as on a nanoscale directly on hair. They are an approach to complement sensoric evaluation with an objective in-vitro method.

  16. The use of personal hair dye and its implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-01-01

    Hair dye products now represent one of the most rapidly growing beauty and personal care industries as both men and women commonly change hair color to enhance youth and beauty and to follow fashion trends. Irrespective of economic and education status, people dye their hair to emphasize the importance given to appearance. Despite adverse reactions, many people continue dyeing mainly for cosmetic purposes. This paper provides a comprehensive review on various aspects of hair dying products, especially with respect to the hair-coloring process, classification, chemical ingredients, possible human health impacts, and regulations. Permanent hair dye, which is the most commonly used product type, is formed by an oxidative process involving arylamines to bring about concerns with long-term exposure. Hence, significant efforts have been put to understand the possible side effects of such exposure including cancer risk. However, hair dyes and their ingredients are mainly identified to have moderate to low acute toxicity such as the cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Although some hair dye components are reported to be carcinogenic in animals, such evidence is not consistent enough in the case of human studies. Consequently, further research is desirable to critically address the significance of this issue, especially with respect to the safety of hair dye ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of the cuticula thickness of human and porcine hairs and their potential influence on the penetration of nanoparticles into the hair follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, Juergen; Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Antoniou, Christina; Sterry, Wolfram; Knorr, Fanny

    2009-03-01

    An efficient penetration and long-term storage of topically applied substances is important for drug delivery in medical treatment and cosmetics. It has recently become apparent that the hair follicles represent an efficient and long-term reservoir for topically applied substances. It was found that particles sized 300-600 nm penetrate more efficiently into the hair follicles than smaller or larger particles. In the present paper, the hair surface structure of human and porcine hairs was analyzed by electron microscopy. It could be observed that the thickness of the cuticula corresponds to the optimal size of the nanoparticles for penetration into the hair follicles. Additionally, it could be demonstrated that the cuticula of human vellus and terminal hairs were of similar thickness (approx. 530 nm), while the thickness of the cuticula obtained from porcine ear bristles were slightly thinner (approx. 320 nm).

  18. Model-based prediction of human hair color using DNA variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branicki, Wojciech; Liu, Fan; van Duijn, Kate; Draus-Barini, Jolanta; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Walsh, Susan; Kupiec, Tomasz; Wojas-Pelc, Anna; Kayser, Manfred

    2011-04-01

    Predicting complex human phenotypes from genotypes is the central concept of widely advocated personalized medicine, but so far has rarely led to high accuracies limiting practical applications. One notable exception, although less relevant for medical but important for forensic purposes, is human eye color, for which it has been recently demonstrated that highly accurate prediction is feasible from a small number of DNA variants. Here, we demonstrate that human hair color is predictable from DNA variants with similarly high accuracies. We analyzed in Polish Europeans with single-observer hair color grading 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 12 genes previously associated with human hair color variation. We found that a model based on a subset of 13 single or compound genetic markers from 11 genes predicted red hair color with over 0.9, black hair color with almost 0.9, as well as blond, and brown hair color with over 0.8 prevalence-adjusted accuracy expressed by the area under the receiver characteristic operating curves (AUC). The identified genetic predictors also differentiate reasonably well between similar hair colors, such as between red and blond-red, as well as between blond and dark-blond, highlighting the value of the identified DNA variants for accurate hair color prediction.

  19. Levels of arsenic in human hair as biomarkers of arsenic exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic levels were determined in human hair samples collected from a mining and non-mining community in Ghana. Hair samples were digested and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP–AES). Elevated levels of arsenic were found in the samples obtained from the mining ...

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor dust and human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan; Wang, Hong Sheng; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, settled workplace dust ( n = 55) from commercial offices, secondary schools, shopping malls, hospitals, electronic factories and manufacturing plants in Hong Kong and settled home dust ( n = 23) from Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou, around the Pearl River Delta were collected. Chemical analyses showed that the total PBDEs in workplace dust ranged from 397 to 40,236 ng g -1, with the dust samples from electronic factories having the highest levels (2122-40,236 ng g -1), and dust from homes ranging from 685 to 18,385 ng g -1. The most abundant BDE congeners found were BDE-209 in both workplace dust and home dust, followed by BDE-99 and BDE-47. No significant correlations were observed between total PBDE concentrations in home dust and the age or the house ( p > 0.05), concentrations of BDE-99 + BDE-47 and the number of furniture containing foam ( p > 0.05), and concentrations of BDE-209 and the number of electronic appliances ( p > 0.05). BDE-47, -99, -100 and -183 were found in most of the hair samples collected from occupants of these homes with BDE-47 being the dominant congener (0.86-5.24 ng g -1). The BDE-183 concentration in home dust was significantly correlated with that in human hair ( r = 0.55, p < 0.05, n = 18). Risk assessment indicated that daily intake of PBDEs for children via non-dietary ingestion of dust (101-404 ng day -1) was higher than that via food consumption (77-190 ng day -1).

  1. The Changes of Gene Expression on Human Hair during Long-Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Higashibata, Akira; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sudoh, Masamichi; Minamisawa, Susumu

    Hair has many advantages as the experimental sample. In a hair follicle, hair matrix cells actively divide and these active changes sensitively reflect physical condition on human body. The hair shaft records the metabolic conditions of mineral elements in our body. From human hairs, we can detect physiological informations about the human health. Therefore, we focused on using hair root analysis to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts. In 2009, we started a research program focusing on the analysis of astronauts’ hairs to examine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the gene expression in the human body. We want to get basic information to invent the effectivly diagnostic methods to detect the health situations of astronauts during space flight by analyzing human hair. We extracted RNA form the collected samples. Then, these extracted RNA was amplified. Amplified RNA was processed and hybridized to the Whole Human Genome (4×44K) Oligo Microarray (Agilent Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Slide scanning was performed using the Agilent DNA Microarray Scanner. Scanning data were normalized with Agilent’s Feature Extraction software. Data preprocessing and analysis were performed using GeneSpring software 11.0.1. Next, Synthesis of cDNA (1 mg) was carried out using the PrimeScript RT reagent Kit (TaKaRa Bio) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The qRT-PCR experiment was performed with SYBR Premix Ex Taq (TaKaRa Bio) using the 7500 Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems). We detected the changes of some gene expressions during spaceflight from both microarray and qRT-PCR data. These genes seems to be related with the hair proliferation. We believe that these results will lead to the discovery of the important factor effected during space flight on the hair.

  2. Comparative study of hair follicle morphology in eight mammalian species and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, Susanne; Vergou, Theognosia; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen; Patzelt, Alexa

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the present study was the investigation of hair follicle morphology in eight mammalian species in order to evaluate the species-specific contribution of hair follicles to skin penetration particularly with regard to the utilization of the different animal species as skin models for human skin. Cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsy method (CSSB), light microscopy and also digital photography were used for the measurements of hair follicle morphology. The results revealed species-specific differences regarding the pattern of hair follicle distribution and also differences with regard to hair follicle parameters and characteristics. The results also showed that hair follicles generally possess enormous reservoir capacities, regarding the follicular volume. In all examined species, hair follicles reached at least one-fifth of stratum corneum storage capacity. The results were compared with human data obtained in a previous study. With regard to hair follicle morphology and skin structure, the porcine skin seems to be the most appropriate skin model for human skin analog to previous investigations, whereas the skin of dog, cat, and rabbit showed the most significant differences. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Structural, Nanomechanical and Nanotribological Characterization of Human Hair Using Atomic Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Latorre, Carmen; Wei, Guohua

    Human hair is a nanocomposite biological fiber. Healthy, soft hair with good feel, shine, color and overall aesthetics is generally highly desirable. It is important to study hair care products such as shampoos and conditioners as well as damaging processes such as chemical dyeing and permanent wave treatments because they affect the maintenance and grooming process and therefore alter many hair properties. Nanoscale characterization of the cellular structure, the mechanical properties, as well as the morphological, frictional and adhesive properties (tribological properties) of hair is essential if we wish to evaluate and develop better cosmetic products, and crucial to advancing the understanding of biological and cosmetic science. The atomic/friction force microscope (AFM/FFM) and nanoindenter have recently become important tools for studying the micro/nanoscale properties of human hair. In this chapter, we present a comprehensive review of structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of various hair and skin as a function of ethnicity, damage, conditioning treatment, and various environments. Various cellular structures of human hair and fine sublamellar structures of the cuticle are identified and studied. Nanomechanical properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, creep and scratch resistance are discussed. Nanotribological properties such as roughness, friction, and adhesion are presented, as well as investigations of conditioner distribution, thickness and binding interactions.

  4. comparative analysis of mercury content in human hair and cosmetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highest T-Hg concentrations were found in females who work in beauty hair salons and the lowest concentrations were found among students. The average .... (SDE = Standard Error; d.l. = detection limit of 0.001 ppm; ** Mean was calculated from three replicates of each sample.) Table 2: T-Hg concentration in hair among ...

  5. Strategies to enhance epithelial-mesenchymal interactions for human hair follicle bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Manabu; Veraitch, Ophelia

    2013-05-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration depend on intensive but well-orchestrated interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal components. Accordingly, the enhancement of this crosstalk represents a promising approach to achieve successful bioengineering of human hair follicles. The present article summarizes the techniques, both currently available and potentially feasible, to promote epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) necessary for human hair follicle regeneration. The strategies include the preparation of epithelial components with high receptivity to trichogenic dermal signals and/or mesenchymal cell populations with potent hair inductive capacity. In this regard, bulge epithelial stem cells, keratinocytes predisposed to hair follicle fate or keratinocyte precursor cells with plasticity may provide favorable epithelial cell populations. Dermal papilla cells sustaining intrinsic hair inductive capacity, putative dermal papilla precursor cells in the dermal sheath/neonatal dermis or trichogenic dermal cells derived from undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates as hair inductive dermal cells. The most established protocol for in vivo hair follicle reconstitution is co-grafting of epithelial and mesenchymal components into immunodeficient mice. In theory, combination of individually optimized cellular components of respective lineages should elicit most intensive EMIs to form hair follicles. Still, EMIs can be further ameliorated by the modulation of non-cell autonomous conditions, including cell compartmentalization to replicate the positional relationship in vivo and humanization of host environment by preparing human stromal bed. These approaches may not always synergistically intensify EMIs, however, step-by-step investigation probing optimal combinations should maximally enhance EMIs to achieve successful human hair follicle bioengineering. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by

  6. Hair follicle reformation induced by dermal papilla cells from human scalp skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Tang-You; Lu, Yuan-Gang; Liu, Rong-Qing; Mai, Yue; Cheng, Bo; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zhong, Bai-Yu; Tang, Shu-Qian

    2006-09-01

    To investigate the possibility of hair follicle reformation induced by dermal papilla cells in vivo and in vitro. Dermal papilla cells, dermal sheath cells obtained from human scalp skin by enzyme digestion were mixed with collagen to form mesenchymal cell-populated collagen gels. Superior and inferior epithelial cells and bulb matrical cells were then cultured on these gels by organotypic culture to recombine bilayer artificial skins. Dermal papilla cells and outer root sheath keratinocytes were mingled together and transplanted under subcutaneous tissue of the dorsal skin of nude mice. The results of histologic examination was observed with HE stain. These recombinants by organotypic culture all reformed bilayer structure like nature skin. Hair follicle-like structure reformation was found in dermal sheath cell-populated collagen gel when combined with superior or inferior epithelial cells. Dermal papilla cells also induced superior and inferior epithelial cells to form hair follicle on nude mice. Low passage dermal papilla cells mixed with hair follicle epithelial cells reformed many typical hair follicle structures and produced hair fibres after transplantation on nude mice. The dermal part of hair follicle, such as dermal papilla cells and dermal sheath cells, has the ability to induce hair follicle formation by interaction with the epithelial cells of hair follicle.

  7. Optical properties of the medulla and the cortex of human scalp hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharin, Aleksey; Varghese, Babu; Verhagen, Rieko; Uzunbajakava, Natallia

    2009-03-01

    An increasing number of applications, including non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and treatment as well as various cosmetic procedures, has resulted in a need to determine the optical properties of hair and its structures. We report on the measurement of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of blond, gray, and Asian black human scalp hair at a 633-nm wavelength. Our results show that for blond and gray hair the total attenuation coefficient of the medulla is more than 200 times higher compared to that of the cortex. This difference is only 1.5 times for Asian black hair. Furthermore, we present the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex of blond, gray, light brown, and Asian black hair measured at wavelengths of 409, 532, 633, 800, and 1064 nm. The total attenuation coefficient consistently decreases with an increase in wavelength, as well as with a decrease in hair pigmentation. Additionally, we demonstrate the dependence of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of Asian black hair on the polarization of incident light. A similar dependence is observed for the cortex of blond and gray hair but not for the medulla of these hair types.

  8. Topographical and Tribological Characteristics of Asian Human Hair Cuticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topography and frictional force of Asian black male and female hair cuticles at different locations are determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM and friction force microscopy (FFM. The frictional values, mapped for comparison with surface morphology, corresponded qualitatively with the structures’ plane surface characteristics. The results indicate that the hair surface was damaged and modified at different temperatures and heating times. The height of the female hair at a blowing temperature of 60°C after a duration of 2 min between the cuticle edge and cuticle surface was approximately 440–556 nm. The adhesion phenomenon occurs on the hair surface and interface. The cuticles do not vary after the heating; however, the hair damage sustained increases with serious deterioration.

  9. Metagenomic analyses of bacteria on human hairs: a qualitative assessment for applications in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tridico, Silvana R; Murray, Dáithí C; Addison, Jayne; Kirkbride, Kenneth P; Bunce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian hairs are one of the most ubiquitous types of trace evidence collected in the course of forensic investigations. However, hairs that are naturally shed or that lack roots are problematic substrates for DNA profiling; these hair types often contain insufficient nuclear DNA to yield short tandem repeat (STR) profiles. Whilst there have been a number of initial investigations evaluating the value of metagenomics analyses for forensic applications (e.g. examination of computer keyboards), there have been no metagenomic evaluations of human hairs-a substrate commonly encountered during forensic practice. This present study attempts to address this forensic capability gap, by conducting a qualitative assessment into the applicability of metagenomic analyses of human scalp and pubic hair. Forty-two DNA extracts obtained from human scalp and pubic hairs generated a total of 79,766 reads, yielding 39,814 reads post control and abundance filtering. The results revealed the presence of unique combinations of microbial taxa that can enable discrimination between individuals and signature taxa indigenous to female pubic hairs. Microbial data from a single co-habiting couple added an extra dimension to the study by suggesting that metagenomic analyses might be of evidentiary value in sexual assault cases when other associative evidence is not present. Of all the data generated in this study, the next-generation sequencing (NGS) data generated from pubic hair held the most potential for forensic applications. Metagenomic analyses of human hairs may provide independent data to augment other forensic results and possibly provide association between victims of sexual assault and offender when other associative evidence is absent. Based on results garnered in the present study, we believe that with further development, bacterial profiling of hair will become a valuable addition to the forensic toolkit.

  10. Examining polyquaternium polymers deposition on human excised hair fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Javad; Shamseddini Lori, Maryam; Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz

    2017-11-27

    Polyquaterniums (PQs) as important ingredients of hair products are synthetic cationic polymers and are used in commercial hair volumizers and conditioners. Three different grades of polymers including PQ 87, 68, and 46 with various concentrations were used, and their hair deposition efficacy was measured at 5 different pH values using hair diameters measurements by digital micrometer. Deposition durability of polymer layer on the hair surface was tested by a defined washing test. Optical microscopic images and polarized light images were also taken from treated and untreated samples for further investigation. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectral were recorded from hair samples to prove the polymer deposition and probable interaction with hair fibers. PQ-68 with the highest molecular weight (300 kDa) at pH = 9 exhibited the best hair deposition efficacy. The results revealed that the deposition of polymers is directly proportional to the pH values. The best results were seen at pH = 9, and at the lowest pH (pH = 5), the efficiency of polymers was approximately equal to zero. The best resistance against washing was shown by PQ-44 at pH = 6. ATR successfully tracked the presence of the polymers on the hair fibers and also proposed specific wave numbers for each polymeric agent, individually. In general, two main parameter which can mainly influence the deposition efficacy of PQs are the type of polymer or its molecular weight and also the positive charge density on the polymer molecules. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Development and validation of an extraction method for the analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Hye; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2017-05-01

    Human hair has many advantages as a non-invasive sample; however, analytical methods for detecting perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human hair are still in the development stage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for monitoring 11 PFASs in human hair. Solid-phase extraction (SPE), ion-pairing extraction (IPE), a combined method (SPE+IPE) and solvent extraction with ENVI-carb clean-up were compared to develop an optimal extraction method using two types of hair sample (powder and piece forms). Analysis of PFASs was performed using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Among the four different extraction procedures, the SPE method using powdered hair showed the best extraction efficiency and recoveries ranged from 85.8 to 102%. The method detection limits for the SPE method were 0.114-0.796 ng/g and good precision (below 10%) and accuracy (66.4-110%) were obtained. In light of these results, SPE is considered the optimal method for PFAS extraction from hair. It was also successfully used to detect PFASs in human hair samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Human systemic exposure to [14C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohynek, G.J.; Skare, J.A.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Wehmeyer, K.R.; Bie, A.T.H.J. de; Vaes, W.H.J.; Dufour, E.K.; Fautz, R.; Steiling, W.; Bramante, M.; Toutain, H.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [14C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [14C] was measured in all

  13. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2018-02-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  14. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2017-09-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  15. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in human hair are related to geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehleringer, James R; Bowen, Gabriel J; Chesson, Lesley A; West, Adam G; Podlesak, David W; Cerling, Thure E

    2008-02-26

    We develop and test a model to predict the geographic region-of-origin of humans based on the stable isotope composition of their scalp hair. This model incorporates exchangeable and nonexchangeable hydrogen and oxygen atoms in amino acids to predict the delta(2)H and delta(18)O values of scalp hair (primarily keratin). We evaluated model predictions with stable isotope analyses of human hair from 65 cities across the United States. The model, which predicts hair isotopic composition as a function of drinking water, bulk diet, and dietary protein isotope ratios, explains >85% of the observed variation and reproduces the observed slopes relating the isotopic composition of hair samples to that of local drinking water. Based on the geographical distributions of the isotope ratios of tap waters and the assumption of a "continental supermarket" dietary input, we constructed maps of the expected average H and O isotope ratios in human hair across the contiguous 48 states. Applications of this model and these observations are extensive and include detection of dietary information, reconstruction of historic movements of individuals, and provision of region-of-origin information for unidentified human remains.

  16. Human Hair Keratin for Biocompatible Flexible and Transient Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jieun; Nguyen, Luong T H; Surendran, Abhijith; Tan, Bee Yi; Ng, Kee Woei; Leong, Wei Lin

    2017-12-13

    Biomaterials have been attracting attention as a useful building block for biocompatible and bioresorbable electronics due to their nontoxic property and solution processability. In this work, we report the integration of biocompatible keratin from human hair as dielectric layer for organic thin-film transistors (TFTs), with high performance, flexibility, and transient property. The keratin dielectric layer exhibited a high capacitance value of above 1.27 μF/cm2 at 20 Hz due to the formation of electrical double layer. Fully solution-processable TFTs based on p-channel poly[4-(4,4-dihexadecyl-4H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b]dithiophen-2-yl)-alt[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c]-pyridine] (PCDTPT) and keratin dielectric exhibited high electrical property with a saturation field-effect mobility of 0.35 cm2/(Vs) at a low gate bias of -2 V. We also successfully demonstrate flexible TFTs, which exhibited good mechanical flexibility and electrical stability under bending strain. An artificial electronic synaptic PCDTPT/keratin transistor was also realized and exhibited high-performance synaptic memory effects via simple operation of proton conduction in keratin. An added functionality of using keratin as a substrate was also presented, where similar PCDTPT TFTs with keratin dielectric were built on top of keratin substrate. Finally, we observed that our prepared devices can be degraded in ammonium hydroxide solution, establishing the feasibility of keratin layer as various components of transient electrical devices, including as a substrate and dielectric layer.

  17. Human systemic exposure to a [14C]-para-phenylenediamine- containing oxidative hair dye and correlation with in vitro percutaneous absorption in human or pig skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueber-Becker, F.; Nohynek, G.J.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Benech-Kieffer, F.; Toutain, H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the absorption of a commercial [14C]-PPD- containing oxidative dark-shade hair dye in human volunteers as well as in vitro using human or pig ear skin. The hair of eight male volunteers was cut to a standard length, dyed, washed, dried, clipped and collected. Hair, washing water,

  18. The determination of drugs and their substitutes in human hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W

    1990-01-01

    In recent years it has become possible to detect organic pharmaceuticals and drugs in a few milligrams of a person's hair, using modern analytical methods (RIA, GC/MS, GC), whether this person has taken narcotics and other drugs in past times. With the aid of hair analysis it is possible to examine the drug career of a drug addict for up to 1 year, and sometimes for a longer time. This is mostly of great importance in criminalistics and forensic medicine, in the criminal retrospective examination of addicts.

  19. Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH): a new player in human hair-growth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáspár, Erzsébet; Hardenbicker, Celine; Bodó, Eniko; Wenzel, Björn; Ramot, Yuval; Funk, Wolfgang; Kromminga, Arno; Paus, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is the most proximal component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis that regulates thyroid hormone synthesis. Since transcripts for members of this axis were detected in cultured normal human skin cells and since human hair follicles (HFs) respond to stimulation with thyrotropin, we now have studied whether human HF functions are also modulated by TRH. Here we report that the epithelium of normal human scalp HFs expresses not only TRH receptors (TRH-R) but also TRH itself at the gene and protein level. Stimulation of microdissected, organ-cultured HFs with TRH promotes hair-shaft elongation, prolongs the hair cycle growth phase (anagen), and antagonizes its termination by TGF-beta2. It also increases proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of hair matrix keratinocytes. These TRH effects may be mediated in part by reducing the ATM/Atr-dependent phosphorylation of p53. By microarray analysis, several differentially up- or down-regulated TRH-target genes were detected (e.g., selected keratins). Thus, human scalp HFs are both a source and a target of TRH, which operates as a potent hair-growth stimulator. Human HFs provide an excellent discovery tool for identifying and dissecting nonclassical functions of TRH and TRH-mediated signaling in situ, which emerge as novel players in human epithelial biology.

  20. Rare earth elements in human hair from a mining area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Binggan; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Yu, Jiangping; Ye, Bixiong; Liang, Tao

    2013-10-01

    Rare earth minerals have been mined for more than 50 years in Inner Mongolia of China. In the mining area rare earth elements (REE) may be significantly accumulated in humans. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to characterize the REE concentrations in hair of local residents. REE concentrations in hair of 118 subjects were determined. The results showed that the mean concentrations of the determined REE in the hair of both females and males were usually higher from mining area than from control area. The mean concentrations of all the fifteen REE were much higher in hair of males than in hair of females from mining area. This suggested that males might be more sensitive to REE than females. In addition, the mean contents of the REE in hair of miners, particularly light REE (La, Ce, Pr and Nd), were usually much higher than the values in hair of non-miners from both mining area and control area, indicating that the miners were exposed to higher concentrations of REE in occupational environment. Among age groups, the relationships between REE concentrations and age groups showed that more and more concentrations of light REE accumulated in body of both females and males with age until 60 years, while heavy REE concentrations decreased with age in males who were exposed to low concentrations of heavy REE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlates of Cortisol in Human Hair: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Health Effects of Chronic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, “cortisol” “hair” “confounders” “chronic” “stress” and “correlates.” Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., PTSD), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing´s syndrome) and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear to not be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

  2. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) in human hair and serum in rural and urban areas in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chun-Tao; Yan, Xiao; Wang, Mei-Huan; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Ke-Hui; Guo, Mi-Na; Zheng, Jing; Chen, She-Jun

    2017-05-01

    Human hair has been employed as a biomarker for exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), but information on the source of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in hair is limited. The present study investigated the contamination of DDTs in human hair from a rural area and an urban area of South China and compared with those in human serum and indoor dust. The concentrations of ∑DDTs ranged from 2.30 to 489ng/g, with a median of 21.8ng/g in human hair. The ∑DDT concentrations (median=40.8ng/g) in female hair were significantly higher than those in male hair (median=20.6ng/g). There were significantly positive correlations between the concentrations of DDTs and ages in both the female and male hair, but the age-dependence for DDTs in serum was less significant. The profile of DDT analogues in female hair, differing from that in the male hair, was more similar to that in the indoor dust, suggesting a more important role of exogenous exposure in female hair. We estimated that exogenous source is responsible for approximately 11% and 20% of the burden of DDTs in the male and female hair, respectively. Adjusted multiple linear regression model showed significantly positive association between the p,p'-DDE concentrations in the paired hair and serum samples, indicating that endogenous origins are the primary sources of DDTs in the hair of the residents in the study areas. Our findings demonstrated that human hair is a reliable biomarker for body burden of DDTs and can be used in epidemiology research and retrospective assessment of DDT exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of LSD in human body fluids and hair samples applying ImmunElute columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrich, J; Zörntlein, S; Becker, J

    2000-01-10

    Immunoaffinity extraction units (LSD ImmunElute) are commercially available for the analysis of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in urine. The ImmunElute resin contains immobilized monoclonal antibodies to LSD. We applied the ImmunElute procedure to serum and also to human hair samples. For hair analysis the samples were first extracted with methanol under sonication. The extracts were then purified using the ImmunElute resin. LSD analysis was carried out with HPLC and fluorescence detection. The immunoaffinity extraction provides highly purified extracts for chromatographic analysis. The limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) has been determined to be hair samples from drug abusers (n = 11). One of these samples tested positive with an amount of 110 pg LSD in 112 mg extracted hair corresponding to a concentration of 1 pg/mg.

  4. Association Between Human Hair Loss and the Expression Levels of Nucleolin, Nucleophosmin, and UBTF Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Sener; Eroz, Recep; Dogan, Hasan; Erdem, Haktan Bagis; Sahin, Ibrahim; Kara, Murat; Engin, Ragip Ismail; Turkez, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Nucleolar organizer regions, also known as argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions, are associated with ribosomal genes. The main function of the nucleolus is the rapid production of ribosomal subunits, a process that must be highly regulated to provide the appropriate levels for cellular proliferation and cell growth. There are no studies in the literature addressing the expression and function of nucleolar component proteins, including nucleophosmin, nucleolin and the upstream binding transcription factor (UBTF), in human follicular hair cells. Nineteen healthy males who had normal and sufficient hair follicles on the back of the head, but exhibited hair loss on the frontal/vertex portions of the head and 14 healthy males without hair loss were included in the current study. Gene expression levels were measured by relative quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. In the individuals suffering from alopecia, the total expression levels of nucleolin, nucleophosmin, and UBTF were lower in normal sites than in hair loss sites. Strong expression level correlations were detected between: nucleophosmin and nucleolin; nucleophosmin and UBTF, and nucleolin and UBTF for both groups. There was an association between human hair loss and the expression levels of nucleolin, nucleophosmin, and UBTF genes.

  5. An overview of chemical straightening of human hair: technical aspects, potential risks to hair fibre and health and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Vilela, A L; Botelho, A J; Muehlmann, L A

    2014-02-01

    Personal image, as it relates to external beauty, has attracted much attention from the cosmetic industry, and capillary aesthetics is a leader in consumption in this area. There is a great diversity of products targeting both the treatment and beautification of hair. Among them, hair straighteners stand out with a high demand by costumers aiming at beauty, social acceptance and ease of daily hair maintenance. However, this kind of treatment affects the chemical structure of keratin and of the hair fibre, bringing up some safety concerns. Moreover, the development of hair is a dynamic and cyclic process, where the duration of growth cycles depends not only on where hair grows, but also on issues such as the individual's age, dietary habits and hormonal factors. Thus, although hair fibres are composed of dead epidermal cells, when they emerge from the scalp, there is a huge variation in natural wave and the response to hair cosmetics. Although it is possible to give the hair a cosmetically favourable appearance through the use of cosmetic products, for good results in any hair treatment, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of the process. Important information, such as the composition and structure of the hair fibres, and the composition of products and techniques available for hair straightening, must be taken into account so that the straightening process can be designed appropriately, avoiding undesirable side effects for hair fibre and for health. This review aims to address the morphology, chemical composition and molecular structure of hair fibres, as well as the products and techniques used for chemical hair relaxing, their potential risk to hair fibre and to health and the legal aspects of their use. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Acoustic absorption measurement of human hair and skin within the audible frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B F

    2000-11-01

    Utilizing the two-microphone impedance tube method, the acoustic absorption of human skin and hair is measured in the frequency range 1-6 kHz. Various locations on a number of human subjects are measured to determine if the presence of bone or an air pocket affects the acoustic absorption of human skin. The absorption coefficient of human hair is also measured. Additional techniques are utilized to minimize errors due to sample mounting methods. Techniques are employed to minimize potential errors in sensor and sample locations. The results of these measurements are compared to relevant historical papers on similar investigations. Results for skin measurements compare well with previous work. Measured hair absorption data do not agree with previous work in the area but do coincide with expected trends, which previous works do not.

  7. Effect of the shampoo Ultra Clean on drug concentrations in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrich, J; Zörntlein, S; Pötsch, L; Skopp, G; Becker, J

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the special shampoo Ultra Clean (Zydot Unlimited, Tulsa, Oklahoma) on the results of hair analyses was investigated. Hair samples from persons (n = 14) with a known history of drug abuse were collected at autopsy. The hair samples were divided into separate strands which were analyzed both after washing with Ultra Clean and without treatment. Hair analyses were performed by methanol extraction under sonication, purification by solid phase extraction and GC/MS in SIM mode according to routine procedures for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cocaine, amphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE), heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), morphine, codeine, dihydrocodeine and methadone. All drugs originally present in the hair fibers were still detected after a single application of Ultra Clean. However, a slight decrease in drug concentrations could mostly be observed e.g. cocaine (n = 10) -5%, 6-MAM (n = 12) -9%, morphine (n = 12) -26%, THC (n = 4) -36%. The findings clearly demonstrated that drug substances had not been sufficiently removed from human hair by a single Ultra Clean treatment to drop their concentrations below the limit of detection of the analytical method applied.

  8. HPLC with fluorescence detection of methamphetamine and amphetamine in segmentally analyzed human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Dirbashi, O; Kuroda, N; Inuduka, S; Menichini, F; Nakashima, K

    1999-04-01

    A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection for determining methamphetamine and its major metabolite, amphetamine, in abusers' hair segments was developed. Methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair samples collected from addicts were extracted into acidified methanol, derivatized with 4-(4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzoyl chloride, separated isocratically on an ODS column using TRIS-HCl buffer (0.1 mol dm-3, pH 7.0)-methanol (30 + 70 v/v) as the mobile phase and the derivatives were detected fluorimetrically at 440 nm (lambda ex 330 nm). Calibration curves obtained by using control human hair spiked with standard solutions were linear (r > or = 0.999) up to at least 676.1 ng mg-1 for amphetamine and 746.1 ng mg-1 for methamphetamine. The detection limits at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 51.4 and 74.6 pg mg-1 hair for amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively. Using control hair spiked with standard solutions, the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (n = 5) were < or = 8.6% for both the target compounds. The method was successfully applied to the segmental analyses of methamphetamine abusers' hair samples.

  9. Mercury contamination in fish and human hair from Hainan Island, South China Sea: Implication for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Peng, Jia-Xi; Hong, Yi-Guo; Feng, Xin-Bin

    2014-11-01

    Hair has long been recognized as a good biomarker for human exposure to Hg. The mercury concentrations in 14 species of marine fish and hair samples from 177 coastal residents in Hainan, South China Sea were investigated to assess the status of mercury exposure associated with marine fish consumption. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the fish muscles were 0.094 ± 0.008 and 0.066 ± 0.006 μg/gww, respectively, which were far below the limit considered safe for consumption (0.5 μg/g). The average THg concentrations in hair of adults (1.02 ± 0.92 μg/g) were lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level of 2.2 μg/g. However, 23.7% of children had a hair THg level exceeding the RfD level of 1μg/g, indicating a great risk of Hg exposure to children via fish consumption. The concentration of THg in hair was significantly correlated with fish consumption but not with gender-specific fish intake. With higher fish consumption frequency, the fishermen had significantly elevated hair Hg levels compared to the students and the other general public, who had similar hair THg levels but different fish consumption patterns, indicating the existence of other sources of Hg exposure to the residents of Hainan Island. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of Glass Fibre – Coconut Coir– Human Hair Hybrid Composites

    OpenAIRE

    D. Senthilnathan; A Gnanavel Babu; G.B.Bhaskar; KGS. Gopinath

    2014-01-01

    A composite material is a combination of two or more materials arranged in the form of layer one on the other layer using binding material through some prescribed methods. In the Glass fibre coconut fibre human hair hybrid composite method, the epoxy resin is used as binding material, in which one layer is formed of glass fibre, followed by coconut fibre and then by human hair. By using hand layup method and by changing the above arrangement of layers, six types of laminates are prepared by u...

  11. Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection analysis of human hair: comparison of hair from breast cancer patients with hair from healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Donald J; Murray-Wijelath, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectra of 32 scalp and pubic hair samples from individuals diagnosed with breast cancer and those who were negative for breast cancer showed increases in the beta-sheet/disorder structures (relative to alpha-helix structures) and C-H lipid content of hair from breast cancer patients. Thus, the presence of breast cancer appears to alter the hair growth process, resulting in changes in the composition and conformation of cell membrane and matrix materials of hair fiber. These appear to be consistent with the changes observed in X-ray diffraction patterns for hair from breast cancer patients. A blind study of 12 additional hair samples using these FTIR-ATR spectral differences as markers correctly identified all four hair samples from cancer patients (100%). Two of these samples were from breast cancer patients. Of the remaining two samples analyzing positive for cancer, one was from a prostate cancer patient and one from a lung cancer patient. Thus, it appears that the mechanism that alters hair fiber synthesis in the three types of cancer may be similar. The blind study incorrectly identified as positive for cancer three hair samples from two apparently healthy individuals and one patient considered cured from prostate cancer.

  12. Implication of Human Hair in Regaining Spilled Oil Further Creating A Production Rise in Oyster Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Srivastava, P.; Singh, U.

    2016-12-01

    It is estimated that 4.9 million liters of petroleum are spilled into U.S. waters from vessels and pipelines in a typical year. Oil spill may be as huge as of 8 million barrels (The Persian Gulf oil spill of 1991). Oil-water separation processes using polymeric or inorganic membranes have been proposed as effective and cost competitive technologies but in present the commercial use of membrane in treatment of spilled oil is currently limited by their low efficiency as well as high capital and operating cost. Indian hair-market is a billion-dollar industry yearly exporting thousands of tones of thick and dark hairs. Hairs contain keratin, a family of fibrous structural proteins been proved to adsorb oils. Laboratory results conclude that one gram of human hair can selectively adsorb about 15.5301 grams of crude oil over water, following Frendlich's isotherm. We seek hair mats made up of hairs of size ≤5 inches, costing 37/ton from selected parts of Indian hair market. With a known adsorbing efficiency of 95% towards crude oil, an estimated desorption efficiency of 70% oil worth 0.8M per year can be regained in crude form from U.S. waters only. To ensure solid waste management of hairs, hair mats left with 30% of adsorbed oil can be utilized in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms, a 20-34/kg crop that grows best in 20-25°C ,80-90% relative humidity and oily conditions. This will reduce the growing period of crop ensuring yearly profit of $6.06M in U.S. only engaging variety of stakeholders over borders. Results thus obtained in this study present an economic, safer and sustainable technique to minimize oil loss due to oil spill in waters further ensuring a low labor-low cost technique of waste management that enhances the growth of an in-demand crop. Keywords: Oil Spill, Human Hair Mats, Adsorb, Oyster Mushrooms

  13. Estrone sulfate source of estrone and estradiol formation in isolated human hair roots: identification of a pathway linked to hair growth phase and subject to site-, gender-, and age-related modulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Gabriele; Schweikert, Hans-Udo

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the metabolism of estrone sulfate into bioactive estrogens in the human hair root, including the effects of hair growth phase, anatomical site, gender, and age. Healthy male (n = 18) and female (n = 20) subjects were investigated. Growing (anagen) and resting (telogen) hair roots were collected from selected scalp and body sites. Estrone sulfate metabolism in the hair root yielded substantial levels of estrone and estradiol. Estrogen synthesis exceeded that associated with aromatization of androgens in a previous study. In subjects hair was lower in men than in women. Comparable levels of estrogen formation were observed in 1) male and female axillary and pubic hair and 2) male beard hair. These levels were higher than the estrogen levels detected in the in scalp hair of men hair from all body sites, the capacity to form estrone from estrone sulfate remained unaffected, whereas the ability to form estradiol decreased by 62% and 86% in men and women, respectively. Estrogen formation from estrone sulfate in sexually dimorphic hair is linked to the hair growth phase and is subject to gender- and age-related modulations. The magnitude of the in situ estrogen synthesis from estrone sulfate and the selective arrest of estradiol synthesis at the end of the hair cycle suggest that this pathway plays a crucial role in the regulation of human hair growth.

  14. Evaluating O, C, and N isotopes in human hair as a forensic tool to reconstruct travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehleringer, Jim; Chesson, Lesley; Cerling, Thure; Valenzuela, Luciano

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios in the proteins of human scalp hair have been proposed and modeled as a tool for reconstructing the movements of humans and evaluating the likelihood that an individual is a resident or non-resident of a particular geographic region. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios reflect dietary input and complement oxygen isotope data interpretation when it is necessary to distinguish potential location overlap among continents. The combination of a time sequence analysis in hair segments and spatial models that describe predicted geographic variation in hair isotope values represents a potentially powerful tool for forensic investigations. The applications of this technique have thus far been to provide assistance to law enforcement with information on the predicted geographical travel histories of unidentified murder victims. Here we review multiple homicide cases from the USA where stable isotope analysis of hair has been applied and for which we now know the travel histories of the murder victims. Here we provide information on the robustness of the original data sets used to test these models by evaluating the travel histories of randomly collected hair discarded in Utah barbershops.

  15. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human hair by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeo, José L; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Ester

    2009-04-15

    A rapid analytical method has been developed for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in human hair. PBDEs were determined by gas chromatography with electron ionization mass spectrometric detection in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC-MS-SIM). A 200mg amount of hair samples was overnight digested in 3N HCl and then PBDEs extracted with n-hexane. After clean up of extracts in a Florisil column, PBDEs were analyzed by GC-MS. The method has been validated by spiking human hair at five concentration levels, in the range from 5 to 25 ng/g for most compounds, and PBDEs were quantified using labelled compounds as internal standards. Recoveries of PBDEs were higher than 90%, repeatability was equal or lower than 12.5%, and reproducibility lower than 14%, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD). Limits of detection (LOD) were in the range 0.08-0.9 ng/g and limits of quantification (LOQ) were between 0.27 and 3.0 ng/g. This method was applied to the determination of PBDEs in hair samples from 16 individuals and 5 PBDE congeners were detected in most of the samples. BDE-209 was the dominant compound found, followed by BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-190. BDE-209 was found in 12 out of 16 hair samples, and the total levels of PBDEs ranged from 1.4 to 19.9 ng/g.

  16. Tracking mobility using human hair: What can we learn from lead and strontium isotopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautour, Geneviève; Poirier, André; Widory, David

    2015-01-01

    The isotope ratios of strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in water derive from local geology and their isotopic signature can be linked to the age and type of underlying bedrocks and soils (if applicable), and are transferred up the food-chain. Both elements are transferred to human blood through diet and water, and some of it will ultimately be incorporated into the hair structure, making Sr and Pb isotopes interesting tools for tracing human mobility. In this study, we analyzed both the elemental concentration and isotope ratios of Sr and Pb from four different women of different ages to monitor their permanent relocation from central France to Eastern Canada during the summer 2012. For comparison, we also characterized bulk hair samples of sedentary individuals and local tap waters from their regions of origin and of settlement. Our results indicate that the 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb ratios are significantly modified by the change of environment, but also confirm that human hair compositions are impacted by other external factors (such as dust). Sr and Pb isotope systematics demonstrate their added value for detecting human mobility, but require further studies to better constrain the main sources and processes controlling their respective budgets in human hair for provenancing purposes. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Incorporation of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hair following controlled oral methamphetamine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, Aldo; Cone, Edward J; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-05-13

    Although hair testing is well established for the assessment of past drug exposure, uncertainties persist about mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair and interpretation of results. The aim of this study was to administer methamphetamine (MAMP) under controlled conditions as a model drug to investigate drug incorporation into human hair. Seven volunteers with a history of stimulant use received 4×10 mg (low) doses of sustained release S-(+)-MAMP HCl within 1 week, with weekly head hair samples collected by shaving. 3 weeks later, 4 of them received 4×20 mg (high) doses. After extensive isopropanol/phosphate buffer washing of the hair, MAMP and its metabolite amphetamine (AMP) concentrations were determined in all weekly hair samples by LC-MS-MS in selected reaction monitoring mode with the undeca- and deca-deuterated drugs, respectively, as internal standards (LLOQ, 0.005 ng mg(-1)). MAMP T(max) occurred from 1 to 2 weeks after both doses, with C(max) ranging from 0.6 to 3.5 ng mg(-1) after the low and 1.2 to 5.3 ng mg(-1) after the high MAMP doses. AMP C(max) in hair was 0.1-0.3 ng mg(-1) and 0.2-0.5 ng mg(-1), respectively, for low and high doses. Highly dose-related concentrations within subjects, but large variability between subjects were observed. MAMP concentrations were above the 0.2 ng mg(-1) cut-off for at least 2 weeks following administration of both low and high doses. The overall AMP/MAMP ratio ranged from 0.07 to 0.37 with a mean value of 0.15 ± 0.07, and a median of 0.13. The percentage of MAMP and AMP removed with the washing procedure decreased with time after administration. A strong correlation was found between area under the curve of MAMP (r(2)=0.90, p=0.00) and AMP (r(2)=0.94, p=0.00) concentrations calculated for the 3-week period following administration and the total melanin concentration in hair. Significant correlations were observed also between C(max) and melanin. This study demonstrated that despite large inter

  18. Flexible Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries through Morphological Emulation of Human Hair Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Li, Jingde; Lee, Dong Un; Ghannoum, Abdul Rahman; Lui, Gregory; Hoque, Md Ariful; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-08-01

    An electrically rechargeable, nanoarchitectured air electrode that morphologically emulates a human hair array is demonstrated in a zinc-air battery. The hair-like array of mesoporous cobalt oxide nanopetals in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes is grown directly on a stainless-steel mesh. This electrode produces both flexibility and improved battery performance, and thus fully manifests the advantages of flexible rechargeable zinc-air batteries in practical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Stria vascularis and cochlear hair cell changes in syphilis: A human temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hızlı, Ömer; Kaya, Serdar; Hızlı, Pelin; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-12-01

    To observe any changes in stria vascularis and cochlear hair cells in patients with syphilis. We examined 13 human temporal bone samples from 8 patients with syphilis (our syphilis group), as well as 12 histopathologically normal samples from 9 age-matched patients without syphilis (our control group). We compared, between the two groups, the mean area of the stria vascularis (measured with conventional light microscopy connected to a personal computer) and the mean percentage of cochlear hair cell loss (obtained from cytocochleograms). In our syphilis group, only 1 (7.7%) of the 13 samples had precipitate in the endolymphatic or perilymphatic spaces; 8 (61.5%) of the samples revealed the presence of endolymphatic hydrops (4 cochlear, 4 saccular). The mean area of the stria vascularis did not significantly differ, in any turn of the cochlea, between the 2 groups (P>0.1). However, we did find significant differences between the 2 groups in the mean percentage of outer hair cells in the apical turn (Psyphilis group, we observed either complete loss of the organ of Corti or a flattened organ of Corti without any cells in addition to the absence of both outer and inner hair cells. In this study, syphilis led either to complete loss of the organ of Corti or to significant loss of cochlear hair cells, in addition to cochleosaccular hydrops. But the area of the stria vascularis did not change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of extreme weather events on hair cortisol and body weight in a wild ring-tailed lemur population (Lemur catta) in southwestern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardi, Sara; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Jacky, Ibrahim A Y; Bernstein, Robin M

    2017-12-20

    Madagascar is known for its hypervariable climate with periodic droughts and cyclones, but little is known of the impact of such events on lemur physiology. We examined the effects of sequential weather periods, drought, normal, cyclone and post-cyclone, on hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) and body weight in wild ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta (n = 185), at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar. Data were modeled and analyzed by sex, age, and troop. Given the ecological consequences of extreme climatic perturbations, we hypothesized that drought and cyclone would significantly impact lemur HCC. Among adults, drought was associated with higher HCC than other periods and the lowest HCC was associated with the post-cyclone period. Adult females had greater variation in HCC during drought and males had greater variation during cyclone and Post-cyclone periods, suggesting sexes were differentially affected in terms of how individuals responded to extreme weather events. Low HCC in the post-cyclone period followed a 12-month period of reduced availability of primary and fallback food resources. Based on the known extreme and chronic nutritional stress during this time, our results indicate hypocortisolism in the animals included in our analysis. Higher HCC in sub-adults during the cyclone also suggests that immature lemurs may experience extreme weather events differently than adults. Body weight, used as a gauge for environmental stress, was lowest during the post-cyclone for sub-adults, young adults, and adults. Body weight did not differ by sex among adults across any of the weather events. Overall, ring-tailed lemur's HCC appear to be more immediately impacted by drought, or stressors associated with that specific weather event, and influenced by the long-term impact of cyclones on resource availability evidenced by data from the post-cyclone period. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Stable isotope analysis of modern human hair collected from Asia (China, India, Mongolia, and Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A H; Chesson, L A; Podlesak, D W; Bowen, G J; Cerling, T E; Ehleringer, J R

    2010-03-01

    We report isotopic data (delta(2)H, delta(18)O n = 196; delta(13)C, delta(15)N n = 142; delta(34)S n = 85) from human hair and drinking water (delta(2)H, delta(18)O n = 67) collected across China, India, Mongolia, and Pakistan. Hair isotope ratios reflected the large environmental isotopic gradients and dietary differences. Geographic information was recorded in H and O and to a lesser extent, S isotopes. H and O data were entered into a recently developed model describing the relationship between the H and O isotope composition of human hair and drinking water in modern USA and pre-globalized populations. This has anthropological and forensic applications including reconstructing environment and diet in modern and ancient human hair. However, it has not been applied to a modern population outside of the USA, where we expect different diet. Relationships between H and O isotope ratios in drinking water and hair of modern human populations in Asia were different to both modern USA and pre-globalized populations. However, the Asian dataset was closer to the modern USA than to pre-globalized populations. Model parameters suggested slightly higher consumption of locally produced foods in our sampled population than modern USA residents, but lower than pre-globalized populations. The degree of in vivo amino acid synthesis was comparable to both the modern USA and pre-globalized populations. C isotope ratios reflected the predominantly C(3)-based regional agriculture and C(4) consumption in northern China. C, N, and S isotope ratios supported marine food consumption in some coastal locales. N isotope ratios suggested a relatively low consumption of animal-derived products compared to western populations.

