WorldWideScience

Sample records for weather station fuel

  1. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  2. Data Assimilation of Dead Fuel Moisture Observations from Remote automated Weather Stations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejmelka, Martin; Kochanski, A.; Mandel, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2016), s. 558-568 ISSN 1049-8001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) AGS-0835579 and DMS-1216481; NASA (US) NNX12AQ85G and NNX13AH9G. Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * dead fuel moisture * equilibrium * Kalman filter * remote automated weather stations * time lag model * trend surface model Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.748, year: 2016

  3. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  4. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  5. Severe weather data near nuclear power station and reprocessing fuel facility in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Tadahisa

    2017-01-01

    The main weather data are updated at any time. The strong wind and tornado (strong wind/tornado) data are opened until March 2016 in Japan. The main weather and the strong wind/tornado data near the nuclear power station (NPS) were investigated. The earthquake, Tunami and volcano were not mentioned on this report. The main weather data might not be severe. The maximum temperature had not been considered in the safety analysis of NPS. The weather data of some small observation posts near NPSs had not been considered. The unusual high temperature and the local severe rain near NPS by the global warming may be considered in future. The maximum intensities of the strong wind/tornado in Japan and near NPS were Fujita-scale 3 and 2, respectively. The maximum intensities of almost half NPSs were Fujita-scale 1. The intensity and the number of the strong winds/tornados differed depending on NPS. The Japanese main weather and strong wind/tornado might not be severe compared with other country. (author)

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles[mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area (Figure 1-2) was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a)

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure fueling stations by location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about ethanol fueling infrastructure; codes, standards, and safety; and ethanol equipment options. Maps & Data E85 Fueling Station

  8. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fueling Stations Photo of a location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about biodiesel fueling infrastructure codes Case Studies California Ramps Up Biofuels Infrastructure Green Fueling Station Powers Fleets in Upstate

  10. Weather Station: Palau: Koror: Ngeanges Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Since 2007, the Coral Reef Research Foundation (CRRF) has operated a Campbell Scientific automatic weather station (AWS) in Palau designed to measure...

  11. Weather Station: Hawaii: Oahu: Coconut Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) automatic weather station (AWS) records hourly measurements of precipitation, air temperature, wind speed and...

  12. NOAA Weather Radio - Station Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-Zero All Hazards Logo Emergency Alert Description Event Codes Fact Sheet FAQ Organization Search COVERAGE County Coverage Listings State Coverage Listings NWR Station Search Maps SAME SAME Coding Using

  13. Very Portable Remote Automatic Weather Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Warren

    1987-01-01

    Remote Automatic Weather Stations (RAWS) were introduced to Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management field units in 1978 following development, test, and evaluation activities conducted jointly by the two agencies. The original configuration was designed for semi-permanent installation. Subsequently, a need for a more portable RAWS was expressed, and one was...

  14. On-line data acquisition system for Aanderaa weather station

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    Aanderaa Weather Station can be installed at unattended remote places for collection of various weather parameters at regular preselected intervals. The weather parameters are recorded on the magnetic spool inside a battery operated datalogger which...

  15. Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kyrouac, Jenni A [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) is a surface meteorological station, manufactured by Vaisala, Inc., dedicated to the balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS), providing surface measurements of the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and the wind speed and direction for each radiosonde profile. These data are automatically provided to the BBSS during the launch procedure and included in the radiosonde profile as the surface measurements of record for the sounding. The MAWS core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (hPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable.

  16. National Weather Service (NWS) Station Information System (SIS), Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — National Weather Service (NWS) Station Information System (SIS) contains observing station metadata from November 2016 to present. These are renditions are used for...

  17. Optimizing Placement of Weather Stations: Exploring Objective Functions of Meaningful Combinations of Multiple Weather Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A.; Dietterich, T.; Selker, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Many regions of the world lack ground-based weather data due to inadequate or unreliable weather station networks. For example, most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have unreliable, sparse networks of weather stations. The absence of these data can have consequences on weather forecasting, prediction of severe weather events, agricultural planning, and climate change monitoring. The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (TAHMO.org) project seeks to address these problems by deploying and operating a large network of weather stations throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. To design the TAHMO network, we must determine where to place weather stations within each country. We should consider how we can create accurate spatio-temporal maps of weather data and how to balance the desired accuracy of each weather variable of interest (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, etc.). We can express this problem as a joint optimization of multiple weather variables, given a fixed number of weather stations. We use reanalysis data as the best representation of the "true" weather patterns that occur in the region of interest. For each possible combination of sites, we interpolate the reanalysis data between selected locations and calculate the mean average error between the reanalysis ("true") data and the interpolated data. In order to formulate our multi-variate optimization problem, we explore different methods of weighting each weather variable in our objective function. These methods include systematic variation of weights to determine which weather variables have the strongest influence on the network design, as well as combinations targeted for specific purposes. For example, we can use computed evapotranspiration as a metric that combines many weather variables in a way that is meaningful for agricultural and hydrological applications. We compare the errors of the weather station networks produced by each optimization problem formulation. We also compare these

  18. Spent fuel canister docking station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.

    2006-01-01

    The working report for the spent fuel canister docking station presents a design for the operation and structure of the docking equipment located in the fuel handling cell for the spent fuel in the encapsulation plant. The report contains a description of the basic requirements for the docking station equipment and their implementation, the operation of the equipment, maintenance and a cost estimate. In the designing of the equipment all the problems related with the operation have been solved at the level of principle, nevertheless, detailed designing and the selection of final components have not yet been carried out. In case of defects and failures, solutions have been considered for postulated problems, and furthermore, the entire equipment was gone through by the means of systematic risk analysis (PFMEA). During the docking station designing we came across with needs to influence the structure of the actual disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel, too. Proposed changes for the structure of the steel lid fastening screw were included in the report. The report also contains a description of installation with the fuel handling cell structures. The purpose of the docking station for the fuel handling cell is to position and to seal the disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel into a penetration located on the cell floor and to provide suitable means for executing the loading of the disposal canister and the changing of atmosphere. The designed docking station consists of a docking ring, a covering hatch, a protective cone and an atmosphere-changing cap as well as the vacuum technology pertaining to the changing of atmosphere and the inert gas system. As far as the solutions are concerned, we have arrived at rather simple structures and most of the actuators of the system are situated outside of the actual fuel handling cell. When necessary, the equipment can also be used for the dismantling of a faulty disposal canister, cut from its upper end by machining. The

  19. A 31-day battery-operated recording weather station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Barney

    1972-01-01

    The battery-powered recording weather station measures and records wet bulb temperature, dry bulb temperature, wind travel, and rainfall for 31 days. Assembly procedures and cost of supplies and components are discussed.

  20. 14 CFR 25.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.961 Fuel system hot weather operation. (a) The fuel system must perform satisfactorily in hot weather operation. This... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system hot weather operation. 25.961...

  1. 14 CFR 27.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.961 Fuel system hot weather operation. Each suction lift fuel system and other fuel systems with features conducive to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system hot weather operation. 27.961...

  2. 14 CFR 29.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.961 Fuel system hot weather operation. Each suction lift fuel system and other fuel systems conducive to vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system hot weather operation. 29.961...

  3. 14 CFR 23.961 - Fuel system hot weather operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system hot weather operation. 23.961... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.961 Fuel system hot weather operation. Each fuel system must be free from vapor lock...

  4. National FCEV and Hydrogen Fueling Station Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Brian; Melaina, Marc

    2016-06-09

    This presentation provides a summary of the FY16 activities and accomplishments for NREL's national fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) and hydrogen fueling station scenarios project. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2016 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 9, 2016, in Washington, D.C.

  5. Design and realization of an automatic weather station at island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-hua; Li, Si-ren

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, the design and development of an automatic weather station monitoring is described. The proposed system consists of a set of sensors for measuring meteorological parameters (temperature, wind speed & direction, rain fall, visibility, etc.). To increase the reliability of the system, wind speed & direction are measured redundantly with duplicate sensors. The sensor signals are collected by the data logger CR1000 at several analog and digital inputs. The CR1000 and the sensors form a completely autonomous system which works with the other systems installed in the container. Communication with the master PC is accomplished over the method of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) with the Compact Caimore6550P CDMA DTU. The data are finally stored in tables on the CPU as well as on the CF-Card. The weather station was built as an efficient autonomous system which operates with the other systems to provide the required data for a fully automatic measurement system.

  6. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  7. Development of an Open Source, Air-Deployable Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, A.; Lopez Alcala, J. M.; Nelke, M.; Wagner, J.; Udell, C.; Higgins, C. W.; Selker, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    We created a packaged weather station intended to be deployed in the air on tethered systems. The device incorporates lightweight sensors and parts and runs for up to 24 hours off of lithium polymer batteries, allowing the entire package to be supported by a thin fiber. As the fiber does not provide a stable platform, additional data (pitch and roll) from typical weather parameters (e.g. temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction) are determined using an embedded inertial motion unit. All designs are open sourced including electronics, CAD drawings, and descriptions of assembly and can be found on the OPEnS lab website at http://www.open-sensing.org/lowcost-weather-station/. The Openly Published Environmental Sensing Lab (OPEnS: Open-Sensing.org) expands the possibilities of scientific observation of our Earth, transforming the technology, methods, and culture by combining open-source development and cutting-edge technology. New OPEnS labs are now being established in India, France, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Ghana.

  8. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  9. optimization and renewal of a radio-weather station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidani, Emna

    2012-01-01

    Our project, realised within the National Center for Nuclear Sciences and Technologies, is entitled the optimization and renewal of a radio-weather station. During this project we studied different sensors types and performances. Indeed, the work involved the development of these sensors and the communication with the data acquisition unit DAU16 to determine the data measured and collected by the unit. Theoretical studies helped us to conceive detectors types and their operation, and then it has been realized by the implementation of all sensors especially the Geiger-Muller detector called GP110i by Canberra. In order to improve the system and to avoid moving difficulty to have measurement data we have tested and studied two possibilities to use network instead of using cable connection: the PLC PK2100 and the system applied to Oued Medjerda.

  10. Capturing the WUnder: Using weather stations and WeatherUnderground to increase middle school students' understanding and interest in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, K. M.; Dunne, P.

    2014-12-01

    New models of elementary- and middle-school level science education are emerging in response to the need for science literacy and the development of the Next Generation Science Standards. One of these models is fostered through the NSF's Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) program, which pairs a graduate fellow with a science teacher at a local school for an entire school year. In our project, a PhD Earth Sciences student was paired with a local middle school science teacher with the goal of installing a weather station, and incorporating the station data into the 8th grade science curriculum. Here we discuss how we were able to use a school weather station to introduce weather and climate material, engage and involve students in the creative process of science, and motivate students through inquiry-based lessons. In using a weather station as the starting point for material, we were able to make science tangible for students and provide an opportunity for each student to experience the entire process of scientific inquiry. This hands-on approach resulted in a more thorough understanding the system beyond a knowledge of the components, and was particularly effective in challenging prior weather and climate misconceptions. We were also able to expand the reach of the lessons by connecting with other weather stations in our region and even globally, enabling the students to become members of a larger system.

  11. Simulated building energy demand biases resulting from the use of representative weather stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Voisin, Nathalie; Taylor, Z. Todd; Xie, Yulong; Kraucunas, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Numerical building models are typically forced with weather data from a limited number of “representative cities” or weather stations representing different climate regions. The use of representative weather stations reduces computational costs, but often fails to capture spatial heterogeneity in weather that may be important for simulations aimed at understanding how building stocks respond to a changing climate. We quantify the potential reduction in bias from using an increasing number of weather stations over the western U.S. The approach is based on deriving temperature and load time series using incrementally more weather stations, ranging from 8 to roughly 150, to capture weather across different seasons. Using 8 stations, one from each climate zone, across the western U.S. results in an average absolute summertime temperature bias of 7.2°F with respect to a spatially-resolved gridded dataset. The mean absolute bias drops to 2.8°F using all available weather stations. Temperature biases of this magnitude could translate to absolute summertime mean simulated load biases as high as 13.8%, a significant error for capacity expansion planners who may use these types of simulations. Increasing the size of the domain over which biases are calculated reduces their magnitude as positive and negative biases may cancel out. Using 8 representative weather stations can lead to a 20-40% overestimation of peak building loads during both summer and winter. Using weather stations close to population centers reduces both mean and peak load biases. This approach could be used by others designing aggregate building simulations to understand the sensitivity to their choice of weather stations used to drive the models.

  12. Fuel efficiency, availability and compressor station configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubomirsky, Matt; Kurz, Rainer [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Klimov, Pavel [Intergas Central Asia, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2009-12-19

    Compressor stations play a very important role in the success of a gas pipeline design and a careful selection of centrifugal compressors and drivers are key aspects for the success of the project. The state of the art design available today for this equipment provides overall high thermodynamic performance and consequently minimizes installed power requirements and energy usage with significant savings on operating expenses during the economic life of the project For any application of machinery in a pipeline compression station, one of the key questions to answer is the number of units to install to meet the flow requirements of the pipeline. Depending on the load profile of the pipeline, the answers may look different. Other factors to consider include the fact that gas turbines can produce a significant amount of additional power at lower ambient temperatures. So, even for constant load of the pipeline, the relative load of the driver changes. In this paper, a typical transcontinental pipeline with multiple compressor stations is evaluated. The determination of the exact hydraulic behavior of the pipeline is part of the modeling effort. The site ambient conditions, with a significant swing in ambient temperatures are considered. The issue discussed in this paper evolves around the availability that can be achieved with various configurations, based on actually achieved reliability and availability numbers. The other large impact on operating costs, fuel consumption will be discussed. Here, the choice of the number of installed units has a distinct impact on annual fuel consumption, as well as the capacity of the pipeline during various scenarios. (author)

  13. Research on weathering and biomarkers in heavy fuel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Q.; Li, Z.; Yu, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The fate of oil spilled in the ocean depends on several physicochemical and biological factors such as evaporation, dissolution, microbial degradation and photo-oxidation. These weathering processes decrease the low molecules in spilled oils which reduces the harmful effects of spilled oil to the ocean and biota near the spill. In addition to changing the composition of the oil, some weathering processes are key to identifying the spilled oil. As such, the relationship between the weathering processes and the changes in oil composition must be well understood. This paper used gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to analyze changes of chemical components in heavy fuel oil by weathering in static seawater. The major alkanes of heavy fuel oil include C8 to C33, while the major aromatics include benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene. After 24 weeks of weathering in seawater, the alkanes from n-C8 to n-C15 evaporated in order of increasing carbon number. The susceptibility of n-alkanes was correlated with carbon numbers. The aromatics evaporated in order of increasing carbon and ring number as weathering time increased. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  14. Research on Application of Automatic Weather Station Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianyun, Chen; Yunfan, Sun; Chunyan, Lin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the Internet of Things is briefly introduced, and then its application in the weather station is studied. A method of data acquisition and transmission based on NB-iot communication mode is proposed, Introduction of Internet of things technology, Sensor digital and independent power supply as the technical basis, In the construction of Automatic To realize the intelligent interconnection of the automatic weather station, and then to form an automatic weather station based on the Internet of things. A network structure of automatic weather station based on Internet of things technology is constructed to realize the independent operation of intelligent sensors and wireless data transmission. Research on networking data collection and dissemination of meteorological data, through the data platform for data analysis, the preliminary work of meteorological information publishing standards, networking of meteorological information receiving terminal provides the data interface, to the wisdom of the city, the wisdom of the purpose of the meteorological service.

  15. Meteorological observations from Dauphin Island Sea Lab Weather Station 1974-1997 (NCEI Accession 0156662)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DISL Weather Station collected twice daily meteorological observations at the east end of Dauphin Island, Alabama (30 degrees 14' 57" N, 88 degrees 04' 38" W)...

  16. Fuel Retrieval Sub-Project (FRS) Stuck Fuel Station Performance Test Data Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the test data report for Stuck Fuel Station Performance Testing in support of the Fuel Retrieval Sub-Project. The stuck fuel station was designed to provide a means of cutting open a canister barrel to release fuel elements, etc

  17. Weather-power station. Solar energy, wind energy, water energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatta, M

    1975-10-02

    A combined power station is described, which enables one to convert solar energy and wind energy into other forms of energy. The plant consists of a water-filled boiler, in which solar energy heats the water by concentration, solar cells, and finally wind rotors, which transform wind energy into electrical energy. The transformed energy is partly available as steam heat, partly as mechanical or electrical energy. The plant can be used for supplying heating systems or electrolysis equipment. Finally, by incorporating suitable motors, a mobile version of the system can be produced.

  18. Light Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Weathering at Various Fuel Release Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    ...) contracted with Parsons ES to perform this fuels weathering study. Of particular interest for this study is the weathering or natural depletion of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX...

  19. Fuel examination at SSEB Hunterston B power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angell, I.; Oldfield, D.

    1988-01-01

    After a brief description of Hunterston 'B' Power Station and its fuel, the need for post irradiation examination is established. Means of providing this on site at various stages of the fuel route are described, i.e. refuelling machine, dismantling cell and storage pond. Techniques used include the human eye, video recording and endoscopy. (author)

  20. Design and Implementation of a Smart Weather Station Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shaker Nasr

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring has become a crucial thing in light of a huge growing in the number of plants and cars in Iraqi cities including the city of Babylon which leading to increase the air pollution that leads to growing the number of people suffering from cancer and other diseases. Therefore, The Weather Station is proposed to monitor specific environmental elements in the Babylon city. A number of Internet of Things (IoT technologies have been used to form the proposed system. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN and Ethernet are the main technologies that are utilized with the proposed station. The design of the Weather Station consists of three parts: Hardware, Software and Web application. The Web APP is designed using JavaScript, AJAX, PHP, HTML, CSS, and MYSQL. This Web app has been shared on the public server to be accessed by authorized persons from anywhere around the world.

  1. Hydrogen fueling stations in Japan hydrogen and fuel cell demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, K.; Tomuro, J.; Sato, H.; Maruyama, S.

    2004-01-01

    A new national demonstration project of fuel cell vehicles, which is called Japan Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Demonstration Project (JHFC Project), has started in FY2002 on a four-year plan. In this new project, ten hydrogen fueling stations have been constructed in Tokyo and Kanagawa area in FY2002-2003. The ten stations adopt the following different types of fuel and fueling methods: LPG reforming, methanol reforming, naphtha reforming, desulfurized-gasoline reforming, kerosene reforming, natural gas reforming, water electrolysis, liquid hydrogen, by-product hydrogen, and commercially available cylinder hydrogen. Approximately fifty fuel cell passenger cars and a fuel cell bus are running on public roads using these stations. In addition, two hydrogen stations will be constructed in FY2004 in Aichi prefecture where The 2005 World Exposition (EXPO 2005) will be held. The stations will service eight fuel cell buses used as pick-up buses for visitors. We, Engineering Advancement Association of Japan (ENAA), are commissioned to construct and operate a total of twelve stations by Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI). We are executing to demonstrate or identify the energy-saving effect, reduction of the environmental footprint, and issues for facilitating the acceptance of hydrogen stations on the basis of the data obtained from the operation of the stations. (author)

  2. Ontario Hydro Pickering Generating Station fuel handling system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The report briefly describes the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) on-power fuel handling system and refuelling cycle. Lifetime performance parameters of the fuelling system are presented, including station incapability charged to the fuel handling system, cost of operating and maintenance, dose expenditure, events causing system unavailability, maintenance and refuelling strategy. It is concluded that the 'CANDU' on-power fuelling system, by consistently contributing less than 1% to the PNGS incapability, has been credited with a 6 to 20% increase in reactor capacity factor, compared to off-power fuelling schemes. (author)

  3. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  4. Estimation of Remote Microclimates from Weather Station Data with Applications to Landscape Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert Douglas

    Several components of a system for quantitative application of climatic statistics to landscape planning and design (CLIMACS) have been developed. One component model (MICROSIM) estimated the microclimate at the top of a remote crop using physically-based models and inputs of weather station data. Temperatures at the top of unstressed, uniform crops on flat terrain within 1600 m of a recording weather station were estimated within 1.0 C 96% of the time for a corn crop and 92% of the time for a soybean crop. Crop top winds were estimated within 0.4 m/s 92% of the time for corn and 100% of the time for soybean. This is of sufficient accuracy for application in landscape planning and design models. A physically-based model (COMFA) was developed for the determination of outdoor human thermal comfort from microclimate inputs. Estimated versus measured comfort levels in a wide range of environments agreed with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.91. Using these components, the CLIMACS concept has been applied to a typical planning example. Microclimate data were generated from weather station information using MICROSIM, then input to COMFA and to a house energy consumption model called HOTCAN to derive quantitative climatic justification for design decisions.

  5. Hydrogen Fueling Station in Honolulu, Hawaii Feasibility Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter Hill; Michael Penev

    2014-08-01

    The Department of Energy Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Program Plan (September 2011) identifies the use of hydrogen for government and fleet electric vehicles as a key step for achieving “reduced greenhouse gas emissions; reduced oil consumption; expanded use of renewable power …; highly efficient energy conversion; fuel flexibility …; reduced air pollution; and highly reliable grid-support.” This report synthesizes several pieces of existing information that can inform a decision regarding the viability of deploying a hydrogen (H2) fueling station at the Fort Armstrong site in Honolulu, Hawaii.

  6. High-Speed Monitoring of Multiple Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Array Configurations and Supplementary Weather Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Matthew T

    2017-06-01

    Three grid-connected monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic arrays have been instrumented with research-grade sensors on the Gaithersburg, MD campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). These arrays range from 73 kW to 271 kW and have different tilts, orientations, and configurations. Irradiance, temperature, wind, and electrical measurements at the arrays are recorded, and images are taken of the arrays to monitor shading and capture any anomalies. A weather station has also been constructed that includes research-grade instrumentation to measure all standard meteorological quantities plus additional solar irradiance spectral bands, full spectrum curves, and directional components using multiple irradiance sensor technologies. Reference photovoltaic (PV) modules are also monitored to provide comprehensive baseline measurements for the PV arrays. Images of the whole sky are captured, along with images of the instrumentation and reference modules to document any obstructions or anomalies. Nearly, all measurements at the arrays and weather station are sampled and saved every 1s, with monitoring having started on Aug. 1, 2014. This report describes the instrumentation approach used to monitor the performance of these photovoltaic systems, measure the meteorological quantities, and acquire the images for use in PV performance and weather monitoring and computer model validation.

  7. Design of hydrogen fueling station for Vancouver BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tura, A.; Dikeos, J.; St Germain, L.; Smolak, T.; Owen, T.; Hass, J.; Songprakorp, R.; Sodouri, P.; Maddaloni, J.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A public hydrogen refueling station has been designed to service a minimum daily capacity of 50 light-duty hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, each requiring 3 kg of compressed gaseous hydrogen at 5000 psi. The station can accommodate a peak hourly fueling rate of 20 kg, or slightly less than 7 cars. The station is designed around liquid hydrogen, and energy efficient liquid compression. On-site storage with centralized production allows for great flexibility in the design and the simple fueling process results in fewer potential failure modes. High customer demand can easily be accommodated due to a four minute filling time, made possible by a low temperature hydrogen filling system. The overall well to wheel pathway of this fueling process generates up to 95% less CO2 and requires up to 42% less energy than gasoline. The proposed design requires a low capital investment, and uses components easily available from a proven supplier base. An economic analysis shows that the delivered hydrogen cost is between $0.11/mile and $0.18/mile, based on a ten year discounted cash flow analysis. This design was the grand prize winner in the NHA/DOE sponsored 2004 University Design Contest. (author)

  8. Insurance against weather risk : use of heating degree-days from non-local stations for weather derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weather derivatives enable policy-holders to safeguard themselves against extreme weather conditions. The effectiveness and the efficiency of the risk transfer is determined by the spatial risk basis, which is the stochastic dependency of the local weather outcome being insured and the outcome of

  9. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. License application, amendment 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    Amendment No. 7 to Allied-General Nuclear Services application for licensing of the Fuel Receiving and Storage Station consists of revised pages for: Amendment No. 7 to AG-L 105, ''Technical Description in Support of Application for FRSS Operation''; Amendment No. 1 to AG-L 105A, ''Early Operation of the Service Concentrator''; and Amendment No. 2 to AG-L 110, ''FRSS Summary Preoperational Report.''

  10. Design of a hydrogen fueling station for Vancouver, BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikeos, J.; Haas, J.; Maddaloni, J.; Owen, T.; Smolak, T.; Songprakorp, R.; Sodouri, P.; St Germain, L.; Tura, A.; Rowe, A.

    2004-01-01

    A public hydrogen refueling station has been designed to service a minimum daily capacity of 50 light-duty hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, each requiring 3 kg of compressed gaseous hydrogen at 5000 psi. A peak hourly fueling rate of 20 kg, or slightly less than 7 cars, can be accommodated. The station is designed around bulk liquid hydrogen storage, and energy efficient liquid compression. On-site storage with centralized production allows for great flexibility in the design and the simple fueling process results in fewer potential failure modes. High customer demand can easily be accommodated due to a four minute filling time, made possible by a low temperature hydrogen filling system. The overall well to wheel pathway of this fueling process generates up to 95% less CO 2 and requires up to 42% less energy than gasoline. The proposed design requires a low capital investment, and uses components easily available from a proven supplier base. An economic analysis shows that the delivered hydrogen cost is between $0.11/mile and $0.18/mile, based on a ten year discounted cash flow analysis. (author)

  11. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

    1994-10-01

    In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its lowincome Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental).

  12. Using fire-weather forecasts and local weather observations in predicting burning index for individual fire-danger stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen P. Cramer

    1958-01-01

    Any agency engaged in forest-fire control needs accurate weather forecasts and systematic procedures for making the best use of predicted and reported weather information. This study explores the practicability of using several tabular and graphical aids for converting area forecasts and local observations of relative humidity and wind speed into predicted values for...

  13. Comparison between weather station data in south-eastern Italy and CRU precipitation datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, D.

    2009-04-01

    Monthly precipitation data in south-eastern Italy from 1920 to 2005 have been extensively analyzed. Data were collected in almost 200 weather stations located 10-20km apart from each other and almost uniformly distributed in Puglia and Basilicata regions. Apart from few years around world war II, time series are mostly complete and allow a reliable reconstruction of climate variability in the considered region. Statistically significant trends have been studied by applying the Mann-Kendall test to annual, seasonal and monthly values. A comparison has been made between observations and precipitation data given by the Climate Research Unit (CRU), University of East Anglia, with both low (30') and high (10') space resolution grid. In particular, rainfall records, time series behaviors and annual cycles at each station have been compared to the corresponding CRU data. CRU time series show a large negative trend for winter since 1970. Trend is not significant if the whole 20th century is considered (both for the whole year and for winter only). This might be considered as an evidence of recent acceleration towards increasingly dry conditions. However correlation between CRU data and observations is not very high and large percent errors are present mainly in the mountains regions, where observations show a large annual cycle, with intense precipitation in winter, which is not present in CRU data. To identify trends, therefore observed data are needed, even at monthly scale. In particular observations confirm the overall trend, but also indicate large spatial variability, with locations where precipitation has even increased since 1970. Daily precipitation data coming from a subset of weather stations have also been studied for the same time period. The distributions of maximum annual rainfalls, wet spells and dry spells were analyzed for each station, together with their time series. The tools of statistical analysis of extremes have been used in order to evaluate

  14. The use of automatic weather stations to measure the soil temperature in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Russia) in 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg G. Grishutkin

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the soil temperature data obtained using two automatic weather stations located in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Russia). Measurements were carried out at the soil surface and at depths of 20 cm, 40 cm and 60 cm. The meteorological stations are located 15 km apart, in general, in similar landscapes. This caused similar results of meteorological measurements. Differences in the average of the daily temperature at corresponding depths are less than 2°C. The average ann...

  15. Improvements to water use and water stress estimates with the addition of IR and net radiometers to weather stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is often estimated with the Penman-Monteith (P-M) equation. Net radiation (Rn) is a major component of the surface energy balance and an input to the P-M equation, but it is challenging and expensive to measure accurately. For these reasons, most weather stations do not inclu...

  16. Different Multifractal Scaling of the 0 cm Average Ground Surface Temperature of Four Representative Weather Stations over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of the daily 0 cm average ground surface temperature (AGST records obtained from four selected sites over China are investigated using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA method. Results show that the AGST records at all four locations exhibit strong persistence features and different scaling behaviors. The differences of the generalized Hurst exponents are very different for the AGST series of each site reflecting the different scaling behaviors of the fluctuation. Furthermore, the strengths of multifractal spectrum are different for different weather stations and indicate that the multifractal behaviors vary from station to station over China.

  17. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in Fuel-Oil Heated Houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental). Total average costs were $1819 per house ($1192 for

  18. The use of automatic weather stations to measure the soil temperature in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Russia in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Grishutkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the soil temperature data obtained using two automatic weather stations located in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Russia. Measurements were carried out at the soil surface and at depths of 20 cm, 40 cm and 60 cm. The meteorological stations are located 15 km apart, in general, in similar landscapes. This caused similar results of meteorological measurements. Differences in the average of the daily temperature at corresponding depths are less than 2°C. The average annual temperature differs less than 0.5°C, i.е. within a sensor's error. The annual temperature trend is typical for Central Russia. And it is characterised by well warming in summer and stagnation in winter. The diurnal amplitudes are small. This can be explained by the location of both weather stations under the forest canopy and a well-developed ground vegetation cover.

  19. Using stochastic activity networks to study the energy feasibility of automatic weather stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, Luca [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informatica e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Cesarini, Daniel [Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa (Italy); Avvenuti, Marco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, University of Pisa (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) are systems equipped with a number of environmental sensors and communication interfaces used to monitor harsh environments, such as glaciers and deserts. Designing such systems is challenging, since designers have to maximize the amount of sampled and transmitted data while considering the energy needs of the system that, in most cases, is powered by rechargeable batteries and exploits energy harvesting, e.g., solar cells and wind turbines. To support designers of AWSs in the definition of the software tasks and of the hardware configuration of the AWS we designed and implemented an energy-aware simulator of such systems. The simulator relies on the Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs) formalism and has been developed using the Möbius tool. In this paper we first show how we used the SAN formalism to model the various components of an AWS, we then report results from an experiment carried out to validate the simulator against a real-world AWS and we finally show some examples of usage of the proposed simulator.

  20. Rancang Bangun Maximum Power Point Tracking pada Panel Photovoltaic Berbasis Logika Fuzzy di Buoy Weather Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Prima Juliansyah Putra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu aplikasi yang sering digunakan dalam bidang energi terbarukan adalah panel photovoltaic. Panel ini memiliki prinsip kerja berdasarkan efek photovoltaic dimana lempengan logam akan menghasilkan energi listrik apabila diberi intensitas cahaya. Untuk menghasilkan daya keluaran panel yang maksimal, maka diperlukan suatu algoritma yang biasa disebut Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT.MPPT yang diterapkan pada sistem photovoltaic berfungsi untuk mengatur nilai tegangan keluaran panel sehingga titik ker-janya beroperasi pada kondisi maksimal. Algoritma MPPT pada panel ini telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan logika fuzzy melalui mikrokontroler Arduino Uno sebagai pem-bangkit sinyal Pulse Width Modulation (PWM yang akan dikirimkan menuju DC-DC Buck Boost Converter. Keluaran dari buck boost converterakan dihubungkan secara langsung dengan buoy weather station untuk menyuplai energi listrik tiap komponen yang berada di dalamnya. Untuk menguji performansi dari algoritma MPPT yang telah dirancang, maka sistem akan diuji menggunakan variasi beban antara metode direct-coupled dengan MPPT menggunakan logika fuzzy. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa MPPT dengan logika fuzzy dapat menghasilkan daya maksimum daripada direct-coupled. Pada sistem panel photovoltaic ini memiliki range efisiensi 33.07589 % hingga 74.25743 %. Daya mak-simal dapat dicapai oleh sistem untuk tiap variasi beban dan efisiensi maksimal dapat dicapai pada beban 20 Ohm dari hasil pengujian sistem MPPT.

  1. Design of Frost Resistant Pavement Structure Based on Road Weather Stations (RWSs Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Vaitkus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Frost is a decisive factor influencing pavement performance in cold countries. In the EU, millions of euros are spent annually on winter maintenance. About one-third of the maintenance budget is allocated to rehabilitation due to the negative impact of frost. The negative effect of frost is restricted by using non-frost-susceptible materials within the frost zone and regulating water accumulation. However, experience shows that the thickness of constructed pavement structure is often inadequate and that frost penetrates into the subgrade of frost-susceptible materials. The aim of this paper is to introduce the thickness calculation approach of the frost resistant pavement structure using road weather station (RWS data. The subgrade susceptibility to frost and the number of equivalent single axle loads (ESALs are considered as factors too. The calculated thickness of the frost resistant pavement structure is corrected according to the specific local conditions. After performing a statistical analysis of 2012–2014 data pertaining to 26 RWSs, Lithuania was divided into four regions according to the maximum frost depths, where the maximum values depending on RWS location varied from 110.4 cm to 179.1 cm.

  2. Weather, fuels, and topography impede wildland fire spread in western US landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Holsinger; Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller

    2016-01-01

    As wildland fire activity continues to surge across the western US, it is increasingly important that we understand and quantify the environmental drivers of fire and how they vary across ecosystems. At daily to annual timescales, weather, fuels, and topography are known to influence characteristics such as area burned and fire severity. An understudied facet...

  3. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, E. I.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2009-06-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  4. Separation of dry and wet periods from regular weather station data for the analysis of wind erosion risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naeini, Mohammadali Saremi; Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    importance, soil moisture content is often ignored in the analysis of wind data for wind erosion studies. The main reason most probably being the lack of soil moisture sensors in conventional climate stations. Soil moisture at a given point in time is determined by rain (e.g. rainfall amount, duration......), climate (e.g. air temperature, solar radiation, evaporation) and soil (e.g. infiltration rate, adhesion). The purpose of this study is to overcome the lack of soil moisture data for wind erosion risk assessment by developing a method to estimate the soil wetness based on easy available weather data......, such as daily precipitation, hourly/sub hourly ambient air temperature and hourly/sub hourly relative humidity. This new method was used to identify periods of wet and dry soil moisture conditions of a time series from 20 weather stations in Denmark. The length of the time series varied between 8 to 37 years...

  5. National Scale Rainfall Map Based on Linearly Interpolated Data from Automated Weather Stations and Rain Gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alconis, Jenalyn; Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Lester Saddi, Ivan; Mongaya, Candeze; Figueroa, Kathleen Gay

    2014-05-01

    In response to the slew of disasters that devastates the Philippines on a regular basis, the national government put in place a program to address this problem. The Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards, or Project NOAH, consolidates the diverse scientific research being done and pushes the knowledge gained to the forefront of disaster risk reduction and management. Current activities of the project include installing rain gauges and water level sensors, conducting LIDAR surveys of critical river basins, geo-hazard mapping, and running information education campaigns. Approximately 700 automated weather stations and rain gauges installed in strategic locations in the Philippines hold the groundwork for the rainfall visualization system in the Project NOAH web portal at http://noah.dost.gov.ph. The system uses near real-time data from these stations installed in critical river basins. The sensors record the amount of rainfall in a particular area as point data updated every 10 to 15 minutes. The sensor sends the data to a central server either via GSM network or satellite data transfer for redundancy. The web portal displays the sensors as a placemarks layer on a map. When a placemark is clicked, it displays a graph of the rainfall data for the past 24 hours. The rainfall data is harvested by batch determined by a one-hour time frame. The program uses linear interpolation as the methodology implemented to visually represent a near real-time rainfall map. The algorithm allows very fast processing which is essential in near real-time systems. As more sensors are installed, precision is improved. This visualized dataset enables users to quickly discern where heavy rainfall is concentrated. It has proven invaluable on numerous occasions, such as last August 2013 when intense to torrential rains brought about by the enhanced Southwest Monsoon caused massive flooding in Metro Manila. Coupled with observations from Doppler imagery and water level sensors along the

  6. Using Arduinos and 3D-printers to Build Research-grade Weather Stations and Environmental Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many plant, soil, and surface-boundary-layer processes in the geosphere are governed by the microclimate at the land-air interface. Environmental monitoring is needed at smaller scales and higher frequencies than provided by existing weather monitoring networks. The objective of this project was to design, prototype, and test a research-grade weather station that is based on open-source hardware/software and off-the-shelf components. The idea is that anyone could make these systems with only elementary skills in fabrication and electronics. The first prototypes included measurements of air temperature, humidity, pressure, global irradiance, wind speed, and wind direction. The best approach for measuring precipitation is still being investigated. The data acquisition system was deigned around the Arduino microcontroller and included an LCD-based user interface, SD card data storage, and solar power. Sensors were sampled at 5 s intervals and means, standard deviations, and maximum/minimums were stored at user-defined intervals (5, 30, or 60 min). Several of the sensor components were printed in plastic using a hobby-grade 3D printer (e.g., RepRap Project). Both passive and aspirated radiation shields for measuring air temperature were printed in white Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). A housing for measuring solar irradiance using a photodiode-based pyranometer was printed in opaque ABS. The prototype weather station was co-deployed with commercial research-grade instruments at an agriculture research unit near Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Excellent agreement was found between Arduino-based system and commercial weather instruments. The technology was also used to support air quality research and automated air sampling. The next step is to incorporate remote access and station-to-station networking using Wi-Fi, cellular phone, and radio communications (e.g., Xbee).

  7. Development of the fuel-cycle costs in nuclear power stations with light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosch, R.; Moraw, G.; Musil, G.; Schneeberger, M.

