WorldWideScience

Sample records for weather routing

  1. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  2. Multicriteria Evolutionary Weather Routing Algorithm in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Szlapczynska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Multicriteria Evolutionary Weather Routing Algorithm (MEWRA has already been introduced by the author on earlier TransNav 2009 and 2011 conferences with a focus on theoretical application to a hybrid-propulsion or motor-driven ship. This paper addresses the topic of possible practical weather routing applications of MEWRA. In the paper some practical advantages of utilizing Pareto front as a result of multicriteria optimization in case of route finding are described. The paper describes the notion of Pareto-optimality of routes along with a simplified, easy to follow, example. It also discusses a choice of the most suitable ranking method for MEWRA (a comparison between Fuzzy TOPSIS and Zero Unitarization Method is presented. In addition to that the paper briefly outlines a commercial application of MEWRA.

  3. Benefits Analysis of Multi-Center Dynamic Weather Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Kapil; McNally, David; Morando, Alexander; Clymer, Alexis; Lock, Jennifer; Petersen, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic weather routes are flight plan corrections that can provide airborne flights more than user-specified minutes of flying-time savings, compared to their current flight plan. These routes are computed from the aircraft's current location to a flight plan fix downstream (within a predefined limit region), while avoiding forecasted convective weather regions. The Dynamic Weather Routes automation has been continuously running with live air traffic data for a field evaluation at the American Airlines Integrated Operations Center in Fort Worth, TX since July 31, 2012, where flights within the Fort Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center are evaluated for time savings. This paper extends the methodology to all Centers in United States and presents benefits analysis of Dynamic Weather Routes automation, if it was implemented in multiple airspace Centers individually and concurrently. The current computation of dynamic weather routes requires a limit rectangle so that a downstream capture fix can be selected, preventing very large route changes spanning several Centers. In this paper, first, a method of computing a limit polygon (as opposed to a rectangle used for Fort Worth Center) is described for each of the 20 Centers in the National Airspace System. The Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool, a nationwide simulation and analysis tool, is used for this purpose. After a comparison of results with the Center-based Dynamic Weather Routes automation in Fort Worth Center, results are presented for 11 Centers in the contiguous United States. These Centers are generally most impacted by convective weather. A breakdown of individual Center and airline savings is presented and the results indicate an overall average savings of about 10 minutes of flying time are obtained per flight.

  4. Improving Operational Acceptability of Dynamic Weather Routes Through Analysis of Commonly Use Routings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Antony D.; Sridhar, Banavar; McNally, David

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) tool is a ground-based trajectory automation system that continuously and automatically analyzes active in-flight aircraft in en route airspace to find simple modifications to flight plan routes that can save significant flying time, while avoiding weather and considering traffic conflicts, airspace sector congestion, special use airspace, and FAA routing restrictions. Trials of the DWR system have shown that significant delay savings are possible. However, some DWR advised routes are also rejected by dispatchers or modified before being accepted. Similarly, of those sent by dispatchers to flight crews as proposed route change requests, many are not accepted by air traffic control, or are modified before implementation as Center route amendments. Such actions suggest that the operational acceptability of DWR advised route corrections could be improved, which may reduce workload and increase delay savings. This paper analyzes the historical usage of different flight routings, varying from simple waypoint pairs to lengthy strings of waypoints incorporating jet routes, in order to improve DWR route acceptability. An approach is developed that can be incorporated into DWR, advising routings with high historical usage and savings potential similar to that of the nominal DWR advisory. It is hypothesized that modifying a nominal DWR routing to one that is commonly used, and nearby, will result in more actual savings since common routings are generally familiar and operationally acceptable to air traffic control. The approach allows routing segments with high historical usage to be concatenated to form routes that meet all DWR constraints. The relevance of a route's historical usage to its acceptance by dispatchers and air traffic control is quantified by analyzing historical DWR data. Results indicate that while historical usage may be less of a concern to flight dispatchers accepting or rejecting DWR advised route corrections, it may be

  5. Operational Evaluatioin of Dynamic Weather Routes at American Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, David; Sheth, Kapil; Gong, Chester; Borchers, Paul; Osborne, Jeff; Keany, Desmond; Scott, Brennan; Smith, Steve; Sahlman, Scott; Lee, Chuhan; hide

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) is a search engine that continuously and automatically analyzes inflight aircraft in en route airspace and proposes simple route amendments for more efficient routes around convective weather while considering sector congestion, traffic conflicts, and active Special Use Airspace. NASA and American Airlines (AA) are conducting an operational trial of DWR at the AA System Operations Center in Fort Worth, TX. The trial includes only AA flights in Fort Worth Center airspace. Over the period from July 31, 2012 through August 31, 2012, 45% of routes proposed by DWR and evaluated by AA users - air traffic control coordinators and flight dispatchers - were rated as acceptable as proposed or with some modifications. The wind-corrected potential flying time savings for these acceptable routes totals 470 flying min, and results suggest another 1,500 min of potential savings for flights not evaluated due to staffing limitations. A sector congestion analysis shows that in only two out of 83 DWR routes rated acceptable by AA staff were the flights predicted to fly through a congested sector inside of 30 min downstream of present position. This shows that users considered sector congestion data provided by DWR automation and in nearly all cases did not accept routes through over-capacity sectors. It is estimated that 12 AA flights were given reroute clearances as a direct result of DWR for a total savings of 67 flying min.

  6. Evaluation of a Dispatcher's Route Optimization Decision Aid to Avoid Aviation Weather Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneich, Michael C.; Olofinboba, Olu; Pratt, Steve; Osborne, Dannielle; Feyereisen, Thea; Latorella, Kara

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the results and analysis of the formal evaluation plan for the Honeywell software tool developed under the NASA AWIN (Aviation Weather Information) 'Weather Avoidance using Route Optimization as a Decision Aid' project. The software tool aims to provide airline dispatchers with a decision aid for selecting optimal routes that avoid weather and other hazards. This evaluation compares and contrasts route selection performance with the AWIN tool to that of subjects using a more traditional dispatcher environment. The evaluation assesses gains in safety, in fuel efficiency of planned routes, and in time efficiency in the pre-flight dispatch process through the use of the AWIN decision aid. In addition, we are interested in how this AWIN tool affects constructs that can be related to performance. The construct of Situation Awareness (SA), workload, trust in an information system, and operator acceptance are assessed using established scales, where these exist, as well as through the evaluation of questionnaire responses and subject comments. The intention of the experiment is to set up a simulated operations area for the dispatchers to work in. They will be given scenarios in which they are presented with stored company routes for a particular city-pair and aircraft type. A diverse set of external weather information sources is represented by a stand-alone display (MOCK), containing the actual historical weather data typically used by dispatchers. There is also the possibility of presenting selected weather data on the route visualization tool. The company routes have not been modified to avoid the weather except in the case of one additional route generated by the Honeywell prototype flight planning system. The dispatcher will be required to choose the most appropriate and efficient flight plan route in the displayed weather conditions. The route may be modified manually or may be chosen from those automatically displayed.

  7. Estimation of uncertainty of wind energy predictions with application to weather routing and wind power generation

    CERN Document Server

    Zastrau, David

    2017-01-01

    Wind drives in combination with weather routing can lower the fuel consumption of cargo ships significantly. For this reason, the author describes a mathematical method based on quantile regression for a probabilistic estimate of the wind propulsion force on a ship route.

  8. Design and Evaluation of a Dynamic Programming Flight Routing Algorithm Using the Convective Weather Avoidance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hok K.; Grabbe, Shon; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of traffic flows in congested airspace with varying convective weather is a challenging problem. One approach is to generate shortest routes between origins and destinations while meeting airspace capacity constraint in the presence of uncertainties, such as weather and airspace demand. This study focuses on development of an optimal flight path search algorithm that optimizes national airspace system throughput and efficiency in the presence of uncertainties. The algorithm is based on dynamic programming and utilizes the predicted probability that an aircraft will deviate around convective weather. It is shown that the running time of the algorithm increases linearly with the total number of links between all stages. The optimal routes minimize a combination of fuel cost and expected cost of route deviation due to convective weather. They are considered as alternatives to the set of coded departure routes which are predefined by FAA to reroute pre-departure flights around weather or air traffic constraints. A formula, which calculates predicted probability of deviation from a given flight path, is also derived. The predicted probability of deviation is calculated for all path candidates. Routes with the best probability are selected as optimal. The predicted probability of deviation serves as a computable measure of reliability in pre-departure rerouting. The algorithm can also be extended to automatically adjust its design parameters to satisfy the desired level of reliability.

  9. Risk-Hedged Approach for Re-Routing Air Traffic Under Weather Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.; Bilimoria, Karl D.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation corresponds to: our paper explores a new risk-hedged approach for re-routing air traffic around forecast convective weather. In this work, flying through a more likely weather instantiation is considered to pose a higher level of risk. Current operational practice strategically plans re-routes to avoid only the most likely (highest risk) weather instantiation, and then tactically makes any necessary adjustments as the weather evolves. The risk-hedged approach strategically plans re-routes by minimizing the risk-adjusted path length, incorporating multiple possible weather instantiations with associated likelihoods (risks). The resulting model is transparent and is readily analyzed for realism and treated with well-understood shortest-path algorithms. Risk-hedged re-routes are computed for some example weather instantiations. The main result is that in some scenarios, relative to an operational-practice proxy solution, the risk-hedged solution provides the benefits of lower risk as well as shorter path length. In other scenarios, the benefits of the risk-hedged solution are ambiguous, because the solution is characterized by a tradeoff between risk and path length. The risk-hedged solution can be executed in those scenarios where it provides a clear benefit over current operational practice.

  10. A Mathematical Model and Algorithm for Routing Air Traffic Under Weather Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    A central challenge in managing today's commercial en route air traffic is the task of routing the aircraft in the presence of adverse weather. Such weather can make regions of the airspace unusable, so all affected flights must be re-routed. Today this task is carried out by conference and negotiation between human air traffic controllers (ATC) responsible for the involved sectors of the airspace. One can argue that, in so doing, ATC try to solve an optimization problem without giving it a precise quantitative formulation. Such a formulation gives the mathematical machinery for constructing and verifying algorithms that are aimed at solving the problem. This paper contributes one such formulation and a corresponding algorithm. The algorithm addresses weather uncertainty and has closed form, which allows transparent analysis of correctness, realism, and computational costs.

  11. Traffic Management Coordinator Evaluation of the Dynamic Weather Routes Concept and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chester

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) is a weather-avoidance system for airline dispatchers and FAA traffic managers that continually searches for and advises the user of more efficient routes around convective weather. NASA and American Airlines (AA) have been conducting an operational trial of DWR since July 17, 2012. The objective of this evaluation is to assess DWR from a traffic management coordinator (TMC) perspective, using recently retired TMCs and actual DWR reroutes advisories that were rated acceptable by AA during the operational trial. Results from the evaluation showed that the primary reasons for a TMC to modify or reject airline reroute requests were related to airspace configuration. Approximately 80 percent of the reroutes evaluated required some coordination before implementation. Analysis showed TMCs approved 62 percent of the requested DWR reroutes, resulting in 57 percent of the total requested DWR time savings.

  12. Weather conditions promote route flexibility during open ocean crossing in a long-distance migratory raptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellone, Ugo; López-López, Pascual; Limiñana, Rubén; Urios, Vicente

    2011-07-01

    Weather conditions are paramount in shaping birds' migratory routes, promoting the evolution of behavioural plasticity and allowing for adaptive decisions on when to depart or stop during migration. Here, we describe and analyze the influence of weather conditions in shaping the sea-crossing stage of the pre-breeding journey made by a long-distance migratory bird, the Eleonora's falcon ( Falco eleonorae), tracked by satellite telemetry from the wintering grounds in the Southern Hemisphere to the breeding sites in the Northern Hemisphere. As far as we know, the data presented here are the first report of repeated oceanic journeys of the same individuals in consecutive years. Our results show inter-annual variability in the routes followed by Eleonora's falcons when crossing the Strait of Mozambique, between Madagascar and eastern continental Africa. Interestingly, our observations illustrate that individuals show high behavioural plasticity and are able to change their migration route from one year to another in response to weather conditions, thus minimising the risk of long ocean crossing by selecting winds blowing towards Africa for departure and changing the routes to avoid low pressure areas en route. Our results suggest that weather conditions can really act as obstacles during migration, and thus, besides ecological barriers, the migratory behaviour of birds could also be shaped by "meteorological barriers". We briefly discuss orientation mechanisms used for navigation. Since environmental conditions during migration could cause carry-over effects, we consider that forecasting how global changes of weather patterns will shape the behaviour of migratory birds is of the utmost importance.

  13. Analysis of Convective Weather Impact on Pre-Departure Routing of Flights from Fort Worth Center to New York Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Heather; Bombelli, Alessandro; Segarra-Torne, Adria; Tse, Elmer

    2017-01-01

    In response to severe weather conditions, Traffic Managers specify flow constraints and reroutes to route air traffic around affected regions of airspace. Providing analysis and recommendations of available reroute options and associated airspace capacities would assist Traffic Managers in making more efficient decisions in response to convective weather. These recommendations can be developed by examining historical data to determine which previous reroute options were used in similar weather and traffic conditions. This paper describes the initial steps and methodology used towards this goal. The focus of this work is flights departing from Fort Worth Center destined for New York Center. Dominant routing structures used in the absence of convective weather are identified. A method to extract relevant features from the large volume of weather data available to quantify the impact of convective weather on this routing structure over a given time range is presented. Finally, a method of estimating flow rate capacity along commonly used routes during convective weather events is described. Results show that the flow rates drop exponentially as a function of the values of the proposed feature and that convective weather on the final third of the route was found to have a greater impact on the flow rate restriction than other portions of the route.

  14. Additional Arctic observations improve weather and sea-ice forecasts for the Northern Sea Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Ono, Jun; Dethloff, Klaus; Maturilli, Marion; Neuber, Roland; Edwards, Patti; Yamaguchi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    During ice-free periods, the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could be an attractive shipping route. The decline in Arctic sea-ice extent, however, could be associated with an increase in the frequency of the causes of severe weather phenomena, and high wind-driven waves and the advection of sea ice could make ship navigation along the NSR difficult. Accurate forecasts of weather and sea ice are desirable for safe navigation, but large uncertainties exist in current forecasts, partly owing to the sparse observational network over the Arctic Ocean. Here, we show that the incorporation of additional Arctic observations improves the initial analysis and enhances the skill of weather and sea-ice forecasts, the application of which has socioeconomic benefits. Comparison of 63-member ensemble atmospheric forecasts, using different initial data sets, revealed that additional Arctic radiosonde observations were useful for predicting a persistent strong wind event. The sea-ice forecast, initialised by the wind fields that included the effects of the observations, skilfully predicted rapid wind-driven sea-ice advection along the NSR.

  15. Parameterizing road construction in route-based road weather models: can ground-penetrating radar provide any answers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, D. S.; Chapman, L.; Thornes, J. E.

    2011-05-01

    A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey of a 32 km mixed urban and rural study route is undertaken to assess the usefulness of GPR as a tool for parameterizing road construction in a route-based road weather forecast model. It is shown that GPR can easily identify even the smallest of bridges along the route, which previous thermal mapping surveys have identified as thermal singularities with implications for winter road maintenance. Using individual GPR traces measured at each forecast point along the route, an inflexion point detection algorithm attempts to identify the depth of the uppermost subsurface layers at each forecast point for use in a road weather model instead of existing ordinal road-type classifications. This approach has the potential to allow high resolution modelling of road construction and bridge decks on a scale previously not possible within a road weather model, but initial results reveal that significant future research will be required to unlock the full potential that this technology can bring to the road weather industry.

  16. Implementation Weather-Type Models of Capacitated Arc Routing Problem via Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhaimy Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, we introduced a new and real-life condition of Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (CARP, a model that represents vehicles operation in waste collection. In general, we studied the element of rain drops that affected the collected waste weight in total by imposed a new variable namely rainy weight age. In rainy days, the household refusals did not increase in volumes, but in weights due to rain drops. Consequently, this matter thus burdened vehicles capacity and prolonged its operation time. This dynamic variable thus changes the initial CARP model where the existing model did not consider other external elements that have effected onto the model. Approach: Then we developed and enhanced CARP by integrating stochastic demand and time windows to suit the models with our specific case. Results: Objectively, CARP with stochastic demand (CARPSD and CARP with time windows (CARPTW were designed to minimize the total routing cost and number of trips for a vehicle. Our approach is to design CARP models in almost likely to road layout in residential area and graphically this model is called mesh network. We also developed a constructive heuristic that is called nearest procedure based on highest demand/cost (NPHDC and work in conjunction with switching rules to search the feasible solution. Conclusion: Our preliminary results show a higher cost and more trips are needed when the vehicle operates in rainy day compared to normal day operation.

  17. Route Availabililty Planning Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Route Availability Planning Tool (RAPT) is a weather-assimilated decision support tool (DST) that supports the development and execution of departure management...

  18. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds’ departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Jill L.; Ward, Michael P.; Bolus, Rachel; Diehl, Robert H.; Celis-Murillo, A.; Zenzal, Theodore J.; Moore, Frank R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Schofield, Lynn N.; Enstrom, David A.; Paxton, Eben; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A.; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L.; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson’s Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf.

  19. Fat, weather, and date affect migratory songbirds’ departure decisions, routes, and time it takes to cross the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Jill L.; Ward, Michael P.; Bolus, Rachel T.; Diehl, Robert H.; Celis-Murillo, Antonio; Zenzal, Theodore J.; Moore, Frank R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Schofield, Lynn N.; Enstrom, David A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Bohrer, Gil; Beveroth, Tara A.; Raim, Arlo; Obringer, Renee L.; Delaney, David; Cochran, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two thirds of migratory songbirds in eastern North America negotiate the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where inclement weather coupled with no refueling or resting opportunities can be lethal. However, decisions made when navigating such features and their consequences remain largely unknown due to technological limitations of tracking small animals over large areas. We used automated radio telemetry to track three songbird species (Red-eyed Vireo, Swainson’s Thrush, Wood Thrush) from coastal Alabama to the northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) during fall migration. Detecting songbirds after crossing ∼1,000 km of open water allowed us to examine intrinsic (age, wing length, fat) and extrinsic (weather, date) variables shaping departure decisions, arrival at the YP, and crossing times. Large fat reserves and low humidity, indicative of beneficial synoptic weather patterns, favored southward departure across the Gulf. Individuals detected in the YP departed with large fat reserves and later in the fall with profitable winds, and flight durations (mean = 22.4 h) were positively related to wind profit. Age was not related to departure behavior, arrival, or travel time. However, vireos negotiated the GOM differently than thrushes, including different departure decisions, lower probability of detection in the YP, and longer crossing times. Defense of winter territories by thrushes but not vireos and species-specific foraging habits may explain the divergent migratory behaviors. Fat reserves appear extremely important to departure decisions and arrival in the YP. As habitat along the GOM is degraded, birds may be limited in their ability to acquire fat to cross the Gulf. PMID:26578793

  20. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  1. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  2. Wacky Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  3. Wacky Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  4. Mirador - Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Our weather system includes the dynamics of the atmosphere and its interaction with the oceans and land. The improvement of...

  5. Impact of Tactical and Strategic Weather Avoidance on Separation Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Mohamad S.; Windhorst, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm for management of aircraft separation. The impact of dynamic and uncertain weather avoidance on this concept is investigated. A strategic weather rerouting system is integrated with the Advanced Airspace Concept, which also provides a tactical weather avoidance algorithm, in a fast time simulation of the Air Transportation System. Strategic weather rerouting is used to plan routes around weather in the 20 minute to two-hour time horizon. To address forecast uncertainty, flight routes are revised at 15 minute intervals. Tactical weather avoidance is used for short term trajectory adjustments (30 minute planning horizon) that are updated every minute to address any weather conflicts (instances where aircraft are predicted to pass through weather cells) that are left unresolved by strategic weather rerouting. The fast time simulation is used to assess the impact of tactical weather avoidance on the performance of automated conflict resolution as well as the impact of strategic weather rerouting on both conflict resolution and tactical weather avoidance. The results demonstrate that both tactical weather avoidance and strategic weather rerouting increase the algorithm complexity required to find aircraft conflict resolutions. Results also demonstrate that tactical weather avoidance is prone to higher airborne delay than strategic weather rerouting. Adding strategic weather rerouting to tactical weather avoidance reduces total airborne delays for the reported scenario by 18% and reduces the number of remaining weather violations by 13%. Finally, two features are identified that have proven important for strategic weather rerouting to realize these benefits; namely, the ability to revise reroutes and the use of maneuvers

  6. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  7. Flight Deck Weather Avoidance Decision Support: Implementation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Luna, Rocio; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Weather related disruptions account for seventy percent of the delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). A key component in the weather plan of the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is to assimilate observed weather information and probabilistic forecasts into the decision process of flight crews and air traffic controllers. In this research we explore supporting flight crew weather decision making through the development of a flight deck predicted weather display system that utilizes weather predictions generated by ground-based radar. This system integrates and presents this weather information, together with in-flight trajectory modification tools, within a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) prototype. that the CDTI features 2D and perspective 3D visualization models of weather. The weather forecast products that we implemented were the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) and the Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM), both developed by MIT Lincoln Lab. We evaluated the use of CIWS and CWAM for flight deck weather avoidance in two part-task experiments. Experiment 1 compared pilots' en route weather avoidance performance in four weather information conditions that differed in the type and amount of predicted forecast (CIWS current weather only, CIWS current and historical weather, CIWS current and forecast weather, CIWS current and forecast weather and CWAM predictions). Experiment 2 compared the use of perspective 3D and 21/2D presentations of weather for flight deck weather avoidance. Results showed that pilots could take advantage of longer range predicted weather forecasts in performing en route weather avoidance but more research will be needed to determine what combinations of information are optimal and how best to present them.