  2. Documenting the diet in ancient human populations through stable isotope analysis of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S A; Engel, M H; Andrusevich, V; Lubec, G; O'Connell, T C; Hedges, R E

    1999-01-29

    Fundamental to the understanding of human history is the ability to make interpretations based on artefacts and other remains which are used to gather information about an ancient population. Sequestered in the organic matrices of these remains can be information, for example, concerning incidence of disease, genetic defects and diet. Stable isotopic compositions, especially those made on isolates of collagen from bones, have been used to help suggest principal dietary components. A significant problem in the use of collagen is its long-term stability, and the possibility of isotopic alteration during early diagenesis, or through contaminating condensation reactions. In this study, we suggest that a commonly overlooked material, human hair, may represent an ideal material to be used in addressing human diets of ancient civilizations. Through the analysis of the amino-acid composition of modern hair, as well as samples that were subjected to radiation (thus simulating ageing of the hair) and hair from humans that is up to 5200 years old, we have observed little in the way of chemical change. The principal amino acids observed in all of these samples are essentially identical in relative abundances and content. Dominating the compositions are serine, glutamic acid, threonine, glycine and leucine, respectively accounting for approximately 15%, 17%, 10%, 8% and 8% of the total hydrolysable amino acids. Even minor components (for example, alanine, valine, isoleucine) show similar constancy between the samples of different ages. This constancy clearly indicates minimal alteration of the amino-acid composition of the hair. Further, it would indicate that hair is well preserved and is amenable to isotopic analysis as a tool for distinguishing sources of nutrition. Based on this observation, we have isotopically characterized modern individuals for whom the diet has been documented. Both stable nitrogen and carbon isotope compositions were assessed, and together provide an

  3. Hair cortisol varies with season and lifestyle and relates to human interactions in German shepherd dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lina S V; Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-21

    It is challenging to measure long-term endocrine stress responses in animals. We investigated whether cortisol extracted from dog hair reflected the levels of activity and stress long-term, during weeks and months. Hair samples from in total 59 German shepherds were analysed. Samples for measuring cortisol concentrations were collected at three occasions and we complemented the data with individual scores from the Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) results showed that hair cortisol varied with season and lifestyle: competition dogs had higher levels than companion, and professional working dogs, and levels were higher in January than in May and September. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the cortisol levels and the C-BARQ score for stranger-directed aggression (r = 0.31, P = 0.036). Interestingly, the factor "playing often with the dog" (r = -0.34, P = 0.019) and "reward with a treat/toy when the dog behaves correctly" (r = -0.37, P = 0.010) correlated negatively with cortisol levels, suggesting that positive human interactions reduce stress. In conclusion, hair cortisol is a promising method for revealing the activity of the HPA-axis over a longer period of time, and human interactions influence the cortisol level in dogs.

  4. Processing and characterization of epoxy composites reinforced with short human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Nanda, Bishnu; Satapathy, Alok

    2017-02-01

    Human hair is a biological fiber with well characterized microstructure. It has many unique properties like high tensile strength, thermal insulation, unique chemical composition, elastic recovery, scaly surface etc. But due to its slow decomposition, it creates many environmental problems. Although a number of utilization avenues are already in place, hair is still considered as a biological waste. In view of this, the present work makes an attempt to explore the possibility of fabricating a class of polymer composites reinforced with short human hair fibers. Epoxy composites with different proportions of hair fiber (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt.%) are prepared by simple hand lay-up technique. Mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and compressive strengths were evaluated by conducting tests as per ASTM standards. It was found out that with the increase in fiber content, the tensile and flexural strength of the composite were increasing significantly while the compressive strength improved marginally. Scanning electron microscopy was done on these samples to observe the microstructural features.

  5. Chemical Forms of Mercury in Human Hair Reveal Sources of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceau, Alain; Enescu, Mironel; Simionovici, Alexandre; Lanson, Martine; Gonzalez-Rey, Maria; Rovezzi, Mauro; Tucoulou, Rémi; Glatzel, Pieter; Nagy, Kathryn L; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2016-10-04

    Humans are contaminated by mercury in different forms from different sources. In practice, contamination by methylmercury from fish consumption is assessed by measuring hair mercury concentration, whereas exposure to elemental and inorganic mercury from other sources is tested by analysis of blood or urine. Here, we show that diverse sources of hair mercury at concentrations as low as 0.5 ppm can be individually identified by specific coordination to C, N, and S ligands with high energy-resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Methylmercury from seafood, ethylmercury used as a bactericide, inorganic mercury from dental amalgams, and exogenously derived atmospheric mercury bind in distinctive intermolecular configurations to hair proteins, as supported by molecular modeling. A mercury spike located by X-ray nanofluorescence on one hair strand could even be dated to removal of a single dental amalgam. Chemical forms of other known or putative toxic metals in human tissues could be identified by this approach with potential broader applications to forensic, energy, and materials science.

  6. Biological evaluation of human hair keratin scaffolds for skin wound repair and regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Songmei; Sang, Lin [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, Yaping [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wang, Xiaoliang [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, Xudong, E-mail: xli20004@yahoo.com [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The cytocompatibility, in vivo biodegradation and wound healing of keratin biomaterials were investigated. For the purposes, three groups of keratin scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying reduced solutions at 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 8 wt.% keratins extracted from human hairs. These scaffolds exhibited evenly distributed high porous structures with pore size of 120-220 {mu}m and the porosity > 90%. NIH3T3 cells proliferated well on these scaffolds in culture lasting up to 22 days. Confocal micrographs stained with AO visually revealed cell attachment and infiltration as well as scaffold architectural stability. In vivo animal experiments were conducted with 4 wt.% keratin scaffolds. Early degradation of subcutaneously implanted scaffolds occurred at 3 weeks in the outermost surface, in concomitant with inflammatory response. At 5 weeks, the overall porous structure of scaffolds severely deteriorated while the early inflammatory response in the outermost surface obviously subsided. A faster keratin biodegradation was observed in repairing full-thickness skin defects. Compared with the blank control, keratin scaffolds gave rise to more blood vessels at 2 weeks and better complete wound repair at 3 weeks with a thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles. These preliminary results suggest that human hair keratin scaffolds are promising dermal substitutes for skin regeneration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of highly-interconnected human hair keratin scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term cell culturing and in vivo animal experiments with keratin scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biodegradation is dependent on implantation site and function Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early vascularization and better repair in treating full-thickness skin wounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles are observed.

  7. A systematic review of light-based home-use devices for hair removal and considerations on human safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, D; Bjerring, P; Dierickx, C

    2012-01-01

    , one CT, five UCTs) and limited evidence for laser devices (one diode laser, one UCT). Most studies evaluated short-term hair reduction up to 3 and 6 months following light exposure at different body sites. Hair reduction percentages ranged from 6% to 72% after repetitive treatments. The most......Background Hair removal with professional light-based devices is established as an effective, mainstream treatment. The field of optical home-based hair removal is evolving and movement from control by physicians into hands of consumers warrants understanding efficacy and human safety. Objectives...... To systematically review and evaluate the efficacy and human safety of currently available home-based optical hair removal devices. Methods A comprehensive Pub Med literature search was conducted which systematically identified publications of relevance. Prospective clinical trials were included whether controlled...

  8. Mercury accumulation in fish species from the Persian Gulf and in human hair from fishermen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Homira; Leermakers, Martine; Gao, Yue; Fatemi, S M R; Katal, M Mohseni; Baeyens, Willy; Elskens, Marc

    2010-10-01

    Total and methylmercury concentrations were assessed in muscle and liver of 141 fish samples from the northern part of the Persian Gulf. All fish samples belonged to five different species: grunt, flathead, greasy grouper, tiger-tooth croaker, and silver pomfret. In addition, Hg and methylmercury were analyzed in scalp hair of 19 fishermen living in the same coastal stations of the Persian Gulf and consuming several fish meals a week. Total mercury concentrations in fish muscle and liver ranged from 0.01 to 1.35 microg g(-1) w.w. and from 0.02 to 1.30 microg g(-1) w.w., respectively. In fish muscle, 3% of the Hg concentrations were higher than 0.5 microg g(-1) w.w., which corresponds to the maximum acceptable WHO level, while 9% were in the range of polluted fish (between 0.3 and 0.5 microg g(-1) w.w.). The highest mercury concentrations in fish muscle were observed in flathead fish at Abadan (average of 0.68 microg g(-1) w.w.). Methylmercury fractions in fish muscle and liver amount to 34-99% (median 64%) and 24-70% (median 43%), respectively. The mean total Hg concentration in the fishermen's scalp hair amounted to 2.9 +/- 2.2 microg g(-1), with 68% in the form of methylmercury. Ninety-five percent of the Hg levels in the fishermen's hair were below 10 microg g(-1), which is the WHO warning limit. In addition, relationships between the mercury levels in hair, on the one hand, and exposure-related factors such as Hg levels in specific fish species, regional differences, and number of fish meals, on the other hand, are discussed. It appears that a significant correlation for example exists between Hg levels human hair and fish muscle or human hair and age and that mean mercury levels in fish muscle and human hair decreased from western (Abadan) to eastern (Abbas port) coastal sites.

  9. Mercury accumulation in human hair and nails: amalgam fillings as an exposure factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolfaghari Gh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Dental amalgam, a mixture of approximately 50% mercury with silver, tin, zinc and copper in varying ratios, is a major source of mercury pollution in the general population not occupationally exposed. The toxicity of mercury is enhanced because it is so readily absorbed, with around 90-100% of mercury vapor being absorbed through the oral mucosa. The aim of the current study is to examine the mercury levels in hair and nails in subjects with amalgam fillings.Methods: For a sample of forty university students reporting infrequent fish consump-tion, with their only known exposure to mercury from amalgam fillings, mercury levels were measured in hair and nail samples using the LECO AMA 254 Advanced Mercury Analyzer (USA, according to the ASTM standard No. D-6722 test method.Results: Mercury concentration in hair ranged from 0.09 to 3.11 mg/kg, and in nail from zero to 1.35 mg/kg. We found that subjects with five or more amalgam fillings had significantly higher levels in their hair than subjects with zero to 5 amalgam fillings      (CI 95% P=0.003. However, the number of amalgam fillings had no effect on the mercury concentration in nails in these two groups (P=0.26. There was no significant difference between the levels of mercury of males and that of females tested (P=0.26 for nail and P=0.15 for hair.Conclusion: The mercury amount in hair was 1.5 times as much as that of the nail samples, may be due to the differences in the chemical compounds, particularly those with sulfur, or the deposition of those compounds that would be affected by blood circulation during formation of hair and nails. Although the amounts of mercury found in this study were below the WHO maximum acceptable level of 6 mg/kg for mercury in human hair, the levels were sufficient to warrant the use of other dental materials such as composites in order to decrease the overall rate of exposure to mercury.

  10. Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Program First Steps Toward Tribal WeatherizationHuman Capacity Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiita, Joanne

    2013-07-30

    The Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Project expanded weatherization services for tribal members’ homes in southeast Alaska while providing weatherization training and on the job training (OJT) for tribal citizens that lead to jobs and most probably careers in weatherization-related occupations. The program resulted in; (a) 80 Alaska Native citizens provided with skills training in five weatherization training units that were delivered in cooperation with University of Alaska Southeast, in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy Core Competencies for Weatherization Training that prepared participants for employment in three weatherizationrelated occupations: Installer, Crew Chief, and Auditor; (b) 25 paid OJT training opportunities for trainees who successfully completed the training course; and (c) employed trained personnel that have begun to rehab on over 1,000 housing units for weatherization.

  11. Trace elements in human scalp hair and soil in Irian Jaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommaseo Ponzetta, M; Nardi, S; Calliari, I; Lucchese, M

    1998-06-01

    Pb, Cd, and Ni contents were determined in the scalp hair of the Asmat of Irian Jaya (Indonesian New Guinea) on 35 adult subjects. These data are presented together with those of Al, Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr, which were determined in previous research on the same group. Hair samples were analyzed by EDXRS and ICP. Trace elements were also determined in 12 soil samples from the same area by EDXRS (Al, Si, K, Ca, Fe) and ICP (Cu, Sr, Ti), and by AAS (Cd, Ni, Pb). When hair element levels are compared and discussed with those of other New Guinea populations, acculturated and nonacculturated tropical groups, populations from Western countries and from polluted areas, and "recommended levels" in the literature, they greatly exceed Western levels and generally fit those of other New Guinea populations, stressing the importance of common environment, subsistence, and behavior. The results of soil analyses are consistent with the presence of those elements in hair, and their quantitative distribution follows a common trend. Metal mobility in soil, patterns of absorption, and transfer from soil to plants and to humans are considered here.

  12. Distribution and chemical speciation of arsenic in ancient human hair using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoulli, Ioanna; Prikhodko, Sergey V; Fischer, Christian; Cilluffo, Marianne; Uribe, Mauricio; Bechtel, Hans A; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A

    2014-01-07

    Pre-Columbian populations that inhabited the Tarapacá mid river valley in the Atacama Desert in Chile during the Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period (AD 500-1450) show patterns of chronic poisoning due to exposure to geogenic arsenic. Exposure of these people to arsenic was assessed using synchrotron-based elemental X-ray fluorescence mapping, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy measurements on ancient human hair. These combined techniques of high sensitivity and specificity enabled the discrimination between endogenous and exogenous processes that has been an analytical challenge for archeological studies and criminal investigations in which hair is used as a proxy of premortem metabolism. The high concentration of arsenic mainly in the form of inorganic As(III) and As(V) detected in the hair suggests chronic arsenicism through ingestion of As-polluted water rather than external contamination by the deposition of heavy metals due to metallophilic soil microbes or diffusion of arsenic from the soil. A decrease in arsenic concentration from the proximal to the distal end of the hair shaft analyzed may indicate a change in the diet due to mobility, though chemical or microbiologically induced processes during burial cannot be entirely ruled out.

  13. [Determination of amphetamine and methamphetamine in human hair using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Láznicková, J; Dĕdicová, M; Vorel, F

    2000-05-01

    The authors present a procedure of concurrent identification and quantification of amphetamine and metamphetamine in human hair. The method involves rinsing of the hair (distilled water 55 degrees C, 0.1 M hydrochloric acid, distilled water to neutral reaction, methanol) drying in air, homogenization by cutting (1-2 mm long), alkaline hydrolysis (20 mg hair, 1 ml 1 M sodium hydroxide, 55 degrees C, 120 min.), neutralization with 1 M hydrochloric acid to pH = 7, extracting benzoylation with 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzoyl chloride (0.3 ml 1 M sodium hydroxide, 4 ml cyclohexane, 30 ul cyclohexylamine in cyclohexane of a concentration of 20 ng/ul--internal standard, 50 ul aqueous solution of triethylamine hydrochloride concentration of 100 mg/ml--reaction catalyst and 10 ul of derivation agent 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzoyl chloride dilution 1:10, shaking for 5 mins. by hand and leaving to stand for 10 mins.), centrifugation (5 mins., 3000 rotations/min.), collection of 2 ml cyclohexane layer, its evaporation at 40 degrees C in nitrogen atmosphere and dilution with 100 ul cyclohexane. The derivated extract was subjected to analysis by the GC-MS method. The procedure was used for segmentation analysis of hair of two subjects abusing metamphetamine for prolonged periods. The revealed concentrations varied within the range of 0.99-5.25 mg/kg metamphetamine and 0.13-0.73 mg/kg amphetamine.

  14. Dechlorane Plus in human hair from an e-waste recycling area in South China: comparison with dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Wang, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tian, Mi; He, Luo-Yiyi; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2010-12-15

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) and a dechlorination product, 1,6,7,8,9,14,15,16,17,17,18-octadeca-7,15-diene (anti-Cl(11)-DP), were measured in human hair and indoor dust collected from an e-waste recycling area and two control areas (rural and urban) in South China. DP was detected in hair and dust samples at concentrations ranging from 0.02-58.32 ng/g and 2.78-4197 ng/g, respectively. anti-Cl(11)-DP, mainly detected in human hair and dust samples from the e-waste recycling area, ranged from nd (nondetected) to 0.23 ng/g in hair and from nd to 20.22 ng/g in dust. Average values of anti-DP fractional abundance (f(anti) ratio) in hair of e-waste dismantling workers (0.55 ± 0.11) and dust from e-waste recycling workshops (0.54 ± 0.15) were significantly lower than those in other groups (0.62-0.76 means for hair and 0.66-0.76 means for dust). Significantly positive correlation between DP concentrations in dust and hair and similarity in f(anti) ratios between hair and dust suggest that ingestion of dust comprise one of the major routes for DP exposure. Significantly positive relationships were also observed between anti-Cl(11)-DP and anti-DP for both hair and dust samples with similar regression line slopes. The ratios of anti-Cl(11)-DP to anti-DP between hair and dust show no significant difference. These results suggest that anti-Cl(11)-DP in the human body is likely accumulated from the environmental matrix and not formed from biotransformation of the parent DP.

  15. Hair transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hair transplant is a surgical procedure to improve baldness. Description During a hair transplant, hairs are moved ... a hair transplant have male or female pattern baldness . Hair loss is on the front or top ...

  16. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in human hair samples: A multivariate analysis of the impact of extraction conditions on quantitative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Alexander; Jungen, Hilke; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie; Raduenz, Lars; Lezius, Susanne; Andresen-Streichert, Hilke

    2017-02-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol, is used as a direct alcohol biomarker for the prolonged detection of ethanol consumption. Hair testing for EtG offers retrospective, long-term detection of ethanol exposition for several months and has gained practical importance in forensic and clinical toxicology. Since quantitative results of EtG hair testings are included in interpretations, a rugged quantitation of EtG in hair matrix is important. As generally known, sample preparation is critical in hair testing, and the scope of this study was on extraction of EtG from hair matrix. The influence of extraction solvent, ultrasonication, incubation temperature, incubation time, solvent amount and hair particle size on quantitative results was investigated by a multifactorial experimental design using a validated analytical method and twelve different batches of authentic human hair material. Eight series of extraction experiments in a Plackett-Burman setup were carried out on each hair material with the studied factors at high or low levels. The effect of pulverization was further studied by two additional experimental series. Five independent samplings were performed for each run, resulting in a total number of 600 determinations. Considerable differences in quantitative EtG results were observed, concentrations above and below interpretative cut-offs were obtained from the same hair materials using different extraction conditions. Statistical analysis revealed extraction solvent and temperature as the most important experimental factors with significant influence on quantitative results. The impact of pulverization depended on other experimental factors and the different hair matrices themselves proved to be important predictors of extraction efficiency. A standardization of extraction procedures should be discussed, since it will probably reduce interlaboratory variabilities and improve the quality and acceptance of hair EtG analysis. Copyright © 2016

  17. Method development for assessing the human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants in hair and nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, a new extraction method based on acid digestion and SPE clean-up (Oasis Wax) was developed for measuring four PFR metabolites (i.e. dibutyl phosphate (DBP), diphenyl phosphate (DPhP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (BDCPP) and bis(2-butoxy ethyl) phosphate (BBEP)) in hair and nails. The method optimization was done according to a combinatorial design (Taguchi) where several parameters were efficiently optimized. Precision was lower for hair than for nails (RSD % 18 and 28%). Recoveries were >74%. High DBP levels in procedural blanks were traced back to the use of SPE cartridges. Therefore a new SPE pre-treatment was tested, reducing significantly DBP levels (hair, finger, and toe nails collected over two months in two volunteers (female and male). DPhP levels were extremely high (in μg/g range) in both finger and toe nails in the female. BDCPP and BBEP were the minor metabolites detected in nails (average levels of 28-64 ng/g and hair (0.23-0.25 ng/g). Results showed that there is a possible contribution from both an external (via deposition) and an internal exposure, however it was not possible to fully understand their extent. Since there were no records of lifestyle and due to the small sample size, the major exposure source could not be addressed here. Nevertheless, there is evidence that hair and nails (finger and toe) might be good indicators of human exposure to PFRs, especially to TPhP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Raman spectroscopic analyses of preserved historical specimens of human hair attributed to Robert Stephenson and Sir Isaac Newton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Hassan, Nik F N; Wilson, Andrew S

    2004-10-01

    The Raman spectra of two historical specimens of human hair attributed to the engineer Robert Stephenson and scientist Sir Isaac Newton, preserved in private collections are reported. Comparisons are made with the Raman spectra of modern hair specimens and with hair from archaeological excavations. The hair spectra collected with a laser excitation of 785 nm are of a better quality than those collected using 1064 nm. The historical hair specimens are remarkably well-defined spectroscopically in terms of the amide I vibrational mode and the [small nu](SS), ascribed to a predominantly gauche-gauche-gauche CSSC conformation. The contrast with degraded hair specimens recovered from archaeological excavations is striking. The presence of a weak feature near 2590 cm(-1) in the hair samples attributed to a [small nu](SH) vibration could be indicative of a reduction process operative on the CSSC cystine keratotic linkages and a possible origin of this is bacterial biodegradation identified histologically. This study demonstrates the molecular information available from non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis from single hair shafts or small bundles of fibres which complements information available from histological and destructive analytical techniques for rare biological specimens subjected to conservation or curation procedures in museums or private collections.

  19. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES) of the Cabinet of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2005-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 {mu}g/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 {mu}g/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 {mu}g/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 {mu}g/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians.

  20. Dietary heterogeneity among Western industrialized countries reflected in the stable isotope ratios of human hair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano O Valenzuela

    Full Text Available Although the globalization of food production is often assumed to result in a homogenization of consumption patterns with a convergence towards a Western style diet, the resources used to make global food products may still be locally produced (glocalization. Stable isotope ratios of human hair can quantify the extent to which residents of industrialized nations have converged on a standardized diet or whether there is persistent heterogeneity and glocalization among countries as a result of different dietary patterns and the use of local food products. Here we report isotopic differences among carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope ratios of human hair collected in thirteen Western European countries and in the USA. European hair samples had significantly lower δ(13C values (-22.7 to -18.3‰, and significantly higher δ(15N (7.8 to 10.3‰ and δ(34S (4.8 to 8.3‰ values than samples from the USA (δ(13C: -21.9 to -15.0‰, δ(15N: 6.7 to 9.9‰, δ(34S: -1.2 to 9.9‰. Within Europe, we detected differences in hair δ(13C and δ(34S values among countries and covariation of isotope ratios with latitude and longitude. This geographic structuring of isotopic data suggests heterogeneity in the food resources used by citizens of industrialized nations and supports the presence of different dietary patterns within Western Europe despite globalization trends. Here we showed the potential of stable isotope analysis as a population-wide tool for dietary screening, particularly as a complement of dietary surveys, that can provide additional information on assimilated macronutrients and independent verification of data obtained by those self-reporting instruments.

  1. Dietary heterogeneity among Western industrialized countries reflected in the stable isotope ratios of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Luciano O; Chesson, Lesley A; Bowen, Gabriel J; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2012-01-01

    Although the globalization of food production is often assumed to result in a homogenization of consumption patterns with a convergence towards a Western style diet, the resources used to make global food products may still be locally produced (glocalization). Stable isotope ratios of human hair can quantify the extent to which residents of industrialized nations have converged on a standardized diet or whether there is persistent heterogeneity and glocalization among countries as a result of different dietary patterns and the use of local food products. Here we report isotopic differences among carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope ratios of human hair collected in thirteen Western European countries and in the USA. European hair samples had significantly lower δ(13)C values (-22.7 to -18.3‰), and significantly higher δ(15)N (7.8 to 10.3‰) and δ(34)S (4.8 to 8.3‰) values than samples from the USA (δ(13)C: -21.9 to -15.0‰, δ(15)N: 6.7 to 9.9‰, δ(34)S: -1.2 to 9.9‰). Within Europe, we detected differences in hair δ(13)C and δ(34)S values among countries and covariation of isotope ratios with latitude and longitude. This geographic structuring of isotopic data suggests heterogeneity in the food resources used by citizens of industrialized nations and supports the presence of different dietary patterns within Western Europe despite globalization trends. Here we showed the potential of stable isotope analysis as a population-wide tool for dietary screening, particularly as a complement of dietary surveys, that can provide additional information on assimilated macronutrients and independent verification of data obtained by those self-reporting instruments.

  2. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  3. A systematic review of light-based home-use devices for hair removal and considerations on human safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaysen-Petersen, D; Bjerring, P; Dierickx, C; Nash, J F; Town, G; Haedersdal, M

    2012-05-01

    Hair removal with professional light-based devices is established as an effective, mainstream treatment. The field of optical home-based hair removal is evolving and movement from control by physicians into hands of consumers warrants understanding efficacy and human safety. To systematically review and evaluate the efficacy and human safety of currently available home-based optical hair removal devices. A comprehensive Pub Med literature search was conducted which systematically identified publications of relevance. Prospective clinical trials were included whether controlled, uncontrolled or randomized and with a sample size of at least 10 individuals. We identified a total of seven studies: one controlled (CT) and six uncontrolled trials (UCTs). No randomized controlled trials (RCT) were recognized. The best evidence was found for IPL (intense pulsed light) (three devices, one CT, five UCTs) and limited evidence for laser devices (one diode laser, one UCT). Most studies evaluated short-term hair reduction up to 3 and 6 months following light exposure at different body sites. Hair reduction percentages ranged from 6% to 72% after repetitive treatments. The most frequently reported side-effect was erythema, but oedema, blistering, crusting and pigment changes were also reported. Theoretical concerns about ocular damage and paradoxical hair growth have not been reported in any of the studies reviewed. Available evidence from prospective, uncontrolled clinical trials indicates short-term hair removal efficacy of currently available home-use light-based hair removal devices. Additional controlled trials will be helpful to substantiate the efficacy and to better predict the incidence of adverse events associated with optical home-use hair removal. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Application of microwave irradiation to fast and efficient isolation of benzodiazepines from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietecha-Posłuszny, Renata; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Garbacik, Aneta; Chęsy, Paulina; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2013-02-22

    The aim of this research was to develop, optimize and validate a modern and rapid method of preparation of human hair samples using microwave irradiation for the purpose of determination of six benzodiazepines: alprazolam, estazolam, lorazepam, clonazepam, diazepam and tetrazepam, with lormetazepam as an internal standard (IS). Extracts were analyzed ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry time of flight detection (UHPLC-MS-TOF). Optimal parameters of microwave-assisted extraction (type of extraction solvent, extraction temperature, extraction time and pH of borate buffer) for these drugs in spiked hair samples were defined. The limit of detection ((0.003-0.025 ng/mg), intra- (1.5-4.3%) and interday (2.3-8.3%) precision (CV) and accuracy of the assay (89.8-105.7%) at three concentration levels: 0.22, 2.22 and 5.56 ng/mg were calculated. The optimized and validated MAE/UHPLC-MS-TOF method was then applied for analysis of clinical hair sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Step 1: Human System Integration Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Weather Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Hazardous Weather Avoidance. Technology concepts in use by the Access 5 Weather Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with the Human System Integration (HIS) high-level functional requirement for Hazardous Weather Avoidance, and Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of hazardous weather, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain hazardous weather information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Hazardous Weather Avoidance operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Weather Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Hazardous Weather Avoidance are partitioned into four categories: (1) Planning En Route (2) Encountering Hazardous Weather En Route, (3) Planning to Destination, and (4) Diversion Planning Alternate Airport. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  6. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overall hair thinning and not bald patches. Full-body hair loss. Some conditions and medical treatments, such as ... in the loss of hair all over your body. The hair usually grows back. Patches of scaling that spread ...

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls in human hair at an e-waste site in China: composition profiles and chiral signatures in comparison to dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Yan, Xiao; Chen, She-Jun; Peng, Xiao-Wu; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Ke-Hui; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2013-04-01

    We analyzed the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human hair collected from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area in southern China and compared their composition profiles and chiral signatures to those of workplace and domestic dust. The PCB concentrations showed significant age dependence in dismantling workers' hair but not in residents' hair. Among residents, PCB concentrations decreased in the following order: elderly people>students>pre-school children>adults. The PCB homologue and congener profiles of the workers' hair were similar to those of the workplace dust. However, the PCB homologue profile of the residents' hair was clearly different from that of the domestic dust. The chiral congener CB95 generally exhibited a racemic or near-racemic composition in both hair and dust, with enantiomer fractions (EFs) ranging from 0.485 to 0.525 in hair and from 0.479 to 0.504 in dust. The EFs of CB132 in dust (0.477-0.513) were closer to a racemic chiral signature than those in hair (0.378-0.521), but this difference was not significant. Our results suggest that the chiral signature of PCBs may be a better tool than the PCB composition profile for identifying the external and internal sources of organic contaminants in human hair. Further measurements of chiral PCB signatures in hair and blood from the same individuals are needed to identify the external and internal sources of PCBs in human hair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of disulphide bonds found in human hair by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Ruiz, A. L.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Plascencia-Castro, A. S.; Hernandez-Rayas, A.; Ruvalcaba, J. M.

    2017-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy offers information-rich spectra, making it a technique easy to use in areas such as biology, chemistry, and in the field. Human hair spectra has been recorded obtaining interesting information about its composition. Correlating information obtained from these spectra to bone health and determining if Raman spectroscopy could be used as a diagnostic tool of bone health is proposed. Spectra from healthy women were compared to the spectra of women who have suffered a bone fracture, all which were aged 39-60. This technique has potential to become a regular diagnostic tool and further investigation to improve and validate this method are needed.

  9. Measurement of cortisol and testosterone in hair of obese and non-obese human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J; Sauvé, B; Tokmakejian, S; Koren, G; Van Uum, S

    2014-06-01

    Hair analysis has been demonstrated to accurately reflect exposure to drug abuse, environmental toxins and exogenous hormones. We tested the feasibility of measuring cortisol and testosterone in hair of healthy and obese subjects. A modified immunoassay (ELISA) originally developed for saliva was used. Hair, urine and blood samples were collected from young non-obese and obese patients. Perceived stress (PSS) was measured using a validated questionnaire. There was no difference in PSS between non-obese and obese subjects. Hair cortisol levels were significantly correlated with weight (r = 0.27, p significance (p = 0.063). Hair cortisol levels did not correlate with age or urinary cortisol. There was a negative correlation between hair testosterone and age (r = -0.47, p significance (p = 0.098). The ratio of hair cortisol over hair testosterone (C/T) was higher in the obese group than in the young non-obese group. The C/T ratio correlated positively with age (r = 0.56, p significance. Hair cortisol levels increase, while hair testosterone levels decrease with obesity. The hair C/T ratio was significantly correlated with age, BMI and waist circumference better than hair cortisol or testosterone alone. As hair collection is non-invasive and is not influenced by moment-to-moment variations, the measurement of hormones in hair is a useful tool in research and possibly clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Effect of intense pulsed light treatment on human skin in vitro: analysis of immediate effects on dermal papillae and hair follicle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, D; Kim, D H; Ratté, G; Beaumont, C; Germain, L

    2013-10-01

    Hair follicles house a permanent pool of epithelial stem cells. Intense pulsed light (IPL) sources have been successfully used for hair removal, but long-term hair reduction may require several treatments. Many questions remain regarding the impact of IPL treatment on the structure of the hair follicle, more specifically on hair follicular stem cells and dermal papilla cells, a group of specialized cells that orchestrate hair growth. To characterize the destruction of human hair follicles and surrounding tissues following IPL treatment, with more attention paid to the bulge and the bulb regions. Human scalp specimens of Fitzpatrick skin phototype II were exposed ex vivo to IPL pulses and were then processed for histological analysis, immunodetection of stem cell-associated keratin 19, and revelation of the endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity expressed in dermal papilla cells. Histological analysis confirmed that pigmented structures, such as the melanin-rich matrix cells of the bulb in anagen follicles and the hair shaft, are principally targeted by IPL treatment, while white hairs and epidermis remained unaffected. Damage caused by heat sometimes extended over the dermal papilla cells, while stem cells were mostly spared. IPL epilation principally targets pigmented structures. Our results suggest that, under the tested conditions, collateral damage does not deplete stem cells. Damage at the dermal papilla was observed only with high-energy treatment modalities. Extrapolated to frequently treated hairs, these observations explain why some hairs grow back after a single IPL treatment. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Valproic acid induces hair regeneration in murine model and activates alkaline phosphatase activity in human dermal papilla cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available Alopecia is the common hair loss problem that can affect many people. However, current therapies for treatment of alopecia are limited by low efficacy and potentially undesirable side effects. We have identified a new function for valproic acid (VPA, a GSK3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, to promote hair re-growth in vitro and in vivo.Topical application of VPA to male C3H mice critically stimulated hair re-growth and induced terminally differentiated epidermal markers such as filaggrin and loricrin, and the dermal papilla marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP. VPA induced ALP in human dermal papilla cells by up-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, whereas minoxidil (MNX, a drug commonly used to treat alopecia, did not significantly affect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. VPA analogs and other GSK3β inhibitors that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway such as 4-phenyl butyric acid, LiCl, and BeCl(2 also exhibited hair growth-promoting activities in vivo. Importantly, VPA, but not MNX, successfully stimulate hair growth in the wounds of C3H mice.Our findings indicate that small molecules that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, such as VPA, can potentially be developed as drugs to stimulate hair re-growth.

  12. Correspondence between human diet, body composition and stable isotopic composition of hair and breath in Fijian villagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Robert; Rush, Elaine; Aalbersberg, William

    2009-03-01

    The main aim of this work was to describe the relationship between diet, and hair and breath isotopic composition. From one Fijian rural village, hair and breath samples were procured from 20 women. Physical anthropometrics were made, and hair (13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N and breath (13)C/(12)C were measured. Individual diet diaries were kept for two of the four preceding weeks, and isotopic compositions of items which accounted for most of the diet were measured. Individual average diets were analysed for macronutrient and energy content and conform to reasonable nutritional expectation. Characteristics of the diet are described in terms of protein and energy, their patterning with respect to different clusters of food items and their relationship to individuals' anthropometry. Breath CO(2) is depleted in (13)C by 1-2 per thousand on average with respect to the total diet. Hair was enriched on average by 4.1 per thousand in nitrogen and 4.5 per thousand in carbon with respect to the total diet. There was insufficient population variation in hair isotopic composition to establish individual hair-diet isotopic differences. The definite relationship that we establish in this work, between dietary and tissue isotopic values for a human community, provides a basis for determining and validating dietary regimes more generally within non-industrial, non-global-'supermarket' economies.

  13. Spatial distributions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope ratios in human hair across the central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Luciano O; Chesson, Lesley A; O'Grady, Shannon P; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2011-04-15

    We present data on the carbon (δ(13)C), nitrogen (δ(15)N) and sulfur (δ(34)S) isotope ratios of human hair collected in the central portions of the USA. These elements are incorporated into hair from the diet and thus provide a record of dietary inputs that may also document geospatial patterns. We detected regional differences in hair δ(34)S values across the USA, with the lowest values in the northern Great Plains and increasing values towards the east, west and south. In contrast, no statistically significant patterns were detected in the spatial variation of human hair δ(13)C and δ(15)N values. Using δ(34)S values and a Geographic Information System approach, we created a map ('sulfur isoscape'). The accuracy of the map was tested using hair samples not included in its generation. We conclude that sulfur isotope analysis may represent a new tool to investigate the movements and/or region-of-origin of humans. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Detection of methamphetamine and amphetamine in a single human hair by gas chromatography/chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, O; Hattori, H; Asano, M

    1984-04-01

    A detailed procedure of an extremely sensitive method for quantitation of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hair by gas chromatography (GC)/chemical ionization (CI) mass spectrometry (MS) is presented. N-methylbenzylamine was used as an internal standard. The samples, after extraction with an organic solvent, were derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride before the GC/MS analysis. Quantitation was made with quasi-molecular ions of the derivatives by selected ion monitoring in the CI mode. The detection limit was about 10 pg in an injected volume. The high sensitivity enabled us to measure both stimulants in a single human hair in actual cases.

  15. Keratin film made of human hair as a nail plate model for studying drug permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusiana; Reichl, Stephan; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2011-08-01

    The limited source of human nail plate for studying drug permeation inspired us to develop a nail plate model made of human hair keratin. The manufacturing process consisted of keratin extraction, dialysis, molding, solvent evaporation, and curing, producing a water-resistant film. The permeability of the film was examined using three markers: sodium fluorescein, rhodamine B, and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran as water-soluble, lipid-soluble, and large molecule models, respectively. Bovine hoof was used for comparison. First investigation showed that keratin films (thickness 120 μm) resembled hooves (thickness 100 μm) except that these films were more permeable to rhodamine B compared with hooves (1.8-fold, pnail plate substitute. However, inclusion of the penetration enhancer must be carefully interpreted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Human platelet lysate versus minoxidil stimulates hair growth by activating anagen promoting signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastan, Maryam; Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Abedelahi, Ali; Sarvi, Mohammadreza; Niapour, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Minoxidil and human platelet lysate (HPL) are commonly used to treat patients with hair loss. However, the roles of HPL versus minoxidil in hair follicle biology largely remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that bulge and dermal papilla (DP) cells may express specific genes, including Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin after exposure to minoxidil or HPL. The mouse hair follicles were isolated on day 10 after depilation and bulge or DP regions were dissected. The bulge and DP cells were cultured for 14days in DMEM/F12 medium. Then, the cells were treated with 100μM minoxidil and 10% HPL for 10 days. Nuclear morphology was identified using DAPi staining. Reverse transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were also performed to examine the expression of Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels in the treated bulge and DP regions after organ culture. Here, we found that minoxidil influences bulge and DP cell survival (P<0.05). Apoptosis in DP cells was also meaningfully decreased by HPL treatment (P=0.014). In addition, Kras, Akt, Erk, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels were changed in response to minoxidil treatment in both bulge and DP cells. HPL mediated Erk upregulation in both bulge and DP cells (P<0.05), but Kras and Akt mRNA levels were not considerably different in the HPL-treated cells. β-catenin mRNA level was also significantly increased in the bulge region by HPL. We also found that Shh mRNA level was considerably higher in HPL-treated bulge cells than in minoxidil-treated bulge cells. In contrast, the expression of β-cateinin and Shh in the DP cells was not meaningfully increased after treatment with HPL. Our results suggest that minoxidil and HPL can promote hair growth by activating the main anagen inducing signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Weather and Climate Change Impacts on Human Mortality in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Lesk, Corey; Bader, Daniel; Horton, Radley; Kinney, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Weather and climate profoundly affect human health. Several studies have demonstrated a U-, V-, or J-shaped temperature-mortality relationship with increasing death rates at the lower and particularly upper end of the temperature distribution. The objectives of this study were (1) to analyze the relationship between temperature and mortality in Bangladesh for different subpopulations and (2) to project future heat-related mortality under climate change scenarios. We used (non-)parametric Generalized Additive Models adjusted for trend, season and day of the month to analyze the effect of temperature on daily mortality. We found a decrease in mortality with increasing temperature over a wide range of values; between the 90th and 95th percentile an abrupt increase in mortality was observed which was particularly pronounced for the elderly above the age of 65 years, for males, as well as in urban areas and in areas with a high socio-economic status. Daily historical and future temperature values were obtained from the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset. This dataset is comprised of downscaled climate scenarios for the globe that are derived from the General Circulation Model (GCM) runs conducted under the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The derived dose-response functions were used to estimate the number of heat-related deaths occurring during the 1990s (1980-2005), the 2020s (2011-2040) and the 2050s (2041-2070). We estimated that excess deaths due to heat will triple from the 1990s to the 2050s, with an annual number of 0.5 million excess deaths in 1990 to and expected number of 1.5 millions in 2050.

  18. Determination of vanadium in human hair slurries by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Kelly G; Nogueira, Ana Rita A; Neto, José A Gomes; Nóbrega, Joaquim A

    2007-02-28

    This work describes an analytical procedure for vanadium determination in human hair slurries by electrothermal AAS using longitudinal heating (LHGA) and transversal heating (THGA) graphite furnace atomizers. The samples were powdered using cryogenic grinding and the hair slurries containing 0.2% (m/v) were prepared in three different media for determination of vanadium: 0.14molL(-1) HNO(3), 0.1% (v/v) Triton X-100 and 0.1% (v/v) water soluble tertiary amines (CFA-C, pH 8). The limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), and characteristic masses obtained were 0.28, 0.95mugL(-1) and 35pg (LHGA) and 0.34, 1.13mugL(-1) and 78pg (THGA), respectively. The accuracy of the analytical results obtained by the proposed procedure in both equipments was confirmed by a paired t-test at the 95% confidence level and compared with a conventional procedure based on acid digestion.

  19. Specific melanin content in human hairs and mitochondrial DNA typing success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linch, Charles A; Champagne, Jarrod R; Bonnette, Michelle D; Dawson Cruz, Tracey

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated whether a difference exists in the ability to obtain quality mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data from hair shafts due to specific melanin content differences. Eumelanin, the pigment in darker hairs, protects nuclear DNA in the skin by absorbing and scattering UV radiation. In contrast, sensitized pheomelanin, the predominate melanin in red hairs and some blond hairs, is unable to prevent DNA damage in skin upon exposure to UV radiation. It has been reported in the literature that darker hairs (predominate eumelanin content) have a higher mtDNA sequencing success rate than lighter colored hairs. However, others have reported to the contrary when different methodologies are used. In this study, 2-cm hair fragments were cut from dark brown, red, and gray white hairs and typed using standard casework mtDNA sequence analysis methods. All 30 hair fragments produced quality mtDNA sequence data on first attempt from the second half of hypervariable region 1. These results are likely due to the apparent shielding of mtDNA by the hard protein of the hair shaft fiber from radiation-induced damage, regardless of melanin type, after 10-months minimal solar exposure. Nonetheless, this study may serve as a guide for future quantitative studies that investigate hair mtDNA photodamage in circumstances of increased solar, chemical, environmental, or mechanical damage.

  20. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Conditioned Media for Hair Regeneration Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdasi, Sushilkumar; Tiwari, Shashi Kant

    Hair loss can have major psychological impact on affected population belonging to varied ethnic background. Hair is a mini organ in itself and serves many distinguishing functions ranging from maintaining body temperature to promoting social interactions. Major cause of hair loss is androgenic alopecia. Hair follicles possess receptor for androgen. However, DHT (Dihydrotestosterone) in excess results into shrinkage of hair follicle affecting hair growth adversely. The present review is focused on etiology of hair loss, traditional treatment approach and their limitations with side effects with special emphasis on unique properties of stem cells, favourable growth factors secreted by stem cells and strategies to enhance favourable growth factor/cytokine production for hair loss therapeutics. We discussed in details the present available treatment options for hair loss like drugs (Finasteride and Minoxidil), follicular hair transplant, laser therapy and serum therapy. These treatment options have their own disadvantages and side effects with appropriate alerts from regulatory authorities. The side effects of these modalities cannot be ignored and demands alternate therapy approach with less or no side effects. We feel that the stem cell therapy is advancing and is a promising modality in near future owing to its advantages and promising outcomes. This review article discusses possible stem cell therapy for hair regrowth and its advantages. We focused on use of conditioned media derived from stem cells instead of using stem cells directly for the therapy.

  1. Thyroxine differentially modulates the peripheral clock: lessons from the human hair follicle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Hardman

    Full Text Available The human hair follicle (HF exhibits peripheral clock activity, with knock-down of clock genes (BMAL1 and PER1 prolonging active hair growth (anagen and increasing pigmentation. Similarly, thyroid hormones prolong anagen and stimulate pigmentation in cultured human HFs. In addition they are recognized as key regulators of the central clock that controls circadian rhythmicity. Therefore, we asked whether thyroxine (T4 also influences peripheral clock activity in the human HF. Over 24 hours we found a significant reduction in protein levels of BMAL1 and PER1, with their transcript levels also decreasing significantly. Furthermore, while all clock genes maintained their rhythmicity in both the control and T4 treated HFs, there was a significant reduction in the amplitude of BMAL1 and PER1 in T4 (100 nM treated HFs. Accompanying this, cell-cycle progression marker Cyclin D1 was also assessed appearing to show an induced circadian rhythmicity by T4 however, this was not significant. Contrary to short term cultures, after 6 days, transcript and/or protein levels of all core clock genes (BMAL1, PER1, clock, CRY1, CRY2 were up-regulated in T4 treated HFs. BMAL1 and PER1 mRNA was also up-regulated in the HF bulge, the location of HF epithelial stem cells. Together this provides the first direct evidence that T4 modulates the expression of the peripheral molecular clock. Thus, patients with thyroid dysfunction may also show a disordered peripheral clock, which raises the possibility that short term, pulsatile treatment with T4 might permit one to modulate circadian activity in peripheral tissues as a target to treat clock-related disease.

  2. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... spreads up in a V shape over time. Body hair is normal, and some people think it looks ...

  3. Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA and MDMA in human hair by GC-EI-MS after derivatization with perfluorooctanoyl chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sys Stybe; Jornil, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine the classical amphetamines and their methylenedioxylated derivatives in human hair. The procedure involved liquid-liquid extraction of hydrolysed hair spiked with deuterated internal...... standards and direct derivatization with perfluorooctanoyl chloride. After evaporation of the organic phase and dissolution in butylacetate, the derivatized compounds were injected into a GC-MS. Method validation results showed a linear range from 0.25 to 25 ng/mg for the target compounds: amphetamine (AM....../mg and of quantification from 0.24 to 0.46 ng/mg, depending on compound. The method was applied on 40 authentic hair samples (segmented or pooled hair), of which 15 cases involved amphetamine and/or ecstasy. The hair concentrations ranged from LOD to 3.2 ng/mg of AM in 7 cases, to 0.4 ng/mg of MDA in 3 cases and to 5.9 ng...

  4. Evaluation of the use of human hair for biomonitoring the deficiency of essential and exposure to toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Jairo L.; Batista, Bruno L.; Nunes, Juliana A.; Passos, Carlos J.S. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)], E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br

    2008-11-01

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements and assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements is of great importance for human health. Thus, the appropriate selection and measurement of biomarkers of internal dose is of critical importance. Due to their many advantages, hair samples have been widely used to assess human exposure to different contaminants. However, the validity of this biomarker in evaluating the level of trace elements in the human body is debatable. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between levels of trace elements in hair and whole blood or plasma in a Brazilian population. Hair, blood and plasma were collected from 280 adult volunteers for metal determination. An ICP-MS was used for sample analysis. Manganese, copper, lead and strontium levels in blood varied from 5.1 to 14.7, from 494.8 to 2383.8, from 5.9 to 330.1 and from 11.6 to 87.3 {mu}g/L, respectively. Corresponding levels in hair varied from 0.05 to 6.71, from 0.02 to 37.59, from 0.02 to 30.63 and from 0.9 to 12.6 {mu}g/g. Trace element levels in plasma varied from 0.07 to 8.62, from 118.2 to 1577.7 and from 2.31 to 34.2 {mu}g/L for Mn, Cu and Sr, respectively. There was a weak correlation (r = 0.22, p < 0.001) between lead levels in hair and blood. Moreover, copper and strontium levels in blood correlate with those levels in plasma (r = 0.64 , p < 0.001 for Cu) and (r = 0.22, p < 0.05 for Sr). However, for Cu, Mn and Sr there was no correlation between levels in hair and blood. Our findings suggest that while the idea of measuring trace elements in hair is attractive, hair is not an appropriate biomarker for evaluating Cu, Mn and Sr deficiency or Pb exposure.

  5. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the product. ...