    1976-01-01

    The authors investigate the fuel-cycle costs in nuclear power stations with light-water reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany in the years 1966 to 1976. They determine the effect of the price development for the individual components of the nuclear fuel cycle on the fuel-cycle costs averaged over the whole power station life. Here account is taken also of inflation rates and the change in the DM/US $ parity. In addition they give the percentage apportionment of the fuel-cycle costs. The authors show that real fuel-cycle costs for nuclear power stations with light-water reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany have risen by 11% between 1966 and 1976. This contradicts the often repeated reproach that fuel costs in nuclear power stations are rising very steeply and are no longer competitive. (orig.) [de

  8. Wettability contrasts between fresh and weathered diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stephanie S; O'Carroll, Denis M; Gerhard, Jason I

    2013-01-01

    The remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminated sites is impeded due to subsurface complexities, including wettability. Wettability quantifies which of two immiscible fluids preferentially coats a solid. At most contaminated sites water-wetting conditions are typically assumed despite mounting evidence that this is not always the case. In this study, wettability was examined for two NAPL samples of contrasting origin: a fresh and a field sample. Wettability was assessed through (i) cyclical, 'cumulative elapsed contact time' intrinsic contact angle measurements, (ii) interface jar tests, and (iii) cyclical, pseudo-static capillary pressure-saturation curves. The work as a whole demonstrated that while the fresh diesel sample was consistently water-wet, the field diesel sample exhibited repeatable cycles of wettability reversal between water drainage and imbibition. And while wettability hysteresis increased with contact time for the field diesel, the occurrence of wettability reversal at each change of saturation direction was independent of contact time. Such behavior is not easily assessed by standard wettability indices. Moreover, it contrasts with the permanent wettability alteration observed for complex organics (e.g., coal tar) observed in most studies. It is hypothesized that the cyclical wettability reversal is related to cyclical changes in intermediate pore wettability due to sorption of surface active compounds (causing NAPL-wetting imbibition) and rupturing of the soil grain water film (causing water-wet drainage). The wettability differences between the two NAPLs may be due to additives (i.e., a surfactant) in the original formulation and/or byproducts from subsurface weathering. These results support better characterization of site-specific wettability, improved model development and more realistic site conceptual models for improved remediation efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The capacity of radar, crowdsourced personal weather stations and commercial microwave links to monitor small scale urban rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijlenhoet, R.; de Vos, L. W.; Leijnse, H.; Overeem, A.; Raupach, T. H.; Berne, A.

    2017-12-01

    For the purpose of urban rainfall monitoring high resolution rainfall measurements are desirable. Typically C-band radar can provide rainfall intensities at km grid cells every 5 minutes. Opportunistic sensing with commercial microwave links yields rainfall intensities over link paths within cities. Additionally, recent developments have made it possible to obtain large amounts of urban in situ measurements from weather amateurs in near real-time. With a known high resolution simulated rainfall event the accuracy of these three techniques is evaluated, taking into account their respective existing layouts and sampling methods. Under ideal measurement conditions, the weather station networks proves to be most promising. For accurate estimation with radar, an appropriate choice for Z-R relationship is vital. Though both the microwave links and the weather station networks are quite dense, both techniques will underestimate rainfall if not at least one link path / station captures the high intensity rainfall peak. The accuracy of each technique improves when considering rainfall at larger scales, especially by increasing time intervals, with the steepest improvements found in microwave links.

  10. Comparison of parallel temperature measurements from conventional and automatic weather stations at Fabra Observatory (Barcelona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Enric; Gilabert, Alba; Prohom, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Fabra Observatory , located in a promontory at 411 meters above sea level in the outskirts of Barcelona, hosts a continuous climate record since 1913. Additionally, it has been recording since 1996 simultaneous temperature and precipitation data with conventional instruments and automated systems. The automatization of recording sites employed with climatological purposes is happening elsewhere in the country and across the globe. Unfortunately, in most cases long lasting parallel measurements, are not kept. Thereafter, this site offers an excellent opportunity to study the impact of the introduction of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The conventional station (CON) equips a liquid in glass thermometer, located inside a standard Stevenson screen. The automatic measurements (AWS) have been taken using MCV-STA sensors sheltered in a MCV small plate-like ventilated screen between 1996 and the end of July 2007. For our analysis, this MCV period is split in two (T1, T2) due to an obvious jump in the differences AWS-CON in October 2002, produced by unknown reasons. From August 2007 to the present (T3), a Vaisala HMP45AL sensor was placed inside a Stevenson Screen and used for automatic measurements. For daily maximum temperatures, the median differences reach 3.2°C in T1, 1.1°C in T2 and merely -0.1°C in T3. In this later period, 94% of the differences are comprised in a ±0.5°C range, compared to 23% in T2 and only 6% in T1. It is interesting to note how the overheating of the MCV screen dominates the difference series, as 85% of the AWS values taken in T1 and T2 are warmer than the conventional measurements, contrasting with only 27% of cases during T3, when the automated measurements were taken inside a Stevenson screen. These differences are highly temperature dependent: low (high) AWS temperatures are associated with small (large) differences with the CON series. This effect is also evident if temperatures are analyzed by seasons: summer differences are much

  11. Likelihood and consequences of fuel string compression at Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, P.J.; Gibb, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    During an accident which results in fuel heatup, axial thermal expansion of the fuel string relative to the pressure tube will occur. If the temperature transient is sufficiently severe, the fuel string may contact the shieled plugs at both ends of the channel. Any additional axial thermal expansion will result in deformation of fuel and fuel channel components, leading to tensile or compressive stresses in the different fuel channel components. If these loads become sufficiently large, they could result in failure of a fuel channel component or to channel failure due to bending of a fuel element under load. The analysis described in this paper demonstrates that this process would not result in fuel channel failure for a design basis accident at Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS), even if the station were retubed to 'as-built' channel lengths. (author)

  12. Evaluating meteorological data from weather stations, and from satellites and global models for a multi-site epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Josh M; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mahopo, Cloupas; Kang, Gagandeep; Kosek, Margaret; de Sousa Junior, Francisco; Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Svensen, Erling; Turab, Ali; Zaitchik, Benjamin

    2018-04-21

    Longitudinal and time series analyses are needed to characterize the associations between hydrometeorological parameters and health outcomes. Earth Observation (EO) climate data products derived from satellites and global model-based reanalysis have the potential to be used as surrogates in situations and locations where weather-station based observations are inadequate or incomplete. However, these products often lack direct evaluation at specific sites of epidemiological interest. Standard evaluation metrics of correlation, agreement, bias and error were applied to a set of ten hydrometeorological variables extracted from two quasi-global, commonly used climate data products - the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) - to evaluate their performance relative to weather-station derived estimates at the specific geographic locations of the eight sites in a multi-site cohort study. These metrics were calculated for both daily estimates and 7-day averages and for a rotavirus-peak-season subset. Then the variables from the two sources were each used as predictors in longitudinal regression models to test their association with rotavirus infection in the cohort after adjusting for covariates. The availability and completeness of station-based validation data varied depending on the variable and study site. The performance of the two gridded climate models varied considerably within the same location and for the same variable across locations, according to different evaluation criteria and for the peak-season compared to the full dataset in ways that showed no obvious pattern. They also differed in the statistical significance of their association with the rotavirus outcome. For some variables, the station-based records showed a strong association while the EO-derived estimates showed none, while for others, the opposite was true. Researchers wishing to utilize publicly available climate data

  13. Mapping fire probability and severity in a Mediterranean area using different weather and fuel moisture scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca, B.; Salis, M.; Bacciu, V.; Duce, P.; Pellizzaro, G.; Ventura, A.; Spano, D.

    2009-04-01

    Although in many countries lightning is the main cause of ignition, in the Mediterranean Basin the forest fires are predominantly ignited by arson, or by human negligence. The fire season peaks coincide with extreme weather conditions (mainly strong winds, hot temperatures, low atmospheric water vapour content) and high tourist presence. Many works reported that in the Mediterranean Basin the projected impacts of climate change will cause greater weather variability and extreme weather conditions, with drier and hotter summers and heat waves. At long-term scale, climate changes could affect the fuel load and the dead/live fuel ratio, and therefore could change the vegetation flammability. At short-time scale, the increase of extreme weather events could directly affect fuel water status, and it could increase large fire occurrence. In this context, detecting the areas characterized by both high probability of large fire occurrence and high fire severity could represent an important component of the fire management planning. In this work we compared several fire probability and severity maps (fire occurrence, rate of spread, fireline intensity, flame length) obtained for a study area located in North Sardinia, Italy, using FlamMap simulator (USDA Forest Service, Missoula). FlamMap computes the potential fire behaviour characteristics over a defined landscape for given weather, wind and fuel moisture data. Different weather and fuel moisture scenarios were tested to predict the potential impact of climate changes on fire parameters. The study area, characterized by a mosaic of urban areas, protected areas, and other areas subject to anthropogenic disturbances, is mainly composed by fire-prone Mediterranean maquis. The input themes needed to run FlamMap were input as grid of 10 meters; the wind data, obtained using a computational fluid-dynamic model, were inserted as gridded file, with a resolution of 50 m. The analysis revealed high fire probability and severity in

  14. Extreme Weather and Civil War in Somalia: Does Drought Fuel Conflict through Livestock Price Shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Maystadt, Jean-Francois; Ecker, Olivier; Mabiso, Athur

    2013-01-01

    Climate change leads to more frequent and more intense droughts in Somalia. In a global context, weather shocks have been found to perpetuate poverty and fuel civil conflict. By relating regional and temporal variations in violent conflict outbreaks with drought incidence and severity, we show that this causality is valid also for Somalia at the local level. We find that livestock price shocks drive drought-induced conflicts through reducing the opportunity costs of conflict participation. Ou...

  15. Simulating air temperature in an urban street canyon in all weather conditions using measured data at a reference meteorological station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erell, E.; Williamson, T.

    2006-10-01

    A model is proposed that adapts data from a standard meteorological station to provide realistic site-specific air temperature in a city street exposed to the same meso-scale environment. In addition to a rudimentary description of the two sites, the canyon air temperature (CAT) model requires only inputs measured at standard weather stations; yet it is capable of accurately predicting the evolution of air temperature in all weather conditions for extended periods. It simulates the effect of urban geometry on radiant exchange; the effect of moisture availability on latent heat flux; energy stored in the ground and in building surfaces; air flow in the street based on wind above roof height; and the sensible heat flux from individual surfaces and from the street canyon as a whole. The CAT model has been tested on field data measured in a monitoring program carried out in Adelaide, Australia, in 2000-2001. After calibrating the model, predicted air temperature correlated well with measured data in all weather conditions over extended periods. The experimental validation provides additional evidence in support of a number of parameterisation schemes incorporated in the model to account for sensible heat and storage flux.

  16. Safety technical investigation activities for shipment of damaged spent fuels from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization(JNES) carries out the investigation for damaged fuel transportation from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station(1F) under safety condition to support Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA). In 2012 fiscal year, JNES carried out the investigation of spent fuel condition in unit 4 of 1F and actual result of leak fuel transport in domestic /other countries. From this result, Package containing damaged fuel from unit 4 in 1F were considered. (author)

  17. Fire weather and large fire potential in the northern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon M. Collins

    2014-01-01

    Fuels, weather, and topography all contribute to observed fire behavior. Of these, weather is not only the most dynamic factor, it is the most likely to be directly influenced by climate change. In this study 40 years of daily fire weather observations from five weather stations across the northern Sierra Nevada were analyzed to investigate potential changes or trends...

  18. Evidence of fuels management and fire weather influencing fire severity in an extreme fire event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Jamie M; Collins, Brandon M; Brooks, Matthew L; Matchett, John R; Shive, Kristen L; Povak, Nicholas A; Kane, Van R; Smith, Douglas F

    2017-10-01

    Following changes in vegetation structure and pattern, along with a changing climate, large wildfire incidence has increased in forests throughout the western United States. Given this increase, there is great interest in whether fuels treatments and previous wildfire can alter fire severity patterns in large wildfires. We assessed the relative influence of previous fuels treatments (including wildfire), fire weather, vegetation, and water balance on fire-severity in the Rim Fire of 2013. We did this at three different spatial scales to investigate whether the influences on fire severity changed across scales. Both fuels treatments and previous low to moderate-severity wildfire reduced the prevalence of high-severity fire. In general, areas without recent fuels treatments and areas that previously burned at high severity tended to have a greater proportion of high-severity fire in the Rim Fire. Areas treated with prescribed fire, especially when combined with thinning, had the lowest proportions of high severity. The proportion of the landscape burned at high severity was most strongly influenced by fire weather and proportional area previously treated for fuels or burned by low to moderate severity wildfire. The proportion treated needed to effectively reduce the amount of high severity fire varied by spatial scale of analysis, with smaller spatial scales requiring a greater proportion treated to see an effect on fire severity. When moderate and high-severity fire encountered a previously treated area, fire severity was significantly reduced in the treated area relative to the adjacent untreated area. Our results show that fuels treatments and low to moderate-severity wildfire can reduce fire severity in a subsequent wildfire, even when burning under fire growth conditions. These results serve as further evidence that both fuels treatments and lower severity wildfire can increase forest resilience. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. VANTAGE 5 PWR fuel assembly demonstration program at Virgil C. Summer nuclear station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.C.; Orr, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    VANTAGE 5 is an improved PWR fuel product designed and manufactured by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The VANTAGE 5 fuel design features integral fuel burnable absorbers, intermediate flow mixer grids, axial blankets, high burnup capability, and a reconstitutable top nozzle. A demonstration program for this fuel design commenced in late 1984 in cycle 2 of the Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station. Objectives for VANTAGE 5 fuel are reduced fuel cycle costs, better core operating margins, and increased design and operating flexibility. Inspections of the VANTAGE 5 demonstration assemblies are planned at each refueling outage

  20. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    A draft of the environmental impact statement for the Barnwell Fuel Receiving and Storage Station is presented. This facility is being constructed on a 1700 acre site about six miles west of the city of Barnwell in Barnwell County, South Carolina. The following topics are discussed: the site, the station, environmental effects of site preparation and station construction, environmental effects of station operation, effluent and environmental monitoring programs, environmental effects of accidents , need for the station, benefit-cost analysis of alternatives, and conclusions. (U.S.)

  1. The influence of weather and fuel type on the fuel composition of the area burned by forest fires in Ontario, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podur, Justin J; Martell, David L

    2009-07-01

    Forest fires are influenced by weather, fuels, and topography, but the relative influence of these factors may vary in different forest types. Compositional analysis can be used to assess the relative importance of fuels and weather in the boreal forest. Do forest or wild land fires burn more flammable fuels preferentially or, because most large fires burn in extreme weather conditions, do fires burn fuels in the proportions they are available despite differences in flammability? In the Canadian boreal forest, aspen (Populus tremuloides) has been found to burn in less than the proportion in which it is available. We used the province of Ontario's Provincial Fuels Database and fire records provided by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources to compare the fuel composition of area burned by 594 large (>40 ha) fires that occurred in Ontario's boreal forest region, a study area some 430,000 km2 in size, between 1996 and 2006 with the fuel composition of the neighborhoods around the fires. We found that, over the range of fire weather conditions in which large fires burned and in a study area with 8% aspen, fires burn fuels in the proportions that they are available, results which are consistent with the dominance of weather in controlling large fires.

  2. Spent fuel storage at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generation Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.R.; Field, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) has developed a strategy for the storage and transport of spent nuclear fuel and is now in the process of licensing and manufacturing a Transportable Storage System (TSS). Staff has also engaged in impact limiter testing, non-fuel bearing component reinsertion, storage and disposal of GTCC waste, and site specific upgrades in support of spent fuel dry storage

  3. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  4. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. License application, amendment 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    Amendment No. 4 of the application for licensing the Barnwell Fuel Processing Plant is presented. Information is included on: the quantity and characteristics of nuclear fuel assemblies which can be received and stored; specifications limiting the outside washdown of contaminated casks received for unloading; and definition of environmental monitoring program. (U.S.)

  5. Relative importance of fuel management, ignition management and weather for area burned: Evidence from five landscape-fire-succession models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey J. Cary; Mike D. Flannigan; Robert E. Keane; Ross A. Bradstock; Ian D. Davies; James M. Lenihan; Chao Li; Kimberley A. Logan; Russell A. Parsons

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of five landscape fire models (CAFE, FIRESCAPE, LAMOS(HS), LANDSUM and SEMLAND) was compared in a standardised modelling experiment. The importance of fuel management approach, fuel management effort, ignition management effort and weather in determining variation in area burned and number of edge pixels burned (a measure of potential impact on assets...

  6. Loss of cooling accident simulation of nuclear power station spent-fuel pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.; Liang, K-S., E-mail: mlee@ess.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: ksliang_1@hotmail.com [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lin, K-Y., E-mail: syrup760914@gmail.com [Taiwan Power Company, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    The core melt down accident of Fukushima Nuclear Power Station on March 11th, 2011 alerted nuclear industry that the long term loss of cooling of spent fuel pool may need some attention. The target plant analyzed is the Chinshan Nuclear Power Station of Taiwan Power Company. The 3-Dimensional RELAP5 input deck of the spent fuel pool of the station is built. The results indicate that spent fuel of Chinshan Nuclear Power Station is uncovered at 6.75 days after an accident of loss cooling takes place and cladding temperature rises above 2,200{sup o}F around 8 days. The time is about 13 hours earlier than the results predicted using simple energy balance method. The results also show that the impact of Counter Current Flow Limitation (CCFL) and radiation heat transfer model is marginal. (author)

  7. Refueling availability for alternative fuel vehicle markets: Sufficient urban station coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaina, Marc; Bremson, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Alternative fuel vehicles can play an important role in addressing the challenges of climate change, energy security, urban air pollution and the continued growth in demand for transportation services. The successful commercialization of alternative fuels for vehicles is contingent upon a number of factors, including vehicle cost and performance. Among fuel infrastructure issues, adequate refueling availability is one of the most fundamental to successful commercialization. A commonly cited source reports 164,300 refueling stations in operation nationwide. However, from the perspective of refueling availability, this nationwide count tends to overstate the number of stations required to support the widespread deployment of alternative fuel vehicles. In terms of spatial distribution, the existing gasoline station networks in many urban areas are more than sufficient. We characterize a sufficient level of urban coverage based upon a subset of cities served by relatively low-density station networks, and estimate that some 51,000 urban stations would be required to provide this sufficient level of coverage to all major urban areas, 33 percent less than our estimate of total urban stations. This improved characterization will be useful for engineering, economic and policy analyses. (author)

  8. Argentine activities on fuels for nuclear generation stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olezza, R.L.; Valesi, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the last six years, significant changes have taken place in the nuclear fuel activity field in Argentina, therefore all the areas of the nuclear fuel cycle have been strongly influenced by these. The strategies carried out by CNEA to give an initial answer to the modifications of the domestic and international context of the nuclear fuel cycle were described in the previous Conference. Three years later, it is possible to appreciate the first results of the application of those strategies, and also that the frame has continued not only evolving and requiring new answers, but adapting and accentuating some strategies as well. A brief review of those results is presented here, together with a summary of the condition of the current situation and of the proposals to face it. (author)

  9. Study of Naval Air Station Operations to Reduce Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    reasons and loyalty of frequent business customers , schedules rarely change significantly from week to week. Following the schedule generation, aircraft...Air Station ppm pounds per minute xiv rft ready for tasking SHARP Sierra Hotel Aviation Readiness Program Simio Simulation Modeling Framework...America, the U.S. airline industry experienced a total of $7.18 billion in delay costs in 2013 at an average cost per minute of $78.17 (Airlines

  10. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. License application, amendment 5, addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    This Addendum to AG-L105 addresses the utilization of the Service Concentrator for evaporation of low level wastes generated during fuel receiving and storage operations. The Service Concentrator is described from various viewpoints and necessary relevant data are included for adequate assessment of safety. (U.S.)

  11. Acquisition of wood fuel at the Joseph C. McNeil Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropelin, W. [Burlington Electric Dept., VT (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Joseph C. McNeil Generating Station is the world`s largest single boiler, municipally-owned, wood-fired electrical generating plant. The 50 megawatt McNeil Station is located in Burlington, Vermont and is owned by several Vermont public and private electric utilities. The operator and majority owner is the City of Burlington Electric Department (BED). Wood fuel procurement for the McNeil Station has been conducted in an environmentally sensitive way. Harvesting is carried out in conformance with a comprehensive wood chip harvesting policy and monitored by professional foresters. Unpredictable levels of Station operation require rigid adherence to a wood storage plan that minimizes the risk of over heating and spontaneous combustion of stockpiled fuel.

  12. Modeling the variability of solar radiation data among weather stations by means of principal components analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzo, Manuel; Marti, Pau

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: →Principal components analysis was applied to R s data recorded at 30 stations. → Four principal components explain 97% of the data variability. → The latent variables can be fitted according to latitude, longitude and altitude. → The PCA approach is more effective for gap infilling than conventional approaches. → The proposed method allows daily R s estimations at locations in the area of study. - Abstract: Measurements of global terrestrial solar radiation (R s ) are commonly recorded in meteorological stations. Daily variability of R s has to be taken into account for the design of photovoltaic systems and energy efficient buildings. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to R s data recorded at 30 stations in the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Due to equipment failures and site operation problems, time series of R s often present data gaps or discontinuities. The PCA approach copes with this problem and allows estimation of present and past values by taking advantage of R s records from nearby stations. The gap infilling performance of this methodology is compared with neural networks and alternative conventional approaches. Four principal components explain 66% of the data variability with respect to the average trajectory (97% if non-centered values are considered). A new method based on principal components regression was also developed for R s estimation if previous measurements are not available. By means of multiple linear regression, it was found that the latent variables associated to the four relevant principal components can be fitted according to the latitude, longitude and altitude of the station where data were recorded from. Additional geographical or climatic variables did not increase the predictive goodness-of-fit. The resulting models allow the estimation of daily R s values at any location in the area under study and present higher accuracy than artificial neural networks and some conventional approaches

  13. A Sounding-based Severe Weather Tool to Support Daily Operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H.; Roeder, William P.

    2014-01-01

    People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

  14. Hydrogen Fueling Station Using Thermal Compression: a techno-economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriha, Kenneth [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Petitpas, Guillaume [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Melchionda, Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soto, Herie [Shell, Houston TX (United States); Feng, Zhili [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Yanli [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-11

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of using thermal compression to create the hydrogen pressure necessary to operate vehicle hydrogen fueling stations. The concept of utilizing the exergy within liquid hydrogen to build pressure rather than mechanical components such as compressors or cryogenic liquid pumps has several advantages. In theory, the compressor-less hydrogen station will have lower operating and maintenance costs because the compressors found in conventional stations require large amounts of electricity to run and are prone to mechanical breakdowns. The thermal compression station also utilizes some of the energy used to liquefy the hydrogen as work to build pressure, this is energy that in conventional stations is lost as heat to the environment.

  15. Using crowdsourced data from citizen weather stations to analyse air temperature in 'local climate zones' in Berlin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Daniel; Meier, Fred; Bechtel, Benjamin; Otto, Marco; Scherer, Dieter

    2017-04-01

    Provision of observational data with high spatial coverage over extended time periods still remains as one of the biggest challenges in urban climate research. Classical meteorological networks are seldomly designed to monitor atmospheric conditions in a broad variety of urban environments, though the heterogeneity of urban structures leads to distinct thermal characteristics on local scales, i.e., hundreds of metres to several kilometres. One approach to overcome the aforementioned challenges of observation networks is to use data from weather stations that are maintained by citizens. The private company 'netatmo' (www.netatmo.com) produces and distributes such citizen weather stations (CWS) around the world. The stations automatically send their data to the netatmo server, and the user decides if data are publicly shared. Shared data can freely be retrieved via an application programming interface. We collected air temperature (T) data for the year 2015 for the city of Berlin, Germany, and surroundings with more than 1500 'netatmo' CWS in the study area. The entire data set was thoroughly quality checked, and filter techniques, involving data from a reference network, were developed to address different types of errors associated with CWS data. Additionally, the accuracy of 'netatmo' CWS was checked in a climate chamber and in a long-term field experiment. Since the terms 'urban' and 'rural' are ambiguous in urban climate studies, Stewart and Oke (2012) developed the 'local climate zone' (LCZ) concept to enhance understanding and interpretation of air temperature differences in urban regions. LCZ classification for the study region was conducted using the 'WUDAPT' approach by Bechtel et al. (2015). The quality-checked CWS data were used to analyse T characteristics of LCZ classes in Berlin and surroundings. Specifically, we analysed how LCZ classes are represented by CWS in 2015, how T varies within each LCZ class ('intra-LCZ variability'), and if significant

  16. Trace gases, aerosols and their interactions with synoptic weather: An overview of in-situ measurements at the SORPES Station in the western Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and

  17. Modern power station practice mechanical boilers, fuel-, and ash-handling plant

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2014-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Second Edition, Volume 2: Mechanical (Boilers, Fuel-, and Ash-Handling Plant) focuses on the design, manufacture and operation of boiler units and fuel-and ash-handling plants.This book is organized into five main topics-furnace and combustion equipment, steam and water circuits, ancillary plant and fittings, dust extraction and draught plant, and fuel-and ash-handling plant.In these topics, this text specifically discusses the influence of nature of coal on choice of firing equipment; oil-burner arrangements, ignition and control; disposition of the heating surf

  18. 75 FR 77017 - Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC Seabrook Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-443, 72-63; NRC-2010-0381] Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC Seabrook Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Exemption 1.0 Background NextEra Energy Seabrook, LLC (NextEra, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. NPF-86...

  19. Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.; Mosey, G.

    2011-05-01

    Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria. First, this report outlines what these criteria are, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels--electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, which includes steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

  20. Photovoltaic power supply for the bird and weather station on Scharhoern Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The aim of the project was to commission a reliable power supply for a bird sanctuary station which would take particular consideration of the requirements in a seabird protection area. The conventional type of power supply with a diesel generator was unsuitable due to problems caused by noise, exhaust and costly maintenance. Wind generators also cause noise and have to be protected from birds in flight, and thus also pose problems. A sea cable for connection to the mains is extremely uneconomical, considering the low power requirements and the large expense in order to have control over high and low tide. The requirements put on the power supply are: (i) no disturbing noise (especially during breeding time); (ii) no exhausts (especially during breeding time); (iii) no moving parts which could be of disturbance to the birds (e.g. wind generator); (iv) unobtrusively embedded in the countryside; (v) low maintenance and easy handling; (vi) high availability and reliability, considering the restricted access to the plant because of its exposed position. An important task within this project was the development of a special base construction for the solar generator frames, taking into consideration the specific conditions on Scharhoern. The island of Scharhoern is a sand dune in the mud flats, which is washed over by the sea when there are heavy storm floods. In addition, extreme wind speeds are often measured (up to 200 km/h). (author). figs., tabs., photos., appendices.

  1. Analysis of fuel handling system for fuel bundle safety during station blackout in 500 MWe PHWR unit of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhuresh, R; Nagarajan, R; Jit, I; Sanatkumar, A [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd., Mumbai (India)

    1997-12-31

    Situations of Station Blackout (SBO) i.e. postulated concurrent unavailability of Class Ill and Class IV power, could arise for a long period, while on-power refuelling or other fuel handling operations are in progress with the hot irradiated fuel bundles being anywhere in the system from the Reactor Building to the Spent Fuel Storage Bay. The cooling provisions for these fuel bundles are diverse and specific to the various stages of fuel handling operations and are either on Class Ill or on Class II power with particular requirements of instrument air. Therefore, during SBO, due to the limited availability of Class II power and instrument air, it becomes difficult to maintain cooling to these fuel bundles. However, some minimal cooling is essential, to ensure the safety of the bundles. As discussed in the paper, safety of these fuel bundles in the system and/or for those lying in the liner tube region of the reactor end fitting is ensured, during SBO, by resorting to passive means like `stay-put`, `gravity- fill`, `D{sub 2}0- steaming` etc. for cooling the bundles. The paper also describes various consequences emanating from these cooling schemes. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  2. Analysis of fuel handling system for fuel bundle safety during station blackout in 500 MWe PHWR unit of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhuresh, R.; Nagarajan, R.; Jit, I.; Sanatkumar, A.

    1996-01-01

    Situations of Station Blackout (SBO) i.e. postulated concurrent unavailability of Class Ill and Class IV power, could arise for a long period, while on-power refuelling or other fuel handling operations are in progress with the hot irradiated fuel bundles being anywhere in the system from the Reactor Building to the Spent Fuel Storage Bay. The cooling provisions for these fuel bundles are diverse and specific to the various stages of fuel handling operations and are either on Class Ill or on Class II power with particular requirements of instrument air. Therefore, during SBO, due to the limited availability of Class II power and instrument air, it becomes difficult to maintain cooling to these fuel bundles. However, some minimal cooling is essential, to ensure the safety of the bundles. As discussed in the paper, safety of these fuel bundles in the system and/or for those lying in the liner tube region of the reactor end fitting is ensured, during SBO, by resorting to passive means like 'stay-put', 'gravity- fill', 'D 2 0- steaming' etc. for cooling the bundles. The paper also describes various consequences emanating from these cooling schemes. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  3. Bioavailability and biodegradation of weathered diesel fuel in aquifer material under denitrifying conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregnard, T.P.A.; Hoehener, P.; Zeyer, J.

    1998-01-01

    During the in situ bioremediation of a diesel fuel-contaminated aquifer in Menziken, Switzerland, aquifer material containing weathered diesel fuel (WDF) and indigenous microorganisms was excavated. This material was used to identify factors limiting WDF biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. Incubations of this material for 360 to 390 d under denitrifying conditions resulted in degradation of 23% of the WDF with concomitant consumption of NO 3 - and production of inorganic carbon. The biodegradation of WDF and the rate of NO 3 - consumption was stimulated by agitation of the microcosms. Biodegradation was not stimulated by the addition of a biosurfactant (rhamnolipids) or a synthetic surfactant (Triton X-100) at concentrations above their critical micelle concentrations. The rhamnolipids were biodegraded preferentially to WDF, whereas Triton X-100 was not degraded. Both surfactants reduced the surface tension of the growth medium from 72 to <35 dynes/cm and enhanced the apparent aqueous solubility of the model hydrocarbon n-hexadecane by four orders of magnitude. Solvent-extracted WDF, added at a concentration equal to that already present in the aquifer material, was also biodegraded by the microcosms, but not at a higher rate than the WDF already present in the material. The results show that the denitrifying biodegradation of WDF is not necessarily limited by bioavailability but rather by the inherent recalcitrance of WDF

  4. Techno-economic assessments of oxy-fuel technology for South African coal-fired power stations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available at the technical and economic viability of oxy-fuel technology for CO(sub2) capture for South African coal-fired power stations. This study presents a techno-economic analysis for six coal fired power stations in South Africa. Each of these power stations has a...

  5. Measurement station for interim inspections of Lightbridge metallic fuel rods at the Halden Boiling Water Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, C.; Totemeier, A.; Holcombe, S.; Liverud, J.; Limi, M.; Hansen, J. E.; Navestad, E. AB(; )

    2018-01-01

    Lightbridge Corporation has developed a new Uranium-Zirconium based metallic fuel. The fuel rods aremanufactured via a co-extrusion process, and are characterized by their multi-lobed (cruciform-shaped) cross section. The fuel rods are also helically-twisted in the axial direction. Two experimental fuel assemblies, each containing four Lightbridge fuel rods, are scheduled to be irradiated in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) starting in 2018. In addition to on-line monitoring of fuel rod elongation and critical assembly conditions (e.g. power, flow rates, coolant temperatures, etc.) during the irradiation, several key parameters of the fuel will be measured out-of-core during interim inspections. An inspection measurement station for use in the irradiated fuel handling compartment at the HBWR has therefore been developed for this purpose. The multi-lobed cladding cross section combined with the spiral shape of the Lightbridge metallic fuel rods requires a high-precision guiding system to ensure good position repeatability combined with low-friction guiding. The measurement station is equipped with a combination of instruments and equipment supplied from third-party vendors and instruments and equipment developed at Institute for Energy Technology (IFE). Two sets of floating linear voltage differential transformer (LVDT) pairs are used to measure swelling and diameter changes between the lobes and the valleys over the length of the fuel rods. Eddy current probes are used to measure the thickness of oxide layers in the valleys and on the lobe tips and also to detect possible surface cracks/pores. The measurement station also accommodates gamma scans. Additionally, an eddy-current probe has been developed at IFE specifically to detect potential gaps or discontinuities in the bonding layer between the metallic fuel and the Zirconium alloy cladding. Potential gaps in the bonding layer will be hidden behind a 0.5-1.0 mm thick cladding wall. It has therefore been

  6. Weather Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  7. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Herrmann, E.; Zheng, L. F.; Nie, W.; Liu, Q.; Wei, X. L.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-10-01

    The influence of air pollutants, especially aerosols, on regional and global climate has been widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies report their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect of how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in the air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease in the solar radiation intensity by more than 70%, a decrease in the sensible heat by more than 85%, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change in rainfall during both daytime and nighttime. Our results show clear air pollution-weather interactions, and quantify how air pollution affects weather via air pollution-boundary layer dynamics and aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks. This study highlights cross-disciplinary needs to investigate the environmental, weather and climate impacts of the mixed biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion sources in East China.

  8. Considerations for increasing unit 1 spent fuel pool capacity at the Laguna Verde station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, A.

    1992-01-01

    To increase the spent fuel storage capacity at the Laguna Verde Station in a safe and economical manner and assure a continuous operation of the first Mexican Nuclear Plant, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), the Nation's Utility, seeked alternatives considering the overall world situation, the safety and licensing aspects, as well as the economics and the extent of the nuclear program of Mexico. This paper describes the alternatives considered, their evaluation and how the decision taken by CFE in this field, provides the Laguna Verde Station with a maximum of 37 years storage capacity plus full core reserve

  9. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  10. Assessment of heavy metal contamination of dust at some selected fuel filling stations in Accra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afrifa, C. G.

    2011-07-01

    Heavy metal contaminated dust particles of fuel filling stations can be re-suspended into the ambient air and serve as a source of atmospheric pollution since the fine particles are aerodynamic and have longer life time in ambient air. This can cause ill-health effect on the fuel attendants and residents within the neighbourhood especially infants and the aged who are more vulnerable. In spite of this, not much research has been done on heavy metal contamination of dust at fuel filling stations. In this study, 55 dust samples were collected from six fuel filling stations in the Ga-East district and Accra Metropolitan assembly, both in Accra, in order to assess the levels of contamination of heavy metals; their possible sources and the human health risk associated with them. The dust samples were divided into two parts with one part sieved into four fractions using metric mesh sizes 500 µm, 200µm, 100µm and 45 µm, and pulverised. Total concentrations of heavy metals (Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb) were determined in the dust samples using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. The pollution indices; enrichment factors (EF), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), contamination factor (CF) and pollution load index (PLI) were used to identify possible levels of pollution from anthropogenic sources. The possible sources of metals were also identified with principal component analysis. Noncancer effect of children and adults due to exposure to dust from these fuel filling stations were also estimated. For the three fuelling areas, the average concentrations of V, Cr, Ni and Cu exceeded the acceptable values in common soil in the <45 µm fraction. The average concentration of Zn however exceeded the acceptable value only at the mixed-fuel fuelling area whereas the average concentration of Pb was within the acceptable value for all three fuelling areas. The dust samples showed moderate to significant enrichments for V, Cu, Br

  11. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2000 - December 31, 2000, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) executed a Cooperative Agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory to implement a major cofiring demonstration at the Willow Island Generating Station Boiler No.2. Willow Island Boiler No.2 is a cyclone boiler. Allegheny also will demonstrate separate injection cofiring at the Albright Generating Station Boiler No.3, a tangentially fired boiler. The Allegheny team includes Foster Wheeler as its primary subcontractor. Additional subcontractors are Cofiring Alternatives and N.S. Harding and Associates. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. The second quarter of the project involved completing the designs for each location. Further, geotechnical investigations proceeded at each site. Preparations were made to perform demolition on two small buildings at the Willow Island site. Fuels strategies were initiated for each site. Test planning commenced for each site. A groundbreaking ceremony was held at the Willow Island site on October 18, with Governor C. Underwood being the featured speaker

  12. Environmental Assessment for Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project, Coal Creek Station, Great River Energy, Underwood, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-01-16

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess the environmental impacts of the commercial application of lignite fuel enhancement. The proposed demonstration project would be implemented at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station near Underwood, North Dakota. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology to increase the heating value of lignite and other high-moisture coals by reducing the moisture in the fuels. Waste heat that would normally be sent to the cooling towers would be used to drive off a percentage of the moisture contained within the lignite. Application of this technology would be expected to boost power-generating efficiencies, provide economic cost savings for lignite and sub-bituminous power plants, and reduce air emissions. The proposed project would be constructed on a previously disturbed site within the Coal Creek Station and no negative impacts would occur in any environmental resource area.

  13. Predicting the weathering of fuel and oil spills: A diffusion-limited evaporation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C

    2018-01-01

    The majority of the evaporation models currently available in the literature for the prediction of oil spill weathering do not take into account diffusion-limited mass transport and the formation of a concentration gradient in the oil phase. The altered surface concentration of the spill caused by diffusion-limited transport leads to a slower evaporation rate compared to the predictions of diffusion-agnostic evaporation models. The model presented in this study incorporates a diffusive layer in the oil phase and predicts the diffusion-limited evaporation rate. The information required is the composition of the fluid from gas chromatography or alternatively the distillation data. If the density or a single viscosity measurement is available the accuracy of the predictions is higher. Environmental conditions such as water temperature, air pressure and wind velocity are taken into account. The model was tested with synthetic mixtures, petroleum fuels and crude oils with initial viscosities ranging from 2 to 13,000 cSt. The tested temperatures varied from 0 °C to 23.4 °C and wind velocities from 0.3 to 3.8 m/s. The average absolute deviation (AAD) of the diffusion-limited model ranged between 1.62% and 24.87%. In comparison, the AAD of a diffusion-agnostic model ranged between 2.34% and 136.62% against the same tested fluids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An independent spent-fuel storage installation at Surry Station: Design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, H.S.; Wakeman, B.H.; Pickworth, J.M.; Routh, S.D.; Hopkins, W.C.

    1989-07-01

    Design and licensing of the Surry Power Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) was initiated in 1982 by Virginia Power as part of a comprehensive strategy to increase spent fuel storage capacity at the Station. Designed to use large, metal dry storage casks, the Surry ISFSI will accommodate 84 such casks with a total storage capacity of 811 MTU of spent PWR fuel assemblies. The ISFSI is located at the Surry Station in a wooded area approximately 1000 meters (3300 feet) east of the reactor facilities. Construction of the first of three reinforced concrete storage pads and its associated support systems was completed in March 1986. The operating license and Technical Specifications were issued by the US NRC on July 2, 1986. Initial loading operations of a General Nuclear Systems, Inc., CASTOR V/21 storage cask began in September 1986. The first two CASTOR V/21 casks were placed in storage at the ISFSI in December 1986. 16 refs., 33 figs., 16 tabs

  15. An Intelligent Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Gonçalo; Ruano, Antonio; Duarte, Helder; Silva, Sergio; Khosravani, Hamid; Pesteh, Shabnam; Ferreira, Pedro M.; Horta, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN) algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN) models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead. PMID:26690433

  16. An Intelligent Weather Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Mestre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead.