  8. Stormy Weather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the deep abyss of the unknown; a constant source for investigation and discovery, heating and destruction, all simultaneously. Beneath the deep darkness, millions of species vibrantly thrive in another universe wholly untouched by human hands, though affected by their choices. The weathered pieces and people associated with seaside villages, the deep wrinkles that tell a story of one's life and experiences like

  9. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather is one of the major causes of aviation accidents. General aviation (GA) flights account for 92% of all the aviation accidents, In spite of all the official and unofficial sources of weather visualization tools available to pilots, there is an urgent need for visualizing several weather related data tailored for general aviation pilots. Our system, Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment AWE), presents graphical displays of meteorological observations, terminal area forecasts, and winds aloft forecasts onto a cartographic grid specific to the pilot's area of interest. Decisions regarding the graphical display and design are made based on careful consideration of user needs. Integral visual display of these elements of weather reports is designed for the use of GA pilots as a weather briefing and route selection tool. AWE provides linking of the weather information to the flight's path and schedule. The pilot can interact with the system to obtain aviation-specific weather for the entire area or for his specific route to explore what-if scenarios and make "go/no-go" decisions. The system, as evaluated by some pilots at NASA Ames Research Center, was found to be useful.

  10. Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) Project: Dissemination of Weather Information for the Reduction of Aviation Weather-Related Accident Causal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Michael; Tanger, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) is part of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project, which is part of the NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program. The goals of WINCOMM are to facilitate the exchange of tactical and strategic weather information between air and ground. This viewgraph presentation provides information on data link decision factors, architectures, validation goals. WINCOMM is capable of providing en-route communication air-to-ground, ground-to-air, and air-to-air, even on international or intercontinental flights. The presentation also includes information on the capacity, cost, and development of data links.

  11. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  12. Weather Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacmeister, Julio T.

    Awareness of weather and concern about weather in the proximate future certainly must have accompanied the emergence of human self-consciousness. Although weather is a basic idea in human existence, it is difficult to define precisely.

  13. Individuality in bird migration: routes and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanis, Yannis; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    2011-08-23

    The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found that there was a stronger individual repeatability in time than in space. Thus, the annual timing of migration varied much less between repeated journeys of the same individual than between different individuals, while there was considerable variation in the routes of the same individual on repeated journeys. The overall contrast in repeatability between time and space was unexpected and may be owing to strong endogenous control of timing, while short-term variation in environmental conditions (weather and habitat) might promote route flexibility. The individual variation in migration routes indicates that the birds navigate mainly by other means than detailed route recapitulation based on landmark recognition.

  14. Weather in Your Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  15. Hurricane Evacuation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Hurricane Evacuation Routes in the United States A hurricane evacuation route is a designated route used to direct traffic inland in case of a hurricane threat. This...

  16. Lateralization of route continuation and route order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Ham, Ineke J M; Van Den Hoven, Jacco

    2014-01-01

    Navigation is a complex cognitive ability and its structure is still poorly understood. Memory for route continuation and route order are hypothesized to be at least partially separate components of navigation ability. In the current experiment, participants studied a route in virtual reality. The d

  17. Land Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  18. Project Weather and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pal J. Kirkeby

    2000-01-01

    Introduces Project Weather and Water with the goal of developing and testing ideas of how to implement weather topics and water physics in an integrated way. Discusses teacher preparation, implementation, and evaluation of this project. (ASK)

  19. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  20. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  1. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  2. Surface Weather Observing Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Manuals and instructions for taking weather observations. Includes the annual Weather Bureau 'Instructions for Preparing Meteorological Forms...' and early airways...

  3. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  4. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  5. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  6. Internet Weather Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) National Telecommunications Gateway provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its...

  7. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  8. Effect of the Environment and Environmental Uncertainty on Ship Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Track Ship Routing provided by ship routing officers ( SRO ) to aid in the safe transit of its ships. When a ship makes a transit, the ship provides the... SRO an origin, a destination, and a date of departure, and the SRO will generate a route for the ship to proceed along. Avoiding severe weather is...ship routing officers ( SRO ) to aid in the safe transit of its ships. When a ship makes a transit, the ship provides the SRO an origin, a destination

  9. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    be that the objects routed have an availability time window and a delivery time window or that locations on the path have a service time window. When routing moving transportation objects such as vehicles and vessels schedules are made in connection with the routing. Such schedules represent the time for the presence...... to a destination on a predefined network, the routing and scheduling of vessels in a liner shipping network given a demand forecast to be covered, the routing of manpower and vehicles transporting disabled passengers in an airport and the vehicle routing with time windows where one version studied includes edge...... of a connection between two locations. This could be an urban bus schedule where busses are routed and this routing creates a bus schedule which the passengers between locations use. In this thesis various routing and scheduling problems will be presented. The topics covered will be routing from an origin...

  10. The power of weather

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Huurman; Francesco Ravazzolo; Chen Zhou

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the predictive power of weather for electricity prices in day ahead markets in real time. We find that next-day weather forecasts improve the forecast accuracy of Scandinavian day-ahead electricity prices substantially in terms of point forecasts, suggesting that weather forecasts can price the weather premium. This improvement strengthens the confidence in the forecasting model, which results in high center-mass predictive densities. In density forecast, such a predictive...

  11. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  12. Cold-Weather Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold-Weather Sports A A A What's in this article? ... Equipment Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports ...

  13. Weather Conditions, Weather Information and Car Crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan Perrels

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic safety is the result of a complex interaction of factors, and causes behind road vehicle crashes require different measures to reduce their impacts. This study assesses how strongly the variation in daily winter crash rates associates with weather conditions in Finland. This is done by illustrating trends and spatiotemporal variation in the crash rates, by showing how a GIS application can evidence the association between temporary rises in regional crash rates and the occurrence of bad weather, and with a regression model on crash rate sensitivity to adverse weather conditions. The analysis indicates that a base rate of crashes depending on non-weather factors exists, and some combinations of extreme weather conditions are able to substantially push up crash rates on days with bad weather. Some spatial causation factors, such as variation of geophysical characteristics causing systematic differences in the distributions of weather variables, exist. Yet, even in winter, non-spatial factors are normally more significant. GIS data can support optimal deployment of rescue services and enhance in-depth quantitative analysis by helping to identify the most appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. However, the supportive role of GIS should not be inferred as existence of highly significant spatial causation.

  14. Analysis of Multi-Flight Common Routes for Traffic Flow Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Kapil; Clymer, Alexis; Morando, Alex; Shih, Fu-Tai

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for creating common weather avoidance reroutes for multiple flights and the associated benefits analysis, which is an extension of the single flight advisories generated using the Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) concept. These multiple flight advisories are implemented in the National Airspace System (NAS) Constraint Evaluation and Notification Tool (NASCENT), a nation-wide simulation environment to generate time- and fuel-saving alternate routes for flights during severe weather events. These single flight advisories are clustered together in the same Center by considering parameters such as a common return capture fix. The clustering helps propose routes called, Multi-Flight Common Routes (MFCR), that avoid weather and other airspace constraints, and save time and fuel. It is expected that these routes would also provide lower workload for traffic managers and controllers since a common route is found for several flights, and presumably the route clearances would be easier and faster. This study was based on 30-days in 2014 and 2015 each, which had most delays attributed to convective weather. The results indicate that many opportunities exist where individual flight routes can be clustered to fly along a common route to save a significant amount of time and fuel, and potentially reducing the amount of coordination needed.

  15. Aircraft Path Planning under Adverse Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, flight safety is still one of the main issues for all airlines. En route civil airplanes may encounter adverse weather conditions. Some fatal airplane accidents happened because of the weather disturbance. Moreover, we should also design path to avoid the prohibited area. Therefore a good path planning algorithm plays an increasingly important role in air traffic management. An efficient path planning algorithm can help the plane to avoid severe weather conditions, restricted areas and moving obstacles to ensure the safety of the cabin crews and passengers. Here, we build our algorithm based on the A* search algorithm. Moreover, our algorithm can also find the path with least energy costs. As a result, our algorithm can improve the safety operation of the airplanes and reduce the workload of pilots and air traffic controllers.

  16. Visualizing Internet routing changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Mohit; Massey, Dan; Zhang, Lixia

    2006-01-01

    Today's Internet provides a global data delivery service to millions of end users and routing protocols play a critical role in this service. It is important to be able to identify and diagnose any problems occurring in Internet routing. However, the Internet's sheer size makes this task difficult. One cannot easily extract out the most important or relevant routing information from the large amounts of data collected from multiple routers. To tackle this problem, we have developed Link-Rank, a tool to visualize Internet routing changes at the global scale. Link-Rank weighs links in a topological graph by the number of routes carried over each link and visually captures changes in link weights in the form of a topological graph with adjustable size. Using Link-Rank, network operators can easily observe important routing changes from massive amounts of routing data, discover otherwise unnoticed routing problems, understand the impact of topological events, and infer root causes of observed routing changes.

  17. Routing in opportunistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dhurandher, Sanjay; Anpalagan, Alagan; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to selected topics, both ongoing and emerging, in routing in OppNets. The book is edited by worldwide technical leaders, prolific researchers and outstanding academics, Dr. Isaac Woungang and co-editors, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher, Prof. Alagan Anpalagan and Prof. Athanasios Vasilakos. Consisting of contributions from well known and high profile researchers and scientists in their respective specialties, the main topics that are covered in this book include mobility and routing, social-aware routing, context-based routing, energy-aware routing, incentive-aware routing, stochastic routing, modeling of intermittent connectivity, in both infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Key Features: Discusses existing and emerging techniques for routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Provides a unified covering of otherwise disperse selected topics on routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets.  Includes a set of PowerPoint slides and g...

  18. Convection Weather Detection by General Aviation Pilots with Convectional and Data-Linked Graphical Weather Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, James P.; Latorella, Kara A.

    2001-01-01

    This study compares how well general aviation (GA) pilots detect convective weather in flight with different weather information sources. A flight test was conducted in which GA pilot test subjects were given different in-flight weather information cues and flown toward convective weather of moderate or greater intensity. The test subjects were not actually flying the aircraft, but were given pilot tasks representative of the workload and position awareness requirements of the en route portion of a cross country GA flight. On each flight, one test subject received weather cues typical of a flight in visual meteorological conditions (VMC), another received cues typical of flight in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), and a third received cues typical of flight in IMC but augmented with a graphical weather information system (GWIS). The GWIS provided the subject with near real time data-linked weather products, including a weather radar mosaic superimposed on a moving map with a symbol depicting the aircraft's present position and direction of track. At several points during each flight, the test subjects completed short questionnaires which included items addressing their weather situation awareness and flight decisions. In particular, test subjects were asked to identify the location of the nearest convective cells. After the point of nearest approach to convective weather, the test subjects were asked to draw the location of convective weather on an aeronautical chart, along with the aircraft's present position. This paper reports preliminary results on how accurately test subjects provided with these different weather sources could identify the nearest cell of moderate or greater intensity along their route of flight. Additional flight tests are currently being conducted to complete the data set.

  19. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  20. Weather Satellite Enterprise Information Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Contributing the afternoon orbit & ground system (GS) to replace current NOAA POES Satellites, its sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic & climatological data. The JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of C3 and IDP segments, is developed by Raytheon. It now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transferring data between ground facilities, processing them into environmental products for NOAA weather centers, and expanding to support JPSS-1 in 2017. As a multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3, data processing, and product delivery for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD and international missions.The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: Command and control and mission management for the S-NPP mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite mission in 2017 Data acquisition for S-NPP, the JAXA's Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the DoD Data routing over a global fiber network for S-NPP, JPSS-1, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, NASA EOS missions, MetOp for EUMETSAT and the National Science Foundation Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS plays a key role in facilitating the movement and value-added enhancement of data all the way from satellite-based sensor data to delivery to the consumers who generate forecasts and produce watches and warnings. This presentation will discuss the information flow from sensors, through data routing and processing, and finally to product delivery. It will highlight how advances in architecture developed through lessons learned from S-NPP and implemented for JPSS-1 will increase data availability and reduce latency for end user applications.

  1. Hazmat Routes (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes (NTAD) were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  2. Routing on Metacyclic Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjun Xiao

    2002-01-01

    Wu, Lakshmivarahan and Dhall[5] recently described a deterministic, distributed routing scheme for some special classes of metacyclic graphs. However they have no proof of correctness that the scheme is a shortest path routing algorithm. In the note we give a suboptimal, deterministic routing algorithm.

  3. Intraosseous (IO) route .

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All drugs and fluids given via intravenous route were safely given through IO route with superior to ... was used widely during the Korean War, In 1950-1960. Intravenous ... In this article a brief review and analysis of cases managed by IO route ...

  4. Benign Weather Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    operational interest in modifying weather to support combat operations increased, ultimately leading to a multi-service effort called PROJECT POPEYE . The goal...This, coupled with the revelations concerning weather modification use in the Vietnam War (PROJECT POPEYE ), was a double blow to weather modification...AWS-TR-74-247, June 1984. Cobb, James T., Jr., et. al. Project Popeye : Final Report. China Lake, CA: Naval Weapons Center, 1967. Langmuir, Irving

  5. Is Weather Chaotic?

    CERN Document Server

    Raidl, A

    1998-01-01

    The correlation dimension and K2-entropy are estimated from meteorological time- series. The results lead us to claim that seasonal variability of weather is under influence of low dimensional dynamics, whereas changes of weather from day to day are governed by high dimensional system(s). Error-doubling time of this system is less than 3 days. We suggest that the outstanding feature of the weather dynamics is deterministic chaos.

  6. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  7. Space Weather Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Space Weather Analysis archives are model output of ionospheric, thermospheric and magnetospheric particle populations, energies and electrodynamics

  8. Weather and emotional state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  9. Evaporation and weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, H.A.R. de; Feddes, R.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Lablans, W.N.; Schuurmans, C.J.E.; Shuttleworth, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Data on evaporation to be used in agriculture, hydrology, forestry, etc. are usually supplied by meteorologists. Meteorologists themselves also use evaporation data. Air mass properties determining weather are strongly dependent on the input of water vapour from the surface. So for weather

  10. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  11. Evaporation and weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, H.A.R. de; Feddes, R.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Lablans, W.N.; Schuurmans, C.J.E.; Shuttleworth, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Data on evaporation to be used in agriculture, hydrology, forestry, etc. are usually supplied by meteorologists. Meteorologists themselves also use evaporation data. Air mass properties determining weather are strongly dependent on the input of water vapour from the surface. So for weather predictio

  12. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  13. Weather in Mountainous Terrain (Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Weather in Mountainous Terrain (Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support) Fiesta Resort & Conference Center Tempe, AZ February 1...Meteorology Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support Fiesta Resort & Conference Center Tempe, AZ February 1 & 2, 2010 Hosted by University

  14. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    In today’s globalized society, transport contributes to our daily life in many different ways. The production of the parts for a shelf ready product may take place on several continents and our travel between home and work, vacation travel and business trips has increased in distance the last......, the effectiveness of the network is of importance aiming at satisfying as many costumer demands as possible at a low cost. Routing represent a path between locations such as an origin and destination for the object routed. Sometimes routing has a time dimension as well as the physical paths. This may...... to a destination on a predefined network, the routing and scheduling of vessels in a liner shipping network given a demand forecast to be covered, the routing of manpower and vehicles transporting disabled passengers in an airport and the vehicle routing with time windows where one version studied includes edge...

  15. Vehicle Routing in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2010-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. In industry and the public sector, vehicle routing tools provide substantial savings every day. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently ...

  16. Contact Graph Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  17. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  18. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  19. Cape Kennedy Weather Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...

  20. Monthly Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form...

  1. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  2. Weather Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

  3. Space Weather Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of space weather datasets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and from the World Data Service for Geophysics,...

  4. Genetically optimizing weather predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S. B.; Staats, Kai; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni

    2016-07-01

    humidity, air pressure, wind speed and wind direction) into a database. Built upon this database, we have developed a remarkably simple approach to derive a functional weather predictor. The aim is provide up to the minute local weather predictions in order to e.g. prepare dome environment conditions ready for night time operations or plan, prioritize and update weather dependent observing queues. In order to predict the weather for the next 24 hours, we take the current live weather readings and search the entire archive for similar conditions. Predictions are made against an averaged, subsequent 24 hours of the closest matches for the current readings. We use an Evolutionary Algorithm to optimize our formula through weighted parameters. The accuracy of the predictor is routinely tested and tuned against the full, updated archive to account for seasonal trends and total, climate shifts. The live (updated every 5 minutes) SALT weather predictor can be viewed here: http://www.saao.ac.za/ sbp/suthweather_predict.html

  5. Cockpit weather information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

  6. Subject Matter Expert Evaluation of Multi-Flight Common Route Advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl; Hayashi, Miwa; Sheth, Kapil S.

    2017-01-01

    Traffic flow management seeks to balance the demand for National Airspace System (NAS) flight resources, such as airspace and airports, with the available supply. When forecasted weather blocks nominal air traffic routes, traffic managers must re-route affected flights for weather avoidance. Depending on the nature and scope of the weather, traffic managers may use pre-coordinated re-routes such as Playbook Routes or Coded Departure Routes, or may design ad hoc local re-routes. The routes of affected flights are modified accordingly. These weather avoidance routes will, of course, be less efficient than the nominal routes due to increased flight time and fuel burn. In current traffic management operations, the transition into a weather avoidance re-routing initiative is typically implemented more aggressively than the transition out of that initiative after the weather has dissipated or moved away. For example, strategic large-scale Playbook re-routes are sometimes left in place (as initially implemented) for many hours before being lifted entirely when the weather dissipates. There is an opportunity to periodically modify the re-routing plan as weather evolves, thereby attenuating its adverse impact on flight time and fuel consumption; this is called delay recovery. Multi-Flight Common Routes (MFCR) is a NASA-developed operational concept and associated decision support tool for delay recovery, designed to assist traffic managers to efficiently update weather avoidance traffic routes after the original re-routes have become stale due to subsequent evolution of the convective weather system. MFCR groups multiple flights to reduce the number of advisories that the traffic manager needs to evaluate, and also merges these flights on a common route segment to provide an orderly flow of re-routed traffic. The advisory is presented to the appropriate traffic manager who evaluates it and has the option to modify it using MFCRs graphical user interface. If the traffic

  7. Improving Reactive Ad Hoc Routing Performance by Geographic Route Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yuan-da; YU Yan-bing; LU Di

    2005-01-01

    In order to help reactive ad hoc routing protocols select better-performance routes, a novel metric named geographic route length (GRL) is proposed. The relationship between GRL metric and routing performance is analyzed in detail. Combined with hop metric, GRL is applied into the original ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) to demonstrate its effectiveness. Simulation experiments have shown that GRL can effectively reduce packet delay and route discovery frequency, thus can improve reactive ad hoc routing performance.

  8. A New Route Maintenance in Dynamic Source Routing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is infrastructureless, self-organizable, multi hop packet switched network. A number of routing protocols for MANETs have been proposed in recent years. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol is one of the most popular routing protocol for ad hoc networks. This paper presents a novel method to enhance route maintenance part of DSR protocol. Our proposed route maintenance significantly increases the efficiency of the protocol at the time of route failures.

  9. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. IP Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco Pinto, Armando

    2002-03-01

    Uyless Black is a widely known expert in computer networks and data communications. He is author of more than ten books in the communication technologies field, which puts him in a good position to address this topic. In IP Routing Protocols he starts by providing the background and concepts required for understanding TCP/IP technology. This is done clearly and assumes little prior knowledge of the area. As might be expected, he emphasizes the IP route discovery problem. Later he details several routing protocols.

  11. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  12. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  13. Integrated route analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1981-01-01

    The integrated route analysis provides a data base for the second phase of the Arctic Pilot Project, the selection of a shipping corridor over which LNG icebreaking carriers will transport liquified...

  14. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  15. Routed planar networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Aldous

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\\em routes} rather than {\\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting notion of {\\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions.