  6. Sources of variation in hair cortisol in wild and captive non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Nicolaas H; Brown, Janine L; Jolly, Clifford J; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Rogers, Jeffrey; Bernstein, Robin M

    2016-04-01

    Hair cortisol analysis is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating adrenal function and chronic stress. However, the technique has only recently been applied widely to studies of wildlife, including primates, and there are numerous practical and technical factors that should be considered to ensure good quality data and the validity of results and conclusions. Here we report on various intrinsic and extrinsic sources of variation in hair cortisol measurements in wild and captive primates. Hair samples from both wild and captive primates revealed that age and sex can affect hair cortisol concentrations; these effects need to be controlled for when making comparisons between individual animals or populations. Hair growth rates also showed considerable inter-specific variation among a number of primate species. We describe technical limitations of hair analyses and variation in cortisol concentrations as a function of asynchronous hair growth, anatomical site of collection, and the amount and numbers of hair/s used for cortisol extraction. We discuss these sources of variation and their implications for proper study design and interpretation of results. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Levels and sources of brominated flame retardants in human hair from urban, e-waste, and rural areas in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Jing [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Luo Xiaojun, E-mail: luoxiaoj@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yuan Jiangang [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Jing [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Yutao [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen Shenjun; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang Zhongyi, E-mail: adsyzy@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Human hair and indoor dust from urban, e-waste, and rural areas in south China were collected and analyzed for brominated flame retardants (BFRs). BFRs concentrations in hair from occupational e-waste recycling workers were higher than those from non-occupational exposed residents in other sampling areas. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) are two major BFRs in hair samples. The PBDE congener profiles in hair from the e-waste area are different from those from urban and rural areas with relatively higher contribution of lower brominated congeners. DBDPE, instead of BDE209, has become the major BFR in non-e-waste recycling areas. Significant correlations were found between hair level and dust level for DBDPE and BTBPE but not for PBDEs. The different PBDE congener profiles between dust and hair may suggest that exogenous exposure to the PBDE adsorbed on dust is not a major source of hair PBDEs. - Highlights: > In this study we examine BFRs in human hair and indoor dust from the South China. > We find that the composition of BFR in the e-waste area is different from other areas. > DBDPE, instead of BDE209, has become the major BFR in non-e-waste recycling areas. > The PBDE congener pattern in hair is different from those in indoor dust. > In this study we conclude that exogenous exposure to the PBDE is not a major source of hair PBDEs. - BFR levels in hair from different areas in South China were determined and endogenous pathway was found to be the major source of hair BFRs.

  8. The ethnic differences of the damage of hair and integral hair lipid after ultra violet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jae Hong; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jin; Kim, Yoon-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Jin, Xin-Hai; Lee, Won-Soo

    2013-02-01

    Genetic factors account for the majority of differences in skin color and hair morphology across human populations. Although many studies have been conducted to examine differences in skin color across populations, few studies have examined differences in hair morphology. To investigate changing of integral hair lipids after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in three human ethnic groups. We studied the UV irradiation induced hair damage in hairs of three human populations. UV irradiation had been performed with self-manufactured phototherapy system. Damaged hair samples were prepared at 12 and 48 hours after UVA (20 J/sec) and UVB (8 J/sec) irradiation. We evaluated the changes of hair lipid using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), lipid TEM and HP-TLC. After UV irradiation, hair surface damage was shown. African hair showed more severe damage on hair surface than others. The lipid compositions across human populations were similar, but Asian hair had more integral hair lipids than other groups as a whole. Especially, free fatty acid contents were higher than other lipids. After UV irradiation, lipid contents were decreased. These patterns were shown in all human populations. Asian hair has more integral hair lipid than European or African hair. After UV irradiation, European and African hair samples exhibited more damage because they have less integral hair lipids. However, Asian hair samples have less damage. We conclude that integral hair lipid may protect the hair against the UV light.

  9. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-07-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and

  10. Breast Milk and Hair Testing to Detect Illegal Drugs, Nicotine, and Caffeine in Donors to a Human Milk Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Garcia-Algar, Óscar; Joya, Xavier; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The use of illegal drugs and tobacco is an exclusion criteria for accepting a nursing mother as a milk donor. The detection window for human milk testing is typically a few hours. Hair testing has been considered the gold standard to assess chronic exposure to these toxic substances. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of illegal drugs, nicotine, and caffeine in breast milk and hair samples from donors to assess whether these substances were being used during the donation period and the months leading up to it. Thirty-six samples of hair and breast milk were obtained from 36 donors. The tests performed identified nicotine, caffeine, morphine, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, codeine, methadone, and other substances derived therefrom. No illegal drugs were found in any of the samples analyzed. Nicotine and cotinine were found in 33.3% (12/36) of all hair samples. Among these 12 samples, 10 had cotinine concentrations consistent with cutoff values for unexposed nonsmokers, 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for passive smokers, and 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for active smokers. Caffeine was found in 77.7% of the hair samples and in 50% of the donor milk samples. The correlation for caffeine between donor milk and hair samples was r = 0.288, P = .0881. Donors do not use illegal drugs during either the donation period or the months leading up to it. They are occasionally exposed to tobacco smoke and almost all of them consume caffeine. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA and MDMA in human hair by GC-EI-MS after derivatization with perfluorooctanoyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Sys Stybe; Jornil, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine the classical amphetamines and their methylenedioxylated derivatives in human hair. The procedure involved liquid-liquid extraction of hydrolysed hair spiked with deuterated internal standards and direct derivatization with perfluorooctanoyl chloride. After evaporation of the organic phase and dissolution in butylacetate, the derivatized compounds were injected into a GC-MS. Method validation results showed a linear range from 0.25 to 25 ng/mg for the target compounds: amphetamine (AM), methamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy). An intra-day precision of 3-6% RSD and an inter-day precision of 3-17% RSD were observed. Trueness was between 96 % and 106% for the target compounds. The limit of detection ranged from 0.07 to 0.14 ng/mg and of quantification from 0.24 to 0.46 ng/mg, depending on compound. The method was applied on 40 authentic hair samples (segmented or pooled hair), of which 15 cases involved amphetamine and/or ecstasy. The hair concentrations ranged from LOD to 3.2 ng/mg of AM in 7 cases, to 0.4 ng/mg of MDA in 3 cases and to 5.9 ng/mg of MDMA in 13 cases. MA was only detected once at trace level. The method, including the derivatization procedure, is simple and robust with a sensitivity that is satisfactory for measurement of amphetamines and ecstasy in hair from abusers.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils, sediments, and human hair in a plastic waste recycling area: a neglected heavily polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Yufei; Yang, Jun; Guo, Wei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Ning; Jin, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The release of pollutants during the recycling of contaminated plastics is a problem which has drawn worldwide attention; however, little information on the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in these processes is available. We conducted a survey of PBDEs in soils, sediments, and human hair in a typical plastic waste recycling area in northern China. The total concentrations (ng/g) of 21 PBDEs were 1.25-5504 (average 600), 18.2-9889 (average 1619), and 1.50-861 (average 112) in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively. The PBDE concentrations were comparable to concentrations observed in e-waste recycling areas; however, the concentrations in soils and sediments were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than in other areas, and the concentrations in hair were much higher than in other areas. This indicates that this area is highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the dominant congener (representing 91.23%, 92.3%, and 91.5% of the total PBDEs observed in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively), indicating that the commercial deca-BDE product was dominant. The commercial penta- and octa-BDE products made small contributions to the total PBDE concentrations, unlike what has been found in some e-waste recycling areas. Our results show that crude plastic waste processing is a major contributor of PBDEs to the environment and humans, which should be of great concern.

  13. Health Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Various Environmental Media, Crops and Human Hair from a Mining Affected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wushuang Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long term exposure to trace metals in various media is of great concern for people living in known pollution sources, such as mining and industrial activities. Health risk assessment and human hair analysis can provide important information for local environmental management. Information on distribution characteristics of trace metals in soil, water, sediment, air, local crops, and human hair from a typical mining area in southern China was collected. Results show there exists severely trace metal contamination in soil, sediment, and air. Arsenic and Pb contents in the local children’s hair are higher than the upper reference values, and the accumulation of residents’ hair trace metals shows great correlation with the ingestion and inhalation pathways. Arsenic contributes 52.27% and 58.51% to the total non-cancer risk of adults and children, respectively. The cancer risk of Cd in adults and children are 4.66 and 3.22 times higher than the safe level, respectively. Ingestion exposure pathway of trace metals largely contributes to the total non-cancer and cancer effect. The metals As, Cd, and Pb are major risk sources and pollutants that should be given priority for management, and ingestion pathway exposure to trace metals through soil and crops should be controlled.

  14. Protein loss in human hair from combination straightening and coloring treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França-Stefoni, Simone Aparecida; Dario, Michelli Ferrera; Sá-Dias, Tânia Cristina; Bedin, Valcinir; de Almeida, Adriano José; Baby, André Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-09-01

    Hair chemical treatments, such as dyeing and straightening products, are known to cause damage that can be assessed by protein loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hair protein loss caused by combined chemical treatments (dye and relaxer) using the validated bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method. Three kinds of straighteners, based on ammonium thioglycolate, guanidine hydroxide and sodium hydroxide, were evaluated and the least harmful combination indicated. Caucasian virgin dark brown hair tresses were treated with developed natural brown color oxidative hair dyeing and/or straightening commercial products based on ammonium thioglycolate, sodium hydroxide, or guanidine hydroxide. Protein loss quantification was assessed by the validated BCA method which has several advantages for quantifying protein loss in chemically treated hair. When both treatments (straightening and dyeing) were combined, a higher negative effect was observed, particularly for dyed hair treated with sodium hydroxide. In this case, a 356% increase in protein loss relative to virgin hair was observed and 208% in relation to only dyed hair. The combination of dying and relaxers based on ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide caused a small increase in protein loss, suggesting that these straightening products could be the best alternatives for individuals wishing to combine both treatments. These results indicated that when application of both types of products is desired, ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide should be chosen for the straightening process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Human hair mercury levels in the Wanshan mercury mining area, Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Li, Guanghui

    2009-12-01

    The total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) concentrations in the hair were measured to evaluate mercury (Hg) exposure for the residents in Da-shui-xi Village (DSX) and Xia-chang-xi Village (XCX) in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China. The mean concentrations in the hair of DSX residents were 5.5 ± 2.7 μg/g and 1.9 ± 0.9 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The concentrations in the hair of XCX residents were 3.3 ± 1.4 μg/g and 1.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. Hair Me-Hg concentrations were significantly correlated to T-Hg (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) in the two sites; on average, hair Me-Hg concentration accounted for 40 and 44% of T-Hg for DSX and XCX residents, respectively. Age has no obvious correlation with hair Hg and the hair Hg levels showed a significant gender difference, with higher T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations in the hair from males than females. The rice collected from the two sites showed high levels of T-Hg and Me-Hg concentration. The results indicated a certain Hg exposure for the residents in DSX and XCX in the Wanshan Hg mining area.

  16. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3–90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  17. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  18. Effect of oil films on moisture vapor absorption on human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keis, K; Huemmer, C L; Kamath, Y K

    2007-01-01

    In this paper sorption and desorption of water vapor on hair fibers treated with various oils is investigated, using a dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) apparatus. Results show lower "equilibrium" sorption of moisture for various oil-treated samples compared to the untreated sample. Coconut oil-treated hair had a higher regain than mineral oil-treated hair. Although treating the hair samples with oil reduced moisture pickup, a considerable amount of moisture vapor was still able to penetrate into hair fibers. Calculated hysteresis plots show that the samples treated with different oils have slightly higher moisture retention at low relative humidities compared to that of the untreated sample, which suggests a beneficial effect. The calculated moisture diffusion coefficients for oil-treated samples were much lower compared to the untreated hair fibers, suggesting that surface oil films and penetrated oil molecules form a diffusion barrier. A moisture diffusion model is discussed in terms of the possible role of fiber swelling on restrictive narrowing of the cell membrane complexes (CMCs), which form the diffusion pathways in the fiber. The effect of film thickness on moisture absorption and the reverting of the sorption isotherm to that of the untreated hair after removal of the oil film shows that oil film is the main resistance to moisture diffusion. The lowering of the diffusion coefficient of water vapor by oil films will slow the loss of moisture, an effect similar to "moisturization" of hair.

  19. Showering effectiveness for human hair decontamination of the nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Denis; Wartelle, Julien; Cruz, Catherine

    2015-05-05

    In this work, our goals were to establish whether hair decontamination by showering one hour post-exposure to the highly toxic organophosphate nerve agent VX was effective, whether it required the addition of a detergent to water and, if it could be improved by using the adsorbent Fuller's Earth (FE) or the Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) 30 min prior to showering. Hair exposure to VX and decontamination was performed by using an in vitro model. Hair showering led to 72% reduction of contamination. Addition of detergent to water slightly increased the decontamination effectiveness. Hair treatment with FE or RSDL improved the decontamination rate. Combination of FE use and showering, which yielded a decontamination factor of 41, was demonstrated to be the most effective hair decontamination procedure. Hair wiping after showering was shown to contribute to hair decontamination. Altogether, our results highlighted the importance of considering hair decontamination as an important part of body surface decontamination protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Matrix solid phase dispersion assisted enzymatic hydrolysis as a novel approach for cocaine and opiates isolation from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Framil, Martha; Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-11-05

    The possibility of assisting enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) procedures by sample disruption mechanisms inherent to matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) has been explored in the current study. EH of hair specimens from poly-drug abusers was assisted by dispersing/blending the sample (0.05 g) with alumina (2.25 g) before loading the dissolved enzyme (6 mL of 1 mg mL(-1) Pronase E in 1.4 M/1.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 7.3) through the hair-alumina solid phase packaged inside a disposable MSPD syringe. The MSPD-EH method was developed, and it proved to offer quantitative results when isolating cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZE), codeine, morphine and 6-monoacethylmorphine (6-MAM) from human hair samples. The procedure allows an on column clean-up/pre-concentration procedure of the isolated targets by attaching a previously conditioned Oasis HLB cartridge to the end of the MSPD syringe. The EH procedure of human hair with Pronase E can therefore be shortened to approximately 30 min. Within this time, sample blending/dispersion, MSPD syringe package, elution (EH when dissolved Pronase E is passing through the sample-dispersant bed), and extract clean-up and target pre-concentration stages are achieved. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for determining each target after elution from the Oasis HLB cartridges with 2 mL of 2% (v/v) acetic acid in methanol, concentration by N2 stream evaporation, and dried extract derivatization with N-methyl-tert-butylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and chlorotrimethylsilane (TMCS). The method was validated according to the guidance for bioanalytical method validation of the US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. The simplicity of the proposed approach makes it a useful procedure for screening/quantifying drugs of abuse in hair specimens from poly-drug abusers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of magnesium supplementation on concentrations of chosen bioelements and toxic metals in adult human hair. Magnesium and chosen bioelements in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozielec, Tadeusz; Sałacka, Anna; Karakiewicz, Beata

    2004-09-01

    The basic functions of bioelements in biological systems is widely known. Depletion of bioelements and excess of toxic elements lead to impairment of metabolism in the living organism. The existence of magnesium deficiencies in the adult and pediatric populations may cause increased accumulation of toxic metals including lead and cadmium. Prevention of adverse effects of toxic metals may include supplementation with some bioelements and vitamins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of magnesium supplementation on concentrations of chosen bioelements and toxic metals in hair in the adult human population. The research was performed on 124 individuals (53 males and 71 females aged 19-72 years), inhabitants of the city of Szczecin. The concentrations of magnesium, zinc, copper, lead and cadmium were studied in hair. Measurements were performed using the inversion volt-amperometry method with application of an EDD-Tribo PC ETP volt-amperometer. Finally, the supplementation study enrolled 65 individuals with an increased concentration of lead. The studied individuals were divided into two groups: one treated group that enrolled 50 patients who were supplemented with magnesium and the control group that enrolled 15 persons receiving placebo. Finally, supplementation was completed by 32 individuals from the treated group and 10 individuals from the control group. Supplementation was performed using Slow-Mag-B6 preparation at the total daily dose of five tablets divided into 2-3 doses. One tablet contains 535 mg of magnesium chloride i.e. 64 mg of magnesium ions (5.26 mEgMg2) and 5 mg of vitamin B6. Supplementation was performed for a period of 3 months. The remaining individuals did not complete the supplementation due to various reasons; however, none of them resulted from the poor tolerance of the preparation or its adverse events. The results achieved underwent statistical analysis. The results of the study revealed a positive influence of

  2. Differential effects of caffeine on hair shaft elongation, matrix and outer root sheath keratinocyte proliferation, and transforming growth factor-β2/insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated regulation of the hair cycle in male and female human hair follicles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T W; Herczeg-Lisztes, E; Funk, W; Zillikens, D; Bíró, T; Paus, R

    2014-11-01

    Caffeine reportedly counteracts the suppression of hair shaft production by testosterone in organ-cultured male human hair follicles (HFs). We aimed to investigate the impact of caffeine (i) on additional key hair growth parameters, (ii) on major hair growth regulatory factors and (iii) on male vs. female HFs in the presence of testosterone. Microdissected male and female human scalp HFs were treated in serum-free organ culture for 120 h with testosterone alone (0·5 μg mL(-1)) or in combination with caffeine (0·005-0·0005%). The following effects on hair shaft elongation were evaluated by quantitative (immuno)histomorphometry: HF cycling (anagen-catagen transition); hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation; expression of a key catagen inducer, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2; and expression of the anagen-prolonging insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. Caffeine effects were further investigated in human outer root sheath keratinocytes (ORSKs). Caffeine enhanced hair shaft elongation, prolonged anagen duration and stimulated hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation. Female HFs showed higher sensitivity to caffeine than male HFs. Caffeine counteracted testosterone-enhanced TGF-β2 protein expression in male HFs. In female HFs, testosterone failed to induce TGF-β2 expression, while caffeine reduced it. In male and female HFs, caffeine enhanced IGF-1 protein expression. In ORSKs, caffeine stimulated cell proliferation, inhibited apoptosis/necrosis, and upregulated IGF-1 gene expression and protein secretion, while TGF-β2 protein secretion was downregulated. This study reveals new growth-promoting effects of caffeine on human hair follicles in subjects of both sexes at different levels (molecular, cellular and organ). © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion.

  4. A new hair follicle-derived human epidermal model for the evaluation of sunscreen genoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacqueville, D; Douki, T; Duprat, L; Rebelo-Moreira, S; Guiraud, B; Dromigny, H; Perier, V; Bessou-Touya, S; Duplan, H

    2015-10-01

    Induction of skin cancer is the most deleterious effect of excessive exposure to sunlight. Accurate evaluation of sunscreens to protect the genome is thus of major importance. In particular, the ability of suncare products to prevent the formation of DNA damage should be evaluated more directly since the Sun Protection Factor is only related to erythema induction. For this purpose, we developed an in vitro approach using a recently characterized reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) model engineered from hair follicle. The relevance of this skin substitute in terms of UV-induced genotoxicity was compared to ex vivo explants exposed to solar-simulated radiation (SSR). The yield of bipyrimidine photoproducts, their rate of repair, and the induction of apoptosis were very similar in both types of skin samples. In order to evaluate the protection afforded by sunscreen against DNA damage, bipyrimidine photoproducts were quantified in tissue models following SSR exposure in the presence or absence of a SPF50+ formula. A rather high DNA protection factor of approximately 20 was found in RHE, very similar to that determined for explants. Thus, RHE is a good surrogate to human skin, and also a convenient and useful tool for investigation of the genoprotection of sunscreens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hair treatments? Hair treatments include hair coloring, hair curling (permanents), hair bleaching, and hair straightening (relaxers) agents. ... dyes include hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, and alcohols. Hair curling or permanent wave chemicals include ammonium thioglycolate and ...

  6. Assessment of Typical Heavy Metals in Human Hair of Different Age Groups and Foodstuffs in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gang; Pan, Ligang; Liu, Xinhui

    2017-08-14

    Human hair of different age groups and foodstuff samples were collected in Beijing, China. The concerned metals-Cd, Cr, Pb, As, and Hg-were analyzed, and the metal levels in relation to age, gender, and dietary intake were further assessed. Results showed the highest level of the metals was shown by Pb, with an average concentration of 1.557 ± 0.779 mg/kg, followed by Cr (0.782 ± 0.394), Hg (0.284 ± 0.094), As (0.127 ± 0.078), and Cd (0.071 ± 0.032), following a decreasing order of Pb > Cr > Hg > As > Cd, which were all below the upper limit of normal values in China. The heavy metal concentrations varied greatly among different age groups, and higher concentrations for Cd, Cr, Pb, and As appeared in female hair, whereas higher Hg concentration were found in male hair, suggesting that age and gender were not crucial factors for assessing metal concentrations in human hair. The ingestion of cereals and vegetables were the main route by which heavy metals in the environment create hazardous health effects for local inhabitants, but the estimated metal intakes through food consumption were all lower than the proposed limit of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI), indicating that heavy metals posed no health risks for the inhabitants. Furthermore, little relationship was found between metal intakes and the corresponding metal levels in hair. Nevertheless, the results of this study can be used to analyze the internal heavy metal burden in the resident population of Beijing area and can also serve as reference for further studies.

  7. Scalp hair analysis as a tool in assessing human exposure to heavy metals (S. Domingos mine, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R; Ribeiro, R; Gonçalves, F

    2004-07-05

    Hair samples from the scalp were used in a preliminary assessment of heavy metals exposure (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn) of the human population living near an abandoned cupric pyrite mine (Mina de S. Domingos, Southeast Alentejo, Portugal). In parallel with the collection of hair samples, individuals from two different communities at the South and North of the mine area answered a questionnaire designed to obtain information about potential exposure pathways to these elements. The questionnaire allowed data collection about the most frequently consumed foodstuffs, drinking water sources, smoking habits, alcohol consumption and health condition. Higher concentrations, and subsequently higher ranges, of Cd, Cu and As were recorded in individuals living near the mine (MSD group), in opposition to individuals living several kilometers apart. Additionally, the concentrations recorded in the hair of some individuals from the MSD group were above the reference values for non-exposed individuals, suggesting their enhanced exposure. However, no significant differences were found for the average concentration of these elements between villages. Individuals from the CP and SC groups presented significantly higher concentrations of Zn and Mn in scalp hair. These results were in agreement with the concentrations of these elements recorded in soil samples. The water supplies of the area do not seem to be potential sources of trace elements for human beings. In opposition, individuals that frequently consume milk and cheese obtained from cattle that usually breeds in the area presented significantly higher concentrations of As and Mn in their scalp hair. Our results suggest that the population of S. Domingos mine area and neighbour localities may be exposed to some of the elements analysed namely Mn and Zn. The most likely exposure pathways seemed to be animal foodstuffs, however, a more detailed analysis of these products, as well as garden vegetables and fruits, should be

  8. Characterisation of cell cycle arrest and terminal differentiation in a maximally proliferative human epithelial tissue: Lessons from the human hair follicle matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Talveen S; Brunken, Lars; Peake, Michael; Shahmalak, Asim; Chaves, Asuncion; Poblet, Enrique; Ceballos, Laura; Gandarillas, Alberto; Paus, Ralf

    2017-09-01

    Human hair follicle (HF) growth and hair shaft formation require terminal differentiation-associated cell cycle arrest of highly proliferative matrix keratinocytes. However, the regulation of this complex event remains unknown. CIP/KIP family member proteins (p21(CIP1), p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2)) regulate cell cycle progression/arrest, endoreplication, differentiation and apoptosis. Since they have not yet been adequately characterized in the human HF, we asked whether and where CIP/KIP proteins localise in the human hair matrix and pre-cortex in relation to cell cycle activity and HF-specific epithelial cell differentiation that is marked by keratin 85 (K85) protein expression. K85 expression coincided with loss or reduction in cell cycle activity markers, including in situ DNA synthesis (EdU incorporation), Ki-67, phospho-histone H3 and cyclins A and B1, affirming a post-mitotic state of pre-cortical HF keratinocytes. Expression of CIP/KIP proteins was found abundantly within the proliferative hair matrix, concomitant with a role in cell cycle checkpoint control. p21(CIP1), p27(KIP1) and cyclin E persisted within post-mitotic keratinocytes of the pre-cortex, whereas p57(KIP2) protein decreased but became nuclear. These data imply a supportive role for CIP/KIP proteins in maintaining proliferative arrest, differentiation and anti-apoptotic pathways, promoting continuous hair bulb growth and hair shaft formation in anagen VI. Moreover, post-mitotic hair matrix regions contained cells with enlarged nuclei, and DNA in situ hybridisation showed cells that were >2N in the pre-cortex. This suggests that CIP/KIP proteins might counterbalance cyclin E to control further rounds of DNA replication in a cell population that has a propensity to become tetraploid. These data shed new light on the in situ-biography of human hair matrix keratinocytes on their path of active cell cycling, arrest and terminal differentiation, and showcase the human HF as an excellent, clinically

  9. A somewhat unexpected result from the deconvolution of DSC curves for human hair: There is no apparent relation between cortical cell fractions and hair curliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, Franz J; Wortmann, Gabriele

    2017-11-04

    A deconvolution process has been developed for curves obtained by differential scanning calorimetry in water for Merino wool and the main ethnic hair types. This enables estimation of the fractions of ortho- and para-type cell groups. The results also indicate that hair may contain a further, low-sulphur subgroup of ortho-type cells. The sizes of the major cell fractions are in line with expectations from microscopical investigations. The fractions are comparable for hair types, and no consistent association between cell-type fractions and hair curvature is observed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Human Hair and the Impact of Cosmetic Procedures: A Review on Cleansing and Shape-Modulating Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia F. Cruz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair can be strategically divided into two distinct parts: the hair follicle, deeply buried in the skin, and the visible hair fiber. The study of the hair follicle is mainly addressed by biological sciences while the hair fiber is mainly studied from a physicochemical perspective by cosmetic sciences. This paper reviews the key topics in hair follicle biology and hair fiber biochemistry, in particular the ones associated with the genetically determined cosmetic attributes: hair texture and shape. The traditional and widespread hair care procedures that transiently or permanently affect these hair fiber features are then described in detail. When hair is often exposed to some particularly aggressive cosmetic treatments, hair fibers become damaged. The future of hair cosmetics, which are continuously evolving based on ongoing research, will be the development of more efficient and safer procedures according to consumers’ needs and concerns.

  11. STUDY ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES INDUCED BY ULTRASONIC DEGR EASING OF WOOL AND HUMAN HAIR WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recovery and reuse of wool and hair waste is a challenge with the ultimate goal environment protection. One of the early stages of the recovery process is the operation of scouring-degreasing wool and human hair waste. In recent decades the use of ultrasound technology has established an important place in different industrial processes and has started to revolutionize environmental protection. The power of ultrasound can enhance a wide variety of chemical and physical processes, mainly due to the phenomenon known as cavitation in a liquid medium. The objective of the present work is to develop eco-friendly effective degreasing system for keratin fiber waste with the aid of ultrasound, using distilled water and also trichlorethylene as a medium of propagation-degreasing, and realized a comparative analysis of efficiency of fat extraction by Soxhlet classical method and via ultrasonication. This work investigate the effect that ultrasonic irradiation has on the structure of wool and hair fibers. Thus were highlighted both morphological and structural changes of treated materials using optical microscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. By using the unconventional method of cleaning and degreasing with an ultrasonic resonator tube are possible reductions in utility and solvents consumption together with changes in the cuticular layer of wool and hair fibers.

  12. Isolation, expansion and neural differentiation of stem cells from human plucked hair: a further step towards autologous nerve recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gho, Coen G; Schomann, Timo; de Groot, Simon C; Frijns, Johan H M; Rivolta, Marcelo N; Neumann, Martino H A; Huisman, Margriet A

    2016-10-01

    Stem cells from the adult hair follicle bulge can differentiate into neurons and glia, which is advantageous for the development of an autologous cell-based therapy for neurological diseases. Consequently, bulge stem cells from plucked hair may increase opportunities for personalized neuroregenerative therapy. Hairs were plucked from the scalps of healthy donors, and the bulges were cultured without prior tissue treatment. Shortly after outgrowth from the bulge, cellular protein expression was established immunohistochemically. The doubling time was calculated upon expansion, and the viability of expanded, cryopreserved cells was assessed after shear stress. The neuroglial differentiation potential was assessed from cryopreserved cells. Shortly after outgrowth, the cells were immunopositive for nestin, SLUG, AP-2α and SOX9, and negative for SOX10. Each bulge yielded approximately 1 × 10(4) cells after three passages. Doubling time was 3.3 (±1.5) days. Cellular viability did not differ significantly from control cells after shear stress. The cells expressed class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) and synapsin-1 after 3 weeks of neuronal differentiation. Glial differentiation yielded KROX20- and MPZ-immunopositive cells after 2 weeks. We demonstrated that human hair follicle bulge-derived stem cells can be cultivated easily, expanded efficiently and kept frozen until needed. After cryopreservation, the cells were viable and displayed both neuronal and glial differentiation potential.

  13. Gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometric method for determination of methamphetamine and its major metabolite amphetamine in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Suh, Sung Ill; In, Moon Kyo; Chung, Bong Chul

    2005-01-01

    Gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometric (GC-HRMS) method is presented for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of methamphetamine (MA) and its major metabolite, amphetamine (AMP), in human hair. The method procedure involves decontamination of hair with distilled water and acetone, acidic hydrolysis and extraction in the presence of the internal standard, and GC-HRMS selective ion monitoring (SIM) analysis. The limits of detection (LOD) were 9 pg/mg for MA and 21 pg/mg for AMP using a 30-mg hair sample, and the SIM responses were linear with coefficients of correlation ranged from 0.9998 to 0.9999. The recoveries were found to be 91.1-92.3%. By using HRMS (resolution of 5000), detection sensitivity is improved because of the elimination of the biological background, and the LODs for MA and AMP were 2.4-4.4 times lower than those of low-resolution MS. The GC-HRMS method was successfully applied to the analysis of cosmetically treated hair, which is difficult to analyze with the conventional method.

  14. Weather Regulates Location, Timing, and Intensity of Dengue Virus Transmission between Humans and Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Campbell

    Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most aggressively expanding mosquito-transmitted viruses. The human burden approaches 400 million infections annually. Complex transmission dynamics pose challenges for predicting location, timing, and magnitude of risk; thus, models are needed to guide prevention strategies and policy development locally and globally. Weather regulates transmission-potential via its effects on vector dynamics. An important gap in understanding risk and roadblock in model development is an empirical perspective clarifying how weather impacts transmission in diverse ecological settings. We sought to determine if location, timing, and potential-intensity of transmission are systematically defined by weather.We developed a high-resolution empirical profile of the local weather-disease connection across Peru, a country with considerable ecological diversity. Applying 2-dimensional weather-space that pairs temperature versus humidity, we mapped local transmission-potential in weather-space by week during 1994-2012. A binary classification-tree was developed to test whether weather data could classify 1828 Peruvian districts as positive/negative for transmission and into ranks of transmission-potential with respect to observed disease. We show that transmission-potential is regulated by temperature-humidity coupling, enabling epidemics in a limited area of weather-space. Duration within a specific temperature range defines transmission-potential that is amplified exponentially in higher humidity. Dengue-positive districts were identified by mean temperature >22°C for 7+ weeks and minimum temperature >14°C for 33+ weeks annually with 95% sensitivity and specificity. In elevated-risk locations, seasonal peak-incidence occurred when mean temperature was 26-29°C, coincident with humidity at its local maximum; highest incidence when humidity >80%. We profile transmission-potential in weather-space for temperature-humidity ranging 0-38°C and 5

  15. Weather Regulates Location, Timing, and Intensity of Dengue Virus Transmission between Humans and Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen M; Haldeman, Kristin; Lehnig, Chris; Munayco, Cesar V; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Yagui, Martín; Morrison, Amy C; Lin, Chii-Dean; Scott, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most aggressively expanding mosquito-transmitted viruses. The human burden approaches 400 million infections annually. Complex transmission dynamics pose challenges for predicting location, timing, and magnitude of risk; thus, models are needed to guide prevention strategies and policy development locally and globally. Weather regulates transmission-potential via its effects on vector dynamics. An important gap in understanding risk and roadblock in model development is an empirical perspective clarifying how weather impacts transmission in diverse ecological settings. We sought to determine if location, timing, and potential-intensity of transmission are systematically defined by weather. We developed a high-resolution empirical profile of the local weather-disease connection across Peru, a country with considerable ecological diversity. Applying 2-dimensional weather-space that pairs temperature versus humidity, we mapped local transmission-potential in weather-space by week during 1994-2012. A binary classification-tree was developed to test whether weather data could classify 1828 Peruvian districts as positive/negative for transmission and into ranks of transmission-potential with respect to observed disease. We show that transmission-potential is regulated by temperature-humidity coupling, enabling epidemics in a limited area of weather-space. Duration within a specific temperature range defines transmission-potential that is amplified exponentially in higher humidity. Dengue-positive districts were identified by mean temperature >22°C for 7+ weeks and minimum temperature >14°C for 33+ weeks annually with 95% sensitivity and specificity. In elevated-risk locations, seasonal peak-incidence occurred when mean temperature was 26-29°C, coincident with humidity at its local maximum; highest incidence when humidity >80%. We profile transmission-potential in weather-space for temperature-humidity ranging 0-38°C and 5-100% at 1°C x 2

  16. Hair and Physiological Baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercantini, Edward S.

    1965-01-01

    Human hair is one of the structures of the body about which little is generally known. Disease affecting the hair is often minimized or ignored by physicians because of lack of knowledge of this rudimentary organ. However, the patient's attitude toward hair loss is very different from the doctor's and he feels great concern about such loss. The development, growth and morphology of human hair are briefly presented. Experimental work which will increase our knowledge of hair growth and loss is reviewed. The various forms of physiological alopecia from birth onward are discussed, with special emphasis on the least-known type of physiological baldness, “male-pattern baldness” in the adult female. PMID:14312445

  17. Fast Determination of Iron and Zinc in Hair and Human Serum Samples After Alkaline Solubilization by GF AAS

    OpenAIRE

    Donnici, Cláudio L.; Souza, Carolina C.; Beinner, Mark A.; Silva, José Bento B. da

    2016-01-01

    Methods for the development and validation for determination of iron and zinc in human serum and hair samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) were performed. Solubilization was immediate by manual agitation in both samples with a 10 mL volume sample plus deionized water. Optimum pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were obtained by pyrolysis and atomization temperature curves in both matrices. For serum samples, the best temperatures were 1400 and 2500 °C (Fe) an...

  18. A Human Hair Keratin Hydrogel Scaffold Enhances Median Nerve Regeneration in Nonhuman Primates: An Electrophysiological and Histological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, Lauren A.; Plate, Johannes F.; Mannava, Sandeep; Barnwell, Jonathan C.; Koman, L. Andrew; Li, Zhongyu; Smith, Thomas L.; Van Dyke, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A human hair keratin biomaterial hydrogel scaffold was evaluated as a nerve conduit luminal filler following median nerve transection injury in 10 Macaca fascicularis nonhuman primates (NHP). A 1 cm nerve gap was grafted with a NeuraGen® collagen conduit filled with either saline or keratin hydrogel and nerve regeneration was evaluated by electrophysiology for a period of 12 months. The keratin hydrogel-grafted nerves showed significant improvement in return of compound motor action potential...

  19. Titrated extract of Centella asiatica increases hair inductive property through inhibition of STAT signaling pathway in three-dimensional spheroid cultured human dermal papilla cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeong Min; An, Sungkwan; Lee, Junwoo; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Nam; Kim, Young Sam; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; Bae, Seunghee

    2017-12-01

    Dermal papilla (DP) is a pivotal part of hair follicle, and the smaller size of the DP is related with the hair loss. In this study, we investigated the effect of titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) on hair growth inductive property on 3D spheroid cultured human DP cells (HDP cells). Significantly increased effect of TECA on cell viability was only shown in 3D sphered HPD cells, not in 2D cultured HDP cells. Also, TECA treatment increased the sphere size of HDP cells. The luciferase activity of STAT reporter genes and the expression of STAT-targeted genes, SOCS1 and SOCS3, were significantly decreased. Also, TECA treatment increased the expression of the hair growth-related signature genes in 3D sphered HDP cells. Furthermore, TECA led to downregulation of the level of phosphorylated STAT proteins in 3D sphered HDP cells. Overall, TECA activates the potential of hair inductive capacity in HDP cells.

  20. Disheveled hair and ear (Dhe, a spontaneous mouse Lmna mutation modeling human laminopathies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Odgren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigations of naturally-occurring mutations in animal models provide important insights and valuable disease models. Lamins A and C, along with lamin B, are type V intermediate filament proteins which constitute the proteinaceous boundary of the nucleus. LMNA mutations in humans cause a wide range of phenotypes, collectively termed laminopathies. To identify the mutation and investigate the phenotype of a spontaneous, semi-dominant mutation that we have named Disheveled hair and ear (Dhe, which causes a sparse coat and small external ears in heterozygotes and lethality in homozygotes by postnatal day 10. FINDINGS: Genetic mapping identified a point mutation in the Lmna gene, causing a single amino acid change, L52R, in the coiled coil rod domain of lamin A and C proteins. Cranial sutures in Dhe/+ mice failed to close. Gene expression for collagen types I and III in sutures was deficient. Skulls were small and disproportionate. Skeletons of Dhe/+ mice were hypomineralized and total body fat was deficient in males. In homozygotes, skin and oral mucosae were dysplastic and ulcerated. Nuclear morphometry of cultured cells revealed gene dose-dependent blebbing and wrinkling. CONCLUSION: Dhe mice should provide a useful new model for investigations of the pathogenesis of laminopathies.

  1. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.stranorossi@rm.unicatt.it [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Bermejo, Ana [Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Av S. Francisco s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pascali, Vincenzo L. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–HRMS screening method for the detection of a variety of anabolics in hair. •Detection of unmetabolized anabolic steroids and their esters in hair matrix by simple keratin pretreatment. •Identification of target compounds by retention time, accurate mass and isotopic cluster. •Quantitative determination of detected compounds. •Possibility to a retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte is to be screened. -- Abstract: A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg{sup −1}, and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg{sup −1} for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg{sup −1}, giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened.

  2. Supernumerary human hair cells-signs of regeneration or impaired development? A field emission scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask-Andersen, Helge; Li, Hao; Löwenheim, Hubert; Müller, Marcus; Pfaller, Kristian; Schrott-Fischer, Annelies; Glueckert, Rudolf

    2017-03-01

    Current attempts to regenerate cochlear sensorineural structures motivate further inspection of the human organ of hearing. Here, we analyzed the supernumerary inner hair cell (sIHC), a possible sign of regeneration and cell replacement. Human cochleae were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM; maximum resolution 2 nm) obtained from individuals aged 44, 48, and 58 years with normal sensorineural pure-tone average (PTA) thresholds (PTA <20 dB). The wasted tissue was harvested during trans-cochlear approaches and immediately fixed for ultrastructural analysis. All specimens exhibited sIHCs at all turns except at the extreme lower basal turn. In one specimen, it was possible to image and count the inner hair cells (IHCs) along the cochlea representing the 0.2 kHz-8 kHz region according to the Greenwood place/frequency scale. In a region with 2,321 IHCs, there were 120 scattered one-cell losses or 'gaps' (5%). Forty-two sIHCs were present facing the modiolus. Thirty-eight percent of the sIHCs were located near a 'gap' in the IHC row (±6 IHCs). The prevalence of ectopic inner hair cells was higher than expected. The morphology and placement could reflect a certain ongoing regeneration. Further molecular studies are needed to verify if the regenerative capacity of the human auditory periphery might have been underestimated.

  3. Advanced chemical imaging and comparison of human and porcine hair follicles for drug delivery by confocal Raman microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Lutz; Mathes, Christiane; Hansen, Steffi; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-06-01

    Hair follicles have recently gained a lot of interest for dermal drug delivery. They provide facilitated penetration into the skin and a high potential to serve as a drug depot. In this area of research, excised pig ear is a widely accepted in vitro model to evaluate penetration of drug delivery into hair follicles. However, a comparison of human and porcine follicles in terms of chemical composition has not been performed so far. In this study, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a chemically selective imaging technique to compare human and porcine follicle composition and to visualize component distribution within follicle cross-sections. Based on the evaluation of human and porcine Raman spectra optical similarity for both species was successfully confirmed. Furthermore, cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies, which are generally used to determine the extent of follicular penetration, were imaged by a novel complementary analytical approach combining confocal Raman microscopy and optical profilometry. This all-encompassing analysis allows investigation of intactness and component distribution of the excised hair bulb in three dimensions. Confocal Raman microscopy shows a high potential as a noninvasive and chemically selective technique for the analysis of trans-follicular drug delivery.

  4. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: Preliminary results from study of five male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rääf, C.L.; Holstein, H.; Holm, E.

    2015-01-01

    The radionuclide 210Po is of importance from a radiation protection view and has properties that cause special problems when attempting to determine the body content in humans. Estimates have traditionally been made from either urine and/or fecal samples, which require a time-consuming radiochemi......The radionuclide 210Po is of importance from a radiation protection view and has properties that cause special problems when attempting to determine the body content in humans. Estimates have traditionally been made from either urine and/or fecal samples, which require a time......-consuming radiochemical preparation before alpha spectrometric determination. In order to find a more simple and less labor intensive method hair has been used as a bioindicator and investigated in this study. The relationship between intake and excretion in hair has been estimated in five volunteers who ingested...... radioactive polonium (209Po as a bio-tracer for 210Po) in well determined quantities. Four of the volunteers were given 5-10Bq 209Po in a single intake (acute intake) and one volunteer has ingested a daily intake of 58.7mBq 209Po for a period of 180 d. Human hair was found to reflect the daily clearance...

  5. USGS42 and USGS43: Human-hair stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials and analytical methods for forensic science and implications for published measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.; Qi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Because there are no internationally distributed stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials of human hair, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared two such materials, USGS42 and USGS43. These reference materials span values commonly encountered in human hair stable isotope analysis and are isotopically homogeneous at sample sizes larger than 0.2 mg. USGS42 and USGS43 human-hair isotopic reference materials are intended for calibration of δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements of unknown human hair by quantifying (1) drift with time, (2) mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, and (3) isotope-ratio-scale contraction. While they are intended for measurements of the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, they also are suitable for measurements of the stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in human and mammalian hair. Preliminary isotopic compositions of the non-exchangeable fractions of these materials are USGS42(Tibetan hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -78.5 ± 2.3‰ (n = 62) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +8.56 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18) USGS42(Indian hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -50.3 ± 2.8‰ (n = 64) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +14.11 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18). Using recommended analytical protocols presented herein for δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurements, the least squares fit regression of 11 human hair reference materials is δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = 6.085δ(2)O(VSMOW-SLAP) - 136.0‰ with an R-square value of 0.95. The δ(2)H difference between the calibrated results of human hair in this investigation and a commonly accepted human-hair relationship is a remarkable 34‰. It is critical that readers pay attention to the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) of isotopic reference materials in publications, and they need to adjust the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurement results of human hair in previous publications, as needed, to ensure all results on are on the same scales.

  6. Ingrown Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with curly beards. It develops when shaved hairs curve back into the skin, leading to inflammation. Chronic ingrown hairs can lead to: Bacterial infection (from scratching) Skin darkening (hyperpigmentation) Permanent scarring (keloids) Pseudofolliculitis barbae, also known as razor bumps Prevention ...

  7. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hair, like that on your cheek, is almost invisible. Depending on where it is, hair has different ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  8. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to treat acne, bipolar disorder, and ADHD. Diet pills that contain amphetamines also can cause hair loss. Alopecia areata (pronounced: al-uh-PEE-shuh air-ee-AH-tuh) . This skin disease causes hair ...

  9. Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belant Jerrold L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its first occurrence in the New York City area during 1999, West Nile virus (WNV has spread rapidly across North America and has become a major public health concern in North America. By 2002, WNV was reported in 40 states and the District of Columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. Mississippi had the highest human incidence rate of WNV during the 2002 epidemic in the United States. Epidemics of WNV can impose enormous impacts on local economies. Therefore, it is advantageous to predict human WNV risks for cost-effective controls of the disease and optimal allocations of limited resources. Understanding relationships between precipitation and WNV transmission is crucial for predicting the risk of the human WNV disease outbreaks under predicted global climate change scenarios. Methods We analyzed data on the human WNV incidences in the 82 counties of Mississippi in 2002, using standard morbidity ratio (SMR and Bayesian hierarchical models, to determine relationships between precipitation and human WNV risks. We also entertained spatial autocorrelations of human WNV risks with conditional autocorrelative (CAR models, implemented in WinBUGS 1.4.3. Results We observed an inverse relationship between county-level human WNV incidence risk and total annual rainfall during the previous year. Parameters representing spatial heterogeneity in the risk of human exposure to WNV improved model fit. Annual precipitation of the previous year was a predictor of spatial variation of WNV risk. Conclusions Our results have broad implications for risk assessment of WNV and forecasting WNV outbreaks. Assessing risk of vector-born infectious diseases will require understanding of complex ecological relationships. Based on the climatologically characteristic drought occurrence in the past and on climate model predictions for climate change and potentially greater drought occurrence in the future, we suggest that the

  10. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hair if you have certain diseases, such as thyroid problems, diabetes, or lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends ...

  11. Root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grierson, C.; Nielsen, E.; Ketelaar, T.; Schiefelbein, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair

  12. Hair cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products.

  13. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  14. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in girls who need it. Deciding to remove body hair is a personal choice. Getting rid of body hair doesn't make a person healthier, and you ... you don't want to. Some cultures view body hair as beautiful and natural, so do what feels ...