  17. A Stabilizing Feedback Between Cloud Radiative Effects and Greenland Surface Melt: Verification From Multi-year Automatic Weather Station Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, C. S.; Wang, W.; van As, D.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds have strong impacts on Greenland's surface melt through the interaction with the dry atmosphere and reflective surfaces. However, their effects are uncertain due to the lack of in situ observations. To better quantify cloud radiative effects (CRE) in Greenland, we analyze and interpret multi-year radiation measurements from 30 automatic weather stations encompassing a broad range of climatological and topographical conditions. During melt season, clouds warm surface over most of Greenland, meaning the longwave greenhouse effect outweighs the shortwave shading effect; on the other hand, the spatial variability of net (longwave and shortwave) CRE is dominated by shortwave CRE and in turn by surface albedo, which controls the potential absorption of solar radiation when clouds are absent. The net warming effect decreases with shortwave CRE from high to low altitudes and from north to south (Fig. 1). The spatial correlation between albedo and net CRE is strong (r=0.93, palbedo determines the net CRE seasonal trend, which decreases from May to July and increases afterwards. On an hourly timescale, we find two distinct radiative states in Greenland (Fig. 2). The clear state is characterized by clear-sky conditions or thin clouds, when albedo and solar zenith angle (SZA) weakly correlates with CRE. The cloudy state is characterized by opaque clouds, when the combination of albedo and SZA strongly correlates with CRE (r=0.85, palbedo and solar zenith angle, explains the majority of the CRE variation in spatial distribution, seasonal trend in the ablation zone, and in hourly variability in the cloudy radiative state. Clouds warm the brighter and colder surfaces of Greenland, enhance snow melt, and tend to lower the albedo. Clouds cool the darker and warmer surfaces, inhibiting snow melt, which increases albedo, and thus stabilizes surface melt. This stabilizing mechanism may also occur over sea ice, helping to forestall surface melt as the Arctic becomes dimmer.

  18. The influence of weather and environment on pulmonary embolism: pollutants and fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Ralf; Mayes, Julian; Hilton, Paul; Lawrenson, Ross

    2005-01-01

    Previous publications have highlighted seasonal variations in the incidence of thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and that weather patterns can influence these. While medical risk factors for pulmonary thrombo-embolism such as age, obesity, hypercoagulable states, cancer, previous thrombo-embolism, immobility, limb paralysis, surgery, major illness, trauma, hypotension, tachypnoea and right ventricular hypokinesis are not directly implicated regarding environmental factors such as weather, they could be influenced indirectly by these. This would be especially relevant in polluted areas that are associated with a higher pulmonary embolism risk. Routine nuclear medicine lung ventilation/perfusion studies (V/Q scans) of 2071 adult patients referred to the nuclear medicine department of the Royal Surrey County Hospital in Guildford, UK, between January 1998 and October 2002 were reviewed and 316 of these patients were classified as positive for pulmonary embolism with high probability scan on PIOPED criteria. The occurrence of positive scans was compared to environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, vapour pressure, air pressure and rainfall. Multiple linear regression was used to establish the significance of these relations. The incidence of pulmonary embolism was positively related to vapour pressure and rainfall. The most significant relation was to vapour pressure (p=0.010) while rainfall was less significant (p=0.017). There was no significant relation between pulmonary embolism and air pressure, humidity or temperature. It is postulated that rainfall and water vapour may be contributary factors in thrombosis and pulmonary embolism by way of pollutants that are carried as condensation nuclei in micro-droplets of water. In particular, fossil fuel pollutants are implicated as these condensation nuclei. Pollutants may be inhaled by populations exposed to windborne vapour droplets in cities or airports. Polluted vapour droplets may be absorbed by the lung

  19. Post-irradiation examination of fuel elements of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (Report-I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahl, J.K.; Sah, D.N.; Chatterjee, S.; Sivaramkrishnan, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Detailed post-irradiation examination of three initial load fuel elements of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) has been carried out. The causes of the element failures have been analysed. It was observed that almost 90% of the length of the elements exoerienced nodular corrosion. It has been estimated that nodular corrosion would seriously affect the wall thickness and surface temperature of higher rated elements. Lunar shaped fret marks have also been observed at some spacer grid locations in the elements. The depth of the largest fret mark was measured to be 16.9% clad wall thickness. Detailed metallographic examination of the clad and fuel in the three elements has been done. The temperatures at different structural regions of the fuel cross-sections have been estimated. The change in fuel density during irradiation has been evaluated by comparing the irradiated fuel diameter with the mean pellet design diameter. The performance of the end plug welds and spacer grid sites in the elements has been assessed. The burnup distribution along the length of the elements has been evaluated by gamma scanning. The redistribution of fission products in the fuel has been examined by gamma scanning and beta-gamma autoradiography. Mechanical properties of the irradiated cladding have been examined by ring tensile testing. (auth.)

  20. A numerical study on the allowed sulpher content in fuel used by the power stations in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A. A.; AlsSdairawi, M.; AlHajraf, S.

    2006-01-01

    In Kuwait, most of the power stations use fuel oil as the prime source of energy. The sulphur content (S%) of the fuel used as well as other factors have a direct impact on the ground level concentration of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) released by the power stations into the atmosphere. The SO 2 ground level concentration has to meet the standards set by Kuwait Environmental Public Authority (KEPA). In this communication we present numerical results obtained using the Inustrial Sources Complex Short Team (ISC-ST) numerical model. The model calculated the SO 2 concentration resulting from existing power stations assuming a) zero background SO 2 concentration and b) entire reliance on Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO). Different scenarios represented by different S and, i.e. 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4% were simulated. For all power stations, the annual SO 2 concentrations for fuels with low sulphur content do not pose any risk on urban populations. Bubyan Islan and Subiya are considred ideal locations for future power stations. The majority of the pollutants around Kuwait City results from emissions from Doha East and Doha West power stations. The results are expected to benefit Kuwait Petroleum Corporation in improving the quality of the fuel produced for consumption by the power stations in Kuwait in order to maintain an acceptable ground level of SO 2 .(Author)

  1. Performance Assessment of a Solar powered Air Quality and Weather Station Placed on a School Rooftop in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of compact, roof version of a Village Green Project station installed on a secondary school rooftop in Hong Kong. Preliminary comparison of the station's data against nearby regulatory monitors are summarized.

  2. Improving the monitoring of quantitative conditions of peacetime fuel stocks at pumping stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviša M. Ilić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper has solved the problem of optimizing the existing inefficient and irrational system of the quantitative monitoring of the situation in peacetime fuel supplies at the pumping stations in the Army of Serbia. A study of existing organizational forms, military pumping stations as well as civilian ones, was carried out. Based on the completion of the survey by competent persons in the military, the methods of expert evaluation and the obtained quantitative indicator of the tested models, a multicriteria optimization was performed in order to select the optimal model. The optimization of the existing models, in terms of efficiency and economy, would be the rationalization and modernization - automation of military capacity and greater reliance on automated civilian pumping stations. Introduction Within the framework of the undergoing reform of the Serbian Army and in order to reduce the total costs, it is necessary to optimize the existing supply system that is technologically outdated, inefficient and uneconomic. The problem of research in this paper is reduced to the selection of an optimal model of the quantitative monitoring of the state of peacetime stocks of fuel at the pumping stations in the Serbian Army, in order to ensure economical operation and efficient monitoring of available and issued quantities, aiming at better decision making and management in the supply system as well as at achieving faster system response, with greater reliance on government logistics. Organization of work and monitoring the fuel quantitative status at pumping stations The existing system of monitoring the quantitative state of fuel pumping stations in the Army of Serbia has the following disadvantages: getting unreliable data, due to outdated equipment for fuel handling and measuring equipment, and manual collection of data; creation of unauthorized shortages (due to subjective human error or deception; inadequate engagement of respective material and

  3. Temporary storage facility for spent nuclear fuels at the Atucha I nuclear power station (CNA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasinger, K.

    1983-01-01

    According to plans of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the spent nuclear fuel elements of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Station are to be stored temporarily pending a decision about the ultimate disposal concept. The holding capacity of the first fuel storage facility built by the German KWU together with the whole power plant had been expanded in 1978 to a level good until mid-1982. In 1977, KWU drafted the concept of another fuel storage facility. Like the first one, it was designed as a wet storage system attached to the power plant installations and had a holding capacity of 6944 fuel elements, which corresponds to some 1100 te of uranium. This extends the storage capacity up until 1996. In 1978, KWU was commissioned by CNEA to plan the whole facility and deliver the mechanical and electrical equipment. CNEA themselves assumed responsibility for the construction work. The second fuel storage facility was commissioned three years after the start of construction. (orig.) [de

  4. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  5. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AIR STATION CAPE COD BOURNE, MASSACHUSETTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John K. Steckel Jr

    2004-06-30

    This report covers the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant, installed by PPL Spectrum, Inc. (PPL) under contract with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), Research and Development Center (RDC). The fuel cell was installed at Air Station Cape Cod in Bourne, MA. The project had the support of the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Keyspan Energy. PPL selected FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) and its fuel cell model DFC{reg_sign}300 for the contract. Grant contributions were finalized and a contract between PPL and the USCG for the manufacture, installation, and first year's maintenance of the fuel cell was executed on September 24, 2001. As the prime contractor, PPL was responsible for all facets of the project. All the work was completed by PPL through various subcontracts, including the primary subcontract with FCE for the manufacture, delivery, and installation of the fuel cell. The manufacturing and design phases proceeded in a relatively timely manner for the first half of the project. However, during latter stages of manufacture and fuel cell testing, a variety of issues were encountered that ultimately resulted in several delivery delays, and a number of contract modifications. Final installation and field testing was completed in April and May 2003. Final acceptance of the fuel cell was completed on May 16, 2003. The fuel cell has operated successfully for more than one year. The unit achieved an availability rate of 96%, which exceeded expectations. The capacity factor was limited because the unit was set at 155 kW (versus a nameplate of 250 kW) due to the interconnection with the electric utility. There were 18 shutdowns during the first year and most were brief. The ability of this plant to operate in the island mode improved availability by 3 to 4%. Events that would normally be shutdowns were simply island mode events. The mean time between failure was calculated at 239 hours, or slightly

  6. Analysis of antenna position measurements and weather station network data during the ALMA long baseline campaign of 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Todd R.; Lucas, Robert; Broguière, Dominique; Fomalont, Ed B.; Dent, William R. F.; Phillips, Neil; Rabanus, David; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    In a radio interferometer, the geometrical antenna positions are determined from measurements of the observed delay to each antenna from observations across the sky of many point sources whose positions are known to high accuracy. The determination of accurate antenna positions relies on accurate calibration of the dry and wet delay of the atmosphere above each antenna. For the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), with baseline lengths up to 15 kilometers, the geography of the site forces the height above mean sea level of the more distant antenna pads to be significantly lower than the central array. Thus, both the ground level meteorological values and the total water column can be quite different between antennas in the extended configurations. During 2015, a network of six additional weather stations was installed to monitor pressure, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity, in order to test whether inclusion of these parameters could improve the repeatability of antenna position determinations in these configurations. We present an analysis of the data obtained during the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign of October through November 2015. The repeatability of antenna position measurements typically degrades as a function of antenna distance. Also, the scatter is more than three times worse in the vertical direction than in the local tangent plane, suggesting that a systematic effect is limiting the measurements. So far we have explored correcting the delay model for deviations from hydrostatic equilibrium in the measured air pressure and separating the partial pressure of water from the total pressure using water vapor radiometer (WVR) data. Correcting for these combined effects still does not provide a good match to the residual position errors in the vertical direction. One hypothesis is that the current model of water vapor may be too simple to fully remove the day-to-day variations in the wet delay. We describe possible new avenues of

  7. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the VANCOUVER from Ocean Weather Station P (OWS-P) in the North Pacific Ocean from 1967-12-10 to 1968-01-13 (NODC Accession 6900710)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the VANCOUVER within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station P (5000N 14500W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  8. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the BARATARIA from Ocean Weather Station N (OWS-N) in the North Pacific Ocean from 1969-05-01 to 1969-05-26 (NODC Accession 6900462)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the BARATARIA within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station N (3000N 14000W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  9. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the DALLAS from Ocean Weather Station C (OWS-C) and D (OWS-D) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1973-11-03 to 1973-11-27 (NODC Accession 7301191)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the DALLAS within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station C (5245N 03530W), D (4400N 04100W), and in transit. Data were...

  10. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the WINONA from Ocean Weather Station N (OWS-N) in the North Pacific Ocean from 1964-04-01 to 1964-04-14 (NODC Accession 6400009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the WINONA within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station N (3000N 14000W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  11. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the BERING STRAIT from Ocean Weather Station V (OWS-V) in the North Pacific Ocean from 1958-11-30 to 1958-12-30 (NODC Accession 5800073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the BERING STRAIT within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station V (3400N 16400E) and in transit. Data were collected by...

  12. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the HUMBOLDT from Ocean Weather Station D (OWS-D) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1962-07-13 to 1962-08-05 (NODC Accession 6200130)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the HUMBOLDT within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station D (4400N 04100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  13. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the HUMBOLDT from Ocean Weather Station B (OWS-B) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1968-07-21 to 1968-08-12 (NODC Accession 6800388)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the HUMBOLDT within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (5630N 05100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  14. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the HUMBOLDT from Ocean Weather Station E (OWS-E) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1962-09-18 to 1962-10-13 (NODC Accession 6200206)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the HUMBOLDT within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station E (3500N 04800W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  15. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the HUMBOLDT from Ocean Weather Station C (OWS-C) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1963-05-26 to 1963-06-24 (NODC Accession 6300123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the HUMBOLDT within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station C (5245N 0350W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  16. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the HUMBOLDT from Ocean Weather Station B (OWS-B) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1966-03-17 to 1966-04-01 (NODC Accession 6600372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the HUMBOLDT within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (56305N 05100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  17. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the HUMBOLDT from Ocean Weather Station D (OWS-D) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1966-05-28 to 1966-06-24 (NODC Accession 6600371)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the HUMBOLDT within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station D (4400N 04100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  18. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the GRESHAM from Ocean Weather Station N (OWS-N) in the North Pacific Ocean from 1955-12-08 to 1956-01-04 (NODC Accession 5500035)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the GRESHAM within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station N (3000N 14000W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  19. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the VANCOUVER from Ocean Weather Station P (OWS-P) in the North Pacific Ocean from 30 October to 1968-12-01 (NODC Accession 6900711)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the VANCOUVER within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station P (5000N 14500W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  20. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the BELKNAP and other platforms from multiple Ocean Weather Station (OWS) in the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean from 1969-02-03 to 1970-08-18 (NODC Accession 7000904)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the BELKNAP and other platforms within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (5630N 05100W), C (5245N 03530W), D...

  1. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the MCCULLOCH from Ocean Weather Station E (OWS-E) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1967-09-24 to 1967-10-21 (NODC Accession 6700547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the MCCULLOCH within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station E (3500N 04800W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  2. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the TANEY from Ocean Weather Station N (OWS-N) in the North Pacific Ocean from 1961-10-20 to 1961-11-07 (NODC Accession 6100246)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the TANEY within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station N (3000N 14000W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  3. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station D (OWS-D) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1973-06-03 to 1973-07-02 (NODC Accession 7300933)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station D (4400N 04100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  4. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CHAUTAUQUA from Ocean Weather Station E (OWS-E) and H (OWS-H) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1972-06-28 to 1972-08-03 (NODC Accession 7201022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CHAUTAUQUA within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station E (3500N 04800W), H (3800N 07100W), and in transit. Data...

  5. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station D (OWS-D) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1966-08-26 to 1966-09-18 (NODC Accession 6600285)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station D (4400N 04100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  6. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the MCCULLOCH from Ocean Weather Station E (OWS-E) and H)OWS-H) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1969-08-08 to 1969-09-09 (NODC Accession 7000051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the MCCULLOCH within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station E (3500N 04800W), H (3800N 07100W), and in transit. Data were...

  7. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the QUADRA from Ocean Weather Station P (OWS-P) in the North Pacific Ocean from 1969-02-22 to 1969-04-09 (NODC Accession 6900703)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the QUADRA within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station P (5000N 14500W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  8. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the QUADRA from Ocean Weather Station P (OWS-P) in the North Pacific Ocean from 1968-12-06 to 1969-01-15 (NODC Accession 6900707)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the QUADRA within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station P (5000N 14500W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  9. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station E (OWS-E) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1962-01-06 to 1962-01-15 (NODC Accession 6200078)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station E (3500N 04800W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  10. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station C (OWS-C) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1973-10-15 to 1973-11-11 (NODC Accession 7301169)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station C (5245N 03530W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  11. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station E (OWS-E) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1965-11-24 to 1965-12-13 (NODC Accession 6500781)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station E (3500N 04800W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  12. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station B (OWS-B) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1964-09-08 to 1964-10-01 (NODC Accession 6400046)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (56305N 05100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  13. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station E (OWS-E) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1967-02-27 to 1967-03-22 (NODC Accession 6700088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station E (3500N 04800W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  14. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station B (OWS-B) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1970-02-17 to 1970-03-07 (NODC Accession 7000337)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (5630N 05100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  15. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station C (OWS-C) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1965-06-20 to 1965-07-19 (NODC Accession 6500782)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station C (5245N 0350W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  16. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station B (OWS-B) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1974-02-19 to 1974-03-16 (NODC Accession 7400266)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (5630N 05100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  17. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station H (OWS-H) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1973-12-18 to 1974-01-13 (NODC Accession 7400074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station H (3800N 07100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  18. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station C (OWS-C) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1963-03-26 to 1963-04-26 (NODC Accession 6300986)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station C (5245N 0350W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  19. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station B (OWS-B) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1967-04-26 to 1967-05-16 (NODC Accession 6700188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (56305N 05100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  20. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL Ocean Weather Station D (OWS-D) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1964-06-26 to 1964-07-23 (NCEI Accession 6400991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station D (4400N 04100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  1. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station E (OWS-E) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1964-11-29 to 1964-12-22 (NODC Accession 6400064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station E (3500N 04800W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  2. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station B (OWS-B) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1963-08-22 to 1963-09-21 (NODC Accession 6300103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (56305N 05100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  3. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station C (OWS-C) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1965-02-21 to 1965-03-11 (NODC Accession 6500029)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station C (5245N 0350W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  4. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station C (OWS-C) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1962-07-02 to 1962-08-02 (NODC Accession 6200220)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station C (5245N 0350W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  5. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station D (OWS-D) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1972-05-29 to 1972-07-01 (NODC Accession 7200930)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station D (4400N 04100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  6. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CASTLE ROCK from Ocean Weather Station C (OWS-C) in the North Atlantic Ocean 1964-07-01 to 1964-08-06 (NODC Accession 6400054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CASTLE ROCK within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station C (5245N 0350W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  7. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CASTLE ROCK from Ocean Weather Station C (OWS-C) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1967-05-20 to 1967-06-17 (NODC Accession 6700230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CASTLE ROCK within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station C (5245N 0350W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  8. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CASTLE ROCK from Ocean Weather Station D (OWS-D) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1967-02-22 to 1967-03-21 (NODC Accession 6700148)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CASTLE ROCK within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station D (4400N 04100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  9. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the TANEY from Ocean Weather Station N (OWS-N) in the North Pacific Ocean from 1962-03-15 to 1962-04-09 (NODC Accession 6200098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the TANEY within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station N (3000N 14000W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  10. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the MELLON from Ocean Weather Station V (OWS-V) in the North Pacific Ocean from 1968-07-28 to 1968-08-23 (NODC Accession 6800548)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the MELLON within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station V (3400N 16400E) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  11. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the MELLON from Ocean Weather Station N (OWS-N) in the North Pacific Ocean from 1974-01-23 to 1974-02-24 (NODC Accession 7400215)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the MELLON within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station N (3000N 14000W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  12. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the INGHAM from Ocean Weather Station B (OWS-B) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1967-01-24 to 1967-02-27 (NODC Accession 6700118)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the INGHAM within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (56305N 05100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  13. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the INGHAM from Ocean Weather Station E (OWS-E) and H (OWS-H) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1971-01-07 to 1971-02-02 (NODC Accession 7100301)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the INGHAM within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station E (3500N 04800W), H (3800N 07100W), and in transit. Data were...

  14. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CASCO from Ocean Weather Station D (OWS-D) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1965-09-19 to 1965-10-05 (NODC Accession 6500775)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CASCO within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station D (4400N 04100W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  15. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the INGHAM from Ocean Weather Station C (OWS-C) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1972-03-30 to 1972-04-23 (NODC Accession 7200690)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the INGHAM within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station C (5245N 03530W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  16. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the ABSECON from Ocean Weather Station E (OWS-E) and H (OWS-H) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1970-07-20 to 1970-08-19 (NODC Accession 7000910)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the ABSECON within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station E (3500N 04800W), H (3800N 07100W), and in transit. Data were...

  17. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the WINONA from Ocean Weather Station N (OWS-N) in the North Pacific Ocean from 1966-01-20 to 1966-02-16 (NODC Accession 6600480)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the WINONA within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station N (3000N 14000W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  18. Mitigating fuel handling situations during station blackout in TAPP-3 and

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugh, V.K.; Roy, Shibaji; Gupta, H.; Inder Jit

    2002-01-01

    Full text: On power refueling is one of the important features of PHWRs. fuelling machine (FM) Head becomes part of the reactor pressure boundary during refueling operations. Hot irradiated (spent) fuel bundles are received in the FM Head from the Reactor and transferred to spent fuel storage bay (SFSB). These bundles pass through various fuel handling (FH) Equipment under submerged condition except during the dry transfer operation. Situations of station blackout (SBO) i.e. postulated simultaneous failure of Class III and Class IV electric power, could persist for a long period, during on-reactor or off-reactor FH operations, with the spent fuel bundles being any where in the system between the reactor and SFSB. The cooling provisions for the spent fuel bundles vary depending upon the stage of operation. During SBO, it becomes difficult to maintain cooling to these fuel bundles due to the limited availability of Class II power and instrument air. However, cooling is essential, to ensure the safety of the bundles. As discussed in the paper, safety of these fuel bundles in the system and/or for those lying in the liner tube region of the reactor end fitting is ensured, during SBO, by resorting to passive means like stay-put, gravity- fill, D 2 O-steaming etc. for cooling the bundles. Various scenarios have been identified for cooling provisions of the bundles in the system. The paper also describes consequences like loss of D 2 O inventory, rise in ambient temperature and pressure and tritium build-up in Reactor Building, emanating from these cooling schemes

  19. Solar Weather Ice Monitoring Station (SWIMS). A low cost, extreme/harsh environment, solar powered, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally respectful materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enhancing the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. Small scale deployments using various materials have been done in Canada, California's Sierra Nevada Mountains and a pond in Minnesota to test the albedo performance and environmental characteristics of these materials. SWIMS is a sophisticated autonomous sensor system being developed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. The system (SWIMS) employs low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, high resolution cameras, and an extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless communication. The entire system is solar powered with redundant battery backup on a floating buoy platform engineered for low temperature (-40C) and high wind conditions. The system also incorporates tilt sensors, sonar based ice thickness sensors and a weather station. To keep the costs low, each SWIMS unit measures incoming and reflected radiation from the four quadrants around the buoy. This allows data from four sets of sensors, cameras, weather station, water temperature probe to be collected and transmitted by a single on-board solar powered computer. This presentation covers the technical, logistical and cost challenges in designing, developing and deploying these stations in remote, extreme environments. Image captured by camera #3 of setting sun on the SWIMS station One of the images captured by SWIMS Camera #4

  20. Status of the nuclear measurement stations for the process control of spent fuel reprocessing at AREVA NC/La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleon, Cyrille; Passard, Christian; Hupont, Nicolas; Estre, Nicolas; Battel, Benjamin; Doumerc, Philippe; Dupuy, Thierry; Batifol, Marc; Grassi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear measurements are used at AREVA NC/La Hague for the monitoring of spent fuel reprocessing. The process control is based on gamma-ray spectroscopy, passive neutron counting and active neutron interrogation, and gamma transmission measurements. The main objectives are criticality and safety, online process monitoring, and the determination of the residual fissile mass and activities in the metallic waste remained after fuel shearing and dissolution (empty hulls, grids, end pieces), which are put in radioactive waste drums before compaction. The whole monitoring system is composed of eight measurement stations which will be described in this paper. The main measurement stations no. 1, 3 and 7 are needed for criticality control. Before fuel element shearing for dissolution, station no. 1 allows determining the burn-up of the irradiated fuel by gamma-ray spectroscopy with HP Ge (high purity germanium) detectors. The burn-up is correlated to the 137 Cs and 134 Cs gamma emission rates. The fuel maximal mass which can be loaded in one bucket of the dissolver is estimated from the lowest burn-up fraction of the fuel element. Station no. 3 is dedicated to the control of the correct fuel dissolution, which is performed with a 137 Cs gamma ray measurement with a HP Ge detector. Station no. 7 allows estimating the residual fissile mass in the drums filled with the metallic residues, especially in the hulls, from passive neutron counting (spontaneous fission and alpha-n reactions) and active interrogation (fission prompt neutrons induced by a pulsed neutron generator) with proportional 3 He detectors. The measurement stations have been validated for the reprocessing of Uranium Oxide (UOX) fuels with a burn-up rate up to 60 GWd/t. This paper presents a brief overview of the current status of the nuclear measurement stations. (authors)

  1. Status of the nuclear measurement stations for the process control of spent fuel reprocessing at AREVA NC/La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleon, Cyrille; Passard, Christian; Hupont, Nicolas; Estre, Nicolas [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Battel, Benjamin; Doumerc, Philippe; Dupuy, Thierry; Batifol, Marc [AREVA NC, La Hague plant - Nuclear Measurement Team, F-50444 Beaumont-Hague (France); Grassi, Gabriele [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean-Millier, 92084 Paris-La-Defense cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear measurements are used at AREVA NC/La Hague for the monitoring of spent fuel reprocessing. The process control is based on gamma-ray spectroscopy, passive neutron counting and active neutron interrogation, and gamma transmission measurements. The main objectives are criticality and safety, online process monitoring, and the determination of the residual fissile mass and activities in the metallic waste remained after fuel shearing and dissolution (empty hulls, grids, end pieces), which are put in radioactive waste drums before compaction. The whole monitoring system is composed of eight measurement stations which will be described in this paper. The main measurement stations no. 1, 3 and 7 are needed for criticality control. Before fuel element shearing for dissolution, station no. 1 allows determining the burn-up of the irradiated fuel by gamma-ray spectroscopy with HP Ge (high purity germanium) detectors. The burn-up is correlated to the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs gamma emission rates. The fuel maximal mass which can be loaded in one bucket of the dissolver is estimated from the lowest burn-up fraction of the fuel element. Station no. 3 is dedicated to the control of the correct fuel dissolution, which is performed with a {sup 137}Cs gamma ray measurement with a HP Ge detector. Station no. 7 allows estimating the residual fissile mass in the drums filled with the metallic residues, especially in the hulls, from passive neutron counting (spontaneous fission and alpha-n reactions) and active interrogation (fission prompt neutrons induced by a pulsed neutron generator) with proportional {sup 3}He detectors. The measurement stations have been validated for the reprocessing of Uranium Oxide (UOX) fuels with a burn-up rate up to 60 GWd/t. This paper presents a brief overview of the current status of the nuclear measurement stations. (authors)

  2. Fuel deposits and water chemistry at TVO I power station during the first three fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, S.; Hakala, J.

    1983-01-01

    TVO 1 is a 660 MWe direct-cycle, light-water cooled BWR of Asea-Atom design. The unit has just completed the 4th cycle. Sampling of deposits on fuel surfaces has been performed by Asea-Atom after each cycle. The deposits consist mainly of iron (78-86%) excepting two rods in a bundle belonging to the first reload. On these two rods the amounts of Cr and Cu were exceptionally high indicating differences in the deposition processes between the initial fuel and the first reload. In general the crud thickness is highest at a height of 1 to 1.5 meters from the bottom plate of the bundle. The average concentrations of the corrosion products vary from 3.6 to 10.3 g/m 2 /bundle. Inexplicable large variations of the crud amount between the bundles and between the individual rods in a bundle have been measured. Growth rate of deposits is decreased and water chemistry is improved with improved operation of the plant. During normal operation many impurities are below the detection limit thus making the interpretation of the results difficult. (author)

  3. Bearing support for receiving used fuel elements of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, F.

    1979-01-01

    A bearing support for receiving used fuel elements of nuclear power stations includes a plurality of chambers which have square cross-sections and each include inner and outer spaced apart walls with screening plates therebetween for screening the radiating fuel elements. Each chamber is detachably secured at its underside to a common foot plate and is held in position at its upper side by spacer elements. The outer wall comprises two equal-sided angle sheets and the inner wall comprises a closed square tube. The thickness of the outer wall is smaller than that of the inner wall and the outer walls are held in spaced relationship to each other at their upper sides by detachable bar grates

  4. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  5. Direction on characterization of fuel debris for defueling process in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Kimihiko; Kitagaki, Toru; Ikeuchi, Hirotomo; Wakui, Ryohei; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kaji, Naoya; Koizumi, Kenji; Washiya, Tadahiro

    2013-01-01

    For the decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), defueling of the fuel debris in the reactor core of Units 1-3 is planned to start within 10 years. Preferential items in the characterization of the fuel debris were identified for this work, in which the procedure and handling tools were assumed on the basis of information on 1F and experience after the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. The candidates for defueling tools for 1F were selected from among the TMI- 2 defueling tools. It was found that they could be categorized into six groups according to their operating principles. The important properties of the fuel debris for defueling were selected considering the effect of the target materials on the tool performance. The selected properties are shape, size, density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, melting point, hardness, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness. Of these properties, the mechanical properties (hardness, elastic modulus, fracture toughness) were identified as preferential items, because too few data on these characteristics of fuel debris are available in past severe accident studies. (authors)

  6. IoT based retail automation of fuel station and alert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen kumar, P.; Kumaresan, P.; Babu Sundaresan, Y.

    2017-11-01

    In this new era everyday life is filled with technology from the start up till to bed. In olden days people mostly worked within circle or walkable distance but now the technology developing day by day to reduce the work as well as time taken by work to complete.Thestuff’s in our daily process, somehow we left some lot of work due to lack of time. In today’s life most probably utmost 50% of products all came with automation and making theconsumers/users to access those products from anywhere by using their mobile or gadgets. In this paper, it deals with automation of fuel station retail outlet; this system will give the sales and stock report to the owner for every hour. The main problem is customer complaints about less quantityof fuel is issued or filled for money given and customers get diverted theirs attention by operators and refill the fuel without they resetting the nozzle. Nowadays to overcome these problems they replaced some electronic and computerised fuel dispensers but there is no way to identify inside the rotary valve adjustments by fitter.

  7. Identifying fly ash at a distance from fossil fuel power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanders, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    A method has been developed to identify fly ash originating at fossil fuel power stations, even at a distance where the ash level is lower by a factor of 1000 from that close to a source. Until now such detection has been difficult and uncertain. The technique combines collection of particles, measurement of magnetization and coercive field, and microscopy. The analysis depends on the fact that ash from iron sulfide in fossil fuels is in the form of spherical magnetite. These particles have a relatively high coercive field H c , near 135 Oe, compared with airborne particulates from soil erosion which have an H c of ∼35 Oe. The coercive field of any sample therefore gives an indication for the percentage of fly ash relative to the total amount of magnetic material that is airborne. The concentration of ash from a large, isolated coal burning power station is found to fall off with the distance from the source, approximately as D -1 . As D increases there is a drop in H c , associated with the reduced amount of fly ash relative to the airborne particulates from soil erosion

  8. International remote monitoring project Argentina Nuclear Power Station Spent Fuel Transfer Remote Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.; Lucero, R.; Glidewell, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Autoridad Regulataria Nuclear (ARN) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. A Remote Monitoring System for spent fuel transfer will be installed at the Argentina Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing gamma and neutron sensors. This project will test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper provides a description of the monitoring system and its functions. The Remote Monitoring System consists of gamma and neutron radiation sensors, RF systems, and video systems integrated into a coherent functioning whole. All sensor data communicate over an Echelon LonWorks Network to a single data logger. The Neumann DCM 14 video module is integrated into the Remote Monitoring System. All sensor and image data are stored on a Data Acquisition System (DAS) and archived and reviewed on a Data and Image Review Station (DIRS). Conventional phone lines are used as the telecommunications link to transmit on-site collected data and images to remote locations. The data and images are authenticated before transmission. Data review stations will be installed at ARN in Buenos Aires, Argentina, ABACC in Rio De Janeiro, IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 2 refs., 2 figs

  9. THE APPLICATION OF MAMMOTH FOR A DETAILED TIGHTLY COUPLED FUEL PIN SIMULATION WITH A STATION BLACKOUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleicher, Frederick; Ortensi, Javier; DeHart, Mark; Wang, Yaqi; Schunert, Sebastian; Novascone, Stephen; Hales, Jason; Williamson, Rich; Slaughter, Andrew; Permann, Cody; Andrs, David; Martineau, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Accurate calculation of desired quantities to predict fuel behavior requires the solution of interlinked equations representing different physics. Traditional fuels performance codes often rely on internal empirical models for the pin power density and a simplified boundary condition on the cladding edge. These simplifications are performed because of the difficulty of coupling applications or codes on differing domains and mapping the required data. To demonstrate an approach closer to first principles, the neutronics application Rattlesnake and the thermal hydraulics application RELAP-7 were coupled to the fuels performance application BISON under the master application MAMMOTH. A single fuel pin was modeled based on the dimensions of a Westinghouse 17x17 fuel rod. The simulation consisted of a depletion period of 1343 days, roughly equal to three full operating cycles, followed by a station blackout (SBO) event. The fuel rod was depleted for 1343 days for a near constant total power loading of 65.81 kW. After 1343 days the fission power was reduced to zero (simulating a reactor shut-down). Decay heat calculations provided the time-varying energy source after this time. For this problem, Rattlesnake, BISON, and RELAP-7 are coupled under MAMMOTH in a split operator approach. Each system solves its physics on a separate mesh and, for RELAP-7 and BISON, on only a subset of the full problem domain. Rattlesnake solves the neutronics over the whole domain that includes the fuel, cladding, gaps, water, and top and bottom rod holders. Here BISON is applied to the fuel and cladding with a 2D axi-symmetric domain, and RELAP-7 is applied to the flow of the circular outer water channel with a set of 1D flow equations. The mesh on the Rattlesnake side can either be 3D (for low order transport) or 2D (for diffusion). BISON has a matching ring structure mesh for the fuel so both the power density and local burn up are copied accurately from Rattlesnake. At each depletion time

  10. Building a panel data set on fuel stations located in the Spanish regional areas of Madrid and Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacint Balaguer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article were collected daily over the period June 10, 2010, to November 25, 2012, from the website of the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. The database includes information about fuel stations regarding to their prices (both gross and net of taxes, brand, location (latitude and longitude, and postal code in the Spanish provinces of Madrid and Barcelona. Moreover, obtaining the postal codes has allowed us to select those stations that are operating within the metropolitan areas of Madrid and Barcelona. By considering those fuel stations that uninterruptedly provided prices during the entire period, the data can be especially useful to explore the dynamics of prices in fuel markets. This is the case of Balaguer and Ripollés (2016, “Asymmetric fuel price responses under heterogeneity” [1], who, taking into account the presence of the potential heterogeneity of the behaviour of fuel stations, used this statistical information to perform an analysis on asymmetric fuel price responses.

  11. Distribution of trichloroethylene and selected aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons between ''weathered'' and ''unweathered'' fuel mixtures and groundwater: Equilibrium and kinetic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucette, W.J.; Dupont, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of trichloroethylene and several aliphatic and aromatic fuel components between 46 weathered and 11 unweathered fuel mixtures and groundwater was investigated using a slow stirring method. The weathered fuel mixtures were obtained from several contaminated field sites. Both unlabeled and 14C-labeled test compounds were used in the distribution experiments. Analyses of the test compound concentrations over time was performed by gas chromatograph or liquid scintillation counting. The time required to reach equilibrium varied from about 24 to 72 hours. Generally, the greater the hydrophobicity of the test compounds the longer time that was required to reach equilibrium. It was also observed that the fuel/water distribution coefficients were generally larger for the weathered fuels than those measured for the unweathered fuels, in some cases by a factor of 100. The weathered fuel mixtures obtained from the field site were depleted of the more water soluble compounds over time and became significantly more enriched in long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons. The ability of several models to describe the observed distribution behavior was examined

  12. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS stations in the Florida Keys, 2006 (NODC Accession 0058100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  13. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS stations in the Florida Keys, 2003 (NODC Accession 0058097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  14. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS stations in the Florida Keys, 2007 (NODC Accession 0058101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  15. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS stations in the Florida Keys, 2004 (NODC Accession 0058098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  16. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS stations in the Florida Keys, 2005 (NODC Accession 0058099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  17. Weather, fuels, fire behavior, plumes, and smoke - the nexus of fire meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; Timothy J. Brown; W. Matt Jolly

    2017-01-01

    In a pair of review papers, Potter (2012a, 2012b) summarized the significant fire weather research findings over about the past hundred years. Our scientific understanding of wildland fire-atmosphere interactions has evolved: from simple correlations supporting the notion that hot, dry, and windy conditions lead to more intense fires, we have moved towards more...

  18. About Economy of Fuel at Thermal Power Stations due to Optimization of Utilization Diagram of Power-Generating Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Svechko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems of rational fuel utilization becomes more and more significant especially for thermal power stations (TPS. Thermal power stations have complicated starting-up diagrams and utilization modes of their technological equipment. Method of diagram optimization of TPS equipment utilization modes has been developed. The method is based on computer analytical model with application of spline-approximation of power equipment characteristics. The method allows to economize fuel consumption at a rate of 15-20 % with accuracy of the predicted calculation not more than 0.25 %.