  16. Industrial Vehicle Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2008-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently solve VRP instances with more than 50-100 customers in reasonable time, which is generally a sma...

  17. Space weather & telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, John M

    2006-01-01

    This book is both a survey of practical concepts for forecasting the performance of various telecommunication systems as well as a balanced treatment of space-weather phenomena that give rise to telecommunication impairment episodes. It bridges the gap in the relationship that exists between the following two disciplines: space weather and telecommunication system performance. There are a number of books that address one of the two disciplines in some detail, but only merely mention the other as an afterthought. In this book the author has married the two disciplines so that the readership can

  18. Convective Weather Forecast Accuracy Analysis at Center and Sector Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Sridhar, Banavar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed convective forecast accuracy analysis at center and sector levels. The study is aimed to provide more meaningful forecast verification measures to aviation community, as well as to obtain useful information leading to the improvements in the weather translation capacity models. In general, the vast majority of forecast verification efforts over past decades have been on the calculation of traditional standard verification measure scores over forecast and observation data analyses onto grids. These verification measures based on the binary classification have been applied in quality assurance of weather forecast products at the national level for many years. Our research focuses on the forecast at the center and sector levels. We calculate the standard forecast verification measure scores for en-route air traffic centers and sectors first, followed by conducting the forecast validation analysis and related verification measures for weather intensities and locations at centers and sectors levels. An approach to improve the prediction of sector weather coverage by multiple sector forecasts is then developed. The weather severe intensity assessment was carried out by using the correlations between forecast and actual weather observation airspace coverage. The weather forecast accuracy on horizontal location was assessed by examining the forecast errors. The improvement in prediction of weather coverage was determined by the correlation between actual sector weather coverage and prediction. observed and forecasted Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM) data collected from June to September in 2007. CWAM zero-minute forecast data with aircraft avoidance probability of 60% and 80% are used as the actual weather observation. All forecast measurements are based on 30-minute, 60- minute, 90-minute, and 120-minute forecasts with the same avoidance probabilities. The forecast accuracy analysis for times under one-hour showed that the errors in

  19. Routing Service Quality—Local Driver Behavior Versus Routing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    experiments with real vehicle trajectory data and an existing online navigation service. It is found that the availability of information about previous trips enables better prediction of route travel time and makes it possible to provide the users with more popular routes than does a conventional navigation...... of the quality of one kind of location-based service, namely routing services. Specifically, the paper presents a framework that enables the comparison of the routes provided by routing services with the actual driving behaviors of local drivers. Comparisons include route length, travel time, and also route...

  20. Dress for the Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2010-01-01

    "If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice…

  1. Microbial Weathering of Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, D. S.; Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.

    2002-01-01

    Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  3. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  4. Winter Weather Checklists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  5. Weather at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, David Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    This report gives general information about how to become a meteorologist and what kinds of jobs exist in that field. Then it goes into detail about why weather is monitored at LANL, how it is done, and where the data can be accessed online.

  6. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they can be knocked over, potentially starting a fire. Check your furnace before the cold weather sets in to make ... avoided because of the risk of burns or fire. Heated pet mats should also be used ... to burrow, get them back inside quickly because they are showing signs of ...

  7. Dress for the Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2010-01-01

    "If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice…

  8. 'Is it the weather?'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobsen (Ben); W.A. Marquering (Wessel)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe show that results in the recent strand of the literature that tries to explain stock returns by weather induced mood shifts of investors might be data-driven inference. More specifically, we consider two recent studies (Kamstra, Kramer and Levi, 2003a and Cao and Wei, 2004) that claim

  9. Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Reactive Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Nadeem; Javaid, Akmal; Malik, Shahzad A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have modeled the routing over- head generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficient routing is sum of the cost paid in the form of energy consumed and time spent. These protocols majorly focus on the optimization performed by expanding ring search algorithm to control the flooding generated by the mechanism of blind flooding. So, we have modeled the energy consumed and time spent per packet both for route discovery and route maintenance. The proposed framework is evaluated in NS-2 to compare performance of the chosen routing protocols.

  10. Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Proactive Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Nadeem; Javaid, Akmal; Malik, Shahzad A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed framework consisting of modeling of routing overhead generated by three widely used proactive routing protocols; Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The questions like, how these protocols differ from each other on the basis of implementing different routing strategies, how neighbor estimation errors affect broadcast of route requests, how reduction of broadcast overhead achieves bandwidth, how to cope with the problem of mobility and density, etc, are attempted to respond. In all of the above mentioned situations, routing overhead and delay generated by the chosen protocols can exactly be calculated from our modeled equations. Finally, we analyze the performance of selected routing protocols using our proposed framework in NS-2 by considering different performance parameters; Route REQuest (RREQ) packet generation, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) with respect to varyi...

  11. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  12. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  13. Location-routing problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laporte, G.

    1987-01-01

    Location-routing problems involve simultaneously locating a number of facilities among candidate sites and establishing delivery routes to a set of users in such a way that the total system cost is minimized. This paper presents a survey of such problems. It includes some applications and examples of location-routing problems, a description of the main heuristics that have been developed for such problems, and reviews of various formulations and algorithms used in solving these problems. A more detailed review is given of exact algorithms for the vehicle routing problem, three-index vehicle flow formulations, and two-index vehicle flow formulations and algorithms for symmetrical and non-symmetrical problems. It is concluded that location-routing problem research is a fast-growing area, with most developments occurring over the past few years; however, research is relatively fragmented, often addresses problems which are too specific and contains several voids which have yet to be filled. A number of promising research areas are identified. 137 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Modeling the weather with a data flow supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, J. B.; Gao, G.-R.; Todd, K. W.

    1984-01-01

    A static concept of data flow architecture is considered for a supercomputer for weather modeling. The machine level instructions are loaded into specific memory locations before computation is initiated, with only one instruction active at a time. The machine would have processing element, functional unit, array memory, memory routing and distribution routing network elements all contained on microprocessors. A value-oriented algorithmic language (VAL) would be employed and would have, as basic operations, simple functions deriving results from operand values. Details of the machine language format, computations with an array and file processing procedures are outlined. A global weather model is discussed in terms of a static architecture and the potential computation rate is analyzed. The results indicate that detailed design studies are warranted to quantify costs and parts fabrication requirements.

  15. North America Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Maps contains a surface analysis comprised of plotted weather station observations, isobars indicating low and high-pressure...

  16. Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI) is an integrated database of severe weather records for the United States. SWDI enables a user to search through a variety...

  17. Multihop Wireless Networks Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Kai; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to opportunistic routing an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks This book presents a comprehensive background to the technological challenges lying behind opportunistic routing. The authors cover many fundamental research issues for this new concept, including the basic principles, performance limit and performance improvement of opportunistic routing compared to traditional routing, energy efficiency and distributed opportunistic routing protocol desig

  18. Optimizing well intervention routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Ronaldo O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis J.; Bordalo, Sergio N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO)]. E-mail: denis@dep.fem.unicamp.br; bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a method for optimizing the itinerary of work over rigs, i.e., the search for the route of minimum total cost, and demonstrates the importance of the dynamics of reservoir behaviour. The total cost of a route includes the rig expenses (transport, assembly and operation), which are functions of time and distances, plus the losses of revenue in wells waiting for the rig, which are also dependent of time. A reservoir simulator is used to evaluate the monetary influence of the well shutdown on the present value of the production curve. Finally, search algorithms are employed to determine the route of minimal cost. The Simulated Annealing algorithm was also successful in optimizing the distribution of a list of wells among different work over rigs. The rational approach presented here is recommended for management teams as a standard procedure to define the priority of wells scheduled for work over. (author)

  19. Collective network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  20. What characterizes planetary space weather?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Space weather has become a mature discipline for the Earth space environment. With increasing efforts in space exploration, it is becoming more and more necessary to understand the space environments of bodies other than Earth. This is the background for an emerging aspect of the space weather discipline: planetary space weather. In this article, we explore what characterizes planetary space weather, using some examples throughout the solar system. We consider energy s...

  1. Severe Weather Planning for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Barbara McNaught; Strong, Christopher; Bunting, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Flash floods, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes occur with rapid onset and often no warning. Decisions must be made quickly and actions taken immediately. This paper provides tips for schools on: (1) Preparing for Severe Weather Emergencies; (2) Activating a Severe Weather Plan; (3) Severe Weather Plan Checklist; and (4) Periodic Drills and…

  2. Whether weather affects music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen L.; Williams, Paul D.

    2012-09-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London [Richardson, 2012]. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for artists Claude Monet, John Constable, and William Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies [e.g., Baker and Thornes, 2006].

  3. The Weather Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋涵毅

    2009-01-01

    Secondly. the weather man一定会告诉我们每天的最高和最低温度(the highest and the lowest temperature)。我们用℃来表示摄氏度,有的地方则用°F,那是华氏温度。°F=9/5×℃+32

  4. Tactical Weather Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of developing an expert system for tactical weather prediction. Using WILLARD, an expert ...indicate that intelligent interpretations of cloud formations can be made. These inferences can then be automatically passed to the expert system for...processing as another piece of information. It is anticipated that this technology will significantly reduce the dependence of the expert system on a

  5. Space Weather Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tony; Johnson, Sam; Koske-Phillips, Amelia; White, Michael; Yarborough, Amelia; Lamb, Aaron; Herbst, Anna; Molina, Ferris; Gilpin, Justin; Grah, Olivia; Perez, Ginger; Reid, Carson; Harvey, Joey; Schultz, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a "Space Weather Buoy" for measuring upper atmospheric radiation from cosmic rays and solar storms. The Buoy, which is carried to the stratosphere by helium balloons, is relatively inexpensive and uses off-the-shelf technology accessible to small colleges and high schools. Using this device, we have measured two Forbush Decreases and a small surge in atmospheric radiation during the St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm of March 2015.

  6. Weathering the financial storm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Pétursson, Thórarinn G.

    2011-01-01

    to explain a significant share of the cross-country variation in the depth and duration of the crisis and provide quite sharp predictions of the incidence of banking and currency crises. This suggests that country-specific initial conditions played an important role in determining the economic impact...... of the crisis and, in particular, that countries with sound fundamentals and flexible economic frameworks were better able to weather the financial storm....

  7. Areosynchronous weather imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschell, Jeffery J.; Lock, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Mars is characterized by rapidly changing, poorly understood weather that is a concern for future human missions. Future Areosynchronous Mars Orbit (AMO) communication satellites offer possible platforms for Mars weather imagers similar to the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) weather imagers that have been observing Earth since 1966. This paper describes an AReosynchronous Environmental Suite (ARES) that includes two imagers: one with two emissive infrared bands (10.8 μm and 12.0 μm) at 4 km resolution and the other with three VNIR bands (500 nm, 700 nm, 900 nm) at 1 km resolution. ARES stares at Mars and provides full disk coverage as fast as every 40 sec in the VNIR bands and every 2 min in the emissive bands with good sensitivity (SNR 200 in the VNIR for typical radiances and NEDT 0.2K at 180 K scene temperature in the emissive infrared). ARES size, mass, power and data rate characteristics are compatible with expectations for hosted payloads onboard future AMO communication satellites. Nevertheless, more work is needed to optimize ARES for future missions, especially in terms of trades between data rate, full disk coverage rate, sensitivity, number of spectral bands and spatial resolution and in study of approaches for maintaining accurate line of sight knowledge during data collection.

  8. Weather Monitoring Station: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dipak V. Sose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather monitoring plays a very important role in human life hence study of weather system is necessary. Currently there are two types of the weather monitoring stations available i.e. wired and wireless. Wireless system has some advantages over the wired one hence popular now a days. The parameters are include in weather monitoring usually temperature, humidity atmospheric pressure, light intensity, rainfall etc. There are many techniques existed using different processor such as PIC, AVR, ARM etc. Analog to digital channel are used to fetch the analog output of the sensors. The wireless techniques used in the weather monitoring having GSM, FM channel, Zigbee, RF etc Protocols

  9. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Document Server

    CERN audiovisual service

    2009-01-01

    The SET-Routes programme, launched in 2007 with the goal of attracting girls and young women to careers in science, came to an end in April this year. The result of a collaboration between EMBL, EMBO and CERN, the programme established a network of "ambassadors", women scientists who went out to talk about their careers in science at schools and universities across Europe.

  10. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  11. Whirlpool routing for mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Woo

    2010-01-01

    We present the Whirlpool Routing Protocol (WARP), which efficiently routes data to a node moving within a static mesh. The key insight in WARP\\'s design is that data traffic can use an existing routing gradient to efficiently probe the topology, repair the routing gradient, and communicate these repairs to nearby nodes. Using simulation, controlled testbeds, and real mobility experiments, we find that using the data plane for topology maintenance is highly effective due to the incremental nature of mobility updates. WARP leverages the fact that converging flows at a destination make the destination have the region of highest traffic. We provide a theoretical basis for WARP\\'s behavior, defining an "update area" in which the topology must adjust when a destination moves. As long as packets arrive at a destination before it moves outside of the update area, WARP can repair the topology using the data plane. Compared to existing protocols, such as DYMO and HYPER, WARP\\'s packet drop rate is up to 90% lower while sending up to 90% fewer packets.

  12. Vehicle Routing Problem Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonči Carić

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vehicle Routing Problem cannot always be solved exactly,so that in actual application this problem is solved heuristically.The work describes the concept of several concrete VRPmodels with simplified initial conditions (all vehicles are ofequal capacity and start from a single warehouse, suitable tosolve problems in cases with up to 50 users.

  13. Reliable Internet Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    reconfigurations. Proposals that optimize OSPF or IS-IS link weights with failures in mind, such as [34] and [72], must rely on shortest path IGP routing...tolerant layer 2 data center network fabric. In Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, pages 39–50, 2009. [72] A. Nucci, S. Bhattacharyya, N. Taft, and C. Diot. IGP link

  14. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can the Weather Affect My ... empeorar el asma de mi hijo? Weather and Asthma The effect of weather on asthma symptoms isn' ...

  15. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  16. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  17. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities’ preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities’ capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change. PMID:27649547

  18. Integration of Weather Data into Airspace and Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) for Trajectory- Based Operations Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark; Boisvert, Ben; Escala, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with the National Airspace System (NAS) structure is needed to improve the development and execution of operationally effective weather impact mitigation plans and has become increasingly important due to NAS congestion and associated increases in delay. This article considers several contemporary weather-air traffic management (ATM) integration applications: the use of probabilistic forecasts of visibility at San Francisco, the Route Availability Planning Tool to facilitate departures from the New York airports during thunderstorms, the estimation of en route capacity in convective weather, and the application of mixed-integer optimization techniques to air traffic management when the en route and terminal capacities are varying with time because of convective weather impacts. Our operational experience at San Francisco and New York coupled with very promising initial results of traffic flow optimizations suggests that weather-ATM integrated systems warrant significant research and development investment. However, they will need to be refined through rapid prototyping at facilities with supportive operational users We have discussed key elements of an emerging aviation weather research area: the explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with NAS structure to improve the effectiveness and timeliness of weather impact mitigation plans. Our insights are based on operational experiences with Lincoln Laboratory-developed integrated weather sensing and processing systems, and derivative early prototypes of explicit ATM decision support tools such as the RAPT in New York City. The technical components of this effort involve improving meteorological forecast skill, tailoring the forecast outputs to the problem of estimating airspace impacts, developing models to quantify airspace impacts, and prototyping automated tools that assist in the development of objective broad-area ATM strategies, given probabilistic

  19. Route Repetition and Route Retracing: Effects of Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Malte Wiener

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Retracing a recently traveled route is a frequent navigation task when learning novel routes or exploring unfamiliar environments. In the present study we utilized virtual environments technology to investigate age-related differences in repeating and retracing a learned route. In the training phase of the experiment participants were guided along a route consisting of multiple intersections each featuring one unique landmark. In the subsequent test phase, they were guided along short sections of the route and asked to indicate overall travel direction (repetition or retracing, the direction required to continue along the route, and the next landmark they would encounter. Results demonstrate age-related deficits in all three tasks. More specifically, in contrast to younger participants, the older participants had greater problems during route retracing than during route repetition. While route repetition can be solved with egocentric response or route strategies, successfully retracing a route requires allocentric processing. The age-related deficits in route retracing are discussed in the context of impaired allocentric processing and shifts from allocentric to egocentric navigation strategies as a consequence of age-related hippocampal degeneration.

  20. The Weather in Richmond

    OpenAIRE

    Harless, William Edwin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Weather in Richmond is a short documentary about the Oilers, the football team at Richmond High School in downtown Richmond, California, as they struggle in 2012 with the legacy of winning no games, with the exception of a forfeit, in two years. The video documents the city of Richmond’s poverty and violence, but it also is an account of the city’s cultural diversity, of the city’s industrial history and of the hopes of some of the people who grow up there. The...

  1. Combating bad weather

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    Every year lives and properties are lost in road accidents. About one-fourth of these accidents are due to low vision in foggy weather. At present, there is no algorithm that is specifically designed for the removal of fog from videos. Application of a single-image fog removal algorithm over each video frame is a time-consuming and costly affair. It is demonstrated that with the intelligent use of temporal redundancy, fog removal algorithms designed for a single image can be extended to the real-time video application. Results confirm that the presented framework used for the extension of the

  2. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  3. NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

  4. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  5. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  6. Electronic route information panels (DRIPs).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Also in the Netherlands, the term Dynamic Route Information Panel (DRIP) is used for an electronic route information panel. A DRIP usually indicates whether there are queues on the various routes to a particular destination and how long they are. On certain locations DRIPS also give the estimated tr

  7. Rough weather rescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report, which was commissioned by the Offshore Division of the Health and Safety Executive, reviews the type of equipment and techniques used to rescue people from the water around offshore platforms in rough weather. It also examines the limitations of the equipment in extreme conditions and reports the views of the various industry sectors (as determined by a questionnaire survey). The type of incidents covered by the report include: man overboard; helicopter ditching; and evacuation from totally enclosed motor propelled survival craft (TEMPSC) and life rafts. The report considers: the approach taken by other oil-producing countries; current escape, evacuation and rescue (EER) practices for the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS); environmental limits; methods for rescue and recovery from the water and TEMPSC; launch and recovery systems; fast rescue craft (FSC) and daughter craft; emergency response and rescue vessels; helicopters; casualty personal protection equipment; claimed versus actual equipment performance; training and practice procedures; attitudes to environmental limits; lessons learnt from incidents; mechanical recovery devices; equipment design and use in rough weather; and recommendations for improvements.

  8. Weatherization Apprenticeship Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Eric J

    2012-12-18

    Weatherization improvement services will be provided to Native people by Native people. The proposed project will recruit, train and hire two full-time weatherization technicians who will improve the energy efficiency of homes of Alaska Natives/American Indians residing in the Indian areas, within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska. The Region includes Anchorage as well as 8 small tribal villages: The Native Villages of Eklutna, Knik, Chickaloon, Seldovia, Ninilchik, Kenaitze, Salamatof, and Tyonek. This project will be a partnership between three entities, with Cook Inlet Tribal Council (CITC) as the lead agency: CITCA's Employment and Training Services Department, Cook Inlet Housing Authority and Alaska Works Partnership. Additionally, six of the eight tribal villages within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska have agreed to work with the project in order to improve the energy efficiency of their tribally owned buildings and homes. The remaining three villages will be invited to participate in the establishment of an intertribal consortium through this project. Tribal homes and buildings within Anchorage fall under Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) tribal authority.

  9. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. An Evaluation of Layer 2 and Layer 3 Routing on High Capacity Aerial Directional Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-30

    requirements from the Navy, Air Force, Army, and Marines. One of the challenges of the joint architecture is the differing routing architectures . The...changeover. More- over, outages will occur in an end-to-end data path between two surface units due to aircraft body blockages, weather etc. A previous...their similarities and differences to what we are contributing. In section III, we provide an overview of the routing architecture required by surface

  11. Space Weather- Physics and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bothmer, Volker

    2007-01-01

    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.

  12. Weather Forecasting Systems and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecikalski, John (Inventor); MacKenzie, Wayne M., Jr. (Inventor); Walker, John Robert (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A weather forecasting system has weather forecasting logic that receives raw image data from a satellite. The raw image data has values indicative of light and radiance data from the Earth as measured by the satellite, and the weather forecasting logic processes such data to identify cumulus clouds within the satellite images. For each identified cumulus cloud, the weather forecasting logic applies interest field tests to determine a score indicating the likelihood of the cumulus cloud forming precipitation and/or lightning in the future within a certain time period. Based on such scores, the weather forecasting logic predicts in which geographic regions the identified cumulus clouds will produce precipitation and/or lighting within during the time period. Such predictions may then be used to provide a weather map thereby providing users with a graphical illustration of the areas predicted to be affected by precipitation within the time period.