  15. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: preliminary results from study of five male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rääf, C L; Holstein, H; Holm, E; Roos, P

    2015-03-01

    The radionuclide (210)Po is of importance from a radiation protection view and has properties that cause special problems when attempting to determine the body content in humans. Estimates have traditionally been made from either urine and/or fecal samples, which require a time-consuming radiochemical preparation before alpha spectrometric determination. In order to find a more simple and less labor intensive method hair has been used as a bioindicator and investigated in this study. The relationship between intake and excretion in hair has been estimated in five volunteers who ingested radioactive polonium ((209)Po as a bio-tracer for (210)Po) in well determined quantities. Four of the volunteers were given 5-10 Bq (209)Po in a single intake (acute intake) and one volunteer has ingested a daily intake of 58.7 mBq (209)Po for a period of 180 d. Human hair was found to reflect the daily clearance of ingested polonium peaking at 0.001-0.01% d(-1) of the ingested amount, thereafter decreasing mono-exponentially, corresponding to a biological half-time of 10-20 days. For the case of protracted intake a mono-exponential build-up was observed with a half-time of 40 ± 5 d. In addition, after cessation of intake, a short-term component (74%) with a biological half-time of 16 ± 4 d, and a long-term component (26%) with a half-time of 93 ± 53 d were observed. It is concluded that hair can be used to detect not only the amount of ingested polonium but also whether the intake was protracted or acute. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 3-Deoxysappanchalcone Promotes Proliferation of Human Hair Follicle Dermal Papilla Cells and Hair Growth in C57BL/6 Mice by Modulating WNT/β-Catenin and STAT Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Choi, Hyung Chul; Lee, In-Chul; Yuk, Dong Yeon; Lee, Hyosung; Choi, Bu Young

    2016-01-01

    3-Deoxysappanchalcone (3-DSC) has been reported to possess anti-allergic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 3-DSC on the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells (HDPCs) and mouse hair growth in vivo. A real-time cell analyzer system, luciferase assay, Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed to measure the biochemical changes occurring in HDPCs in response to 3-DSC treatment. The effect of 3-DSC on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice was also examined. 3-DSC promoted the proliferation of HDPCs, similar to Tofacitinib, an inhibitor of janus-activated kinase (JAK). 3-DSC promoted phosphorylation of β-catenin and transcriptional activation of the T-cell factor. In addition, 3-DSC potentiated interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced phosphorylation and subsequent transactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), thereby increasing the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (Cdk4), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). On the contrary, 3-DSC attenuated STAT6 mRNA expression and IL4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation in HDPCs. Finally, we observed that topical application of 3-DSC promoted the anagen phase of hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. 3-DSC stimulates hair growth possibly by inducing proliferation of follicular dermal papilla cells via modulation of WNT/β-catenin and STAT signaling. PMID:27795451

  17. The role of stable isotopes in human identification: a longitudinal study into the variability of isotopic signals in human hair and nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, I; Meier-Augenstein, W; Kalin, R M

    2006-01-01

    Recent natural catastrophes with large-scale loss of life have demonstrated the need for a new technique to provide information for disaster victim identification when DNA methods fail to yield the identification of an individual, or in other situations where authorities need to determine the recent geographical life history of people. The latter may be in relation to the identification of individuals detained on suspicion of terrorism or in relation to people-trafficking or smuggling. One proposed solution is the use of stable isotope profiling (SIP) using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Exploiting the link between the isotopic signal of dietary components and the isotopic composition of body tissue, the aim of this study was to refine a non-invasive method of analysing human material such as scalp hair and fingernails using SIP and to assess the degree of natural variability in these profiles. Scalp hair and fingernail samples were collected from British and non-British volunteers at Queen's University Belfast every 2 weeks for a minimum of 8 months. Samples were analysed using IRMS to determine their isotopic composition for 13C, 15N, 2H and 18O. The results of this longitudinal study yielded information on the natural variability of the isotopic composition of these tissues. The data demonstrate the relatively low degree of natural variation in the 13C/15N isotopic abundance of scalp hair and fingernails whilst greater variations were recorded in the hydrogen and oxygen values of the same samples. The 15N and 18O values of nail are noticeably more variable than that of scalp hair from the same subject. A hypothesis explaining this trend is put forward based on the faster rate of formation of hair than of nails. This means that there is less time for the compounds forming hair to be affected by biochemical processes that could alter their isotopic signature. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Innervation of Cochlear Hair Cells by Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niliksha Gunewardene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs may serve as an autologous source of replacement neurons in the injured cochlea, if they can be successfully differentiated and reconnected with residual elements in the damaged auditory system. Here, we explored the potential of hiPSC-derived neurons to innervate early postnatal hair cells, using established in vitro assays. We compared two hiPSC lines against a well-characterized hESC line. After ten days’ coculture in vitro, hiPSC-derived neural processes contacted inner and outer hair cells in whole cochlear explant cultures. Neural processes from hiPSC-derived neurons also made contact with hair cells in denervated sensory epithelia explants and expressed synapsin at these points of contact. Interestingly, hiPSC-derived neurons cocultured with hair cells at an early stage of differentiation formed synapses with a higher number of hair cells, compared to hiPSC-derived neurons cocultured at a later stage of differentiation. Notable differences in the innervation potentials of the hiPSC-derived neurons were also observed and variations existed between the hiPSC lines in their innervation efficiencies. Collectively, these data illustrate the promise of hiPSCs for auditory neuron replacement and highlight the need to develop methods to mitigate variabilities observed amongst hiPSC lines, in order to achieve reliable clinical improvements for patients.

  19. LC-MS based analysis of endogenous steroid hormones in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Grass, Juliane; Stalder, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    The quantification of endogenous steroid hormone concentrations in hair is increasingly used as a method for obtaining retrospective information on long-term integrated hormone exposure. Several different analytical procedures have been employed for hair steroid analysis, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) being recognized as a particularly powerful analytical tool. Several methodological aspects affect the performance of LC-MS systems for hair steroid analysis, including sample preparation and pretreatment, steroid extraction, post-incubation purification, LC methodology, ionization techniques and MS specifications. Here, we critically review the differential value of such protocol variants for hair steroid hormones analysis, focusing on both analytical quality and practical feasibility issues. Our results show that, when methodological challenges are adequately addressed, LC-MS protocols can not only yield excellent sensitivity and specificity but are also characterized by relatively simple sample processing and short run times. This makes LC-MS based hair steroid protocols particularly suitable as a high-quality option for routine application in research contexts requiring the processing of larger numbers of samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of human hair melanin and its degradation products by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Simona; Baroni, Simona; Burgio, Daniela; Digilio, Giuseppe; Fukuhara, Masaki; Martino, Paola; Monda, Keiji; Nervi, Carlo; Kiyomine, Akira; Aime, Silvio

    2008-05-01

    Melanin granules (MGs) have been extracted from human Chinese black hairs by either acid hydrolysis (CH-type MGs) or enzymatic digestion (CP-type MGs), and their chemical structure investigated at the solid state by means of (13)C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS NMR) and EPR spectroscopy. Both types of MGs contain a large amount of protein that is tightly bound to the true melanin polymer, with CP-type MGs having a larger protein content than CH-type ones. Moreover, MGs may also contain variable amounts of lipid-like material. A high amount of paramagnetic metals is detected by EPR in CP-type MGs, in particular Fe(III). Iron can be bound in two chemical forms: as isolated high spin Fe(III) ions with rhombic symmetry and as small oxy-hydroxy Fe(III) aggregates. Iron is poorly available to chelators. CH-type MGs contain much fewer metals. CP-type MGs have then been subjected to partial bleaching by hydrogen peroxide in ammonia, yielding a residual solid, called residual oxidized melanin (ROM) and a soluble but still pigmented fraction called melanin free acid (MFA). MFA can be isolated by precipitation at acidic pH. The (13)C-CPMAS NMR and EPR spectra of these derivatives indicated that ROM has a structure very similar to that of parent MGs, whereas MFA shows a decrease of the protein content with respect to the melanin and a decreased amount of bound iron. Thus, the oxidative degradation of CP-type MGs is a process not involving the bulk of MGs, but rather it proceeds from the solvent-exposed outer parts to the interior. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Analysis of the Maillard reaction in human hair using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging and a focal-plane array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, In-Keun; Park, Sang-Chul; Bin, Sung-Ah; Roh, Young Sup; Lee, John Hwan; Kim, Boo-Min

    2016-03-01

    The Maillard reaction has been well researched and used in the food industry and the fields of environmental science and organic chemistry. Here, we induced the Maillard reaction inside human hair and analyzed its effects by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with a focal-plane array (FTIR-FPA) detector. We used arginine (A), glycine (G), and D-xylose (X) to generate the Maillard reaction by dissolving them in purified water and heating it to 150 °C. This label-free process generated a complex compound (named AGX after its ingredients) with a monomer structure, which was determined by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and FTIR-FPA. This compound was stable in hair and substantially increased its tensile strength. To our knowledge, we are the first to report the formation of this monomer in human hair, and our study provides insights into a new method that could be used to improve the condition of damaged or aging hair.

  2. Space Weather: Linking Stellar Explosions to the Human Endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipp, Delores

    2017-06-01

    Arguably humans have flourished as a result of stellar explosions; we are, after all, stardust. Nonetheless, rapid technology advances of the last 200 years sometimes put society and individuals on a collision course with the natural variability of stellar and solar atmospheres. Human space exploration, routine satellite navigation system applications, aviation safety, and electric power grids are examples of such vulnerable endeavors. In this presentation I will outline how global society relies on ‘normal’ solar and stellar emissions, yet becomes susceptible to extremes of these emissions. The imprints of these astronomical-terrestrial interactions abound. In particular, I will highlight ways in which stellar/solar bursts link with our space-atmosphere-interaction region, producing multi-year patterns in cosmic ray detection, gorgeous aurora, and deep concern for good order and function of global community.

  3. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Bermejo, Ana; Pascali, Vincenzo L

    2013-09-02

    A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg(-1), and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg(-1) for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg(-1), giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased prevalence of human papillomavirus in hairs plucked from patients with psoriasis treated with psoralen-UV-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Peter; Seidl, Hannes; Bäck, Barbara; Binder, Barbara; Höfler, Gerald; Quehenberger, Franz; Hoffmann, Christine; Kerl, Helmut; Stark, Sabine; Pfister, Herbert J; Fuchs, Pawel G

    2004-03-01

    Patients with psoriasis treated with psoralen-UV-A (PUVA) are at increased risk of skin cancer; however, the exact causes of this increased incidence are not well understood. It has been suggested that PUVA may increase expression of the tumorigenic agent human papillomavirus (HPV) in skin by directly stimulating virus replication, immune suppression, or both, thereby leading to skin cancer formation. To determine whether HPV DNA prevalence in the skin is increased after long-term PUVA treatment. Screening for the presence of HPV sequences in DNA isolated from plucked body hairs of patients with psoriasis with a history of PUVA exposure and a history of skin cancer (group A), PUVA exposure and no history of skin cancer (group B), and no PUVA exposure and no history of skin cancer (group C). University hospital. Hair samples were obtained from 81 patients with psoriasis (56 men and 25 women; mean age, 52 years), including 16 in group A (mean number of PUVA exposures, 702), 35 in group B (mean number of PUVA exposures, 282), and 30 in group C. DNA was isolated from the hair samples and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction with the use of 2 nested primer systems specific for epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated or related and genital or mucosal virus types, respectively. The rate of HPV DNA positivity was significantly higher in groups A (73% [11/15]) and B (69% [24/35]) than in group C (36% [10/28]) (A + B vs C, P =.009; chi(2) test; age adjusted). Conclusion The prevalence of HPV in the skin (hair follicles) is increased in patients with psoriasis who have a history of PUVA exposure.

  5. Maritime adaptations and dietary variation in prehistoric Western Alaska: stable isotope analysis of permafrost-preserved human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Kate; Knecht, Rick; Nehlich, Olaf; Hillerdal, Charlotta; Davis, Richard S; Richards, Michael P

    2013-07-01

    The reconstruction of diet and subsistence strategies is integral in understanding early human colonizations and cultural adaptations, especially in the Arctic-one of the last areas of North America to be permanently inhabited. However, evidence for early subsistence practices in Western Alaska varies, particularly with regards to the emergence, importance, and intensity of sea mammal hunting. Here, we present stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data from permafrost-preserved human hair from two new prehistoric sites in Western Alaska, providing a direct measure of diet. The isotope evidence indicates a heavy reliance on sea mammal protein among the earlier Norton-period group (1,750 ± 40 cal BP), confirming that the complex hunting technologies required to intensively exploit these animals were most likely already in place in this region by at least the beginning of 1st millennium AD. In contrast, analysis of the more recent Thule-period hair samples (650 ± 40 cal BP; 570 ± 30 cal BP) reveals a more mixed diet, including terrestrial animal protein. Sequential isotope analysis of two longer human hair locks indicates seasonal differences in diet in a single Norton-period individual but demonstrates little dietary variation in a Thule-period individual. These analyses provide direct evidence for dietary differences among Alaska's early Eskimo groups and confirm the antiquity of specialized sea mammal hunting and procurement technologies. The results of this study have implications for our understanding of human adaptation to maritime and high-latitude environments, and the geographical and temporal complexity in early Arctic subsistence. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hair cortisol, stress exposure, and mental health in humans: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staufenbiel, S.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Spijker, A.T.; Elzinga, B.M.; Rossum, E.F.C.

    2013-01-01

    The deleterious effects of chronic stress on health and its contribution to the development of mental illness attract broad attention worldwide. An important development in the last few years has been the employment of hair cortisol analysis with its unique possibility to assess the long-term

  7. Arsenic and mercury levels in human hairs and nails from gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hair and nail samples obtained from inhabitants of Wassa West District, a major gold mining area in Ghana, were analysed for arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10P11 Pn cmP-2P sP-1P using the Ghana Research ...

  8. Simultaneous determination of 18 abused opioids and metabolites in human hair using LC-MS/MS and illegal opioids abuse proven by hair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun; Ji, Dajeong; Kang, Soyoung; Park, Meejung; Yang, Wonkyung; Kim, Eunmi; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sooyeun

    2014-02-01

    Natural and synthetic opioids have efficient analgesic activity but can also be addictive. Thus, the determination of opioids and their metabolites in biological specimens is of interest in clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories. The analysis of drugs in hair provides valuable information on previous chronic drug use and has been successfully applied to the diagnosis of drug abuse, tolerance, compliance and gestational drug exposure. Despite the abuse of prescription opioids along with heroin and other illegal opiates, few studies have been conducted on the simultaneous determination of the broad range of opioids covering those drugs in hair. In the present study, an analytical method for the simultaneous detection in hair of 18 opioids and metabolites considered to have a high abuse risk based on the results of urine drug screening was established and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the purpose of clinical and forensic applications. The drugs and metabolites were extracted from hair using methanol and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. The validation results proved that the method was selective, accurate and precise with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges. No significant variation was observed by different sources of matrices. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification ranged from 0.05 to 0.25ng/10mg hair and from 0.05 to 0.5ng/10mg hair, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to 15 hair samples from opioids users. This method will be very useful for monitoring the inappropriate use of opioid drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in human hair by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, P; Cirimele, V; Tracqui, A; Mangin, P

    1995-08-04

    A procedure is presented for the simultaneous identification and quantification of amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in human hair. The method involves decontamination of hair with dichloromethane and warm water, heat-alkaline hydrolysis in the presence of deuterated internal standards, liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride-pentafluoropropanol. The limit of detection for AP, MA and MDA was 0.05 ng/mg using a 50-mg hair sample; for MDMA it was 0.1 ng/mg. Coefficients of variation ranged from 7 to 18%. This assay has been successfully utilized in the evaluation of the deposition of the drugs in hair obtained from various parts of the anatomy of a stimulant abuser.

  10. Hair casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta S Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions,which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  11. Androgens trigger different growth responses in genetically identical human hair follicles in organ culture that reflect their epigenetic diversity in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Benjamin H; Charlesworth, Matthew R; Tobin, Desmond J; Sharpe, David T; Randall, Valerie A

    2017-10-18

    Male sex hormones-androgens-regulate male physique development. Without androgen signaling, genetic males appear female. During puberty, increasing androgens harness the hair follicle's unique regenerative ability to replace many tiny vellus hairs with larger, darker terminal hairs (e.g., beard). Follicle response is epigenetically varied: some remain unaffected (e.g., eyelashes) or are inhibited, causing balding. How sex steroid hormones alter such developmental processes is unclear, despite high incidences of hormone-driven cancer, hirsutism, and alopecia. Unfortunately, existing development models are not androgen sensitive. Here, we use hair follicles to establish an androgen-responsive human organ culture model. We show that women's intermediate facial follicles respond to men's higher androgen levels by synthesizing more hair over several days, unlike donor-matched, androgen-insensitive, terminal follicles. We demonstrate that androgen receptors-androgen-activated gene transcription regulators-are required and are present in vivo within these follicles. This is the first human organ that involves multiple cell types that responds appropriately to hormones in prolonged culture, in a way which mirrors its natural behavior. Thus, intermediate hair follicles offer a hormone-switchable human model with exceptional, unique availability of genetically identical, but epigenetically hormone-insensitive, terminal follicles. This should enable advances in understanding sex steroid hormone signaling, gene regulation, and developmental and regenerative systems and facilitate better therapies for hormone-dependent disorders.-Miranda, B. H., Charlesworth, M. R., Tobin, D. J., Sharpe, D. T., Randall, V. A. Androgens trigger different growth responses in genetically identical human hair follicles in organ culture that reflect their epigenetic diversity in life. © FASEB.

  12. Induction of hair follicle dermal papilla cell properties in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived multipotent LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) mesenchymal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraitch, Ophelia; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Sasaki, Takashi; Okuno, Hironobu; Tsukashima, Aki; Amagai, Masayuki; Okano, Hideyuki; Ohyama, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) is a specialised mesenchymal component of the hair follicle (HF) that plays key roles in HF morphogenesis and regeneration. Current technical difficulties in preparing trichogenic human DP cells could be overcome by the use of highly proliferative and plastic human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In this study, hiPSCs were differentiated into induced mesenchymal cells (iMCs) with a bone marrow stromal cell phenotype. A highly proliferative and plastic LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) subset of iMCs was subsequently programmed using retinoic acid and DP cell activating culture medium to acquire DP properties. The resultant cells (induced DP-substituting cells [iDPSCs]) exhibited up-regulated DP markers, interacted with human keratinocytes to up-regulate HF related genes, and when co-grafted with human keratinocytes in vivo gave rise to fibre structures with a hair cuticle-like coat resembling the hair shaft, as confirmed by scanning electron microscope analysis. Furthermore, iDPSCs responded to the clinically used hair growth reagent, minoxidil sulfate, to up-regulate DP genes, further supporting that they were capable of, at least in part, reproducing DP properties. Thus, LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) iMCs may provide material for HF bioengineering and drug screening for hair diseases. PMID:28220862

  13. Determination of sulfur in human hair using high resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and its correlation with total protein and albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Baysal, Asli

    2017-04-01

    Human hair is a valuable contributor for biological monitoring. It is an information storage point to assess the effects of environmental, nutritional or occupational sources on the body. Human proteins, amino acids or other compounds are among the key components to find the sources of different effects or disorders in the human body. Sulfur is a significant one of these compounds, and it has great affinity to some metals and compounds. This property of the sulfur affects the human health positively or negatively. In this manuscript, sulfur was determined in hair samples of autistic and age-match control group children via molecular absorption of CS using a high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. For this purpose, hair samples were appropriately washed and dried at 75 °C. Then samples were dissolved in microwave digestion using HNO3 for sulfur determination. Extraction was performed with HCl hydrolysation by incubation for 24 h at 110 °C for total protein and albumin determination. The validity of the method for the sulfur determination was tested using hair standard reference materials. The results were in the uncertainty limits of the certified values at 95% confidence level. Finally correlation of sulfur levels of autistic children's hair with their total protein and albumin levels were done.

  14. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of opiates and cocaine in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Framil, Martha; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Cocho, José Ángel; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María

    2011-10-17

    A fast and highly sensitive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of morphine, 6-methylacetylmorphine (6-MAM), codeine, cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BZE) in hair from drug abusers. Pulverized hair samples were subjected to an optimized matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) procedure with alumina, followed by diluted hydrochloric acid elution on column solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up/pre-concentration. Alternatively, samples were also subjected to an optimized ultrasound assisted enzymatic hydrolysis (USEH) with Pronase E, followed by an off-line SPE clean up/pre-concentration procedure. Positive electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with one precursor ion/product ion transition were used for the identification and quantification (deuterated analogues of each target as internal standards) of each analyte. The chromatographic pump and the autosampler were used for injecting the standards and the hair extracts (20 μL) as a flow injection analysis mode. The highest sensitivity was achieved when delivering the targets with an acetonitrile/water/formic acid (80/19.875/0.125) mixture. The limits of detection of the method were 39.2, 4.4, 6.8, 7.0 and 7.4 ng g(-1) for morphine, 6-MAM, codeine, cocaine and BZE, respectively. Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were lower than 9 and 12%, respectively; whereas, analytical recoveries ranged from 96±5 to 106±4%. The developed method (MSPD-ESI-MS/MS) was applied to different hair samples from polydrug abusers, and results were statistically compared to those obtained after a conventional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and also after USEH and ESI-MS/MS or GC-MS determinations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of amphetamine and methamphetamine in human hair by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, I; Noguchi, O; Okada, K; Yokoyama, A; Oda, H; Yamamoto, S; Kataoka, H

    1998-04-10

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of amphetamine (AP) and methamphetamine (MA) in human hair was developed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GC-NPD). The hair (1 mg) was dissolved in 0.2 ml of a 5 M sodium hydroxide solution in a tightly sealed vial by shaking at 75 degrees C for about 5 min. In order to adsorb AP and MA on the SPME fiber, 100 microm of polydimethylsiloxane fiber was exposed to the headspace of the vial, and the vial was heated at 55 degrees C for 20 min. Then the fiber was removed from the vial and inserted into the injection port of the GC-NPD system using a CBJ-17 capillary column. The compounds adsorbed on the fiber were analyzed by exposing the fiber at 220 degrees C for 30 s in the GC injection port. By using this method, AP and MA in human hair could be analyzed simply and rapidly without any interference from coexisting substances. The percentages of AP and MA extracted from human hair by the SPME method were 48 and 62%, respectively, and relative standard deviations were below 10% (n=5). The calibration curves for AP and MA were linear in the ranges of 0.4-15 and 4-160 ng/mg hair, respectively. The detection limits of AP and MA at a signal-to-noise ratio of three were 0.1 and 0.4 ng/mg hair, respectively. This method could be applied to the analysis of an abuser's hair sample.

  16. Purification, Characterization, and Gene Cloning of Ceriporiopsis sp. Strain MD-1 Peroxidases That Decolorize Human Hair Melanin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Kenji; Kumazawa, Masaro; Murakami, Shuichiro; Takenaka, Shinji; Koike, Kenzo; Aoki, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Ceriporiopsis sp. strain MD-1, isolated from forest soil, produced several extracellular enzymes that decolorized human hair melanin. Among them, three enzymes (E1, E2-1, and E2-2) were purified to homogeneity and characterized. The enzymes required hydrogen peroxide in their enzyme reactions and, typical of other fungal peroxidases, oxidized various phenol compounds such as guaiacol, but not 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol. The spectra of the three enzymes showed an absorption maximum at 406 nm, indicating that they were heme proteins. However, the A406/A280 values of the enzymes were below 0.4, which was lower than those of other peroxidases. E2-1 and E2-2 were similar to each other in their molecular and catalytic properties, and they possibly represent products of posttranslational modifications and/or allelic variants of the same gene, mdcA. The corresponding cDNA was cloned and sequenced; the deduced amino acid sequence showed high identities to the manganese peroxidases from other microorganisms. The specific activities and Km values of E2-1 and E2-2 for synthetic and human hair melanins were much higher than those of Phanerochaete chrysosporium manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase. PMID:18586974

  17. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k0-standardization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugassa, I; Sarmani, S B; Samat, S B

    1999-06-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E1+ alpha epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the gamma-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for.

  18. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair...

  19. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair...

  20. Determination of physicochemical properties of delipidized hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Roger L; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan; Koelmel, Donald; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using various physicochemical methods of analysis, we examined human hair in its virgin and delipidized state. Free lipids were removed by a solvent extraction technique (covalently bound lipids were not removed) using a series of solvents with varying polarity. We analyzed the surface properties of hair by conducting mechanical combing and dynamic contact angle analysis. In addition, we used inverse gas chromatography surface energy analysis to explore the chemical composition of the hair surface based on interactions of various nonpolar and polar probes with biological molecules residing on the hair surface. Further, we investigated the importance that free lipids play in the internal structural properties of hair using dynamic scanning calorimetry and tensile strength measurements. The microstructure of the hair surface was probed by atomic force microscopy, whereas the lipid content of hair's morphological components was determined by infrared spectroscopic imaging. We also monitored the water management properties of virgin and delipidized hair by dynamic vapor sorption, which yielded unique water sorption isotherms for each hair type. Using all these techniques, differences were found in the chemical composition and physical behavior of virgin and delipidized hair. To better understand the influence of hair lipid composition on hair styling treatments, we conducted mechanical analyses of hair shaped into omega loops to determine the stiffness, elasticity, and flexibility of hair-polymer assemblies. Although there were no discernible differences between untreated virgin and delipidized hair, in terms of stiffness and elasticity, we found that treatment with hair styling agents produced different effects depending on the hair type used. Likewise, streaming potential measurements were carried out to monitor the binding capacity of rinse-off treatments on virgin and delipidized hair. Using this technique, we monitored the surface potential of hair and found

  1. Development, optimization, and validation of a novel extraction procedure for the removal of opiates from human hair's surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restolho, José; Barroso, Mário; Saramago, Benilde; Dias, Mário; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2015-05-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have proved to be efficient extraction media for several systems, and their ability to capture volatile compounds from the atmosphere is well established. We report herein a contactless extraction procedure for the removal of opiate drugs from the surface of human hair. The compounds were chosen as a model drug, particularly due to their low volatility. Equal amounts of IL and hair (about 100 mg) were introduced in a customized Y-shaped vial, and the process occurred simply by heating. After testing several ILs, some of them (e.g. 1-methyl-3-ethanol-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate, phenyl-trimethyl-ammonium triflate or bis(dimethyl) diheptylguanidinium iodide) showed extraction efficiencies higher than 80% for the two studied compounds, morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine. Using the design of experiments (DOE) approach as an optimization tool, and bearing in mind the hygroscopic properties of the ILs (in particular, 1-methyl-3-ethanol-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate), the process was optimized concerning the following variables: temperature (50-120 ºC), extraction time (8-24 h), IL amount (50-200 mg) and water content of the IL (0.01-60%). This study not only provided the optimum conditions for the process (120 ºC, 16 h, 100 mg of IL containing 40% of water), but has also showed that the water content of the IL represents the variable with the most significant effect on the extraction efficiency. Finally, we validated our method through the comparison of the results obtained by treating hair samples with the described procedure to those obtained using a standard washing method and criteria for positivity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New treatment procedures are evolving. Consumer-based treatments with portable home devices are rapidly evolving, and presently include low-level diode lasers and IPL devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Weather and place-based human behavior: recreational preferences and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, C R

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the links between biometeorological variables and the behavior of beach recreationists along with their rating of overall weather conditions. To identify and describe significance of on-site atmospheric conditions, two separate forms of response are examined. The first is sensory perception of the immediate atmospheric surround expressed verbally, which was the subject of earlier work. In the research reported here, on-site observations of behavior that reflect the effects of weather and climate are examined. By employing, independently, separate indicators of on-site experience, the reliability of each is examined and interpreted and apparent threshold conditions verified. The study site is King's Beach located on the coast of Queensland, Australia. On-site observations of atmospheric variables and beach user behavior are made for the daylight hours of 45 days spread over a 12-month period. The results show that behavioral data provide reliable and meaningful indications of the significance of the atmospheric environment for leisure. Atmospheric conditions within the zone of acceptability are those that the beach users can readily cope with or modify by a range of minor behavioral adjustments. Optimal weather conditions appear to be those requiring no specific behavioral adjustment. Attendance levels reflect only the outer limits of acceptability of the meteorological environment, while duration of visit enables calibration of levels of approval in so far as it reflects rating of on-site weather within a broad zone of tolerance. In a broad theoretical sense, the results add to an understanding of the relationship between weather and human behavior. This information is potentially useful in effective tourism management and planning.

  4. Weather and place-based human behavior: recreational preferences and sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the links between biometeorological variables and the behavior of beach recreationists along with their rating of overall weather conditions. To identify and describe significance of on-site atmospheric conditions, two separate forms of response are examined. The first is sensory perception of the immediate atmospheric surround expressed verbally, which was the subject of earlier work. In the research reported here, on-site observations of behavior that reflect the effects of weather and climate are examined. By employing, independently, separate indicators of on-site experience, the reliability of each is examined and interpreted and apparent threshold conditions verified. The study site is King's Beach located on the coast of Queensland, Australia. On-site observations of atmospheric variables and beach user behavior are made for the daylight hours of 45 days spread over a 12-month period. The results show that behavioral data provide reliable and meaningful indications of the significance of the atmospheric environment for leisure. Atmospheric conditions within the zone of acceptability are those that the beach users can readily cope with or modify by a range of minor behavioral adjustments. Optimal weather conditions appear to be those requiring no specific behavioral adjustment. Attendance levels reflect only the outer limits of acceptability of the meteorological environment, while duration of visit enables calibration of levels of approval in so far as it reflects rating of on-site weather within a broad zone of tolerance. In a broad theoretical sense, the results add to an understanding of the relationship between weather and human behavior. This information is potentially useful in effective tourism management and planning.

  5. Use of body hair and beard hair in hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Sanusi

    2013-08-01

    For many hair restoration patients with limited scalp donor hair it is possible to use nonhead hair sources to increase the potential follicle supply. Follicular unit extraction provides the hair restoration surgeon with a useful surgical means for accessing this valuable source of donor reserve. Nonhead hair can also be used to restore eyebrows, eyelashes, and moustaches. This article focuses on the use of body hair and beard in hair restoration. Discussed are the indications and effective techniques for performing hair transplants using non head hair donor sources, along with the pitfalls and risks of this surgical modality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Leptin controls hair follicle cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Reiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kabashima-Kubo, Rieko; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nishio, Daisuke; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2014-04-01

    Leptin is a cytokine well known for its ability to control body weight and energy metabolism. Several lines of evidence have recently revealed that leptin also plays an important role in wound healing and immune modulation in skin. Sumikawa et al. Exp Dermatol 2014 evaluated the effect of leptin on hair follicle cycling using mutant and wild-type mice. They report that leptin is produced in dermal papilla cells in hair follicles and that leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice show an abnormality in hair follicle cycling. Moreover, leptin injection induced the transition into the growth stage of the hair cycle (anagen). On this basis, it now deserves exploration whether leptin-mediated signalling is a key stimulus for anagen induction and whether this may be targeted to manage human hair disorders with defect in the control of hair follicle cycling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Bipedality and hair loss in human evolution revisited: The impact of altitude and activity scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávid-Barrett, Tamás; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-05-01

    Bipedality evolved early in hominin evolution, and at some point was associated with hair loss over most of the body. One classic explanation (Wheeler 1984: J. Hum. Evol. 13, 91-98) was that these traits evolved to reduce heat overload when australopiths were foraging in more open tropical habitats where they were exposed to the direct effects of sunlight at midday. A recent critique of this model (Ruxton & Wilkinson 2011a: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 20965-20969) argued that it ignored the endogenous costs of heat generated by locomotion, and concluded that only hair loss provided a significant reduction in heat load. We add two crucial corrections to this model (the altitude at which australopiths actually lived and activity scheduling) and show that when these are included there are substantial reductions in heat load for bipedal locomotion even for furred animals. In addition, we add one further consideration to the model: we extend the analysis across the full 24 h day, and show that fur loss could not have evolved until much later because of the thermoregulatory costs this would have incurred at the altitudes where australopiths actually lived. Fur loss is most likely associated with the exploitation of open habitats at much lower altitudes at a much later date by the genus Homo. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Non Invasive XRF Analysis of Human Hair for Health State Determination of Breast Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziar, Asghar; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Changizi, Vahid

    2015-12-01

    Using hair samples to analyze the trace element concentrations is of interest among many researchers. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are the most common methods in studying the structure and concentration of elements of tissues and also crystalline materials, using low energy X-ray. In the present study, the detection ability of Wave Length X-ray Fluorescence (WLXRF) of breast cancer at early stages was evaluated and the results were compared with other routine modalities such as mammography. Hair samples of 54 women (including 27 healthy and 27 patients) with average age of 52.03 ± 11.44 years were analyzed. All the sample donors were Iranian women. For the measurements Wave Length X-ray Fluorescence (WLXRF) method was used. Trace elements in healthy individuals were higher than those in cancer patients. In addition, sensitivity of the used method (WLXRF) was 96% compared to mammography (77%) as a gold standard for breast cancer detection. Trace elements in healthy individuals were higher than cancer patients and it seems that WLXRF may be used as a safe, low cost and reliable method with sensitivity higher than those of the other two relevant methods, XRD and mammography.

  9. A Survey of the Awareness, Knowledge and Behavior of Hair Dye Use in a Korean Population with Gray Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Hee Dam; Kang, Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Background Gray hair naturally develops in the process of human aging. Many people with gray hair periodically dye their hair. Hair dyeing products are widely used and they can cause adverse effects. Therefore, the user's knowledge and recognition about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. Objective The goal of this study was to lay the foundation for understanding, preventing and treating side effects caused by hair coloring products. Methods We conducted a questionnaire surve...

  10. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Hoptroff, M.; Fei, X.; Su, Y.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal

  11. Urinary acetylated metabolites and N-acetyltransferase-2 genotype in human subjects treated with a para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohynek, G.J.; Skare, J.A.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Hein, D.W.; Bie, A.T.H.J. de; Toutain, H.

    2004-01-01

    In the organism of mammals, important detoxification pathways of arylamines are catalysed by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). A recent case-control epidemiology study suggested that human NAT2 slow acetylators exposed to oxidative hair dyes may be at greater risk to develop bladder cancer. We therefore

  12. Human Hair, Baltic Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus) Fur and Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) Feathers as Accumulators of Bisphenol A and Alkylphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Nehring, Iga; Staniszewska, Marta; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the concentration of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), and 4-nonylphenol (NP), in human hair, the fur of Baltic grey seals and the feathers of herring gulls. Hair was collected from 42 volunteers, while grey seal fur (n?=?17) came from the seal centre in Hel (Marine Station of Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk) and gull covert feathers (n?=?26) were collected from dead herring gulls along the Southern Baltic coast. Assays of ph...

  13. Validation of a method to quantify chromium, cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead in human whole blood, urine, saliva and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmedo, P.; Pla, A.; Hernandez, A.F.; Lopez-Guarnido, O.; Rodrigo, L. [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, School of Medicine (Spain); Gil, F., E-mail: fgil@ugr.es [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, School of Medicine (Spain)

    2010-02-05

    For biological monitoring of heavy metal exposure in occupational toxicology, usually whole blood and urine samples are the most widely used and accepted matrix to assess internal xenobiotic exposure. Hair samples and saliva are also of interest in occupational and environmental health surveys but procedures for the determination of metals in saliva and hair are very scarce and to our knowledge there is no validation of a method to quantify Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in four different human biological materials (whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair) by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In the present study, quantification methods for the determination of Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair were validated according to the EU common standards. Pyrolisis and atomization temperatures have been determined. The main parameters evaluated were: detection and quantification limits, linearity range, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery and uncertainty. Accuracy of the methods was tested with the whole blood, urine and hair certified reference materials and recoveries of the spiked samples were acceptable ranged from 96.3 to 107.8%.

  14. Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract protects human foreskin melanocytes from oxidative stress in vitro and potentiates hair follicle pigmentation ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sextius, P; Betts, R; Benkhalifa, I; Commo, S; Eilstein, J; Massironi, M; Wang, P; Michelet, J-F; Qiu, J; Tan, X; Jeulin, S

    2017-08-01

    To examine the ability of an extract from traditional Chinese medicine, Polygonum multiflorum Radix, to protect melanocyte viability from oxidative stress, a key mechanism in the initiation and progression of hair greying. To assess the antioxidant capacity of Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract, primary human foreskin melanocytes were treated with a commercially available Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract added to culture medium and exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), using intracellular reactive oxygen species concentrations and glutathione/protein ratios as endpoints. To improve solubility for cosmetic uses, a new Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract was derived. As hair greying is the consequence of melanocyte disappearance in an oxidative stress environment, we checked whether the antioxidant capacity of the new Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract could preserve melanocyte viability in response to H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress, and preserve pigmentation within ex vivo human hair follicles. In vitro treatment of primary human foreskin melanocytes with traditional available Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract resulted in decreased intracellular ROS accumulation in response to H 2 O 2 exposure with a concomitant preservation of glutathione-to-protein ratio, consistent with a protective response against H 2 O 2 exposure and demonstrating the promise of this extract for protecting melanocytes against oxidative stress. Melanocytes treated with the improved Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract exhibited attenuated H 2 O 2 -induced cell death, demonstrating a clear cytoprotective effect. Treatment of ex vivo human hair follicles with the improved Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract resulted in a higher level of melanin compared to vehicle-treated controls, demonstrating an ex vivo protective effect on hair pigmentation. Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract protects in vitro primary human foreskin melanocytes from the deleterious effects of H 2 O 2

  15. The effect of breast cancer on the Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectra of human hair

    OpenAIRE

    Lyman, Donald J.; Fay, Sheila G

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the Synchrotron x-ray diffraction pattern of scalp hair were shown to occur in patients with breast cancer. A preliminary Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy study of scalp hair using attenuated total reflection (ATR) supported the concept that these changes are due to an increase in the lipid content of the hair fibre. This study was undertaken to determine whether the ATR-FT-IR spectrum obtained using a single hair fibre ATR cell could be used in the detection of brea...

  16. Mercury in marine fish, mammals, seabirds, and human hair in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Falkowska, Lucyna

    Mercury (Hg), aside from having high toxicity, is characterized by its ability to biomagnify in the marine trophic chain. This is an important problem especially in estuaries, or in the coastal zone, particularly near the mouths of large rivers. This study was conducted in the years 2001-2011, in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea near to the mouth of the River Vistula, which is the second biggest river discharging into the Baltic. Mercury concentration was measured in the tissues and organs of cod, flounder, herring, seals (living in the wild and in captivity), great black-backed gulls, and African penguins from Gdańsk Zoo, and also in human hair. Penguins and seals at the seal sanctuary in Hel were fed only herring. In marine birds and mammals and in the pelagic herring, the highest Hg concentration was observed in the kidney and in the liver, while in cod and flounder (located on a higher trophic level) the muscles were the most contaminated with mercury. In gray seals living in the seal sanctuary, Hg concentration in all analyzed tissues and organs except the kidneys was lower in comparison with seals living in the wild. The comparatively small share of fish in the diet of local Polish people and their preference towards the consumption of herring contributed to low concentration of Hg in their hair. The protective mechanisms related to detoxification and elimination of mercury were shown to be more effective in the seals than in the penguins, despite the former consuming around 10 times more food per day.

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  18. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101...) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or conceal...

  19. Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R; Patel, M; Dawson, T L; Yazdabadi, A; Yip, L; Perez, A; Rufaut, N W

    2011-12-01

    Androgenetic alopecia affects both men and women. In men it produces male pattern hair loss with bitemporal recession and vertex baldness. In women it produces female pattern hair loss (FPHL) with diffuse alopecia over the mid-frontal scalp. FPHL occurs as a result of nonuniform hair follicle miniaturization within follicular units. Diffuse alopecia is produced by a reduction in the number of terminal fibres per follicular unit. Baldness occurs only when all hairs within the follicular units are miniaturized and is a relatively late event in women. The concepts of follicular units and primary and secondary hair follicles within follicular units are well established in comparative mammalian studies, particularly in sheep. However, discovery of these structures in the human scalp hair and investigation of the changes in follicular unit anatomy during the development of androgenetic alopecia have provided a clearer understanding of the early stages of androgenetic alopecia and how the male and female patterns of hair loss are related. FPHL is the most common cause of alopecia in women and approximately one-third of adult caucasian women experience hair loss. The impact of FPHL is predominantly psychological. While men anticipate age-related hair loss, hair loss in women is usually unexpected and unwelcome at any age. Treatment options to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate partial hair regrowth for FPHL include the androgen receptor antagonists spironolactone and cyproterone acetate, the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the androgen-independent hair growth stimulator minoxidil. These treatments appear to work best when initiated early. Hair transplantation should be considered in advanced FPHL that is resistant to medical treatments. Hair transplantation requires well-preserved hair growth over the occipital donor area. The psychological impact of FPHL may also be reduced by cosmetic products that improve the appearance of the hair. These agents work to

  20. Impact of space weather on human heart rate during the years 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galata, E.; Ioannidou, S.; Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Paravolidakis, K.; Kouremeti, M.; Rentifis, L.; Simantirakis, E.; Trachanas, K.

    2017-08-01

    During the last years a possible link between different levels of solar and geomagnetic disturbances and human physiological parameters is suggested by several published studies. In this work the examination of the potential association between heart rate variations and specific space weather activities was performed. A total of 482 individuals treated at Hippocratio General Hospital in Athens, the Cardiology clinics of Nikaia General Hospital in Piraeus and the Heraklion University Hospital in Crete, Greece, were assessed from July 2011 to April 2013. The heart rate of the individuals was recorded by a Holter monitor on a n hourly basis, while the hourly variations of the cosmic ray intensity measured by the Neutron Monitor Station of the Athens University and of the geomagnetic index Dst provided by the Kyoto Observatory were used. The ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) and the Multiple Linear Regression analysis were used for analysis of these data. A statistically significant effect of both cosmic rays and geomagnetic activity on heart rate was observed, which may indicate that changes in space weather could be linked to heart rate variations.

  1. Effects of body region and time on hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Rukundo, Joshua; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-11-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are increasingly recognized as an integrated measure of the systemic cortisol secretion. Yet, we still know very little about confounding effects on HCC in animals. The present study therefore used hair from semi-wild and zoo living chimpanzees to investigate (1) intra-individual variability of HCC (body-region effect), and (2) the stability of HCC along the hair shaft (traditionally called the washout effect). Our results indicate that absolute HCC varied substantially between certain body regions, but a factor analysis revealed that these HCC differences were mainly attributable to one common source of variance. Thus, hair from all body regions provides similar biological signals and can be mixed, albeit at the cost of a lower signal-to-noise ratio. With regard to potential underlying mechanisms, we studied skin blood flow, as observed through thermal images from one chimpanzee. We found the general HCC pattern was reflected in differences in surface body temperature observed in this individual in three out of four body regions. In a separate set of samples, we found first evidence to suggest that the systematic cortisol decrease along the hair shaft, as observed in humans, is also present in chimpanzee hair. The effect was more pronounced in semi-wild than in zoo chimpanzees presumably due to more exposure to ambient weather conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Hair, Baltic Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus) Fur and Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) Feathers as Accumulators of Bisphenol A and Alkylphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Iga; Staniszewska, Marta; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the concentration of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), and 4-nonylphenol (NP), in human hair, the fur of Baltic grey seals and the feathers of herring gulls. Hair was collected from 42 volunteers, while grey seal fur (n = 17) came from the seal centre in Hel (Marine Station of Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk) and gull covert feathers (n = 26) were collected from dead herring gulls along the Southern Baltic coast. Assays of phenol derivatives were conducted using the high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection technique. In human hair, the mean BPA concentration amounted to 411.2 ng g(-1) dw, OP 131.2 ng g(-1) dw, NP 4478.4 ng g(-1) dw, in seal fur BPA 67.5 ng g(-1) dw, OP 62.8 ng g(-1) dw, NP 39.1 ng g(-1) dw, and in feathers BPA 145.1 ng g(-1) dw, OP 162.0 ng g(-1) dw, NP 37.7 ng g(-1) dw. The increase of the analysed EDCs in hair was significantly influenced by diet rich in products of marine origin, as well as hair colouring, heating up food in plastic containers, using home cleaning products without protective gloves and wearing newly purchased clothes without washing them first. The concentration of phenol derivatives in seal fur was influenced solely by the uniform diet rich in fish. In birds, the feeding area during molting significantly influenced the concentration of BPA, OP and NP found in covert feathers.

  3. Hair Dye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cosmetics, temporary tattoos, photographic development and lithography plates, photocopying and printing inks, black rubber, oils, greases and gasoline [2]. PPD is the most common constituent of hair dye formulations. It is often the key ingredient but can also be used for color enhancement. PPD is commonly used.

  4. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Shoulder Problems Skin Rashes & Other Skin Problems Throat Problems Tooth Problems Urination Problems Back to Symptoms Step 2 Answering Questions Is your hair falling out in small patches?YesNoAre these patches red, itchy or oily?YesNoAre you a man who has gradually lost ...

  5. Epidemic Forecasting is Messier Than Weather Forecasting: The Role of Human Behavior and Internet Data Streams in Epidemic Forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kelly R; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Generous, Nicholas; Hickmann, Kyle; Osthus, Dave; Priedhorsky, Reid; Hyman, James; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2016-12-01

    Mathematical models, such as those that forecast the spread of epidemics or predict the weather, must overcome the challenges of integrating incomplete and inaccurate data in computer simulations, estimating the probability of multiple possible scenarios, incorporating changes in human behavior and/or the pathogen, and environmental factors. In the past 3 decades, the weather forecasting community has made significant advances in data collection, assimilating heterogeneous data steams into models and communicating the uncertainty of their predictions to the general public. Epidemic modelers are struggling with these same issues in forecasting the spread of emerging diseases, such as Zika virus infection and Ebola virus disease. While weather models rely on physical systems, data from satellites, and weather stations, epidemic models rely on human interactions, multiple data sources such as clinical surveillance and Internet data, and environmental or biological factors that can change the pathogen dynamics. We describe some of similarities and differences between these 2 fields and how the epidemic modeling community is rising to the challenges posed by forecasting to help anticipate and guide the mitigation of epidemics. We conclude that some of the fundamental differences between these 2 fields, such as human behavior, make disease forecasting more challenging than weather forecasting. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Trace elements in the human scalp hair and finger nails as affected by infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatib, Ahmed M.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.; Denton, M.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of 13 elements has been determined in finger nail and scalp hair of 4 groups representing normal and infected Schistosoma mansoni subjects. Samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons from a Triga Mark III Reactor, for 10 min. Measurements were made using a HPGe detector coupled with ADC and PDP {11}/{34} data processing equipment. The results showed significant increases of Al, Cl, I and Br in both finger nails and scalp hair of bilharzial patients above those of normal subjects while Mg, Ca, V, Mn, Cu, Sr, K, S and Na showed significant decreases. Most of the elements showed a higher concentration in finger nails than in hair.

  7. Trace elements in the human scalp hair and finger nails as affected by infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khatib, A.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics); Bahnassy, A.A. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Medicine); Denton, M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of 13 elements has been determined in finger nail and scalp hair of 4 groups representing normal and infected Schistosoma mansoni subjects. Samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons from a Triga Mark III Reactor, for 10 min. Measurements were made using a HPGe detector coupled with ADC and PDP 11/34 data processing equipment. The results showed significant increases of Al, Cl, I and Br in both finger nails and scalp hair of bilharzial patients above those of normal subjects while Mg, Ca, V, Mn, Cu, Sr, K, S and Na showed significant decreases. Most of the elements showed a higher concentration in finger nails than in hair. (author).

  8. The effect of breast cancer on the Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectra of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Donald J; Fay, Sheila G

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the Synchrotron x-ray diffraction pattern of scalp hair were shown to occur in patients with breast cancer. A preliminary Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy study of scalp hair using attenuated total reflection (ATR) supported the concept that these changes are due to an increase in the lipid content of the hair fibre. This study was undertaken to determine whether the ATR-FT-IR spectrum obtained using a single hair fibre ATR cell could be used in the detection of breast cancer. In addition, variable angle ATR-FT-IR difference spectra were obtained to investigate the location and the molecular structure of this lipid material in the hair fibre, which appears to be an indicator of breast cancer. Patients with breast cancer showed an increase in the peak height ratio of the 1446-1456 cm(-1) C-H bending absorption bands of the ATR-FT-IR spectra of a single hair fibre. Peak height ratios > 1.0 were indicative of breast cancer. The spectra of scalp hair of subjects with breast cancer also showed a slight shift in C-H bending absorption from 1446 to 1448 cm(-1) and from 1456 to 1458 cm(-1) that could result from the formation of secondary structures by the increased lipid material. Variable angle difference spectra indicated that this increased lipid material is located in the cuticle-cortex interface area and appears to be similar to the lipids normally found here. An alteration in hair biosynthesis in the follicle caused by breast cancer signalling molecules, or biomarkers, is most likely involved. ATR-FT-IR spectral analysis of a long hair fibre containing a distal portion formed when the breast cancer was present and a proximal portion formed after the breast cancer was removed showed that hair fibre synthesis had become normal after the removal of the cancer. This study demonstrates the potential of ATR-FT-IR analysis of a hair fibre in the early detection of breast cancer and in studying how hair acts as a biosensor for breast cancer.