  19. Externality costs of the coal-fuel cycle: The case of Kusile Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonophile P. Nkambule

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal-based electricity is an integral part of daily life in South Africa and globally. However, the use of coal for electricity generation carries a heavy cost for social and ecological systems that goes far beyond the price we pay for electricity. We developed a model based on a system dynamics approach for understanding the measurable and quantifiable coal-fuel cycle burdens and externality costs, over the lifespan of a supercritical coal-fired power station that is fitted with a flue-gas desulfurisation device (i.e. Kusile Power Station. The total coal-fuel cycle externality cost on both the environment and humans over Kusile's lifespan was estimated at ZAR1 449.9 billion to ZAR3 279 billion or 91c/kWh to 205c/kWh sent out (baseline: ZAR2 172.7 billion or 136c/kWh. Accounting for the life-cycle burdens and damages of coal-derived electricity conservatively, doubles to quadruples the price of electricity, making renewable energy sources such as wind and solar attractive alternatives. Significance: The use of coal for electricity generation carries a heavy cost for social and ecological systems that goes far beyond the price we pay for electricity. The estimation of social costs is particularly important to the electric sector because of non-differentiation of electricity prices produced from a variety of sources with potentially very dissimilar environmental and human health costs. Because all electricity generation technologies are associated with undesirable side effects in their fuelcycle and lifespan, comprehensive comparative analyses of life-cycle costs of all power generation technologies is indispensable to guide the development of future energy policies in South Africa.

  20. Radioactive effluents from nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luykx, F.; Fraser, G.

    1983-01-01

    The report covers operational nuclear power stations of capacity greater than 5C MWe and nucler fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community. Radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent discharges from these installations are given for the period 1976 to 1980, expressed both in absolute terms and normalized to net electricity production from the fuel. An assesssment is then made of exposure of members of the public consequent to the 1980 discharges. Where environmental contamination levels were detectable the results have been taken into account in the dose assessment; however, environmental contamination was in general below the limit of detection. In these circumstances the dose estimates rely entirely on theoretical models which frequently incorporate conservative assumptions; hence these estimates are likely to be greater than the doses actually received. The estimated exposures have then been compared with the dose limits set out in the Euratom Directive of 15th July, 1980. It is concluded that the exposure of members of the public always left an appreciable safety margin relative to the limits and indeed lay within the variations in exposure which result from natural background

  1. 78 FR 40200 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, Oconee Nuclear Station Units 1, 2, and 3; Independent Spent Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 72-1004, 72-40, 50-269, 50-270, and 50-287; NRC-2013-0135] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, Oconee Nuclear Station Units 1, 2, and 3; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY: Nuclear...

  2. 78 FR 45575 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Oconee Nuclear Station Units 1, 2, and 3; Independent Spent Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos.: 72-1004, 72-40, 50-269, 50-270, 50-287; and NRC-2013- 0135] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Oconee Nuclear Station Units 1, 2, and 3; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Exemption; issuance. SUMMARY: The NRC...

  3. Investigation of evaporation and biodegradation of fuel spills in Antarctica: II-extent of natural attenuation at Casey Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Ian; Ferguson, Susan H; Harvey, Paul McA; Riddle, Martin J

    2006-03-01

    In many temperate regions, fuel and oil spills are sometimes managed simply by allowing natural degradation to occur, while monitoring soils and groundwater to ensure that there is no off-site migration or on-site impact. To critically assess whether this approach is suitable for coastal Antarctic sites, we investigated the extent of evaporation and biodegradation at three old fuel spills at Casey Station. Where the contaminants migrated across frozen ground, probably beneath snow, approximately half the fuel evaporated in the first few months prior to infiltration at the beginning of summer. Once in the ground, however, evaporation rates were negligible. In contrast, minor spills from fuel drums buried in an abandoned waste disposal site did not evaporate to the same extent. Biodegradation within all three spill sites is generally very minor. We conclude that natural attenuation is not a suitable management strategy for fuel-contaminated soils in Antarctic coastal regions.

  4. Cost and implications of a middle-term program for storage of spent fuel in a nuclear power station (BWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochon, J.L.; Quintana, R.

    1978-01-01

    The experience gained with the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Station Project is presented. Originally the station had two spent fuel storage pools, in the fuel building, plus a little pool inside the containment, and all were to be fitted with extensive aluminium storage racks with a total capacity for 1+-1/3 cores. Due to the present world situation with regard to the ''back-end''of the fuel cycle, it was decided to enlarge the pools size and to change the design of the racks, to obtain a final storage capacity of 5+-1/4 cores, so covering over 18 years of operation. The changes introduced in the project, as well as its costs, and the possibilities of election still open are examined in the paper. (author)

  5. Cost and implications of a middle-term program for storage of spent fuel in a nuclear power station (BWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochon, J.L.; Quintana, R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper is based on the experience gained with the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Station Project. Originally, the station had two spent fuel storage pools, in the fuel building, plus a little pool inside the containment, and all were to be fitted with extensive aluminum storage racks with a total capacity for 1+1/3 cores. Due to the present world situation with regard to the 'back-end' of the fuel cycle, it was decided to enlarge the pools' size and to change the design of the racks, to obtain a final storage capacity of 5+1/4 cores, so covering over 18 years of operation. The changes introduced in the project, as well as its costs, and the possibilities of election still open are examined in the paper

  6. Automatic Weather Station (AWS Program operated by the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the 2012-2013 field season: Challenges and Successes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Lazzara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This report reviews 2012-2013 field season activities of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Antarctic Automatic Weather Station (AWS program, summarizes the science that these sites are supporting, and outlines the factors that impact the number of AWS sites serviced in any given field season. The 2012-2013 austral summer season was unusual in the AWS network history. Challenges encountered include, but are not limited to, warmer than normal conditions in the Ross Island area impacting airfield operations, changes to logistical procedures, and competition for shared resources. A flexible work plan provides the best means for taking on these challenges while maximizing AWS servicing efforts under restricted conditions and meeting the need for routine servicing that maintaining an autonomous observing network demands.

  7. Comparison of the economy of atomic power stations and fossil-fuel power stations under Danish conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, J.

    1977-06-01

    The report deals with the investment and financing aspects of extending the Danish electricity production system with central, base-load power stations. Technical and economic data for the plants are determined on the basis of an analysis of the information presently available. A description is given of the general problems connected with analysis of investment and finance relevant to power station expansion. Comparative calculations are given for alternative methods of expansion comprising a few stations to be put into operation in 1987 and for other alternative expansions that cover the period until 2000 as regards costs. For use in economic comparisons with a few plants, a new calculation method was developed that takes into account possible differences in the value of the plants in the electricity production system. This method is described in appendix 1. In a further two appendices are given the technical reasons for using, respectively, the present-value method in the investment analyses and the reserve power philosophy applied in the main report. (author)

  8. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  9. Analysis of simulated hypervelocity impacts on a titanium fuel tank from the Salyut 7 space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantou, V.; McPhail, D. S.; Chater, R. J.; Kearsley, A.

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this project was to gain a better understanding of the microstructural effects of hypervelocity impacts (HVI) in titanium alloys. We investigated a titanium fuel tank recovered from the Russian Salyut 7 space station, which was launched on April 19, 1982 before being destroyed during an un-controlled re-entry in 1991, reportedly scattering debris over parts of South America. Several sections were cut out from the tank in order to undergo HVI simulations using a two-stage light gas gun. In addition, a Ti-6Al-4V alloy was studied for further comparison. The crater morphologies produced were successfully characterised using microscope-based white light interferometry (Zygo ® Corp, USA), while projectile remnants were identified via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Microstructural alterations were investigated using focused ion beam (FIB) milling and depth profiling, as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). There was evidence of a very high density of dislocations in the vicinity of the crater. The extent of the deformation was localised in a region of about one to two radii of the impact craters. No notable differences were observed between the titanium alloys used during the hypervelocity impact tests.

  10. Selection of the reference concept for the surface examination stations in the fuels and materials examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, G.B.; Nash, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    The prototype surface examination station for the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) will use closed circuit television (CCTV) for routine modes of operation along with a nuclear periscope for special examination needs. The CCTV and the nuclear periscope were evaluated against prescribed station requirements and compared in a side-by-side demonstration. A quantitative evaluation of their outputs showed that both systems were capable of meeting surface anomaly detection requirements. The CCTV system was superior in its ability to collect, suppress and present data into a more useful form for the experimenters

  11. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the ARNEB and other platforms from multiple Ocean Weather Station (OWS) in the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean from 1951-08-28 to 1964-04-10 (NODC Accession 6900232)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the ARNEB and other platforms within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station A (6200N 03300W), B (5630N 05100W), C (5245N...

  12. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CIRRUS and other platforms from multiple Ocean Weather Station (OWS) in the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean from 1967-12-06 to 1970-10-04 (NODC Accession 7101080)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CIRRUS and other platforms within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station A (6200N 03300W), B (5630N 05100W), C (5245N...

  13. The Solid Waste Transfer Pit an FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] station for fuel and reflector transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milewski, A.J.; Thomson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the design aspects of a proposed FFTF facility called the Solid Waste Transfer Pit (SWTP). This new facility will be used as a transfer station for reflectors and/or low decay heat fuel assemblies when movement from the Fuel Storage Facility for sodium removal and subsequent reprocessing is to be accomplished. The SWTP utilizes a shielded cell cover with an integral manually-operated gate valve for top loading of a transfer vessel. The cost-effective design discussed herein provides a practical approach using state-of-the-art concepts while assuring safe and reliable operation

  14. Stability of MOF-5 in a hydrogen gas environment containing fueling station impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Yang; Purewal, Justin; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    in the hydrogen fuel stream. Hydrogen intended for use in fuel cell vehicles should satisfy purity standards, such as those outlined in SAE J2719. This standard limits the concentration of certain species in the fuel stream based primarily on their deleterious effects on PEM fuel cells. However, the impact...

  15. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a~case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in the eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y. N.; Herrmann, E.; Zheng, L. F.; Nie, W.; Wei, X. L.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-06-01

    The influence of air pollutants, particularly aerosols, on regional and global climate is widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies reports their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70%, of sensible heat flux over 85%, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. Our results show clear air pollution - weather interactions, and quantify how air pollution affects weather with the influence of air pollution-boundary layer dynamics and aerosol-radiation-cloudy feedbacks. This study highlights a cross-disciplinary needs to study the environmental, weather and climate impact of the mixed biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion sources in the East China.

  16. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The following items are covered: the site, the station, environmental effects of site preparation and station construction, environmental effects of station operation, effluent and environmental monitoring programs, environmental effects of accidents, need for BFRSS, benefit-cost analysis of alternatives, generic environmental impact statements, and discussion of and response to comments received on the draft environmental statement

  17. North America Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Maps contains a surface analysis comprised of plotted weather station observations, isobars indicating low and high-pressure...

  18. Comparison of AB2588 multipathway risk factors for California fossil-fuel power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratt, L.B.; Levin, L.

    1997-01-01

    Substances released from power plants may travel through various exposure pathways resulting in human health and environmental risks. The stack air emission's primary pathway is inhalation from the ambient air. Multipathway factors (adjustment factors to the inhalation risk) are used to evaluate the importance of non-inhalation pathways (such as ingestion and dermal contact). The multipathway factor for a specific substance is the health risk by all pathways divided by the inhalation health risk for that substance. These factors are compared for fossil fuel power stations that submitted regulatory risk assessments in compliance with California Toxic Hot Spots Act (AB2588). Substances representing the largest contributions to the cancer risk are of primary concern: arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium (+6), formaldehyde, nickel, lead, selenium, and PAHs. Comparisons of the chemical-specific multipathway factors show the impacts of regulatory policy decisions on the estimated health risk for trace substances. As an example, point estimates of the soil mixing depth, varying from 1 cm to 15 cm, relate to the relative importance of the pathway. For the deeper mixing depths, the root-zone uptake by homegrown tomato plants (for assumed consumption rate of 15% for San Diego) may result in high multipathway factors for several trace metals. For shallower mixing depths, soil ingestion may become the dominant non-inhalation pathway. These differences may lead to significantly different risk estimates for similar facilities located at different California locations such as to be under local regulatory authorities. The overall multipathway factor for the total cancer risk is about 2, much smaller than some of the chemical-specific factors. Science-based multipathway analysis should reduce much of the concern that may be due to policy-based decisions on pathway selection and high-value point-estimates of the parameters

  19. Space weather effects on lower ionosphere: First investigation from Bharati station during 34th Indian scientific expedition to Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Anirban; Saha, Kumarjit; De, Barin Kumar; Subrahmanyam, Kandula Venkata; Shreedevi, P. R.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the solar flare effects on the D-region of the ionosphere with the help of VLF (Very Low Frequency) radio waves using a portable E-field system from Antarctica during the summer period of 34th Indian scientific expedition. Two GPS time synchronized VLF receivers, one located at Bharati, Antarctica (geographical latitude 69.40°S, longitude 76.18°E) and another located at Tripura, India (geographical latitude 23.84°N, longitude 91.28°E) were operated simultaneously to infer common mode changes in the lower ionosphere for a number of solar flares events. The two systems constantly monitored the carrier amplitude and phase of the MSK (Minimum Shift Keying) modulated navy transmitter located in Australia (Callsign: NWC, 19.8 kHz, geographical latitude 21.88°S, longitude 114.13°E), around 5.6 Mm great circle distance from the two receivers. The results are interpreted in terms of Earth-ionosphere wave-guide characteristics. A Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) model study is also performed to infer the changes in the daytime electron density in polar D-region ionosphere during the solar flares. The exponential fit of the modeled electron density change with average X-ray flux change shows an excellent correlation (R2 value 0.95). The exponential fit is utilized to infer the daytime electron density change in the polar ionosphere during solar flare events. The analyses indicate that small solar flares of class 'C' can be very effectively detected with the portable antenna system even if the receiver is located in polar coastal region compared to equatorial region. The expedition results also demonstrate the feasibility of using portable VLF receivers from the coastal stations for monitoring the polar lower ionosphere from Antarctica and open up new opportunities for long term exploration.

  20. Linking long-range weather forecasts and heat consumption as a determining factor when buying fuel chips for town heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolev, A.-M.

    1991-12-01

    The aim of this study is to test whether long-range weather forecasts from the meteorological services can be used as a determining factor when buying fuel chips. In the study the fuel consumption of heating plants and the factors determining the monthly consumption are mentioned. Degree-day statistics in Denmark for the last 30 years are explained as well as the difficulties in conjunction with the prediction of long-range weather conditions. This study compares degree days in 1989-1990 month by month with the actual and theoretic chip consumption in three different heating plants the same year. The theoretic chip consumption is calculated on the basis of degree days in a ''standard year'' and the annual chip consumption of the heating plant, among other things. Furthermore, on the basis of degree-day statistics the report makes it possible to estimate the monthly chip consumption of a heating plant in a ''standard year'', in an extremely cold year (maximum degree days), and in an extremely warm year (minimum degree days). However, not everything can be predicted, and it is not yet possible to predict reliable weather forecasts for more than 5 days ahead. The study concludes that long-range weather forecasts cannot be used as a determining factor when buying fuel chips for heating plants. When buying fuel chips one must still use statistics and degree days, supplimented by figures based on experience from actual chip consumption in the individual heating plant. These figures take into consideration the different types of heating plants, as well as heat supply, chip-supplier, storing facilities, other fuels, etc. (au)

  1. Oil fuel delivery optimization for multi product and multi depot: the case of petrol station replenishment problem (PSRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjandari, Isti; Rachman, Amar; Dianawati, Fauzia; Wibowo, R. Pramono

    2011-10-01

    With the Oil and Gas Law No. 22 of 2001, national and foreign private enterprises can invest in all sectors of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. In anticipation of this free competition, Pertamina, as a state-owned enterprises, which previously had monopolized the oil and gas business activities in Indonesia, should be able to improve services as well as the efficiency in order to compete in the free market, especially in terms of cost efficiency of fuel distribution to gas station (SPBU). To optimize the distribution activity, it is necessary to design a scheduling system and its fuel delivery routes daily to every SPBU. The determination of routes and scheduling delivery of fuel to the SPBU can be modeled as a Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PSRP) with the multi-depot, multi-product, time windows and split deliveries, which in this study will be completed by the Tabu Search algorithm (TS). This study was conducted in the area of Bandung, the capital of West Java province, which is a big city and the neighboring city of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. By using the fuel delivery data for one day, the results showed a decrease of 16.38% of the distance of the route compared to the current conditions, which impacted on the reduction of distribution costs and decrease the number of total trips by 5.22% and 3.83%.

  2. ENEL's experience in the management of irradiated fuel. Old and new problems encountered by nuclear station operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariemma, A.; Cuzzaniti, M.; Zaffiro, B.; Bertini, A.

    1983-01-01

    The experience acquired in recent years in the management of spent fuel discharged from ENEL's reactors has revealed a substantial change in the attitude of nuclear station operators in connection with the end of the fuel cycle downstream from the reactor (back-end). While in the past, after President Carter's outline of US policy in April 1977, the utilities had to face great difficulty in reprocessing their fuel owing to inadequate capacity, today the same problem is regarded as a matter of cost-benefit analysis from an industrial standpoint and of appropriate planning for the utilization of the recovered fissile materials. Since the present technology allows spent fuel storage (dry or underwater) to be planned for rather long periods and plutonium utilization requires a very stringent schedule, the present trend is to ensure medium-term storage of spent fuel and to seek a greater flexibility in the final reprocessing stages so as to render plutonium availability consistent with the programmes for its utilization. As a consequence, the solution to the problems posed by high-activity waste disposal is being delayed, thus allowing an exhaustive and detailed analysis of all the possible solutions to be made. The paper describes a number of solutions to the problems ENEL has encountered in the fuel cycle back-end. (author)

  3. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. Technical description in support of application for FRSS operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    Questions from the USAEC Directorate of Licensing related to the safety of casks used to transport and store fuel elements at the Barnwell Fuel Processing Plant and to facilities and procedures used in the plant are answered. (U.S.)

  4. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  5. Cape Kennedy Weather Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...

  6. Intra and inter ‘local climate zone’ variability of air temperature as observed by crowdsourced citizen weather stations in Berlin, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fenner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A one-year data set for the year 2015 of near-surface air temperature (T$T$, crowdsourced from ‘Netatmo’ citizen weather stations (CWS in Berlin, Germany, and surroundings was analysed. The CWS data set, which has been quality-checked and filtered in a previous study, consists of T$T$ measurements from several hundred CWS. It was investigated (1 how CWS are distributed among urban and rural environments, as represented by ‘local climate zones’ (LCZ, (2 how LCZ are characterised in T$T$ along the annual cycle and concerning intra-LCZ T$T$ variability, and (3 if significant T$T$ differences between LCZ (ΔT$\\Delta T$ can be detected with CWS data. Further, it was investigated how the results from CWS compare to reference data from standard meteorological measurement stations. It can be shown that all ‘urban’ LCZ are covered by CWS, but only few CWS are located in ‘natural’ LCZ (e.g. forests or urban parks. CWS data along the annual cycle show generally good agreement to reference data, though for some LCZ monthly means between both data sets differ up to 1 K. Intra-LCZ T$T$ variability is particularly large during night-time. Statistically significant ΔT$\\Delta T$ can be detected with CWS data between various LCZ pairs, particularly for structurally dissimilar LCZ, and the results are in agreement with existing literature on LCZ or the urban heat island. Furthermore, annual mean ΔT$\\Delta T$ in CWS data agree well with reference data, thus showing the potential of CWS data for long-term studies. Several challenges related to crowdsourced CWS data need further investigation, namely missing meta data, the non-standard measurement locations, the imbalanced availability in time and space, and potentials to combine CWS and reference data to benefit from the main advantages of both, i.e., the large number of stations and the high quality of data, respectively.

  7. Material streams in the fuel supply to and disposal of waste from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is characterized by specifically small, but complex material streams. The fresh fuel derived from natural uranium is fed into the cycle at the stage of fuel element fabrication, while at the end stage, waste from spent fuel element reprocessing, or non-reprocessible fuel elements, are taken out of the cycle and prepared for ultimate disposal. The alternative methods of waste management, reprocessing or direct ultimate disposal, are an issue of controversial debate with regard to their differences in terms of supply policy, economic and ecological aspects. (orig.) [de

  8. Statistical Analysis of Model Data for Operational Space Launch Weather Support at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) is used by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to support space launch weather operations. The 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct an objective statistics-based analysis of MesoNAM output compared to wind tower mesonet observations and then develop a an operational tool to display the results. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction began running the current version of the MesoNAM in mid-August 2006. The period of record for the dataset was 1 September 2006 - 31 January 2010. The AMU evaluated MesoNAM hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point were compared to the observed values of these parameters from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. The data sets were stratified by model initialization time, month and onshore/offshore flow for each wind tower. Statistics computed included bias (mean difference), standard deviation of the bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and a hypothesis test for bias = O. Twelve wind towers located in close proximity to key launch complexes were used for the statistical analysis with the sensors on the towers positioned at varying heights to include 6 ft, 30 ft, 54 ft, 60 ft, 90 ft, 162 ft, 204 ft and 230 ft depending on the launch vehicle and associated weather launch commit criteria being evaluated. These twelve wind towers support activities for the Space Shuttle (launch and landing), Delta IV, Atlas V and Falcon 9 launch vehicles. For all twelve towers, the results indicate a diurnal signal in the bias of temperature (T) and weaker but discernable diurnal signal in the bias of dewpoint temperature (T(sub d)) in the MesoNAM forecasts. Also, the standard deviation of the bias and RMSE of T, T(sub d), wind speed and wind

  9. Wind, photovoltaic and fuel cell energy for communication stations; Energia eolica, fotovoltaica e de celula a combustivel para estacoes de comunicacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Iolanda; Pereira, Jose; Alcobia, Hernani [Net Plan Telecomunicacoes e Energia, Lisboa (Portugal); Pereirinha, Paulo [Instituto Politecnico de Coimbra (Portugal); Instituto para Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores de Coimbra (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents a hybrid system that provides power to a remote and autonomously telecommunications station by means of electrical solar generators, wind and hydrogen fuel cell. In the absence of sufficient sun and wind, a bank of batteries and hydrogen produced on-site guarantee the power supply. The station can still be remote monitored and managed.

  10. KSC Weather and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Launa; Huddleston, Lisa; Smith, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This briefing outlines the history of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Weather organization, past research sponsored or performed, current organization, responsibilities, and activities, the evolution of weather support, future technologies, and an update on the status of the buoys located offshore of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and KSC.

  11. Ocean Station Vessel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  12. Meet the Maximally Exposed Member of the Public: The Service Station Attendant for Spent Nuclear Fuel Going to Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, H. E.; Gathers, R.; Halstead, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    According to the 1999 Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site, members of the public along transportation routes by which spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is shipped will receive annual radiation doses less than 100 mrem/yr, the international (ICRP) and national (Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission) radiation limit for members of the public. For the ''Mostly Truck'' national transportation scenario, the DEIS specifically concludes that the maximally exposed member of the public, a service station attendant along the primary shipping route will receive no more than 100 mrem/yr, or 2.4 rem over 24 years. Based on the assumptions in the DEIS scenarios, however, it is highly likely that service station attendants along shipping routes will be called upon to fuel and service the rigs carrying SNF and HLW to Yucca Mountain. After reevaluating the DEIS, and making realistic alternative assumptions where necessary, the authors conclude that these attendants are likely to receive substantially more than 100 mrem/yr external dose, and perhaps several times that dose (up to 500 mrem/yr), unless mitigating measures are adopted. This is particularly true in Western states where refueling opportunities are limited, and the distances between fuel sources in rural areas may be up to 100 miles

  13. 18-months fuel cycle engineering and its project management of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiangang; Jiao Ping; Liu Yong; Wu Zhiming

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces aspects related to the performing of 18-months fuel cycle engineering evaluation to the Daya Bay nuclear power plant, including the assessment on proposed technical solutions, appointment to the contractors, breaking down and implementation of project, experience on the project management and risk control, and etc. And it also briefs the prompting to the localization of the long fuel cycle engineering technology and AFA 3G fuel manufacturing and design technology via adequate technology transferring of this project

  14. Uranium content of coal ashes from Southern Brazil coal fueled power stations, by the fission track registration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of the application of the fission track registration technique for the determination of uranium in coal ashes was shown. The wet method was employed using as detector the Makrofol KG=10 μm, manufactured by Bayer. The coal ashes were originated from coal-fueled power stations localized in Southern Brazil. The results obtained ranged from 10 to 27 mg U/kg. Since the total error variation was from 18,4% to 23,8%, the method used was considered excellent. The determination of the uranium content in coal ashes is of considerable interest in environmental control in power stations, in their vicinity and wherever these ashes are used or stored. The technique used is the work proved to be very appropriate for the purpose aimed at. (Author) [pt

  15. DOCUMENTATION OF NATIONAL WEATHER CONDITIONS AFFECTING LONG-TERM DEGRADATION OF COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. L. Poe, Jr.; P.F. Wise

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal to construct, operate 2nd monitor, and eventually close a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, for the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). As part of this effort, DOE has prepared a viability assessment and an assessment of potential consequences that may exist if the repository is not constructed. The assessment of potential consequences if the repository is not constructed assumes that all SNF and HLW would be left at the generator sites. These include 72 commercial generator sites (three commercial facility pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine Mile Point, and Dresden and Morris--would share common storage due to their close proximity to each other) and five DOE sites across the country. DOE analyzed the environmental consequences of the effects of the continued storage of these materials at these sites in a report titled Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR; Reference 1 ) . The CSAR analysis includes a discussion of the degradation of these materials when exposed to the environment. This document describes the environmental parameters that influence the degradation analyzed in the CSAR. These include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation chemistry (pH and chemical composition), annual precipitation rates, annual number of rain-days, and annual freeze/thaw cycles. The document also tabulates weather conditions for each storage site, evaluates the degradation of concrete storage modules and vaults in different regions of the country, and provides a thermal analysis of commercial SNF in storage

  16. Process and container system for transferring or transporting fuel elements from a nuclear power station to a store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vox, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    A system of containers with three types of containers (an inside container, a transport container and a storage container) is used. One either sets the inside container open on the lid side into the transport container first in the water pond of the nuclear power station, and one then sets the fuel elements into the inside container, or one places the inside container, loaded with fuel elements away from the transport container, into the transport container. Both containers are then closed and are transported to the store as a unit. The storage container open on the lid side is prepared there, the floor of the transport container is opened and this, together with the inside container, is lifted above the storage container or set above the storage container. The inside container is then lowered onto the storage container, the transport container is removed and the lid of the storage container is closed. (orig./HP) [de

  17. TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station] fuel canister and core sample handling equipment used in INEL hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Shurtliff, W.T.; Lynch, R.J.; Croft, K.M.; Whitmill, L.J.; Allen, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the specialized remote handling equipment developed and used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to handle samples obtained from the core of the damaged Unit 2 reactor at Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TM-2). Samples of the core were removed, placed in TMI-2 fuel canisters, and transported to the INEL. Those samples will be examined as part of the analysis of the TMI-2 accident. The equipment described herein was designed for removing sample materials from the fuel canisters, assisting with initial examination, and processing samples in preparation for detailed examinations. The more complex equipment used microprocessor remote controls with electric motor drives providing the required force and motion capabilities. The remaining components were unpowered and manipulator assisted

  18. Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Signal over Kototabang, West Sumatera Based on the Mini Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) Data Analysis Using the Wavelet Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, E.

    2018-04-01

    This study is mainly concerned an application of Mini Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) at Kototabang, West Sumatera nearby the location of an Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) side. We are interest to use this data to investigate the propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). We examined of daily MAWS data for 3 years observations started from January 2001 to Mei 2004. By applying wavelet analysis, we found the MJO at Kototabang have 32 days oscillations as shown in Fig.1 below. In this study, we concentrate just for local mechanis only. We will show in this paper that at the phase of the MJO with a dipole structure to the convection anomalies, there is enhanced tropical convection over the eastern Indian Ocean and reduced convection over the western Pacific. Over the equatorial western Indian Ocean, the equatorial Rossby wave response to the west of the enhanced convection includes a region of anomalous surface divergence associated with the anomalous surface westerlies and pressure ridge. This tends to suppress ascent in the boundary layer and shuts off the deep convection, eventually leading to a convective anomaly of the opposite sign. Over the Indonesian sector, the equatorial Kelvin wave response to the east of the enhanced convection includes a region of anomalous surface convergence into the anomalous equatorial surface easterlies and pressure trough, which will tend to favour convection in this region. The Indonesian sector is also influenced by an equatorial Rossby wave response (of opposite sign) to the west of the reduced convection over the western Pacific, which also has a region of anomalous surface convergence associated with its anomalous equatorial surface easterlies and pressure trough. Hence, convective anomalies of either sign tend to erode themselves from the west and initiate a convective anomaly of opposite sign via their equatorial Rossby wave response, and expand to the east via their equatorial Kelvin wave response.

  19. Construction and cost experience regarding the 2nd pool house for spent fuel storage facility in the Atucha Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Atucha I second pool house storage for spent fuel is designed as an extension of the Atucha I power station. The two are linked by civil structure, controlling circuits, electrical and compressed air and water supplies, low level wastes disposal, ventilation under pressure maintenance, and, most important, the ability to transfer spent and new fuel in both directions. Because the second pool house is, by location and design, an extension of the existing installation, and since there is no design departure, regarding storage and transfer of fuel from that of the original installation, the rules and regulations applied for its construction were the same as those valid for the Atucha I construction. The requirement not to exceed a four-year period for construction and commissioning was determined by the need to have storage room for the Atucha I fuel. Argentina will meet the 1982 target by having the installation available during the second half of 1981. The second pool house is a wet storage location with a capacity of 1000 tons metallic uranium. It was designed by the Kraftwerk Union of West Germany along the same lines as the 440-ton storage location originally built with the station. The Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina has managed the construction and participated in project and design stages. As in the original pool, the 6 m long assemblies are stacked in double tiers. The cost figures which are mentioned differ from previously released figures and are not the final ones. With civil construction almost finished and mechanical erection started, the present estimates should not differ by more than 10% from the final figures. The installation has an investment cost of 61 million dollars, (1980), and, depending on the amortization time span considered, a total yearly cost per kg of capacity of metallic uranium, ranging between 5.5 and 9.3 dollars per kg

  20. Final environmental statement related to the operation of the Barnwell Fuel Receiving and Storage Station (Docket No. 70-1729)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The proposed action is to issue a materials license, pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30, 40 and 70 of the Commission's regulations, authorizing Allied-General Nuclear Services to receive and handle fuel casks containing spent reactor fuel elements and to store spent reactor fuel at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP), in the Barnwell Fuel Receiving and Storage Station (BFRSS). The BFRSS is a part of, and contiguous to, the BNFP-Separations Facility which is being constructed on a small portion of a 1700 acre site about six miles west of the city of Barnwell in Barnwell County, South Carolina. Construction of the BFRSS facility has been completed and the BNFP Separations Facility is more than 90% complete. A uranium Hexafluoride Facility is being constructed on the same site, and a Plutonium Product Facility is proposed to be constructed adjacent to the Separations Facility. The license that is the subject of this action will, if issued, allow lthe use of the BFRSS separate4 from the operation of the Separations Facility. Impacts resulting from the construction of the BFRSS have already occurred and mitigating measures have been and are being implemented to offset any adverse impacts. Operation of the BFRSS will not interfere with water sources, and should cause no noticeable damage to the terrestrial or aquatic environments. Operating experience at other fuel receiving and storage facilities has shown that radioactive concentrations discharged to the environs (the more significant process effluents) have been well below applicabhle state and federal limits. The small quantities to be released during operation of the BFRSS will result in negligible environmental impact. 20 figs

  1. Optimization of the overall energy consumption in cascade fueling stations for hydrogen vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    of refueling stations as a function of number of tanks, volume of the tanks and the pressure in the tanks. This is done for a complete refueling cycle. It is found that the energy consumption decreases with the number of tanks approaching an exponential function. The compressor accounts for app. 50......% of the energy consumption. Going from one tank to three tanks gives an energy saving of app. 30%. Adding more than four tanks the energy saving per extra added tank is less than 4%. The optimal numbers of tanks in the cascade system are three or four....... the vehicles. The cascade system at the station has to be refueled as the tank sizes are limited by the high pressures. The process of filling a vehicle and afterward bringing the tanks in refueling station back to same pressures, are called a complete refueling cycle. This study analyzes power consumption...

  2. Searching for Orbits with Minimum Fuel Consumption for Station-Keeping Maneuvers: An Application to Lunisolar Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernando Bertachini de Almeida Prado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has the goal of developing a new criterion to search for orbits that minimize the fuel consumption for station-keeping maneuvers. This approach is based on the integral over the time of the perturbing forces. This integral measures the total variation of velocity caused by the perturbations in the spacecraft, which corresponds to the equivalent variation of velocity that an engine should deliver to the spacecraft to compensate the perturbations and to keep its orbit Keplerian all the time. This integral is a characteristic of the orbit and the set of perturbations considered and does not depend on the type of engine used. In this sense, this integral can be seen as a criterion to select the orbit of the spacecraft. When this value becomes larger, more consumption of fuel is required for the station keeping, and, in this sense, less interesting is the orbit. This concept can be applied to any perturbation. In the present research, as an example, the perturbation caused by a third body is considered. Then, numerical simulations considering the effects of the Sun and the Moon in a satellite around the Earth are shown to exemplify the method.

  3. Fission-gas release in fuel performing to extended burnups in Ontario Hydro nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, M.R.; Novak, J.; Truant, P.T.

    1992-06-01

    The average discharge burnup of CANDU fuel is about 200 MWh/kgU. A significant number of 37-element bundles have achieved burnups in excess of 400 MWh/kgU. Some of these bundles have experienced failures related to their extended operation. To date, hot-cell examinations have been performed on fuel elements from nine 37-element bundles irradiated in Bruce NGS-A that have burnups in the range of 300-800 MWh/kgU. 1 Most of these have declining power histories from peak powers of up to 59 kW/m. Fission-gas releases of up to 26% have been observed and exhibit a strong dependence on fuel power. This obscures any dependence on burnup. The extent of fission-gas release at extended burnups was not predicted by low-burnup code extrapolations. This is attributed primarily to a reduction in fuel thermal conductivity which results in elevated operating temperatures. Reduced conductivity is due, at least in part, to the buildup of fission products in the fuel matrix. Some evidence of hyperstoichiometry exists, although this needs to be further investigated along with any possible relation to CANLUB graphite coating behaviour and sheath oxidation. Residual tensile sheath strains of up to 2% have been observed and can be correlated with fuel power/fission-gas release. SCC 2 -related defects have been observed in the sheath and endcaps of elements from bundles experiencing declining power histories to burnups in excess of 500 MWh/kgU. This indicates that the current recommended burnup limit of 450 MWh/kgU is justified. SCC-related defects have also been observed in ramped bundles having burnups < 450 MWh/kgU. Hence, additional guidelines are in place for power ramping extended-burnup fuel

  4. Structural analyses of the fuel receiving station pool at the Nuclear Fuel Service reprocessing plant, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.; Ma, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    The FRS is a pool structure and enclosing building constructed in 1966 for storing spent nuclear fuel. The enclosing building was not analyzed. The pool structure's responses to operating loads, seismic excitation, and an accidentally dropped cask were determined. Locations in the FRS pool were identified where structural strength would be exceeded in the event of an earthquake of 0.2 g maximum ground acceleration or an accident in which a cask dropped from the maximum height of the crane hook used to maneuver it. 25 figures, 4 tables

  5. Phytotoxicity of fresh and weathered diesel and gasoline to willow and poplar trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Köhler, A.; Larsen, L.C.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of fresh and weathered gasoline and diesel fuel to willow and poplar trees was studied using a tree transpiration toxicity test. Soils were taken from an abandoned filling station. Concentrations in the samples were measured as the sum of hydrocarbons from C5 to C10 (gasoline) and C1...

  6. Dry spent fuel storage experience at overseas nuclear stations focus USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, T. L.; Kumar, S.; Marcelli, D. G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of US dry spent fuel storage experience, including application of this experience outside the United States. Background information on the US nuclear and spent fuel storage industry is provided as a basis for discussing the various types of options and systems available. An overview of technology options is presented, including systems being used and/or considered by the US government and private sector, as well as a discussion of overall system design, licensing and operation. Factors involved in selecting the best available technology option for a specific site or group of sites are presented, along with a typical timeline for project implementation. Cross-geographical use of technologies under different regulatory and technological regimes is also discussed. The paper concludes that dry storage is safe and reliable based on a successful ten year period. The information presented may be considered for use in the development of dry spent fuel storage in Korea and other countries. (author)

  7. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Port of Albany weather/hydro by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2011-01-04 to 2017-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0163364)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163364 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Port of Albany weather/hydro, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  8. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Schodack Island hydro/weather by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2008-04-25 to 2017-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0163416)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163416 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Schodack Island hydro/weather, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  9. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CIRRUS and CUMULUS from Ocean Weather Station K (OWS-K) and M (OWS-M) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1969-01-01 to 1970-01-16 (NODC Accession 7000939)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CIRRUS and CUMULUS within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station K (4500N 01600W), M (6600N 00200E), and in transit....

  10. Rational non-Pu fuel-cycle composed simple power-stations and fissile producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.; Mitachi, K.; Kato, Y.; Lecocq, A.

    1989-01-01

    In the next century, the fission breeder concept would not be practical for solving global energy problems. As a measure, a new rational is needed. In this paper the breeding fuel cycle system is proposed to establish the improvement in issues of safety, power-size flexibility, anti-terrorism and radio-waste, economy, etc. securing the simple operation, maintenance and chemical processing

  11. Cycle for fuel elements. Uranium production, programs for nuclear power stations and capital expenditure involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriot, J.; Gaussens, J.