  13. Effective local dynamic routing strategy for air route networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Wenjun; Zhao Lingxi

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of air transportation, network service ability has attracted a lot of attention in academe. Aiming to improve the throughput of the air route network (ARN), we propose an effective local dynamic routing strategy in this paper. Several factors, such as the rout-ing distance, the geographical distance and the real-time local traffic, are taken into consideration. When the ARN is in the normal free-flow state, the proposed strategy can recover the shortest path routing (SPR) strategy. When the ARN undergoes congestion, the proposed strategy changes the paths of flights based on the real-time local traffic information. The throughput of the Chinese air route network (CARN) is evaluated. Results confirm that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the throughput of CARN. Meanwhile, the increase in the average flying distance and time is tiny. Results also indicate the importance of the distance related factors in a routing strategy designed for the ARN.

  14. Small Sensors for Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory is actively pursuing enhancing the nation's space weather sensing capability. One aspect of this plan is the concept of flying Space Weather sensor suites on host spacecraft as secondary payloads. The emergence and advancement of the CubeSat spacecraft architecture has produced a viable platform for scientifically and operationally relevant Space Weather sensing. This talk will provide an overview of NRL's low size weight and power sensor technologies targeting Space Weather measurements. A summary of on-orbit results of past and current missions will be presented, as well as an overview of future flights that are manifested and potential constellation missions.

  15. Bishop Paiute Weatherization Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Hernandez

    2010-01-28

    The DOE Weatherization Training Grant assisted Native American trainees in developing weatherization competencies, creating employment opportunities for Bishop Paiute tribal members in a growing field. The trainees completed all the necessary training and certification requirements and delivered high-quality weatherization services on the Bishop Paiute Reservation. Six tribal members received all three certifications for weatherization; four of the trainees are currently employed. The public benefit includes (1) development of marketable skills by low-income Native individuals, (2) employment for low-income Native individuals in a growing industry, and (3) economic development opportunities that were previously not available to these individuals or the Tribe.

  16. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  17. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  18. Using Forecasting to Teach Weather Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Y.; Takahashi, T.

    2009-09-01

    Weather affects our lives and hence, is a popular topic in daily conversations and in the media. Therefore, it is not only important to teach weather, but is also a good idea to use 'weather' as a topic in science teaching. Science education has two main objectives: to acquire scientific concepts and methods. Weather forecasting is an adequate theme to teach scientific methods because it is dependent on observation. However, it is not easy to forecast weather using only temporal observation. We need to know the tendency of 'weather change' via consecutive and/or continuous weather observation. Students will acquire scientific-observation skills through weather observation. Data-processing skills would be enhanced through a weather-forecasting contest. A contest should be announced within 5 days of school events, such as a school excursion and field day. Students submit their own weather forecast by gathering weather information through the internet, news paper and so on. A weather-forecasting contest compels the student to observe the weather more often. We currently have some different weather forecasts. For example, American weather-related companies such as ACCU weather and Weather Channel provide weather forecast for the many locations all over the world. Comparing these weather forecasting with actual weather, participants such as students could evaluate the differences between forecasted and actual temperatures. Participants will judge the best weather forecast based on the magnitude of the difference. Also, participants evaluate the 'hitting ratio' of each weather forecast. Students can learn elementary statistics by comparing various weather forecasts. We have developed our weather web-site that provides our own weather forecasting and observation. Students acquire science skills using our weather web-site. We will report our lessen plans and explain our weather web-site.

  19. Storage and flood routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R.W.; Godfrey, R.G.

    1960-01-01

    The basic equations used in flood routing are developed from the law of continuity. In each method the assumptions are discussed to enable the user to select an appropriate technique. In the stage-storage method the storage is related to the mean gage height in the reach under consideration. In the discharge-storage method the storage is determined, from weighted values of inflow and outflow discharge. In the reservoir-storage method the storage is considered as a function of outflow discharge alone. A detailed example is given for each method to illustrate that particular technique.

  20. Instability Free Routing: Beyond One Protocol Instance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    assigned a Rout- ing Information Base (RIB) [13]. This database is used to store the routing information related to the routing process (e.g., routes...presents routing anomalies that can derive from route selection by itself, i.e., without any route redis - tribution configured between the routing... redis - tributed into the RIP protocol, all RIP messages received from the neighbors are in fact discarded independently of the AD values. This

  1. Weather Fundamentals: Hurricanes & Tornadoes. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) features information on the deadliest and most destructive storms on Earth. Through satellite…

  2. Tibetan History of Weather Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Modem weather monitoring began in Tibet at the end of the 19th century. In 1894, the British set up a weather monitoting station in Chunpei of Yadong,which continued to operate until August 1956. In the 1940s, the Nationalist Govemment's Ministry of Communications set up a rainfall measuring station in Qamdo, Xikang Province.

  3. Weather Modification: Finding Common Ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garstang, Michael; Bruintjes, Roelof; Serafin, Robert; Orville, Harold; Boe, Bruce; Cotton, William; Warburton, Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Research and operational approaches to weather modification expressed in the National Research Council's 2003 report on “Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research” and in the Weather Modification Association's response to that report form the basis for this discussion. There is agreement that advances in the past few decades over a broad front of understanding physical processes and in technology have not been comprehensively applied to weather modification. Such advances need to be capitalized upon in the form of a concerted and sustained national effort to carry out basic and applied research in weather modification. The need for credible scientific evidence and the pressure for action should be resolved. Differences in the perception of current knowledge, the utility of numerical models, and the specific needs of research and operations in weather modification must be addressed. The increasing demand for water and the cost to society inflicted by severe weather require that the intellectual, technical, and administrative resources of the nation be combined to resolve whether and to what degree humans can influence the weather.The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation

  4. Japanese space weather research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present existing and planned Japanese space weather research activities. The program consists of several core elements, including a space weather prediction system using numerical forecasts, a large-scale ground-based observation network, and the cooperative framework "Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP)" based on a Grant-in Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas.

  5. Weather to Make a Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Julie E.; Mjelde, James W.; Litzenberg, Kerry K.

    2006-01-01

    DECIDE is a teacher-friendly, integrated approach designed to stimulate learning by allowing students to make decisions about situations they face in their lives while using scientific weather principles. This learning unit integrates weather science, decision theory, mathematics, statistics, geography, and reading in a context of decision…

  6. New Routing Metrics for ADHOC Network Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The performance and reliability of Internet is measured using different quantities. When the quantities measured are essential and have wide range of acceptance then they are called metrics. Performance metrics enable comparison and selection among the alternatives. In computer networks, metrics are used to evaluate an application, protocol etc. Routing in adhoc networks is nontrivial. Routing protocols for adhoc networks are still evolving and there is need for continuous evaluation of them. In the literature existing, several routing protocols are evaluated using standard metrics under different conditions. This paper proposes new metrics for evaluation of routing protocols and uses them to evaluate the adhoc network routing protocols AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA. Simulation environment is created using NS-2 simulator. Typical range of speeds, pause times and data rates are used. The results provide new insights in to the working of the routing protocols.

  7. 14 CFR 121.115 - Route width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Route width. (a) Routes and route segments over Federal airways, foreign airways, or advisory routes have a width equal to the designated width of those airways or advisory routes. Whenever the... clearance. (2) Minimum en route altitudes. (3) Ground and airborne navigation aids. (4) Air traffic density...

  8. An overview of smart grid routing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; OU, Qinghai; Shen, Haijuan

    2017-08-01

    This paper summarizes the typical routing algorithm in smart grid by analyzing the communication business and communication requirements of intelligent grid. Mainly from the two kinds of routing algorithm is analyzed, namely clustering routing algorithm and routing algorithm, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of typical routing algorithm in routing algorithm and applicability.

  9. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Koussis; K. Mazi; S. Lykoudis; Argiriou, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    This work treats reverse flood routing aiming at signal identification: inflows are inferred from observed outflows by orienting the Muskingum scheme against the wave propagation direction. Routing against the wave propagation is an ill-posed, inverse problem (small errors amplify, leading to large spurious responses); therefore, the reverse solution must be smoothness-constrained towards stability and uniqueness (regularised). Theoretical constrains on the coefficients of the reverse routing...

  10. Cool Stars and Space Weather

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Cameron, A C; Morin, J; Villadsen, J; Saar, S; Alvarado, J; Cohen, O; Holzwarth, V; Poppenhaeger, K; Reville, V

    2014-01-01

    Stellar flares, winds and coronal mass ejections form the space weather. They are signatures of the magnetic activity of cool stars and, since activity varies with age, mass and rotation, the space weather that extra-solar planets experience can be very different from the one encountered by the solar system planets. How do stellar activity and magnetism influence the space weather of exoplanets orbiting main-sequence stars? How do the environments surrounding exoplanets differ from those around the planets in our own solar system? How can the detailed knowledge acquired by the solar system community be applied in exoplanetary systems? How does space weather affect habitability? These were questions that were addressed in the splinter session "Cool stars and Space Weather", that took place on 9 Jun 2014, during the Cool Stars 18 meeting. In this paper, we present a summary of the contributions made to this session.

  11. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality....... Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised...... and precipitating and non-precipitating clouds. Another method uses the difference in the motion field of clutter and precipitation measured between two radar images. Furthermore, the direction of the wind field extracted from a weather model is used. The third method uses information about the refractive index...

  12. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  13. Degree 3 Networks Topological Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup;

    2009-01-01

    Topological routing is a table free alternative to traditional routing methods. It is specially well suited for organized network interconnection schemes. Topological routing algorithms correspond to the type O(1), constant complexity, being very attractive for large scale networks. It has been...... proposed for many topologies and this work compares the algorithms for three degree three topologies using a more analytical approach than previous studies....

  14. Space weathering of asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Shestopalov, D I; Cloutis, E A

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of laboratory experiments simulating space weathering optical effects on atmosphereless planetary bodies reveals that the time needed to alter the spectrum of an ordinary chondrite meteorite to resemble the overall spectral shape and slope of an S-type asteroid is about ~ 0.1 Myr. The time required to reduce the visible albedo of samples to ~ 0.05 is ~ 1 Myr. Since both these timescales are much less than the average collisional lifetime of asteroids larger than several kilometers in size, numerous low-albedo asteroids having reddish spectra with subdued absorption bands should be observed instead of an S-type dominated population. It is not the case because asteroid surfaces cannot be considered as undisturbed, unlike laboratory samples. We have estimated the number of collisions occurring in the time of 105 yr between asteroids and projectiles of various sizes and show that impact-activated motions of regolith particles counteract the progress of optical maturation of asteroid surfaces. Continual r...

  15. Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family KidsHealth > For Parents > Cold- ... once the weather turns frosty. Beating the Cold-Weather Blahs Once a chill is in the air, ...

  16. Alternative routes of insulin delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ranjith K. Krishnankutty; Aju Mathew; Saikiran K. Sedimbi; Shrikumar Suryanarayan; Carani B. Sanjeevi

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral route of insulin administration has been the mode of treatment for all Type 1 diabetics and Type 2 diabetics with complications. Patient compliance has really been a major concern for this route of administration. Several alternative routes of administration are under consideration for effective glycemic control, including oral, inhaled, buccal, nasal, and patch routes. One of the approaches involving inhaled insulin has now reached the market. Several other candidates may reach the market in the near future, the promising one being oral insulin.

  17. A Primer of Multicast Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Whereas unicast routing determines a path from one source node to one destination node, multicast routing determines a path from one source to many destinations, or from many sources to many destinations. We survey multicast routing methods for when the set of destinations is static, and for when it is dynamic. While most of the methods we review are tree based, some non-tree methods are also discussed. We survey results on the shape of multicast trees, delay constrained multicast routing, aggregation of multicast traffic, inter-domain multicast, and multicast virtual private networks. We focu

  18. Alternative routes of insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnankutty, Ranjith K; Mathew, Aju; Sedimbi, Saikiran K; Suryanarayan, Shrikumar; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2009-10-01

    Parenteral route of insulin administration has been the mode of treatment for all Type 1 diabetics and Type 2 diabetics with complications. Patient compliance has really been a major concern for this route of administration. Several alternative routes of administration are under consideration for effective glycemic control, including oral, inhaled, buccal, nasal, and patch routes. One of the approaches involving inhaled insulin has now reached the market. Several other candidates may reach the market in the near future, the promising one being oral insulin.

  19. Space weathering on airless bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Noble, Sarah K.

    2016-10-01

    Space weathering refers to alteration that occurs in the space environment with time. Lunar samples, and to some extent meteorites, have provided a benchmark for understanding the processes and products of space weathering. Lunar soils are derived principally from local materials but have accumulated a range of optically active opaque particles (OAOpq) that include nanophase metallic iron on/in rims formed on individual grains (imparting a red slope to visible and near-infrared reflectance) and larger iron particles (which darken across all wavelengths) such as are often found within the interior of recycled grains. Space weathering of other anhydrous silicate bodies, such as Mercury and some asteroids, produces different forms and relative abundance of OAOpq particles depending on the particular environment. If the development of OAOpq particles is minimized (such as at Vesta), contamination by exogenic material and regolith mixing become the dominant space weathering processes. Volatile-rich bodies and those composed of abundant hydrous minerals (dwarf planet Ceres, many dark asteroids, and outer solar system satellites) are affected by space weathering processes differently than the silicate bodies of the inner solar system. However, the space weathering products of these bodies are currently poorly understood and the physics and chemistry of space weathering processes in different environments are areas of active research.

  20. Space Weather Forecasting: An Enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The space age began in earnest on October 4, 1957 with the launch of Sputnik 1 and was fuelled for over a decade by very strong national societal concerns. Prior to this single event the adverse effects of space weather had been registered on telegraph lines as well as interference on early WWII radar systems, while for countless eons the beauty of space weather as mid-latitude auroral displays were much appreciated. These prior space weather impacts were in themselves only a low-level science puzzle pursued by a few dedicated researchers. The technology boost and innovation that the post Sputnik era generated has almost single handedly defined our present day societal technology infrastructure. During the decade following Neil's walk on the moon on July 21, 1969 an international thrust to understand the science of space, and its weather, was in progress. However, the search for scientific understand was parsed into independent "stove pipe" categories: The ionosphere-aeronomy, the magnetosphere, the heliosphere-sun. The present day scientific infrastructure of funding agencies, learned societies, and international organizations are still hampered by these 1960's logical divisions which today are outdated in the pursuit of understanding space weather. As this era of intensive and well funded scientific research progressed so did societies innovative uses for space technologies and space "spin-offs". Well over a decade ago leaders in technology, science, and the military realized that there was indeed an adverse side to space weather that with each passing year became more severe. In 1994 several U.S. agencies established the National Space Weather Program (NSWP) to focus scientific attention on the system wide issue of the adverse effects of space weather on society and its technologies. Indeed for the past two decades a significant fraction of the scientific community has actively engaged in understanding space weather and hence crossing the "stove

  1. Extreme Weather and Natural Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Healey, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Australia is a vast land in which weather varies significantly in different parts of the continent. Recent extreme weather events in Australia, such as the Queensland floods and Victorian bushfires, are brutal reminders of nature's devastating power. Is global warming increasing the rate of natural disasters? What part do La Niña and El Niño play in the extreme weather cycle? Cyclones, floods, severe storms, bushfires, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis - what are the natural and man-made causes of these phenomena, how predictable are they, and how prepared are we for the impacts of natural dis

  2. Simulation and Data Analytics for Mobile Road Weather Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, S. R.; Evans, J. D.; Tislin, D.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous algorithmic and theoretical considerations arise in simulating a vehicle-based weather observation network known as the Mobile Platform Environmental Data (MoPED). MoPED integrates sensor data from a fleet of commercial vehicles (about 600 at last count, with thousands more to come) as they travel interstate, state and local routes and metropolitan areas throughout the conterminous United States. The MoPED simulator models a fleet of anywhere between 1000-10,000 vehicles that travel a highway network encoded in a geospatial database, starting and finishing at random times and moving at randomly-varying speeds. Virtual instruments aboard these vehicles interpolate surface weather parameters (such as temperature and pressure) from the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) data series, an hourly, coast-to-coast 3km grid of weather parameters modeled by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Whereas real MoPED sensors have noise characteristics that lead to drop-outs, drift, or physically unrealizable values, our simulation introduces a variety of noise distributions into the parameter values inferred from HRRR (Fig. 1). Finally, the simulator collects weather readings from the National Weather Service's Automated Surface Observation System (ASOS, comprised of over 800 airports around the country) for comparison, validation, and analytical experiments. The simulator's MoPED-like weather data stream enables studies like the following: Experimenting with data analysis and calibration methods - e.g., by comparing noisy vehicle data with ASOS "ground truth" in close spatial and temporal proximity (e.g., 10km, 10 min) (Fig. 2). Inter-calibrating different vehicles' sensors when they pass near each other. Detecting spatial structure in the surface weather - such as dry lines, sudden changes in humidity that accompany severe weather - and estimating how many vehicles are needed to reliably map these structures and their motion. Detecting bottlenecks in the

  3. Route Elimination Heuristic for Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Csiszár

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a route elimination (RE algorithm for thevehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW. The problem has two objectives, oneof them is the minimal number of routes the other is the minimal cost. To cope with theseobjectives effectively two-phase solutions are often suggested in the relevant literature. Inthe first phase the main focus is the route elimination, in the second one it is the costreduction. The algorithm described here is a part of a complete VRPWT study. The methodwas developed by studying the graph behaviour during the route elimination. For thispurpose a model -called “Magic Bricks” was developed. The computation results on theSolomon problem set show that the developed algorithm is competitive with the best ones.

  4. STEREO Space Weather and the Space Weather Beacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesecker, D. A.; Webb, D F.; SaintCyr, O. C.

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) is first and foremost a solar and interplanetary research mission, with one of the natural applications being in the area of space weather. The obvious potential for space weather applications is so great that NOAA has worked to incorporate the real-time data into their forecast center as much as possible. A subset of the STEREO data will be continuously downlinked in a real-time broadcast mode, called the Space Weather Beacon. Within the research community there has been considerable interest in conducting space weather related research with STEREO. Some of this research is geared towards making an immediate impact while other work is still very much in the research domain. There are many areas where STEREO might contribute and we cannot predict where all the successes will come. Here we discuss how STEREO will contribute to space weather and many of the specific research projects proposed to address STEREO space weather issues. We also discuss some specific uses of the STEREO data in the NOAA Space Environment Center.

  5. Airborne TDMA for High Throughput and Fast Weather Conditions Notification

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Hyungjun

    2011-01-01

    As air traffic grows significantly, aircraft accidents increase. Many aviation accidents could be prevented if the precise aircraft positions and weather conditions on the aircraft's route were known. Existing studies propose determining the precise aircraft positions via a VHF channel with an air-to-air radio relay system that is based on mobile ad-hoc networks. However, due to the long propagation delay, the existing TDMA MAC schemes underutilize the networks. The existing TDMA MAC sends data and receives ACK in one time slot, which requires two guard times in one time slot. Since aeronautical communications spans a significant distance, the guard time occupies a significantly large portion of the slot. To solve this problem, we propose a piggybacking mechanism ACK. Our proposed MAC has one guard time in one time slot, which enables the transmission of more data. Using this additional data, we can send weather conditions that pertain to the aircraft's current position. Our analysis shows that this proposed ...

  6. All-Weather Solar Cells: A Rising Photovoltaic Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunwei

    2017-06-16

    Solar cells have been considered as one of the foremost solutions to energy and environmental problems because of clean, high efficiency, cost-effective, and inexhaustible features. The historical development and state-of-the-art solar cells mainly focus on elevating photoelectric conversion efficiency upon direct sunlight illumination. It is still a challenging problem to realize persistent high-efficiency power generation in rainy, foggy, haze, and dark-light conditions (night). The physical proof-of-concept for all-weather solar cells opens a door for an upcoming photovoltaic revolution. Our group has been exploring constructive routes to build all-weather solar cells so that these advanced photovoltaic technologies can be an indication for global solar industry in bringing down the cost of energy harvesting. How the all-weather solar cells are built without reducing photo performances and why such architectures can realize electricity outputs with no visible-light are discussed. Potential pathways and opportunities to enrich all-weather solar cell families are envisaged. The aspects discussed here may enable researchers to develop undiscovered abilities and to explore wide applications of advanced photovoltaics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. KZBW Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  8. Fish Springs weather CY 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2011 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  9. Fish Springs weather CY 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2010 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  10. The science of space weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Jonathan P

    2008-12-13

    The basic physics underpinning space weather is reviewed, beginning with a brief overview of the main causes of variability in the near-Earth space environment. Although many plasma phenomena contribute to space weather, one of the most important is magnetic reconnection, and recent cutting edge research in this field is reviewed. We then place this research in context by discussing a number of specific types of space weather in more detail. As society inexorably increases its dependence on space, the necessity of predicting and mitigating space weather will become ever more acute. This requires a deep understanding of the complexities inherent in the plasmas that fill space and has prompted the development of a new generation of scientific space missions at the international level.