  9. Characterization of a human epidermis model reconstructed from hair follicle keratinocytes and comparison with two commercially models and native skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, B; Hernandez-Pigeon, H; Ceruti, I; Mas, S; Palvadeau, Y; Saint-Martory, C; Castex-Rizzi, N; Duplan, H; Bessou-Touya, S

    2014-10-01

    Outer root sheath (ORS) cells of human hair follicles are a readily available, non-invasive source of keratinocytes for epidermis reconstruction. The aim of this study was to characterize a model of epidermis reconstructed from ORS cells (ORS-derived model) and to evaluate its reproducibility, in comparison with native human skin and two marketed reconstructed skin models (model A, Episkin(®) and model B, Skinethic(®) ). Cell morphology and tissue architecture of the three models were analysed histologically and proliferation and differentiation marker expression by immunohistochemistry and mRNA quantification. All models displayed the same general epidermal architecture as native epidermis, but with a thicker stratum corneum in models A and B. Compared with native epidermis, Ki67 was correctly localized in epidermal basal cells in all models, as K10 in suprabasal layers. In all skin models, transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) was prematurely expressed in suprabasal layers. However, this expression was only observed from the upper stratum spinosum in the ORS-derived model. In this model, filaggrin and loricrin were correctly located in the stratum granulosum. Filaggrin, involucrin, loricrin and TGM1 mRNAs (markers of keratinocyte terminal differentiation) were transcriptionally expressed in all models. In the ORS-derived model, transcriptional expression level was similar to that of native skin. ORS cell-based reconstructed epidermis is a valid and reproducible model for human epidermis and it may be used to evaluate the effects of active substances and cosmetic formulations. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  11. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spilde

    Full Text Available Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios, which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  12. The amelioration of cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction by the injection of keratin biomaterials derived from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Deliang; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Li, Jingyi; Cheng, Ke; Zhang, Jinying

    2011-12-01

    Cardiac dysfunction following acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of advanced cardiomyopathy. Conventional pharmacological therapies rely on prompt reperfusion and prevention of repetitive maladaptive pathways. Keratin biomaterials can be manufactured in an autologous fashion and are effective in various models of tissue regeneration. However, its potential application in cardiac regeneration has not been tested. Keratin biomaterials were derived from human hair and its structure morphology, carryover of beneficial factors, biocompatibility with cardiomyocytes, and in vivo degradation profile were characterized. After delivery into infarcted rat hearts, the keratin scaffolds were efficiently infiltrated by cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Injection of keratin biomaterials promotes angiogenesis but does not exacerbate inflammation in the post-MI hearts. Compared to control-injected animals, keratin biomaterials-injected animals exhibited preservation of cardiac function and attenuation of adverse ventricular remodeling over the 8 week following time course. Tissue western blot analysis revealed up-regulation of beneficial factors (BMP4, NGF, TGF-beta) in the keratin-injected hearts. The salient functional benefits, the simplicity of manufacturing and the potentially autologous nature of this biomaterial provide impetus for further translation to the clinic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of ultraviolet-visible irradiation in the presence of melanin isolated from human black or red hair upon Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, I.A.; Persad, S.; Ranadive, N.S.; Haberman, H.F.

    1983-07-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the possibility that ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of pheomelanin may be more harmful to cells than the irradiation in the presence of eumelanin. The effects of UV-visible irradiation upon Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in the presence of the melanin isolated from human black hair (eumelanin) or from red hair (pheomelanin) were investigated. Irradiation of these cells was found to produce cell lysis, as observed by leakage of 51Cr from labeled cells and intracellular lactic dehydrogenase from the cells and decrease in cell viability demonstrated by the trypan blue exclusion test. The three parameters were quantitatively parallel to one another under various experimental conditions, namely different periods of irradiation and irradiation in the presence of different concentrations of melanin. The above effects were more pronounced when the irradiation was carried out in the presence of melanin from red hair than in the presence of black-hair melanin. In the absence of either melanin, the irradiation did not produce any significant effect in cell viability or cell lysis. Irradiation of the cells in the presence of red-hair melanin also decreased the transplantability of these cells. These observations clearly show that irradiation of cells in the presence of pheomelanin could produce cytotoxic effects. The present experimental design may have application in the development of in vitro models for the study of UV radiation-induced cutaneous carcinogenesis. The reactions of pheomelanin may be related to the susceptibility of ''Celtic'' skin to UV radiation-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis.

  14. Determination of the Extent of Trace Metals Pollution in Soils, Sediments and Human Hair at e-Waste Recycling Site in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumaru, Takashi; Ozaki, Hirokazu; Onwona-Agyeman, Siaw; Ofosu-Anim, John; Watanabe, Izumi

    2017-10-01

    The concentrations of trace elements (Mg, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Tl, Pb, and Bi) in soils, sediment, human hair, and foodstuff collected around the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites in Accra, Ghana were detected using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). High levels of Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, and Pb were observed in soils collected from the e-waste recycling sites. Four sequential extraction procedures were used to evaluate the mobility and bioavailability of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Sb, and Pb). Especially, the results showed that Cd and Zn in soils were mostly recovered in exchangeable fraction (respectively 58.9 and 62.8%). Sediment collected from around the site had enrichment of Zn, Sn, Sb, Mo, In, Pb, and Bi. The concentrations of Cu, Mo, Cd, Sb, and Pb in human hair were significantly higher than those collected from the control site (p e-waste activities. The results of Pb isotopic ratios in the samples indicate that Pb in human hair possibly originated from contaminated soils, fish, and foodstuff.

  15. Disappearance of R/S-methamphetamine and R/S-amphetamine from human scalp hair after discontinuation of methamphetamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Shen, Baohua; Wu, Hejian; Hu, Jingying; Xu, Huili; Shen, Min; Xiang, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) are widely abused drugs. These compounds contain a chiral center, and their enantiomers exhibit different pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and metabolic properties due to differences in binding affinities to their receptor sites. Until now, there was a lack of information on the decline in the concentration of drugs in hair after abstinence. A simple procedure for the chiral separation and determination of methamphetamine (MA) and its metabolite amphetamine (AM) enantiomers by LC-MS/MS in hair samples has been developed and fully validated. The LODs and LLOQs were 0.02ng/mg and 0.05ng/mg for all analytes, respectively. This method was successfully applied to both real hair specimens from chronic MA users and after the discontinuation of MA. The concentration of total MA, and total AM in fifty-eight authentic hair specimens ranged from 7.8ng/mg to 521.0ng/mg, and from 0.3ng/mg to 84.0ng/mg, respectively. Both enantiomers of MA and/or AM were detected in seven of fifty-eight authentic hair specimens. Hair specimens were from thirteen women with a known history of MA abuse, who went to a rehabilitation center and ceased consuming MA (for 4-5 months). The S-isomers of MA and AM were detected in all the 5-6cm segments. Both enantiomers of MA were detected in nine of the 5-6cm segments and the enantiomers of AM were found in only five of the nine samples. Assuming a hair growth rate of 1cm/month, the mean hair elimination half-lives of S-MA, R-MA, S-AM, and R-AM were 0.64(95% CI, 0.46-0.96), 0.58(95% CI, 0.41-0.93), 0.62(0.49-0.88), and 0.50 months (95% CI, 0.42-0.56), respectively. With the developed method, R/S-MA and R/S-AM could be detected in the hair of former drug users for approximately 4 months after abstinence. S-MA is the most commonly found analyte in hair segments and is principally used by abusers. Our results suggest that to evaluate the discontinuation of MA abuse after a 6-month period of abstinence, a 3-cm

  16. The influence of hair lipids in ethnic hair properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, M; Barba, C; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Alonso, C; Coderch, L

    2016-02-01

    Biochemical studies have mainly focused on the composition of hair. African hair exhibited lower moisturization and less radial swelling when flushing with water compared with Asian or Caucasian hair, and they assumed a possible lipid differentiation among human populations. This study consists in the lipid characterization of different ethnic hairs (Caucasian, Asian and African hairs) and the influence of these lipids in different hair properties such as humidity and mechanical properties. Evaluation of water sorption and desorption of the different ethnic hairs and with and without lipids is also studied mainly to determine permeation changes of the keratin fibres. Extractions of exogenous and endogenous lipids with different organic solvents were performed; lipid analysis and its quantification using thin-layer chromatography coupled to an automated flame ionization detector (TLC/FID) were performed. Absorption and desorption curves were obtained in a thermogravimetric balance equipped with a controlled humidity chamber, the Q5000SA Sorption Analyzer (TA Instruments, New Castle, IL, U.S.A.). Also, mechanical properties (breaking stress and breaking elongation) were analysed using a computer programmable dynamometer (Instron 5500R). Lipid extraction showed the highest amount of total lipids for the African hair which may come from external sebaceous lipids compared with Asian or Caucasian hair. Caucasian fibres were found to be the most hydrated fibre, and a decrease in moisture was found in the extracted fibres, again, which is more important for the Caucasian hair. A superior lineal mass was found for the Asian fibres which supported their higher strength. The results obtained from the analysis of the mechanical properties of delipidized fibres indicate a surprising increase in the strength of African and Caucasian fibres. Perhaps this increase in strength could be related to the humidity decrease in lipid-extracted hair fibres. Results of water uptake and

  17. Determination of major and trace elements in human scalp hair by pressurized-liquid extraction with acetic acid and inductively coupled plasma-optical-emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreda-Pineiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodriguez, Elia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad [University of A Coruna, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, A Coruna (Spain); Lopez-Mahia, Purificacion; Prada-Rodriguez, Dario [University of A Coruna, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, A Coruna (Spain); University Institute of Environment, University of A Coruna, Oleiros (Spain); Moreda-Pineiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar [University of Santiago de Compostela, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    An analytical method has been developed for determination of major (Ca, K, Mg, and Na) and trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Li, Ni, and Sr) in human scalp hair. The proposed method includes a novel, simple, rapid, highly efficient, and automated metal-leaching procedure, by pressurized-liquid extraction (PLE), combined with a rapid simultaneous detection system - inductively coupled plasma-optical-emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). PLE is one of the most promising recently introduced sample-preparation techniques, with the advantages of reducing solvent consumption and enabling automated sample handling. The operating conditions for PLE, including concentration of the extraction solvent, extraction temperature, static time, number of extraction steps, pressure, mean particle size, diatomaceous earth (DE) mass/sample mass ratio, and flush volume were studied using an experimental design (Plackett-Burman design, PBD). The optimum conditions were use of 0.75 mol L{sup -1} acetic acid as extracting solution and powdered hair samples thoroughly mixed with DE, as a dispersing agent, at a DE mass/sample mass ratio of 4. Extraction was performed at room temperature and an extraction pressure of 140 atm for 5 min in one extraction step. The flush volume was fixed at 60%. The PLE-assisted multi-element leaching proposed is complete after 7 min (5 min static time plus 1 min purge time plus 1 min end relief time). Under the optimised conditions the figures of merit, for example limits of detection and quantification, repeatability of the over-all procedure, and accuracy, were evaluated. Analysis of GBW-07601 (human hair) certified reference material revealed accuracy was good for the target elements. The optimised method was finally applied to several human scalp-hair samples. (orig.)

  18. Metals in female scalp hair globally and its impact on perceived hair health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Simon; Staite, William; Bowtell, Philip; Marsh, Jennifer

    2013-06-01

    Globally, billions of individuals wash their hair in water, which acts as an exogenous metal source. Many studies which measure the metal levels found on human hair specifically aim to remove exogenous materials prior to analysis. Although this is needed when using hair analysis to probe the impact of the local environment on endogenous metal levels, it is not relevant for understanding exactly what is on hair as a result of contact with its daily environment. Understanding these levels are important, as the presence of redox active metals, such as copper and iron, can impact fibre health, either as a result of UV irradiation, or during the hair colouring process. A global hair sampling study of over 300 individuals from nine countries has been performed, and the combined endogenous and exogenous metals analysed. The levels measured vary widely, even within the narrow geography of each hair sampling location. The levels of calcium, magnesium, copper and iron were not correlated, and within each location, there are expected to be individuals with high metal levels. Levels increased from hair root to tip for calcium, magnesium and copper, attributed to hair contact with the environment showing the impact of exogenous metals in the overall levels on hair. Levels of redox metals were comparable between individuals who coloured or did not colour their hair, although water hardness ions were statistically significantly higher for hair colouring individuals. Individuals who perceived their hair health as poor had higher metal levels on their hair. Controlling metals on hair, either by preventing their binding during environmental contact, or through controlling their ability to cause hair damage, should lead to improved consumer perceived hair health. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Human Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells plasticity augments scar-free skin wound healing with hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabapathy, Vikram; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; V M, Sreelakshmi; Mankuzhy, Pratheesh; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising candidate for cell-based transplantation and regenerative medicine therapies. Thus in the present study Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells (WJ-MSCs) have been derived from extra embryonic umbilical cord matrix following removal of both arteries and vein. Also, to overcome the clinical limitations posed by fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplementation because of xenogeneic origin of FBS, usual FBS cell culture supplement has been replaced with human platelet lysate (HPL). Apart from general characteristic features of bone marrow-derived MSCs, wharton jelly-derived MSCs have the ability to maintain phenotypic attributes, cell growth kinetics, cell cycle pattern, in vitro multilineage differentiation plasticity, apoptotic pattern, normal karyotype-like intrinsic mesenchymal stem cell properties in long-term in vitro cultures. Moreover, the WJ-MSCs exhibited the in vitro multilineage differentiation capacity by giving rise to differentiated cells of not only mesodermal lineage but also to the cells of ectodermal and endodermal lineage. Also, WJ-MSC did not present any aberrant cell state upon in vivo transplantation in SCID mice and in vitro soft agar assays. The immunomodulatory potential assessed by gene expression levels of immunomodulatory factors upon exposure to inflammatory cytokines in the fetal WJ-MSCs was relatively higher compared to adult bone marrow-derived MSCs. WJ-MSCs seeded on decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold transplantation on the skin injury of SCID mice model demonstrates that combination of WJ-MSCs and decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold exhibited significantly better wound-healing capabilities, having reduced scar formation with hair growth and improved biomechanical properties of regenerated skin compared to WJ-MSCs alone. Further, our experimental data indicate that indocyanin green (ICG) at optimal concentration can be resourcefully used for labeling of stem cells and in vivo

  20. Human Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells plasticity augments scar-free skin wound healing with hair growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Sabapathy

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a promising candidate for cell-based transplantation and regenerative medicine therapies. Thus in the present study Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells (WJ-MSCs have been derived from extra embryonic umbilical cord matrix following removal of both arteries and vein. Also, to overcome the clinical limitations posed by fetal bovine serum (FBS supplementation because of xenogeneic origin of FBS, usual FBS cell culture supplement has been replaced with human platelet lysate (HPL. Apart from general characteristic features of bone marrow-derived MSCs, wharton jelly-derived MSCs have the ability to maintain phenotypic attributes, cell growth kinetics, cell cycle pattern, in vitro multilineage differentiation plasticity, apoptotic pattern, normal karyotype-like intrinsic mesenchymal stem cell properties in long-term in vitro cultures. Moreover, the WJ-MSCs exhibited the in vitro multilineage differentiation capacity by giving rise to differentiated cells of not only mesodermal lineage but also to the cells of ectodermal and endodermal lineage. Also, WJ-MSC did not present any aberrant cell state upon in vivo transplantation in SCID mice and in vitro soft agar assays. The immunomodulatory potential assessed by gene expression levels of immunomodulatory factors upon exposure to inflammatory cytokines in the fetal WJ-MSCs was relatively higher compared to adult bone marrow-derived MSCs. WJ-MSCs seeded on decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold transplantation on the skin injury of SCID mice model demonstrates that combination of WJ-MSCs and decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold exhibited significantly better wound-healing capabilities, having reduced scar formation with hair growth and improved biomechanical properties of regenerated skin compared to WJ-MSCs alone. Further, our experimental data indicate that indocyanin green (ICG at optimal concentration can be resourcefully used for labeling of stem cells

  1. Efficacy of metformin in human single hair fibre by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramoorthi, Kamatchi; Sethu, Gunasekaran; Ethirajulu, Sailatha; Raja Marthandam, Pavithra

    2017-03-20

    Diabetes mellitus is chronic metabolic disorder, resulting from insulin deficiency, characterized by hyperglycemia altered metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids and an increased risk of vascular complications. There are different classes of anti-diabetic drugs in allopathic system of medicine. Metformin (dimethyl biguanide) is a blood glucose lowering agent used in the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Almost in all diseases the blood serves as the primary metabolic transport system in the body. Its composition is the preferred indicator with respect to the pathophysiological condition of the patient. Instead of analyzing blood to diagnose diabetes, hair could be used to detect diabetes using FTIR-ATR technique. The most important components of hair are fibrous proteins (keratins), melanins, glycogen, and lipids. Hair follicles are located 3-4mm below the surface of the skin and are surrounded by rich blood capillary system. In the present study, ten diabetic subjects were considered to evaluate the efficacy of metformin hydrochloride for the treatment of diabetes mellitus using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. The spectra of diabetic hair fibre samples have been recorded in the mid infrared region of 4000-450cm -1 . The hair samples of the diabetic subjects before medication were taken as pre-treatment samples. The hair samples of diabetic subjects referred to medication with metformin for a period of three month were taken as post-treatment sample. Some remarkable spectral differences were elucidated between pre- and post-treatment hair fibre samples. A comparative study on the FTIR-ATR hair spectra of patients (pre- and post-treatment) along with the healthy subjects has been made. The absorption values of some of the specific bands of biomolecules present in the hair samples viz., protein, lipids and glucose for both the pre- and post-treatment subjects are noted. It was observed that, these biomarkers are significantly different between

  2. Cellular development of the human cochlea and the regenerative potential of hair follicle bulge stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locher, heiko

    2015-01-01

    The embryonic development of the human cochlea (the organ of hearing) has been investigated for over one hundred years. However, little is still known about the development on a cellular and protein level, which is important to better understand etiologies and pathologies of various types of

  3. Model-based prediction of human hair color using DNA variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Branicki (Wojciech); F. Liu (Fan); K. van Duijn (Kate); J. Draus-Barini (Jolanta); E. Pośpiech (Ewelina); S. Walsh (Susan); T. Kupiec (Tomasz); A. Wojas-Pelc (Anna); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPredicting complex human phenotypes from genotypes is the central concept of widely advocated personalized medicine, but so far has rarely led to high accuracies limiting practical applications. One notable exception, although less relevant for medical but important for forensic

  4. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, Aubrey L; Hardin, Rebecca D; Neitzel, Richard L

    2017-03-14

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA)'s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI); and (2), to measure the mercury levels of paco ( Piaractus brachypomus ) fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight). We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred) in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute to human

  6. Molecular evolution of HR, a gene that regulates the postnatal cycle of the hair follicle

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Ali Abbasi

    2011-01-01

    Hair is a unique mammalian trait that is absent in all other animal forms. Hairlessness is rare in mammals and humans are exceptional among primates in lacking dense layer of hair covering. HR was the first gene identified to be implicated in hair-cycle regulation. Point mutations in HR lead to congenital human hair loss, which results in the complete loss of body and scalp hairs. HR functions are indispensable for initiation of postnatal hair follicular cycling. This study investigates the p...

  7. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

  8. Relative roles of weather variables and change in human population in malaria: comparison over different states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Prashant; Murty, Upadhayula Suryanarayana; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Krishnan, Swathi Trithala

    2014-01-01

    Pro-active and effective control as well as quantitative assessment of impact of climate change on malaria requires identification of the major drivers of the epidemic. Malaria depends on vector abundance which, in turn, depends on a combination of weather variables. However, there remain several gaps in our understanding and assessment of malaria in a changing climate. Most of the studies have considered weekly or even monthly mean values of weather variables, while the malaria vector is sensitive to daily variations. Secondly, rarely all the relevant meteorological variables have been considered together. An important question is the relative roles of weather variables (vector abundance) and change in host (human) population, in the change in disease load. We consider the 28 states of India, characterized by diverse climatic zones and changing population as well as complex variability in malaria, as a natural test bed. An annual vector load for each of the 28 states is defined based on the number of vector genesis days computed using daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity from NCEP daily Reanalysis; a prediction of potential malaria load is defined by taking into consideration changes in the human population and compared with the reported number of malaria cases. For most states, the number of malaria cases is very well correlated with the vector load calculated with the combined conditions of daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity; no single weather variable has any significant association with the observed disease prevalence. The association between vector-load and daily values of weather variables is robust and holds for different climatic regions (states of India). Thus use of all the three weather variables provides a reliable means of pro-active and efficient vector sanitation and control as well as assessment of impact of climate change on malaria.

  9. Relative roles of weather variables and change in human population in malaria: comparison over different states of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Goswami

    Full Text Available Pro-active and effective control as well as quantitative assessment of impact of climate change on malaria requires identification of the major drivers of the epidemic. Malaria depends on vector abundance which, in turn, depends on a combination of weather variables. However, there remain several gaps in our understanding and assessment of malaria in a changing climate. Most of the studies have considered weekly or even monthly mean values of weather variables, while the malaria vector is sensitive to daily variations. Secondly, rarely all the relevant meteorological variables have been considered together. An important question is the relative roles of weather variables (vector abundance and change in host (human population, in the change in disease load.We consider the 28 states of India, characterized by diverse climatic zones and changing population as well as complex variability in malaria, as a natural test bed. An annual vector load for each of the 28 states is defined based on the number of vector genesis days computed using daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity from NCEP daily Reanalysis; a prediction of potential malaria load is defined by taking into consideration changes in the human population and compared with the reported number of malaria cases.For most states, the number of malaria cases is very well correlated with the vector load calculated with the combined conditions of daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity; no single weather variable has any significant association with the observed disease prevalence.The association between vector-load and daily values of weather variables is robust and holds for different climatic regions (states of India. Thus use of all the three weather variables provides a reliable means of pro-active and efficient vector sanitation and control as well as assessment of impact of climate change on malaria.

  10. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 8 novel loci involved in shape variation of human head hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Gu; Hysi, Pirro G; Wu, Sijie; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Breslin, Krystal; Pospiech, Ewelina; Hamer, Merel A; Peng, Fuduan; Muralidharan, Charanya; Acuna-Alonzo, Victor; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bortolini, Maria Catira; Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Zeng, Changqing; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Uitterlinden, André G; Ikram, M Arfan; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Nijsten, Tamar; Walsh, Susan; Branicki, Wojciech; Wang, Sijia; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Spector, Timothy D; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-12-06

    Shape variation of human head hair shows striking variation within and between human populations, while its genetic basis is far from being understood. We performed a series of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and replication studies in a total of 28,964 subjects from 9 cohorts from multiple geographic origins. A meta-analysis of three European GWASs identified 8 novel loci (1p36.23 ERRFI1/SLC45A1, 1p36.22 PEX14, 1p36.13 PADI3, 2p13.3 TGFA, 11p14.1 LGR4, 12q13.13 HOXC13, 17q21.2 KRTAP, and 20q13.33 PTK6), and confirmed 4 previously known ones (1q21.3 TCHH/TCHHL1/LCE3E, 2q35 WNT10A, 4q21.21 FRAS1, and 10p14 LINC00708/GATA3), all showing genome-wide significant association with hair shape (P < 5e-8). All except one (1p36.22 PEX14) were replicated with nominal significance in at least one of the 6 additional cohorts of European, Native American and East Asian origins. Three additional previously known genes (EDAR, OFCC1, and PRSS53) were confirmed at nominal significance level. A multivariable regression model revealed that 14 SNPs from different genes significantly and independently contribute to hair shape variation, reaching a cross-validated AUC value of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.62-0.70) and an AUC value of 0.64 in an independent validation cohort, providing an improved accuracy compared to a previous model. Prediction outcomes of 2,504 individuals from a multiethnic sample were largely consistent with general knowledge on the global distribution of hair shape variation. Our study thus delivers target genes and DNA variants for future functional studies to further evaluate the molecular basis of hair shape in humans. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Hair removal with intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bedewi, Ahmed F

    2004-01-01

    The use of light and laser for hair removal has evolved during the past few years. Laser systems such as the ruby laser (694 nm), alexandrite laser (755 nm), diode laser (810 nm) and neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1,064 nm) are commonly used in hair removal. However, permanent hair removal has been difficult to achieve using lasers owing to the long growth/rest cycle of normal human hair follicles. There is still an increasing demand for safer and more efficient hair removal techniques. The latest and most effective choice in the treatment of hair removal is non-coherent intense pulsed light (IPL), which is both efficient and safe for hair removal. A group of 210 patients with skin type III-V were treated for superfluous hair in different areas of the body (face, extremities, axillae, bikini line and back) for three to five sessions at 6-week intervals using IPL. There was a significant hair reduction of about 80% with no side effects and minimal complications. Follow-up was done 6 months after the last session. In conclusion, IPL is very effective and safe for hair removal.

  12. Weather and Death on Mount Everest: Is there a link between Storms and Human Physiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K.; Semple, J.

    2004-05-01

    Scientific interest in Mount Everest has been largely focused on the hypoxia caused by the summit's low barometric pressure. Although weather is recognized as a significant risk factor, it has not been extensively studied. Through the use of observations made at the mountain's South Col, elevation 7986m, and other datasets, we show that high impact weather events on Mount Everest, including the May 1996 storm in which 8 climbers perished, are often associated with continental-scale intrusions of stratospheric air into the upper-troposphere. The variability in wind speeds associated with these intrusions triggered convective activity that resulted in the high impact weather. In addition, the validation of existing meteorological data allows for useful insights into the possibility of forecasting these high impact weather events and their physiological impacts thereby mitigating deaths that occur on the exposed upper slopes of Mount Everest.

  13. Geochemical and Pb isotopic characterization of soil, groundwater, human hair, and corn samples from the Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano area (Campania region, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Carmela; Albanese, Stefano; Ayuso, Robert A.; Lima, Annamaria; Sorvari, Jaana; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2018-01-01

    A geochemical survey was carried out to investigate metal contamination in the Domizio Littoral and Agro Aversano area (Southern Italy) by means of soil, groundwater, human hair and corn samples. Pb isotope ratios were also determined to identify the sources of metals. Specifically, the investigation focused on topsoils (n = 1064), groundwater (n = 26), 25 human hair (n = 24) and corn samples (n = 13). Topsoils have been sampled and analysed in a previous study for 53 elements (including potentially harmful ones), and determined by ICP-MS after dissolving with aqua regia. Groundwater was analysed for 72 elements by ICP-MS and by ICP-ES. Samples of human hair were prepared and analysed for 16 elements by ICP-MS. Dried corn collected at several farms were also analysed for 53 elements by ICP-MS. The isotopic ratios of 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb in selected topsoil (n = 24), groundwater (n = 9), human hair (n = 9) and corn (n = 4) samples were analysed from both eluates and residues to investigate possible anthropogenic contamination and geogenic contributions. All data were processed and mapped by ArcGis software to produce interpolated maps and contamination factor maps of potentially harmful elements, in accordance with Italian Environmental Law (Legislative Decree 152/06). Results show that soil sampling sites are characterized by As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn contents exceeding the action limits established for residential land use (RAL) and, in some cases, also the action limits for industrial land use (IAL) as established by Legislative Decree 152/06. A map of contamination factors and a map showing the degrees of contamination indicate that the areas in the municipalities of Acerra, Casoria and Giugliano have been affected by considerable anthropogenic-related pollution. To interpret the isotopic data and roughly estimate proportion of Pb from an anthropogenic source we broadly defined possible natural and anthropogenic Pb end

  14. Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians First Steps Toward Tribal Weatherization - Human Capacity Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irenia Quitiquit

    2012-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to create jobs and to provide tribal homes and buildings with weatherization assistance for energy efficiency. The project will establish a Tribal Multi-County Weatherization Energy Program to provide training, outreach and education on energy assistance and conservation to low-income families. The Tribes' mission, under its Strategic Energy Plan of 2008, is to promote tribal efficiency, reduce energy costs, create jobs, economic opportunities, and incorporate energy planning in construction and economic development.

  15. A revision in hydrogen isotopic composition of USGS42 and USGS43 human-hair stable isotopic reference materials for forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition (δ2HVSMOW-SLAP) of USGS42 and USGS43 human hair stable isotopic reference materials, normalized to the VSMOW (Vienna-Standard Mean Ocean Water)–SLAP (Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, was originally determined with a high temperature conversion technique using an elemental analyzer (TC/EA) with a glassy carbon tube and glassy carbon filling and analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method can produce inaccurate δ2HVSMOW-SLAPresults when analyzing nitrogen-bearing organic substances owing to the formation of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), leading to non-quantitative conversion of a sample into molecular hydrogen (H2) for IRMS analysis. A single-oven, chromium-filled, elemental analyzer (Cr-EA) coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability of hydrogen isotopic analysis of hydrogen- and nitrogen-bearing organic material because hot chromium scavenges all reactive elements except hydrogen. USGS42 and USGS43 human hair isotopic reference materials have been analyzed with the Cr-EA IRMS method, and the δ2HVSMOW-SLAP values of their non-exchangeable hydrogen fractions have been revised:where mUr = 0.001 = ‰. On average, these revised δ2HVSMOW-SLAP values are 5.7 mUr more positive than those previously measured. It is critical that readers pay attention to the δ2HVSMOW-SLAP of isotopic reference materials in publications as they may need to adjust the δ2HVSMOW–SLAP measurement results of human hair in previous publications to ensure all results are on the same isotope-delta scale.

  16. Penalized linear discriminant analysis and Discrete AdaBoost to distinguish human hair metal profiles: The case of adolescents residing near Mt. Etna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbruzzo, A; Tamburo, E; Varrica, D; Dongarrà, G; Mineo, A

    2016-06-01

    The research focus of the present paper was twofold. First, we tried to document that human intake of trace elements is influenced by geological factors of the place of residence. Second, we showed that the elemental composition of human hair is a useful screening tool for assessing people's exposure to potentially toxic substances. For this purpose, we used samples of human hair from adolescents and applied two robust statistical approaches. Samples from two distinct geological and environmental sites were collected: the first one was characterized by the presence of the active volcano Mt. Etna (ETNA group) and the second one lithologically made up of sedimentary rocks (SIC group). Chemical data were statistically processed by Penalized Linear Discriminant Analysis (pLDA) and Discrete AdaBoost (DAB). The separation between the two groups turned out well, with few overlaps accounting for less than 5%. The chemical variables that better distinguished ETNA group from SIC group were As, Cd, Co, Li, Mo, Rb, Sr, U and V. Both pLDA and DAB allowed us to characterize the elements most closely related to the volcanic contribution (As, U and V) and those (Cd, Co, Li, Mo, Rb and Sr) prevalently influenced by the geology of the area where SIC samples were collected. We conclude that the geological characteristics of the area of residence constitute a key factor in influencing the potential exposure to trace elements. Hair analysis coupled with robust statistical methods can be effectively used as a screening procedure to identify areas at great environmental risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human adjustment to the dry season weather of the sudano-sahelian environment: a case study of Maiduguri Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gisilambe

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluated the climatic culture of the dry season in th sudano-sahelian environment and its deterministics influence on human physiologic comfort and health. The influence of the climatic vagaries on the performance of humans in this bioclimatic zone is also presented. Aa descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in Maiduguri in January, 2002 to evaluate people’s response to weather in the city. The study used a multi-stage sampling technique to select and administer 1200 instrument of the survey to the eligible respondents in four wards of the city proportionately. The wards (proportions are; Gwange (450, GRA (150, Mairi (300 and Bulunkuttu (300 . The dry season in the sudano-sahelian environment presents two distinct thermal opposites. The harmattan season (October-March, which is cold and the hot (transitional season (April-early June, which presents debilitating hot conditions. These two seasons have created two distinct climate cultures among the inhabitants of the area in response to the vagaries of the weather. It was found that humans have some ways of adjusting and overcoming the problems posed by the harsh dry season weather of the sudano-sahelian zone. The measures adopted during the cold harmattan include warm dressing, heating and mating. While the set of measures adopted during the cold harmattan include resting under trees in the late mornings and the afternoons, sleping outside in open spaces at night, wetting of beddings, floors and building walls and creating artificial micro weather through fanning and air conditioning. The weather vagaries mitigation measures are however, paradoxically associated with some and health problems like burglaries, theft, increased incidences of sexually transmitted diseases and burns. These affect both human and land productivity in this environmental effects. For example, heating and warming process in the home and outside have usually meant more exploitation of vegetal

  18. Data Mashups: Linking Human Health and Wellbeing with Weather, Climate and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, L. E.; Sarran, C.; Golding, B.; Haines, A.; Kessel, A.; Djennad, M.; Hajat, S.; Nichols, G.; Gordon Brown, H.; Depledge, M.

    2016-12-01

    A large part of the global disease burden can be linked to environmental factors, underpinned by unhealthy behaviours. Research into these linkages suffers from lack of common tools and databases for investigations across many different scientific disciplines to explore these complex associations. The MEDMI (Medical and Environmental Data-a Mash-up Infrastructure) Partnership brings together leading organisations and researchers in climate, weather, environment, and human health. We have created a proof-of-concept central data and analysis system with the UK Met Office and Public Health England data as the internet-based MEDMI Platform (www.data-mashup.org.uk) to serve as a common resource for researchers to link and analyse complex meteorological, environmental and epidemiological data in the UK. The Platform is hosted on its own dedicated server, with secure internet and in-person access with appropriate safeguards for ethical, copyright, security, preservation, and data sharing issues. Via the Platform, there is a demonstration Browser Application with access to user-selected subsets of the data for: a) analyses using time series (e.g. mortality/environmental variables), and b) data visualizations (e.g. infectious diseases/environmental variables). One demonstration project is linking climate change, harmful algal blooms and oceanographic modelling building on the hydrodynamic-biogeochemical coupled models; in situ and satellite observations as well as UK HAB data and hospital episode statistics data are being used for model verification and future forecasting. The MEDMI Project provides a demonstration of the potential, barriers and challenges, of these "data mashups" of environment and health data. Although there remain many challenges to creating and sustaining such a shared resource, these activities and resources are essential to truly explore the complex interactions between climate and other environmental change and health at the local and global scale.

  19. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  20. Ethyl glucuronide in human hair after daily consumption of 16 or 32 g of ethanol for 3 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronstrand, Robert; Brinkhagen, Linda; Nyström, Fredrik H

    2012-02-10

    The overall objectives of the study were to develop a sensitive method for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) determination in hair and then investigate if a low or moderate intake of ethanol could be differentiated from total abstinence. Forty-four subjects were included in the study, 12 males (7 drinkers and 5 abstinent) and 32 females (14 drinkers and 18 abstinent). The study lasted 3 months and the female drinkers consumed one glass (16 g of ethanol) and the males consumed two glasses (32 g of ethanol) of wine (13.5-14%) daily. Hair samples were collected as close as possible above the skin and the proximal 2 cm were analyzed for EtG. Hair was cut into pieces of about 0.5 cm length and washed before incubation overnight in water and then extracted on Clean Screen EtG Carbon columns. The LC/MS/MS system consisted of a Waters ACQUITY UPLC connected to an API 4000 triple quadrupole instrument. Two transitions for EtG and one for the internal standard EtG-D(5) were measured. The method was linear from 60 to 10,000 pg/sample. Imprecision studies were performed at three levels as well as with an authentic sample. Total imprecision was 16% at 200 pg/sample, 8% at 1000 pg/sample, 6% at 8000 pg/sample and 13% at 29 pg/mg in the authentic sample. Of those who drank two glasses of wine every day, four had measurable amounts of EtG in their hair (5-11 pg/mg), and in only one of the females drinking one glass of wine EtG was quantified (3 pg/mg). Among the 23 abstinent subjects two had traces of EtG in the hair. We conclude that persons who ingested 16 or 32 g of ethanol daily for 3 months presented with low concentrations of EtG in hair, well below the proposed threshold for overconsumption set at 30 pg/mg. In addition, none of those who ingested 16 g/day had concentrations over the proposed abstinence threshold of 7 pg/mg. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Possible links between extreme levels of space weather changes and human health state in middle latitudes: direct and indirect indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaraly-Oghlu Babayev, Elchin

    The Sun is the main driver of space weather. The possibility that solar activity variations and related changes in the Earth's magnetosphere can affect human life and health has been debated for many decades. This problem is being studied extensively in the late 20th and early 21st centuries and it is still being contradictory in some cases. The relations between space weather changes and the human health have global implications, but they are especially significant for habitants living at high geomagnetic latitudes where the geomagnetic disturbances have larger amplitudes. Nevertheless, the relevant researches are also important for humans living at any geomagnetic latitudes with different levels of geomagnetic activity; recent researches show that weak geomagnetic disturbances can also have adverse effects. Unfortunately, limited comparison of results of investigations on possible effects to humans from geomagnetic activity exists between studies conducted in high, middle and low latitudes. Knowledge about the relationship between solar and geomagnetic activity and the human health would allow to get better prepared beforehand for any future geomagnetic event and its impacts anywhere. For these purposes there are conducted collaborative (jointly with scientists from Israel, Bulgaria, Russia and Belgium) and cross-disciplinary space weather studies in the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences for revealing possible effects of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray variability on certain technological, biological and ecological systems in different phases of solar cycle 23. This paper describes some recently obtained results of the complex (theoretical, experimental and statistical) studies of influence of the periodical and aperiodical changes of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray activities upon human cardio-health state as well as human physiological and psycho-emotional state. It also covers the conclusions of studies on influence of violent solar events and severe

  2. Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and Human Health Implications in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Hashim, Zailina

    2016-03-01

    The Asia Pacific region is regarded as the most disaster-prone area of the world. Since 2000, 1.2 billion people have been exposed to hydrometeorological hazards alone through 1215 disaster events. The impacts of climate change on meteorological phenomena and environmental consequences are well documented. However, the impacts on health are more elusive. Nevertheless, climate change is believed to alter weather patterns on the regional scale, giving rise to extreme weather events. The impacts from extreme weather events are definitely more acute and traumatic in nature, leading to deaths and injuries, as well as debilitating and fatal communicable diseases. Extreme weather events include heat waves, cold waves, floods, droughts, hurricanes, tropical cyclones, heavy rain, and snowfalls. Globally, within the 20-year period from 1993 to 2012, more than 530 000 people died as a direct result of almost 15 000 extreme weather events, with losses of more than US$2.5 trillion in purchasing power parity. © 2015 APJPH.

  3. Surface Tension Guided Hanging-Drop: Producing Controllable 3D Spheroid of High-Passaged Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Forming Inductive Microtissues for Hair-Follicle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bojie; Miao, Yong; Wang, Jin; Fan, Zhexiang; Du, Lijuan; Su, Yongsheng; Liu, Bingcheng; Hu, Zhiqi; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-03-09

    Human dermal papilla (DP) cells have been studied extensively when grown in the conventional monolayer. However, because of great deviation from the real in vivo three-dimensional (3D) environment, these two-dimensional (2D) grown cells tend to lose the hair-inducible capability during passaging. Hence, these 2D caused concerns have motivated the development of novel 3D culture techniques to produce cellular microtissues with suitable mimics. The hanging-drop approach is based on surface tension-based technique and the interaction between surface tension and gravity field that makes a convergence of liquid drops. This study used this technique in a converged drop to form cellular spheroids of dermal papilla cells. It leads to a controllable 3Dspheroid model for scalable fabrication of inductive DP microtissues. The optimal conditions for culturing high-passaged (P8) DP spheroids were determined first. Then, the morphological, histological and functional studies were performed. In addition, expressions of hair-inductive markers including alkaline phosphatase, α-smooth muscle actin and neural cell adhesion molecule were also analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunostaining and immunoblotting. Finally, P8-DP microtissues were coimplanted with newborn mouse epidermal cells (EPCs) into nude mice. Our results indicated that the formation of 3D microtissues not only endowed P8-DP microtissues many similarities to primary DP, but also confer these microtissues an enhanced ability to induce hair-follicle (HF) neogenesis in vivo. This model provides a potential to elucidate the native biology of human DP, and also shows the promising for the controllable and scalable production of inductive DP cells applied in future follicle regeneration.

  4. Effects of hair sprays on colour perception: a hyperspectral imaging approach to shine and chroma on heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccetti, G; Thompson, W

    2017-04-01

    Hair sprays apply fixative ingredients to provide hold to a hair style as well as weather resistance and optical properties such as shine. Generally, sprays distribute fine particles containing polymeric ingredients to form a thin film on the surface of hair. Different hair types require different strengths of the formed deposit on the hair surface. The present study shows how sprays also alter the visibility of the hair colour by altering the surface topology of the hair fibres. Hyperspectral imaging is used to map spectral characteristics of hair on mannequins and panelists over the curvature of heads. Spectral and spatial characteristics are measured before and after hair spray applications. The hair surface is imaged by SEM to visualize the degree of cuticle coverage. Finally, the perception of hair colour was evaluated on red-coloured mannequins by consumer questionnaire. Hair sprays deposit different degrees of fixatives, which lead to a progressive leveling of the cuticle natural tilt angle with respect to the fibre axis. As a result, shine is progressively shifting towards the region of hair colour visibility and decreases the perceived colour of hair seen by consumers. Lighter sprays show thinner film formation on the hair surface and less of a shine shift than strong hold hair sprays. Hair sprays are generally employed for hair style hold and weather resistance and considered without effect on hair colour. Our approach shows that spray-deposited films can affect colour perception by altering the microstructure of the hair surface. Thin films deposited on the hair fibre surface can partially fill gaps between cuticles, which reduces the cuticle natural angle. This partial erasure results in a angle shift of the shine regions towards the angle of internal reflection, thus decreasing the perceived hair colour regions as experienced by a group of consumers. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k{sub 0}-standardization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abugassa, I.; Sarmani, S.B. [Department of Nuclear Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Samat, S.B. [Department of Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1999-06-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k{sub 0} method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E{sup 1+{alpha}} epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the {gamma}-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for.

  6. Determination of methamphetamine enantiomer composition in human hair by non-chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Irene; Alexander, Amy; Jones, Mary; Jones, Joseph; Negrusz, Adam

    2016-08-15

    Chiral separation is crucial for investigating methamphetamine positive cases. While (S)-(+)-enantiomer of methamphetamine (S-MAMP) is a schedule II controlled substance, (R)-(-)-enantiomer (R-MAMP) is an active ingredient of a few over-the-counter drugs in the United States. Among biological specimen types, hair provides greater detection window than blood, urine or oral fluid, and are therefore regarded with particular interest. Herein we describe a novel non-chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to directly determine methamphetamine enantiomeric composition (percentage) in hair specimens. Hair samples were washed once with acetone, powdered, incubated overnight at 53°C in 0.1M hydrochloric acid (HCl), and subjected to a solid phase extraction (SPE). The extracts were derivatized using Marfey's reagent at 53°C for 60min. The final mixture was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 Kinetex analytical column and 60% (v/v) aqueous methanol as mobile phase (isocratic). Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was equipped with an electro-spray ionization (ESI) source operating in negative mode and the chromatograms were acquired using a multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) approach. The results were expressed as ratio of R- to S-MAMP and then derived to composition percentages without requiring quantitating each enantiomer. The method was precise and accurate across 0-100% S-composition at a range of 80-18,000pg/mg. The performance of the new method was compared with an (S)-(-)-N-trifluoroacetylprolyl chloride (S-TPC) derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method on authentic methamphetamine-positive hair samples. Not only the new Marfey's reagent approach presented satisfactory correlation with the S-TPC approach, but it also exhibited significantly improved quality (e.g., S/N) of the chromatograms. In summary, our protocol employs cost effective and minimally hazardous Marfey

  7. The influence of weather on fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis. [in human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, V. I.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis indices by month showed an increase in the activity of these processes from winter to summer (1967-1968). At all seasons of the year, fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis increase during weather of the cyclonic type with passage of fronts and sharp fluctuations in meteorological factors in the atmosphere.

  8. Matrix solid-phase dispersion on column clean-up/pre-concentration as a novel approach for fast isolation of abuse drugs from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Framil, Martha; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Alvarez-Freire, Iván; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María

    2010-10-08

    A simple and fast sample pre-treatment method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for isolating cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZE), codeine, morphine and 6-monoacethylmorphine (6-MAM) from human hair has been developed. The MSPD approach consisted of using alumina (1.80 g) as a dispersing agent and 0.6M hydrochloric acid (4 mL) as an extracting solvent. For a fixed hair sample mass of 0.050 g, the alumina mass to sample mass ratio obtained was 36. A previously conditioned Oasis HLB cartridge (2 mL methanol, plus 2 mL ultrapure water, plus 1 mL of 0.2M/0.2M sodium hydroxide/boric acid buffer solution at pH 9.2) was attached to the end of the MSPD syringe for on column clean-up of the hydrochloric acid extract and for transferring the target compounds to a suitable solvent for gas chromatography (GC) analysis. Therefore, the adsorbed analytes were directly eluted from the Oasis HLB cartridges with 2 mL of 2% acetic acid in methanol before concentration by N(2) stream evaporation and dry extract derivatization with N-methyl-tert-butylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and chlorotrimethylsilane (TMCS). The optimization/evaluation of all the factors affecting the MSPD and on column clean-up procedures has led to a fast sample treatment, and analytes extraction and pre-concentration can be finished in approximately 30 min. The developed method has been applied to eight hair samples from poli-drug abusers and measured analyte concentrations have been found to be statistically similar (95% confidence interval) to those obtained after a conventional enzymatic hydrolysis method (Pronase E). Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A survey of the awareness, knowledge and behavior of hair dye use in a korean population with gray hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Hee Dam; Kang, Hoon

    2012-08-01

    Gray hair naturally develops in the process of human aging. Many people with gray hair periodically dye their hair. Hair dyeing products are widely used and they can cause adverse effects. Therefore, the user's knowledge and recognition about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. The goal of this study was to lay the foundation for understanding, preventing and treating side effects caused by hair coloring products. We conducted a questionnaire survey for adult males and females aged over 20 who had gray hair. A total of 500 subjects were included in this study and statistical analysis was performed. Large numbers of the people who had experience with hair dye (233 out of 319 people, 73.0%) did not know about the exact brand name of the hair dye product that they were using. Of 319 hair dye users, 23.8% (76 out of 319) people stated that they experienced side effects. Despite the occurrence of side effects from hair dyeing products, it seems they did not realize the seriousness of the side effects or the need for treatment. It is advisable to introduce a system that enables users to become aware of the ingredients and side effects of hair coloring products and give opportunities for users to become aware of the side effects of hair coloring through education, publicity and publication of an informational booklet.