    1958-01-01

    A number of different possible programs for nuclear power stations of various types are presented in this survey. These programs are established in relation to the use of uranium and thorium in amounts similar to those that shall probably be produced in France during the next fifteen years. As it is possible to draw plans for nuclear power stations in which several processes exist simultaneously, an unlimited number of variations being thinkable, this survey is limited to successive analysis of the results obtained by use of only one of each of the following three systems: - system natural uranium-graphite, - system natural uranium-heavy water, -system enriched uranium-pressurised light water. All schemes are considered as assemblages of these three simple systems. The effects of plutonium recycling are also considered for each system. The electric power installed and the capacity of stations situated up-stream and down-stream have been calculated by this method and an attempt has been made to establish the sum to be invested during the fifteen years necessary for the launching of the programs scheduled. A table of timing for the investments groups the results obtained. Considering the fact that French availabilities in capital shall not be unlimited during the coming years, this way of presenting the results seems to be interesting. (author) [fr

  12. Human risk assessment of benzene after a gasoline station fuel leak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam dos Anjos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the health risk of exposure to benzene for a community affected by a fuel leak. METHODS: Data regarding the fuel leak accident with, which occurred in the Brasilia, Federal District, were obtained from the Fuel Distributor reports provided to the environmental authority. Information about the affected population (22 individuals was obtained from focal groups of eight individuals. Length of exposure and water benzene concentration were estimated through a groundwater flow model associated with a benzene propagation model. The risk assessment was conducted according to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry methodology. RESULTS: A high risk perception related to the health consequences of the accident was evident in the affected community (22 individuals, probably due to the lack of assistance and a poor risk communication from government authorities and the polluting agent. The community had been exposed to unsafe levels of benzene (> 5 µg/L since December 2001, five months before they reported the leak. The mean benzene level in drinking water (72.2 µg/L was higher than that obtained by the Fuel Distributer using the Risk Based Corrective Action methodology (17.2 µg/L.The estimated benzene intake from the consumption of water and food reached a maximum of 0.0091 µg/kg bw/day (5 x 10-7 cancer risk per 106 individuals. The level of benzene in water vapor while showering reached 7.5 µg/m3 for children (1 per 104 cancer risk. Total cancer risk ranged from 110 to 200 per 106 individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The population affected by the fuel leak was exposed to benzene levels that might have represented a health risk. Local government authorities need to develop better strategies to respond rapidly to these types of accidents to protect the health of the affected population and the environment.

  13. Fuel management service for Tarapur Atomic Power Station core thermal hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, D.; Venkat Raj, V.; Markandeya, S.G.

    1977-01-01

    Core thermal hydraulic analysis forms an integral part of the fuel management service for the Tarapur reactors. A distinguishing feature of boiling water reactors is the dependence of core flow distribution on the power distribution. Because of the changes in the axial and radial power distribution from cycle to cycle as well as during the cycle and also the variations in leakage flow, it is necessary to evaluate the core thermal hydraulic parameters for every cycle. Some of the typical results obtained in the course of analysis for different cycles of both the units at Tarapur are presented. The use of MCPR (Minimum Critical Power Ratio), instead of MCHFR (Minimum Critical Heat Flux Ratio) as a figure of merit for fuel cladding integrity is also discussed. (K.B.)

  14. Theory and practice. Possible ways of putting fossil fuels to more efficient use in thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, F

    1986-02-01

    In the past decade, the development of fuel and investment costs as it occurred has not given any crucial incentive for a necessary change in thermal efficiency. This can be partly attributed to the high level of technology, but also to the fact that the money spent on efficiency-improving measures increases exponentially for the most part. In any case, it should always be borne in mind in planning a new power station plant that the economic efficiency not only of the plant as a whole must be optimized, but also each individual component and system involved. All efforts to improve economic efficiency in systems and components should be harmonised to fit in with one another.

  15. Massive use of pulverized fuel ash in concrete for the construction of a U.K. power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.R.; Kitchener, J.N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the incorporation and benefits of pulverized fuel ash (PFA) in nearly 620,000 m 2 of concrete used in the construction of the UK's first commercial pressurized light water nuclear reactor power station, Sizewell B, Suffolk. Overall nearly 100,000 t of PFA, 1,300 t of sintered fly ash lightweight aggregate, and nearly 137,000 t of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) were used in the works. Generally in the construction of the main power station buildings, structural concrete with a characteristic strength of 45 N/mm 2 was placed and included fly ash as 40% of the cementitious component. Also, concrete with fly ash as 50% of the cementitious component was placed as mass fill. The program of research is reported, including sulfate resistance, heat of hydration,elastic properties, alkali-silica reaction, and long-term strength test results. Test and field results are presented and discussed. Strict quality assurance procedures were enforced and statistical summaries are offered to give an insight into the quality of control exercised. Test work and long-term results are also outlined

  16. The impact of nuclear power stations and of a fuel reprocessing plant on the Rhone river and its prodelta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Lambrechts, A.; Charmasson, S.; Pally, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Rhone, with its 6 nuclear sites (17 reactors of various types and a fuel reprocessing unit), presents a relevant example for comparing the impact of these various installations on the aquatic ecosystem. Artificial radioactivity (γ emitters, Pu, 3 H, 90 Sr...) and natural radioactivity are monitored in sediments and various living organisms in the river and its prodelta. A summary of the radioecological procedure is given and illustrated with examples selected from results obtained over the last fifteen years (data resulting from about 7500 samples taken up- and downstream of the installations and in the prodelta). The evolution of results obtained during this period by γ spectrometry on fish up- and downstream of the nuclear power station at Bugey and the Marcoule fuel reprocessing unit is presented. The role of aquatic vegetation as indicator of radiocontamination is also illustrated. The evolution in the concentration levels of γ emitting artificial radionuclides in sediments and mussels in the prodelta is commented on in order to show the global radioecological impact of the Rhone in the Mediterranean sea. The analyses presented show that it is possible to quantify the influence of each source term on the total artificial radioactivity of the compartments of the ecosystem. The source terms are atmospheric fallout from early nuclear weapon tests and of the Chernobyl accident, and liquid wastes of various composition from nuclear installations

  17. Internet-accessible real-time weather information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Mehra, P.; Desa, E.; Gouveia, A.D.

    An internet-accessible real-time weather information system has been developed. This system provides real-time accessibility to weather information from a multitude of spatially distributed weather stations. The Internet connectivity also offers...

  18. Analysis of the efficiency and effectiveness of distributed generation in the power station (fuel) Sancti Spiritus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Álvarez, Alfredo; Pérez Pérez, Osvaldo; Bravo Amarante, Edelvy

    2015-01-01

    The severe crisis in the National Electric System (SEN) suffered by Cuba in the late 90's and early 2000 forced to change the design to keep the generation matrix supported in large plants towards where distributed generation small plants throughout the country, the state assumed demand and residential sector. From tools frequently used to evaluate the quality of processes (Scatter diagram, Pareto diagram, Ishikawa diagram and function quality loss Taguchi) was evaluated from indicators index fuel consumption and availability, efficiency and effectiveness of the generation process identifying areas within the plant that the greatest impact on the deviation of both indicators and the impact generated in the services, the economy and the environment. To develop this evaluation the operating data of the years 2012, 2013 and 2014 of the power plant were taken Sancti Spiritus. (full text)

  19. Evaluation of short-term physical weathering of a heavy fuel oil by use of time warping and PCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmquist, L.M.V.; Olsen, R.R.; Christensen, J.H.; Andersen, O.

    2005-01-01

    An estimated 1,140 billion tons of oil was accidentally spilled to the environment during the 1990s. These spills present an ecotoxicologic risk due to the presence of toxic and mutagenic compounds in the oil. Oil is affected by short term and long term weathering processes such as evaporation, dissolution, dispersion, emulsification, photodegradation and biodegradation. Physical weathering processes change the composition of the oil but they do not alter the oil components. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can characterize the compositional changes resulting from evaporation. However, the process depends on subjective analysis because it is based on manual interpretation of results and visual inspection. This paper presents a rapid and objective method to compare oil sample compositions. The method is based on automated data preprocessing involving baseline removal, alignment of chromatograms using correlation optimized warping (COW) and normalization. Preprocessed data is analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) based on the total chromatograms. The method has successfully resolved the effects of evaporation and dissolution processes and showed clear dependence of time, but it did not completely resolve the effect of weathering from the analytical variability because better quality data is required. 21 refs., 3 figs

  20. Evaluation of short-term physical weathering of a heavy fuel oil by use of time warping and PCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmquist, L.M.V.; Olsen, R.R. [Roskilde Univ., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Life Sciences and Chemistry]|[National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Microbiology; Christensen, J.H. [Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Thorvaldsensvej (Denmark). Dept. of Natural Sciences; Andersen, O. [Roskilde Univ., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Life Sciences and Chemistry

    2005-07-01

    An estimated 1,140 billion tons of oil was accidentally spilled to the environment during the 1990s. These spills present an ecotoxicologic risk due to the presence of toxic and mutagenic compounds in the oil. Oil is affected by short term and long term weathering processes such as evaporation, dissolution, dispersion, emulsification, photodegradation and biodegradation. Physical weathering processes change the composition of the oil but they do not alter the oil components. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can characterize the compositional changes resulting from evaporation. However, the process depends on subjective analysis because it is based on manual interpretation of results and visual inspection. This paper presents a rapid and objective method to compare oil sample compositions. The method is based on automated data preprocessing involving baseline removal, alignment of chromatograms using correlation optimized warping (COW) and normalization. Preprocessed data is analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) based on the total chromatograms. The method has successfully resolved the effects of evaporation and dissolution processes and showed clear dependence of time, but it did not completely resolve the effect of weathering from the analytical variability because better quality data is required. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS station Molasses Reef (MLRF) in the Florida Keys, 1992-2000 (NODC Accession 0058102)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  2. Accidents and failures related to nuclear fuel facilities and nuclear power stations in fiscal 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In the chemical preparation room of the reprocessing plant in the Tokai Establishment, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., the nasal contamination of small amount (3.6 pCi at maximum) was detected on two workers in June, 1982, but abnormality was not observed in the Lung-monitor of the workers themselves. There was not the effect to the surrounding environment. The failures reported by electric power companies to the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy in accordance with the laws related to atomic energy were 26 cases. The main causes were 5 cases due to improper design management, 2 cases due to improper manufacture management, 4 cases due to improper construction management, 11 cases due to improper maintenance management and 4 other cases. Among those 26 cases, 17 cases occurred in operation, and 9 cases occurred or were detected during shutdown such as regular inspection. Among the 17 cases, 7 cases were the automatic stop by reactor protection system, and 10 cases were the finding by regular in-operation inspection. Among the 9 cases, 5 cases were the breaking of steam generator tubes, 2 cases the breaking of bumper plates at feed heater entrance, and 2 cases other troubles. Moreover, there were 41 minor troubles. (Kako, I.)

  3. UPS Project for GSM base stations with a fuel cell (PEM fuel cell back-up system) - Final report; Projekt USV fuer GSM-Basisstationen mit BZ (PEM fuel cell back-up system) - Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trachte, U.

    2007-07-01

    The University of applied sciences HTA Lucerne designed a prototype of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) with Fuel Cell technology instead of lead-acid batteries and put it into operation. The delayed start-up of the Fuel Cell was bridged with ultra capacitor technology. In a first project stage the system was designed, assembled and tested in laboratory. In a second stage the installation was connected to a real base station of a telecommunication antenna and put to field tests for one year. The field test included monthly simulations of power failure with antenna load of about 2.4 kW as well as tests with external load up to 8.5 kW to establish the characteristic diagram. Hydrogen was provided by two 50 l pressure tanks. The full quantity of hydrogen secured a stand-alone operation of the Fuel Cell system for about 6 hours under antenna load. The results of the 101 grid-failure simulations demonstrate a very reliable start-up behaviour of the Fuel Cell System. Also during a real power failure due to a thunderstorm the installation provided the demanded power without any problem. The total duration of operation of the Fuel Cell during the field tests was 39 hours. No degradation could be noticed. The project takes place in collaboration with the industrial partners APC Industrial Systems, as a producer and market leader of UPS-Systems, and Swisscom Mobile AG, as a user of UPS-systems in telecommunications. Following the good results and in order to get more experience in long-term operation of the Fuel Cell system the tests will go on for two more years. (author)

  4. Pre-Weather Bureau Observation Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The collection consists of monthly weather records from U.S. Army Forts stations (~1820-1871), U.S. Army Signal Service Stations (1871-1892), Smithsonian Institution...

  5. Integrated information system MBS as a basis for fuel management in conventional power stations; Integriertes Informationssystem MBS als Basis fuer das Brennstoffmanagement in konventionellen Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasko, P.; Lindemann, H.; Kern, H.

    2000-07-01

    The fuel cost is a key factor in fossil-fuel power stations, and optimisation of fuel use is an urgent task. Modul Brennstoffe MBS supports all processes relevant for fuel supply and waste management, i.e. projecting, acquisition, optimisation of operation, billing, and evaluation. [German] Die gegenwaertige Situation in der Energiewirtschaft und im liberalisierten Energiemarkt hat zu einem nachhaltigen Kostendruck auf der Seite der Erzeugung gefuehrt. Die Brennstoffkosten in den fossil befeuerten Kraftwerken stellen eine wesentliche Komponente der Erzeugungskosten dar. Vor diesem Hintergrund hat die Optimierung des Brennstoffeinsatzes eine grundsaetzliche Bedeutung gewonnen. Modul Brennstoffe MBS unterstuetzt alle fuer die Brennstoffversorgung und fuer die Entsorgung von konventionellen Kraftwerken relevanten Geschaeftsprozesse. Es umfasst die Geschaeftsvorgaenge Planung, Beschaffung, Einsatzoptimierung, Abrechnung und Auswertung. Die Geschaeftsprozesse sind informationstechnisch im Modul Brennstoffe in einem integrierten System abgebildet. (orig.)

  6. Fuel debris characterization and treatment technologies development for TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. 2012 annual research and development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    Since March 11, 2011, severe accidents occurred at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F NPS), the Government of Japan and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) and all Japan's companies have been worked on the remediation. The first meeting of 'Government and TEPCO's Mid-to-Long Term Countermeasure Meeting' was held on December 16, 2011, and then' the Council for the Decommissioning of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station' was established on February 8, 2013, and 19 research and development projects and Working team / Sub working team were launched. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Fukushima Project Teams in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Laboratories and Nuclear Science Research Institute are belonging to the projects of 'Fuel debris characterization (2-(3)-1)', 'Analysis of fuel debris (2-(3)-2)' and 'Treatment technology development of fuel debris (2-(3)-3)'. In the 2012 JFY, we carried out research and development on the 'Fuel debris characterization (2-(3)-1)' and 'Treatment technology development of fuel debris (2-(3)-3)', and obtained some results on the debris properties and debris treatment technologies. This document report annual research and development results of above two projects in 2012 JFY. In the Project of 'Fuel debris characterization (2-(3)-1)', the debris chemical form, phase state and composition were estimated by thermodynamic calculation with referring sever accident code results and the fuel debris properties which needed for developing the methods/devices for defueling was identified with information of Three Mile Island and sever accident study. As for investigation of reaction and products specific to 1F accident, fundamental data on the debris such as mechanical properties i.e. hardness, and effects of sea water, B 4 C, ratio of Zr content and O/M, and thermal properties as melting points, thermal conductivity, etc. were obtained by

  7. Applicability of AWJ technique for dismantling reactor of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Cutting test of imitation of fuel debris and optimization of the cutting condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Shin-ichiro; Watatani, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Based on findings during recovery works that followed the accident at Three Mile Island Station 2, it is assumed that the reactor internals at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) have complex geometries intermixed with melted fuel and confined in limited spaces. Accordingly, abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting method is considered to be a promising technique that can be safely and reasonably used for cutting and removing reactor internals. The authors conducted tests to examine the possibility of application and to solve the problems of this technique. In the tests imitation of fuel debris and optimization of the cutting condition is used. The test result made the measures for some of the associated issues clear, and demonstrated that AWJ cutting method is assumed as one of the promising techniques for removing reactor internals. (author)

  8. Demonstration of laser processing technique combined with water jet technique for retrieval of fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanari, Toshihide; Takebe, Toshihiko; Yamada, Tomonori; Daido, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Ippei; Ohmori, Shinya; Kurosawa, Koichi; Sasaki, Go; Nakada, Masahiro; Sakai, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    In decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, a retrieval process of fuel debris in the Primary Containment Vessel by a remote operation is one of the key issues. In this process, prevention of spreading radioactive materials is one of the important considerations. Furthermore, an applicable technique to the process requires keeping of reasonable processing-efficiency. We propose to use the combined technique including a laser light and a water jet as a retrieval technique of the fuel debris. The laser processing technique combined with a repetitive pulsed water jet could perform an efficient retrieval processing. Our experimental result encourages us to promote further development of the technique towards a real application at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. (author)

  9. Regional-seasonal weather forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.

    1980-08-01

    In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)

  10. Evaluation of weather station network in Jordan اﻷردن ﻲ ــﻓ وي ــﺟـ د اﻟ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of weather station network in Jordan. ﯾـﻘـﺗ. ـﯾـ. م ﺷ. ــﻛـﺑـ. ﺔ اﻟ. . رﺻ. . د اﻟ. ــﺟـ. وي. ــﻓ. ﻲ. اﻷردن. ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ اﻟﺨﻄﯿﺐ. ﻛﻠﯿﺔ. اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ،. ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ طﯿﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺪﯾﻨﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﻮرة، ص. ب . 1343.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Station in Arkansas Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in Arkansas to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in Arkansas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in

  12. Delineation of a hydrocarbon (weathered gasoline) plume in shallow deposits at the U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Gasoline from a leaking underground storage tank at the U.S. Naval Weapons Station in Seal Beach, California, was found to have spread almost radially through the shallow subsoil a distance of 150 to 300 feet from the source. Deposits in an area of 160,000 square feet in a zone 1 to 2 feet thick above the shallow water table are contaminated. Seasonal and tidal fluctuations in ground water have spread the gasoline vertically in the subsoil and thereby reduced gasoline concentration below residual saturation in nearly all the contaminated area. Total quantity of gasoline contained in gasoline-unsaturated subsoil is estimated to be 5,800 gallons. The quantity present in gasoline-saturated subsoils was not determined

  13. Parametrization of the Richardson weather generator within the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der P.; Kramer, K.; Diepen, van C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Richardson model for mathematically generating daily weather data was parametrized. Thirty years' time-series of the 355 main meteorological stations in the European Union formed the database. Model parameters were derived from both observed weather station data and interpolated weather data on

  14. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the C. H. DAVIS and Other Platforms from Ocean Weather Stations N (OWS-N) and OWS-P in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from from 1958-01-16 to 1968-02-25 (NODC Accession 6900264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the C. H. DAVIS and Other Platforms within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Stations N (3000N 14000W), P (50000N 14500W), and in transit...

  15. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS NIMBLE and Other Platforms from Ocean Weather Station C (OWS-C) in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1957-11-03 to 1968-06-23 (NODC Accession 6900934)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS NIMBLE and Other Platforms within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station C (5245N 03530W) and in transit in support of the...

  16. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the DUANE from Ocean Weather Station B (OWS-B), C (OWS-C), D (OWS-D), E (OWS-E), H (OWS-H), J (OWS-J), and K (OWS-K) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1955-04-07 to 1968-02-15 (NODC Accession 7500471)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the DUANE within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (5630N 05100W), C (5245N 03530W), D (4400N 04100W), E (3500N...

  17. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the CAMPBELL from Ocean Weather Station B (OWS-B), C (OWS-C), D (OWS-D), E (OWS-E), and H (OWS-H) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1953-10-23 to 1966-11-08 (NODC Accession 7500359)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the CAMPBELL within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (5630N 05100W), C (5245N 03530W), D (4400N 04100W), E (3500N...

  18. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the BIBB from Ocean Weather Station B (OWS-B), C (OWS-C), D (OWS-D), E (OWS-E), H (OWS-H), and J (OWS-J) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1955-03-26 to 1966-10-13 (NODC Accession 7600309)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the YAKUTAT within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (5630N 05100W), C (5245N 03530W), D (4400N 04100W), E (3500N...

  19. Wacky Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  20. New fuel vault criticality analysis at Chinshan nuclear power station with new approaches to improve the storage flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, P. H.

    2010-10-01

    The Chinshan new fuel vault (NFV) consists of 13 fuel storage racks, each rack may store 10 fuel assemblies. Prior to 2008, the NFV had never been used and the practice by the Taiwan Power Company (TPC) was to temporarily store the fuel assemblies in the shipping containers after received, until the inspection work was performed shortly before the outage, and then assemblies were loaded directly into the spent fuel pool (SFP). Starting from 2009, this practice has been revised since the new fuel contract would only supply a small amount of containers for storage, and the SFP would lose full-core-off load capability soon; therefore, use of NFV to store fuel assemblies following inspection becomes extremely crucial. The original Chinshan NFV criticality analysis was performed for the initial fuel design. Although many new fuel designs had been used (e.g., Atrium-10 reported in PBNC-14), no reanalysis had been performed because it was not anticipated that NFV would be used. Therefore, TPC requested the vendor to perform the analysis for Atrium-10. Originally, the vendor estimated that number of assemblies allowed to be stored would be limited severely to about 60. To enhance storage flexibility, Tpc proposed some new approaches: 1) All assemblies are assumed in vendor's standard method to contain a single limiting lattice for entire fuel length, it is suggested that axially zoned limiting lattices be selected based on characteristics of reloads to be delivered, and this significantly improves flexibility. 2) The maximum k-effective equation used by vendor was corrected (manufacturing tolerances were conservatively mistreated). Also, the vendor typically used 0.95 k-effective as the criterion, it is suggested that NUREG-0800 requirement (≤0.98 for optimum moderation conditions) be applied. After several iterations, all the 130 locations are allowed to store fuel. The analysis report has been approved by the authority in June 2008. (Author)

  1. New fuel vault criticality analysis at Chinshan nuclear power station with new approaches to improve the storage flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, P. H., E-mail: u808966@taipower.com.t [Taiwan Power Company, Department of Nuclear Generation, 242 Roosevelt Rd., Sec. 3, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-15

    The Chinshan new fuel vault (NFV) consists of 13 fuel storage racks, each rack may store 10 fuel assemblies. Prior to 2008, the NFV had never been used and the practice by the Taiwan Power Company (TPC) was to temporarily store the fuel assemblies in the shipping containers after received, until the inspection work was performed shortly before the outage, and then assemblies were loaded directly into the spent fuel pool (SFP). Starting from 2009, this practice has been revised since the new fuel contract would only supply a small amount of containers for storage, and the SFP would lose full-core-off load capability soon; therefore, use of NFV to store fuel assemblies following inspection becomes extremely crucial. The original Chinshan NFV criticality analysis was performed for the initial fuel design. Although many new fuel designs had been used (e.g., Atrium-10 reported in PBNC-14), no reanalysis had been performed because it was not anticipated that NFV would be used. Therefore, TPC requested the vendor to perform the analysis for Atrium-10. Originally, the vendor estimated that number of assemblies allowed to be stored would be limited severely to about 60. To enhance storage flexibility, Tpc proposed some new approaches: 1) All assemblies are assumed in vendor's standard method to contain a single limiting lattice for entire fuel length, it is suggested that axially zoned limiting lattices be selected based on characteristics of reloads to be delivered, and this significantly improves flexibility. 2) The maximum k-effective equation used by vendor was corrected (manufacturing tolerances were conservatively mistreated). Also, the vendor typically used 0.95 k-effective as the criterion, it is suggested that NUREG-0800 requirement ({<=}0.98 for optimum moderation conditions) be applied. After several iterations, all the 130 locations are allowed to store fuel. The analysis report has been approved by the authority in June 2008. (Author)

  2. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Daniel, W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the development and analysis of detailed temporal and spatial scenarios for early market hydrogen fueling infrastructure clustering and fuel cell electric vehicle rollout using the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model. The report provides an overview of the SERA scenario development framework and discusses the approach used to develop the nationwidescenario.

  3. UMTS Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  4. The effective and dust free receiving station and handling for the low calorific value solid fuels; Tehokas ja poelytoen seospolttoaineiden vastaanottoasema sekae kaesittely- ja kuljetinjaerjestelmae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojonen, O [Finntech Oy, Espoo (Finland); Jaervinen, T [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Use

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to get higher automatization level and improve dust preventing in solid fuel receiving stations. There are two general types of receiving stations in the Finnish power plants: large unloading stations for the side tipping devices of trucks and small ones for the rear tipping devices of trucks. In the first ones the trucks empty their load (approx. 100 m{sup 3} loose bulk density) divided by hauling unit and trailer within few (5-10) minutes into a rectangular box, which depth is approx. 3 m. The discharging causes a strong counter current air and dust flow (20-40 m{sup 3}/s) upwards and the dust will easily spread out all over the station. In the second ones the discharging takes place from the rear of truck and trailer using loadspace conveyor of the vehicle within 20 minutes. The material falls on a (belt) conveyor, which is on the floor level. The problems in side tipping system are connected with dust and surplus time, which is needed for the preparation and completion of unloading and sampling. For the fine dust control has also been tested water spray (fog) nozzles and tried to utilise a settling chamber for the dust stream. Also the using the settling chamber equipped with air suction connections and cyclone separation may be effective. In the rear tipping system are also applied bag filters because of smaller air quantities. The rapid truck positioning and control in the receiving station is one of the presupposition for the fast and accurate unloading. This can be done using ultrasonic sensing methods. Also the ensuring of accurate discharging can be based on the modern technology. One of the basic things is the enlarging of video control (CCD -cameras)

  5. The effective and dust free receiving station and handling for the low calorific value solid fuels; Tehokas ja poelytoen seospolttoaineiden vastaanottoasema sekae kaesittely- ja kuljetinjaerjestelmae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojonen, O. [Finntech Oy, Espoo (Finland); Jaervinen, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Use

    1995-12-31

    The aim of the project was to get higher automatization level and improve dust preventing in solid fuel receiving stations. There are two general types of receiving stations in the Finnish power plants: large unloading stations for the side tipping devices of trucks and small ones for the rear tipping devices of trucks. In the first ones the trucks empty their load (approx. 100 m{sup 3} loose bulk density) divided by hauling unit and trailer within few (5-10) minutes into a rectangular box, which depth is approx. 3 m. The discharging causes a strong counter current air and dust flow (20-40 m{sup 3}/s) upwards and the dust will easily spread out all over the station. In the second ones the discharging takes place from the rear of truck and trailer using loadspace conveyor of the vehicle within 20 minutes. The material falls on a (belt) conveyor, which is on the floor level. The problems in side tipping system are connected with dust and surplus time, which is needed for the preparation and completion of unloading and sampling. For the fine dust control has also been tested water spray (fog) nozzles and tried to utilise a settling chamber for the dust stream. Also the using the settling chamber equipped with air suction connections and cyclone separation may be effective. In the rear tipping system are also applied bag filters because of smaller air quantities. The rapid truck positioning and control in the receiving station is one of the presupposition for the fast and accurate unloading. This can be done using ultrasonic sensing methods. Also the ensuring of accurate discharging can be based on the modern technology. One of the basic things is the enlarging of video control (CCD -cameras)

  6. Contingency strategy for insufficient full core off load capability in spent fuel pool for Chinshan nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Pinghue

    2012-01-01

    The spent fuel pool (SFP) at Taiwan Power Company's (TUC's) Chinshan plant lost the full core off load (FCO) capability in 2010, even with the second SFP repacking project to expand the capacity as reported in 12PBNC. The TEPC had originally planned to move some spent fuel assemblies from SFP to dry storage facility, however, the dry storage project had seriously fell behind. Thus, it is required to address insufficient FCO capability, and the following contingency measures have been employed: The first step was to explore whether there was a specific regulatory requirement for FCO capability, and none were identified. Also, the industrial experiences were explored. The refueling strategy is changed from FCO to in-core shuffling. A feasibility evaluation performed indicates the Technical Specifications require: alternate method of decay heat removal, and verification of shutdown margin for each in vessel fuel movement. Specific methods have been successfully established. A safety evaluation for operation without FCO capability was performed, and no safety concerns were identified. The risk for operation without FCO capability was assessed. The previous operational experiences were identified. Moreover, such works are not expected in subsequent cycles. The new fuel vault is used to store new fuel assemblies. The criticality analysis has been performed and some new approaches are proposed to enhance the storage flexibility as reported in 17PBNC. An inter-unit transfer cask has been designed to transfer spent fuel from the SFP of one unit to the other. The FCO capability can be effectively extended for three more years with this consideration. The TPC discussed the contingency strategy with the ROCAEC in May 2006, and the ROCAEC's concurrence was attained. With the proposed strategy, Chinshan units have been operating smoothly

  7. Contingency strategy for insufficient full core off load capability in spent fuel pool for Chinshan nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Pinghue [Taiwan Power Company, Taipei (China)

    2012-03-15

    The spent fuel pool (SFP) at Taiwan Power Company's (TUC's) Chinshan plant lost the full core off load (FCO) capability in 2010, even with the second SFP repacking project to expand the capacity as reported in 12PBNC. The TEPC had originally planned to move some spent fuel assemblies from SFP to dry storage facility, however, the dry storage project had seriously fell behind. Thus, it is required to address insufficient FCO capability, and the following contingency measures have been employed: The first step was to explore whether there was a specific regulatory requirement for FCO capability, and none were identified. Also, the industrial experiences were explored. The refueling strategy is changed from FCO to in-core shuffling. A feasibility evaluation performed indicates the Technical Specifications require: alternate method of decay heat removal, and verification of shutdown margin for each in vessel fuel movement. Specific methods have been successfully established. A safety evaluation for operation without FCO capability was performed, and no safety concerns were identified. The risk for operation without FCO capability was assessed. The previous operational experiences were identified. Moreover, such works are not expected in subsequent cycles. The new fuel vault is used to store new fuel assemblies. The criticality analysis has been performed and some new approaches are proposed to enhance the storage flexibility as reported in 17PBNC. An inter-unit transfer cask has been designed to transfer spent fuel from the SFP of one unit to the other. The FCO capability can be effectively extended for three more years with this consideration. The TPC discussed the contingency strategy with the ROCAEC in May 2006, and the ROCAEC's concurrence was attained. With the proposed strategy, Chinshan units have been operating smoothly.

  8. Ultimate storage of spent fuel elements of the AVR test power station in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.

    1975-02-01

    With regard to the ultimate storage of irradiated AVR pebble-bed reactor carbide fuel elements in the saline of Asse, a number of tests and calculations are presented to demonstrate that there is no credible possibility of the MCA (maximum credible accident) defined for the saline. The safety of persons is not threatened during the operation of spent fuel storage nor at any later time (extrapolation up to approx. 1,000 years after storage). 1,000 fuel elements at a time are packed up in gas-tight containers which are stacked in boreholes. The boreholes are then sealed with concrete. Lay-out and functions of the special airlock and transportation systems - from the packing of the containers in a hot cell to the final storage in the borehole - are described with special reference to aspects of the safety of the overall procedure. The possible accidents in the mine are discussed in detail. 85 Kr and T release rates are determined in laboratory tests by heating of the spherical fuel elements. Tests with fuel elements embedded in salt or stagnant brine were carried out at varies temperatures to investigate their behaviour in final storage. Kr and T release, extraction of fission products, mechanical resistance and corrosion were examined in these tests. Finally, the permeability of salt and salt concrete to radioactive gases were investigated in a special experimental arrangement. The diffusion and permeability coefficients obtained for 85 Kr, HT and HTO allow an estimation of the gas discharge of the stored fuel element. (RB/AK) [de

  9. The importance of accurate glacier albedo for estimates of surface mass balance on Vatnajökull: evaluating the surface energy budget in a regional climate model with automatic weather station observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen Schmidt, Louise; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Guðmundsson, Sverrir; Langen, Peter L.; Pálsson, Finnur; Mottram, Ruth; Gascoin, Simon; Björnsson, Helgi

    2017-07-01

    A simulation of the surface climate of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, carried out with the regional climate model HIRHAM5 for the period 1980-2014, is used to estimate the evolution of the glacier surface mass balance (SMB). This simulation uses a new snow albedo parameterization that allows albedo to exponentially decay with time and is surface temperature dependent. The albedo scheme utilizes a new background map of the ice albedo created from observed MODIS data. The simulation is evaluated against observed daily values of weather parameters from five automatic weather stations (AWSs) from the period 2001-2014, as well as in situ SMB measurements from the period 1995-2014. The model agrees well with observations at the AWS sites, albeit with a general underestimation of the net radiation. This is due to an underestimation of the incoming radiation and a general overestimation of the albedo. The average modelled albedo is overestimated in the ablation zone, which we attribute to an overestimation of the thickness of the snow layer and not taking the surface darkening from dirt and volcanic ash deposition during dust storms and volcanic eruptions into account. A comparison with the specific summer, winter, and net mass balance for the whole of Vatnajökull (1995-2014) shows a good overall fit during the summer, with a small mass balance underestimation of 0.04 m w.e. on average, whereas the winter mass balance is overestimated by on average 0.5 m w.e. due to too large precipitation at the highest areas of the ice cap. A simple correction of the accumulation at the highest points of the glacier reduces this to 0.15 m w.e. Here, we use HIRHAM5 to simulate the evolution of the SMB of Vatnajökull for the period 1981-2014 and show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the SMB for this period. However, a major source of uncertainty in the representation of the SMB is the representation of the albedo, and processes currently not accounted for in RCMs

  10. The importance of accurate glacier albedo for estimates of surface mass balance on Vatnajökull: evaluating the surface energy budget in a regional climate model with automatic weather station observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Schmidt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A simulation of the surface climate of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, carried out with the regional climate model HIRHAM5 for the period 1980–2014, is used to estimate the evolution of the glacier surface mass balance (SMB. This simulation uses a new snow albedo parameterization that allows albedo to exponentially decay with time and is surface temperature dependent. The albedo scheme utilizes a new background map of the ice albedo created from observed MODIS data. The simulation is evaluated against observed daily values of weather parameters from five automatic weather stations (AWSs from the period 2001–2014, as well as in situ SMB measurements from the period 1995–2014. The model agrees well with observations at the AWS sites, albeit with a general underestimation of the net radiation. This is due to an underestimation of the incoming radiation and a general overestimation of the albedo. The average modelled albedo is overestimated in the ablation zone, which we attribute to an overestimation of the thickness of the snow layer and not taking the surface darkening from dirt and volcanic ash deposition during dust storms and volcanic eruptions into account. A comparison with the specific summer, winter, and net mass balance for the whole of Vatnajökull (1995–2014 shows a good overall fit during the summer, with a small mass balance underestimation of 0.04 m w.e. on average, whereas the winter mass balance is overestimated by on average 0.5 m w.e. due to too large precipitation at the highest areas of the ice cap. A simple correction of the accumulation at the highest points of the glacier reduces this to 0.15 m w.e. Here, we use HIRHAM5 to simulate the evolution of the SMB of Vatnajökull for the period 1981–2014 and show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the SMB for this period. However, a major source of uncertainty in the representation of the SMB is the representation of the albedo, and processes

  11. Thermoelectric generator installation at Divide Road Weather Information Systems (RWIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (DOT&PF) has a network of Road Weather Information System (RWIS) environmental sensor stations (ESS) deployed along the road network. Six of the stations do not have access to commercial power an...

  12. Weather forecast

    CERN Document Server

    Courtier, P

    1994-02-07

    Weather prediction is performed using the numerical model of the atmosphere evolution.The evolution equations are derived from the Navier Stokes equation for the adiabatic part but the are very much complicated by the change of phase of water, the radiation porocess and the boundary layer.The technique used operationally is described. Weather prediction is an initial value problem and accurate initial conditions need to be specified. Due to the small number of observations available (105 ) as compared to the dimension of the model state variable (107),the problem is largely underdetermined. Techniques of optimal control and inverse problems are used and have been adapted to the large dimension of our problem. our problem.The at mosphere is a chaotic system; the implication for weather prediction is discussed. Ensemble prediction is used operationally and the technique for generating initial conditions which lead to a numerical divergence of the subsequent forecasts is described.

  13. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a~case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in the eastern China

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. Ding; C. B. Fu; X. Q. Yang; J. N. Sun; T. Petäjä; V.-M. Kerminen; T. Wang; Y. N. Xie; E. Herrmann; L. F. Zheng; W. Nie; X. L. Wei; M. Kulmala

    2013-01-01

    The influence of air pollutants, particularly aerosols, on regional and global climate is widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies reports their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural ...

  14. Weather station for scientific data collection

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Mehra, P.; Desa, E.; Nagvekar, S.; Kumar, V.

    portable and compact package, facilitating ease of installation and handling. The data acquisition unit incorporates a 32 bit microcontroller, Motorola MC 68832. Use of FLASH memory devices support in situ software programmability. The basic system supports...

  15. The 100 kW space station. [regenerative fuel cells and nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium batteries for solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckhann, G.

    1977-01-01

    Solar array power systems for the space construction base are discussed. Nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen batteries are equally attractive relative to regenerative fuel cell systems at 5 years life. Further evaluation of energy storage system life (low orbit conditions) is required. Shuttle and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology appears adequate; large units (approximately four times shuttle) are most appropriate and should be studied for a 100 KWe SCB system. A conservative NiH2 battery DOD (18.6%) was elected due to lack of test data and offers considerable improvement potential. Multiorbit load averaging and reserve capacity requirements limit nominal DOD to 30% to 50% maximum, independent of life considerations.

  16. Subsurface soil and water pollution by diesel fuel at Bozdarevac railway station near Belgrade and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujasinovic, S.; Matic, D.I.