  11. KZOA Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  12. KZSE Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  13. KZMA Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  14. US Weather Bureau Storm Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Bureau and US Army Corps and other reports of storms from 1886-1955. Hourly precipitation from recording rain gauges captured during heavy rain, snow,...

  15. Surface Weather Observations (Pre-1893)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly weather records from U.S. Army Forts stations (~1820-1871), U.S. Army Signal Service Stations (1871-1892), Smithsonian Institution voluntary observer network...

  16. KZLC Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  17. Weather data communication and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, R. H.; Nickum, J. D.; Mccall, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The communication of weather data to aircraft is discussed. Problems encountered because of the great quantities of data available and the limited capacity to transfer this via radio link to an aircraft are discussed. Display devices are discussed.

  18. Practical Weathering for Geology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, A. Peter

    1990-01-01

    The design and data management of an activity to study weathering by increasing the rate of mineral dissolution in a microwave oven is described. Data analysis in terms of parabolic and first-order kinetics is discussed. (CW)

  19. WARP Weather Information Network Server

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — WINS is the dissemination module of the WARP system that provides an interface to various NAS Users/systems that require weather data/products/information from WARP...

  20. Northern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Part I consists of plotted and analyzed daily maps of sea-level and 500-mb maps for 0300, 0400, 1200, 1230, 1300, and 1500...

  1. Information on weather and sea conditions onboard polar cruise ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRÂNDUŞA CHIOTOROIU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The arctic and Antarctic regions are difficult to navigate because of their severe maritime conditions. Weather forecast, forecast of the sea ice and icebergs dynamics are extremely important when planning ships routes and tourism activities including embarkation/disembarkation from boats or landing operations. New meteorological services have been created in the arctic region for broadcast purposes. The information provided by these services and received onboard ships is presented in this paper. A risk assessment should be considered for Polar Water operations such as maneuvering in ice covered waters, anchoring, shore landings etc.

  2. Route-external and route-internal landmarks in route descriptions : Effects of route length and map design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, Hans; Maes, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Landmarks are basic ingredients in route descriptions. They often mark choice points: locations where travellers choose from different options how to continue the route. This study focuses on one of the loose ends in the taxonomy of landmarks. In a memory-based production experiment in which respond

  3. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against

  4. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  5. An enzymatic route to selenazolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehnke, Jesko; Morawitz, Falk; Bent, Andrew F; Houssen, Wael E; Shirran, Sally L; Fuszard, Matthew A; Smellie, Iain A; Botting, Catherine H; Smith, Margaret C M; Jaspars, Marcel; Naismith, James H

    2013-03-18

    Ringing the changes: Selenazolines have applications in medicinal chemistry, but their synthesis is challenging. We report a new convenient and less toxic route to these heterocycles that starts from commercially available selenocysteine. The new route depends on a heterocyclase enzyme that creates oxazolines and thiazolines from serines/threonines and cysteines.

  6. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.; Arem, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  7. Hardware Routing Lookup with SDRAMT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors present a routing lookup architecture, SDIR(SDRAM based Direct Index Routing). With pipeline and interleaving access technique, SDIR can provide scalable lookup speed from 16.7 MPPS(megapacket per second) to 133 MPPS with SDRAM running at 133MHz frequency.

  8. Stochastic Vehicle Routing with Recourse

    CERN Document Server

    Goertz, Inge Li; Saket, Rishi

    2012-01-01

    We study the classic Vehicle Routing Problem in the setting of stochastic optimization with recourse. StochVRP is a two-stage optimization problem, where demand is satisfied using two routes: fixed and recourse. The fixed route is computed using only a demand distribution. Then after observing the demand instantiations, a recourse route is computed -- but costs here become more expensive by a factor lambda. We present an O(log^2 n log(n lambda))-approximation algorithm for this stochastic routing problem, under arbitrary distributions. The main idea in this result is relating StochVRP to a special case of submodular orienteering, called knapsack rank-function orienteering. We also give a better approximation ratio for knapsack rank-function orienteering than what follows from prior work. Finally, we provide a Unique Games Conjecture based omega(1) hardness of approximation for StochVRP, even on star-like metrics on which our algorithm achieves a logarithmic approximation.

  9. Stochastic vehicle routing with recourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Saket, Rishi

    2012-01-01

    We study the classic Vehicle Routing Problem in the setting of stochastic optimization with recourse. StochVRP is a two-stage problem, where demand is satisfied using two routes: fixed and recourse. The fixed route is computed using only a demand distribution. Then after observing the demand...... instantiations, a recourse route is computed - but costs here become more expensive by a factor λ. We present an O(log2n ·log(nλ))-approximation algorithm for this stochastic routing problem, under arbitrary distributions. The main idea in this result is relating StochVRP to a special case of submodular...... orienteering, called knapsack rank-function orienteering. We also give a better approximation ratio for knapsack rank-function orienteering than what follows from prior work. Finally, we provide a Unique Games Conjecture based ω(1) hardness of approximation for StochVRP, even on star-like metrics on which our...

  10. Wave Height Incidence on Mediterranean Short Sea Shipping Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Martínez de Osés

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent mid term review of the EU white paper on transport, Short Sea Shipping in EU waters is expected to grow from 2000 to 2020 at a rate of 59% in volume (metric tonnes. If we consider that the overall expected growth in freight exchanges is of 50% (also in volume, sea transport is one of the most feasible ways to reduce traffic congestion on European roads. High speed vessels are a possible way to compete with road transport in certain traffics; however these ships are highly affected by heavy weather. This paper is going to analyse the weather influence on several short sea shipping Mediterranean routes to be served by fast ships.

  11. Titan: Callisto With Weather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2008-12-01

    , Titan might have accreted relatively cold. Without being in a forced resonance, Titan's interior may have never undergone significant tidal heating. Analogous to Callisto's tenuous CO2 atmosphere, believed to be generated by sublimation of interior ices, interior clathrated methane within Titan may slowly diffuse outward from the cold interior, rather than the atmosphere being replenished by cryovolcanism. The hypothesis that Titan is "Callisto with weather" -- with geological processes that are principally exogenic -- can be tested through geophysical and thermal modeling, and by modeling the evolution of landscapes that are shaped by exogenic processes alone.

  12. 14 CFR 121.95 - Route width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) Approved routes and route segments over U.S. Federal airways or foreign airways (and advisory... designated width of those airways or routes. Whenever the Administrator finds it necessary to determine the width of other approved routes, he considers the following: (1) Terrain clearance. (2) Minimum en route...

  13. Operability Guidelines For Product Tanker In Heavy Weather In The Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudronja Luka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents operability guidelines for seafarers on a product tanker which navigates in the Adriatic Sea during heavy weather. Tanker route starts from the Otranto strait in the south to the island Krk in the north of Adriatic Sea. Heavy weather is caused by south wind called jugo (blowing from E-SE to SS-E, sirocco family. Operability guidelines are given based on an operability criteria platform for presenting ship seakeeping characteristics. Operability criteria considered in this paper are propeller emergence, deck wetness and bow acceleration of a product tanker. Limiting values of mentioned criteria determine sustainable speed. Heavy weather is described by extreme sea state of 7.5 m wave height. Wave spectrum used in this paper is Tabain spectrum which is developed specifically for Adriatic Sea. Seafarer's approach of decisions making in extreme weather is also shown and servers as a guideline for further research of the authors.

  14. NEW ROUNDABOUT AT ROUTE DE L'EUROPE ROAD JUNCTION

    CERN Multimedia

    Division ST; ST Division; Civil Engineering Group

    2000-01-01

    Départementale de l’Equipement de Gex (DDE), the Gex Departmental Public Works Directorate, on completion work for the new roundabout at the intersection between the Route de St. Genis and the Route de l’Europe. The Route de l’Europe will be closed on two occasions at the site of the future roundabout: ­ from 2 to 6 October for the laying of bitumen-gravel aggregate; ­ for 2-3 days during week 42 (16 to 20 October) for the topcoat. The tunnel will remain open to traffic. The works are planned to end on 20 October. It will only be possible to decide on the exact dates for the second closure in the middle of week 41, depending on the progress of work and on weather conditions. Warning signs will be posted on the Route de Meyrin, and at the crossroads outside the entrance to the Prévessin site of CERN. The Public Works Directorate is grateful for your understanding.

  15. Road Routes for Waste Disposal - MDC_RecyclingRoute

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This CURBSIDE RECYCLING ROUTES BOUNDARIES LAYER IS A polygon feature class created for the Miami-Dade Department of Solid Waste Management (DSWM). It contains the...

  16. Electric Vehicle Green Routing with Possible En-Route Recharging

    OpenAIRE

    BAOUCHE, Fouad; BILLOT, Romain; Trigui, Rochdi; EL FAOUZI, Nour Eddin

    2014-01-01

    The deployment of Electric Vehicles (EVs) is constrained mainly by the restricted autonomy, the lack of charging stations, the battery recharge time and recuperation capability (e.g. braking phases or downhill). In this study we aim to develop a green routing tool to encourage the use of EV. To overcome the autonomy limitation we propose a methodology for the EV that includes a charging stations location model, an energy graph construction for EV routing and a resolution scheme for the routin...

  17. Pheromone based alternative route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbing Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an improved alternative route calculation based on alternative figures, which is suitable for practical environments. The improvement is based on the fact that the main traffic route is the road network skeleton in a city. Our approach using nodes may generate a higher possibility of overlapping. We employ a bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm to search the route. To measure the quality of an Alternative Figures (AG, three quotas are proposed. The experiment results indicate that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is more effective than others.

  18. Millimeter Wave Alternate Route Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    A0-AI02 303 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION ST--ETC FIG 17/2.1 MILLIMETER WAVE ALENT ROUTE STUDT.(U) APR W C ADAMS J J PAN, W C...481-487. 4-7 abm ADAOO0 303 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION S -ETC F/G 17/2.1 MILLIMETER WAVE ALTERNATE ROUTE STUDY.(U) APR 81 W C...7-21L’j r AD-A102 303 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION ST--ETC F/A 17/2.1 MILLIMETER WAVE ALTERNATE ROUTE STUDY(U) APR 81 W C ADAMS

  19. Port Authority of Allegheny County Transit Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shapefile of Transit Routes - Please refer to each resource for active dates of the route information. Routes change over time,

  20. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Koussis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work treats reverse flood routing aiming at signal identification: inflows are inferred from observed outflows by orienting the Muskingum scheme against the wave propagation direction. Routing against the wave propagation is an ill-posed, inverse problem (small errors amplify, leading to large spurious responses; therefore, the reverse solution must be smoothness-constrained towards stability and uniqueness (regularised. Theoretical constrains on the coefficients of the reverse routing scheme assist in error control, but optimal grids are derived by numerical experimentation. Exact solutions of the convection-diffusion equation, for a single and a composite wave, are reverse-routed and in both instances the wave is backtracked well for a range of grid parameters. In the arduous test of a square pulse, the result is comparable to those of more complex methods. Seeding outflow data with random errors enhances instability; to cope with the spurious oscillations, the reversed solution is conditioned by smoothing via low-pass filtering or optimisation. Good-quality inflow hydrographs are recovered with either smoothing treatment, yet the computationally demanding optimisation is superior. Finally, the reverse Muskingum routing method is compared to a reverse-solution method of the St. Venant equations of flood wave motion and is found to perform equally well, at a fraction of the computing effort. This study leads us to conclude that the efficiently attained good inflow identification rests on the simplicity of the Muskingum reverse routing scheme that endows it with numerical robustness.

  1. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koussis, A. D.; Mazi, K.; Lykoudis, S.; Argiriou, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    This work treats reverse flood routing aiming at signal identification: inflows are inferred from observed outflows by orienting the Muskingum scheme against the wave propagation direction. Routing against the wave propagation is an ill-posed, inverse problem (small errors amplify, leading to large spurious responses); therefore, the reverse solution must be smoothness-constrained towards stability and uniqueness (regularised). Theoretical constrains on the coefficients of the reverse routing scheme assist in error control, but optimal grids are derived by numerical experimentation. Exact solutions of the convection-diffusion equation, for a single and a composite wave, are reverse-routed and in both instances the wave is backtracked well for a range of grid parameters. In the arduous test of a square pulse, the result is comparable to those of more complex methods. Seeding outflow data with random errors enhances instability; to cope with the spurious oscillations, the reversed solution is conditioned by smoothing via low-pass filtering or optimisation. Good-quality inflow hydrographs are recovered with either smoothing treatment, yet the computationally demanding optimisation is superior. Finally, the reverse Muskingum routing method is compared to a reverse-solution method of the St. Venant equations of flood wave motion and is found to perform equally well, at a fraction of the computing effort. This study leads us to conclude that the efficiently attained good inflow identification rests on the simplicity of the Muskingum reverse routing scheme that endows it with numerical robustness.

  2. Quantitative Chemical Indices of Weathered Igneous Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different weathering indices for characterising weathered igneous rocks of Hong Kong. Among eight chemical indices evaluated in this study, the Parker index has been found most suitable for a quantitative description of state of weathering. Based on geochemical results of 174 samples, the index decreases almost linearly with an increasing extent of weathering. The results enable a better understanding of the modification of geotechnical properties of igneous rocks associated with weathering processes.

  3. Space Weather - the Economic Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, M. M.; Gibbs, M.

    2015-12-01

    Following on from the UK Government's placement of space weather on it's National Risk Register, in 2011, and the Royal Academy of Engineering's study into the impacts of a severe space weather event, the next piece of key evidence, to underpin future investment decisions, is understanding the socio-economic impact of space weather This poster outlines a study, funded by the UK Space Agency, which will assess the socio-economic cost of space weather, both severe events, such as 1989 & a modern day repeat of the Carrington storm and also the cost of day-to-day impacts. The study will go on to estimate the cost benefit of forecasting and also investigate options for an operational L5 spacecraft mission and knowledge exchange activities with the South African Space Agency. The findings from the initial space weather socio-economic literature review will be presented along with other findings to date and sets out the tasks for the remainder of this programme of work.

  4. Space Weather Research: Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Pant, Tarun Kumar; Choudhary, R. K.; Nandy, Dibyendu; Manoharan, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Space weather, just like its meteorological counterpart, is of extreme importance when it comes to its impact on terrestrial near- and far-space environments. In recent years, space weather research has acquired an important place as a thrust area of research having implications both in space science and technology. The presence of satellites and other technological systems from different nations in near-Earth space necessitates that one must have a comprehensive understanding not only of the origin and evolution of space weather processes but also of their impact on technology and terrestrial upper atmosphere. To address this aspect, nations across the globe including India have been investing in research concerning Sun, solar processes and their evolution from solar interior into the interplanetary space, and their impact on Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In India, over the years, a substantial amount of work has been done in each of these areas by various agencies/institutions. In fact, India has been, and continues to be, at the forefront of space research and has ambitious future programs concerning these areas encompassing space weather. This review aims at providing a glimpse of this Indian perspective on space weather research to the reader and presenting an up-to-date status of the same.

  5. Topological Routing in Large-Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2004-01-01

    A new routing scheme, Topological Routing, for large-scale networks is proposed. It allows for efficient routing without large routing tables as known from traditional routing schemes. It presupposes a certain level of order in the networks, known from Structural QoS. The main issues in applying...... Topological Routing to large-scale networks are discussed. Hierarchical extensions are presented along with schemes for shortest path routing, fault handling and path restoration. Further reserach in the area is discussed and perspectives on the prerequisites for practical deployment of Topological Routing...

  6. Topological Routing in Large-Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    A new routing scheme, Topological Routing, for large-scale networks is proposed. It allows for efficient routing without large routing tables as known from traditional routing schemes. It presupposes a certain level of order in the networks, known from Structural QoS. The main issues in applying...... Topological Routing to large-scale networks are discussed. Hierarchical extensions are presented along with schemes for shortest path routing, fault handling and path restoration. Further reserach in the area is discussed and perspectives on the prerequisites for practical deployment of Topological Routing...

  7. Weather Information Communication Technologies for Increased Safety and Mobility in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderman, Don R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Glenn Research Center Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) project was to develop advanced communications and information technologies to enable the high-quality and timely dissemination of strategic weather information between the flight deck and ground users as well as tactical turbulence hazard information between relevant aircraft and to the ground. This report will document and reference accomplishments on the dissemination of weather information during the en route phase of flight from ground-based weather information providers to the flight deck (ground-to-air), from airborne meteorological sensors to ground users (air-to-ground), and weather turbulence and icing hazard information between relevant aircraft (air-to-air). In addition, references in this report will demonstrate the architecture necessary to implement and perform successful transmission and reception of weather information to the cockpit, show that weather information flow does not impact "normal" traffic, demonstrate the feasibility of operational implementation, and lay foundation for future data link development.

  8. Local Routing in Convex Subdivisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Prosenjit; Durocher, Stephane; Mondal, Debajyoti;

    2015-01-01

    In various wireless networking settings, node locations determine a network’s topology, allowing the network to be modelled by a geometric graph drawn in the plane. Without any additional information, local geometric routing algorithms can guarantee delivery to the target node only in restricted...... classes of geometric graphs, such as triangulations. In order to guarantee delivery on more general classes of geometric graphs (e.g., convex subdivisions or planar subdivisions), previous local geometric routing algorithms required Θ(logn) state bits to be stored and passed with the message. We present...... the first local geometric routing algorithm using only one state bit to guarantee delivery on convex subdivisions and the first local geometric memoryless routing algorithm that guarantees delivery on edge-augmented monotone subdivisions (including all convex subdivisions) when the algorithm has knowledge...

  9. Route Optimization in Network Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hasan Tareque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NEtwork MObility (NEMO controls mobility of a number of mobile nodes in a comprehensive way using one or more mobile routers. To choose a route optimization scheme, it is very important to have a quantitative comparison of the available route optimization schemes. The focus of this paper is to analyze the degree of Route Optimization (RO, deploy-ability and type of RO supported by each class in general. The comparison shows the differences among the schemes in terms of issues, such as additional header, signaling and memory requirement. We classify the schemes established on the basic method for route optimization, and equal the schemes based on protocol overhead, such as header overhead, amount of signaling, and memory requirements. Lastly the performance of the classes of different schemes has to be estimated under norms such as available bandwidth, topology of the mobile network and mobility type.

  10. Time Relevance of Convective Weather Forecast for Air Traffic Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William N.

    2006-01-01

    as opposed to the deterministic shorter range forecasts. Despite the known low level of confidence with respect to long range convective forecasts, these data are still useful to a DST routing algorithm. It is better to develop an aircraft route using the best information available than no information. The temporally coarse long range forecast data needs to be interpolated to be useful to a DST. A DST uses aircraft trajectory predictions that need to be evaluated for impacts by convective storms. Each time-step of a trajectory prediction n&s to be checked against weather data. For the case of coarse temporal data, there needs to be a method fill in weather data where there is none. Simply using the coarse weather data without any interpolation can result in DST routes that are impacted by regions of strong convection. Increasing the temporal resolution of these data can be achieved but result in a large dataset that may prove to be an operational challenge in transmission and loading by a DST. Currently, it takes about 7mins retrieve a 7mb RUC2 forecast file from NOAA at NASA-Ames Research Center. A prototype NCWF6 1 hour forecast is about 3mb in size. A Six hour NCWFG forecast with a 1hr forecast time-step will be about l8mb (6 x 3mb). A 6 hour NCWF6 forecast with a l5min forecast time-step will be about 7mb (24 x 3mb). Based on the time it takes to retrieve a 7mb RUC2 forecast, it will take approximately 70mins to retrieve a 6 hour NCWF forecast with 15min time steps. Until those issues are addressed, there is a need to develop an algorithm that interpolates between these temporally coarse long range forecasts. This paper describes a method of how to use low temporal resolution probabilistic weather forecasts in a DST. The beginning of this paper is a description of some convective weather forecast and observation products followed by an example of how weather data are used by a DST. The subsequent sections will describe probabilistic forecasts followed by a

  11. Space Weather, Environment and Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Our planet exists within a space environment affected by constantly changing solar atmosphere producing cosmic particles and electromagnetic waves. This "space weather" profoundly influences the performance of our technology because we primarily use two means for transmitting information and energy; namely, electromagnetic waves and electricity. On an everyday basis, we have developed methods to cope with the normal conditions. However, the sun remains a fiery star whose 'angry' outbursts can potentially destroy spacecrafts, kill astronauts, melt electricity transformers, stop trains, and generally wreak havoc with human activities. Space Weather is the developing field within astronomy that aims at predicting the sun’s violent activity and minimizing the impacts on our daily lives. Space Weather, Environment, and Societies explains why our technological societies are so dependent on solar activity and how the Sun disturbs the transmission of information and energy. Footnotes expand specific points and the ...

  12. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  13. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koussis, A. D.; Mazi, K.; Lykoudis, S.; Argyriou, A.