  10. Validation of a simultaneous analytical method for the detection of 27 benzodiazepines and metabolites and zolpidem in hair using LC-MS/MS and its application to human and rat hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun; Lee, Sooyeun; In, Sanghwan; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun

    2011-04-15

    Benzodiazepines and zolpidem are controlled in many countries due to their inherent adverse effects of a high degree of tolerance and dependence. Recently, as some of these drugs have become distributed illegally and available through media such as the Internet, their abuse is becoming a serious social problem. Hair is a useful specimen to prove chronic drug use. In the present study, a simultaneous analytical method for the detection of 27 benzodiazepines and metabolites and zolpidem in hair was established and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The drugs and their metabolites in hair were extracted using methanol, filtered and injected on the LC-MS/MS. The following validation parameters of the method were satisfactory: selectivity, linearity, matrix effect, recovery, process efficiency, intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy and processed sample stability. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were the total drug detected from the sample. The LODs ranged from 0.005 ng (zolpidem) to 0.5 ng (bromazepam and chlordiazepoxide) and the LOQs were 0.25 ng in every analyte except for bromazepam and chlordiazepoxide, for which they were 0.5 ng. The developed method was successfully applied to five legal cases involving use of benzodiazepines and zolpidem and to an animal study on drug incorporation into hair. Diazepam and its three metabolites, as well as lorazepam, were detected in hair from both the multiple- and single-dose administration groups of lean Zucker rats. The concentration of diazepam was higher than those of its metabolites in both dark grey and white hair from the multiple-dose administration groups, with the mean concentration ranges from 0.16 to 0.51 ng/mg and from 0.10 to 0.24 ng/mg, respectively. The mean concentration ranges of lorazepam were from 0.05 to 0.37 ng/mg in dark grey hair and from 0.11 to 0.45 ng/mg in white hair from the multiple-dose administration groups. Hair

  11. Hair removal in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to hormonal stimulation during puberty, changes occur in hair type and distribution. In both sexes, body and facial unwanted hair may have a negative psychological impact on the teenager. There are several available methods of hair removal, but the choice of the most suitable one for each individual can raise doubts. Objective: To review the main methods of hair removal and clarify their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Development: There are several removal methods currently available. Shaving and depilation with chemicals products are temporary methods, that need frequent repetition, because hair removal is next to the cutaneous surface. The epilating methods in which there is full hair extraction include: epilation with wax, thread, tweezers, epilating machines, laser, intense pulsed light, and electrolysis. Conclusions: The age of beginning hair removal and the method choice must be individualized and take into consideration the skin and hair type, location, dermatological and endocrine problems, removal frequency, cost and personal preferences.

  12. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002703.htm Hair dye poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair dye poisoning occurs when someone swallows dye or tint ...

  13. Forensic Science: Hair Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Elhannan L.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

  14. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of hormone imbalance, such as excess facial or body hair, a hormone evaluation should be done. Hormonal changes ... any sudden physical or psychological stress to the body. These types of hair loss are "Telogen Effluvium" and are usually temporary. ...

  15. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  16. Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Dengue as Influenced by Weather and Human Behavior in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; MacKay, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on the influence of weather on Aedes aegypti dynamics in Puerto Rico suggested that rainfall was a significant driver of immature mosquito populations and dengue incidence, but mostly in the drier areas of the island. We conducted a longitudinal study of Ae. aegypti in two neighborhoods of the metropolitan area of San Juan city, Puerto Rico where rainfall is more uniformly distributed throughout the year. We assessed the impacts of rainfall, temperature, and human activities on the temporal dynamics of adult Ae. aegypti and oviposition. Changes in adult mosquitoes were monitored with BG-Sentinel traps and oviposition activity with CDC enhanced ovitraps. Pupal surveys were conducted during the drier and wetter parts of the year in both neighborhoods to determine the contribution of humans and rains to mosquito production. Mosquito dynamics in each neighborhood was compared with dengue incidence in their respective municipalities during the study. Our results showed that: 1. Most pupae were produced in containers managed by people, which explains the prevalence of adult mosquitoes at times when rainfall was scant; 2. Water meters were documented for the first time as productive habitats for Ae. aegypti; 3. Even though Puerto Rico has a reliable supply of tap water and an active tire recycling program, water storage containers and discarded tires were important mosquito producers; 4. Peaks in mosquito density preceded maximum dengue incidence; and 5. Ae. aegypti dynamics were driven by weather and human activity and oviposition was significantly correlated with dengue incidence. PMID:22206021

  17. Hair removal in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Pereira; Susana Machado; Manuela Selores

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Due to hormonal stimulation during puberty, changes occur in hair type and distribution. In both sexes, body and facial unwanted hair may have a negative psychological impact on the teenager. There are several available methods of hair removal, but the choice of the most suitable one for each individual can raise doubts. Objective: To review the main methods of hair removal and clarify their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Development: There are several remova...

  18. Epidermal hairs of Acanthaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, Khwaja J.

    1978-01-01

    Structure and distribution of the foliar epidermal hairs of 109 species and two varieties belonging to 39 genera of the family Acanthaceae have been studied. Both glandular and non-glandular epidermal hairs have been recorded in the investigated taxa. The glandular hairs may be subsessile or

  19. Effect of topical application of raspberry ketone on dermal production of insulin-like growth factor-I in mice and on hair growth and skin elasticity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Naoaki; Okajima, Kenji; Narimatsu, Noriko; Kurihara, Hiroki; Nakagata, Naomi

    2008-08-01

    Sensory neurons release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on activation. We recently reported that topical application of capsaicin increases facial skin elasticity and promotes hair growth by increasing dermal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) production through activation of sensory neurons in mice and humans. Raspberry ketone (RK), a major aromatic compound contained in red raspberries (Rubus idaeus), has a structure similar to that of capsaicin. Thus, it is possible that RK activates sensory neurons, thereby increasing skin elasticity and promoting hair growth by increasing dermal IGF-I production. In the present study, we examined this possibility in mice and humans. RK, at concentrations higher than 1 microM, significantly increased CGRP release from dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) isolated from wild-type (WT) mice and this increase was completely reversed by capsazepine, an inhibitor of vanilloid receptor-1 activation. Topical application of 0.01% RK increased dermal IGF-I levels at 30 min after application in WT mice, but not in CGRP-knockout mice. Topical application of 0.01% RK increased immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I at dermal papillae in hair follicles and promoted hair re-growth in WT mice at 4 weeks after the application. When applied topically to the scalp and facial skin, 0.01% RK promoted hair growth in 50.0% of humans with alopecia (n=10) at 5 months after application and increased cheek skin elasticity at 2 weeks after application in 5 females (p<0.04). These observations strongly suggest that RK might increase dermal IGF-I production through sensory neuron activation, thereby promoting hair growth and increasing skin elasticity.

  20. Advances in Understanding Hair Growth [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A. Bernard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this short review, I introduce an integrated vision of human hair follicle behavior and describe opposing influences that control hair follicle homeostasis, from morphogenesis to hair cycling. The interdependence and complementary roles of these influences allow us to propose that the hair follicle is a true paradigm of a “Yin Yang” type, that is a cold/slow-hot/fast duality. Moreover, a new promising field is emerging, suggesting that glycans are key elements of hair follicle growth control.

  1. Tales of future weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; Hurk, Van Den B.J.J.M.; Min, E.; Oldenborgh, Van G.J.; Petersen, A.C.; Stainforth, D.A.; Vasileiadou, E.; Smith, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes.

  2. Tales of future weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; van den Hurk, B.J.J.M.; Min, E.; van Oldenborgh, G.J.; Wang, X.; Petersen, A.C.; Stainforth, D.A.; Vasileiadou, E.; Smith, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes. The

  3. Methodological Considerations for Hair Cortisol Measurements in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Radomir; Rovnaghi, Cynthia R.; Anand, Kanwaljeet J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hair cortisol levels are used increasingly as a measure for chronic stress in young children. We propose modifications to the current methods used for hair cortisol analysis to more accurately determine reference ranges for hair cortisol across different populations and age groups. Methods The authors compared standard (finely cutting hair) vs. milled methods for hair processing (n=16), developed a 4-step extraction process for hair protein and cortisol (n=16), and compared liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) vs. ELISA assays for measuring hair cortisol (n=28). The extraction process included sequential incubations in methanol and acetone, repeated twice. Hair protein was measured via spectrophotometric ratios at 260/280 nm to indicate the hair dissolution state using a BioTek® plate reader and dedicated software. Hair cortisol was measured using an ELISA assay kit. Individual (n=13), pooled hair samples (n=12) with high, intermediate, and low cortisol values and the ELISA assay internal standards (n=3) were also evaluated by LCMS. Results Milled and standard methods showed highly correlated hair cortisol (rs=0.951, pLCMS and ELISA were correlated (rs=0.737; pLCMS (38.7 [14.4, 136] ng/ml) were lower than by ELISA (172.2 [67.9, 1051] ng/ml). LCMS also detected cortisone, which comprised 13.4% (3.7%, 25.9%) of the steroids detected. Conclusion Methodological studies suggest that finely cutting hair with sequential incubations in methanol and acetone, repeated twice, extracts greater yields of cortisol than does milled hair. Based on these findings, at least three incubations may be required to extract most of the cortisol in human hair samples. In addition, ELISA-based assays showed greater sensitivity for measuring hair cortisol levels than LCMS-based assays. PMID:25811341

  4. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of some ultra-heterogeneous and covalently-modified proteins from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, H M; Newsom, A E; Tippins, B L; Mathews, R A

    1985-05-17

    A new procedure for the fractionation of the heterogeneous cystine-rich proteins from human hair, utilizing reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, is described. Of these proteins 27 fractions have been collected and analyzed for amino acid composition. There seems to be little correlation between the elution order and the hydrophobicity of the fraction constituents except for the late-eluting fractions. Based on the elution profiles and amino acid contents, these fractions appear to fall into four families. The effects of alkyl chain length, flow-rate and gradient slope, as well as various additives to the organic modifier on the separation have also been investigated. A low flow-rate (0.4 ml/min) and a shallow gradient were essential for the separation of these proteins as was the use of short alkyl chain (C4) or medium alkyl chain (C8) columns. However, with the C4 column reproducibility and recovery were excellent.

  5. A new supramolecular based liquid solid microextraction method for preconcentration and determination of trace bismuth in human blood serum and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahe, Hadi; Chamsaz, Mahmoud

    2016-11-01

    A simple and reliable supramolecule-aggregated liquid solid microextraction method is described for preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of bismuth in water as well as human blood serum and hair samples. Catanionic microstructures of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants, dissolved in deionized water/propanol, are used as a green solvent to extract bismuth (III)-diethyldithiocarbamate complexes by dispersive microextraction methodology. The extracted solid phase is easily removed and dissolved in 50 μL propanol for subsequent measurement by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). The procedure benefits the merits of supramolecule aggregates' properties and dispersive microextraction technique using water as the main component of disperser solvent, leading to direct interaction with analyte. Phase separation behavior of extraction solvent and different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of bismuth ion such as salt concentration, pH, centrifugation time, amount of chelating agent, SDS:CTAB mole ratio, and solvent amounts were thoroughly optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.3-6 μg L-1 Bi (III) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.16 μg L-1 (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of determination were obtained to be 5.1 and 6.2 % for 1 and 3 μg L-1 of Bi (III), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied as a sensitive and accurate technique for determination of bismuth ion in human blood serum, hair samples, and a certified reference material.

  6. Hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) in fresh waters and human hair extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Hongmei [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu Bin [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn; Chen Beibei; Xia Linbo [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2009-02-16

    A new method of hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) as extractant combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) using Pd as permanent modifier has been described for the speciation of As(III) and As(V). In a pH range of 3.0-4.0, the complex of As(III)-APDC complex can be extracted using toluene as the extraction solvent leaving As(V) in the aqueous layer. The post extraction organic phase was directly injected into ETAAS for the determination of As(III). To determine total arsenic in the samples, first As(V) was reduced to As(III) by L-cysteine, and then a microextraction method was performed prior to the determination of total arsenic. As(V) assay was based on subtracting As(III) form the total arsenic. All parameters, such as pH of solution, type of organic solvent, the amount of APDC, stirring rate and extraction time, affecting the separation of As(III) from As(V) and the extraction efficiency of As(III) were investigated, and the optimized extraction conditions were established. Under optimized conditions, a detection limit of 0.12 ng mL{sup -1} with enrichment factor of 78 was achieved. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the method for five replicate determinations of 5 ng mL{sup -1} As(III) was 8%. The developed method was applied to the speciation of As(III) and As(V) in fresh water and human hair extracts, and the recoveries for the spiked samples are 86-109%. In order to validate the developed method, three certified reference materials such as GBW07601 human hair, BW3209 and BW3210 environmental water were analyzed, and the results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values provided.

  7. Hair and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Graham A; Bhogal, Ranjit K

    2016-01-01

    Hair is the ultimate personal beauty tool of self-expression. It is more malleable than skin and it is more personal than clothing; however, hair does not remain constant with age. Hair is arguably in peak condition at about 30 years of age. With time, there is a gradual change in many aspects of hair: hair diameter is reduced, hair density is decreased, androgenic alopecia may develop, and pigmentation may be diminished, producing a significant psychological impact. These age-related changes can be exacerbated by blast drying, heat straightening, perming, and coloring. In this review, the changes in hair fiber and array (collection of fiber) properties that occur during aging and the impact on styling and potential interventions that consumers undergo to circumvent these issues are discussed.

  8. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  9. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Automated body hair counting and length measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, P; Thomas, N

    2008-11-01

    Hair loss or hair excess is a common condition. There is a growing need to quantitatively assess the success of interventions aimed at replenishing areas that lack hair or at removing hair from areas such as the back, the legs, or the arms. Non-invasive methods that do not require staining are highly desirable because the staining process itself may affect the efficacy of the treatment. We introduce a system based on a flatbed scanner and on novel and sensitive image analysis algorithms to count the number of hairs and their individual length. Additionally, a measure of hair visibility is introduced, which allows assessing objectively the severity of the condition. Our system is able to detect even hairs that are difficult to see to a human observer. It is robust to skin impurities or variations in the skin texture and colour. Scanner imaging ensures a sharp image over the whole field. The system analyses on the order of two images per minute, making it suitable for large clinical studies. Counts delivered by a human counter vs. the software were within 10% of each other (N=12). Based on our results, we expect that the software will be useful to a number of researchers investigating medical and cosmetic issues involving objective assessment of pilosity. The algorithm itself may be of use for other applications.

  11. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent R.; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by human factors were included, ‘total’ adult mortality was solely related to harvest; the influence of native carnivores was compensatory. Annual total mortality rates were lowest in populations sympatric with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse carnivores. Mortality from native carnivores peaked in late winter and early spring, while harvest-induced mortality peaked in autumn. The strong peak in harvest-induced mortality during the autumn hunting season decreased as the number of native carnivore species increased. Synthesis and applications. Elevated baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as winters across

  12. Weather and emotional state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  13. Hair loss in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Romero, J A; Grimalt, R

    2014-02-01

    Hair diseases represent a significant portion of cases seen by pediatric dermatologists although hair has always been a secondary aspect in pediatricians and dermatologists training, on the erroneous basis that there is not much information extractable from it. Dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders with simple diagnostic techniques. The hair is easily accessible to examination but, paradoxically, this approach is often disregarded by non-dermatologist. This paper has been written on the purpose of trying to serve in the diagnostic process of daily practice, and trying to help, for example, to distinguish between certain acquired and some genetically determined hair diseases. We will focus on all the data that can be obtained from our patients' hair and try to help on using the messages given by hair for each patient. Quite often it is extremely hard to distinguish between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. We will specially focus in the most common physiological changes that may mislead to an incorrect diagnosis. Specific treatment for those hair diseases that do have one, and basic general approach to improve the cosmetic appearance of hair, will be also be discussed for those hair disturbances that do not have a specific treatment.

  14. Regeneration of hair cells in the mammalian vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; You, Dan; Chen, Yan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-06-01

    Hair cells regenerate throughout the lifetime of non-mammalian vertebrates, allowing these animals to recover from hearing and balance deficits. Such regeneration does not occur efficiently in humans and other mammals. Thus, balance deficits become permanent and is a common sensory disorder all over the world. Since Forge and Warchol discovered the limited spontaneous regeneration of vestibular hair cells after gentamicininduced damage in mature mammals, significant efforts have been exerted to trace the origin of the limited vestibular regeneration in mammals after hair cell loss. Moreover, recently many strategies have been developed to promote the hair cell regeneration and subsequent functional recovery of the vestibular system, including manipulating the Wnt, Notch and Atoh1. This article provides an overview of the recent advances in hair cell regeneration in mammalian vestibular epithelia. Furthermore, this review highlights the current limitations of hair cell regeneration and provides the possible solutions to regenerate functional hair cells and to partially restore vestibular function.

  15. Premature graying of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhi, Deepika; Khanna, Deepshikha

    2013-01-01

    Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  16. Premature graying of hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Pandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  17. Body hair counts during hair length reduction procedures: a comparative study between Computer Assisted Image Analysis after Manual Processing (CAIAMP) and Trichoscan(™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, D J J

    2015-08-01

    To compare two measurement methods for body hair. Calibration of computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) showed variation body sites with 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' were taken before hair dye, after hair dye or after hair length reduction without hair extraction or destruction. Data in the same targets were compared with Trichoscan(™) quoted for 'unambiguous evaluation of the hair growth after shaving'. CAIAMP detected a total of 337 hair and showed no statistically significant differences with the three procedures confirming 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' and that reduction methods did not affect hair counts. While CAIAMP found a mean number of 19 thick hair (≥30 μm) before dye, 18 after dye and 20 after hair reduction, Trichoscan(™) found in the same sites respectively 44, 73 and 61. Trichoscan(™) generated counts differed statistically significantly from CAIAMP-data. Automated analyses were considered un-specifically influenced by hair medulla and natural or artificial skin background. Quality control including all steps of human intervention and measurement technology are mandatory for body hair measurements during experimental or clinical trials on body hair grooming, shaving or removal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Human baby hair amino acid natural abundance 15N-isotope values are not related to the 15N-isotope values of amino acids in mother's breast milk protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romek, Katarzyna M; Julien, Maxime; Frasquet-Darrieux, Marine; Tea, Illa; Antheaume, Ingrid; Hankard, Régis; Robins, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    Since exclusively breast-suckled infants obtain their nutrient only from their mother's milk, it might be anticipated that a correlation will exist between the (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios of amino acids of protein of young infants and those supplied by their mother. The work presented here aimed to determine whether amino nitrogen transfer from human milk to infant hair protein synthesized within the first month of life conserves the maternal isotopic signature or whether post-ingestion fractionation dominates the nitrogen isotope spectrum. The study was conducted at 1 month post-birth on 100 mother-infant pairs. Isotope ratios (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C were measured using isotope ratio measurement by Mass Spectrometry (irm-MS) for whole maternal milk, and infant hair and (15)N/(14)N ratios were also measured by GC-irm-MS for the N-pivaloyl-O-isopropyl esters of amino acids obtained from the hydrolysis of milk and hair proteins. The δ(15)N and δ(13)C (‰) were found to be significantly higher in infant hair than in breast milk (δ(15)N, P amino acids in infant hair was also significantly higher than that in maternal milk (P < 0.001). By calculation, the observed shift in isotope ratio was shown not to be accounted for by the amino acid composition of hair and milk proteins, indicating that it is not simply due to differences in the composition in the proteins present. Rather, it would appear that each pool-mother and infant-turns over independently, and that fractionation in infant N-metabolism even in the first month of life dominates over the nutrient N-content.

  19. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Hoptroff, Michael; Fei, Xiaoqing; Su, Ya; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2013-11-22

    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal standard. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode was applied for the detection of climbazole. For quantification, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition 293.0>69.0 was monitored for climbazole, and MRM transition 296.0>225.1 for the deuterated climbazole. The linear range ran from 4 to 2000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1 ng mL(-1) and 4 ng mL(-1), respectively, which enabled quantification of climbazole on artificial skin and human scalp at ppb level (corresponding to 16 ng cm(-2)). For the sampling of climbazole from human scalp the buffer scrub method using a surfactant-modified phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was selected based on a performance comparison of tape stripping, the buffer scrub method and solvent extraction in in vitro studies. Using this method, climbazole deposition in in vitro and in vivo studies was successfully quantified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for simultaneous determination of aminophenol isomers in human urine, hair dye, and water samples using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Alireza; Fazl-Karimi, Hamidreza; Barfi, Behruz; Rajabi, Maryam; Daneshfar, Ali

    2014-08-01

    Aminophenol isomers (2-, 3-, and 4-aminophenols) are typically classified as industrial pollutants with genotoxic and mutagenic effects due to their easy penetration through the skin and membranes of human, animals, and plants. In the present study, a simple and efficient ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction procedure coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector was developed for preconcentration and determination of these compounds in human fluid and environmental water samples. Effective parameters (such as type and volume of extraction solvent, pH and ionic strength of sample, and ultrasonication and centrifuging time) were investigated and optimized. Under optimum conditions (including sample volume: 5 mL; extraction solvent: chloroform, 80 µL; pH: 6.5; without salt addition; ultrasonication: 3.5 min; and centrifuging time: 3 min, 5000 rpm min(-1)), the enrichment factors and limits of detection were ranged from 42 to 51 and 0.028 to 0.112 µg mL(-1), respectively. Once optimized, analytical performance of the method was studied in terms of linearity (0.085-157 µg mL(-1), r (2) > 0.998), accuracy (recovery = 88.6- 101.7%), and precision (repeatability: intraday precision extraction and determination of these compounds in human urine, hair dye, and real water samples. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Do You Have Hair Loss or Hair Shedding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can eventually cause hair loss. Related resources Alopecia areata Developing in otherwise healthy people, this disease that can cause round bald patches on the scalp, diffuse hair loss, or in rare cases, complete hair loss. Five ...

  2. Drugs and hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mansi; Harrison, Shannon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a common complaint, both in men and women, and use of prescription medications is widespread. When there is a temporal association between the onset of hair loss and commencement of a medication, the medication is commonly thought to have caused the hair loss. However, hair loss and in particular telogen effluvium may occur in response to a number of triggers including fever, hemorrhage, severe illness, stress, and childbirth, and a thorough exclusion of these potential confounders is necessary before the hair loss can be blamed on the medication. Certain medications are known to cause hair loss by a variety of mechanisms including anagen arrest, telogen effluvium, or accentuation of androgenetic alopecia by androgens. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The dependence of the incorporation of methamphetamine into rat hair on dose, frequency of administration and hair pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eunyoung; Park, Yonghoon; Kim, Eunmi; Lee, Sooyeun; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, the incorporation of methamphetamine (MA) into rat hair was studied. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether MA can be detected or positive hair results can be obtained in hair of rats administered a single dose of MA. The relationship between dose and frequency of administration and the concentrations of MA and its metabolite, amphetamine (AP), in rat hair were evaluated and the MA and AP concentrations in white and pigmented hair were compared. MA was administered to rats as follows: low dose (0.5mg/kg/day), medium dose (2mg/kg/day) and high dose (10mg/kg/day). The frequency of administration was one time per day for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15 and 30 days. Hair and urine samples were collected from rats and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). MA could be identified in pigmented rat hair when MA was administered for 4 or more days at low daily dose and on day 1 following administration of medium and high daily doses. Positive results for MA were obtained from pigmented rat hair when MA was administered for 30 days at low daily dose, for 4 or more days at medium daily dose, or for 2 or more days at high daily dose. The concentrations of MA and AP found in rat hair were proportional to the dose and frequency of administration. The concentrations of MA and AP in pigmented rat hair were 2-10 times higher than those in white rat hair. The results of this study on the incorporation of MA into rat hair can serve as a model to better understand the incorporation of MA into human hair even though there are differences between animal models and human hair. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Laser hair removal pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal.

  5. Potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in scalp hair, soil and metallurgical wastes in Mitrovica, Kosovo: the role of oral bioaccessibility and mineralogy in human PHE exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisa, N; Bird, G; Brewer, P A; Dean, J R; Entwistle, J A; Kemp, S J; Macklin, M G

    2013-10-01

    Internationally publicized impacts upon human health associated with potentially harmful element (PHE) exposure have been reported amongst internally displaced populations (IDPs) in Mitrovica, Kosovo, following the Kosovan War. Particular concern has surrounded the exposure to Pb indicated by the presence of highly elevated concentrations of Pb in blood and hair samples. This study utilizes a physiologically-based in-vitro extraction method to assess the bioaccessibility of PHEs in surface soils and metallurgical waste in Mitrovica and assesses the potential daily intake of soil-bound PHEs. Maximum As (210mgkg(-1)), Cd (38mgkg(-1)), Cu (410mgkg(-1)), Pb (18790mgkg(-1)) and Zn (8500mgkg(-1)) concentrations in surface soils (0-10cm) are elevated above guideline values. Samples with high PHE concentrations (e.g. As >1000mgkg(-1); Pb >1500mgkg(-1)) exhibit a wide range of bioaccessibilities (5.40 - 92.20% in the gastric (G) phase and 10.00 - 55.80% in the gastric-intestinal (G-I) phase). Samples associated with lower bioaccessibilities typically contain a number of XRD-identifiable primary and secondary mineral phases, particularly As- and Pb-bearing arsenian pyrite, beudantite, galena and cerrusite. Quantification of the potential human exposure risk associated with the ingestion of soil-associated PHEs indicates that on average, 0.01μg Cd kg(-1) BW d(-1), 0.16μg Cu kg(-1) BW d(--1), 0.12μg As kg(-1) BW d(-1), 7.81μg Pb kg(-1) BW d(-1), and 2.68μg Zn kg(-1) BW d(-1) could be bioaccessible following ingestion of PHE-rich soils in the Mitrovica region, with Pb, and to a lesser extent As, indicating the likely possibility of local populations exceeding the recommended tolerable daily intake. Lead present within surface soils of the area could indeed have contributed to the human Pb burden due to the high bioaccessibility of Pb present within these soils (13.40 - 92.20% in the gastric phase). Data for Pb levels in scalp hair (≤120μgg(-1)) and blood (≥650μgdL(-1

  6. Aging of the Hair Follicle Pigmentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2009-01-01

    Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations. PMID:20927229

  7. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  8. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse. VI. The excretion of methoxyphenamine and methamphetamine into beards of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Y; Takahashi, K; Konuma, K

    1993-12-01

    The excretion of methoxyphenamine (MOP) and methamphetamine (MA) into beards has been studied. Six healthy male subjects orally took 50 mg of MOP at a single dose and 7 doses for a successive 7 days. Their beard hairs were collected by an electric shaver every morning until MOP disappeared from the beard. After washing with 0.1% SDS, the beard samples were extracted with methanol-5 N HCl (20:1) under ultra-sonication for 1 h and the solution was kept overnight. MOP in the extract was determined by GC/MS using deuterium labelled MOP as an internal standard after trifluoroacetyl-derivatization. The drug concentrations in beard and the reproducibility of analysis were compared with the three procedures, unwashed, 0.1% SDS (wash I) and the additional ethanol (wash II) wash. The drug concentration in beard after SDS wash was 0.5-2.5 ng/mg lower than that in unwashed beard during the first 5-6 days. The drug concentration in beard after ethanol wash was much lower than that in the unwashed beard. The drug excreted into beard was detected 10 approximately 12 days for a single dose and 12-14 days for 7 doses after the last dosage at the cut off level of 1 ng/mg. On the contrary, the drug excreted in urine was not detected after more than 3 days after use. O-Desmethyl MOP, a major metabolite of MOP, was also detected in beard. The procedures were applied to the detection of MA in beard of MA abusers. It was realized that a beard sample was more useful than a urine sample assuming a longer detection.

  9. In vivo Quantification of the Effects of Radiation and Presence of Hair Follicle Pores on the Proliferation of Fibroblasts in an Acellular Human Dermis in a Dorsal Skinfold Chamber: Relevance for Tissue Reconstruction following Neoadjuvant Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vitacolonna

    Full Text Available In neoadjuvant therapy, irradiation has a deleterious effect on neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the post-implantation effects of neoadjuvant irradiation on the survival and proliferation of autologous cells seeded onto an acellular human dermis (hAD; Epiflex. Additionally, we examined the influence of dermal hair follicle pores on viability and proliferation. We used dorsal skinfold chambers implanted in rats and in-situ microscopy to quantify cell numbers over 9 days.24 rats received a skinfold chamber and were divided into 2 main groups; irradiated and unirradiated. In the irradiated groups 20Gy were applied epicutaneously at the dorsum. Epiflex pieces were cut to size 5x5mm such that each piece had either one or more visible hair follicle pores, or no such visible pores. Fibroblasts were transduced lentiviral with a fluorescent protein for cell tracking. Matrices were seeded statically with 2.5x104 fluorescent fibroblasts and implanted into the chambers. In each of the two main groups, half of the rats received Epiflex with hair follicle pores and half received Epiflex without pores. Scaffolds were examined in-situ at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after transplantation. Visible cells on the surface were quantified using ImageJ.In all groups cell numbers were decreased on day 3. A treatment-dependent increase in cell numbers was observed at subsequent time points. Irradiation had an adverse effect on cell survival and proliferation. The number of cells detected in both irradiated and non-irradiated subjects was increased in those subjects that received transplants with hair follicle pores.This in-vivo study confirms that radiation negatively affects the survival and proliferation of fibroblasts seeded onto a human dermis transplant. The presence of hair follicle pores in the dermis transplants is shown to have a positive effect on cell survival and proliferation even in irradiated subjects.

  10. In vivo Quantification of the Effects of Radiation and Presence of Hair Follicle Pores on the Proliferation of Fibroblasts in an Acellular Human Dermis in a Dorsal Skinfold Chamber: Relevance for Tissue Reconstruction following Neoadjuvant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitacolonna, Mario; Belharazem, Djeda; Maier, Patrick; Hohenberger, Peter; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2015-01-01

    In neoadjuvant therapy, irradiation has a deleterious effect on neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the post-implantation effects of neoadjuvant irradiation on the survival and proliferation of autologous cells seeded onto an acellular human dermis (hAD; Epiflex). Additionally, we examined the influence of dermal hair follicle pores on viability and proliferation. We used dorsal skinfold chambers implanted in rats and in-situ microscopy to quantify cell numbers over 9 days. 24 rats received a skinfold chamber and were divided into 2 main groups; irradiated and unirradiated. In the irradiated groups 20Gy were applied epicutaneously at the dorsum. Epiflex pieces were cut to size 5x5mm such that each piece had either one or more visible hair follicle pores, or no such visible pores. Fibroblasts were transduced lentiviral with a fluorescent protein for cell tracking. Matrices were seeded statically with 2.5x104 fluorescent fibroblasts and implanted into the chambers. In each of the two main groups, half of the rats received Epiflex with hair follicle pores and half received Epiflex without pores. Scaffolds were examined in-situ at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after transplantation. Visible cells on the surface were quantified using ImageJ. In all groups cell numbers were decreased on day 3. A treatment-dependent increase in cell numbers was observed at subsequent time points. Irradiation had an adverse effect on cell survival and proliferation. The number of cells detected in both irradiated and non-irradiated subjects was increased in those subjects that received transplants with hair follicle pores. This in-vivo study confirms that radiation negatively affects the survival and proliferation of fibroblasts seeded onto a human dermis transplant. The presence of hair follicle pores in the dermis transplants is shown to have a positive effect on cell survival and proliferation even in irradiated subjects.

  11. Anticancer properties of peptide fragments of hair proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiusz Markowicz

    Full Text Available The primary function of hair and fur covering mammalian skin is to provide mechanical and thermal protection for the body. The proteins that constitute hair are extremely resistant to degradation by environmental factors. However, even durable materials can be slowly broken down by mechanical stresses, biodegradation mediated by endogenous enzymes in the skin or host microbes. We hypothesised that the biodegradation products of hair may possess bioprotective properties, which supplement their physical protective properties. Although evolutionary processes have led to a reduction in the amount of hair on the human body, it is possible that the bioprotective properties of hair biodegradation products have persisted. The human skin is exposed to various environmental carcinogenic factors. Therefore, we hypothesised that the potential bioprotective mechanisms of hair degradation products affect melanoma growth. We used pepsin to partially digest hair enzymatically, and this process produced a water-soluble lysate containing a mixture of peptides, including fragments of keratin and keratin-associated proteins. We found out that the mixtures of soluble peptides obtained from human hair inhibited the proliferation of human melanoma cells in vitro. Moreover, the hair-derived peptide mixtures also inhibited the proliferation of B lymphoma cells and urinary bladder cancer cells. Normal human cells varied in their susceptibility to the effects of the lysate; the hair-derived peptide mixtures modulated the proliferation of normal human fibroblasts but did not inhibit the proliferation of human mesenchymal cells derived from umbilical cord stromal cells. These results suggest that hair-derived peptides may represent a new class of anti-proliferative factors derived from basically structural proteins. Identification of active regulatory compounds and recognition of the mechanism of their action might pave the way to elaboration of new anticancer drugs.

  12. Healthy hair: what is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2007-12-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity. Manipulation of the normal structure of the hair shaft is epidemic and dictated by culture, fashion, and above all, celebrity. Although cosmetic procedures are intrinsically safe, there is potential for damage to the hair. Loss of lustre, frizz, split ends, and other hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair or among people with hair that is intrinsically weak. This may be due to individual or racial variation or less commonly an inherited structural abnormality in hair fiber formation. Hair health is also affected by common afflictions of the scalp as well as age-related phenomena such as graying and androgenetic alopecia. Hair products that improve the structural integrity of hair fibers and increase tensile strength are available, as are products that increase hair volume, reduce frizz, improve hair manageability, and stimulate new hair growth.

  13. Multiple stable isotope (18O, 13C, 15N and 34S) analysis of human hair to identify the recent migrants in a rural community in SW England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Roland; Marsh, Jen; Heaton, Tim H E

    2007-01-01

    Relationships between recent migration and hair delta(18)O values were examined for 40 people living in a rural community in SW England. The isotopic contents of 35 'local' hair samples were compared with those of 5 recently arrived individuals (from Australia, Canada, Chile, Germany and the USA). The hair delta(18)O values of these 'visitors' were +7.9 (Omaha, USA), +11.2 (Jena, Germany), +12.1 (Osorno, Chile), +12.6 (Montreal, Canada) and +14.3 per thousand (Adelaide, Australia). The hair value for the USA visitor (+7.9 per thousand) fell outside the range for the 33 local adult residents, +10.5 to +14.3 per thousand (+12.7 +/- 0.8 per thousand). Hair delta(18)O values did not identify the individuals from Adelaide, Montreal and Osorno as 'visitors', but hair delta(13)C or delta(34)S data did. Combining the hair delta(18)O, delta(13)C and delta(34)S values using principal components analysis (two components explained 89% of the overall variation among the 40 subjects) helped to more clearly distinguish European from non-European individuals, indicating the existence of global overall isotope (geo-origin) relationships. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Change of geographical location from Germany (Bavaria) to USA (Arizona) and its effect on H-C-N-S stable isotopes in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Christine; Lihl, Christina; Roßmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    To receive information about the duration of a person's stay abroad related to those questions in forensics, stable isotopes of H-C-N-S were analysed in beard hair samples from four young soldiers, who went from Fürstenfeldbruck (Bavaria, Germany) to Phoenix (Arizona, USA) on the same date for their pilot training over a time period of 3 months. All study subjects were almost of the same age, had similar physical constitutions and stayed at the same military bases for the whole study period. However, the results showed considerable individual variabilities. In Arizona, hair δ(13)C increased by 2.3‰ (±0.6) and δ(34)S decreased by 1.8‰ (±1.2). No remarkable shifts of hair δ(15)N and δ(2)H were observed. Significant shifts of δ(13)C or δ(34)S in the shaved beard hair samples occurred 8 or 9 days after arrival in Arizona, respectively. The time lag to receive the isotope signals in hair due to US diet correspond to the growth period that hair needs to cover the distance of 2-3 mm from its root to the surface of the skin. This implies that isotopic changes due to the consumption of food and drinks were incorporated almost immediately into the hair protein. Consequently, if connected with an isotopic change of the diet, short-term stays for only a few days might be clearly recognizable within the first millimetres of a scalp hair strand which includes the hair roots.

  15. A coupled human-natural system to assess the operational value of weather and climate services for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in weather and climate (W&C) services are showing increasing forecast skills over seasonal and longer timescales, potentially providing valuable support in informing decisions in a variety of economic sectors. Quantifying this value, however, might not be straightforward as better forecast quality does not necessarily imply better decisions by the end users, especially when forecasts do not reach their final users, when providers are not trusted, or when forecasts are not appropriately understood. In this study, we contribute an assessment framework to evaluate the operational value of W&C services for informing agricultural practices by complementing traditional forecast quality assessments with a coupled human-natural system behavioural model which reproduces farmers' decisions. This allows a more critical assessment of the forecast value mediated by the end users' perspective, including farmers' risk attitudes and behavioural factors. The application to an agricultural area in northern Italy shows that the quality of state-of-the-art W&C services is still limited in predicting the weather and the crop yield of the incoming agricultural season, with ECMWF annual products simulated by the IFS/HOPE model resulting in the most skillful product in the study area. However, we also show that the accuracy of estimating crop yield and the probability of making optimal decisions are not necessarily linearly correlated, with the overall assessment procedure being strongly impacted by the behavioural attitudes of farmers, which can produce rank reversals in the quantification of the W&C services operational value depending on the different perceptions of risk and uncertainty.

  16. Hair Loss Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective. METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth. RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments. DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694..

  17. Hair and nail relationship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, R.; Dawber, R.P.; Haneke, E.

    2005-01-01

    Hair and nails are often stated to have much in common in relation to their origin, anatomical structures, and common involvement in many diseases. Hair and nails are predominantly epithelial structures derived from primitive epidermis and made up of keratinous fibrils embedded in a sulfur-rich

  18. Bona fide colour: DNA prediction of human eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Draus-Barini (Jolanta); S. Walsh (Susan); E. Pośpiech (Ewelina); T. Kupiec (Tomasz); H. Głab (Henryk); W. Branicki (Wojciech); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: DNA analysis of ancient skeletal remains is invaluable in evolutionary biology for exploring the history of species, including humans. Contemporary human bones and teeth, however, are relevant in forensic DNA analyses that deal with the identification of perpetrators, missing

  19. Weathering the storm? Multinational companies and human resource management through the global financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnigle, Patrick; Lavelle, Jonathan; Monaghan, Sinéad

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Purpose - This paper aims to examine the impact of the global financial crisis on human resource management (HRM) in multinational companies (MNCs) in Ireland. It focuses on four key areas of BR, namely staffing, pay and benefits, industrial relations and the BR function.Design/methodology/approach - It uses a mixed methods approach involving four major data sources combining objective information reported on the impact of the GFC on HRM with subjective perspectives on HRM pr...

  20. Revisiting the Phylogeny of the Animal Formins: Two New Subtypes, Relationships with Multiple Wing Hairs Proteins, and a Lost Human Formin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruyne, David

    2016-01-01

    Formins are a widespread family of eukaryotic cytoskeleton-organizing proteins. Many species encode multiple formin isoforms, and for animals, much of this reflects the presence of multiple conserved subtypes. Earlier phylogenetic analyses identified seven major formin subtypes in animals (DAAM, DIAPH, FHOD, FMN, FMNL, INF, and GRID2IP/delphilin), but left a handful of formins, particularly from nematodes, unassigned. In this new analysis drawing from genomic data from a wider range of taxa, nine formin subtypes are identified that encompass all the animal formins analyzed here. Included in this analysis are Multiple Wing Hairs proteins (MWH), which bear homology to formin N-terminal domains. Originally identified in Drosophila melanogaster and other arthropods, MWH-related proteins are also identified here in some nematodes (including Caenorhabditis elegans), and are shown to be related to a novel MWH-related formin (MWHF) subtype. One surprising result of this work is the discovery that a family of pleckstrin homology domain-containing formins (PHCFs) is represented in many vertebrates, but is strikingly absent from placental mammals. Consistent with a relatively recent loss of this formin, the human genome retains fragments of a defunct homologous formin gene.

  1. Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in the Treatment of Mouse Full-Thickness Skin Defects Using Composite Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Minjuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM. The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration.

  2. Profiling mRNA of the graying human hair follicle constitutes a promising state-of-the-art tool to assess its aging: an exemplary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Eva M J; Liezmann, Christiane; Spatz, Katharina; Ungethüm, Ute; Kuban, Ralf-Jürgen; Daniltchenko, Maria; Kruse, Johannes; Imfeld, Dominik; Klapp, Burghard F; Campiche, Remo

    2013-05-01

    Determining hitherto uninvestigated and safe targets to halt the aging process is important in our aging society. Graying is a hallmark of the aging process and may be used to identify aging tissue for comparative analysis. Here we analyzed differential gene expressions between pigmented, gray, and white human scalp skin hair follicles (HFs) from identical donors. Forming intersections between five donors identified 194/192 downregulated and 186/177 upregulated genes in gray/white HFs. These included melanogenesis (tyrosinase; tyrosinase-related protein 1)- and melanosome structure (Melan-A; Pmel17)-associated genes and regulation of melanocyte relevant tyrosine kinases. Alongside these expected changes, regulated genes included nonmelanocyte-related genes associated with aging as well as nonaging-related genes associated with melanocytes. Intriguingly, among them, genes associated with energy metabolism (i.e., glutaminase) and axon guidance (plexin C1) were altered. These results were reflected by pathway analysis and exemplarily confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemical studies. Supplementing cultured HFs with glutamine or plexin C1 revealed biological relevance and pharmacointerventional potential of these microarray results in altering the HF aging process. Together, we present intriguing data obtained from intra-individual sample comparison that suggest the graying HF to be a valid aging model and a promising target for testing therapeutic interventions.

  3. Wacky Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  4. Differential wetting characterization of hair fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaynberg, Abe; Stuart, Mark; Wu, Xiang-Fa

    2012-01-01

    Surface wetting is one of the key properties of human hair used to indicate the extent of chemical/mechanical damage and the outcome of conditioning treatment. Characterization of hair wetting property is a challenging task due to the non-homogeneous nature of hair fibers and the requirement for sensitive equipment. Motivated by these considerations, we developed a new methodology, termed a differential wetting characterization (DWC), which would allow rapid and reliable characterization of the wetting property of hair fibers. This method is based on observation of a number of droplets suspended on a pair of parallel fibers stretched in a horizontal plane. The wetting behavior of the fibers can be deduced from the shape assumed by the droplets. When the wetting properties of the two hair fibers are identical, the droplets suspended between the fibers assume a symmetric configuration. In contrast, on the fibers with dissimilar wetting characteristics, the droplets will assume a skewed configuration towards a more hydrophilic fiber. This makes it possible to differentiate the hydrophobicities of the tested fibers. In this paper it is demonstrated that the proposed DWC method is capable of differentiating the changes in wetting property of hair surfaces in response to either chemical or physical treatment. Results of the paper indicate that the DWC method is applicable for broad wetting differentiation of various fibers.

  5. Africans Consuming Hair, Africans Consumed by Hair

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If relationships forged and entertained with hair are anything to go by, Africans, it seems to us, are more amenable to flexible, composite and negotiated personal and collective identities than they are to fixities and purities. Perhaps schooled by repeated encounters with the violence of dominant others or simply enlightened ...

  6. Hair Follicle Pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej; Wortsman, Jacobo; Plonka, Przemyslaw M.; Schallreuter, Karin U.; Paus, Ralf; Tobin, Desmond J.

    2005-01-01

    Hair shaft melanin components (eu- or/and pheomelanin) are a long-lived record of precise interactions in the hair follicle pigmentary unit, e.g., between follicular melanocytes, keratinocytes, and dermal papilla fibroblasts. Follicular melanogenesis (FM) involves sequentially the melanogenic activity of follicular melanocytes, the transfer of melanin granules into cortical and medulla keratinocytes, and the formation of pigmented hair shafts. This activity is in turn regulated by an array of enzymes, structural and regulatory proteins, transporters, and receptors and their ligands, acting on the developmental stages, cellular, and hair follicle levels. FM is stringently coupled to the anagen stage of the hair cycle, being switched-off in catagen to remain absent through telogen. At the organ level FM is precisely coupled to the life cycle of melanocytes with changes in their compartmental distribution and accelerated melanoblast/melanocyte differentiation with enhanced secretory activity. The melanocyte compartments in the upper hair follicle also provides a reservoir for the repigmentation of epidermis and, for the cyclic formation of new anagen hair bulbs. Melanin synthesis and pigment transfer to bulb keratinocytes are dependent on the availability of melanin precursors, and regulation by signal transduction pathways intrinsic to skin and hair follicle, which are both receptor dependent and independent, act through auto-, para- or intracrine mechanisms and can be modified by hormonal signals. The important regulators are MC1 receptor its and adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone, agouti protein ligands (in rodents), c-Kit, and the endothelin receptors with their ligands. Melanin itself has a wide range of bioactivities that extend far beyond its determination of hair color. PMID:15654948

  7. The pattern of hair dyeing in koreans with gray hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Choi, Jae Woo; Lee, Jong Hee; Cho, Soyun; Kwon, Ohsang

    2013-11-01

    Hair graying is considered as a part of normal ageing process. Nonetheless, this process raises a significant cosmetic concern, especially among ethnic Korean elderly whose baseline hair color is black. For this reason, Korean elderly dye their hair with frequency despite the risk of dermatologic problems such as allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, the authors investigate the prevalence and pattern of hair dyeing and its relation with scalp diseases in Korea. Six hundred twenty subjects (330 men and 290 women) with graying hair were given a questionnaire survery and underwent a physical examination. Of the 620 total, 272 subjects (43.9%) dyed their hair. Hair dyeing was significantly more frequent among women than among men (phair dyeing when compared to either younger or older groups. Subjective self-assessment of the extent of hair graying was associated with increased prevalence of hair dyeing, that is, individuals who feel graying has advanced by more than 20% of the overall hair were much more likely to dye their hair (pHair dyeing did not correlate with either alopecia or scalp disease. Our survey has found that the prevalence of hair dyeing is higher among Korean women than men. People in their fifties and sixties and people with more than 20% extent of grayness were more likely to dye their hair than otherwise. Hair dyeing was not associated with any increase in the prevalence of scalp diseases.

  8. Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of tamoxifen and its main metabolites in human scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drooger, Jan C; Jager, Agnes; Lam, Mei-Ho; den Boer, Mathilda D; Sleijfer, Stefan; Mathijssen, Ron H J; de Bruijn, Peter

    2015-10-10

    The aim of this study was to validate an earlier developed high-performance highly sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for quantification of tamoxifen and its three main metabolites (N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl-tamoxifen) in scalp hair. This non-invasive method might, by segmental analysis of hair, be useful in the determination of the concentration of drugs and its metabolites over time, which can be used to study a wide variety of clinical relevant questions. Hair samples (150-300 hair strands, cut as close to the scalp as possible from the posterior vertex region of the head) were collected from female patients taking tamoxifen 20mg daily (n=19). The analytes were extracted using a liquid-liquid extraction procedure with carbonate buffer at pH 8.8 and a mixture of n-hexane/isopropranol method, followed by UPLC-MS/MS chromatography, based on an earlier validated method. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 1.00-200 pmol for tamoxifen and N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, with lower limit of quantitation of 1.00 pmol and 0.100-20.0 pmol with lower limit of quantitation of 0.100 pmol for endoxifen and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen. Assay performance was fair with a within-run and between-run variability less than 9.24 at the three quality control samples and less than 15.7 for the lower limit of quantitation. Importantly, a steep linear decline was observed from distal to proximal hair segments. Probably, this is due to UV exposure as we showed degradation of tamoxifen and its metabolites after exposure to UV-light. Furthermore, higher concentrations of tamoxifen were found in black hair samples compared to blond and brown hair samples. We conclude that measurement of the concentration of tamoxifen and its main metabolites in hair is possible, with the selective, sensitive, accurate and precise UPLC-MS/MS method. However, for tamoxifen, it seems not possible to determine

  9. Genetic determinants of hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulem, P.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Stacey, S.N.; Helgason, A.; Rafnar, T.; Magnusson, K.P.; Manolescu, A.; Karason, A.; Palsson, A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Steinberg, S.; Palsson, S.; Jonasson, F.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Thorisdottir, K.; Ragnarsson, R.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Olafsson, J.H.; Gulcher, J.R.; Kong, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.