    1991-01-01

    An excessive pollution of ground water and the hydrogeologic environment by naphtha and its derivatives spilled on the surface has been recorded in Yugoslavia. The similar accidents in Serbia (Obrenovac, Uzicka Pozega, Beograd-Makis, Beograd-Danube railway station, Leskovac, Bozdarevac, etc.) have increased in number in the last several years. Transportation of naphtha and its derivatives, either by road or river, from the refineries to the consumers is obviously contributing much to the environmental pollution hazard. For the wide range of use and the specific effect on ground water, this pollutant can be taken for one of the first order. This paper discusses a case example. (Author)

  17. Application profile and requirements on fuel cell heat-and-power stations; Einsatzprofil und Anforderungen an Brennstoffzellen-HKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruhl, J

    1999-12-31

    In centralized power supply systems, maximum electrical efficiency is required in order to achieve competitiveness with high-efficiency combined-cycle systems. Combined systems of high-temperature fuel cells (MCFC/SOFC) with integrated gas or steam turbine processes are a promising option. In decentralized power supply, low-temperature and medium-temperature fuel cells (PEMFC/PAFC) may be feasible as well provided that the temperature characteristic of the demand side permits the use of the heat generated. In view of the decreasing heat demand of classic cogeneration structures, costly district heating will in the long run be replaced by building-specific cogeneration solutions. In this field, high-efficiency fuel cell systems have advantages over small-scale cogeneration units. If power-specific investments are low, the new technology may be more favourable than separate supply systems with networks and heating boilers and, in consequence, may gain wider acceptance. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der zentralen Stromerzeugung erfordert der Wettbewerb mit hocheffizienten GuD-Anlagen die Maximierung des elektrischen Wirkungsgrades. Hierzu bieten sich Kombianlagen aus Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen (MCFC/SOFC) mit integrierten Dampf- bzw. Gasturbinen-Prozessen an. Im dezentralen Versorgungsbereich bieten zusaetzlich Nieder- und Mitteltemperatur-Brennstoffzellen (PEMFC/PAFC) ein hohes Einsatzpotential, sofern die Temperaturcharakteristik des Bedarfs eine Nutzbarkeit der entstehenden Waerme zulaesst. Unter dem Aspekt des zukuenftig sinkenden Waermebedarfs klassischer KWK-Strukturen wird die kostenintensive Nahwaermeversorgung zunehmend durch gebaeudespezifische KWK-Loesungen verdraengt werden. In diesem Bereich bieten hocheffiziente Brennstoffzellen-Systeme deutliche Vorteile gegenueber motorischen Klein-BHKW. Werden hier geringe leistungsspezifische Investitionen erreicht, kann eine Wirtschaftlichkeit gegenueber der getrennten Versorgung durch Netz und Heizkessel gegeben sein

  18. Suggestion of typical phases of in-vessel fuel-debris by thermodynamic calculation for decommissioning technology of Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeuchi, Hirotomo; Yano, Kimihiko; Kaji, Naoya; Washiya, Tadahiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1194 (Japan); Kondo, Yoshikazu; Noguchi, Yoshikazu [PESCO Co.Ltd. (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    For the decommissioning of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), the characterization of fuel-debris in cores of Units 1-3 is necessary. In this study, typical phases of the in-vessel fuel-debris were estimated using a thermodynamic equilibrium (TDE) calculation. The FactSage program and NUCLEA database were applied to estimate the phase equilibria of debris. It was confirmed that the TDE calculation using the database can reproduce the phase separation behavior of debris observed in the Three Mile Island accident. In the TDE calculation of 1F, the oxygen potential [G(O{sub 2})] was assumed to be a variable. At low G(O{sub 2}) where metallic zirconium remains, (U,Zr)O{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2} were found as oxides, and oxygen-dispersed Zr, Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U), and Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2} were found as metals. With an increase in zirconium oxidation, the mass of those metals, especially Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2}, decreased, but the other phases of metals hardly changed qualitatively. Consequently, (U,Zr)O{sub 2} is suggested as a typical phase of oxide, and Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U) is suggested as that of metal. However, a more detailed estimation is necessary to consider the distribution of Fe in the reactor pressure vessel through core-melt progression. (authors)

  19. Radioactive effluents from nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community. Discharge data 1972-1976 radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luykx, F.; Fraser, G.

    1978-04-01

    The report presents the available data on radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents discharged by nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community from 1972 to 1976. Discharges are expressed both in absolute terms and relative to the net production of electricity from the fuel. On the basis of the discharges recorded for 1976 the resulting maximum exposure of members of the population is quantified and compared with the dose limits prescribed by Euratom radiological protection standards and with the exposure resulting from natural radioactivity. It is concluded that there is no case in which a discharge could have given rise to an exposure exceeding the relevant prescribed limit. Not only did the possible maximum exposures incurred by individuals leave an appreciable safety margin relative to that limit but, for the vast majority of installations, they were comparable with or were considerably lower than the geographical and temporal variations in exposures resulting from natural radioactivity. Where environmental levels have been detectable the measured results have of course been used but, with few exceptions, the levels have remained less than the very low limits of detection currently possible. In general, where theoretical models are used to evaluate exposure, they are designed to give conservative results and hence it is likely that the true exposures are even less than those calculated

  20. National Weather Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GIS International Weather Cooperative Observers Storm Spotters Tsunami Facts and Figures National Water Center WEATHER SAFETY NOAA Weather Radio StormReady Heat Lightning Hurricanes Thunderstorms Tornadoes Rip Currents Floods Winter Weather ...

  1. The legal situation relating to the reprocessing in other EC member countries of spent fuel from German nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haedrich, H.

    1993-01-01

    The author states that reprocessing can continue, showing by his analysis that discontinuing the reprocessing of spent fuel from Germany in installations in France or Great Britain would mean a breach of - prior-ranking - Euratom law, which offers equally efficient protection of public security and public health and safety in accordance with the internationally defined and accepted state of the art in science and technology. In addition, such a decision would mean an infringement of the basic principles of the free market economy as laid down by the Euratom treaty and by the EC treaty, as there are no facts or conditions allowing application of the exemption provision given by the EC treaty. (orig./HP) [de

  2. An evaluation of approximations of acute hazard indices based on chronic hazard indices for California fossil-fuel power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratt, L.B.; Levin, L.

    1998-01-01

    The measures for evaluating risk under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are yet to be defined. Many risk assessments have used only chronic risk measures (lifetime cancer probability and chronic hazard index) based on yearly averages of long-term dispersion of substances into ambient air. In California, many facilities prepared risk assessments using hourly meteorological data and short-term emission rates, allowing the calculation of an acute hazard index. These risk assessments are more costly and labor-intensive than those using the annualized meteorological data. A simple scheme to estimate the acute hazard index from the chronic index is proposed. This scheme is evaluated for four electric power stations in Southern California. The simple scheme was found lacking due to the inability to reasonably estimate both the hourly emission rates from annual averages and hourly concentrations from annual concentrations. The need for the acute risk measure for stack emission can be questioned based on the more detailed risk assessments performed in California

  3. Comparative SIFT-MS, GC-MS and FTIR analysis of methane fuel produced in biogas stations and in artificial photosynthesis over acidic anatase TiO2 and montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knížek, Antonín; Dryahina, Ksenyia; Španěl, Patrik; Kubelík, Petr; Kavan, Ladislav; Zukalová, Markéta; Ferus, Martin; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2018-06-01

    The era of fossil fuels is slowly nearing its inevitable end and the urgency of alternative energy sources basic research, exploration and testing becomes ever more important. Storage and alternative production of energy from fuels, such as methane, represents one of the many alternative approaches. Natural gas containing methane represents a powerful source of energy producing large volume of greenhouse gases. However, methane can be also produced in closed, CO2-neutral cycles. In our study, we compare detailed chemical composition of CH4 fuel produced in two different processes: Classical production of biogas in a rendering station, industrial wastewater treatment station and landfill gas station together with novel approach of artificial photosynthesis from CO2 over acidic anatase TiO2 in experimental apparatus developed in our laboratory. The analysis of CH4 fuel produced in these processes is important. Trace gaseous traces can be for example corrosive or toxic, low quality of the mixture suppresses effectivity of energy production, etc. In this analysis, we present a combination of two methods: High resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (HR-FTIR) suitable for the main component analysis; and the complementary extremely sensitive method of Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) and gas chromatography (GC-MS), which are in turn best suited for trace analysis. The combination of these methods provides more information than any single of them would be able to and promises a new possible analytical approach to fuel and gaseous mixture analysis.

  4. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on the need for Hinkley Point 'C' to help meet capacity requirement and the non-fossil-fuel proportion economically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, F.P.

    1988-09-01

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this evidence to the Inquiry is to show why there is a need now to go ahead with the construction of Hinkley Point ''C'' generating station to help meet the non-fossil-fuel proportion of generation economically and also to help meet future generating capacity requirement. The CEGB submits that it is appropriate to compare Hinkley Point ''C'' with other non-fossil-fuel alternatives under various bases. Those dealt with by this proof of evidence are as follows: i) ability to contribute to capacity need and in assisting the distribution companies to meet their duty to supply electricity; ii) ability to contribute to the non-fossil-fuel proportion; iii) relative economic merit. (author)

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueling Stations Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on

  6. Características das transações do etanol carburante entre distribuidoras e revendedores Characteristics of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol fuel transactions between distributors and retail stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Bacha Lopes

    2011-01-01

    stations occur. The research was conducted as a multiple case study by collecting data through in-person interviews in nine companies which are representative members of the ethanol marketing channels (distributors and retail stations in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The data analysis was performed using the cost transactions economics theory to evaluate the variables used in the analysis (business specificities, frequency, and transaction risks. The results indicate that the most important specificities of the fuel distributors business are related to physical specificities such as locational and brand assets. With regard to the retail stations, the major specificities identified were the same, except for the physical and locational assets. Governance forms based on contractual and spot market stand out in the relationship between the two agents investigated

  7. Nuclear fuel replacement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, W.C.; Robey, R.M.; Wett, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel handling arrangement for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a single rotating plug eccentric to the fuel core and a fuel handling machine radially movable along a slot in the plug with a transfer station disposed outside the fuel core but covered by the eccentric plug and within range of movement of said fuel handling machine to permit transfer of fuel assemblies between the core and the transfer station. (author)

  8. 47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... station. Identify by one of the following means: (1) Aircraft radio station call sign. (2) The type of... type of aircraft followed by the last three characters of the registration marking. Notwithstanding any... of stations are exempted from the use of a call sign: Airborne weather radar, radio altimeter, air...

  9. Maintenance management balancing performance maintenance and cost balance at reinforced concrete constructions of the fossil-fuel and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Benno, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Mitsuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Life elongation of concrete constructions (CCs) is a very important needs for supporting future safe supply of electric power. However, some CCs constructed and used for a long term at fossil-fuel and nuclear power stations had reduction of their required performance by deterioration based on environmental and using conditions represented by salt-damage. As such constructions are anxious to increase in future, it is necessary to keep reliability of their establishments by providing desired rehabilitation to persist supplying effect of their facilities. On the other hand, as it is also essential to progress keeping and reducing cost of power generation together with development of recent liberalization of electric power, it is an important subject how to keep their performance maintenance and cost balance. Therefore, here were outlined on required performance setting method, inspection method, long-term deterioration forecasting and evaluating methods, selection method of countermeasure scenarios minimizing LCC, inspection period setting method, introduction of database and deterioration forecasting system, and so on, to economically maintain and manage already built reinforced concrete constructions at suitable materials and places to elongate their lives. (G.K.)

  10. Climatic and weather factors affecting fire occurrence and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall P. Benson; John O. Roads; David R. Weise

    2009-01-01

    Weather and climate have a profound influence on wildland fire ignition potential, fire behavior, and fire severity. Local weather and climate are affected by large-scale patterns of winds over the hemispheres that predispose wildland fuels to fire. The characteristics of wildland fuels, especially the moisture content, ultimately determine fire behavior and the impact...

  11. WRF-Fire: coupled weather-wildland fire modeling with the weather research and forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice L. Coen; Marques Cameron; John Michalakes; Edward G. Patton; Philip J. Riggan; Kara M. Yedinak

    2012-01-01

    A wildland fire behavior module (WRF-Fire) was integrated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) public domain numerical weather prediction model. The fire module is a surface fire behavior model that is two-way coupled with the atmospheric model. Near-surface winds from the atmospheric model are interpolated to a finer fire grid and used, with fuel properties...

  12. Weather Risk Management in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bobriková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on valuation of a weather derivative with payoffs depending on temperature. We use historical data from the weather station in the Slovak town Košice to obtain unique prices of option contracts in an incomplete market. Numerical examples of prices of some contracts are presented, using the Burn analysis. We provide an example of how a weather contract can be designed to hedge the financial risk of a suboptimal temperature condition. The comparative comparison of the selected option hedging strategies has shown the best results for the producers in agricultural industries who hedges against an unfavourable weather conditions. The results of analysis proved that by buying put option or call option, the farmer establishes the highest payoff in the case of temperature decrease or increase. The Long Straddle Strategy is the most expensive but is available to the farmer who hedges against a high volatility in temperature movement. We conclude with the findings that weather derivatives could be useful tools to diminish the financial losses for agricultural industries highly dependent for temperature.

  13. Surface Weather, Signal Service and Weather Bureau

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather, Signal Service and Weather Bureau (SWSSWB) Records primarily created by the United States Army Signal Service from 1819 until the paid and voluntary...

  14. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  15. Introducing GFWED: The Global Fire Weather Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5 latitude by 2-3 longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia,Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DCD1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRAs precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphereocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  16. Weathering and landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, Alice V.; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Campbell, Sean W.

    2005-04-01

    In recognition of the fundamental control exerted by weathering on landscape evolution and topographic development, the 35th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium was convened under the theme of Weathering and Landscape Evolution. The papers and posters presented at the conference imparted the state-of-the-art in weathering geomorphology, tackled the issue of scale linkage in geomorphic studies and offered a vehicle for interdisciplinary communication on research into weathering and landscape evolution. The papers included in this special issue are encapsulated here under the general themes of weathering mantles, weathering and relative dating, weathering and denudation, weathering processes and controls and the 'big picture'.

  17. Nganyi Community Resource Centre: Community radio station ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... To mark World Meteorological Day on March 23, 2015, the Kenya Meteorological Services (KMS) launched a resource centre and radio station in western Kenya to disseminate weather and climate information.

  18. Space weather and coronal mass ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Space weather has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Severe space weather can disrupt spacecraft, and on Earth can be the cause of power outages and power station failure. It also presents a radiation hazard for airline passengers and astronauts. These ""magnetic storms"" are most commonly caused by coronal mass ejections, or CMES, which are large eruptions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun that can reach speeds of several thousand km/s. In this SpringerBrief, Space Weather and Coronal Mass Ejections, author Timothy Howard briefly introduces the coronal mass ejection, its sc

  19. LiquidPower-1. Development and proof-of-concept of core methanol reformer for stationary and motive fuel cell systems and hydrogen refuelling stations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogsgaard, J.; Mortensen, Henrik [H2 Logic A/S, Herning (Denmark); Skipper, T. [Dantherm Power A/S, Hobro (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    LiquidPower-1 has developed laboratory test systems for methanol reforming and tested reformers from four different suppliers. This has contributed to determining the state-of-the-art level for methanol reforming and enabled an update of the LiquidPower R and D Roadmap onwards a commercialisation of the technology. The project has achieved the following results: 1) A detailed technical specification of methanol reformers for the fuel cell back-up power and hydrogen refueling station markets has been conducted; 2) Laboratory test systems for methanol reformers has been developed and established at Dantherm Power and H2 Logic; 3) Initial test of reformers from four suppliers has been conducted - with two suppliers being selected for continued tests; 4) Extensive laboratory tests conducted of reformers from two suppliers, with the aim to determine state-of-the-art for price, efficiency, capacity and lifetime. Several errors and break-downs were experienced during the test period, which revealed a need for further R and D to improve lifetime and stability; 5) The LiquidPower F and U Roadmap has been updated. Reformer TCO targets (Total Cost of Operation) for each of the markets have been calculated including updated targets for efficiency and cost. These targets also serve as the main ones to be pursued as part of the continued R and D roadmap execution. Compared to the previous edition of the Roadmap, the project has confirmed the viability of methanol reforming, but also revealed that stability and lifetime needs to be addressed and solved before commencing commercialization of the technology. If the Roadmap is successful a commercialization can commence beyond 2015. (Author)

  20. Nuclear fuel preheating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor new fuel handling system which conveys new fuel from a fuel preparation room into the reactor containment boundary is described. The handling system is provided with a fuel preheating station which is adaptd to heat the new fuel to reactor refueling temperatures in such a way that the fuel is heated from the top down so that fuel element cladding failure due to thermal expansions is avoided. (U.S.)

  1. LPG fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnas, F.X.; Jeuland, N.; Fouquet, J.P.; Lauraire, S.; Coroller, P.

    2005-01-01

    LPG fuel has become frequently used through a distribution network with 2 000 service stations over the French territory. LPG fuel ranks number 3 world-wide given that it can be used on individual vehicles, professional fleets, or public transport. What is the environmental benefit of LPG fuel? What is the technology used for these engines? What is the current regulation? Government commitment and dedication on support to promote LPG fuel? Car makers projects? Actions to favour the use of LPG fuel? This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  2. Exploring the Future of Fuel Loads in Tasmania, Australia: Shifts in Vegetation in Response to Changing Fire Weather, Productivity, and Fire Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Mary Bernadette Harris

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the frequency of fire due to management decisions and climate change have the potential to affect the flammability of vegetation, with long-term effects on the vegetation structure and composition. Frequent fire in some vegetation types can lead to transformational change beyond which the vegetation type is radically altered. Such feedbacks limit our ability to project fuel loads under future climatic conditions or to consider the ecological tradeoffs associated with management burns. We present a “pathway modelling” approach to consider multiple transitional pathways that may occur under different fire frequencies. The model combines spatial layers representing current and future fire danger, biomass, flammability, and sensitivity to fire to assess potential future fire activity. The layers are derived from a dynamically downscaled regional climate model, attributes from a regional vegetation map, and information about fuel characteristics. Fire frequency is demonstrated to be an important factor influencing flammability and availability to burn and therefore an important determinant of future fire activity. Regional shifts in vegetation type occur in response to frequent fire, as the rate of change differs across vegetation type. Fire-sensitive vegetation types move towards drier, more fire-adapted vegetation quickly, as they may be irreversibly impacted by even a single fire, and require very long recovery times. Understanding the interaction between climate change and fire is important to identify appropriate management regimes to sustain fire-sensitive communities and maintain the distribution of broad vegetation types across the landscape.

  3. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  4. Torness: proposed nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The need for and desirability of nuclear power, and in particular the proposed nuclear power station at Torness in Scotland, are questioned. Questions are asked, and answered, on the following topics: position, appearance and cost of the proposed Torness plant, and whether necessary; present availability of electricity, and forecast of future needs, in Scotland; energy conservation and alternative energy sources; radiation hazards from nuclear power stations (outside, inside, and in case of an accident); transport of spent fuel from Torness to Windscale; radioactive waste management; possibility of terrorists making a bomb with radioactive fuel from a nuclear power station; cost of electricity from nuclear power; how to stop Torness. (U.K.)

  5. Solar radiation observation stations updated to 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, E.A.; Cristina, J.R.; Williams, B.B.

    1979-04-01

    The type of sensing and recording equipment for 420 stations in the US are listed alphabetically by states. The stations are divided according to whether or not they are in the basic National Weather Service, NOAA, network. Reports of summarized solar radiation data are listed in an appendix. (MHR)

  6. Integrated five station nondestructive assay system for the support of decontamination and decommissioning of a former plutonium mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Bieri, J.M.; Hastings, R.D.; Horton, W.S.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Kunz, W.E.; Plettenberg, K.; Smith, L.D.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of a safe, efficient and economic decontamination and decommissioning of plutonium facilities can be greatly enhanced through the intelligent use of an integrated system of nondestructive assay equipment. We have designed and fabricated such a system utilizing five separate NDA stations integrated through a single data acquisition and management personal computer-based controller. The initial station utilizes a passive neutron measurement to determine item Pu inventory to the 0.1 gm level prior to insertion into the decontamination cell. A large active neutron station integrated into the cell is used to measure decontamination effectiveness at the 10 nci/gm level. Cell Pu buildup at critical points is monitored with passive neutron detectors. An active neutron station having better than 1 mg Pu assay sensitivity is used to quantify final compacted waste pucks outside the cell. Bulk Pu in various forms and isotopic enrichments is quantified in a combined passive neutron coincidence and high resolution gamma ray spectrometer station outside the cell. Item control and Pu inventory are managed with bar code labeling and a station integrating algorithm. Overall economy is achieved by multiple station use of the same expensive hardware such as the neutron generator

  7. The use of microbial gene abundance in the development of fuel remediation guidelines in polar soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elizabeth L; King, Catherine K; Powell, Shane M

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial fuel spills in Antarctica commonly occur on ice-free land around research stations as the result of human activities. Successful spill clean-ups require appropriate targets that confirm contaminated sites are no longer likely to pose environmental risk following remediation. These targets are based on knowledge of the impacts of contaminants on the soil ecosystem and on the response of native biota to contamination. Our work examined the response of soil microbial communities to fuel contamination by measuring the abundance of genes involved in critical soil processes, and assessed the use of this approach as an indicator of soil health in the presence of weathered and fresh fuels. Uncontaminated and contaminated soils were collected from the site of remediation treatment of an aged diesel spill at Casey Station, East Antarctica in December 2012. Uncontaminated soil was spiked with fresh Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel to determine the response of the genes to fresh fuel. Partly remediated soil containing weathered SAB diesel was diluted with uncontaminated soil to simulate a range of concentrations of weathered fuel and used to determine the response of the genes to aged fuel. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to measure the abundance of rpoB, alkB, cat23, and nosZ in soils containing SAB diesel. Differences were observed between the abundance of genes in control soils versus soils containing weathered and fresh fuels. Typical dose-response curves were generated for genes in response to the presence of fresh fuel. In contrast, the response of these genes to the range of weathered fuel appeared to be due to dilution, rather than to the effect of the fuel on the microbial community. Changes in microbial genes in response to fresh contamination have potential as a sensitive measure of soil health and for assessments of the effect of fuel spills in polar soils. This will contribute to the development of remediation guidelines to assist in management

  8. Adverse Weather Evokes Nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Four studies examined the link between adverse weather and the palliative role of nostalgia. We proposed and tested that (a) adverse weather evokes nostalgia (Hypothesis 1); (b) adverse weather causes distress, which predicts elevated nostalgia (Hypothesis 2); (c) preventing nostalgia exacerbates weather-induced distress (Hypothesis 3); and (d) weather-evoked nostalgia confers psychological benefits (Hypothesis 4). In Study 1, participants listened to recordings of wind, thunder, rain, and neutral sounds. Adverse weather evoked nostalgia. In Study 2, participants kept a 10-day diary recording weather conditions, distress, and nostalgia. We also obtained meteorological data. Adverse weather perceptions were positively correlated with distress, which predicted higher nostalgia. Also, adverse natural weather was associated with corresponding weather perceptions, which predicted elevated nostalgia. (Results were mixed for rain.) In Study 3, preventing nostalgia (via cognitive load) increased weather-evoked distress. In Study 4, weather-evoked nostalgia was positively associated with psychological benefits. The findings pioneer the relevance of nostalgia as source of comfort in adverse weather.

  9. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  10. WEATHER INDEX- THE BASIS OF WEATHER DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botos Horia Mircea

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of Weather Derivatives, more exactly their basic element the weather index. The weather index has two forms, the Heating Degree Day (HDD and the Cooling Degree Day (CDD. We will try to explain their origin, use and the relationship between the two forms of the index. In our research we started from the analysis of the weather derivatives and what they are based on. After finding out about weather index, we were interested in understanding exactly how they work and how they influence the value of the contract. On the national level the research in the field is scares, but foreign materials available. The study for this paper was based firstly on reading about Weather Derivative, and then going in the meteorogical field and determining the way by which the indices were determined. After this, we went to the field with interest in the indices, such as the energy and gas industries, and figured out how they determined the weather index. For the examples we obtained data from the weather index database, and calculated the value for the period. The study is made on a period of five years, in 8 cities of the European Union. The result of this research is that we can now understand better the importance of the way the indices work and how they influence the value of the Weather Derivatives. This research has an implication on the field of insurance, because of the fact that weather derivative are at the convergence point of the stock markets and the insurance market. The originality of the paper comes from the personal touch given to the theoretical aspect and through the analysis of the HDD and CDD index in order to show their general behaviour and relationship.

  11. Generation of sequences of daily radiation values using a library of Markov transition matrices. Application of weather station in tre University od Vigo; Generacion de secuencias de radiacion diaria utilizando librerias de matrices de Markov. Aplicacion a la estacion meteorologica de la Universidad de Vigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieres, J. A.; Vazquez, M.; Fernandez-Seara, J.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, the generation of sequences of daily radiation values using a library of Markov transition matrices is analysed. The paper describes the fundamentals of the method employed and how sequences of daily radiation can be generated using as input monthly averaged values of the clearness index. The method is applied to the location where the Solar Energy Lab Weather Station of the University of Vigo (longitude 8 degree 41' 18'' O, latitude 42 degree 10' 9'' N) is placed. Radiation sequences are generated for the years 2002 and 2003 and the results are compared with measured radiation values. Results of statistical tests show a bad performance of the generation method for the location studied. (Author)

  12. Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Surface Weather Observation Collection consists primarily of hourly, synoptic, daily, and monthly forms submitted to the archive by the National Weather Service...

  13. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  14. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  15. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  16. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  17. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  18. Radar Weather Observation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...

  19. Land Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  20. Internet Weather Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) National Telecommunications Gateway provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its...

  1. Space Weather in Operation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Space Weather in Operations” effort will provide on-demand and near-real time space weather event information to the Data Access Toolkit (DAT), which is the...

  2. Energy Management for Automatic Monitoring Stations in Arctic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Demian

    Automatic weather monitoring stations deployed in arctic regions are usually installed in hard to reach locations. Most of the time they run unsupervised and they face severe environmental conditions: very low temperatures, ice riming, etc. It is usual practice to use a local energy source to power the equipment. There are three main ways to achieve this: (1) a generator whose fuel has to be transported to the location at regular intervals (2) a battery and (3) an energy harvesting generator that exploits a local energy source. Hybrid systems are very common. Polar nights and long winters are typical of arctic regions. Solar radiation reaching the ground during this season is very low or non-existent, depending on the geographical location. Therefore, solar power generation is not very effective. One straightforward, but expensive and inefficient solution is the use of a large bank of batteries that is recharged during sunny months and discharged during the winter. The main purpose of the monitoring stations is to collect meteorological data at regular intervals; interruptions due to a lack of electrical energy can be prevented with the use of an energy management subsystem. Keeping a balance between incoming and outgoing energy flows, while assuring the continuous operation of the station, is the delicate task of energy management strategies. This doctoral thesis explores alternate power generation solutions and intelligent energy management techniques for equipment deployed in the arctic. For instance, harvesting energy from the wind to complement solar generation is studied. Nevertheless, harvested energy is a scarce resource and needs to be used efficiently. Genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, and common sense are used to efficiently manage energy flows within a simulated arctic weather station.

  3. Amtrak Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  4. Cold-Weather Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / Cold-Weather Sports What's in this article? What to Do? Classes ... weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular ...

  5. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  6. Validation of crop weather models for crop assessment arid yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRSIS and CRPSM models were used in this study to see how closely they could predict grain yields for selected stations in Tanzania. Input for the models comprised of weather, crop and soil data collected from five selected stations. Simulation results show that IRSIS model tends to over predict grain yields of maize, ...

  7. Broadcast media and the dissemination of weather information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, J.

    1973-01-01

    Although television is the public's most preferred source of weather information, it fails to provide weather reports to those groups who seek the information early in the day and during the day. The result is that many people most often use radio as a source of information, yet preferring the medium of television. The public actively seeks weather information from both radio and TV stations, usually seeking information on current conditions and short range forecasts. forecasts. Nearly all broadcast stations surveyed were eager to air severe weather bulletins quickly and often. Interest in Nowcasting was high among radio and TV broadcasters, with a significant portion indicating a willingness to pay something for the service. However, interest among TV stations in increasing the number of daily reports was small.

  8. Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

    2010-09-01

    Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a

  9. Estimating dew formation in rice, using seasonally averaged diel patterns of weather variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, W.; Goudriaan, J.

    2004-01-01

    If dew formation cannot be measured it has to be estimated. Available simulation models for estimating dew formation require hourly weather data as input. However, such data are not available for places without an automatic weather station. In such cases the diel pattern of weather variables might

  10. Introducing the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations beginning in 1980 called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 2/3° longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded datasets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia, Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA-based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DC=1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously-identified in MERRA's precipitation and reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED is being used by researchers around the world for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at large scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphere-ocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models. These applications will be discussed. More information on GFWED can be found at http://data.giss.nasa.gov/impacts/gfwed/

  11. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  12. Effect of fly ash from a fuel oil power station on heavy metal content of wild plants at Tenerife island, the Canarian archipelago, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, C.E.; Fernandez, M.; Iglesias, E.; Perez, N.; Snelling, R.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy metal analysis have been carried out in wild plants around a Power Station located at the southeastern area of Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). The concentrations of Fe, Ni, and V in the leaves and terminal stems of three wild plants (Euphorbia obtusifolia, Kleinia neriifolia, and Plocama pendula) which were collected during the spring of 1988 are reported from four different allotments. These sampling sites were located at distances of 0.4, 1, 1, 25, and 34 km from the Electric Generating Facility, and at elevations of 60, 120, 180 and 60 m, respectively. Results show a potential contamination of vanadium in E. obtusifolia and P. pendula plants located close to the Power Station, probably due to dry deposition on fly ash in the surrounding area. The levels of iron and nickel concentrations in the same type of plants did not show any geographical relationship with respect to the location of the Power Station. 19 refs., 4 figs

  13. Evaluating the quality and usability of crowdsourced weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Martijn; Siegmund, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In April 2015 the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) launched the Weather Observations Website (WOW-NL, https://wow.knmi.nl/) in the Netherlands in cooperation with the UK Met Office, who launched a similar WOW-UK website in 2011. WOW-NL functions as a platform to collect weather data that is measured by amateurs or organizations who own an automatic weather station. Such data can be used to increase the spatial and temporal resolution of existing observation networks. This can be meaningful for better understanding of e.g. urban climate (urban heat islands) and the occurrence of extreme meteorological events. In November 2015 the number of Dutch participants of WOW-NL was approximately 250. The following meteorological parameters are uploaded to the website every 10 minutes: air temperature, air pressure, rainfall rate, humidity, wind speed and wind direction. To get an idea about the location and environment at which the weather stations are placed, participants are asked to rate their station based on exposure, type of devices used and the level of urbanization. They can also specify the elevation and add a short description of the equipment that is used. This study examines the quality of the crowd-sourced weather data by using interpolated weather data that is measured at official weather stations that are operated by KNMI. Measurements at amateur stations are compared with the interpolated measurements and differences are explained using the metadata that the participants specified. A number of days is selected where interesting meteorological situations occurred, such as extremely hot weather, cold fronts, rain fronts or heavy winds. Based on this, recommendations are presented about possible applications of crowd-sourced weather data with respect to the quality level.

  14. The main methods of solving the problem of radioactive waste management from nuclear power stations and spent fuel reprocessing plants in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The main directions of solving the problem of radioactive waste management from nuclear power stations and radiochemical plants, the aspects of gaseous waste management, liquid HLW storage in vessels and the problems of heat removal during storage of vitrified HLW in surface storages are considered. The main problems arising during fine decontamination of gaseous discharges from nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants are discussed. The migration of fission products in the environment and technical aspects of their capture from gaseous discharges are also considered

  15. Wildland fire as a self-regulating mechanism: the role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sean A; Holsinger, Lisa M; Miller, Carol; Nelson, Cara R

    2015-09-01

    Theory suggests that natural fire regimes can result in landscapes that are both self-regulating and resilient to fire. For example, because fires consume fuel, they may create barriers to the spread of future fires, thereby regulating fire size. Top-down controls such as weather, however, can weaken this effect. While empirical examples demonstrating this pattern-process feedback between vegetation and fire exist, they have been geographically limited or did not consider the influence of time between fires and weather. The availability of remotely sensed data identifying fire activity over the last four decades provides an opportunity to explicitly quantify-the ability of wildland fire to limit the progression of subsequent fire. Furthermore, advances in fire progression mapping now allow an evaluation of how daily weather as a top-down control modifies this effect. In this study, we evaluated the ability of wildland fire to create barriers that limit the spread of subsequent fire along a gradient representing time between fires in four large study areas in the western United States. Using fire progression maps in conjunction with weather station data, we also evaluated the influence of daily weather. Results indicate that wildland fire does limit subsequent fire spread in all four study areas, but this effect decays over time; wildland fire no longer limits subsequent fire spread 6-18 years after fire, depending on the study area. We also found that the ability of fire to regulate, subsequent fire progression was substantially reduced under extreme conditions compared to moderate weather conditions in all four study areas. This study increases understanding of the spatial feedbacks that can lead to self-regulating landscapes as well as the effects of top-down controls, such as weather, on these feedbacks. Our results will be useful to managers who seek to restore natural fire regimes or to exploit recent burns when managing fire.

  16. LINK2009 Phase 1: Development of 2. generation fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen refueling station. Final report; LINK2009 fase 1: Udvikling af 2. gen. braendselscelle koeretoejer og brinttankstation. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    LINK2009 project was to develop 2nd gen. technologies fuel cell systems for vehicles and 350bar hydrogen refueling stations. Also the LINK2009 project were to ensure a continuously positioning of Denmark and the Scandinavian Region within hydrogen for transport and continue to attract international car manufacturers to conduct demonstration and later market introduction in the region. The LINK2009 project is divided in two phases where this first phase only deals with the development of the 2nd generation technologies, whereas the following phase 2 will include the demonstration hereof as well as additional research activities. This Report describes the results of the phase 1 that was commenced in summer 2008 and ended in late 2009. Phase 1 has resulted in the development of new 2nd generation fuel cell technology for use in a city car and a service vehicle. Stated targets for price and efficiency have been reached and the following demonstration in Phase 2 is to confirm reaching of life time targets. The efficiency of the fuel cell system for the city car has been measured to be 42-48% at a power delivery of respectively 10kW and 2kW, which is significantly above the target of >40%. System simplifications and selection of new components have enabled a 50% reduction in the kW price for the fuel cell system, including 700bar hydrogen storage, now totalling Euro 4.500/kW. This creates sufficient basis for conducting demonstration of the system in vehicles. 9 vehicles are planned to be demonstrated in the following phase 2. Additional 8 vehicles were put in operation in Copenhagen in November 2009. Phase 1 has conducted development of 2nd gen. hydrogen refuelling technology that has resulted in concepts for both 350bar and 700bar refuelling as well as a concept for onsite hydrogen production at refuelling stations. In separate projects the developed 350bar technology has been brought to use in a newly established hydrogen station in Copenhagen, and the hydrogen

  17. Dynamic Weather Routes: A Weather Avoidance Concept for Trajectory-Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, B. David; Love, John

    2011-01-01

    The integration of convective weather modeling with trajectory automation for conflict detection, trial planning, direct routing, and auto resolution has uncovered a concept that could help controllers, dispatchers, and pilots identify improved weather routes that result in significant savings in flying time and fuel burn. Trajectory automation continuously and automatically monitors aircraft in flight to find those that could potentially benefit from improved weather reroutes. Controllers, dispatchers, and pilots then evaluate reroute options to assess their suitability given current weather and traffic. In today's operations aircraft fly convective weather avoidance routes that were implemented often hours before aircraft approach the weather and automation does not exist to automatically monitor traffic to find improved weather routes that open up due to changing weather conditions. The automation concept runs in real-time and employs two keysteps. First, a direct routing algorithm automatically identifies flights with large dog legs in their routes and therefore potentially large savings in flying time. These are common - and usually necessary - during convective weather operations and analysis of Fort Worth Center traffic shows many aircraft with short cuts that indicate savings on the order of 10 flying minutes. The second and most critical step is to apply trajectory automation with weather modeling to determine what savings could be achieved by modifying the direct route such that it avoids weather and traffic and is acceptable to controllers and flight crews. Initial analysis of Fort Worth Center traffic suggests a savings of roughly 50% of the direct route savings could be achievable.The core concept is to apply trajectory automation with convective weather modeling in real time to identify a reroute that is free of weather and traffic conflicts and indicates enough time and fuel savings to be considered. The concept is interoperable with today

  18. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  19. Cockpit weather information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along

  20. Potential for use of condenser cooling waters from fossil fuel and nuclear power generating stations for freshwater aquaculture in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    Some limiting factors to the future development of freshwater aquaculture are considered. The most important of these are the need for new and improved technology for the production of better quality products at lower cost and for the promotion and establishment of new markets. The use of relatively small amounts of heated effluent water from power generating stations to optimize water temperatures is one feasible method for increasing growth and lowering the cost of production. (author)

  1. Cold weather effects on Dresden Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anagnostopoulos, H. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Morris, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Dresden Unit 1 is in the final stages of a decommissioning effort directed at preparing the unit to enter a SAFSTOR status. Following an extended sub-zero cold wave, about 55,000 gallons of water were discovered in the lowest elevation of the spherical reactor enclosure. Cold weather had caused the freezing and breaking of several service water lines that had not been completely isolated. Two days later, at a regularly scheduled decommissioning meeting, the event was communicated to the decommissioning team, who quickly recognized the potential for freezing of a 42 inches diameter Fuel Transfer Tube that connects the sphere to the Spent Fuel Pool. The team directed that the pool gates between the adjacent Spent Fuel Pool and the Fuel Transfer Pool be installed, and a portable source of heat was installed on the Fuel Transfer Tube. It was later determined that, with the fuel pool gates removed, and with a worst case freeze break at the 502 elevation on the Fuel Transfer Tube (in the Sphere), the fuel in the Spent Fuel Pool could be uncovered to a level 3 below the top of active fuel.