    2010-09-01

    Motivation On occasion, flood related questions are posed in the reverse from the conventional sense, e.g.: Which inflow created the flow observed at cross-section X, or the flood profile observed along reach Y? This is a signal identification type problem (hydrologic forensics). A related question concerns the operation of a reservoir, via optimal outflow control, so as to minimise downstream flood damage. Solution of the aforementioned problems requires routing of floods in the upstream direction. This is an inverse problem, and as such it is not well posed. In routing against the wave propagation, small errors in the flow measurements, or rounding errors, are amplified leading to instability, i.e., to spurious, large changes in the response (inflow hydrograph). Therefore, for the reverse solution to be stable it must be constrained by a smoothness condition; this however does not ensure its uniqueness. Storage routing models as approximate diffusion wave models By appropriate choice of their parameter values, storage routing models approximate closely diffusion-wave (DW) behaviour, if dominant flood propagation mode is that of kinematic waves (KW), which is very often true. We solve the flood signal identification problem by reversing the Muskingum routing scheme. The Muskingum routing scheme derives from a first-order accurate FD discretisation of the KW equation yet yields second-order accurate DW solutions by matching the numerical diffusion coefficient of that KW equation solution scheme to the DW equation’s hydraulic diffusion coefficient. Formulation and testing of a reverse routing scheme based on Muskingum routing Theoretical analysis of the reversed Muskingum routing scheme yields nominal grid design rules; however, we study optimal grid design mainly by numerical experimentation. First, we reverse an exact outflow hydrograph (a single-wave solution of the convection-diffusion equation), and then demonstrate the scheme’s ability to reverse

  14. Social-Stratification Probabilistic Routing Algorithm in Delay-Tolerant Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajjar, Fuad; Saadawi, Tarek

    Routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) is complicated due to the fact that the network graph is episodically connected. In MANET, topology is changing rapidly because of weather, terrain and jamming. A key challenge is to create a mechanism that can provide good delivery performance and low end-to-end delay in an intermittent network graph where nodes may move freely. Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) architecture is designed to provide communication in intermittently connected networks, by moving messages towards destination via ”store, carry and forward” technique that supports multi-routing algorithms to acquire best path towards destination. In this paper, we propose the use of probabilistic routing in DTN architecture using the concept of social-stratification network. We use the Opportunistic Network Environment (ONE) simulator as a simulation tool to compare the proposed Social- stratification Probabilistic Routing Algorithm (SPRA) with the common DTN-based protocols. Our results show that SPRA outperforms the other protocols.

  15. Verification of Space Weather Forecasts using Terrestrial Weather Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, E.; Murray, S.; Pope, E.; Stephenson, D.; Sharpe, M.; Bingham, S.; Jackson, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) provides a range of 24/7 operational space weather forecasts, alerts, and warnings, which provide valuable information on space weather that can degrade electricity grids, radio communications, and satellite electronics. Forecasts issued include arrival times of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and probabilistic forecasts for flares, geomagnetic storm indices, and energetic particle fluxes and fluences. These forecasts are produced twice daily using a combination of output from models such as Enlil, near-real-time observations, and forecaster experience. Verification of forecasts is crucial for users, researchers, and forecasters to understand the strengths and limitations of forecasters, and to assess forecaster added value. To this end, the Met Office (in collaboration with Exeter University) has been adapting verification techniques from terrestrial weather, and has been working closely with the International Space Environment Service (ISES) to standardise verification procedures. We will present the results of part of this work, analysing forecast and observed CME arrival times, assessing skill using 2x2 contingency tables. These MOSWOC forecasts can be objectively compared to those produced by the NASA Community Coordinated Modelling Center - a useful benchmark. This approach cannot be taken for the other forecasts, as they are probabilistic and categorical (e.g., geomagnetic storm forecasts give probabilities of exceeding levels from minor to extreme). We will present appropriate verification techniques being developed to address these forecasts, such as rank probability skill score, and comparing forecasts against climatology and persistence benchmarks. As part of this, we will outline the use of discrete time Markov chains to assess and improve the performance of our geomagnetic storm forecasts. We will also discuss work to adapt a terrestrial verification visualisation system to space weather, to help

  16. Airborne TDMA for High Throughput and Fast Weather Conditions Notification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjun Jang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As air traffic grows significantly, aircraft accidents increase. Many aviation accidents could be prevented if the precise aircraft positions and weather conditions on the aircraft’s route were known. Existing studies propose determining the precise aircraft positions via a VHF channel with an air-to-air radio relay system that is based on mobile ad-hoc networks. However, due to the long propagation delay, the existing TDMA MAC schemes underutilize the networks. The existing TDMA MAC sends data and receives ACK in one time slot, which requires two guard times in one time slot. Since aeronautical communications spans a significant distance, the guard time occupies a significantly large portion of the slot. To solve this problem, we propose a piggybacking mechanism ACK. Our proposed MAC has one guard time in one time slot, which enables the transmission of more data. Using this additional data, we can send weather conditions that pertain to the aircraft’s current position. Our analysis shows that this proposed MAC performs better than the existing MAC, since it offers better throughput and network utilization. In addition, our weather condition notification model achieves a much lower transmission delay than a HF (high frequency voice communication.

  17. Tomorrow's Forecast: Oceans and Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This issue of "Art to Zoo" focuses on weather and climate and is tied to the traveling exhibition Ocean Planet from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. The lessons encourage students to think about the profound influence the oceans have on planetary climate and life on earth. Sections of the lesson plan include: (1) "Ocean…

  18. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  19. Mexican Space Weather Service (SCIESMEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; De la Luz, V.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Corona-Romero, P.; Gonzalez, L. X.

    2015-12-01

    Recent modifications of the Civil Protection Law in Mexico include now specific mentions to space hazards and space weather phenomena. During the last few years, the UN has promoted international cooperation on Space Weather awareness, studies and monitoring. Internal and external conditions motivated the creation of a Space Weather Service in Mexico (SCIESMEX). The SCIESMEX (www.sciesmex.unam.mx) is operated by the Geophysics Institute at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The UNAM has the experience of operating several critical national services, including the National Seismological Service (SSN); besides that has a well established scientific group with expertise in space physics and solar- terrestrial phenomena. The SCIESMEX is also related with the recent creation of the Mexican Space Agency (AEM). The project combines a network of different ground instruments covering solar, interplanetary, geomagnetic, and ionospheric observations. The SCIESMEX has already in operation computing infrastructure running the web application, a virtual observatory and a high performance computing server to run numerical models. SCIESMEX participates in the International Space Environment Services (ISES) and in the Inter-progamme Coordination Team on Space Weather (ICTSW) of the Word Meteorological Organization (WMO).

  20. Complete Decoding and Reporting of Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Man-Cheung Max

    2014-01-01

    document presents the deviations from the standards and the decoding algorithm. Storing all decoded data in a database allows users to quickly query a large amount of data and to perform data mining on the data. Users can specify complex query criteria not only on date or airport but also on weather condition. This document also describes the design of a database schema for storing the decoded data, and a Data Warehouse web application that allows users to perform reporting and analysis on the decoded data. Finally, this document presents a case study correlating dust storms reported in METARs from the Phoenix International airport with Ground Stops issued by Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ATCSCC). Blowing widespread dust is one of the weather conditions when dust storm occurs. By querying the database, 294 METARs were found to report blowing widespread dust at the Phoenix airport and 41 of them reported such condition only in the Remarks section of the reports. When METAR is a data source for an ATM research, it is important to include weather conditions not only from the Body section but also from the Remarks section of METARs.

  1. Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

    2013-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

  2. Vehicle Routing With User Generated Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    Rapidly increasing volumes of GPS data collected from vehicles provide new and increasingly comprehensive insight into the routes that drivers prefer. While routing services generally compute shortest or fastest routes, recent studies suggest that local drivers often prefer routes that are neithe...

  3. Vehicle Routing With User Generated Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    Rapidly increasing volumes of GPS data collected from vehicles provide new and increasingly comprehensive insight into the routes that drivers prefer. While routing services generally compute shortest or fastest routes, recent studies suggest that local drivers often prefer routes that are neithe...

  4. Qos Failover Routing In Tethernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Goswami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstarct Tethering is a concept of sharing of internet of a device with other devices. Its a low-cost short-distance wireless technology which employs the frequency hopping practice in the globally available ISM band to keep away from interference. In the tethering to form a network there is a concept of piconet containing master and slaves. These piconets are connected together to establish a big network called scatternet. There are several aspects on which scatternet working depends like the piconets numbers and bridges the bridge role etc. Already established routes consume much more energy for the maintenance hence instead of this routes can be created on-demand. Thus consumption can be altered and routes flexibility will inclined. Failover is an another concept that I have included. Its about transferring ones control to the other device whenever first device is failed. In this thesis I have proposed a QoS failover routing that will proficiently form the routes with the QoS desires and will prevent the stoppage of transmission if the transmitting node fails. It will pass its control to another node and allow it to transmit instead of it.

  5. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Golden, Bruce [University of Maryland; Edward, Wasil [American University

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  6. OpenWeather: a peer-to-peer weather data transmission protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Yanes, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The study of the weather is performed using instruments termed weather stations. These weather stations are distributed around the world, collecting the data from the different phenomena. Several weather organizations have been deploying thousands of these instruments, creating big networks to collect weather data. These instruments are collecting the weather data and delivering it for later processing in the collections points. Nevertheless, all the methodologies used to transmit the weather data are based in protocols non adapted for this purpose. Thus, the weather stations are limited by the data formats and protocols used in them, not taking advantage of the real-time data available on them. We research the weather instruments, their technology and their network capabilities, in order to provide a solution for the mentioned problem. OpenWeather is the protocol proposed to provide a more optimum and reliable way to transmit the weather data. We evaluate the environmental factors, such as location or bandwi...

  7. KREAM: Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model for Aviation Route Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J.; Dokgo, K.; Choi, E. J.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, H. P.; Cho, K. S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Since Korean Air has begun to use the polar route from Seoul/ICN airport to New York/JFK airport on August 2006, there are explosive needs for the estimation and prediction against cosmic radiation exposure for Korean aircrew and passengers in South Korea from public. To keep pace with those needs of public, Korean government made the law on safety standards and managements of cosmic radiation for the flight attendants and the pilots in 2013. And we have begun to develop our own Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model (KREAM) for aviation route dose since last year funded by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). GEANT4 model and NRLMSIS 00 model are used for calculation of the energetic particles' transport in the atmosphere and for obtaining the background atmospheric neutral densities depending on altitude. For prediction the radiation exposure in many routes depending on the various space weather effects, we constructed a database from pre-arranged simulations using all possible combinations of R, S, and G, which are the space weather effect scales provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To get the solar energetic particles' spectrum at the 100 km altitude which we set as a top of the atmospheric layers in the KREAM, we use ACE and GOES satellites' proton flux observations. We compare the results between KREAM and the other cosmic radiation estimation programs such as CARI-6M which is provided by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA). We also validate KREAM's results by comparison with the measurement from Liulin-6K LET spectrometer onboard Korean commercial flights and Korean Air Force reconnaissance flights.

  8. Optimization of OSPF Routing in IP Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Andreas; Fortz, Bernard; Gourdin, Eric; Holmberg, Kaj; Klopfenstein, Olivier; Pióro, Michał; Tomaszewski, Artur; Ümit, Hakan

    The Internet is a huge world-wide packet switching network comprised of more than 13,000 distinct subnetworks, referred to as Autonomous Systems (ASs) autonomous system AS . They all rely on the Internet Protocol (IP) internet protocol IP for transport of packets across the network. And most of them use shortest path routing protocols shortest path routing!protocols , such as OSPF or IS-IS, to control the routing of IP packets routing!of IP packets within an AS. The idea of the routing is extremely simple — every packet is forwarded on IP links along the shortest route between its source and destination nodes of the AS. The AS network administrator can manage the routing of packets in the AS by supplying the so-called administrative weights of IP links, which specify the link lengths that are used by the routing protocols for their shortest path computations. The main advantage of the shortest path routing policy is its simplicity, allowing for little administrative overhead. From the network engineering perspective, however, shortest path routing can pose problems in achieving satisfactory traffic handling efficiency. As all routing paths depend on the same routing metric routing!metric , it is not possible to configure the routing paths for the communication demands between different pairs of nodes explicitly or individually; the routing can be controlled only indirectly and only as a whole by modifying the routing metric. Thus, one of the main tasks when planning such networks is to find administrative link weights that induce a globally efficient traffic routing traffic!routing configuration of an AS. It turns out that this task leads to very difficult mathematical optimization problems. In this chapter, we discuss and describe exact integer programming models and solution approaches as well as practically efficient smart heuristics for such shortest path routing problems shortest path routing!problems .

  9. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  10. Integrating Sphere-based Weathering Device

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In the artificial ultraviolet (UV) weathering of materials, a need exists for weathering devices that can uniformly illuminate test specimens with a high...

  11. NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit is an application that provides simple visualization and data export of weather and climatological data archived at NCDC. The...

  12. Newspaper Clippings and Articles (Weather-related)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather-related newspaper articles and photos, almost exclusively from Baltimore, MD and nearby areas. Includes storm damage, rainfall reports, and weather's affect...

  13. Rainmakers: why bad weather means good productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Gino, Francesca; Staats, Bradley R

    2014-05-01

    People believe that weather conditions influence their everyday work life, but to date, little is known about how weather affects individual productivity. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we predict and find that bad weather increases individual productivity and that it does so by eliminating potential cognitive distractions resulting from good weather. When the weather is bad, individuals appear to focus more on their work than on alternate outdoor activities. We investigate the proposed relationship between worse weather and higher productivity through 4 studies: (a) field data on employees' productivity from a bank in Japan, (b) 2 studies from an online labor market in the United States, and (c) a laboratory experiment. Our findings suggest that worker productivity is higher on bad-, rather than good-, weather days and that cognitive distractions associated with good weather may explain the relationship. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our research.

  14. National Weather Service County Warning Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains polygons corresponding to the County Warning Areas (CWAs) of each Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in the National Weather Service (NWS).

  15. National Weather Service: Watch, Warning, Advisory Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    weather.gov Site Map News Organization Search for: SPC NCEP All NOAA Search by city or zip ... Fire Wx Outlooks RSS Feeds E-Mail Alerts Weather Information Storm Reports Storm Reports Dev. NWS Hazards ...

  16. Adaptive Weather Forecasting using Local Meteorological Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, meteorological parameters such as temperature, rain and global radiation are important for agricultural systems. Anticipating on future conditions is most often needed in these systems. Weather forecasts then become of substantial importance. As weather forecasts are subject to

  17. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives ñ especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes ñ financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.

  18. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  19. ACO based routing for MANETs

    CERN Document Server

    Arif, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes. It dynamically forms a temporary network without using any pre existing network infrastructure or centralized administration i.e. with minimal prior planning. All nodes have routing capabilities and forward data packets to other nodes in multi-hop fashion. As the network is dynamic, the network topology continuously experiences alterations during deployment. The biggest challenge in MANETs is to find a path between communicating nodes. The considerations of the MANET environment and the nature of the mobile nodes create further complications which results in the need to develop special routing algorithms to meet these challenges. Swarm intelligence, a bio-inspired technique, which has proven to be very adaptable in other problem domains, has been applied to the MANET routing problem as it forms a good fit to the problem. In ant societies the activities of the individuals are not regulated by any explicit form of centralized control but ar...

  20. Decision Making Models Using Weather Forecast Information

    OpenAIRE

    Hiramatsu, Akio; Huynh, Van-Nam; Nakamori, Yoshiteru

    2007-01-01

    The quality of weather forecast has gradually improved, but weather information such as precipitation forecast is still uncertainty. Meteorologists have studied the use and economic value of weather information, and users have to translate weather information into their most desirable action. To maximize the economic value of users, the decision maker should select the optimum course of action for his company or project, based on an appropriate decision strategy under uncertain situations. In...

  1. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  2. le programme SET-Routes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2009-01-01

    Les routes de la science sont plus escarpées pour les femmes Le programme SET-Routes, qui visait à sensibiliser les jeunes filles à l’intérêt des carrières scientifiques, a pris fin en avril. Porté par l’EMBL, l’EMBO et le CERN, il a mis en place un réseau de femmes scientifiques, des ambassadrices qui se sont rendues dans les établissements scolaires européens pour parler de leur parcours scientifique.

  3. Space Weather Receives First "Impact Rating"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2007-08-01

    Journal Citation Reports, published by Thomson Scientific (http://scientific.thomson.com/isi/), has issued its first impact factor for Space Weather. It is 1.610. I consider this number to be very good, strongly validating the impact that Space Weather has already made in its short life within the community of space weather professionals.

  4. Space Weather Effects on Range Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    www.windows2universe.org/space_weather/space_weather.html What are scientists talking about when they say “space weather”? How is it like weather on...particle events observed by ground level, high latitude neutron monitors and the Concorde observations are summarised in Table 1 (Refs. 12 & 13), which

  5. Reducing prediction uncertainty of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    In closed agricultural systems the weather acts both as a disturbance and as a resource. By using weather forecasts in control strategies the effects of disturbances can be minimized whereas the resources can be utilized. In this situation weather forecast uncertainty and model based control are cou

  6. 49 CFR 195.224 - Welding: Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Weather. 195.224 Section 195.224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.224 Welding: Weather. Welding must be protected from weather conditions...

  7. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  8. The Early Years: The Wonders of Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the wonders of winter weather, as it often inspires teachers' and students' interest in collecting weather data, especially if snow falls. Beginning weather data collection in preschool will introduce children to the concepts of making regular observations of natural phenomena, recording the observations (data),…

  9. Reducing prediction uncertainty of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    In closed agricultural systems the weather acts both as a disturbance and as a resource. By using weather forecasts in control strategies the effects of disturbances can be minimized whereas the resources can be utilized. In this situation weather forecast uncertainty and model based control are cou

  10. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  11. Simulator Of A "Weather" Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Khramenkova, Ksenia; Hermant, Olivier; Pawlak, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this article a cloud simulator for the "weather" cloud is considered. The purpose of such a simulator is evaluating different cloud architectures and algorithms before implementation. The main idea is to analyze the performance beforehand, in order to avoid unsuitable algorithms being implemented in a real cloud. Two methods of request allocation policies to the nodes are considered. Their behavior in terms of interaction with nodes' cachememory is compared. Finally...

  12. Weather, Climate and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, T.

    2016-12-01

    To climatologists food security is dominated by the impacts of weather and climate on food systems. But the link between the atmosphere and food security is more complex. Extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones impact directly on agriculture, but they also impact on the logistical distribution of food and can thus disrupt the food supply chain, especially in urban areas. Drought affects human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. It represents a pending danger for vulnerable agricultural systems that depend on the rainfall, water supply and reservoirs. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Drought, especially when it results in famine, can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. A holistic approach is required to understand the phenomena, to forecast catastrophic events such as drought and famine and to predict their societal consequences. In the Food Security recommendations of the Rio+20 Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development it states that it is important "To understand fully how to measure, assess and reduce the impacts of production on the natural environment including climate change, recognizing that different measures of impact (e.g. water, land, biodiversity, carbon and other greenhouse gases, etc) may trade-off against each other..." This talk will review the historical link between weather, climate, drought and food supplies; examine the international situation; and summarise the response of the scientific community

  13. The Weather and Climate Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S.; Del Greco, S.; Hankins, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) is free, platform independent software distributed from NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The WCT allows the visualization and data export of weather and climate data, including Radar, Satellite and Model data. By leveraging the NetCDF for Java library and Common Data Model, the WCT is extremely scalable and capable of supporting many new datasets in the future. Gridded NetCDF files (regular and irregularly spaced, using Climate-Forecast (CF) conventions) are supported, along with many other formats including GRIB. The WCT provides tools for custom data overlays, Web Map Service (WMS) background maps, animations and basic filtering. The export of images and movies is provided in multiple formats. The WCT Data Export Wizard allows for data export in both vector polygon/point (Shapefile, Well-Known Text) and raster (GeoTIFF, ESRI Grid, VTK, Gridded NetCDF) formats. These data export features promote the interoperability of weather and climate information with various scientific communities and common software packages such as ArcGIS, Google Earth, MatLAB, GrADS and R. The WCT also supports an embedded, integrated Google Earth instance. The Google Earth Browser Plugin allows seamless visualization of data on a native 3-D Google Earth instance linked to the standard 2-D map. Level-II NEXRAD data for Hurricane Katrina GPCP (Global Precipitation Product), visualized in 2-D and internal Google Earth view.

  14. Positive lightning and severe weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C.; Murphy, B.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years researchers have noticed that severe weather (tornados, hail and damaging winds) are closely related to the amount of positive lightning occurring in thunderstorms. On 4 July 1999, a severe derecho (wind storm) caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators for short-term forecasts of severe weather.