    2007-01-01

    Hair, skin and eye colors are highly heritable and visible traits in humans. We carried out a genome-wide association scan for variants associated with hair and eye pigmentation, skin sensitivity to sun and freckling among 2,986 Icelanders. We then tested the most closely associated SNPs from six

  10. Molecular evolution of HR, a gene that regulates the postnatal cycle of the hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2011-01-01

    Hair is a unique mammalian trait that is absent in all other animal forms. Hairlessness is rare in mammals and humans are exceptional among primates in lacking dense layer of hair covering. HR was the first gene identified to be implicated in hair-cycle regulation. Point mutations in HR lead to congenital human hair loss, which results in the complete loss of body and scalp hairs. HR functions are indispensable for initiation of postnatal hair follicular cycling. This study investigates the phylogenetic history and analyzes the protein evolutionary rate to provide useful insight into the molecular evolution of HR. The data demonstrates an acceleration of HR sequence evolution in human branch and suggests that the ability of HR protein to mediate postnatal hair-cycling has been altered in the course of human evolution. In particular those residues were pinpointed which should be regarded as target of positive Darwinian selection during human evolution.

  11. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...

  12. Various Wavelengths of Light-Emitting Diode Light Regulate the Proliferation of Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Hair Follicles via Wnt/β-Catenin and the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hong Jin; Jeong, Kwan Ho; Kim, Jung Eun; Kang, Hoon

    2017-12-01

    The human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) play an important role in regulation of hair cycling and growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different wavelengths of light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation on the proliferation of cultured hDPCs and on the growth of human hair follicles (HFs) in vitro. We examined the effect of LED irradiation on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in hDPCs. Anagen HFs were cultured with LED irradiation and elongation of each hair shaft was measured. The most potent wavelength in promoting the hDPC proliferation is 660 nm and 830 nm promoted hDPC proliferation to a lesser extent than 660 nm. Various wavelengths significantly increased β-catenin, Axin2, Wnt3a, Wnt5a and Wnt10b mRNA expression. LED irradiation significantly increased β-catenin and cyclin D expression, and the phosphorylation of MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). HFs irradiated with 415 nm and 660 nm grew longer than control. Our result suggests that LED has a potential to stimulate hDPC proliferation via the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and ERK pathway. To our best knowledge, this is the first report which investigated that the effect of various wavelengths of LED on hDPC proliferation and the underlying mechanisms.

  13. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the simultaneous determination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methamphetamine and their metabolites in human hair using DIB-Cl as a label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddoumi, Amal; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Nakashima, Kenichiro

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes a highly sensitive HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), amphetamine (AP) and methamphetamine (MP) in human hair samples. The amphetamines investigated were derivatized with the fluorescent reagent, DIB-Cl to yield highly fluorescent DIB-derivatives, which were then analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection at excitation and emission wavelengths of 325 nm and 430 nm, respectively. The separation was achieved on an ODS column with an isocratic mobile phase composed of acetonitrile-methanol-water (30:40:30, v/v/v). The limits of detection for the four compounds obtained by the proposed method ranged from 11 to 200 pg/mg. The method was successfully applied to the determination of MDMA and MDA in hair samples obtained from MDMA abuser. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hairs to break close to the scalp. Alopecia areata (say: ar-ee-AT-uh) . In this condition, ... fall out. No one knows exactly what causes alopecia areata, but it looks like the body's own immune ...

  15. Tips for Healthy Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... less oil, so you may not need to shampoo as often. But if you see flakes in ... lead to dandruff and other scalp diseases. Concentrate shampoo on the scalp. When washing your hair, concentrate ...

  16. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... restore hair. *Photograph used with permission of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. This photograph was published in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Vol. # 60, Gathers RC, Jankowski M, Eide M, ...

  17. Archaeologies of Hair: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Ashby

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This collection of short articles represents an original attempt to bring together scholarship that is usually divided along lines of specialism in time, place, method, or discipline. The shared focus of its contributions is on hair: more than an infrequently preserved element of human remains, but a widespread (and arguably cross-cultural symbol of power, of fertility, of identity and the self. Moreover, its care and treatment using various forms of material culture, and its artistic representation in diverse media, offer a unique opportunity to examine the interface between the body and material culture. Where exceptional taphonomic conditions facilitate the preservation of hair and associated organic material, the result is some of the richest assemblages of human remains and associated material culture in the archaeological record (e.g. Wilson et al. 2007; Fletcher 1998. In contrast, 'everyday' objects associated with haircare are among the most taphonomically robust, frequently encountered and recognisable personal items known to archaeologists (e.g. Stephens 2008; Ashby 2011, and provide us with insight into the making of personal and bodily identities, even in the absence of human remains themselves. When studied in an interdisciplinary framework, the interpretative potential of this material is clear, but such work has been rare. This collection aims to set a new agenda for cross-disciplinary research focused on the nexus of human and artefactual remains, by highlighting the rich and diverse potential of this material when studied through archaeological, biochemical, artistic, historical, sociological and anthropological lenses.

  18. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse. XI. Disposition of benzphetamine and its metabolites into hair and comparison of benzphetamine use and methamphetamine use by hair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikura, R; Nakahara, Y

    1995-12-01

    In order to study the disposition of benzphetamine (BZP) and its metabolites, desmethyl benzphetamine (norBZP), p-hydroxy desmethyl benzphetamine (OHnorBZP), methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AP), from plasma to hair in rats, an analytical method for identifying these drugs in plasma, urine and hair was developed with selected ion monitoring of gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS-SIM) results. After the intraperitoneal administration of BZP to rats (10 mg/kg/d, 10d, n = 3), concentrations of BZP and its metabolites in rat hair newly grown for 4 weeks were compared to the areas under the concentration versus time curve (AUCs) of these drugs in the rat plasma. The concentrations of BZP, norBZP, OHnorBZP, MA and AP in the rat hair were 14.8 +/- 1.4, 6.1 +/- 0.3, 2.6 +/- 0.5, 2.3 +/- 0.1 and 9.2 +/- 0.3 ng/mg, and the ratio of the concentrations in the hair to AUCs in the rat plasma was 3.0:0.1:0.1:0.6:0.2, respectively. This fact suggested that BZP tends to be readily incorporated into hair from blood. The method was applied to the determination of the metabolites in scalp hair and pubic hair of humans who orally ingested BZP (30 mg/d, 5d, n = 2). BZP, norBZP, MA and AP were detected at 0.14-0.56, 0.29-0.63, 0.10 and 1.06-1.66 ng/mg in the scalp hair and at 0.10-0.20, 0.13-0.18, trace-0.15 and 0.23 ng/mg in the pubic hair, respectively. It was shown that BZP use could be retrospectively distinguished from MA use by the detection of BZP and/or norBZP in hair.

  19. Space Weather- Physics and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bothmer, Volker

    2007-01-01

    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.

  20. [Inhibition effect of 6-gingerol on hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Ya-Bin; Wang, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Jiang, Jin-Dou; Li, Ze-Hua; Hu, Zhi-Qi

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effect of 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo. Firstly, Hair follicles were co-cultured with 3 different concentration of 6-gingerol for 5 days and hair elongation in three groups was measured. Secondly, The proliferative effect of 6-gingerol on DPCs was measured using MTT assay. Thirdly, the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in DPCs were measured using Western blotting. In vivo study, the influence of 6-gingerol on hair growth in C57BL/6 rats was measured through topical application of 6-gingerol on the dorsal skin of each animal. The length of hair shaft in 20 microg/ml 6-Gingerol group (0.50 +/- 0.08 mm) is less than 0 microg/ml (0.66 +/- 0.19) mm and 10 microg/ml (0.64 +/- 0.03) mm 6-Gingerol group (P Gingerol, 10 microg/ml 6-Gingerol can significantly inhibited the proliferation of DPCs (P gingerol, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased obviously. In vivo study, the hair length and density decreased a lot after using 1 mg/ml 6-gingerol. 6-Gingerol can suppress human hair shaft elongation because it has pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs via increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. It might inhibit hair growth by prolonging the telogen stage in vivo.

  1. Sensory hair cell death and regeneration in fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Monroe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory hair cells are specialized mechanotransductive receptors required for hearing and vestibular function. Loss of hair cells in humans and other mammals is permanent and causes reduced hearing and balance. In the early 1980’s, it was shown that hair cells continue to be added to the inner ear sensory epithelia in cartilaginous and bony fishes. Soon thereafter, hair cell regeneration was documented in the chick cochlea following acoustic trauma. Since then, research using chick and other avian models has led to great insights into hair cell death and regeneration. However, with the rise of the zebrafish as a model organism for studying disease and developmental processes, there has been an increased interest in studying sensory hair cell death and regeneration in its lateral line and inner ears. Advances derived from studies in zebrafish and other fish species include understanding the effect of ototoxins on hair cells and finding otoprotectants to mitigate ototoxin damage, the role of cellular proliferation versus direct transdifferentiation during hair cell regeneration, and elucidating cellular pathways involved in the regeneration process. This review will summarize research on hair cell death and regeneration using fish models, indicate the potential strengths and weaknesses of these models, and discuss several emerging areas of future studies.

  2. Detection and quantification of 12 anabolic steroids and analogs in human whole blood and 20 in hair using LC-HRMS/MS: application to real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabresse, Nicolas; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Etting, Isabelle; Alvarez, Jean-Claude

    2017-07-01

    We developed and validated a method to detect and quantify 12 anabolic steroids in blood (androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, boldenone, epitestosterone, mesterolone, methandienone, nandrolone, stanozolol, norandrostenedione, tamoxifene, testosterone, trenbolone) and eight more in hair samples (nandrolone phenylpropionate, nandrolone decanoate, testosterone propionate, testosterone benzoate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone decanoate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone undecanoate) using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. This method used a benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer operating with an APCI probe under positive ionization mode. Analysis was realized in full scan experiment with a nominal resolving power of 140,000. After addition of the internal standard (testosterone-D3) and incubation in phosphate buffer pH = 5 for hair, 200 μL of blood and 30 mg of hair samples were extracted with heptane. LOQ and LOD were determined at 5 and 1 ng mL -1 in whole blood and 10 to 100 pg mg -1 and 2 to 20 pg mg -1 in hair according to the compounds, respectively. The method was linear in the 5-1000 ng mL -1 range in whole blood and between 10 or 100 pg mg -1 and 1000 pg mg -1 in hair with correlation coefficients >0.99, and intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were anabolic steroids has been successfully applied to two real cases, for which various anabolic steroids in whole blood, urine, and hair were identified and quantified.

  3. A discrete transition zone between cuticle and cortex layers of a human hair fibre: changes observed in the presence of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Donald; Gerstmann, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy of hair fibres shows a discrete transition zone (DTZ) between the hard protective cuticle layer and the softer elongated cortical cells of the cortex. The DTZ is composed of flattened orthocortical cells located on the outer perimeter of the cortex and appears to range in thickness between 2 and 3.6 μm. The inner surface of the DTZ, adjacent to the elongated cortical cells that make up the core of the hair fibre, is irregular. ATR-FT-IR analyses of these flattened orthocortical cells indicate major changes in the molecular structure of keratins found in this transition zone. Other studies have identified cells that produce keratins that are distinct from alpha keratins found in the elongated heterocortical cells in the hair fibre core. These distinct keratins appear to be produced in the lower region of the hair follicle at the interface between the cuticle and cortex. The DTZ is also the region where ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy studies identified changes in C-H bending of lipid esters indicative of breast cancer. Lipid ester absorption bands at 1738 and 1732 cm-1, present in non-cancer hair, are absent in the cancer hair and a new ester band absorbing at 1736 cm-1 is observed. When the breast cancer is clinically removed, the 1736 cm-1 ester band absorption and the increase in the 1446-1456 C-H-bending absorption ratio are no longer observed. This suggests that biomarkers produced by the breast cancer interact with stem or other cells near the lower region of the follicle, controlling the amount and type of lipid esters in the DTZ.

  4. Hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the literature of the past 30 years there are only some publications concerned with hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women. Therefore, the relevance of hyperprolactinemia was evaluated in 40 women with diffuse alopecia. Hair loss was assessed by clinical appearance and the pluck trichogram. 82.5% of the female patients had diffuse hair loss and 17.5% had androgenetic alopecia. The highest prolactin values measured were 1390 ng/ml and 255 ng/ml. Six patients had values between 150–80.4 ng/ml and 10 between 79.1–51.7 ng/ml. All others had prolactin values below 50 ng/ml. Fifteen untreated patients with elevated prolactin levels could be followed up. Without any prolactin-inhibiting drugs, reductions and normalizations beside moderate fluctuations could be detected. Thyroid-specific diagnostics showed in 95% of the patients a normal thyroid function. 2.5% had a slight hyperthyreoidism and 2.5% had a slight hypothyreoidism. No female patient had clinical signs of androgenization and the determined androgens testosterone, androstendione and dihydroepiandrostendione were in the normal range. According to these results, moderate elevated prolactin levels in association with diffuse or androgenetic hair loss can be neglected as causative for the hair loss, because there is no evidence that they have an influence to the pattern, the extent or the duration of the hair loss. These results are supported by investigations of other authors who described only in high doses of prolactin an inhibiting effect on human hair follicles in vitro. Nevertheless, moderate constantly elevated prolactin levels should induce further diagnostics to exclude a prolactin-producing tumor of the pituitary gland. PMID:22870355

  5. A discrete transition zone between cuticle and cortex layers of a human hair fibre: changes observed in the presence of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lyman, Donald; Gerstmann, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR–FT-IR) spectroscopy of hair fibres shows a discrete transition zone (DTZ) between the hard protective cuticle layer and the softer elongated cortical cells of the cortex. The DTZ is composed of flattened orthocortical cells located on the outer perimeter of the cortex and appears to range in thickness between 2 and 3.6 μm. The inner surface of the DTZ, adjacent to the elongated cortical cells that make up the core of the hair fibre, ...

  6. Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Alessandrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp.

  7. Effects of shampoo and water washing on hair cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Amanda F; Meyer, Jerrold S; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M; Suomi, Stephen J; Novak, Melinda A

    2011-01-30

    Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  9. How to Stop Damaging Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage your hair Washing your hair by rubbing shampoo into the length of your hair Changes that can help prevent hair damage: Gently massage shampoo into your scalp. When you rinse the shampoo ...

  10. Graying: gerontobiology of the hair follicle pigmentary unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, D J; Paus, R

    2001-01-01

    The visual appearance of humans derives predominantly from their skin and hair color. The phylogenetically ancient biochemical [corrected] pathway underling this phenomenon is called melanogenesis and results in the production of melanin pigments in neural crest-derived melanocytes, followed by its transfer to epithelial cells. While melanin from epidermal melanocytes clearly protects human skin by screening harmful ultraviolet radiation, the biologic value of hair pigmentation is less clear. In addition to important roles in social/sexual communication, one potential benefit of pigmented scalp hair in humans may be the rapid excretion of heavy metals, chemicals, toxins from the body by their selective binding to melanin. The hair follicle and epidermal melanogenic systems are broadly distinct, though open. The primary distinguishing feature of follicular melanogenesis, compared to the continuous melanogenesis in the epidermis, is the tight coupling of hair follicle melanogenesis to the hair growth cycle. This cycle appears to involve periods of melanocyte proliferation (during early anagen), maturation (mid to late anagen) and melanocyte death via apoptosis (during early catagen). Thus, each hair cycle is associated with the reconstruction of an intact hair follicle pigmentary unit... at least for the first 10 cycles or so. Thereafter, gray and white hairs appear, suggesting an age-related, genetically regulated exhaustion of the pigmentary potential of each individual hair follicle. Melanocyte aging may be associated with reactive oxygen species-mediated damage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA with resultant accumulation of mutations with age, in addition to dysregulation of anti-oxidant mechanisms or pro/anti-apoptotic factors within the cells. While the perception of "gray hair" derives in large part from the admixture of pigmented and white hair, it is important to note that individual hair follicles can indeed exhibit pigment dilution or true grayness. This

  11. A Review: Hair Health, Concerns of Shampoo Ingredients and Scalp Nourishing Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chin-Hsien T; Huang, Shu-Hung; Wang, Hui-Min D

    2015-01-01

    Human hair serves a biological purpose of protecting the scalp, as well as physical attractiveness to the perception of beauty. Hair loss, graying of hair, dandruff and other conditions affecting hair conditions can be distressing to patients, as hair condition is often considered important in people's own assessment of physical beauty. Different hair types can benefit from different treatment methods to promote hair health and growth. External factors like exposure to the sun and smoking, dietary factors including malnutrition of essential fatty acids and vitamins, and chemicals applied to the hair and scalp in shampoos and other treatments can all cause damage to existing hair and impair hair growth. Specific chemicals found in many shampoos, including antimicrobial agents, surfactants and preservatives, can all impair different aspects of hair health. In this review, we aim to discuss the main hair issues, such as hair loss, followed by the safety assessments of selected ingredients in shampoo, and possible nourishment for scalp improvement. This review highlights areas of disagreement in the existing literature, and points to new directions for future studies. Key conclusions include the carcinogenic chemicals to avoid, alternatives of such ingredients, and scalp nourishing treatments with micronutrients.

  12. Measuring changes in chemistry, composition, and molecular structure within hair fibers by infrared and Raman spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; Senak, Laurence; Moore, David J.

    2011-05-01

    Spatially resolved infrared (IR) and Raman images are acquired from human hair cross sections or intact hair fibers. The full informational content of these spectra are spatially correlated to hair chemistry, anatomy, and structural organization through univariate and multivariate data analysis. Specific IR and Raman images from untreated human hair describing the spatial dependence of lipid and protein distribution, protein secondary structure, lipid chain conformational order, and distribution of disulfide cross-links in hair protein are presented in this study. Factor analysis of the image plane acquired with IR microscopy in hair sections, permits delineation of specific micro-regions within the hair. These data indicate that both IR and Raman imaging of molecular structural changes in a specific region of hair will prove to be valuable tools in the understanding of hair structure, physiology, and the effect of various stresses upon its integrity.

  13. Smokers? hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    OpenAIRE

    Zayed, Ayman A.; Shahait, Awni D.; Ayoub, Musa N.; Yousef, Al-Motassem

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG) and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and meas...

  14. Weather forecast

    CERN Document Server

    Courtier, P

    1994-02-07

    Weather prediction is performed using the numerical model of the atmosphere evolution.The evolution equations are derived from the Navier Stokes equation for the adiabatic part but the are very much complicated by the change of phase of water, the radiation porocess and the boundary layer.The technique used operationally is described. Weather prediction is an initial value problem and accurate initial conditions need to be specified. Due to the small number of observations available (105 ) as compared to the dimension of the model state variable (107),the problem is largely underdetermined. Techniques of optimal control and inverse problems are used and have been adapted to the large dimension of our problem. our problem.The at mosphere is a chaotic system; the implication for weather prediction is discussed. Ensemble prediction is used operationally and the technique for generating initial conditions which lead to a numerical divergence of the subsequent forecasts is described.

  15. An isotopic comparison of cross-latitudinal horse hair data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Elisabeth; Ramsey, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    This study explores whether the Rayleigh distillation process latitude effect, of depleted δ18O in precipitation toward the poles, can be observed in horse hair. This study specifically compares δ18O values in horse hair with meteorological variables, and examines whether regional changes in global climate can be observed. The sampling sites and the pony breeds used in this study will add to the increasing network of isotopic horse hair data and will create an even better understanding of the intra-species variation within the δ18O values of horse hair. By directly correlating the meteorological variables to δ18O variations, the effects of specific weather events at different latitudes can also be explored at a very high resolution. 24 horses were sampled within approximately 24 hours on the 7th March 2016 from Thordale Stud in Shetland; the Icelandic Food And Veterinary Authority in Iceland; the Exmoor Pony Centre in Exmoor; and the Pigeon House Equestrian Centre in Oxfordshire. Starting the sampling process from the most recent growth at the follicle, the sampling date becomes a chronological marker, temporally fixing the first sample within a sequential set of data points extending for one year or longer, depending on the length of each individual hair. Preliminary results confirm the hypothesis, demonstrating that a study of oxygen isotope ratios in horse hair from Oxfordshire to Iceland shows a latitudinal depletion gradient, consistent with a depletion of oxygen isotope ratios due to decreasing temperatures.

  16. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and formed a cosmetically acceptable forelock.

  17. Morphology and ultrastructure of antler velvet hair and body hair from red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; Harland, D P; Vernon, J A; Krsinic, G L; Walls, R J

    2011-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the ultrastructure of deer hair fibers. Guard hairs and underhairs from the winter coat of red deer (Cervus elaphus), and antler velvet hairs from the same species were examined. All fibers displayed the typical keratin fiber morphology of overlapping cuticle cells surrounding a core of cortex cells, and often a centrally-located medulla, but there were considerable differences in the diameter, cuticle thickness, and scale pattern, and in the relative amounts of cortex and medulla along individual fibers, and between the different types of fiber. In addition, closer examination of cortex cells using transmission electron microscopy revealed considerable differences in the arrangement of intermediate filaments in the different fiber types. Fine underhairs appeared similar to fine wool fibers from sheep because intermediate filament arrangements were very similar to those found in wool orthocortex cells and paracortex cells. In addition, a similar bilateral distribution of these cell types was evident. However, in the antler velvet hairs and the guard hairs, intermediate filament arrangements were more variable and complex, and showed similarities to those in heterotype cortex cells described for human hair. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Weather, Climate, and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

  19. Taking Care of Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it may be better to choose a mild shampoo instead of a shampoo designed for oily hair. For some people — especially ... at the crown but dry on the ends) — shampoos for oily hair can be too harsh. If ...

  20. Optimization of biomimetic hair sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi, N.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2007-01-01

    High density arrays of artificial hair sensors, biomimicking the extremely sensitive mechanoreceptive filiform hairs found on cerci of crickets have been fabricated. We assess the sensitivity of these artificial sensors and present a scheme for further optimization addressing the deteriorating

  1. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Comparison of Early- and Late-Passage Human Dermal Papilla Cell Secretome in Relation to Inducing Hair Follicle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Zhu, Ning-Xia; Huang, Keng; Cai, Bo-Zhi; Zeng, Yang; Xu, Yan-Ming; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Yan-Ping; Lin, Chang-Min

    2016-01-01

    Alopecia is an exceedingly prevalent problem that lacks effective therapy. Recently, research has focused on early-passage dermal papilla cells (DPCs), which have hair inducing activity both in vivo and in vitro. Our previous study indicated that factors secreted from early-passage DPCs contribute to hair follicle (HF) regeneration. To identify which factors are responsible for HF regeneration and why late-passage DPCs lose this potential, we collected 48-h-culture medium (CM) from both of passage 3 and 9 DPCs, and subcutaneously injected the DPC-CM into NU/NU mice. Passage 3 DPC-CM induced HF regeneration, based on the emergence of a white hair coat, but passage 9 DPC-CM did not. In order to identify the key factors responsible for hair induction, CM from passage 3 and 9 DPCs was analyzed by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic technology. We identified 1360 proteins, of which 213 proteins were differentially expressed between CM from early-passage vs. late-passage DPCs, including SDF1, MMP3, biglycan and LTBP1. Further analysis indicated that the differentially-expressed proteins regulated the Wnt, TGF-β and BMP signaling pathways, which directly and indirectly participate in HF morphogenesis and regeneration. Subsequently, we selected 19 proteins for further verification by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) between the two types of CM. These results indicate DPC-secreted proteins play important roles in HF regeneration, with SDF1, MMP3, biglycan, and LTBP1 being potential key inductive factors secreted by dermal papilla cells in the regeneration of hair follicles.

  2. Putting Weather into Weather Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Just as weather forecasting has a colorful and often farsighted history within geophysics, financial mathematics has a long and turbulent history within mathematics. Thus it is no surprise that the intersection of real physics and real financial mathematics provides a rich source of problems and insight in both fields. This presentation targets open questions in one such intersection: quantifying ``weather risk.'' There is no accepted (operational) method for including deterministic information from simulation models (numerical weather forecasts, either best guess or by ensemble forecasting methods), into the stochastic framework most common within financial mathematics. Nor is there a stochastic method for constructing weather surrogates which has been proven successful in application. Inasmuch as the duration of employable observations is short, methods of melding short term, medium-range and long term forecasts are needed. On these time scales, model error is a substantial problem, while many methods of traditional statistical practice are simply inappropriate given our physical understanding of the system. A number of specific open questions, along with a smaller number of potential solutions, will be presented. >http://www.maths.ox.ac.uk/~lenny/WeatherRisk

  3. Combining regional climate and national human development scenarios to estimate future vulnerability to extreme climate and weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, A.; Nussbaumer, P.

    2009-04-01

    Extreme climate and weather events such as droughts, floods, and tropical cyclones account for over 60% of the loss of life, and over 90% of total impacts, from natural disasters. Both observed trends and global climate models (GCMs) suggest that the frequency and intensity of extreme events is increasing, and will continue to increase as a result of climate change. Among planners and policy-makers at both national and international levels there is thus concern that this rise in extreme events will lead to greater losses in the future. Since low levels of development are associated with greater numbers of people killed and needing emergency assistance from natural disasters, the concern is most pronounced for least developed countries. If, however, these countries make substantial improvements in their levels of human development, as leading forecasters suggest may be the case over the coming decades, then their vulnerability to extreme events may fall. In this study, we examine the potential combined effects of increased extreme event frequency and improved levels of human development, to generate scenarios of risk levels into the second half of the century. It is the African continent for which these results may be the most relevant, since it is widely viewed as most vulnerable to increased risks from climate change; we focus on the particular country of Mozambique, which has experienced high losses from droughts, floods, and tropical cyclones in recent decades, and stands out as being among the most vulnerable in Africa. To assess the change in risk levels from the present until 2060, we pull together three pieces of analysis. The first is a statistical analysis of the losses from 1990-2007 from climate-related disasters, using national level data from the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) and the United Nations. From this analysis, we establish statistical relationships between several drivers of vulnerability—including country size

  4. Geometric classification of scalp hair for valid drug testing, 6 more reliable than 8 hair curl groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mkentane

    Full Text Available Curly hair is reported to contain higher lipid content than straight hair, which may influence incorporation of lipid soluble drugs. The use of race to describe hair curl variation (Asian, Caucasian and African is unscientific yet common in medical literature (including reports of drug levels in hair. This study investigated the reliability of a geometric classification of hair (based on 3 measurements: the curve diameter, curl index and number of waves.After ethical approval and informed consent, proximal virgin (6cm hair sampled from the vertex of scalp in 48 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Three raters each scored hairs from 48 volunteers at two occasions each for the 8 and 6-group classifications. One rater applied the 6-group classification to 80 additional volunteers in order to further confirm the reliability of this system. The Kappa statistic was used to assess intra and inter rater agreement.Each rater classified 480 hairs on each occasion. No rater classified any volunteer's 10 hairs into the same group; the most frequently occurring group was used for analysis. The inter-rater agreement was poor for the 8-groups (k = 0.418 but improved for the 6-groups (k = 0.671. The intra-rater agreement also improved (k = 0.444 to 0.648 versus 0.599 to 0.836 for 6-groups; that for the one evaluator for all volunteers was good (k = 0.754.Although small, this is the first study to test the reliability of a geometric classification. The 6-group method is more reliable. However, a digital classification system is likely to reduce operator error. A reliable objective classification of human hair curl is long overdue, particularly with the increasing use of hair as a testing substrate for treatment compliance in Medicine.

  5. Optical coherent tomography: promising in vivo measurement of hair shaft cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Stieler, Karola; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2011-09-01

    Variations in hair shaft morphology reflect ethnical diversity, but may also indicate internal diseases, nutritional deficiency, or hair and scalp disorders. The measurement and the follow-up of the hair shaft thickness over a defined period of time would be a valuable diagnostic tool in clinical practice. Standard light microscopy (LM) measurements require the epilation of hair shafts and frequently yield inaccurate values caused by the elliptic geometry of human hair shafts. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive investigation method based on the principles of Michelson interferometry with a detection depth of approximately 1 mm in human skin. Two-dimensional images of the cross sections of tissue samples at a resolution of approximately 10 μm are produced, which allows convenient calculation of hair shaft thickness. To evaluate this new methodology for hair shaft thickness measurements, hair shafts taken from 28 healthy volunteers were analyzed by in vivo OCT and compared to standard in vitro LM measurements of hair shaft thickness. OCT yielded highly reproducible measurements of hair shaft thickness with a distinctly reduced variation compared to standard LM. This technique offers a unique opportunity for in vivo measurement and a follow-up of the kinetics of hair shaft thickness in humans during medical therapy.

  6. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05, and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p<0.05. MXD (3% and DA-5512 (1%, 5% significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs versus the controls (each p<0.05. The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p<0.05. In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  7. Predicting hair cortisol levels with hair pigmentation genes: A possible hair pigmentation bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A. (Alexander); G. Noppe (Gerard); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association

  8. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  9. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  10. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  12. The Success of Thread-embedding Therapy in Generating Hair Re-growth in Mice Points to Its Possibly Having a Similar Effect in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jong Shin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recently, thread-embedding therapy (TET has been widely applied in Korean medicine for cosmetic purposes such as reducing skin wrinkles. An inserted thread was reported to have induced continuous stimulation, followed by support for connective tissue regeneration. However, the potential role of TET in hairgrowth has not yet been reported. Methods: We designed this study to evaluate whether TET has a hair-growth-promoting effect. C57 black 6 (C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: normal saline-treated, minoxidil-treated, and thread-embedded groups. Normal saline or 5% minoxidil was topically sprayed on the dorsal skin of the mice once a day for 16 days. Medical threads were embedded into the dorsal skin of the mice in a single application. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using dermoscopic and microscopic observations. Sections of the dorsal skin were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7, and fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF-5 were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis was adopted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA expressions of FGF-7 and FGF-5. Results: TET enhanced anagen development in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. The expressions of BrdU and PCNA, both of which imply active cellular proliferation, were increased by using TET. Moreover, TET increased the expression of FGF-7, an anagen-inducing growth factor, while decreasing the expression of FGF-5, an anagen-cessation growth factor, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. Conclusion: TET enhanced hair re-growth in C57BL/6 mice. TET regulated the expressions of anagen-associated growth factors and activated the proliferation of hair follicular cells in depilated skin lesions. Considering its long-lasting effect, TET may be a good alternative therapeutic for the treatment of

  13. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental c...

  14. Predicting hair cortisol levels with hair pigmentation genes: a possible hair pigmentation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Alexander; Noppe, Gerard; Liu, Fan; Kayser, Manfred; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-08-17

    Cortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association arises from local effects, such as increased hormone extractability, or whether the association represents systemic differences arising from population stratification. We tested the hypothesis that hair pigmentation gene variants are associated with varying cortisol levels independent of genetic ancestry. Hormone concentrations and genotype were measured in 1674 children from the Generation R cohort at age 6. We computed a polygenic score of hair color based on 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms. This score was used to predict hair cortisol concentrations, adjusted for genetic ancestry, sex, age and corticosteroid use. A 1-standard deviation (SD) higher polygenic score (darker hair) was associated with 0.08 SD higher cortisol levels (SE = 0.03, p = 0.002). This suggests that variation in hair cortisol concentrations is partly explained by local hair effects. In multi-ancestry studies this hair pigmentation bias can reduce power and confound results. Researchers should therefore consider adjusting analyses by reported hair color, by polygenic scores, or by both.

  15. Weather Derivatives: A Contemporary Review and Its Application in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xin

    2006-01-01

    The weather has impact on both human activity and all forms of businesses. A variety of businesses including energy and power, agriculture, retail, insurance, and entertainment are either favorably or adversely by weather. Then a new class of financial derivatives--weather derivatives are evolved to manage the economic impact of weather events on the performance of business activities. To this day, the weather derivative market has developed throughout the world. Various of weather derivative...

  16. Occupational exposure of hairdressers to [14C]-para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: A mass balance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueber-Becker, F.; Nohynek, G.J.; Dufour, E.K.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Bie, A.T.H.J.de; Toutain, H.; Bolt, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    We monitored the exposure of hairdressers to oxidative hair dyes for 6 working days under controlled conditions. Eighteen professional hairdressers (3/day) coloured hairdresser's training heads bearing natural human hair (hair length: approximately 30 cm) for 6 h/working day with a dark-shade

  17. Determination of drugs in hair using GC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, M

    1997-01-17

    An important task for the forensic toxicologist and expert witness is the detection of the noxa in biological matrices. Because of this, the identification and quantification of residues of illegal drugs in human hair is still of growing interest. Utilizing the advantages of GC/MS/MS testing human hair is performed for most common drugs of abuse like heroin and other opioides, cocaine, cannabis and amphetamine derivatives. Analyzing hair specimens for substances that present a toxicological risk is another challenge. Several quality control parameters must be observed to avoid false positive or false negative results and to gain additional information. Blank sample, blank hair as well as the combined wash extracts are tested for the presence of the relevant compounds within every series. Careful evaluation of the findings can provide an approximate measure of the intensity of drug use in the majority of cases.

  18. Foul weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In an effort to cut costs and meet its operations budget for fiscal year 1997 and into the future, the National Weather Service (NWS) will be cutting staff and services throughout the rest of the budget year, which ends in October. After reviewing current programs and identifying ways to reduce operating costs, NWS management announced on March 21 that the Service will accelerate planned cuts in staff and operations at headquarters, regional offices, and central operations and field offices, while “re-engineering certain programs.”

  19. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...

  20. Human hair follicle transcriptome profiling: a minimally invasive tool to assess molecular adaptations upon low-volume, high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wallace, Sarah J; Shiu, Maria Y; Smith, Ingrid; Rhind, Shawn G; Langlois, Valerie S

    2017-12-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has become a popular fitness training approach under both civilian and military settings. Consisting of brief and intense exercise intervals, HIIT requires less time commitment yet is able to produce the consistent targeted physical adaptations as conventional endurance training. To effectively characterize and monitor HIIT-induced cellular and molecular responses, a highly accessible yet comprehensive biomarker discovery source is desirable. Both gene differential expression (DE) and gene set (GS) analyses were conducted using hair follicle transcriptome established from pre and postexercise subjects upon a 10-day HIIT program by RNA-Seq, Comparing between pre and posttraining groups, differentially expressed protein coding genes were identified. To interpret the functional significance of the DE results, a comprehensive GS analysis approach featuring multiple algorithms was used to enrich gene ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways. The GS analysis revealed enriched themes such as energy metabolism, cell proliferation/growth/survival, muscle adaptations, and cytokine-cytokine interaction, all of which have been previously proposed as HIIT responses. Moreover, related cell signaling pathways were also measured. Specifically, G-protein-mediated signal transduction, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) - protein kinase B (PKB) and Janus kinase (JAK) - Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) signaling cascades were over-represented. Additionally, the RNA-Seq analysis also identified several HIIT-responsive microRNAs (miRNAs) that were involved in regulating hair follicle-specific processes, such as miR-99a For the first time, this study demonstrated that both existing and new biomarkers like miRNA can be explored for HIIT using the transcriptomic responses exhibited by the hair follicle. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and

  1. Comparison of Plasma, Saliva, and Hair Levetiracetam Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaś-Ruszczyk, Katarzyna; Kuczyńska, Julita; Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Halina; Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Iwona; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw; Restel, Magdalena; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Mierzejewski, Pawel

    2017-06-01

    Previous findings revealed high correlations between serum/plasma and saliva levetiracetam concentrations, indicating saliva as an alternative matrix for monitoring levetiracetam therapy. Levetiracetam concentration in the hair, which could reflect long-term drug exposure and patients' compliance, has not been systematically tested, as yet. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between plasma, saliva, and hair levetiracetam concentrations in 47 patients with epilepsy. Plasma, saliva, and hair levetiracetam concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive ionization. Levetiracetam saliva and plasma concentrations were highly correlated (r = 0.93). Plasma concentrations were not influenced by sex, age, and other concomitant antiepileptic drugs. Levetiracetam hair concentrations correlated with plasma concentrations (r = 0.36) but not daily dose (mg/kg). Drug hair concentrations were not influenced by hair color or treatment (dyed). The results tend to indicate that saliva may be a reliable alternative to plasma for monitoring levetiracetam concentrations. Levetiracetam can also be detected in human hair.

  2. Sonography in pathologies of scalp and hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortsman, X; Wortsman, J; Matsuoka, L; Saavedra, T; Mardones, F; Saavedra, D; Guerrero, R; Corredoira, Y

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of the scalp often result in severe cosmetic interference with quality of life, creating the need for optimal medical surveillance. We tested the latest generation of ultrasound machines in patients with scalp pathology and prepared a cross-sectional library encompassing a wide assortment of conditions. Normative data on the sonographic anatomy of scalp and human hair, and important methodological considerations, are also included. PMID:22253348

  3. Systemic causes of hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richard L; Garibyan, Lilit; Kimball, Alexandra B; Drake, Lynn A

    2016-09-01

    Hair loss is both a common chief complaint by patients and a clinical challenge for physicians, especially general practitioners, yet few dermatological problems yield as much patient satisfaction when resolved as hair loss. The diagnosis is often attributed to androgen-related hair loss, while other causes, some of which are life-threatening but treatable, are overlooked. We searched for relevant literature on hair loss and supported these findings with our clinical experience to identify seven major systemic etiologies of hair loss, ranging from infectious agents to consumption of unsafe supplements. Many causes are only described in the literature through case studies, though some original articles and meta-analyses are available. Careful history taking, proper examination techniques, and judicious use of laboratory tests are essential to reach at the correct diagnosis in a cost-effective manner when performing patient work-up. Such methodical evaluation of hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction. Key messages Hair loss is a common chief complaint and a difficult challenge for both general practitioners and dermatology consultants. We identified seven major categories of systemic hair loss etiology and present a framework for their clinical evaluation. A methodical approach to hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction.

  4. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with trichotillomania, hair pulling is a way of dealing with negative or uncomfortable feelings, such as stress, anxiety, tension, boredom, loneliness, fatigue or frustration. Positive feelings. ...

  5. The amazing miniorgan: Hair follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiler Çelik Özenci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal–mesodermal interactions. Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recurrent cycling of growth (anagen, apoptosis-driven regression (catagen, and relative quiescence (telogen. As a functional mini-organ, the hair follicle develops in an environment with dynamic and alternating changes of diverse molecular signals. Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on genetically engineered mouse models with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation and significant advances have been made toward the identification of key signaling pathways and the regulatory genes involved. In this review, the basic concepts of hair follicle, a mini-complex organ, biology will be presented and its importance in clinical applications will be summarized.

  6. Hair dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA concentrations in newborn dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bolis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last intrauterine fetal stage of development and the neonatal period the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA is a key system. Apart of cortisol, the adrenals produce dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, the major steroid produced by the fetus itself, so that it could be considered as a marker of offspring HPA activity. Non invasive, long time-frame retrospective hormonal levels analysis were performed in the hair of humans and animals, but not in newborn puppies, and DHEA never investigated in puppies. This study was aimed to assess DHEA concentrations in the hair of newborn puppies, and to evaluate the influence of newborn age, gender, and breed size on DHEA concentrations. The study enrolled 116 spontaneously dead puppies, grouped on the base of mother bodyweight to small or medium-large breeds, and on the base of age at death. Hair samples were collected by shaving, and stored at room temperature until RIA analysis. The overall hair DHEA concentrations were 46.8±14.8 pg/mg. DHEA levels were 48.6±15.66 pg/mg in females vs 45.1±13.73 pg/mg in males, without significant differences. DHEA levels were 45.5±13.61 pg/mg in small size puppies and 47.8±15.61 pg/mg in medium-large size puppies, with no significant differences. DHEA concentrations in premature puppies (52.5±15.12 pg/mg were significant higher (p<0.05 than in puppies dead between 1 and 30 days after birth (44.5±17.78 pg/mg, but similar to fresh term born-dead puppies (46.2±16.5 pg/mg.  This study demonstrated that DHEA is quantifiable in the hair of newborn dogs, and that DHEA levels are significantly influenced by the puppies age.

  7. The influence of regional urbanization and abnormal weather conditions on the processes of human climatic adaptation on mountain resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonova, M.; Golitsyn, G.; Senik, I.; Safronov, A.; Babyakin, A.; Efimenko, N.; Povolotskaya, N.; Topuriya, D.; Chalaya, E.

    2012-04-01

    This work is a further development in the study of weather pathogenic index (WPI) and negative influence of urbanization processes on the state of people's health with adaptation disorder. This problem is socially significant. According to the data of the WHO, in the world there are from 20 to 45% of healthy people and from 40 to 80% of people with chronic diseases who suffer from the raised meteosensitivity. As a result of our researches of meteosensitivity of people during their short-duration on mountain resorts there were used negative adaptive reactions (NAR) under 26 routine tests, stress-reactions under L.H. Garkavi's hemogram, vegetative indices, tests of neuro-vascular reactivity, signs of imbalance of vegetative and neurohumoral regulation according to the data of biorhythm fractal analysis and sudden aggravations of diseases (SAD) as an indicator of negative climatic and urbanization influence. In 2010-2011 the Caucasian mountain resorts were having long periods of climatic anomalies, strengthening of anthropogenic emissions and forest fires when record-breaking high waves of NAR and SAD were noticed. There have also been specified indices ranks of weather pathogenicity from results of comparison of health characteristics with indicators of synoptico-dynamic processes according to Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF); air ionization N+, N-, N+/N- spectra of aerosol particles (the size from 500 to 20000 nanometers) and concentrations of chemically active gases (O3, NO, NO2, ), volatile phytoorganic substances in the surface atmosphere, bactericidal characteristics of vegetation by criterion χ2 (not above 0,05). It has allowed us to develop new physiological optimum borders, norm and pessimum, to classify emergency ecologo-weather situations, to develop a new techniques of their forecasting and prevention of meteopathic reactions with meteosensitive patients (Method of treatment and the early (emergency) and planned prevention meteopatic reactions

  8. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Enzymatic Digestion and Selective Quantification of Underivatised Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cocaine in Human Hair Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Eddine Breidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS methods for drug analysis routinely employ derivatising reagents. The aim of this paper was to develop a method for the analysis of two recreational drugs, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC and cocaine in hair samples using GC-MS, without prior derivatisation, thus allowing the sample to be reanalysed in its original form. An enzymatic digestion technique was also developed. Ten hair samples, that were known positive for either Δ9-THC and/or cocaine, were enzymatically digested, extracted, and then analysed by GC-MS. All samples measured contained Δ9-THC and one sample contained cocaine. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ were 0.02 ng/mg and 0.05 ng/mg, respectively, for cocaine and 0.015 ng/mg and 0.02 ng/mg, respectively, for Δ9-THC. The wide detection window, ease of direct analysis by GC-MS, lower detection limits of underivatised samples, and the stability of drugs using this technique may offer an improved method of analysis.

  10. Development of a reference material using methamphetamine abusers' hair samples for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Yang, Wonkyung; Han, Eunyoung; Choe, Sanggil; In, Sangwhan; Lim, Miae; Chung, Heesun

    2008-04-01

    In the present study, we developed a reference material (RM) using authentic hair samples for the determination of methamphetamine (MA) and its main metabolite, amphetamine (AP) in human hair. MA abusers' hair samples were collected, homogenized and finally bottled. The concentration of each bottle was determined using two extraction methods, agitation with 1% HCl in methanol at 38 degrees C and ultrasonication with methanol/5M HCl (20:1), followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Both analytical procedures were fully validated and their extraction efficiency was compared. The homogeneity of analytes was evaluated and their property values were determined with their uncertainties. The two methods were acceptable to analyze MA and AP in human hair through the validation and comparative studies using spiked and authentic hair samples as well as NIST SRM 2379 certified reference material. Satisfying homogeneity was reached for MA and AP in the prepared RM. Finally, a human hair RM containing MA and AP is prepared at the level of 7.64+/-1.24 and 0.54+/-0.07 ng/mg, respectively. This material can be useful in forensic laboratories for internal quality control and external quality assurance.

  11. Aging changes in hair and nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the follicles make less melanin, and this causes gray hair. Graying often begins in the 30s. Scalp hair ... all. Graying is largely determined by your genes. Gray hair tends to occur earlier in white people and ...

  12. Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 0; c Teaching your child healthy hair care habits Many common hair care practices can lead to ... conditioner. Teaching your child other healthy hair care habits Many things that we do to style our ...

  13. Melanocytes from the outer root sheath of human hair and epidermal melanocytes display improved melanotic features in the niche provided by cGEL, oligomer-cross-linked gelatin-based hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sülflow, Katharina; Schneider, Marie; Loth, Tina; Kascholke, Christian; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Hacker, Michael C; Simon, Jan-Christoph; Savkovic, Vuk

    2016-12-01

    Non-invasively based cell treatments of depigmented skin disorders are largely limited by means of cell sampling as much as by their routes of application. Human melanocytes cultivated from the outer root sheath of hair follicle (HUMORS) are among the cell types that fit the non-invasive concept by being cultivated out of a minimal sample: hair root. Eventual implementation of HUMORS as a graft essentially depends on a choice of suitable biocompatible, biodegradable carrier that would mechanically and biologically support the cells as transient niche and facilitate their engraftment. Hence, the melanotic features of follicle-derived HUMORS and normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM) in engineered scaffolds based on collagen, the usual leading candidate for graft material for a variety of skin transplantation procedures were tested. Hydrogel named cGEL, an enzymatically degraded bovine gelatin chemically cross-linked with an oligomeric copolymer synthesized from pentaerythritol diacrylate monostearate (PEDAS), maleic anhydride (MA), and N-isopropylacrylamide (NiPAAm) or diacetone acrylamide (DAAm), was used. The cGEL provided a friendly three-dimensional (3D) cultivation environment for human melanocytes with increased melanin content of the 3D cultures in comparison to Collagen Cell Carrier® (CCC), a commercially available bovine decellularized collagen membrane, and electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) matrices. One of the cGEL variants fostered not only a dramatic increase in melanin production but also a significant enhancement of melanotic gene PAX3, PMEL, TYR, and MITF expression in comparison to that of both CCC full-length collagen and PCL scaffolds, providing a clearly superior melanocyte niche that may be a suitable candidate for grafting carriers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 3115-3126, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A genome-wide association scan in admixed Latin Americans identifies loci influencing facial and scalp hair features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fontanil, Tania; Cal, Santiago; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Al-Saadi, Farah; Johansson, Jeanette A.; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C.; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; López-Otín, Carlos; Tobin, Desmond J.; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10−8 to 3 × 10−119), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair. PMID:26926045

  15. Smokers′ hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A Zayed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Results: Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2% had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group while the other 103 (49.8% were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the "PHG" group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031. Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4 vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6, P = 0.034. Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6 more prone to develop PHG. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking.