  2. Weather and emotional state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  3. LOCAL WEATHER CLASSIFICATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna PIOTROWICZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches of local weather type definitions are presented and illustrated for selected stations of Poland and Hungary. The subjective classification, continuing long traditions, especially in Poland, relies on diurnal values of local weather elements. The main types are defined according to temperature with some sub-types considering relative sunshine duration, diurnal precipitation totals, relative humidity and wind speed. The classification does not make a difference between the seasons of the year, but the occurrence of the classes obviously reflects the annual cycle. Another important feature of this classification is that only a minor part of the theoretically possible combination of the various types and sub-types occurs in all stations of both countries. The objective version of the classification starts from ten possible weather element which are reduced to four according to factor analysis, based on strong correlation between the elements. This analysis yields 3 to 4 factors depending on the specific criteria of selection. The further cluster analysis uses four selected weather elements belonging to different rotated factors. They are the diurnal mean values of temperature, of relative humidity, of cloudiness and of wind speed. From the possible ways of hierarchical cluster analysis (i.e. no a priori assumption on the number of classes, the method of furthest neighbours is selected, indicating the arguments of this decision in the paper. These local weather types are important tools in understanding the role of weather in various environmental indicators, in climatic generalisation of short samples by stratified sampling and in interpretation of the climate change.

  4. Fabulous Weather Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  5. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore...

  6. Tales of future weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; Van den Hurk, B.J.J.M.; Min, E.; Van Oldenborgh, G.J.; Petersen, A.C.; Stainforth, D.A.; Vasileiadou, E.; Smith, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes. The

  7. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  8. Sizewell B nuclear power station: the basis for the decision by the Health and Safety Executive to grant consent to load fuel into the reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The licensing and consent process and the basis for granting a consent for Nuclear Electric to load fuel into the Sizewell B reactor in the United Kingdom are explained. Consent was granted by the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive on satisfactory completion of construction and those commissioning stages needed to proceed safely, and the production of a satisfactory safety case. A summary of the assessment of the safety case is appended. It covers the reactor core, coolant system structural integrity, engineered safety features, main and essential electrical system, control and instrumentation, radioactive waste management, radiological protection, fuel storage and handling, civil works and structures, fault analysis, human factors, hazard analysis, quality assurance, and decommissioning. (UK)

  9. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Erhard M.

    1987-06-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  10. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R G

    2011-01-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in 'fair weather' regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  11. Design optimization of the Laguna Verde nuclear power station fuel recharge; Optimacion del diseno de recargas de combustible para la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes Campos, Carlos Cristobal [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Montes Tadeo, Jose Luis [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Salazar (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    It is described, in general terms, the procedure that is followed to accomplish the optimization of the recharge design, and an example is shown where this procedure was applied for the analysis of the type BWR reactor of Unit No. 1 of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station. [Espanol] Se describe en terminos generales el procedimiento que se sigue para realizar la optimacion del diseno de recargas, y se muestra un ejemplo en el que se utilizo dicho procedimiento para el analisis del reactor tipo BWR de la unidad 1, de la Central Laguna Verde (CLV).

  12. Design optimization of the Laguna Verde nuclear power station fuel recharge; Optimacion del diseno de recargas de combustible para la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes Campos, Carlos Cristobal [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Montes Tadeo, Jose Luis [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Salazar (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    It is described, in general terms, the procedure that is followed to accomplish the optimization of the recharge design, and an example is shown where this procedure was applied for the analysis of the type BWR reactor of Unit No. 1 of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station. [Espanol] Se describe en terminos generales el procedimiento que se sigue para realizar la optimacion del diseno de recargas, y se muestra un ejemplo en el que se utilizo dicho procedimiento para el analisis del reactor tipo BWR de la unidad 1, de la Central Laguna Verde (CLV).

  13. Fuel cells for commercial energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppmann, Gerhard; Weisse, Eckart; Bischoff, Manfred

    1990-04-01

    The development of various types of fuel cells is described. Advantges and drawbacks are considered for alkaline fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, and molten carbonate fuel cells. It is shown that their modular construction is particularly adapted to power heat systems. A comparison which is largely in favor of fuel cells, is made between coal, oil, natural gas power stations, and fuel cells. Safety risks in operation are also compared with those of conventional power stations. Fuel cells are particularly suited for dwellings, shopping centers, swimming pools, other sporting installations, and research facilities, whose high current and heat requirements can be covered by power heat coupling.

  14. Method and System for Dynamic Automated Corrections to Weather Avoidance Routes for Aircraft in En Route Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, B. David (Inventor); Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic weather route system automatically analyzes routes for in-flight aircraft flying in convective weather regions and attempts to find more time and fuel efficient reroutes around current and predicted weather cells. The dynamic weather route system continuously analyzes all flights and provides reroute advisories that are dynamically updated in real time while the aircraft are in flight. The dynamic weather route system includes a graphical user interface that allows users to visualize, evaluate, modify if necessary, and implement proposed reroutes.

  15. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  16. Sun, weather, and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, J.R.; Goldberg, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The general field of sun-weather/climate relationships that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown casual mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climate trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5) physical processes and mechanisms; (6) recapitulation of sun-weather relationships; and (7) guidelines for experiments. 300 references

  17. GPS Estimates of Integrated Precipitable Water Aid Weather Forecasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Angelyn W.; Gutman, Seth I.; Holub, Kirk; Bock, Yehuda; Danielson, David; Laber, Jayme; Small, Ivory

    2013-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) meteorology provides enhanced density, low-latency (30-min resolution), integrated precipitable water (IPW) estimates to NOAA NWS (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis tration Nat ional Weather Service) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) to provide improved model and satellite data verification capability and more accurate forecasts of extreme weather such as flooding. An early activity of this project was to increase the number of stations contributing to the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) GPS meteorology observing network in Southern California by about 27 stations. Following this, the Los Angeles/Oxnard and San Diego WFOs began using the enhanced GPS-based IPW measurements provided by ESRL in the 2012 and 2013 monsoon seasons. Forecasters found GPS IPW to be an effective tool in evaluating model performance, and in monitoring monsoon development between weather model runs for improved flood forecasting. GPS stations are multi-purpose, and routine processing for position solutions also yields estimates of tropospheric zenith delays, which can be converted into mm-accuracy PWV (precipitable water vapor) using in situ pressure and temperature measurements, the basis for GPS meteorology. NOAA ESRL has implemented this concept with a nationwide distribution of more than 300 "GPSMet" stations providing IPW estimates at sub-hourly resolution currently used in operational weather models in the U.S.

  18. The fission products palladium and rhodium: Their state in solutions, their behavior in the regeneration of fuel of atomic power stations, and the search for selective extraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arseenkov, L.V.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Lunichkina, K.P.; Renard, E.V.; Rogozhkin, V.Yu.; Shorokhov, N.A.

    1992-01-01

    At the present time many research centers are working on the extraction of noble metals in the form of fission fragments. Consistent data has been obtained on the mass accumulation of noble metals in various forms of processed nuclear fuel. Requirements are noted that must be met for obtaining industrial and economic efficiency in the extraction of noble metals by the Purex process. Presently there is a lack of information on the extraction of noble metals from spent fuel, particularly as far as the nitric acid media of the Purex process are concerned. The authors will discuss individual test observations on simulating systems and real systems with noble metals. The investigations focused on the noble metals of lowest radioactivity, namely palladium and rhodium. The complexity of the chemistry of ruthenium, on the one hand, and the possible selective, clearing distillation of ruthenium tetroxide from nitric acid solutions, on the other hand, make it necessary to focus the attention on the unresolved problems of the extraction of palladium and rhodium. The article further includes discussion on the following topics: noble metals in solutions of purex process, electrochemical operations involving noble metals, extraction systems for rhodium and palladium, separation of palladium from real solutions

  19. Mountain Warfare and Cold Weather Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    is important to determine whether the bottom is composed of sand, gravel, silt, clay , or rock and in what proportions. For more information see ATP...these planning factors by about two quarts per individual. 6-22. Water increases in viscosity in extreme cold weather, and therefore moves slower...In arctic conditions, fuel spilled on flesh can cause instant frostbite if the proper gloves are not worn. 6-32. Multi- viscosity oil (15W-40) is

  20. Fuel management and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendryes, G

    1972-11-01

    From international conference on nuclear solutions to world energy problems; Washington, District of Columbia, USA (12 Nov The low cost of the fuel cycle is the most attractive feature of the fast neutron breeder reactor. In order to achieve it a good fuel management is essential, with well balanced fixed investment and renewal fuel costs. In addition the designer can optimize the power station as a whole (fuel cycle and thermal characteristics). (auth)

  1. Weather Support for the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Sailing Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Sailing Competitions (referred to as OPSC hereafter were held at Qingdao during August 9–23 and September 7–13 2008, respectively. The Qingdao Meteorological Bureau was the official provider of weather support for the OPSC. Three-dimensional real-time information with high spatial-temporal resolution was obtained by the comprehensive observation system during the OPSC, which included weather radars, wind profile radars, buoys, automated weather stations, and other conventional observations. The refined forecasting system based on MM5, WRF, and statistical modules provided point-specific hourly wind forecasts for the five venues, and the severe weather monitoring and forecasting system was used in short-term forecasts and nowcasts for rainstorms, gales, and hailstones. Moreover, latest forecasting products, warnings, and weather information were communicated conveniently and timely through a synthetic, speedy, and digitalized network system to different customers. Daily weather information briefings, notice boards, websites, and community short messages were the main approaches for regatta organizers, athletes, and coaches to receive weather service products at 8:00 PM of each day and whenever new updates were available. During the period of OPSC, almost one hundred people were involved in the weather service with innovative service concept, and the weather support was found to be successful and helpful to the OPSC.

  2. Power losses in electrical networks depending on weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelezko, Yu. S.; Kostyushko, V. A.; Krylov, S. V.; Nikiforov, E. P.; Savchenko, O. V.; Timashova, L. V.; Solomonik, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    Specific power losses to corona and to leakage currents over overhead insulators are presented for 110 - 750-kV transmission lines with different phase design and pole types for different weather conditions. Consumption of electric energy for ice melting on conductors of various cross sections is evaluated. Meteorological data of 1372 weather stations in Russia are processed for a period of 10 years. The territory of the country is divided into 7 regions with approximately homogeneous weather conditions. Specific power losses to corona and leakage currents over overhead insulators are presented for every region

  3. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Louie Fresco Zamora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values.

  4. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Jane Louie Fresco; Kashihara, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values.

  5. Thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors under Danish weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have been carried out with the aim to elucidate the thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors for different weather conditions in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark (55.8°N), and for the weather conditions in Sisimiut, Greenland (66.9°N), just north of the arctic circle....... The investigations are based on calculations with a newly developed program. Measured weather data from a solar radiation measurement station at Technical University of Denmark in Kgs. Lyngby Denmark in the period 1990 to 2002 and the Danish Design Reference Year, DRY data file are used in the investigations....... The weather data used for Sisimiut are based on a Test Reference Year, TRY weather data file. The thermal advantages of different tracking strategies is investigated for two flat plate solar collectors with different efficiencies, operated at different temperature levels. The investigations show...

  6. Power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawte, H.; Philpott, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The object is to provide a method of operating a dual purpose power station so that the steam supply system is operated at a high load factor. The available steam not required for electricity generation is used to provide process heat and the new feature is that the process plant capacity is determined to make the most economic use of the steam supply system, and not to match the passout capacity of the turbine of the turbogenerator. The product of the process plant should, therefore, be capable of being stored. A dual-purpose power station with a nuclear-powered steam source, turbogenerating means connected to the steam source and steam-powered process plant susceptible to wide variation in its rate of operation is described. (U.K.)

  7. Weather Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

  8. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  9. Waste glass weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass

  10. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  11. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    del tiempo incluido. Si eres quieres ser avisado de las advertencias y relojes de día o de noche, un Weather Radio relojes son independientes o basadas en el Condado (parroquia basados en Luisiana), aunque

  12. Space Weather Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of space weather datasets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and from the World Data Service for Geophysics,...

  13. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  14. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  15. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  16. Winter Weather Checklists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  17. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  18. Surface Weather Observations Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form...

  19. Fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederdoeckl, J.

    2001-01-01

    Europe has at present big hopes on the fuel cells technology, in comparison with other energy conversion technologies, this technology has important advantages, for example: high efficiency, very low pollution and parallel use of electric and thermal energy. Preliminary works for fuel cells developing and its commercial exploitation are at full speed; until now the European Union has invested approx. 1.7 billion Schillings, 60 relevant projects are being executed. The Austrian industry is interested in applying this technique to drives, thermal power stations and the miniature fuel cells as replacement of batteries in electronic products (Notebooks, mobile telephones, etc.). A general description of the historic development of fuel cells including the main types is given as well as what is the situation in Austria. (nevyjel)

  20. A compound refining system for separation of gaseous fission products incorporated in a reprocessing pilot plant for spent fuel from neclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute, a gas treatment experimental apparatus was installed to the SU-2 type experimental facility. The purpose is to solve variety of problems in the separation, collection and subsequent treatment for gaseous fission products and highly volatile fission products in spent fuel reprocessing. The experimental apparatus has the functions as follows: the measurement of air flow such as flow rate, pressure, total γ activity and krypton-85 content, preliminary air flow cleaning and drying removing aerosol, hydrogen fluoride and nitrogen oxide, and the trapping and analysis of gaseous fission products and highly volatile fission products in air flow. For the collection of these two types of fission products, a liquid absorbent and a solid adsorbent are used in series arrangement. (J.P.N.)

  1. Financing the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephany, M.

    1975-01-01

    While conventional power stations usually have fossil fuel reserves for only a few weeks, nuclear power stations, because of the relatively long time required for uranium processing from ore extraction to the delivery of the fuel elements and their prolonged in-pile time, require fuel reserves for a period of several years. Although the specific fuel costs of nuclear power stations are much lower than those of conventional power stations, this results in consistently higher financial requirements. But the problems involved in financing the nuclear fuel do not only include the aspect of financing the requirements of reactor operators, but also of financing the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. As far as the fuel supply is concerned, the true financial requirements greatly exceed the mere purchasing costs because the costs of financing are rather high as a consequence of the long lead times. (orig./UA) [de

  2. Weather. European Theater Weather Orientation (ETWO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    EGUL RAF Lakenheath KBKF Buckdey CO EGUN RAF Mildenhall KSAW Sawyer MI EDAS Sembach GM KGRF Ft Lewis WA EDAB Bitburg GM KFRI Ft Riley KS EDAT...Stability Idez (2) The following list shows the bulletin headers with stations included on each FJ•UEO EDEX EDIC EDIN EDOP EDID EDOT FUE51 EGUA EGUN

  3. Result of 'clean plant operation tactics' in Onagawa Nuclear Power Station No.1 unit during the first fuel cycle and the first maintenance outage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nukazuka, Hideo; Terada, Hideo; Morikawa, Yoshitake; Tomura, Susumu.

    1986-01-01

    On June 1, 1984, No.1 plant in Onagawa Nuclear Power Station started the commercial operation, and recorded the nonstop operation for 344 days. The parallel off was made on April 3, 1985, and the first regular inspection was carried out. On July 12, 1985, the regular inspection was completed, and thereafter, the second cycle operation has been smoothly continued. Special attention was paid to the measures for reducing radiation exposure, and the attainment of the clean plant was aimed at. As the measures for reducing radiation level, the strengtheining of purifying facilities, the suppression of crud generation, the adoption of low cobalt material and the strengthening of shielding were carried out. For shortening exposure time, the machinery and equipment were improved, paying attention to automation, remote operation and labor saving, and the improvement of reliability, maintainability and inspection. In addition to these design measures, in the construction, operation and regular inspection, the clean plant measures were taken. Very good results were obtained. (Kako, I.)

  4. Integrated system of visualization of the meteorological information for the weather forecast - SIPROT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Aristizabal, Gloria Esperanza

    2006-01-01

    The SIPROT is an operating system in real time for the handling of weather data through of a tool; it gathers together GIS and geodatabases. The SIPROT has the capacity to receive, to analyze and to exhibit weather charts of many national and international weather data in alphanumeric and binary formats from meteorological stations and satellites, as well as the results of the simulations of global and regional meteorological and wave models. The SIPROT was developed by the IDEAM to facilitate the handling of million weather dataset that take place daily and are required like elements of judgment for the inherent workings to the analyses and weather forecast

  5. Decreasing trend in severe weather occurrence over China during the past 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghong; Ni, Xiang; Zhang, Fuqing

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the trend of localized severe weather under the changing climate is of great significance but remains challenging which is at least partially due to the lack of persistent and homogeneous severe weather observations at climate scales while the detailed physical processes of severe weather cannot be resolved in global climate models. Based on continuous and coherent severe weather reports from over 500 manned stations, for the first time, this study shows a significant decreasing trend in severe weather occurrence across China during the past five decades. The total number of severe weather days that have either thunderstorm, hail and/or damaging wind decrease about 50% from 1961 to 2010. It is further shown that the reduction in severe weather occurrences correlates strongly with the weakening of East Asian summer monsoon which is the primary source of moisture and dynamic forcing conducive for warm-season severe weather over China.

  6. A Dynamic Programming Approach for Pricing Weather Derivatives under Issuer Default Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Karl Härdle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Weather derivatives are contingent claims with payoff based on a pre-specified weather index. Firms exposed to weather risk can transfer it to financial markets via weather derivatives. We develop a utility-based model for pricing baskets of weather derivatives under default risk on the issuer side in over-the-counter markets. In our model, agents maximise the expected utility of their terminal wealth, while they dynamically rebalance their weather portfolios over a finite investment horizon. Using dynamic programming approach, we obtain semi-closed forms for the equilibrium prices of weather derivatives and for the optimal strategies of the agents. We give an example on how to price rainfall derivatives on selected stations in China in the universe of a financial investor and a weather exposed crop insurer.

  7. Towards Experimental Operational Fire Weather Prediction at Subseasonal to Seasonal Scales for Alaska Using the NMME Hindcasts and Realtime Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, A.; Bhatt, U. S.; Bieniek, P.; York, A.; Peng, P.; Brettschneider, B.; Thoman, R.; Jandt, R.; Ziel, R.; Branson, G.; Strader, M. H.; Alden, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The summer 2004 and 2015 wildfires in Alaska were the two largest fire seasons on record since 1950 where approximately the land area of Massachusetts burned. The record fire year of 2004 resulted in 6.5 million acres burned while the 2015 wildfire season resulted in 5.2 million acres burned. In addition to the logistical cost of fighting fires and the loss of infrastructure, wildfires also lead to dangerous air quality in Alaska. Fires in Alaska result from lightning strikes coupled with persistent (extreme) dry warm conditions in remote areas with limited fire management and the seasonal climate/weather determine the extent of the fire season in Alaska. Advanced weather/climate outlooks for allocating staff and resources from days to a season are particularly needed by fire managers. However, there are no operational seasonal products currently for the Alaska region. Probabilistic forecasts of the expected seasonal climate/weather would aid tremendously in the planning process. Earlier insight of both lightening and fuel conditions would assist fire managers in planning resource allocation for the upcoming season. For fuel conditions, the state-of-the-art NMME (1982-2017) climate predictions were used to compute the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System (CFFWIS). The CFFWIS is used by fire managers to forecast forest fires in Alaska. NMME forecast (March and May) based Buildup Index (BUI) values were underestimated compared to BUI based on reanalysis and station data, demonstrating the necessity for bias correction. Post processing of NMME data will include bias correction using the quantile mapping technique. This study will provide guidance as to the what are the best available products for anticipating the fire season.

  8. Casebook on application for weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    This book introduces the excellent cases on application using weather at the industry, research center and public office. It lists the names and application cases in 2008 and 2009, which includes research on decease in risk by weather in the industry by Sam sung institute of safety and environment, service on weather information for people by KT, application with weather information in the flight by Korean air, use on weather information for prevention of disasters by Masan city hall, upgrade for business with weather marketing, center for river forecast in NOAA and the case using weather management for high profit margins.

  9. An interoperable standard system for the automatic generation and publication of the fire risk maps based on Fire Weather Index (FWI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Selvas, Núria; Ninyerola Casals, Miquel

    2015-04-01

    It has been implemented an automatic system to predict the fire risk in the Principality of Andorra, a small country located in the eastern Pyrenees mountain range, bordered by Catalonia and France, due to its location, his landscape is a set of a rugged mountains with an average elevation around 2000 meters. The system is based on the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that consists on different components, each one, measuring a different aspect of the fire danger calculated by the values of the weather variables at midday. CENMA (Centre d'Estudis de la Neu i de la Muntanya d'Andorra) has a network around 10 automatic meteorological stations, located in different places, peeks and valleys, that measure weather data like relative humidity, wind direction and speed, surface temperature, rainfall and snow cover every ten minutes; this data is sent daily and automatically to the system implemented that will be processed in the way to filter incorrect measurements and to homogenizer measurement units. Then this data is used to calculate all components of the FWI at midday and for the level of each station, creating a database with the values of the homogeneous measurements and the FWI components for each weather station. In order to extend and model this data to all Andorran territory and to obtain a continuous map, an interpolation method based on a multiple regression with spline residual interpolation has been implemented. This interpolation considerer the FWI data as well as other relevant predictors such as latitude, altitude, global solar radiation and sea distance. The obtained values (maps) are validated using a cross-validation leave-one-out method. The discrete and continuous maps are rendered in tiled raster maps and published in a web portal conform to Web Map Service (WMS) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard. Metadata and other reference maps (fuel maps, topographic maps, etc) are also available from this geoportal.

  10. Shippingport Station decommissioning project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station located on the Ohio River, 30 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Shippingport Station is the first commercial size nuclear power plant to undergo decommissioning in the United Staes. The plant is located on approximately 7 acres of land owned by the Duquesne Light Company (DLC) and leased to the U.S. Government. DLC operates two nuclear power plants, Beaver Valley 1 and 2, located immediately adjacent to the site and the Bruce Mansfield coal-fired power plant is also within the immediate area. The Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September, 1984. The Shippingport Station consists of a 275' x 60' fuel handling building containing the reactor containment chamber, the service building, the turbine building, the radioactive waste processing building, the administration building and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops and most of the containment structures are located below grade. Structures owned by the U.S. Government including the fuel handling building, service building, contaminated equipment room, the boiler chambers, the radioactive waste processing building and the decontamination and laydown buildings will be dismantled and removed to 3 feet below grade. The area will then be filled with clean soil and graded. The turbine building, testing and training building and the administration building are owned by DLC and will remain

  11. Weather derivatives: Business hedge instrument from weather risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1990s, a new financial market was developed - a market for weather derivatives, so that the risk managers could hedge their exposure to weather risk. After a rather slow start, the weather derivatives market had started to grow rapidly. Risk managers could no longer blame poor financial results on the weather. Weather risk could now be removed by hedging procedure. This paper will explain briefly what the weather derivatives are and will point out at some of the motives for use of derivatives. Thereafter we will look at the history of the weather risk market, how the weather derivatives market has developed in recent years and also who are the current and potential players in the weather derivatives market.

  12. Developmental state and perspectives of USSR power stations, espec. nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    According to the resolutions of the 25th and 26th party congresses of the CPSU, the Soviet electric and thermal energy economy envisages as the mainstreams in development: Energy projects based on nuclear fuel, i.e. nuclear power stations (NPS), nuclear heat- and -power stations (NHPS) and nuclear heat stations (NHS); fuel-energy complexes: Ekibastuz, Kansk-Achinsk, West-Siberian complex (Tyumen); power stations utilizing non-conventional regenerative energy sources, i.e. solar, geothermal, MHD power stations. Further down, an overview is given on the developmental perspectives of nuclear-heat and nuclear-power economy and on the development of energy management based on fossil fuels. (orig./UA) [de

  13. A conveyor system for feeding work stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheader, J.; Davies, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    A conveyor system comprises carriages drive, e.g. by a linear motor, a pre-arranged sequence of steps to move workpieces in forward and reverse directions between work stations. Each work station has a part position and a work position and each carriage has a number of compartments for workpieces spaced apart at a pitch equal to the spacing between the part and work positions at each station. Transfer means at the work stations move workpieces between the carriage compartments and the part and work positions. The workpieces can be nuclear fuel pins mounted in carriers and the carriages shuttle to and fro between adjacent stations to move fuel pins and carriers in a forward direction and the return empty carriers in a reverse direction. (author)

  14. Weather In Some Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.

  15. Merging weather data with materials response data during outdoor exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Anand Sanadi; Corey Halpin; Christopher White

    2002-01-01

    As part of an outdoor exposure protocol for a study of sealants, a full weather station was installed at the Forest Products Laboratory field test site near Madison, Wisconsin. Tem-perature, relative humidity, rainfall, ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 18 different wavelengths, and wind speed and direction are continuously measured. Using a specially designed apparatus,...

  16. MALAYSIAN WEATHER DATA (TRY) FOR ENERGY SIMULATIONS IN BUILDINGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter

    2001-01-01

    Detailed energy simulations for buildings in Malaysia have become possible after the recent construction of a Malaysian TRY (Test Reference Year) based on 21 years of hourly weather data from Subang Meteorological Station. The climatic parameters contained in the TRY are dry bulb temperature, wet...

  17. H2USA: Siting Refueling Stations in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarett [Consultant; Ellis, Steve [Honda

    2017-11-01

    To achieve cost-effective deployment of both fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and hydrogen stations, the number of vehicles and public stations must grow together in areas of highest demand. This fact sheet introduces two advanced modeling tools and presents preliminary analysis of the hydrogen refueling station locations needed to support early consumer demand for FCEVs in the Northeast United States. United States.

  18. Long term integrity of reactor pressure vessel and primary containment vessel after the severe accidents in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Leaching property of spent oxide fuel segment and corrosion property of a carbon steel under artificial seawater immersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    Primary containment vessel (PCV), reactor pressure vessel and pedestal in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power station units 1 through 3 have been exposed to severe thermal, chemical and mechanical conditions due to core meltdown events and seawater injections for emergent core cooling. These components will be immersed in diluted seawater with dissolved fission products under irradiation until the end of debris removal. Fresh water injected into the cores contacts with debris to cool, dissolves or erodes their constituents, mixed with retained water, and becomes 'accumulated water' with radioactive nuclides. We have focused the leaching of fission products into the accumulated water under lower temperature (323 K). FUGEN spent oxide fuel segments were immersed to determine the leaching factor of fission product and actinide elements. Since PCV made from carbon steel is one of the most important boundaries to prevent from fission products release, corrosion behavior has been paid attention to evaluate their integrity. Carbon steel specimens were immersion- and electrochemical-tested in diluted seawater with simulants of the accumulated water at 323 K in order to evaluate the effect of fission products in particular cesium and radiation. (author)

  19. Fuel saving, carbon dioxide emission avoidance, and syngas production by tri-reforming of flue gases from coal- and gas-fired power stations, and by the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halmann, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2006-01-01

    Flue gases from coal, gas, or oil-fired power stations, as well as from several heavy industries, such as the production of iron, lime and cement, are major anthropogenic sources of global CO 2 emissions. The newly proposed process for syngas production based on the tri-reforming of such flue gases with natural gas could be an important route for CO 2 emission avoidance. In addition, by combining the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide with the partial oxidation of the carbon source, an overall thermoneutral process can be designed for the co-production of iron and syngas rich in CO. Water-gas shift (WGS) of CO to H 2 enables the production of useful syngas. The reaction process heat, or the conditions for thermoneutrality, are derived by thermochemical equilibrium calculations. The thermodynamic constraints are determined for the production of syngas suitable for methanol, hydrogen, or ammonia synthesis. The environmental and economic consequences are assessed for large-scale commercial production of these chemical commodities. Preliminary evaluations with natural gas, coke, or coal as carbon source indicate that such combined processes should be economically competitive, as well as promising significant fuel saving and CO 2 emission avoidance. The production of ammonia in the above processes seems particularly attractive, as it consumes the nitrogen in the flue gases

  20. Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    of fuel delivered to Summit via LC-130 at a price of $32/gal. (Lever et al. 2016), the cost for constructing and maintaining the skiway for the 2014...CRREL TR-16-9 18 The costs associated with the Twin Otter include a day rate plus an hourly mission rate, a per passenger rate, airport fees, fuel, a...ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 9 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis Co ld

  1. Briefing highlights space weather risks to GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-07-01

    Solar storms, which are expected to increase as the Sun nears the most active phase of the solar cycle, can disrupt a variety of technologies on which society relies. Speakers at a 22 June briefing on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C., focused on how space weather can affect the Global Positioning System (GPS), which is used in a wide range of industries, including commercial air travel, agriculture, national security, and emergency response. Rocky Stone, chief technical pilot for United Airlines, noted that GPS allows more aircraft to be in airspace, saves fuel, and helps aircraft move safely on runways. “Improvements in space weather forecasting need to be pursued,” he said. Precision GPS has also “changed the whole nature of farming,” said Ron Hatch, Director of Navigation Systems, NavCom Technology/John Deere. GPS makes it possible for tractors to be driven in the most efficient paths and for fertilizer and water to be applied precisely to the areas that most need them. Space weather-induced degradation of GPS signals can cause significant loss to farms that rely on GPS. Elizabeth Zimmerman, Deputy Associate Administrator for the Office of Response and Recovery at the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), described how FEMA relies on GPS for disaster recovery. The agency is developing an operations plan for dealing with space weather, she said.

  2. Dress for the Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2010-01-01

    "If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice…

  3. Climate, weather, and hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    As climate and weather become more variable, hop growers face increased uncertainty in making decisions about their crop. Given the unprecedented nature of these changes, growers may no longer have enough information and intuitive understanding to adequately assess the situation and evaluate their m...

  4. Weather and Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

  5. Weatherization Works: Weatherization Assistance Program Close-Up Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The United States demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes

  6. NOAA Weather Radio - Alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-Zero All Hazards Logo Emergency Alert Description Event Codes Fact Sheet FAQ Organization Search /eventcodes.html COVERAGE County Coverage Listings State Coverage Listings NWR Station Search Maps SAME SAME Coding

  7. NOAA Weather Radio - SAME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-Zero All Hazards Logo Emergency Alert Description Event Codes Fact Sheet FAQ Organization Search . COVERAGE County Coverage Listings State Coverage Listings NWR Station Search Maps SAME SAME Coding Using

  8. Weather Radar Impact Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent an inventory of the national impacts of wind turbine interference with NEXRAD radar stations. This inventory was developed by the NOAA Radar...

  9. Activities of NICT space weather project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Ken T.; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Mamoru

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place caused by energetic particles or electromagnetic disturbances: the origin of the causes is dynamically changing of solar activities. Positioning systems via GPS satellites are also im-portant recently. Since the most significant effect of positioning error comes from disturbances of the ionosphere, it is crucial to estimate time-dependent modulation of the electron density profiles in the ionosphere. NICT is one of the 13 members of the ISES (International Space Environment Service), which is an international assembly of space weather forecast centers under the UNESCO. With help of geo-space environment data exchanging among the member nations, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide informa-tion on forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. The space weather forecast at NICT is conducted based on the three methodologies: observations, simulations and informatics (OSI model). For real-time or quasi real-time reporting of space weather, we conduct our original observations: Hiraiso solar observatory to monitor the solar activity (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, and so on), domestic ionosonde network, magnetometer HF radar observations in far-east Siberia, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionosonde network (SEALION). Real-time observation data to monitor solar and solar-wind activities are obtained through antennae at NICT from ACE and STEREO satellites. We have a middle-class super-computer (NEC SX-8R) to maintain real-time computer simulations for solar and solar

  10. Impact of weather variability on nitrate leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Karl; Premrov, Alina; Hackett, Richard; Coxon, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The loss of nitrate (NO3 - N) to water via leaching and overland flow contributes to eutrophication of freshwaters, transitional and near coastal waters with agriculture contributing significantly to nitrogen (N) loading to these water. Environmental regulations, such as the Nitrates and Water Framework Directives, have increased constraints on farmers to improve N management in regions at risk of NO3--N loss to water. In addition, farmers also have to manage their systems within a changing climate as the imapcts of climate change begin to impact resulting in more frequent extreme events such as floods and droughts. The objective of this study was to investigate the link between weather volatility and the concentration of leached NO3--N spring barley. Leaching was quantified under spring barley grown on a well-drained, gravelly sandy soil using ceramic cup samplers over 6 drainage years under the same farming practices and treatments. Soil solution NO3--N concentrations under spring barley grown by conventional inversion ploughing and reduced tillage were compared to weather parameters over the period. Weather was recorded at a national Met Eireann weather station on site. Soil solution NO3--N varied significantly between years. Within individual years NO3--N concentrations varied over the drainage season, with peak concentrations generally observed in the autumn time, decreasing thereafter. Under both treatments there was a three-fold difference in mean annual soil solution NO3--N concentration over the 6 years with no change in the agronomic practices (crop type, tillage type and fertiliser input). Soil solution nitrate concentrations were significantly influenced by weather parameters such as rainfall, effective drainage and soil moisture deficit. The impact of climate change in Ireland could lead to increased NO3--N loss to water further exacerbating eutrophication of sensitive estuaries. The increased impact on eutrophication of waters, related to climatic

  11. Detection and attribution of extreme weather disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Single disasters related to extreme weather events have caused loss and damage on the order of up to tens of billions US dollars over the past years. Recent disasters fueled the debate about whether and to what extent these events are related to climate change. In international climate negotiations disaster loss and damage is now high on the agenda, and related policy mechanisms have been discussed or are being implemented. In view of funding allocation and effective risk reduction strategies detection and attribution to climate change of extreme weather events and disasters is a key issue. Different avenues have so far been taken to address detection and attribution in this context. Physical climate sciences have developed approaches, among others, where variables that are reasonably sampled over climatically relevant time periods and related to the meteorological characteristics of the extreme event are examined. Trends in these variables (e.g. air or sea surface temperatures) are compared between observations and climate simulations with and without anthropogenic forcing. Generally, progress has been made in recent years in attribution of changes in the chance of some single extreme weather events to anthropogenic climate change but there remain important challenges. A different line of research is primarily concerned with losses related to the extreme weather events over time, using disaster databases. A growing consensus is that the increase in asset values and in exposure are main drivers of the strong increase of economic losses over the past several decades, and only a limited number of studies have found trends consistent with expectations from climate change. Here we propose a better integration of existing lines of research in detection and attribution of extreme weather events and disasters by applying a risk framework. Risk is thereby defined as a function of the probability of occurrence of an extreme weather event, and the associated consequences

  12. A comparison of methods for calculating population exposure estimates of daily weather for health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dear Keith BG

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explain the possible effects of exposure to weather conditions on population health outcomes, weather data need to be calculated at a level in space and time that is appropriate for the health data. There are various ways of estimating exposure values from raw data collected at weather stations but the rationale for using one technique rather than another; the significance of the difference in the values obtained; and the effect these have on a research question are factors often not explicitly considered. In this study we compare different techniques for allocating weather data observations to small geographical areas and different options for weighting averages of these observations when calculating estimates of daily precipitation and temperature for Australian Postal Areas. Options that weight observations based on distance from population centroids and population size are more computationally intensive but give estimates that conceptually are more closely related to the experience of the population. Results Options based on values derived from sites internal to postal areas, or from nearest neighbour sites – that is, using proximity polygons around weather stations intersected with postal areas – tended to include fewer stations' observations in their estimates, and missing values were common. Options based on observations from stations within 50 kilometres radius of centroids and weighting of data by distance from centroids gave more complete estimates. Using the geographic centroid of the postal area gave estimates that differed slightly from the population weighted centroids and the population weighted average of sub-unit estimates. Conclusion To calculate daily weather exposure values for analysis of health outcome data for small areas, the use of data from weather stations internal to the area only, or from neighbouring weather stations (allocated by the use of proximity polygons, is too limited. The most

  13. Spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert

    1976-01-01

    To begin with, the author explains the reasons for intermediate storage of fuel elements in nuclear power stations and in a reprocessing plant and gives the temperature and radioactivity curves of LWR fuel elements after removal from the reactor. This is followed by a description of the facilities for fuel element storage in a reprocessing plant and of their functions. Futher topics are criticality and activity control, the problem of cooling time and safety systems. (HR) [de

  14. Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI) is an integrated database of severe weather records for the United States. SWDI enables a user to search through a variety...

  15. Geography and Weather: Mountain Meterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogil, H. Michael; Collins, H. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Provided are 26 ideas to help children explore the effects of mountains on the weather. Weather conditions in Nepal and Colorado are considered separately. Nine additional sources of information are listed. (CW)

  16. Asian Dust Weather Categorization with Satellite and Surface Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tang-Huang; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Huang, Shih-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study categorizes various dust weather types by means of satellite remote sensing over central Asia. Airborne dust particles can be identified by satellite remote sensing because of the different optical properties exhibited by coarse and fine particles (i.e. varying particle sizes). If a correlation can be established between the retrieved aerosol optical properties and surface visibility, the intensity of dust weather can be more effectively and consistently discerned using satellite rather than surface observations. In this article, datasets consisting of collocated products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua and surface measurements are analysed. The results indicate an exponential relationship between the surface visibility and the satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth, which is subsequently used to categorize the dust weather. The satellite-derived spatial frequency distributions in the dust weather types are consistent with China s weather station reports during 2003, indicating that dust weather classification using satellite data is highly feasible. Although the period during the springtime from 2004 to 2007 may be not sufficient for statistical significance, our results reveal an increasing tendency in both intensity and frequency of dust weather over central Asia during this time period.

  17. Keys to success: Ten case studies of effective weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kolb, J.O.; White, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F.; Wilson, T. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In 1990, DOE initiated a nationwide evaluation of its Weatherization Program, with assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an advisory group of 40 weatherization professionals, program managers, and researchers. The evaluation is comprised of three impact studies covering the Program`s major market segments: Single-family homes, mobile homes, and dwellings in small (2 to 4-unit) multifamily buildings (the Single-Family Study), Single-family homes heated primarily with fuel oil (the Fuel-Oil Study), and Dwellings in buildings with five or more units (the Multifamily Study). The Single-Family Study, the subject of this report, is a critical part of this coordinated evaluation effort. Its focus on single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and dwellings in small multifamily buildings covers 83% of the income-eligible population and 96% of the dwellings weatherized during Program Year 1989. The first phase of the Single-Family Study involved the analysis of a massive data base of information collected from 368 local weatherization agencies and 543 electric and gas utilities. This analysis resulted in energy-saving and cost-effectiveness estimates for the Weatherization Program and the identification of a set of ten high-performing agencies located throughout the country. The second phase, which is the subject of this report, involves a ``process`` evaluation of these ten high performers, aimed at identifying those weatherization practices that explain their documented success.