  15. Naval Battleforce Networks Composite Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    fashion by DHCP), restarts or recontigures the OSPi" daemon, starts advertising the attached subnet in its new wireless subnet, and data transfer starts...Policy Manager. studying extcnsions to PlM or source specific multicast pro,i,,.:als to enable dynamic policy based routing based on DS(’P or other

  16. The routed inventory pooling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Harmen Willem

    2013-01-01

    In supply chains vloeit een groot deel van de kosten voort uit voorraden en transport. Om deze reden wordt veel onderzoek gedaan naar technieken en concepten die de voorraad- en transportkosten helpen te verlagen. Twee populaire onderzoeksgebieden zijn Inventory Routing, waarbij het doel is optimale

  17. Vehicle Routing with Uncertain Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spliet (Remy)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn distribution networks a supplier transports goods from a distribution center to customers by means of vehicles with limited capacity. Drivers will drive routes on which they visit multiple customers to make deliveries. Typically, deliveries are made regularly and a fixed schedule is m

  18. A route towards immune protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Nibbelink, Milou

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a route towards an immune protective device for islet of Langerhans transplantation. We developed a protocol to use MIN6 β cells aggregates as pseudo-islets to overcome the donor shortage issue (chapter 3). In this thesis we explored two different immune protective strategies; a

  19. Dynamic Routing during Disaster Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie , S.; Rothkrantz , L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in mobile technology allow people to request route information on their smartphone to reach safe areas during emergency and disaster evacuations. In return, the affected people in the field can send their observation reports, e.g. using a dedicated icon-based disaster language. However,

  20. How to choose the route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Choosing the route for nutrition support delivery is one of the main steps in the algorithm of providing successful nutrition to the critically ill, but it is certainly not an easy process. The rationale should be guided not only by principles like physiology and benefit versus harm, but also by individual patient factors like feasibility, contraindications, predicted versus actual tolerance, and (most important) the timing for starting food delivery. Although oral nutrition is the more physiological route for feeding, it is seldom possible or sufficient in critically ill patients. Enteral nutrition, in the form of tube feeding, remains the best option in the absence of absolute contraindications, but many other factors should be taken into account. These include the importance of starting early and trying to achieve target nutrients delivery early, especially in previously undernourished or in most severely ill patients, as well as the gastrointestinal intolerance present in the majority of critically ill patients. Parenteral nutrition is an alternative route for nutrition delivery when the enteral one is impossible or insufficient. The most common complication when choosing this route is overfeeding, which has been associated with increased complications rate. On the other hand, the most common complication of enteral nutrition is underfeeding, which has also been associated with worse outcome and even increased mortality. Combining enteral with supplemental parenteral nutrition is therefore a rational approach for providing early and adequate nutritional support in the most severely ill patients.

  1. Genetic algorithms for route discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelenbe, Erol; Liu, Peixiang; Lainé, Jeremy

    2006-12-01

    Packet routing in networks requires knowledge about available paths, which can be either acquired dynamically while the traffic is being forwarded, or statically (in advance) based on prior information of a network's topology. This paper describes an experimental investigation of path discovery using genetic algorithms (GAs). We start with the quality-of-service (QoS)-driven routing protocol called "cognitive packet network" (CPN), which uses smart packets (SPs) to dynamically select routes in a distributed autonomic manner based on a user's QoS requirements. We extend it by introducing a GA at the source routers, which modifies and filters the paths discovered by the CPN. The GA can combine the paths that were previously discovered to create new untested but valid source-to-destination paths, which are then selected on the basis of their "fitness." We present an implementation of this approach, where the GA runs in background mode so as not to overload the ingress routers. Measurements conducted on a network test bed indicate that when the background-traffic load of the network is light to medium, the GA can result in improved QoS. When the background-traffic load is high, it appears that the use of the GA may be detrimental to the QoS experienced by users as compared to CPN routing because the GA uses less timely state information in its decision making.

  2. Arctic Routes to Fabled Lands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spies, Marijke

    1997-01-01

    Four hundred years ago Willem Barents set sail with two ships for the north via the Pole. Apart from this expedition, numerous other attempts were made by Dutch and Flemish mariners to find a northern trade route to China and Cathay. In this book, Marijke Spies relates the story of Olivier Brunel, t

  3. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  4. Collaborative Aviation Weather Statement - An Impact-based Decision Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Debra

    2016-04-01

    Historically, convection causes the highest number of air traffic constraints on the United States National Air Space (NAS). Increased NAS predictability allows traffic flow managers to more effectively initiate, amend or terminate planned or active traffic management initiatives, resulting in more efficient use of available airspace. A Collaborative Aviation Weather Statement (CAWS) is an impact-based decision support tool used for the timely delivery of high-confidence, high-relevance aviation convective weather forecasts to air traffic managers. The CAWS is a graphical and textual forecast produced by a collaborative team of meteorologists from the Aviation Weather Center (AWC), Center Weather Service Units, and airlines to bring attention to high impact areas of thunderstorms. The CAWS addresses thunderstorm initiation or movement into the airports having the highest volume of traffic or into traffic sensitive jet routes. These statements are assessed by planners at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Air Route Traffic Control Centers and are used for planning traffic management initiatives to balance air traffic flow across the United States. The FAA and the airline industry use the CAWS to plan, manage, and execute operations in the NAS, thereby improving the system efficiency and safety and also saving dollars for industry and the traveling public.

  5. Initial Analysis of and Predictive Model Development for Weather Reroute Advisory Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    In response to severe weather conditions, traffic management coordinators specify reroutes to route air traffic around affected regions of airspace. Providing analysis and recommendations of available reroute options would assist the traffic management coordinators in making more efficient rerouting decisions. These recommendations can be developed by examining historical data to determine which previous reroute options were used in similar weather and traffic conditions. Essentially, using previous information to inform future decisions. This paper describes the initial steps and methodology used towards this goal. A method to extract relevant features from the large volume of weather data to quantify the convective weather scenario during a particular time range is presented. Similar routes are clustered. A description of the algorithm to identify which cluster of reroute advisories were actually followed by pilots is described. Models built for fifteen of the top twenty most frequently used reroute clusters correctly predict the use of the cluster for over 60 of the test examples. Results are preliminary but indicate that the methodology is worth pursuing with modifications based on insight gained from this analysis.

  6. Routing Protocols to Minimize the Number of Route Disconnections for Communication in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Routing Protocol MAODV [5] is the multicast extension of the well-known Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector ( AODV ...extensions of the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol [4] or the Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) routing protocol [5]. The multi-path routing ...Multi-path Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol [7], an extension of AODV to compute multiple loop-free link- disjoint routes ; (iii) AODV

  7. Operational Space Weather Activities in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Singer, Howard; Onsager, Terrance; Viereck, Rodney; Murtagh, William; Rutledge, Robert

    2016-07-01

    We review the current activities in the civil operational space weather forecasting enterprise of the United States. The NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, working with partners in the Air Force as well as international operational forecast services to provide predictions, data, and products on a large variety of space weather phenomena and impacts. In October 2015, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released the National Space Weather Strategy (NSWS) and associated Space Weather Action Plan (SWAP) that define how the nation will better forecast, mitigate, and respond to an extreme space weather event. The SWAP defines actions involving multiple federal agencies and mandates coordination and collaboration with academia, the private sector, and international bodies to, among other things, develop and sustain an operational space weather observing system; develop and deploy new models of space weather impacts to critical infrastructure systems; define new mechanisms for the transition of research models to operations and to ensure that the research community is supported for, and has access to, operational model upgrade paths; and to enhance fundamental understanding of space weather through support of research models and observations. The SWAP will guide significant aspects of space weather operational and research activities for the next decade, with opportunities to revisit the strategy in the coming years through the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council.

  8. Optimum Route Selection for Vehicle Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of Optimum Route Selection for Vehicle Navigation System (ORSVNS article is to develop a system, which provides information about real time alternate routes to the drivers and also helps in selecting the optimal route among all the alternate routes from an origin to destination. Two types of query systems, special and general, are designed for drivers. Here, the criterion for route selection is introduced using primary and secondary road attributes. The presented methodology helps the drivers in better decision making to choose optimal route using fuzzy logic. For experimental results ORSVNS is tested over 220 km portion of Haryana state in India.

  9. Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program network. Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihlmester, P.E.; Koehler, W.C. Jr.; Beyer, M.A. [Aspen Systems Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Applied Management Sciences Div.; Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Beschen, D.A. Jr. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Weatherization Assistance Programs

    1992-02-01

    The Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Network was designed to describe the national network of State and local agencies that provide WAP services to qualifying low-income households. The objective of this study was to profile the current WAP network. To achieve the objective, two national surveys were conducted: one survey collected data from 49 State WAP agencies (including the coterminous 48 States and the District of Columbia), and the second survey collected data from 920 (or 81 percent) of the local WAP agencies.

  10. Technical Report: Sleep-Route - Routing through Sleeping Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Chayan; Rao, Vijay S.; Prasad, R Venkatesha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an energy-efficient data gathering scheme for wireless sensor network called Sleep-Route, which splits the sensor nodes into two sets - active and dormant (low-power sleep). Only the active set of sensor nodes participate in data collection. The sensing values of the dormant sensor nodes are predicted with the help of an active sensor node. Virtual Sensing Framework (VSF) provides the mechanism to predict the sensing values by exploiting the data correlation among ...

  11. Capacity Constrained Routing Algorithms for Evacuation Route Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-04

    April 30, 2006 DRAFT 9 D. Scope and Outline of the Paper The main focus of the paper is on the analysis of a heuristic algorithm which effectively...CCRP Algorithms In this section, we present a generic description of the Capacity Constrained Route Planner (CCRP). CCRP is a heuristic algorithm which...qualifies to be a candidate algorithm. E. Solution Quality of CCRP Since CCRP is a heuristic algorithm , it does not produce optimal solutions for all

  12. Analytical Analysis of Vehicle Routing and Inventory Routing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The objective of the project is to perform analytical analyses of heuristics for the Vehicle Routing Problem ( VRP ) and apply the results in models...asymptotic optimal solution value of the VRP with capacity and time window constraints and used it to develop a new and efficient algorithm. (2) Obtained a...characterization of the effectiveness of set partitioning formulations for VRPs . (3) Characterized the worst case behavior of the linear programming

  13. Implementation of direct routing mobile IP for solving triangular routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jongwook; Jang, SeongHo; Park, Miri; Lee, Dae-bong

    2001-10-01

    Mobility support on the network layer is of special importance, as the network layer holds together the huge Internet with common protocol IP. Although based on possibility different wireless or wired technologies, all nodes of the network should be able to communicate. Therefore, mobile IP(an extension of the classical IP) has been designed which enablemobility in the Internet without changing existing wired systems. However, mobile IP leaves some points unsolved. Especially, if it comes to security, efficiency of the packet flow that is called triangular routing. Especially triangular routing can cause unnecessary overhead for the network. Furthermore latency can increase dramatically. This is particularly unfortunate if two communicating hosts are separated by transatlantic links. In order to this problem, many methods like IPv6 and ROMIP are proposed. But these methods have limitation. In other words, they have not compatibility because of needing modification of original IP scheme. Especially ROMIP is very complex and the overhead of control message and processing are serious. The problem of inconsistency of Binding caches may occur too. We therefore propose and analyze the performance of the DRMIP (Direct Routing Mobile IP) which do not modify IP source needed in the sender, is compatible with IP and Mobile IP.

  14. Route Scherrer and Route Einstein closed for construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that Route Scherrer will be inaccessible for two and a half months from the beginning of March and that part of Route Einstein will be closed for two weeks from the end of February.   Figure 1. The part of Route Scherrer between Building 510 and Building 53 (see Figure 1) will be closed from the beginning of March until mid-May for civil engineering works.   The superheated water pipes supplying the buildings in this area date back to 1959 and therefore present a significant risk of leakage. In order to ensure the reliable supply of superheated water, and, by extension, heating, to all premises near the Main Building (i.e. Buildings 500, 501, 503, 60, 62, 63 and 64), a new buried service duct will be installed between the basements of Buildings 53 and 61 to house a new superheated water pipe. Figure 2. The following car parks will, however, remain accessible for the duration of the works: the Cèdres car park, the car park for Buildings 4 and 5, and the ca...

  15. Route Scherrer and Route Einstein closed for construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that Route Scherrer will be inaccessible for two and a half months from the beginning of March and that part of Route Einstein will be closed for two weeks from the end of February.   Figure 1. The part of Route Scherrer between Building 510 and Building 53 (see Figure 1) will be closed from the beginning of March until mid-May for civil engineering works.   The superheated water pipes supplying the buildings in this area date back to 1959 and therefore present a significant risk of leakage. In order to ensure the reliable supply of superheated water, and, by extension, heating, to all premises near the Main Building (i.e. Buildings 500, 501, 503, 60, 62, 63 and 64), a new buried service duct will be installed between the basements of Buildings 53 and 61 to house a new superheated water pipe. Figure 2. The following car parks will, however, remain accessible for the duration of the works: the Cèdres car park, the car park for Buildings 4 and 5, and the ca...

  16. Implementation Weather-Type Models of Capacitated Arc Routing Problem via Heuristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuhaimy Ismail; Mohammad F. Ramli

    2011-01-01

    ...), a model that represents vehicles operation in waste collection. In general, we studied the element of rain drops that affected the collected waste weight in total by imposed a new variable namely rainy weight age...

  17. Scripted Mobile Network Routing in a Contested Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Protocol Comparisons Iwata measures on-demand routing , such as AODV , Fisheye State Routing (FSR...comparison between DSDV, CGSR, The Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP), AODV , DSR, TORA, Associativity-Based Routing (ABR) and Signal Stability Routing (SSR...with AODV . The modified routing does not change AODV , and can be used with any routing protocol . AODV is tested with and without the plan

  18. Probability for Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last 60 years, the availability of large-scale electronic computers has stimulated rapid and significant advances both in meteorology and in our understanding of the Earth System as a whole. The speed of these advances was due, in large part, to the sudden ability to explore nonlinear systems of equations. The computer allows the meteorologist to carry a physical argument to its conclusion; the time scales of weather phenomena then allow the refinement of physical theory, numerical approximation or both in light of new observations. Prior to this extension, as Charney noted, the practicing meteorologist could ignore the results of theory with good conscience. Today, neither the practicing meteorologist nor the practicing climatologist can do so, but to what extent, and in what contexts, should they place the insights of theory above quantitative simulation? And in what circumstances can one confidently estimate the probability of events in the world from model-based simulations? Despite solid advances of theory and insight made possible by the computer, the fidelity of our models of climate differs in kind from the fidelity of models of weather. While all prediction is extrapolation in time, weather resembles interpolation in state space, while climate change is fundamentally an extrapolation. The trichotomy of simulation, observation and theory which has proven essential in meteorology will remain incomplete in climate science. Operationally, the roles of probability, indeed the kinds of probability one has access too, are different in operational weather forecasting and climate services. Significant barriers to forming probability forecasts (which can be used rationally as probabilities) are identified. Monte Carlo ensembles can explore sensitivity, diversity, and (sometimes) the likely impact of measurement uncertainty and structural model error. The aims of different ensemble strategies, and fundamental differences in ensemble design to support of

  19. Multipath Routing Protocol for Effective Local Route Recovery in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Srivatsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In mobile ad hoc networks, frequent mobility during the transmission of data causes route failure which results in route rediscovery. In this, we propose multipath routing protocol for effective local route recovery in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. In this protocol, each source and destination pair establishes multiple paths in the single route discovery and they are cached in their route caches. Approach: The cached routes are sorted on the basis of their bandwidth availability. In case of route failure in the primary route, a recovery node which is an overhearing neighbor, detects it and establishes a local recovery path with maximum bandwidth from its route cache. Results: By simulation results, we show that the proposed approach improves network performance. Conclusion: The proposed route recovery management technique prevents the frequent collision and degradation in the network performance.

  20. Evolution of Oxidative Continental Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konhauser, Kurt; Lalonde, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The Great Oxidation Event (GOE) is currently viewed as a protracted process during which atmospheric oxygen levels increased above 10-5 times the present atmospheric level. This value is based on the loss of sulphur isotope mass independent fractionation (S-MIF) from the rock record, beginning at 2.45 Ga and disappearing by 2.32 Ga. However, a number of recent papers have pushed back the timing for oxidative continental weathering, and by extension, the onset of atmospheric oxygenation several hundreds of million years earlier despite the presence of S-MIF (e.g., Crowe et al., 2013). This apparent discrepancy can, in part, be resolved by the suggestion that recycling of older sedimentary sulphur bearing S-MIF might have led to this signal's persistence in the rock record for some time after atmospheric oxygenation (Reinhard et al., 2013). Here we suggest another possibility, that the earliest oxidative weathering reactions occurred in environments at profound redox disequilibrium with the atmosphere, such as biological soil crusts, riverbed and estuarine sediments, and lacustrine microbial mats. We calculate that the rate of O2 production via oxygenic photosynthesis in these terrestrial microbial ecosystems provides largely sufficient oxidizing potential to mobilise sulphate and a number of redox-sensitive trace metals from land to the oceans while the atmosphere itself remained anoxic with its attendant S-MIF signature. These findings reconcile geochemical signatures in the rock record for the earliest oxidative continental weathering with the history of atmospheric sulphur chemistry, and demonstrate the plausible antiquity of a terrestrial biosphere populated by cyanobacteria. Crowe, S.A., Dossing, L.N., Beukes, N.J., Bau, M., Kruger, S.J., Frei, R. & Canfield, D.E. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago. Nature 501, 535-539 (2013). Reinhard, C.T., Planavsky, N.J. & Lyons, T.W. Long-term sedimentary recycling of rare sulphur isotope anomalies. Nature 497

  1. Comparison of on Demand Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A routing protocol is used to facilitate communication in ad hoc network. The primary goal of such a routing protocol is to provide an efficient and reliable path between a pair of nodes. The routing protocols for ad hoc network can be categorized into three categories: table driven, on demand and hybrid routing. The table driven and hybrid routing strategies require periodic exchange of hello messages between nodes of the ad hoc network and thus have high processing and bandwidth requirements. On the other hand on demand routing strategy creates routes when required and hence is very much suitable for ad hoc network. This paper therefore examines the performance of three on demand routing protocols at application layer using QualNet-5.01 simulator.

  2. En Route Air Traffic Control Input Devices for the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainini, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of different input device configurations when trial planning new routes for aircraft in an advanced simulation of the en route workstation. The task of trial planning is one of the futuristic tools that is performed by the graphical manipulation of an aircraft's trajectory to reroute the aircraft without voice communication. In this study with two input devices, the FAA's current trackball and a basic optical computer mouse were evaluated with "pick" button in a click-and-hold state and a click-and-release state while the participant dragged the trial plan line. The trial plan was used for three different conflict types: Aircraft Conflicts, Weather Conflicts, and Aircraft + Weather Conflicts. Speed and accuracy were the primary dependent variables. Results indicate that the mouse conditions were significantly faster than the trackball conditions overall with no significant loss of accuracy. Several performance ratings and preference ratings were analyzed from post-run and post-simulation questionnaires. The release conditions were significantly more useful and likable than the hold conditions. The results suggest that the mouse in the release button state was the fastest and most well liked device configuration for trial planning in the en route workstation. Keywords-input devices, en route, controller, workstation, mouse, trackball, NextGen

  3. Insurance adaptation to extreme weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, C. [Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper examined the role of climate change as a catalyst for specific changes in insurance practices. The presentation addressed how insurance companies are adapting behaviours in response to increasing climate variability and growth in severe weather damage. It discussed ancient examples of insurance as well as more modern insurance practices. Statistics on the number of disasters, global natural disaster economic and insured losses and infrastructure spending are presented. Internal adaptation such as prospective underwriting and incentives and external adaptation such as working with governments and organizations and individuals were also discussed. It was concluded that directions for the future include continued research, heightened awareness and more resilient communities. 3 tabs.

  4. QAODV: Improved Security Routing Protocol of AODV

    OpenAIRE

    Ruihui Mu; Wuqiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Network control system (NCS) has higher requirements on QoS index of the network, but MANET can hardly meet the demands of control systems because of its own characteristics. The paper improves AODV and proposes AODV routing protocol QAODV with certain QoS security in combination with NCS and MANET, and expounds routing detection, routing register and routing maintenance. Simulation results show that end-to-end delay and packet loss of QAODV reduces evidently compared with AODV, and the proto...

  5. How Effective is Routing for Wireless Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-05

    novel techniques for data- dissemination are being considered, such as efficient flooding [39, 40] or opportunistic routing [41]. Whether it be one of...schemes: control information is disseminated throughout the network to identify a set of links to route data across. This technique for routing in wireless...user only when it has data destined for that user. To find a route , a control packet is flooded across the network that identifies a path towards the

  6. Model multivehicle routing dengan persaingan pasar

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Multiple vehicle routing problem has potential real-word applications as it enables the study of strategic competition among private trucking companies in such ar- eas as the transportation of aggregates to construction sites. The multiple vehicle routing problem with profits and competition (MVRPPC) represents an extension of the vehicle routing problem in that it: incorporates competition into the routing process, maximizes profits rather than minimizes costs, and assumes that truc...