  16. Smokers' hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A; Shahait, Awni D; Ayoub, Musa N; Yousef, Al-Motassem

    2013-04-01

    To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG) and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2%) had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group) while the other 103 (49.8%) were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the "PHG" group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031). Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4) vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6), P = 0.034). Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6) more prone to develop PHG. This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half) between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking.

  17. Determination of mercury in reference materials and head hair samples of human populations from Serra do Navio, Amapa State, Brazil, by neutron activation analysis method; Analise de mercurio em materiais de referencia e em amostras de cabelo de populacoes da regiao da Serra do Navio (Estado do Amapa) pelo metodo de analise por ativacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Paletti, Gerson; Saiki, Mitiko; Favaro, Debora I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica

    1996-07-01

    Mercury analysis of human head hair has been of much concern in connection with mercury contamination deriving from gold exploration activities. Neutron activation analysis has been applied as a highly sensitive and accurate method. Total mercury is being determined in hair samples from populations from the regions of Serra do Navio, Tartarugalzinho and Vila Nova, in the Amapa State, Brazil. The reference materials IAEA - 085 and IAEA - 086 were also analysed. The range of total mercury analysis is o,21 - 18,84 ppm. These results show a possible contamination, comparing to a control group analysed. (author)

  18. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating.......20-0.71 and 0.80-1.63) per exercise. The results revealed relative standard deviations of 7.87-13.55% and 4.04-11.31% for the low and high mercury concentration ranges, respectively. A total of 16 out of 18 participating laboratories the QAP requirements and were allowed to analyze samples from the DEMOCOPHES...

  19. The isoelectric focusing of keratins in hair followed by silver staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo, A; Concheiro, L; Requena, I

    1985-01-01

    An isoelectric focusing method followed by silver staining has been developed for the study of keratins which is as effective as two-dimensional electrophoresis and fluorography for hair species identification. Hair from dogs, rabbits, horses, cows, guinea-pigs, donkeys, sheep and cats were successfully identified. Narrow pH ranges were used to observe heterogeneity in human hair. Although this heterogeneity may be affected by environmental conditions, it may be of use in criminalistics.

  20. [Body hair and advertising in French magazines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héas, S; Bodin, D; Robène, L; Misery, L

    2007-10-01

    Sociological analysis of advertising reveals the currently operative body codes within a society, and more fundamentally, depicts the (ideal) relationships between men and women, between generations, and so on. To demonstrate that sports advertising based largely on trichological stereotypes. The idealised portrayal of human relations in advertisements (N=700) taken from French magazines was analysed by means of systematic coding and use of analytical software. This approach allowed characterisation of each advertisement in relation to the entire sample, with identification of significant elements (dominant colour, stature of models, setting, etc.), and determination of frequency of appearance and occurrence as well as testing of dependency relations. There were significant differences in the portrayal of men and women in advertisements. In the 700 advertisements in the series we examined, male subjects very often had short hair (231 cases, 33%) or shaved heads (33 cases, 4.7%) while women were shown with long hair, either free (80 cases) or tied (73 cases). Women with short hair were rarely portrayed (4.3%), as were men with long hair (42 cases, 6%). Above all, with the exception of eyebrows and eyelashes, no other body hair was seen in male and female athletic figures in 238 advertisements, being visible in only 60 cases (8.6%). Facial stubble, and more particularly beards and moustaches, was fairly infrequent, despite the omnipresence of male models. The majority of advertising situations involving sporting figures show clear stereotyping. Body hair is a pertinent pointer to understanding of contemporary sports models. A clear overall male/female distinction was present throughout. Men were presented in these adverts as active figures, leaders, etc. while women tended to be passive, spectators, and in some cases, admiring onlookers. A degree of confusion between genders was noticeable as a result of the shaving and depilation trends currently in vogue in the

  1. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  2. Hair regrowth after cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, S.L.; Whitton, A.; Plowman, P.N. (Saint Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (UK))

    1983-07-01

    Florid scalp hair regrowth following the depilatory effects of both whole cranial radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy is described in a patient who simultaneously exhibited acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa in the head and neck region. The regrowth of more youthful and more senile scalp hair following cranial radiotherapy are exemplified in two further case reports.

  3. Professionalizing hair care in Tonga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2013-01-01

    In the course of the last two decades, Nuku'alofa, the capital of Tonga, witnessed an explosion of a particular kind of business, hair salons. For owners, workers, and customers alike, hair salons represent modernity and cosmopolitanism, and they thus attract a particular kind of clientele and

  4. Synthesis and characterization of composite polymer, polyethylene glycol grafted flower-like cupric nano oxide for solid phase microextraction of ultra-trace levels of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and o-xylene in human hair and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafraz-Yazdi, Ali; Zendegi-Shiraz, Amene; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad

    2015-10-30

    In this research, poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (ethylene glycol) grafted flower-like cupric oxidenano particles (PEG-PEG-g-CuO NPs) as a novel fiber coating of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) were synthesized by using sol-gel technology. This fiber was successfully applied to extract and determine the ultra-trace levels of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and o-xylene in human hair using head space-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Characterization and chemical composition of the nano particle was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) and back scatter analysis (BSA). These methods confirmed the successful fabrication of PEG-g-CuO NPs. The surface morphology of the fibers were inspected by scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed many "crack-like" features and highly porous structure on the surface of fiber. The synthesized nanocomposites were used for preconcentration and extraction of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and o-xylene (BTEX). The effects of operating parameters such as: desorption temperature and time, extraction temperature, extraction time, stirring speed and salt effect were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the method detection limits and the limits of quantification were between 0.00025-50.00000pgmL(-1) and 0.00200-200.00000pgmL(-1), respectively. Linearity was observed over a range 0.00200-200000.00000pgmL(-1). The relative standard deviations for one fiber (repeatability; n=5) were obtained from 3.30 up to 5.01% and between fibers or batch to batch (n=3; reproducibility) in the range of 3.63-6.21%. The developed method was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of BTEX in human hairs, tap water and distillate water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A toddler with hair fascination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Patricia; Needlman, Robert D; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    Joseph is a 24-months old boy referred by his pediatrician because of an "obsession" with pulling and eating hair. When Joseph was 14 months old, he enjoyed touching and twirling his mother's long hair. She observed that it seemed to provide comfort to him. At 18 months, he initiated pulling out and eating his own hair, twirling his mother's hair around his thumb and then sucking on it. Currently, he searches the carpet or a hard floor and looks for hair to eat. The identical behavior is observed at daycare. Joseph's teacher commented, "He pulled hair from a girl who has the longest hair of all the children. We try to distract him from this habit, but he is not distracted for long." Less frequently, Joseph has also eaten sand, chalk, and crayons at daycare. Joseph's mother describes him as a "happy and outgoing" child who interacts with his peers and has a best friend at the daycare. There have not been recent changes or stressful events in his life. Joseph separates from his mother with ease and he sleeps comfortably through the night in his own bed. There have been no episodes of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or constipation. Strands of hair are occasionally seen in the stool. Prenatal and perinatal history was unremarkable. Joseph was breast-fed for 11 months, described as an "easy" baby, achieved motor, social, and language developmental milestones at the usual time, and has been in excellent health. He lives with his mother and maternal grandparents; the biological father has never been involved in his care. At 20 months, Joseph's pediatrician suggested cutting his hair. After several haircuts, Joseph stopped pulling his own hair. However, he continued to search the floor for hair. Hemoglobin and a blood lead level were normal. Joseph appeared pleasant and friendly with normal growth parameters and facial features. He was sitting comfortably on his mother's lap, sucking on his thumb. Social interactions with his mother were appropriate and reciprocal. He

  6. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  7. UTM Weather Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William N.; Kopardekar, Parimal H.; Carmichael, Bruce; Cornman, Larry

    2017-01-01

    Presentation highlighting how weather affected UAS operations during the UTM field tests. Research to develop UAS weather translation models with a description of current and future work for UTM weather.

  8. Time course of cortisol loss in hair segments under immersion in hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jifeng; Xie, Qiaozhen; Gao, Wei; Xu, Youyun; Wang, Shuang; Deng, Huihua; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-02-18

    Hair cortisol is supposed to be a good biomarker of chronic stress. Major loss of hair cortisol in long-term exposure to environmental factors affected strongly its proper assessment of chronic stress in human. However, there was no research on time course of hair cortisol loss during the long-term exposure. Hair samples with longer than 1cm in the posterior vertex region were cut as close as possible to the scalp. The 1-cm hair samples were treated by ultraviolet irradiation or immersion in shampoo solution or water immersion at 40, 65 and 80°C. Hair cortisol content was determined with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Ultraviolet irradiation and immersion in shampoo solution and hot water gave rise to the significant cortisol loss in hair. Hair cortisol content was sharply decreased with water immersion duration during initial stage and slowly decreased in the following stage. The 2-stage loss process with water immersion duration modeled to some extent time course of hair cortisol loss in long-term exposure to external environments. Cortisol from hair samples closest to the scalp in the posterior vertex could represent more accurately central hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Begum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta alba (L. Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq. F. Maek (Asiasari radix, and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly P>0.001 than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs. The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.

  10. Genetic variation at hair length candidate genes in elephants and the extinct woolly mammoth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisdale Michele

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like humans, the living elephants are unusual among mammals in being sparsely covered with hair. Relative to extant elephants, the extinct woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius, had a dense hair cover and extremely long hair, which likely were adaptations to its subarctic habitat. The fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5 gene affects hair length in a diverse set of mammalian species. Mutations in FGF5 lead to recessive long hair phenotypes in mice, dogs, and cats; and the gene has been implicated in hair length variation in rabbits. Thus, FGF5 represents a leading candidate gene for the phenotypic differences in hair length notable between extant elephants and the woolly mammoth. We therefore sequenced the three exons (except for the 3' UTR and a portion of the promoter of FGF5 from the living elephantid species (Asian, African savanna and African forest elephants and, using protocols for ancient DNA, from a woolly mammoth. Results Between the extant elephants and the mammoth, two single base substitutions were observed in FGF5, neither of which alters the amino acid sequence. Modeling of the protein structure suggests that the elephantid proteins fold similarly to the human FGF5 protein. Bioinformatics analyses and DNA sequencing of another locus that has been implicated in hair cover in humans, type I hair keratin pseudogene (KRTHAP1, also yielded negative results. Interestingly, KRTHAP1 is a pseudogene in elephantids as in humans (although fully functional in non-human primates. Conclusion The data suggest that the coding sequence of the FGF5 gene is not the critical determinant of hair length differences among elephantids. The results are discussed in the context of hairlessness among mammals and in terms of the potential impact of large body size, subarctic conditions, and an aquatic ancestor on hair cover in the Proboscidea.

  11. Photodynamic therapy for hair removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted hair is one of the most common medical problems affecting women of reproductive age inducing a lot of psychological stress and threatening their femininity and self-esteem. Old methods of removing unwanted hair include shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis, all of which have temporary results. However laser-assisted hair removal is the most efficient method of long-term hair removal currently available. It is desirable to develop a reduced cost photodynamic therapy (PDT system whose properties should include high efficiency and low side-effects. Method: Mice skin tissues were used in this study and divided into six groups such as controls, free methylene blue (MB incubation, liposome methylene blue (MB incubation, laser without methylene blue (MB, free methylene blue (MB for 3 and 4 hrs and laser, liposome methylene blue (MB for 3 hrs and laser. Methylene blue (MBwas applied to wax epilated areas. The areas were irradiated with CW He-Ne laser system that emits orange-red light with wavelength 632.8 nm and 10 mW at energy density of 5 J/ cm2 for 10 minutes. The UV-visible absorption spectrum was collected by Cary spectrophotometer. Results: Methylene blue (MB is selectively absorbed by actively growing hair follicles due to its cationic property. Methylene blue (MBuntreated sections showed that hair follicle and sebaceous gland are intact and there is no change due to the laser exposure. Free methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed that He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles, leaving an intact epidermis. Treated section with free methylene blue (MB for 4 hrs showed degeneration and necrosis in hair follicle, leaving an intact epidermis. Liposomal methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles with intradermal leucocytic infiltration. Conclusions: Low power CW He:Ne laser and methylene blue (MB offered a successful PDT system

  12. Topically applied glycyrrhizic acid causes hair removal in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivosevic-Zaper, Julijana; Hofmann, Matthias; Kakadjanova, Ayna; Valesky, Eva; Meissner, Markus; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen; Kaufmann, Roland; Bernd, August; Kippenberger, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Anecdotic reports from Turkmenistan suggest an epilatory effect of sweet licorice extract after topical application. This study examines hair removal after topical application of glycyrrhizic acid, the main compound of sweet licorice. An aqueous solution containing 15% of the ammonium salt of glycyrrhizic acid, 10% urea, and 20% ethanol was topically applied two times per day on the neck areas of Wistar rats using a toothbrush. After 3 d, 20-30% of the treated areas were free of hair. After treatment for 6-12 d, 90-95% of the hair was gone. Clinical as well as immunohistological examinations showed no signs of inflammation even after long-term treatment for more than 9 months. Interestingly, long-term treatment reduced the regrowth of hair of about 20%. Examination by scanning electron microscopy showed a smoothed hair cuticle that might facilitate detachment of the hair shaft from the follicular wall. Our findings suggest glycyrrhizic acid as an interesting molecule for treating hypertrichosis in humans.

  13. Relationships Between Element Contents in Polish Children's and Adolescents' Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długaszek, Maria; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech

    2017-03-10

    Environment, sex, and age are the main factors which determine the elemental composition of hair. The objective of the study is to determine the contents of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in girls' and boys' hair in five age groups (within 1-19-year range) corresponding to successive human ontogenesis phases as well as to evaluate the relationships between these elements. Quantitative analysis has been carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Experimental results were analyzed using classic and principal component (PCA) statistical analyses. In particular, differences between contents of particularly Ca, Mg, and Zn in girls' and boys' hair were found, and substantial differences between age groups were stated. In general, larger amounts of Ca, Mg, and Zn as compared to boys' hair have been observed for girls' hair and higher toxic element (Pb, Cd) contents for boys were measured in some age groups. An increasing trend was found for bioelements (Ca, Mg, Zn) both for girls and boys in all age groups, while for Cu and Fe content, changes are insignificant and even decreasing for teenagers. The most frequently correlating element pairs are Ca-Mg, Ca-Zn, Mg-Zn, and Pb-Cd. Classic and PCA statistics show, in general, a satisfactory consistence. The elemental composition of hair varies depending on the gender and age of children and young people.

  14. Evaluation of mercury contamination in dogs using hair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tomas; Blahova, Jana; Sedlackova, Lenka; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2015-01-01

    The present work is aimed at assessing the mercury contamination of dogs through the analysis of hair. For the determination of the total mercury in dogs, we chose skin derivatives--hair. The content of total mercury was also measured in the pelleted feed. Dogs were divided into two groups. The first group (group A) was fed granular feed containing fish and the second group (group B) granular feed free of fish. A total of 131 hair and granular feed samples were collected. The total mercury in hair and granular feed samples was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry on AMA 254. The values of the total mercury content in the hair of dogs had a median value of 0.0375 mg.kg(-1) in group A and of 0.0336 mg.kg(-1) in group B. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups (p>0.05). The median values of the total mercury were 0.0048 mg.kg(-1) in group A and 0.0017 mg.kg(-1) in group B, respectively. A highly statistically significant difference between the groups was found (pmercury content in the hair of dogs and granulated feed (rs=0.2069, p>0.05). The reason may be a content of various mercury species in feed samples or a human failure (nonobservance of the prescribed diet).

  15. Hair decontamination procedure prior to multi-class pesticide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duca, Radu-Corneliu; Hardy, Emilie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2014-06-01

    Although increasing interest is being observed in hair analysis for the biomonitoring of human exposure to pesticides, some limitations still have to be addressed for optimum use of this matrix in that specific context. One main possible issue concerns the need to differentiate chemicals biologically incorporated into hair from those externally deposited on hair surface from contaminated air or dust. The present study focuses on the development of a washing procedure for the decontamination of hair before analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes. For this purpose, three different procedures of artificial contamination (with silica, cellulose, and aqueous solution) were used to simulate pesticides deposition on hair surface. Several washing solvents (four organic: acetone, dichloromethane, methanol, acetonitrile; and four aqueous: water, phosphate buffer, shampoo, sodium dodecylsulfate) were evaluated for their capacity to remove artificially deposited pesticides from hair surface. The most effective washing solvents were sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol for aqueous and organic solvents, respectively. Moreover, after a first washing with sodium dodecylsulfate or methanol, the majority of externally deposited pesticides was removed and a steady-state was reached since significantly lower amounts were removed by additional second and third washings. Finally, the effectiveness of a decontamination procedure comprising washing with sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol was successively demonstrated. In parallel, it was determined that the final procedure did not affect the chemicals biologically incorporated, as hair strands naturally containing pesticides were used. Such a procedure appears to remove in one-shot the fraction of chemicals located on hair surface and does not require repeated washing steps. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Heritability and Genome-Wide Association Studies for Hair Color in a Dutch Twin Family Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bochao Danae; Mbarek, Hamdi; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dolan, Conor V.; Fedko, Iryna O.; Abdellaoui, Abdel; de Geus, Eco J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Hair color is one of the most visible and heritable traits in humans. Here, we estimated heritability by structural equation modeling (N = 20,142), and performed a genome wide association (GWA) analysis (N = 7091) and a GCTA study (N = 3340) on hair color within a large cohort of twins, their parents and siblings from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Self-reported hair color was analyzed as five binary phenotypes, namely “blond versus non-blond”, “red versus non-red”, “brown versus non-brown”, “black versus non-black”, and “light versus dark”. The broad-sense heritability of hair color was estimated between 73% and 99% and the genetic component included non-additive genetic variance. Assortative mating for hair color was significant, except for red and black hair color. From GCTA analyses, at most 24.6% of the additive genetic variance in hair color was explained by 1000G well-imputed SNPs. Genome-wide association analysis for each hair color showed that SNPs in the MC1R region were significantly associated with red, brown and black hair, and also with light versus dark hair color. Five other known genes (HERC2, TPCN2, SLC24A4, IRF4, and KITLG) gave genome-wide significant hits for blond, brown and light versus dark hair color. We did not find and replicate any new loci for hair color. PMID:26184321

  17. Heritability and Genome-Wide Association Studies for Hair Color in a Dutch Twin Family Based Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochao Danae Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair color is one of the most visible and heritable traits in humans. Here, we estimated heritability by structural equation modeling (N = 20,142, and performed a genome wide association (GWA analysis (N = 7091 and a GCTA study (N = 3340 on hair color within a large cohort of twins, their parents and siblings from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR. Self-reported hair color was analyzed as five binary phenotypes, namely “blond versus non-blond”, “red versus non-red”, “brown versus non-brown”, “black versus non-black”, and “light versus dark”. The broad-sense heritability of hair color was estimated between 73% and 99% and the genetic component included non-additive genetic variance. Assortative mating for hair color was significant, except for red and black hair color. From GCTA analyses, at most 24.6% of the additive genetic variance in hair color was explained by 1000G well-imputed SNPs. Genome-wide association analysis for each hair color showed that SNPs in the MC1R region were significantly associated with red, brown and black hair, and also with light versus dark hair color. Five other known genes (HERC2, TPCN2, SLC24A4, IRF4, and KITLG gave genome-wide significant hits for blond, brown and light versus dark hair color. We did not find and replicate any new loci for hair color.

  18. The Hair Follicle: A Comparative Review of Canine Hair Follicle Anatomy and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-06-01

    The hair follicle (HF) has a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical and immunological protection against external insults, sensory perception, social interactions, and camouflage. One of the most characteristic features of HFs is that they self-renew during hair cycle (HC) throughout the entire life of an individual to continuously produce new hair. HC disturbances are common in humans and comparable to some alopecic disorders in dogs. A normal HC is maintained by follicular stem cells (SCs), which are predominately found in an area known as the bulge. Due to similar morphological characteristics of the human and canine bulge area, the particularity of compound HFs in humans and dogs as well as similarities in follicular biomarker expression, the dog might be a promising model to study human HC and SC disorders. In this review, we give an overview of normal follicular anatomy, the HC, and follicular SCs and discuss the possible pathogenetic mechanisms of noninflammatory alopecia. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  20. Stress and Hair Loss: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of your body. Hair pulling can be a way of dealing with ... possibly including severe stress. With alopecia areata, the body's immune system attacks the hair follicles — causing hair loss. Stress and hair loss ...

  1. Mechanotransduction in mouse inner ear hair cells requires transmembrane channel-like genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Géléoc, Gwenaëlle S G; Kurima, Kiyoto; Labay, Valentina; Lelli, Andrea; Asai, Yukako; Makishima, Tomoko; Wu, Doris K; Della Santina, Charles C; Holt, Jeffrey R; Griffith, Andrew J

    2011-12-01

    Inner ear hair cells convert the mechanical stimuli of sound, gravity, and head movement into electrical signals. This mechanotransduction process is initiated by opening of cation channels near the tips of hair cell stereocilia. Since the identity of these ion channels is unknown, and mutations in the gene encoding transmembrane channel-like 1 (TMC1) cause hearing loss without vestibular dysfunction in both mice and humans, we investigated the contribution of Tmc1 and the closely related Tmc2 to mechanotransduction in mice. We found that Tmc1 and Tmc2 were expressed in mouse vestibular and cochlear hair cells and that GFP-tagged TMC proteins localized near stereocilia tips. Tmc2 expression was transient in early postnatal mouse cochlear hair cells but persisted in vestibular hair cells. While mice with a targeted deletion of Tmc1 (Tmc1(Δ) mice) were deaf and those with a deletion of Tmc2 (Tmc2(Δ) mice) were phenotypically normal, Tmc1(Δ)Tmc2(Δ) mice had profound vestibular dysfunction, deafness, and structurally normal hair cells that lacked all mechanotransduction activity. Expression of either exogenous TMC1 or TMC2 rescued mechanotransduction in Tmc1(Δ)Tmc2(Δ) mutant hair cells. Our results indicate that TMC1 and TMC2 are necessary for hair cell mechanotransduction and may be integral components of the mechanotransduction complex. Our data also suggest that persistent TMC2 expression in vestibular hair cells may preserve vestibular function in humans with hearing loss caused by TMC1 mutations.

  2. Viscoelastic properties of α-keratin fibers in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Wen; André Meyers, Marc

    2017-12-01

    Considerable viscoelasticity and strain-rate sensitivity are a characteristic of α-keratin fibers, which can be considered a biopolymer. The understanding of viscoelasticity is an important part of the knowledge of the overall mechanical properties of these biological materials. Here, horse and human hairs are examined to analyze the sources of this response. The dynamic mechanical response of α-keratin fibers over a range of frequencies and temperatures is analyzed using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. The α-keratin fibers behave more elastically at higher frequencies while they become more viscous at higher temperatures. A glass transition temperature of ∼55°C is identified. The stress relaxation behavior of α-keratin fibers at two strains, 0.02 and 0.25, is established and fit to a constitutive equation based on the Maxwell-Wiechert model. The constitutive equation is further compared to the experimental results within the elastic region and a good agreement is obtained. The two relaxation constants, 14s and 359s for horse hair and 11s and 207s for human hair, are related to two hierarchical levels of relaxation: the amorphous matrix-intermediate filament interfaces, for the short term, and the cellular components for the long term. Results of the creep test also provide important knowledge on the uncoiling and phase transformation of the α-helical structure as hair is uniaxially stretched. SEM results show that horse hair has a rougher surface morphology and damaged cuticles. It also exhibits a lower strain-rate sensitivity of 0.05 compared to that of 0.11 for human hair. After the horse and human hairs are chemically treated and the disulfide bonds are cleaved, they exhibit a similar strain-rate sensitivity of ∼0.05. FTIR results confirms that the human hair is more sensitive to the -S-S- cleavage, resulting in an increase of cysteic acid content. Therefore, the disulfide bonds in the matrix are experimentally identified as one source of the strain

  3. Hair follicle proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    Proteoglycans are polymorphic macromolecules present in all mammalian tissues, including the skin and its appendages. They consist of a core protein to which one or more glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently attached. Broadly, they can be divided into classes based on location and core protein...... structure. These classes include cell surface proteoglycans, basement membrane proteoglycans, small leucine-rich proteoglycans, large proteoglycans aggregating with hyaluronan, and intracellular granule proteoglycans. They have a wide range of functions, but little is known of the proteoglycans...... that are present in the epithelial and stromal compartments of hair follicles. However, the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan may be important in follicle morphogenesis, both with respect to the epithelium and dermal papilla cells. Syndecan may possess both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains, interacts...

  4. Hair Cortisol in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu

    2017-01-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors....... However, whether HCC and psychological variables share genetic risk factors remains unclear. The aims of the present twin study were to: (i) assess the heritability of HCC; (ii) estimate the phenotypic and genetic correlation between HPA axis activity and the psychological variables perceived stress...... depression, and neuroticism were calculated using data from large genome wide association studies. The twin model revealed a heritability for HCC of 72%. No significant phenotypic or genetic correlation was found between HCC and the three psychological variables of interest. PRS did not explain variance...

  5. A mechanical model of overnight hair curling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hang; Chen, Xi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the observation of overnight hair curling procedure, we establish a mechanical model to describe the temporary wave formation of straight hair (initial curvature is zero), which incorporates the contact between hair and hair roller. Systematic studies are carried out to explore the effects of radius ratio between hair and hair roller, hair's average axial strain, creep time, Poisson's ratio and gravity on the curl retention. The variation of curl retention with respect to time obtained from our numerical model is validated by a simple theoretical model and by overnight curling experiments on hair samples. The results of simulation show that overnight hair curling is suitable to create a wavy hairstyle within about 7 hours, while the combined usage with hair fixatives enables a wavy hairstyle with desired curvature that lasts for a day or more.

  6. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes...

  7. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements. All color additives shall be... suitable for coloring the human body, shall state: (1) The name of the straight color or the name of each...

  8. Detection of Mercury in Human Organs and Hair in a Case of a Homicidal Poisoning of a Woman Autopsied 6 Years After Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    In the described case of the death of a 53-year-old woman, no toxicological examination was performed directly after death (only an anatomopathological autopsy), although symptoms of serious gastrointestinal disturbances had been present (the woman had been hospitalized twice in the course of several months). It was assumed that the cause of death was myocardial infarction. Five years later, some new circumstances came to light which suggested that somebody could have administered some poison (metals, cyanides) to the woman. Toxicological analysis of postmortem samples from the corpse, exhumed 6 years after death by order of the public prosecutor's office, revealed high tissue mercury contents in biological material (cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry): small intestine, 1516 ng/g; large intestine, 487 ng/g; liver, 1201 ng/g; heart muscle, 1023 ng/g; and scalp hair, 227 ng/g. In samples of soil from places near the coffin, negligible traces of mercury were found (0.5-1.5 ng/g); contamination by mercury from the environment was ruled out. The presented case is a rare example of recognition of mercury poisoning on the basis of the results of analysis of biological material from an exhumed cadaver.

  9. Weather in Your Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  10. Weather and human impacts on forest fires: 100 years of fire history in two climatic regions of Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zumbrunnen, T.; Pezzatti, B.; Menendez, P.; Bugmann, H.; Brgi, M.; Conedera, M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving past fire regimes is crucial in the context of global change as a basis for predicting future changes. In this study, we aimed to identify the impact of climate and human activities on fire occurrence in the most fire-prone regions of Switzerland. We considered

  11. Weather and human impacts on forest fires: 100 years of fire history in two climatic regions of Switzerland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zumbrunnen, Thomas; Pezzatti, Gianni B; Menéndez, Patricia; Bugmann, Harald; Bürgi, Matthias; Conedera, Marco

    2011-01-01

    ... ). As forest fires represent a risk for humans and have a strong impact on ecosystems, these changes call for scientists and managers to adapt their standards and strategies based on sound knowledge. Thus, it is essential to identify and disentangle the factors that influence fire regimes. The factors influencing fire regimes range from biotic to ab...

  12. Local knowledge of fishermen in weather prediction in Moa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , sea worms, marine mammals, terrestrial animals, amphibians, human beings, birds, insects, sea rubbish, moon, clouds, rainbow, sun, sea sand, stars and sky, to predict weather change in their localities. Of the many weather parameters ...

  13. Treatments for unwanted facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal.

  14. Hair-Thread Tourniquet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gokcen

    2016-01-01

    Two month-old male infant was brought to the emergency service with the complaint of fever, uneasiness, and swelling on 4th-5th toes of right foot.  Apparent swelling, rubescence and increase in heat were seen and a constrictive band was observed to surround proximal phalanges of both toes in the physical examination of the patient (Figure 1.  A hair was found on the constrictive band surrounding both toes. The hair was removed by means of forceps. Oral antibiotic was administered to the patient. The patient was treated successfully by not letting a necrosis develop on the toes. It should be remembered that hair-thread tourniquet syndrome may be observed in the infant patients applying to the hospital with the complaints of unexplained fever and uneasiness. Figure 1: Appearance of the toes right after the hair was removed. Arrows show the constrictive band. 

  15. Protection of oxidative hair color fading from shampoo washing by hydrophobically modified cationic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Foltis, L; Moore, D J; Rigoletto, R

    2009-01-01

    The fading of oxidative color in hair as a result of daily shampoo washing activities has become a common problem and a source of frequent complaints by consumers. The fading occurs primarily through hair dye solubility in water. One aspect of the current study investigates the physical and chemical factors that influence hair color fading during the washing process. This is accomplished by testing hair dye dissolution in water from dyed hair samples with variation of surfactant type, pH, and hair type. Furthermore, a new approach to preventing color fading is developed aiming to provide an effective barrier function for hair dye from dissolving into water. The preliminary investigation of a series of polymers with various functional groups indicates that polymers with hydrophobically modified and cationic functionalities are most effective in preventing hair dye dissolution in water. It is also evident that a synergistic effect of the polymer's hydrophobic moieties and cationic charges are important on hair color protection during shampoo washing processes. A primary example of a polymer within this category is a cationic terpolymer of vinylpyrrolidone, dimethylaminopropyl methacrylamide, and methacryloylaminopropyl lauryldimonium chloride (INCI: Polyquaternium-55). The color protection benefit of this polymer is evaluated using newly developed methodologies for evaluating hair color changes, such as hair color fading tests through multiple shampoo washes with mannequin heads and hair tresses, both derived from human hair, colorimetry, and quantitative digital image analysis. In addition, new infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques are used to detect the hair dye deposition behavior inside hair fibers both with and without the color protection treatment. Both visual and instrumental measurement results indicate that Polyquaternium-55 provides a high level of color protection when formulated in a hair color protection regimen with up to 50% color protection. This

  16. Hair and stress: A pilot study of hair and cytokine balance alteration in healthy young women under major exam stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M J Peters

    Full Text Available Mouse models show that experimental stress mimicking prolonged life-stress exposure enhances neurogenic inflammation, induces adaptive immunity cytokine-imbalance characterized by a shift to Type 1 T-helper cell cytokines and increases apoptosis of epithelial cells. This affects hair growth in otherwise healthy animals. In this study, we investigate whether a prolonged naturalistic life-stress exposure affects cytokine balance and hair parameters in healthy humans. 33 (18 exam, 15 comparison female medical students with comparable sociobiological status were analyzed during a stressful final examination period, at three points in time (T 12 weeks apart. T1 was before start of the learning period, T2 between the three-day written exam and an oral examination, and T3 after a 12 week rest and recovery from the stress of the examination period. Assessments included: self-reported distress and coping strategies (Perceived Stress Questionnaire [PSQ], Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress [TICS], COPE, cytokines in supernatants of stimulated peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMCs, and trichogram (hair cycle and pigmentation analysis. Comparison between students participating in the final medical exam at T2 and non-exam students, revealed significantly higher stress perception in exam students. Time-wise comparison revealed that stress level, TH1/TH2 cytokine balance and hair parameters changed significantly from T1 to T2 in the exam group, but not the control. However, no group differences were found for cytokine balance or hair parameters at T2. The study concludes that in humans, naturalistic stress, as perceived during participation in a major medical exam, has the potential to shift the immune response to TH1 and transiently hamper hair growth, but these changes stay within a physiological range. Findings are instructive for patients suffering from hair loss in times of high stress. Replication in larger and more diverse sample

  17. Hair and stress: A pilot study of hair and cytokine balance alteration in healthy young women under major exam stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Eva M J; Müller, Yvonne; Snaga, Wenke; Fliege, Herbert; Reißhauer, Anett; Schmidt-Rose, Thomas; Max, Heiner; Schweiger, Dorothea; Rose, Matthias; Kruse, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Mouse models show that experimental stress mimicking prolonged life-stress exposure enhances neurogenic inflammation, induces adaptive immunity cytokine-imbalance characterized by a shift to Type 1 T-helper cell cytokines and increases apoptosis of epithelial cells. This affects hair growth in otherwise healthy animals. In this study, we investigate whether a prolonged naturalistic life-stress exposure affects cytokine balance and hair parameters in healthy humans. 33 (18 exam, 15 comparison) female medical students with comparable sociobiological status were analyzed during a stressful final examination period, at three points in time (T) 12 weeks apart. T1 was before start of the learning period, T2 between the three-day written exam and an oral examination, and T3 after a 12 week rest and recovery from the stress of the examination period. Assessments included: self-reported distress and coping strategies (Perceived Stress Questionnaire [PSQ], Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress [TICS]), COPE), cytokines in supernatants of stimulated peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMCs), and trichogram (hair cycle and pigmentation analysis). Comparison between students participating in the final medical exam at T2 and non-exam students, revealed significantly higher stress perception in exam students. Time-wise comparison revealed that stress level, TH1/TH2 cytokine balance and hair parameters changed significantly from T1 to T2 in the exam group, but not the control. However, no group differences were found for cytokine balance or hair parameters at T2. The study concludes that in humans, naturalistic stress, as perceived during participation in a major medical exam, has the potential to shift the immune response to TH1 and transiently hamper hair growth, but these changes stay within a physiological range. Findings are instructive for patients suffering from hair loss in times of high stress. Replication in larger and more diverse sample populations is

  18. Hair and stress: A pilot study of hair and cytokine balance alteration in healthy young women under major exam stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Eva M. J.; Müller, Yvonne; Snaga, Wenke; Fliege, Herbert; Reißhauer, Anett; Schmidt-Rose, Thomas; Max, Heiner; Schweiger, Dorothea; Rose, Matthias; Kruse, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Mouse models show that experimental stress mimicking prolonged life-stress exposure enhances neurogenic inflammation, induces adaptive immunity cytokine-imbalance characterized by a shift to Type 1 T-helper cell cytokines and increases apoptosis of epithelial cells. This affects hair growth in otherwise healthy animals. In this study, we investigate whether a prolonged naturalistic life-stress exposure affects cytokine balance and hair parameters in healthy humans. 33 (18 exam, 15 comparison) female medical students with comparable sociobiological status were analyzed during a stressful final examination period, at three points in time (T) 12 weeks apart. T1 was before start of the learning period, T2 between the three-day written exam and an oral examination, and T3 after a 12 week rest and recovery from the stress of the examination period. Assessments included: self-reported distress and coping strategies (Perceived Stress Questionnaire [PSQ], Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress [TICS]), COPE), cytokines in supernatants of stimulated peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMCs), and trichogram (hair cycle and pigmentation analysis). Comparison between students participating in the final medical exam at T2 and non-exam students, revealed significantly higher stress perception in exam students. Time-wise comparison revealed that stress level, TH1/TH2 cytokine balance and hair parameters changed significantly from T1 to T2 in the exam group, but not the control. However, no group differences were found for cytokine balance or hair parameters at T2. The study concludes that in humans, naturalistic stress, as perceived during participation in a major medical exam, has the potential to shift the immune response to TH1 and transiently hamper hair growth, but these changes stay within a physiological range. Findings are instructive for patients suffering from hair loss in times of high stress. Replication in larger and more diverse sample populations is

  19. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse. IX. Comparison of deprenyl use and methamphetamine use by hair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikura, R; Nakahara, Y

    1995-02-01

    Deprenyl (DPN) and its metabolites, desmethyl deprenyl (desmethyl DPN), methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AP), in the hair of rats and humans dosed with DPN were analyzed by selected ion monitoring of gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-SIM). After intraperitoneal administration of DPN-HCl to rats (10 mg/kg/d, 10d, n = 3), the area under the concentration versus time curves (AUCs) of DPN and its metabolites in the rat plasma were compared with the concentrations of drugs in rat hair newly grown for 4 weeks. The concentrations of DPN, desmethyl DPN, MA and AP in the rat hair were 0.97 +/- 0.06, 0.68 +/- 0.02, 14.04 +/- 0.54 and 13.20 +/- 1.09 ng/mg, and the ratios of the concentrations in the hair to AUCs in their plasma were 0.05: 0.02: 0.3: 0.2, respectively. This fact suggested that the incorporation rates of DPN and desmethyl DPN into hair from blood were relatively lower than those of MA and AP. The method was applied to determination of the metabolites in scalp hair, beard and urine of humans who orally ingested DPN (15 mg/d, 5 d, n = 3). DPN (trace level), desmethyl DPN (0.17-0.29 ng/mg), MA (1.30-2.25 ng/mg) and AP (0.42-0.99 ng/mg) were detected in the scalp hair collected three weeks after the first intake, while in beard or urine these drugs were detected only for a few days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Laser hair removal: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Stephanie D; Graber, Emmy M

    2013-06-01

    Unwanted hair growth is a common aesthetic problem. Laser hair removal has emerged as a leading treatment option for long-term depilation. To extensively review the literature on laser hair removal pertaining to its theoretical basis, current laser and light-based devices, and their complications. Special treatment recommendations for darker skin types were considered. A comprehensive literature search related to the long-pulse alexandrite (755 nm), long-pulse diode (810 nm), long-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG; 1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) system, as well as newer home-use devices, was conducted. The literature supports the use of the alexandrite, diode, Nd:YAG and IPL devices for long-term hair removal. Because of its longer wavelength, the Nd:YAG is the best laser system to use for pigmented skin. Further research is needed regarding the safety and efficacy of home-use devices. Current in-office laser hair removal devices effectively provide a durable solution for unwanted hair removal. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Age-related hair changes in men: mechanisms and management of alopecia and graying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of human scalp hair is often tied to perceptions of youth and virility, especially in men. Hair loss, or alopecia and hair graying are commonly associated with advancing age and are frequently a source for emotional distress and anxiety. Our understanding of the complex molecular signals and mechanisms that regulate and influence the hair follicle has expanded in recent years. By harnessing this understanding we are poised to address the esthetic concerns of aging hair. Additionally, changes in the hair follicle may be a reflection of systemic senescent signals, thus because of its accessibility, the hair follicle may serve as an important research tool in gerontology. In this review, the most current knowledge and research regarding mechanisms of androgenetic alopecia, senescent alopecia, and graying are discussed, as are extrinsic factors that may contribute to hair changes with age. Evidence based management strategies for treatment of age-related hair changes are also reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they can continue to produce new hair growth. Platelet-rich plasma therapy: This therapy uses your own blood. After ... FPHL is still in the experimental stages. Like platelet-rich plasma therapy, more studies are needed to know whether ...

  3. Vitamin D3 synthesis in the entire skin surface of dairy cows despite hair coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2010-01-01

    synthesis in the skin during exposure to sunlight. Different scenarios have been suggested but never tested in cows; for example, that vitamin D3 is synthesized from sebum on the hair and ingested by cows during grooming or that body areas such as the udder and muzzle that have scant hair exclusively...... hair are not comparable with respect to prevention of vitamin D3 synthesis and that cows, like humans, synthesize vitamin D3 evenly over their body surface. That vitamin D3 should be synthesized from sebum on the hair and obtained by cows as a result of grooming is not supported by the findings......How hair-coated animals such as dairy cows synthesize endogenous vitamin D3 during exposure to summer sunlight has been unclear since vitamin D3 and its relation to sunlight was discovered. The fur of fur-bearing animals is thought to be comparable to clothing in humans, which prevents vitamin D3...

  4. Hair removal with a second generation broad spectrum intense pulsed light source--a long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troilius, A; Troilius, C

    1999-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for safe and efficient hair removal. Although long-term hair removal has been demonstrated using lasers and non-coherent light sources, permanent hair removal has been difficult to claim due to the long growth/rest cycle of normal human hair follicles. To evaluate bikini line hair removal with a second generation intense pulsed light (IPL) source. Ten females (20 bikini lines) with dark hair and skin types II-IV were treated with an IPL (600 nm) four times with a 1-month interval. Counting of the hair follicles was carried out with a computer imaging system before treatment, and 4 and 8 months after the treatments. Hair reduction of 74.7% (SD +/- 18.3%) was seen 4 months after the treatments and 80.2% (SD +/- 20.3%) 8 months after the last treatment. Only minimal side effects were noted and no pain or other discomfort was registered during the treatments. The present study demonstrated that this new IPL system is both efficient and safe for hair removal. Because the follow up period of 8 months is twice the cycle time for hairs in the bikini line area, the obtained hair reduction in this study was long-lasting.

  5. Hair: Markings on the Body and the Logic of Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrim, Nazir

    2009-01-01

    I draw on empirical research conducted among selected Grade 9 learners in schools in Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and the Western Cape in regard to their perceptions and experiences on human rights. Throughout, a convergence of these learners' experiences and perceptions occurred in relation to "hair", as the marking on their bodies which was…

  6. Space Weather, Environment and Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Our planet exists within a space environment affected by constantly changing solar atmosphere producing cosmic particles and electromagnetic waves. This "space weather" profoundly influences the performance of our technology because we primarily use two means for transmitting information and energy; namely, electromagnetic waves and electricity. On an everyday basis, we have developed methods to cope with the normal conditions. However, the sun remains a fiery star whose 'angry' outbursts can potentially destroy spacecrafts, kill astronauts, melt electricity transformers, stop trains, and generally wreak havoc with human activities. Space Weather is the developing field within astronomy that aims at predicting the sun’s violent activity and minimizing the impacts on our daily lives. Space Weather, Environment, and Societies explains why our technological societies are so dependent on solar activity and how the Sun disturbs the transmission of information and energy. Footnotes expand specific points and the ...

  7. WEATHER INDEX- THE BASIS OF WEATHER DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botos Horia Mircea

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of Weather Derivatives, more exactly their basic element the weather index. The weather index has two forms, the Heating Degree Day (HDD and the Cooling Degree Day (CDD. We will try to explain their origin, use and the relationship between the two forms of the index. In our research we started from the analysis of the weather derivatives and what they are based on. After finding out about weather index, we were interested in understanding exactly how they work and how they influence the value of the contract. On the national level the research in the field is scares, but foreign materials available. The study for this paper was based firstly on reading about Weather Derivative, and then going in the meteorogical field and determining the way by which the indices were determined. After this, we went to the field with interest in the indices, such as the energy and gas industries, and figured out how they determined the weather index. For the examples we obtained data from the weather index database, and calculated the value for the period. The study is made on a period of five years, in 8 cities of the European Union. The result of this research is that we can now understand better the importance of the way the indices work and how they influence the value of the Weather Derivatives. This research has an implication on the field of insurance, because of the fact that weather derivative are at the convergence point of the stock markets and the insurance market. The originality of the paper comes from the personal touch given to the theoretical aspect and through the analysis of the HDD and CDD index in order to show their general behaviour and relationship.

  8. Hair growth promoting activity of discarded biocomposite keratin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Md Rashedunnabi; Kim, Hak-Yong; Park, Mira; Kim, In-Shik; Ahn, Dongchoon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Byung-Yong

    2017-08-01

    Keratin biomaterial has been used in regenerative medicine owing to its in-vivo and in-vitro biocompatibility. The present study was aimed to investigate the hair growth promoting activity of keratin extract and its mechanism of action. Keratin extract was topically applied on the synchronized depilated dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 mice and promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase. The histomorphometric observation indicated significantly increases the number, shaft of hair follicles and deep subcutis area in the keratin extract treated group in contrast to the control group, which was considered an indication of anagen phase induction. Subsequently, the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that fibroblast growth factor-10, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, β-catenin, and Shh were expressed earlier in the keratin extract-treated group than in the control group. Besides, keratin extract has been observed to be biocompatible when analyzed with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining using immortalized human keratinocyte cells, showing more than 90% cell viability. Our study demonstrated that keratin extract stimulating hair follicle growth by inducing the growth phase; anagen in telogenic C57BL/6 mice and thus the topical application of keratin extract may represent a promising biomaterial for the management and applications of hair follicle disorder.

  9. Assessment of Heavy Metals on Occupationally Exposed Workers from Hair Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of human hair as a tool in assessing changes and abnormalities in human bodies has been increasing for last decades since it may reflect the health status or environmental condition of habitation or working place of individuals as well as population groups. Compared to other body tissue or fluids, hair provides an ease of elemental analysis especially in reflecting the long-term exposure. This research was conducted to determine the elemental content especially heavy metals, since they are bioaccumulated in human body organs and impact human health, in hair of workshop workers and traffic services officers as exposed groups and its comparison with control group and references data for assessing of occupational exposure. Thirty-five automotive workshop workers and 32 traffic services officers’ hair specimens were collected in Bandung, while hair specimens of the control group were collected from 43 healthy individuals. The elemental concentrations in hair specimen were analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA for mercury and chromium, and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS for lead and arsenic.  The accuracy of the method was evaluated using GBW 07601 human hair certified reference material (CRM and it was found to give good results in accordance with the certificate values. It was found that chromium, lead, and arsenic hair concentration in exposed groups (0.88, 10.7, and 0.051 mg/kg, respectively were higher than in control group (0.27, 4.52, and 0.045 mg/kg, respectively, while mercury hair concentration of traffic services officers were higher than control group but mercury hair concentration of automotive workshop workers were lower than in control group (1.41 mg/kg. The t-test statistical results shown that mercury concentrations in one exposed group did not differ significantly from the control, but other exposed groups showed otherwise. The level of mercury in hair is strongly attributed not only to environmental

  10. Effects of a Closed Space Environment on Gene Expression in Hair Follicles of Astronauts in the International Space Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Terada

    Full Text Available Adaptation to the space environment can sometimes pose physiological problems to International Space Station (ISS astronauts after their return to earth. Therefore, it is important to develop healthcare technologies for astronauts. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using hair follicles, a readily obtained sample, to assess gene expression changes in response to spaceflight adaptation. In order to investigate the gene expression changes in human hair follicles during spaceflight, hair follicles of 10 astronauts were analyzed by microarray and real time qPCR analyses. We found that spaceflight alters human hair follicle gene expression. The degree of changes in gene expression was found to vary among individuals. In some astronauts, genes related to hair growth such as FGF18, ANGPTL7 and COMP were upregulated during flight, suggesting that spaceflight inhibits cell proliferation in hair follicles.

  11. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose PT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paul T RoseHair Transplant Institute of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. Keywords: hair loss, alopecia, hair transplant, surgical procedure

  12. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  13. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  14. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  15. Land Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  16. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  17. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  18. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  19. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  20. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...