  18. Central American Flying Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    CEILING; VISIBILITY; WIND, PRECIPITATIDNc’--." HAZE, SMOKE, TEMPORALE ; MOUNTAIN WAVE; MILITARY METEOROLOGY. 4k- / ’A. bstract; Asummary of~ing weather...1 The " Temporale " ....................................1 Mountain Waves ......................I...............1 Severe Thunderstorms...charts. The for any part of Central America lies in having: Tactical Pilota.e Chart series , produced by the Df -.nse Mapping Agency, is * A good, basic

  19. World Weather Extremes. Revision,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Ext r-,ncs, Weekl Weather and Crop Bull, Vol. 43, No. 9, pp. 6-8, 27 Feb 56. 21A. ntoli, La Piu Alta Temperatura del Mondo," [The HiLhest Temperi... Temperatura in Libia", Boll Soc Geogr Ita’iana, ser. 8, Vol. 7, pp. 59-71, 1954. 23J. Gentilli, "Libyan Climate", Geograph Rev, V0 l. 45, No. 2, p. 269 S" Apr

  20. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  1. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  2. Corrective action baseline report for underground storage tanks 0439-U, 0440-U, 2073-U, 2074-U, and 2075-U at the East End Fuel Station, Buildings 9754 and 9754-2, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID No. 0-010117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide baseline geochemical and hydrogeologic data relative to corrective action for underground storage tanks (USTs) 0439-U, 0440-U, 2073-U, 2074-U, and 2075-U at the East End Fuel Station, Buildings 9754 and 9754-2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Progress in support of corrective action at the East End Fuel Station has included monitoring well installation, tank removal, and baseline groundwater sampling and analysis. This document represents the baseline report for corrective action at the East End Fuel Station and is organized into three sections. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site, including the regulatory initiative, site description, and progress to date. Section 2 includes a summary of additional monitoring well installation activities, the results of baseline groundwater sampling, a summary of tank removal activities, and the results of confirmatory soil sampling performed during tank removal. Section 3 presents the baseline hydrogeology and planned zone of influence for groundwater remediation

  3. Space weather monitoring with neutron monitor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigies, Christian [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Space Weather affects many areas of the modern society, advance knowledge about space weather events is important to protect personnel and infrastructure. Cosmic Rays (CR) measurements by ground-based Neutron Monitors are influenced by Coronal Mass Ejections (CME), the intensity of the ever present Cosmic Rays is reduced in a Forbush decrease (Fd). In the case of very energetic CMEs, the measured intensity can be significantly increased in a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE). By detecting the anisotropy of the CR environment, a CME can be detected hours before it arrives at Earth. During a GLE the high-energy particles from the Sun can be detected before the more abundant lower energy particles arrive at Earth, thus allowing to take protective measures. Since the beginning of the Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB) project, which has been started in 2008 with funding from the European Commission, real-time data from Neutron Monitors around the world has been made available through one web-portal. We have more than doubled the number of stations providing data since the start of the project to now over 30 stations. The effectiveness of the ALERT applications which are based on NMDB data has been shown by the recent GLE71. We present different applications through which the measurements and different data products are accessible.

  4. Periodical inspection in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Periodical inspection is presently being made of eight nuclear power plants in nuclear power stations. Up to the present time, in three of them, failures as follows have been observed. (1) Unit 3 (PWR) of the Mihama Power Station in The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. Nineteen heat-transfer tubes of the steam generators were plugged up due to failure. A fuel assembly with a failed spring fixture and in another the control-rod cluster with a failed control rod fixture were replaced. (2) Unit 2 (PWR) of the Oi Power Station in The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. Eight heat-transfer tubes of the heat exchangers were plugged up due to failure. (3) Unit 6 (BWR) of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station I in The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. A fuel assembly with leakage was replaced. (Mori, K.)

  5. Weather types in Sosnowiec (Poland during the period 1999-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrowolska Ksenia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the structure of weather types for the city of Sosnowiec during the period 1999-2013. The analysis was carried out on the basis of daily thermal data (the average daily air temperature, the minimum and maximum daily air temperature, cloudiness and precipitation. The data was obtained from a meteorological station belonging to the Department of Climatology at the Faculty of Earth Sciences at the University of Silesia. Weather types were established according to weather type classification after Woś (2010. 48 weather types were specified on the basis of a combination of 3 selected meteorological elements (temperature, cloudiness, precipitation. The number of days in the year and the frequency of particular thermal weather types, weather subtype, weather classes and weather types were characterized, and the changeability of weather types was analyzed. Furthermore, sequences of days with specific weather types were described. The analysis conducted has lead to the conclusion that, during the research period, the weather structure for the city of Sosnowiec was characterized by a great number of weather types observed, with relatively low frequency of occurrence. Weather throughout the year was dominated by warm weather types (3--, 2--, 2--, with weather marked as 310 – very warm, moderately cloudy, without precipitation (12.9% recorded as the most frequent, followed by 221 – moderately warm, very cloudy, with precipitation (11.6%, and 210 – moderately warm, moderately cloudy, without precipitation (11.4%as the least frequent one. A diversification in the number of particular classification units in consecutive years of the examined 15-year period does not display significant variability. Short sequences of 2 and 3 days dominated the selected sequences of specific weather types.

  6. Care management at Ikata Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Koji

    1982-01-01

    For operating nuclear power stations safely and economically, it is necessary to control nuclear fuel itself and reactor cores. Nuclear fuel must be controlled consistently in view of quantitative balance and operational method over the whole nuclear fuel cycle of uranium ore, fabrication, burning in reactors and reprocessing, based on the plan of using fuel in electric power companies. The control of the burning in reactors is called core management, and it is important because the users of fuel execute it. For dealing with such core management works, Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., has developed the computer code system for grasping the state of fuel exchange and the burning condition in reactors and used it since 1972. The outline of the core management in Ikata Power Station is reported in this paper centering around computing works. The core management works are divided into those at the time of regular inspection and those in operation. In the regular inspection, fuel inspection, fuel exchange and reactor physics test are performed. In operation, the burning condition of fuel is grasped. The technical computations corresponding to these works are explained, and the examples of computations are shown. (Kako, I.)

  7. NWS Weather Fatality, Injury and Damage Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather Awareness Floods, Wind Chill, Tornadoes, Heat... Education Weather Terms, Teachers, Statistics government web resources and services. Natural Hazard Statistics Statistics U.S. Summaries 78-Year List of Severe Weather Fatalities Preliminary Hazardous Weather Statistics for 2017 Now

  8. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Español Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Can the Weather Affect My ... Asthma? Print Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? Yes. Weather conditions can bring on asthma symptoms. ...

  9. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  10. Non-Gasoline Alternative Fueling Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Through a nationwide network of local coalitions, Clean Citiesprovides project assistance to help stakeholders in the public and private sectors deploy alternative...

  11. Energy analysis of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhout, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    A study based on a 1000MWe light water reactor power station was carried out to determine the total energy input and output of the power station. The calculations took into account the mining and processing of the ore, enrichment of the uranium, treatment of used nuclear fuel, investment in land, buildings, machinery, and transport. 144 tons of natural uranium produce 6100 million kWh (electric) and 340 million kWh (thermal) per annum. (J.S.)

  12. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities' preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities' capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change.

  13. How accurate are the weather forecasts for Bierun (southern Poland)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawor, J.

    2012-04-01

    Weather forecast accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to significant development of numerical weather prediction models. Despite the improvements, the forecasts should be verified to control their quality. The evaluation of forecast accuracy can also be an interesting learning activity for students. It joins natural curiosity about everyday weather and scientific process skills: problem solving, database technologies, graph construction and graphical analysis. The examination of the weather forecasts has been taken by a group of 14-year-old students from Bierun (southern Poland). They participate in the GLOBE program to develop inquiry-based investigations of the local environment. For the atmospheric research the automatic weather station is used. The observed data were compared with corresponding forecasts produced by two numerical weather prediction models, i.e. COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, USA; it runs operationally at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling in Warsaw, Poland and COSMO (The Consortium for Small-scale Modelling) used by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The analysed data included air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, wind chill and sea level pressure. The prediction periods from 0 to 24 hours (Day 1) and from 24 to 48 hours (Day 2) were considered. The verification statistics that are commonly used in meteorology have been applied: mean error, also known as bias, for continuous data and a 2x2 contingency table to get the hit rate and false alarm ratio for a few precipitation thresholds. The results of the aforementioned activity became an interesting basis for discussion. The most important topics are: 1) to what extent can we rely on the weather forecasts? 2) How accurate are the forecasts for two considered time ranges? 3) Which precipitation threshold is the most predictable? 4) Why

  14. The Weather in Richmond

    OpenAIRE

    Harless, William Edwin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Weather in Richmond is a short documentary about the Oilers, the football team at Richmond High School in downtown Richmond, California, as they struggle in 2012 with the legacy of winning no games, with the exception of a forfeit, in two years. The video documents the city of Richmond’s poverty and violence, but it also is an account of the city’s cultural diversity, of the city’s industrial history and of the hopes of some of the people who grow up there. The...

  15. Combating bad weather

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    Every year lives and properties are lost in road accidents. About one-fourth of these accidents are due to low vision in foggy weather. At present, there is no algorithm that is specifically designed for the removal of fog from videos. Application of a single-image fog removal algorithm over each video frame is a time-consuming and costly affair. It is demonstrated that with the intelligent use of temporal redundancy, fog removal algorithms designed for a single image can be extended to the real-time video application. Results confirm that the presented framework used for the extension of the

  16. Weather Balloon Ascent Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The physics of a weather balloon is analyzed. The surprising aspect of the motion of these balloons is that they ascend to great altitudes (typically 35 km) at a more or less constant rate. Such behavior is not surprising near the ground—say for a helium-filled party balloon rising from street level to the top of the Empire State building—but it is unexpected for a balloon that rises to altitudes where the air is rarefied. We show from elementary physical laws why the ascent rate is approximately constant.

  17. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  18. Space Weather Research in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, A. A.

    DVIN for ASEC (Data Visualization interactive Network for Aragats Space Environmental Center) is product for accessing and analysis the on-line data from Solar Monitors located at high altitude research station on Mt. Aragats in Armenia. Data from ASEC monitors is used worldwide for scientific purposes and for monitoring of severe solar storms in progress. Alert service, based on the automatic analysis of variations of the different species of cosmic ray particles is available for subscribers. DVIN advantages: DVIN is strategically important as a scientific application to help develop space science and to foster global collaboration in forecasting potential hazards of solar storms. It precisely fits with the goals of the new evolving information society to provide long-term monitoring and collection of high quality scientific data, and enables adequate dialogue between scientists, decision makers, and civil society. The system is highly interactive and exceptional information is easily accessible online. Data can be monitored and analyzed for desired time spans in a fast and reliable manner. The ASEC activity is an example of a balance between the scientific independence of fundamental research and the needs of civil society. DVIN is also an example of how scientific institutions can apply the newest powerful methods of information technologies, such as multivariate data analysis, to their data and also how information technologies can provide convenient and reliable access to this data and to new knowledge for the world-wide scientific community. DVIN provides very wide possibilities for sharing data and sending warnings and alerts to scientists and other entities world-wide, which have fundamental and practical interest in knowing the space weather conditions.

  19. NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

  20. NASA Space Environments Technical Discipline Team Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, J. I.; Nicholas, A. C.; Parker, L. N.; Xapsos, M.; Walker, P. W.; Stauffer, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Space Environment Technical Discipline Team (TDT) is a technical organization led by NASA's Technical Fellow for Space Environments that supports NASA's Office of the Chief Engineer through the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The Space Environments TDT conducts independent technical assessments related to the space environment and space weather impacts on spacecraft for NASA programs and provides technical expertise to NASA management and programs where required. This presentation will highlight the status of applied space weather activities within the Space Environment TDT that support development of operational space weather applications and a better understanding of the impacts of space weather on space systems. We will first discuss a tool that has been developed for evaluating space weather launch constraints that are used to protect launch vehicles from hazardous space weather. We then describe an effort to better characterize three-dimensional radiation transport for CubeSat spacecraft and processing of micro-dosimeter data from the International Space Station which the team plans to make available to the space science community. Finally, we will conclude with a quick description of an effort to maintain access to the real-time solar wind data provided by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite at the Sun-Earth L1 point.

  1. Vodcasting Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins Petersen, Carolyn; Erickson, P. J.; Needles, M.

    2009-01-01

    The topic of space weather is the subject of a series of vodcasts (video podcasts) produced by MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) and Loch Ness Productions (Groton, MA). This paper discusses the production and distribution of the series via Webcast, Youtube, and other avenues. It also presents preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness and outreach of the project through feedback from both formal and information education venues. The vodcast series is linked to the NASA Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology project award "Multi-Instrument Investigation of Inner-Magnetospheric/Ionosphere Disturbances.” It is being carried out by Principal Investigator Dr. John Foster, under the auspices of NASA Grant # NNX06AB86G. The research involves using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) observations to study the location, extent, and duration of perturbations within stormtime ionospheric electric fields at mid- to low latitudes. It combines ground-based global positioning system (GPS) TEC data, incoherent scatter radar measurements of the mid-latitude ionospheric state, and DMSP satellite observations to characterize conditions which lead to severe low-latitude ionospheric perturbations. Each vodcast episode covers a certain aspect of space weather and the research program.

  2. Weatherization Apprenticeship Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Eric J

    2012-12-18

    Weatherization improvement services will be provided to Native people by Native people. The proposed project will recruit, train and hire two full-time weatherization technicians who will improve the energy efficiency of homes of Alaska Natives/American Indians residing in the Indian areas, within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska. The Region includes Anchorage as well as 8 small tribal villages: The Native Villages of Eklutna, Knik, Chickaloon, Seldovia, Ninilchik, Kenaitze, Salamatof, and Tyonek. This project will be a partnership between three entities, with Cook Inlet Tribal Council (CITC) as the lead agency: CITCA's Employment and Training Services Department, Cook Inlet Housing Authority and Alaska Works Partnership. Additionally, six of the eight tribal villages within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska have agreed to work with the project in order to improve the energy efficiency of their tribally owned buildings and homes. The remaining three villages will be invited to participate in the establishment of an intertribal consortium through this project. Tribal homes and buildings within Anchorage fall under Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) tribal authority.

  3. Solar weather monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Hochedez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Space Weather nowcasting and forecasting require solar observations because geoeffective disturbances can arise from three types of solar phenomena: coronal mass ejections (CMEs, flares and coronal holes. For each, we discuss their definition and review their precursors in terms of remote sensing and in-situ observations. The objectives of Space Weather require some specific instrumental features, which we list using the experience gained from the daily operations of the Solar Influences Data analysis Centre (SIDC at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Nowcasting requires real-time monitoring to assess quickly and reliably the severity of any potentially geoeffective solar event. Both research and forecasting could incorporate more observations in order to feed case studies and data assimilation respectively. Numerical models will result in better predictions of geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP events. We review the data types available to monitor solar activity and interplanetary conditions. They come from space missions and ground observatories and range from sequences of dopplergrams, magnetograms, white-light, chromospheric, coronal, coronagraphic and radio images, to irradiance and in-situ time-series. Their role is summarized together with indications about current and future solar monitoring instruments.

  4. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  5. Weatherization Works: Final Report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    2001-02-01

    In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation's largest residential energy conservation program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed the five-part study. This document summarizes the findings of the evaluation. Its conclusions are based mainly on data from the 1989 program year. The evaluation concludes that the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement. Specifically, it saves energy, lowers fuel bills, and improves the health and safety of dwellings occupied by low-income people. In addition, the Program achieves its mission in a cost-effective manner based on each of three perspectives employed by the evaluators. Finally, the evaluation estimates that the investments made in 1989 will, over a 20-year lifetime, save the equivalent of 12 million barrels of oil, roughly the amount of oil added to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in each of the past several years. The Program's mission is to reduce the heating and cooling costs for low-income families--particularly the elderly, persons with disabilities, and children by improving the energy efficiency of their homes and ensuring their health and safety. Substantial progress has been made, but the job is far from over. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) reports that the average low-income family spends 12 percent of its income on residential energy, compared to only 3% for the average-income family. Homes where low-income families live also have a greater need for energy efficiency improvements, but less money to pay for them.

  6. CANDU reactor experience: fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truant, P.T.; Hastings, I.J.

    1985-07-01

    Ontario Hydro has more than 126 reactor-years experience in operating CANDU reactors. Fuel performance has been excellent with 47 000 channel fuelling operations successfully completed and 99.9 percent of the more than 380 000 bundles irradiated operating as designed. Fuel performance limits and fuel defects have had a negligible effect on station safety, reliability, the environment and cost. The actual incapability charged to fuel is less than 0.1 percent over the stations' lifetimes, and more recently has been zero

  7. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    cosas afectan la recepción de señas de la radio. Por ejemplo, las extensiones grandes de agua de sal receptor con una antena interior de calidad buena, o conectarlo a una antena externa. Generalmente los Programación Español Listado de estación Explicacion de SAME Coverage Station Listing County Listing

  8. Space Weather- Physics and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bothmer, Volker

    2007-01-01

    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.

  9. Program evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The Connecticut low income weatherization program was developed in response to a 1987 rate docket order from the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) to Connecticut Light Power Co., an operating subsidiary of Northeast Utilities (NU). (Throughout this report, NU is referred to as the operator of the program.) This program, known as the Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership, or WRAP, was configured utilizing input from a collaborative group of interested parties to the docket. It was agreed that this program would be put forth by the electric utility, but would not ignore oil and gas savings (thus, it was to be fuel- blind''). The allocated cost of conservation services for each fuel source, however, should be cost effective. It was to be offered to those utility customers at or below 200 percent of the federal poverty levels, and provide a wide array of energy saving measures directed toward heating, water heating and lighting. It was felt by the collaborative group that this program would raise the level of expenditures per participant for weatherization services provided by the state, and by linking to and revising the auditing process for weatherization, would lower the audit unit cost. The program plans ranged from the offering of low-cost heating, water heating and infiltration measures, increased insulation levels, carpentry and plumbing services, to furnace or burner replacement. The program was configured to allow for very comprehensive weatherization and heating system servicing.

  10. Guidelines for Learning Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrle, Carl C.; Schulz, Jolene

    Guidelines for designing and planning learning stations for pupils at the elementary grade level include suggestions on how to develop a station that will be successful in meeting the learners' needs. Instructions for the use of tapes at a station and matching pupils with stations are given, as are guidelines on classroom arrangement and record…

  11. An experimental prescribed burn to reduce fuel hazard in chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle R. Green

    1970-01-01

    The feasibility of reducing fuel hazard in chaparral during safe weather conditions was studied in an experimental prescribed burn in southern California. Burning was done under fuel and weather conditions when untreated brush would not bum readily. Preparatory treatment included smashing of brush on strips with a bulldozer, and reduction of moisture content of leaves...

  12. Artificial changes of weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozin, I.D.; Vasil'ev, I.V.; Fedulina, I.N.; Zakizhan, Z.Z.; Khalimov, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Unfavorable weather conditions have undesirable ecological consequences, causes remarkable economical damage. In the paper authors consider physical factors and technical methods of influence on cloud formation. (author)

  13. The application research of MACCS in consequence assessment of the attacked Dayabay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yuan; Dong Binjiang

    2003-01-01

    The method of radiological consequence assessment as Dayabay nuclear power station being attacked in war is studied in this paper. The Models and software of calculation and the parameters which have been chosen are also studied in this paper. This study estimates the off-site consequences of two different types of being attack accidents spectrum and the spent fuel pool being attacked accidents spectrum. This study calculated the distributing of radiological consequence in different weather. According to the analyse of the consequence, we get such result that the radiate consequence of nuclear reactor of Daya Bay nuclear power plant being attack in war is the same as the consequence of nuclear accident, but the consequence of spent fuel pool being attacked is very serious. If the spent fuel pool was attacked by the enemy, the contaminated area is very large. The effective dose within 30 km under the wind will exceed 1 Sv. Based in part upon the above information the recommendation is made that the Daya Bay nuclear power plant should be closed or run in low power. and the nuclear island should be protected in war. (authors)

  14. A Meteorological Supersite for Aviation and Cold Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Agelin-Chaab, M.; Komar, J.; Elfstrom, G.; Boudala, F.; Zhou, B.

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand atmospheric boundary layer processes and parameters, and to evaluate physical processes for aviation applications using data from a supersite observing site. Various meteorological sensors, including a weather and environmental unmanned aerial vehicle (WE-UAV), and a fog and snow tower (FSOS) observations are part of the project. The PanAm University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) Meteorological Supersite (PUMS) observations are being collected from April 2015 to date. The FSOS tower gathers observations related to rain, snow, fog, and visibility, aerosols, solar radiation, and wind and turbulence, as well as surface and sky temperature. The FSOSs are located at three locations at about 450-800 m away from the PUMS supersite. The WE-UAV measurements representing aerosol, wind speed and direction, as well as temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) are provided during clear weather conditions. Other measurements at the PUMS site include cloud backscattering profiles from CL51 ceilometer, MWR observations of liquid water content (LWC), T, and RH, and Microwave Rain Radar (MRR) reflectivity profile, as well as the present weather type, snow water depth, icing rate, 3D-ultrasonic wind and turbulence, and conventional meteorological observations from compact weather stations, e.g., WXTs. The results based on important weather event studies, representing fog, snow, rain, blowing snow, wind gust, planetary boundary layer (PBL) wind research for UAV, and icing conditions are given. The microphysical parameterizations and analysis processes for each event are provided, but the results should not be generalized for all weather events and be used cautiously. Results suggested that integrated observing systems based on data from a supersite as well as satellite sites can provide better information applicable to aviation meteorology, including PBL weather research, validation of numerical weather model predictions, and

  15. Dynamical Networks Characterization of Space Weather Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, L.; Chapman, S. C.; Dods, J.; Gjerloev, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Space weather can cause disturbances to satellite systems, impacting navigation technology and telecommunications; it can cause power loss and aviation disruption. A central aspect of the earth's magnetospheric response to space weather events are large scale and rapid changes in ionospheric current patterns. Space weather is highly dynamic and there are still many controversies about how the current system evolves in time. The recent SuperMAG initiative, collates ground-based vector magnetic field time series from over 200 magnetometers with 1-minute temporal resolution. In principle this combined dataset is an ideal candidate for quantification using dynamical networks. Network properties and parameters allow us to characterize the time dynamics of the full spatiotemporal pattern of the ionospheric current system. However, applying network methodologies to physical data presents new challenges. We establish whether a given pair of magnetometers are connected in the network by calculating their canonical cross correlation. The magnetometers are connected if their cross correlation exceeds a threshold. In our physical time series this threshold needs to be both station specific, as it varies with (non-linear) individual station sensitivity and location, and able to vary with season, which affects ground conductivity. Additionally, the earth rotates and therefore the ground stations move significantly on the timescales of geomagnetic disturbances. The magnetometers are non-uniformly spatially distributed. We will present new methodology which addresses these problems and in particular achieves dynamic normalization of the physical time series in order to form the network. Correlated disturbances across the magnetometers capture transient currents. Once the dynamical network has been obtained [1][2] from the full magnetometer data set it can be used to directly identify detailed inferred transient ionospheric current patterns and track their dynamics. We will show

  16. Synoptic weather types associated with critical fire weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Schroeder; Monte Glovinsky; Virgil F. Hendricks; Frank C. Hood; Melvin K. Hull; Henry L. Jacobson; Robert Kirkpatrick; Daniel W. Krueger; Lester P. Mallory; Albert G. Oeztel; Robert H. Reese; Leo A. Sergius; Charles E. Syverson

    1964-01-01

    Recognizing that weather is an important factor in the spread of both urban and wildland fires, a study was made of the synoptic weather patterns and types which produce strong winds, low relative humidities, high temperatures, and lack of rainfall--the conditions conducive to rapid fire spread. Such historic fires as the San Francisco fire of 1906, the Berkeley fire...

  17. Evaluating weather factors and material response during outdoor exposure to determine accelerated test protocols for predicting service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Steven Lacher; Corey Halpin; Christopher White

    2005-01-01

    To develop service life prediction methods for the study of sealants, a fully instrumented weather station was installed at an outdoor test site near Madison, WI. Temperature, relative humidiy, rainfall, ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 18 wavelengths, and wind speed and direction are being continuously measured and stored. The weather data can be integrated over time to...

  18. Nuclear generating station and heavy water plant cost estimates for strategy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1979-07-01

    Nuclear generating station capital, operating and maintenance costs are basic input data for strategy analyses of alternate nuclear fuel cycles. This report presents estimates of these costs for natural uranium CANDU stations, CANDU stations operating on advanced fuel cycles, and liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Cost estimates for heavy water plants are also presented. The results show that station capital costs for advanced fuel cycles are not expected to be significantly greater than those for natural uranium stations. LMFBR capital costs are expected to be 25-30 percent greater than for CANDU's. (auth)

  19. ICUD-0499 Low-cost remotely sensed environmental monitoring stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes with extensive research of applying low-cost remotely sensed monitoring stations to an urban environment. Design requirements are scrutinized, including applications for remote data access, hardware design, and monitoring network design. A network of 9 monitoring stations...... measuring stream water level is deployed during July 2017. Data is streamed to a web page using cellular-based data transmission. Monitoring network performance is quantified with respect to local physical and weather conditions....

  20. Terminal weather information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  1. Cloud Compute for Global Climate Station Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R.; May, B.; Cogbill, P.

    2017-12-01

    Global Climate Station Summaries are simple indicators of observational normals which include climatic data summarizations and frequency distributions. These typically are statistical analyses of station data over 5-, 10-, 20-, 30-year or longer time periods. The summaries are computed from the global surface hourly dataset. This dataset totaling over 500 gigabytes is comprised of 40 different types of weather observations with 20,000 stations worldwide. NCEI and the U.S. Navy developed these value added products in the form of hourly summaries from many of these observations. Enabling this compute functionality in the cloud is the focus of the project. An overview of approach and challenges associated with application transition to the cloud will be presented.

  2. Pattern fuel assembly loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.J.; Gerkey, K.S.; Miller, T.W.; Wylie, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes an interactive system for facilitating preloading of fuel rods into magazines, which comprises: an operator work station adapted for positioning between a supply of fuel rods of predetermined types, and the magazine defining grid locations for a predetermined fuel assembly; display means associated with the work station; scanner means associated with the work station and adapted for reading predetermined information accompanying the fuel rods; a rectangular frame adapted for attachment to one end of the fuel assembly loading magazine; prompter/detector means associated with the frame for detecting insertion of a fuel rod into the magazine; and processing means responsive to the scanner means and the sensing means for prompting the operator via the display means to pre-load the fuel rods into desired grid locations in the magazine. An apparatus is described for facilitating pre-loading of fuel rods in predetermined grid locations of a fuel assembly loading magazine, comprising: a rectangular frame adapted for attachment to one end of the fuel assembly loading magazine; and means associated with the frame for detecting insertion of fuel rods into the magazine

  3. Performance assessment of Point Lepreau Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alikhan, S [Point Lepreau Generating Station, Lepreau, NB (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    The Point Lepreau Generating Station, a 680 MWe CANDU unit, is located about 40 km southwest of the city of Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. It was declared in-service on 1 February, 1983 and, since then, has demonstrated an average cross capacity factor of over 93% up to the end of 1990. This paper compared the performance of the station with other sister CANDU units and the Light Water Reactors world-wide using the following ten performance indicators, as applicable: - gross capacity factor; - fuel burn-up; - heavy water upkeep; - unplanned reactor trips while critical; - forced outage rate; - fuel handling performance; - derived emission of radioactive effluents to environment; - personnel radiation dose; - industrial safety; - low-level solid radioactive wastes. The paper examines various areas of station activities including management and organization, operations and maintenance, technical support, fuel handling and health physics in order to highlight some of the 'good practices' which are believed to have made a significant contribution towards achieving the demonstrated performance of Point Lepreau G.S. In addition, several areas of potential improvement are discussed in order to maintain and enhance, where practicable, the safety, reliability and economic performance of the station. In this context, a careful review of the operating experiences, both in-house and at other stations, and a judicious application of lessons learned plays a significant role. (author)

  4. Performance assessment of Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikhan, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Point Lepreau Generating Station, a 680 MWe CANDU unit, is located about 40 km southwest of the city of Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. It was declared in-service on 1 February, 1983 and, since then, has demonstrated an average cross capacity factor of over 93% up to the end of 1990. This paper compared the performance of the station with other sister CANDU units and the Light Water Reactors world-wide using the following ten performance indicators, as applicable: - gross capacity factor; - fuel burn-up; - heavy water upkeep; - unplanned reactor trips while critical; - forced outage rate; - fuel handling performance; - derived emission of radioactive effluents to environment; - personnel radiation dose; - industrial safety; - low-level solid radioactive wastes. The paper examines various areas of station activities including management and organization, operations and maintenance, technical support, fuel handling and health physics in order to highlight some of the 'good practices' which are believed to have made a significant contribution towards achieving the demonstrated performance of Point Lepreau G.S. In addition, several areas of potential improvement are discussed in order to maintain and enhance, where practicable, the safety, reliability and economic performance of the station. In this context, a careful review of the operating experiences, both in-house and at other stations, and a judicious application of lessons learned plays a significant role. (author)

  5. The LPG-fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The LPG-fuel industry comprises several professionals from various domains such as assembly shops for vehicles transformation, materials manufacturers for public distribution stations and companies which produce and commercialize the LPG-fuel. This paper summarizes the administrative and technical liabilities of these professionals, with the technical qualification required, the regulations concerning the official approval of transformation kits and pressure tanks. The French network of public distribution stations for LPG-fuel is shared between five independent dispensers with their own economic policy which represents about 700 LPG-stations. However, the safety regulations concerning LPG-fuels considerably limit the installation of LPG facilities in urban areas. A cost-benefit comparison between LPG and other liquid fuels is given in inset and takes into account the transformation costs of the vehicle. (J.S.)

  6. Inflight fuel tank temperature survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    Statistical summaries of the fuel and air temperature data for twelve different routes and for different aircraft models (B747, B707, DC-10 and DC-8), are given. The minimum fuel, total air and static air temperature expected for a 0.3% probability were summarized in table form. Minimum fuel temperature extremes agreed with calculated predictions and the minimum fuel temperature did not necessarily equal the minimum total air temperature even for extreme weather, long range flights.

  7. Thermodynamic Study on the Effects of Minor Constituents on Cold Weather Performance of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel made from vegetable oils, animal fats and other lipid feedstocks. Fuel properties and performance of biodiesel during cold weather are influenced by factors related to its feedstock, namely fatty acid composition and trace concentrations of monoacylglycerols,...

  8. Weigh Station and Grid Plate Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this test is to verify that the Shortened Fuel Canister Hook with Certified Scale (i.e. Weigh Station) can be used to weigh an empty canister from the Canister Well and the empty Primary Cleaning Machine (PCM) Strainer Basket from the process table. Drawing H-1-84835, ''Canister Handling Hook for Fuel Retrieval System Process Table,'' provides details of the Shortened Fuel Canister Hook. It is also necessary to verify that the grid plate can be lifted and tilted over a canister in the canister well. This testing shall be performed before N Reactor fuel is processed through the FRS in Phase 3. The Phase 3 Test will repeatedly weigh fuel and scrap canisters and the PCM strainer basket containing N Reactor fuel (Pajunen, et. al, 2000). Advance testing of this weigh station will ensure that accurate fuel weight data can be recorded in the Phase 3 Test. This document satisfies the requirements EN-6-031-00, ''Testing Process'' for a test plan, test specification and test procedure

  9. The Challenge of Weather Prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. The Challenge of Weather Prediction Old and Modern Ways of Weather Forecasting. B N Goswami. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Weatherization Assistance Program Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy e ciency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety. The Program supports 8,500 jobs and provides weatherization services to approximately 35,000 homes every year using DOE funds.

  11. Now, Here's the Weather Forecast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mathew

    2013-01-01

    The Met Office has a long history of weather forecasting, creating tailored weather forecasts for customers across the world. Based in Exeter, the Met Office is also home to the Met Office Hadley Centre, a world-leading centre for the study of climate change and its potential impacts. Climate information from the Met Office Hadley Centre is used…

  12. Apparatus and method for grounding compressed fuel fueling operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joseph Perry; Farese, David John; Xu, Jianguo

    2002-06-11

    A safety system for grounding an operator at a fueling station prior to removing a fuel fill nozzle from a fuel tank upon completion of a fuel filling operation is provided which includes a fuel tank port in communication with the fuel tank for receiving and retaining the nozzle during the fuel filling operation and a grounding device adjacent to the fuel tank port which includes a grounding switch having a contact member that receives physical contact by the operator and where physical contact of the contact member activates the grounding switch. A releasable interlock is included that provides a lock position wherein the nozzle is locked into the port upon insertion of the nozzle into the port and a release position wherein the nozzle is releasable from the port upon completion of the fuel filling operation and after physical contact of the contact member is accomplished.

  13. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  14. Distributed Sensor Network for meteorological observations and numerical weather Prediction Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Vas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of weather generally means the solution of differential equations on the base of the measured initial conditions where the data of close and distant neighboring points are used for the calculations. It requires the maintenance of expensive weather stations and supercomputers. However, if weather stations are not only capable of measuring but can also communicate with each other, then these smart sensors can also be applied to run forecasting calculations. This applies the highest possible level of parallelization without the collection of measured data into one place. Furthermore, if more nodes are involved, the result becomes more accurate, but the computing power required from one node does not increase. Our Distributed Sensor Network for meteorological sensing and numerical weather Prediction Calculations (DSN-PC can be applied in several different areas where sensing and numerical calculations, even the solution of differential equations, are needed.

  15. NRC/UBC fuelling station with intelligent compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dada, A.; Boyd, B.; Law, L.; Semczyszyn, D.

    2004-01-01

    BOC Canada Ltd. will design, integrate and construct the second fueling station on the Hydrogen Highway. This station will be located at the National Research Council's Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation on the campus of the University of British Columbia. BOC's design will bring together an existing alkaline electrolyser, new compression, storage and dispensing. The station will be designed to serve fuel cell passenger vehicles using 350-bar storage. However, the flexible design concept will allow for many other user needs including the potential for servicing larger vehicles, as well as filling portable storage systems for use at satellite stations. The novel station design also offers the potential to fuel from multiple hydrogen sources. Together with NRC, this fueling station will be used to increase public, consumer and investor awareness of hydrogen technologies. Design and construction of this facility will assist in the development of industry codes and standards and familiarize authorities having jurisdiction with hydrogen fueling. The system concept offers the utmost attention to safety, novelty and flexibility. (author)

  16. Reload shutdown for Nuclear Power Stations in spain in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Regarding time reductions in fuel reloading at Spanish nuclear power stations, the Spanish Nuclear Security Council (CSN), at the request of the Spanish Finance and Treasury Department of the Chamber of Deputies, delivered an instruction, by which power station's owners were urged to establish a detailed planning of reload operations. This article includes the results of this instruction. (Author) 6 refs

  17. Influence of weather conditions on natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, Florin; Simion, Elena; Cuculeanu, Vasile; Mihalcea, Ion

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the dependence of the natural radioactivity on atmospheric weather conditions: air temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, atmospherical precipitations and relative humidity. The values used in the paper were taken from the environmental radioactivity monitoring in Botosani city, Romania, as measured by the Environmental Radioactivity Surveillance Station. Daily global measurements of atmospheric deposition beta and atmospheric aerosols as well were carried out, including the indirect determination of radon and thoron, and the absorbed gamma dose rate in air, as well. Sampling and measurement frequency depended on the type of sample analyzed as follows: atmospheric deposition were taken daily, atmospheric aerosols were collected 4 times/day, with a sampling interval of 5 hours while the air absorbed dose rate was determined at a hourly rate. The coefficient of multiple correlation between the type of analysis and weather conditions, was determined. By using multiple linear regression it was highlighted the natural radioactivity dependence on the atmospheric conditions and meteorological parameters by a mathematical expression that can be used to determine missing values in a time series of measured data. By predicting the measured values our procedure can be considered as a validation process of the measurement accuracy

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    /2018 Biodiesel and Green Diesel Definitions updated 4/9/2018 Data Download Fueling Stations 706 stations in Virginia with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 1 9 Compressed unit sold per GGE per unit sold per GGE Biodiesel (B20) $2.47/gallon $2.25/GGE $2.84/gallon $2.58/GGE

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel-Blended Diesel Documentation Requirement Data Download Fueling Stations 149 stations in Maine with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 2 1 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 0 2 Electric ://www.youtube.com/embed/jHftlruFR40 Video thumbnail for Maine's Only Biodiesel Manufacturer Powers Fleets in the

  20. Reconstruction of Historical Weather by Assimilating Old Weather Diary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neluwala, P.; Yoshimura, K.; Toride, K.; Hirano, J.; Ichino, M.; Okazaki, A.

    2017-12-01

    Climate can control not only human life style but also other living beings. It is important to investigate historical climate to understand the current and future climates. Information about daily weather can give a better understanding of past life on earth. Long-term weather influences crop calendar as well as the development of civilizations. Unfortunately, existing reconstructed daily weather data are limited to 1850s due to the availability of instrumental data. The climate data prior to that are derived from proxy materials (e.g., tree-ring width, ice core isotopes, etc.) which are either in annual or decadal scale. However, there are many historical documents which contain information about weather such as personal diaries. In Japan, around 20 diaries in average during the 16th - 19th centuries have been collected and converted into a digitized form. As such, diary data exist in many other countries. This study aims to reconstruct historical daily weather during the 18th and 19th centuries using personal daily diaries which have analogue weather descriptions such as `cloudy' or `sunny'. A recent study has shown the possibility of assimilating coarse weather data using idealized experiments. We further extend this study by assimilating modern weather descriptions similar to diary data in recent periods. The Global Spectral model (GSM) of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is used to reconstruct weather with the Local Ensemble Kalman filter (LETKF). Descriptive data are first converted to model variables such as total cloud cover (TCC), solar radiation and precipitation using empirical relationships. Those variables are then assimilated on a daily basis after adding random errors to consider the uncertainty of actual diary data. The assimilation of downward short wave solar radiation using weather descriptions improves RMSE from 64.3 w/m2 to 33.0 w/m2 and correlation coefficient (R) from 0.5 to 0.8 compared with the case without any