  7. Routing Data Authentication in Wireless Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TORGERSON, MARK D.; VAN LEEUWEN, BRIAN P.

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss several specific threats directed at the routing data of an ad hoc network. We address security issues that arise from wrapping authentication mechanisms around ad hoc routing data. We show that this bolt-on approach to security may make certain attacks more difficult, but still leaves the network routing data vulnerable. We also show that under a certain adversarial model, most existing routing protocols cannot be secured with the aid of digital signatures.

  8. Automated Conflict Resolution, Arrival Management and Weather Avoidance for ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, H.; Lauderdale, Todd A.; Chu, Yung-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a unified solution to three types of separation assurance problems that occur in en-route airspace: separation conflicts, arrival sequencing, and weather-cell avoidance. Algorithms for solving these problems play a key role in the design of future air traffic management systems such as NextGen. Because these problems can arise simultaneously in any combination, it is necessary to develop integrated algorithms for solving them. A unified and comprehensive solution to these problems provides the foundation for a future air traffic management system that requires a high level of automation in separation assurance. The paper describes the three algorithms developed for solving each problem and then shows how they are used sequentially to solve any combination of these problems. The first algorithm resolves loss-of-separation conflicts and is an evolution of an algorithm described in an earlier paper. The new version generates multiple resolutions for each conflict and then selects the one giving the least delay. Two new algorithms, one for sequencing and merging of arrival traffic, referred to as the Arrival Manager, and the other for weather-cell avoidance are the major focus of the paper. Because these three problems constitute a substantial fraction of the workload of en-route controllers, integrated algorithms to solve them is a basic requirement for automated separation assurance. The paper also reviews the Advanced Airspace Concept, a proposed design for a ground-based system that postulates redundant systems for separation assurance in order to achieve both high levels of safety and airspace capacity. It is proposed that automated separation assurance be introduced operationally in several steps, each step reducing controller workload further while increasing airspace capacity. A fast time simulation was used to determine performance statistics of the algorithm at up to 3 times current traffic levels.

  9. A New Distributed Routing Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Kindm ’[t., BMnclh CntMU Consider a attuatJion in %, Adhd them am n n es0 ndh lidkd to at least ne &her node sudh that all moe a wwmwted. either...distributed Itn r that is cpable, of failsafe distributed routing. 37 ~L MANHATAN %SQ.ARE GP :,!: NETWORK, - CONNECTTVY S . .. . I ip p- t 0 4 Figure 4-3

  10. Cultural Routes and Intangible Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Zabbini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical interpretation of thematic routes helps to predict the effects on the territories visited by cultured tourists who want to enrich their cultural and emotional baggage. After the analysis of some interpretations, this paper will examine how the practical implementation of an itinerary approved by the Council of Europe has evolved over the years. And it will also reflect on the practical results in the areas involved in that project. "The Hannibal Pathway ", the main overland walk on the "Phoenician Route - Cultural Route recognized by the Council of Europe" – represents a case of study that allows to reflect over the impact of cultural tourism based on immaterial heritage. In fact, in the areas where the battle of 21 June 217 BC took place, nothing tangible is left, except the landscape that has kept its conformation intact. In these areas, thanks to the foresight of the local governments in the last three decades, the landscape of the plain has been preserved. This makes possible today to propose an historical path precisely based on the landscape and on the new techniques for the valorization of the heritage. In the Tuoro plain it is possible to see the battlefields, thus retracing the various stages of the battle, supported by the Documentation Centre of the Capra Palace and virtual reconstructions of high technical quality.

  11. A Survey on Distance Vector Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Linpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give a brief introduction to five different distance vector routing protocols (RIP, AODV, EIGRP, RIP-MTI and Babel) and give some of our thoughts on how to solve the count to infinity problem. Our focus is how distance vector routing protocols, based on limited information, can prevent routing loops and the count to infinity problem.

  12. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology. Addition...

  13. The pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the pyramidal traveling salesman problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

  14. Verkeersveiligheidseffecten van Dynamische Route Informatie Panelen (DRIP's).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The term Dynamic Route Information Panel (DRIP) is, also in the Netherlands, used for an electronic route information panel. A DRIP usually indicates if there are queues on the various routes to a particular destination, how long they are, and sometimes what the estimated journey time is. This is in

  15. Classification of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, Marius M.

    2007-01-01

    to classify dynamic vehicle routing systems. Methods for evaluation of the performance of algorithms that solve on-line routing problems are discussed and we list some of the most important issues to include in the system objective. Finally, we provide a three-echelon classification of dynamic vehicle routing...

  16. Weathering of ordinary chondrites from Oman: Correlation of weathering parameters with 14C terrestrial ages and a refined weathering scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Florian J.; Hofmann, Beda A.; Gnos, Edwin; Eggenberger, Urs; Jull, A. J. Timothy

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated 128 14C-dated ordinary chondrites from Oman for macroscopically visible weathering parameters, for thin section-based weathering degrees, and for chemical weathering parameters as analyzed with handheld X-ray fluorescence. These 128 14C-dated meteorites show an abundance maximum of terrestrial age at 19.9 ka, with a mean of 21.0 ka and a pronounced lack of samples between 0 and 10 ka. The weathering degree is evaluated in thin section using a refined weathering scale based on the current W0 to W6 classification of Wlotzka (1993), with five newly included intermediate steps resulting in a total of nine (formerly six) steps. We find significant correlations between terrestrial ages and several macroscopic weathering parameters. The correlation of various chemical parameters including Sr and Ba with terrestrial age is not very pronounced. The microscopic weathering degree of metal and sulfides with newly added intermediate steps shows the best correlation with 14C terrestrial ages, demonstrating the significance of the newly defined weathering steps. We demonstrate that the observed 14C terrestrial age distribution can be modeled from the abundance of meteorites with different weathering degrees, allowing the evaluation of an age-frequency distribution for the whole meteorite population.

  17. Space weather effects measured in atmospheric radiation on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.; Bouwer, D.; Bailey, J. J.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, K.; Wieman, S. R.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R. W.; Bell, L. D.; Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.; Jones, J. B. L.; Crowley, G.; Azeem, S. I.; Halford, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Since 2013 Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes using a small fleet of six instruments. The objective of this work is to improve radiation risk management in air traffic operations. Under the auspices of the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) projects our team is making dose rate measurements on multiple aircraft flying global routes. Over 174 ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), Solar Energetic Protons (SEPs), and outer radiation belt energetic electrons. The real-time radiation exposure is measured as an absorbed dose rate in silicon and then computed as an ambient dose equivalent rate for reporting dose relevant to radiative-sensitive organs and tissue in units of microsieverts per hour. ARMAS total ionizing absorbed dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into ambient dose equivalent rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users. Dose rates from flight altitudes up to 56,700 ft. are shown for flights across the planet under a variety of space weather conditions. We discuss several space weather

  18. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  19. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  20. Completion of the work on the Route Gregory

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It won't be long now before the work on the Route Gregory is completed ! The purpose of the work, which started at the end of last year, is to replace two sections of the drinking water supply and fire system pipework. Unfortunately, the work has been hampered by bad weather and complicated by the need to maintain the supply of water to the SPS and by a number of leaking valves. In collaboration with the Services Industriels de Genève, the Cooling and Ventilation (CV) Group of ST Division has succeeded in maintaining uninterrupted water supplies to the Meyrin Site. The hole has just been filled in and the small area of unmade road surface is due to be tarmacked in the coming weeks.

  1. Prediction Techniques in Operational Space Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    The importance of forecasting space weather conditions is steadily increasing as our society is becoming more and more dependent on advanced technologies that may be affected by disturbed space weather. Operational space weather forecasting is still a difficult task that requires the real-time availability of input data and specific prediction techniques that are reviewed in this presentation, with an emphasis on solar and interplanetary weather. Key observations that are essential for operational space weather forecasting are listed. Predictions made on the base of empirical and statistical methods, as well as physical models, are described. Their validation, accuracy, and limitations are discussed in the context of operational forecasting. Several important problems in the scientific basis of predicting space weather are described, and possible ways to overcome them are discussed, including novel space-borne observations that could be available in future.

  2. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  3. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES) in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  4. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    McMichael, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental c...

  5. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Watari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  6. Real-time routing control design for traffic networks with multi-route choices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗莉华; 葛颖恩; 陈继红; 张方伟

    2016-01-01

    This work considers those road networks in which there are multi-route choices for bifurcation-destination (or origin-destination) pairs, and designs a real-time variable message sign (VMS)-based routing control strategy in the model predictive control (MPC) framework. The VMS route recommendation provided by the traffic management authority is directly considered as the control variable, and the routing control model is established, in which a multi-dimensional control vector is introduced to describe the influence of route recommendations on flow distribution. In the MPC framework, a system optimum routing strategy with the constraints regarding drivers’ acceptability with recommended routes is designed, which can not only meet the traffic management authority’s control requirement but also improve drivers’ satisfaction with the route guidance system. The simulation carried out shows that the proposed routing control can effectively mitigate traffic congestion, reduces followers’ time delay, and improves drivers’ satisfaction with routing control in road networks.

  7. Route selection for vehicle navigation and control

    OpenAIRE

    G. Pang; Chu, MH

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an application of neural-fuzzy methodology for the problem of route selection in a typical vehicle navigation and control system. The idea of the primary attributes of a route is discussed, and a neural-fuzzy system is developed to help a user to select a route out of the many possible routes from an origin to the destination. The user may not adopt the recommendation provided by the system and choose an alternate route. One novel feature of the system is that the neural-f...

  8. Routing for wireless multi-hop networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hamid, Sherin Abdel; Takahara, Glen

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this brief is to identify what unifies and what distinguishes the routing functions in four wireless multi-hop network paradigms. The brief introduces a generic routing model that can be used as a foundation of wireless multi-hop routing protocol analysis and design. It demonstrates that such model can be adopted by any wireless multi-hop routing protocol. Also presented is a glimpse of the ideal wireless multi-hop routing protocol along with several open issues.

  9. Submarine Pipeline Routing Risk Quantitative Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 于莉; 胡云昌; 王金英

    2004-01-01

    A new method for submarine pipeline routing risk quantitative analysis was provided, and the study was developed from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis.The characteristics of the potential risk of the submarine pipeline system were considered, and grey-mode identification theory was used. The study process was composed of three parts: establishing the indexes system of routing risk quantitative analysis, establishing the model of grey-mode identification for routing risk quantitative analysis, and establishing the standard of mode identification result. It is shown that this model can directly and concisely reflect the hazard degree of the routing through computing example, and prepares the routing selection for the future.

  10. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function. PMID:27067257

  11. MILITARY MULTI-HOP ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Military tactical network is one of the most important applications of ad hoc network. Currently the existing routing protocols are put forward based on the simple and universal network model which has the ability of multi-hop routing but cannot work efficiently in the special military applications. The narrow bandwidth and limited energy of the wireless network make general routing protocols seem to be more redundant.In order to satisfy military needs properly, this letter makes a detailed analysis of physical nodes and traffic distribution in military network, uses cross-layer design concept for reference, combines traffic characteristic of application layer with routing protocol design. It categorized routing problem as crucial routes and non-crucial routes which adopted separate maintenance methods. It not only realizes basic transmission function but also works efficiently. It is quite fit for military application.

  12. A Genetic Algorithm on Inventory Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Aydın

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventory routing problem can be defined as forming the routes to serve to the retailers from the manufacturer, deciding on the quantity of the shipment to the retailers and deciding on the timing of the replenishments. The difference of inventory routing problems from vehicle routing problems is the consideration of the inventory positions of retailers and supplier, and making the decision accordingly. Inventory routing problems are complex in nature and they can be solved either theoretically or using a heuristics method. Metaheuristics is an emerging class of heuristics that can be applied to combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we provide the relationship between vendor-managed inventory and inventory routing problem. The proposed genetic for solving vehicle routing problem is described in detail.

  13. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-04-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  14. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Bijan; Bikas, Md Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol has taken significant attention. So, it is very necessary to identify the pros and cons of routing protocols which can be used for further improvement or development of any new routing protocol. This paper presents the pros and cons of VANET routing protocols for inter vehicle communication.

  15. Traffic Control Under Complex Weather Conditions in Suining Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕维峰

    2014-01-01

    Complex weather conditions is meaning thunderstorm freezing turbulence wind-shear low visibility weather affect the flight safety. When confronted with complex weather conditions,the controllers should know the weather condition and trend weather,and notify the aircraft under your control zone.The controllers provide the required services to the pilots,help the pilots to avoid the complex weather.In this paper, through different complex weathers under different control command,get the different methods of control.

  16. Weather impact forecasting using MOGREPS with socially- and geographically-derived vulnerability and exposure datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Joanne

    2010-05-01

    Hazardous weather has a major impact on health and safety and on the economy in the UK and other countries. This has renewed efforts within the Met Office to develop a system that can predict weather related impacts, extending the Office's ability to warn the public and business sectors of potential weather related hazards. Ultimately the prediction of both an impending weather hazard and its potential for impact will allow concise decision making to implement mitigation strategies. A diagnostic tool has been developed for the UK transport network, which focuses on quantifying the risk of specific vehicle types overturning in strong winds or being disrupted due to heavy snow. The impacts to those using the network are then quantified in terms of journey delay times and number of people affected. For this tool to be effective it requires vulnerability and exposure datasets to be combined with the probability of hazardous weather occurring. Probabilities are obtained from MOGREPS (Met Office Global and Regional Ensemble Prediction System), while vulnerability is a combined field which determines the varying structural and geographical attributes of each kilometre segment of motorway route. A segment's attributes influence the likelihood of that location having weather related impacts, and the severity of these impacts. The exposure field accounts for the changes in traffic flow by vehicle type, day of the week and time of the day, and increases risk of disruption if the route has high traffic flows while reducing the risk in low traffic flow areas. The model has been shown to be useful in the Met Office Operations Centre where it is used as a support tool for issuing weather warnings. However, verification of the output has been difficult due to the lack of severe wind gust events over the trial period and the difficulty in obtaining accurate impact verification information. The Highways Agency is now on board, both receiving the model's output in their Operations

  17. Weather pattern climatology of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R.; Davis, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    In this study the geographic domain covered the 48 conterminous states of the United States. The daily synoptic weather pattern was classified into nine types for the 10-year period January 1, 1969 to December 31, 1978. Weather pattern types were defined relative to the classical polar front model of a mid-latitude cyclonic storm system and its associated air masses. Guidelines for classifying weather patterns on an operational basis were developed. These were applied to 3652 daily surface weather maps to produce a time series of weather pattern type at 120 grid points of a 160 point, 3/sup 0/ latitude by 4/sup 0/ longitude array over the United States. Statistics on the frequency of occurrence, persistence and alternation of weather patterns were calculated for each grid point. Summary statistics for the entire grid and for six regions were also presented. Frequency of occurrence and persistence were found to depend on the size and speed of movement of the weather pattern. Large, slow moving air masses had higher frequency of occurrence and longer persistence than small (fronts) or rapidly moving (or changing) features (fronts, storm centers). Some types showed distinct regional preferences. The subtropical maritime high occurred mainly in the south central and southeast. An indeterminate weather pattern type accounted for those weather patterns that did not fit the polar front model or were too disorganized to be classified. The intermountain thermal low of the desert southwest was one such feature that dominated both frequency of occurrence and persistence in this region. Alternation from one weather pattern to another followed the polar front model of a moving cyclonic storm. The tendency for anticyclonic weather patterns to become disorganized as they weakened was seen in the high percentage of these patterns that changed to an indeterminate pattern as they aged.

  18. The Application of Synoptic Weather Forecasting Rules to Selected Weather Situations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Fred E.

    The document describes the use of weather maps and data in teaching introductory college courses in synoptic meteorology. Students examine weather changes at three-hour intervals from data obtained from the "Monthly Summary of Local Climatological Data." Weather variables in the local summary include sky cover, air temperature, dew point, relative…

  19. Hedging Weather Risk for Corn Production in Northeastern China: The Efficiency of Weather-indexed Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Baojing; Guo, Changhao; Kooten, van G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The paper analyzes the hedging efficiency of weather-indexed insurance for corn production in Northeast of China. The purpose of this paper is to identify the potential weather variables that impact corn yields and to analyze the efficiency of weather-indexed insurance under varying

  20. Analysis of Energy Optimized Hierarchical Routing Protocols in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Shelly Jain

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern wireless sensor network can be expanded into large geographical areas via cheap sensor devices which can sustain themselves with limited energy and developing an energy efficient protocol is a major challenge. Currently, routing in the wireless sensor network faces multiple challenges, such as new scalability, coverage, packet loss, interference, real-time audio and real time video streaming, weather reports, energy constraints and so forth. Clustering sensor nodes is an effective topology control approach. LEACH is an energy efficient clustering protocol because of its nodes distribution capabilities but still it has limitations because it leads to uneven energy distribution. PEGASIS is an enhancement of LEACH using chain-based technique to optimize the energy consumption. This protocol also has certain disadvantages like delays in larger networks etc. HEED is an advanced version of protocol which removes the disadvantages of LEACH and PEGASIS by using distributed algorithm for selecting the cluster heads (CH. It does not make any assumptions about the infrastructure or capabilities of nodes. LEACH, PEGASIS and HEED routing algorithms are compared using Matlab simulation on a Wi-Max network and the results & analysis are based upon the simulation experiments. Simulation results demonstrate that HEED is effective in prolonging the network lifetime and also overcomes the disadvantages of both LEACH & PEGASIS

  1. AN overview of the FLYSAFE datalink solution for the exchange of weather information: supporting aircrew decision making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, A.; Drouin, A.

    2009-09-01

    FLYSAFE is an Integrated Project of the 6th framework of the European Commission with the aim to improve flight safety through the development of an avionics solution the Next Generation Integrated Surveillance System (NGISS), which is supported by a ground based network of Weather Information Management Systems (WIMS) and access points in the form of the Ground Weather Processor (GWP). The NGISS provides information to the flight crew on the three major external hazards for aviation: weather, air traffic and terrain. The NGISS has the capability of displaying data about all three hazards on a single display screen, facilitating rapid appreciation of the situation by the flight crew. Weather Information Management Systems (WIMS) were developed to provide the NGISS and the flight crew with weather related information on in-flight icing, thunderstorms and clear-air turbulence. These products are generated on the ground from observations and model forecasts. WIMS will supply relevant information on three different scales: global, regional and local (over airport Terminal Manoeuvring Area). The Ground Weather Processor is a client-server architecture that utilises open source components, which include a geospatial database and web feature services. The GWP stores Weather Objects generated by the WIMS. An aviation user can retrieve on-demand all Weather Objects that intersect the volume of space that is of interest to them. The Weather Objects are fused with in-situ observation data and can be used by the flight management system to propose a route to avoid the hazard. In addition they can be used to display the current hazardous weather to the Flight Crew thereby raising their awareness. Within the FLYSAFE program, around 120 hours of flight trials were performed during February 2008 and August 2008. Two aircraft were involved each with separate objectives: - to assess FLYSAFE's innovative solutions for the data-link, on-board data-fusion and data-display and data

  2. Enhancing Route Maintenance in RS-AODV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav J. Bhatt*,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs are temporary formed, infrastructure-less networks. The performance metrics degrades due to the unstable channel conditions, network connectivity, and mobility and resource limitations. To improve different performance metrics, various cross-layering techniques are used where different layers from protocol stack communications with each other via exchange of information. Ad hoc on demand Routing Protocol (AODV is a well reactive ad hoc routing protocol. We proposed RS-AODV (Route Stability based AODV, a modified version of AODV routing protocol, based on route discovery by utilizing Physical Layer information instead of the minimum hop count approach of the default distance vector algorithm. Our research will also elaborate how the proposed model uses the received Signal Strength (RSSI to find its route. We will focus on parameters like traffic throughput, response, time, packet loss, delay, link stability, optimal usage of battery resource to increase overall lifetime of a network. And also use novel approach "make before break" that starts finding alternate route when it seems link failure due to mobility of node. Simulation results show that RS-AODV has performance better that AODV routing protocol in terms of the metrics: End-to-End delay, Packet Delivery Ratio, Network Routing Load and number of route repairs.

  3. Medium-range fire weather forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.O. Roads; K. Ueyoshi; S.C. Chen; J. Alpert; F. Fujioka

    1991-01-01

    The forecast skill of theNational Meteorological Center's medium range forecast (MRF) numerical forecasts of fire weather variables is assessed for the period June 1,1988 to May 31,1990. Near-surface virtual temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and a derived fire weather index (FWI) are forecast well by the MRF model. However, forecast relative humidity has...

  4. Uncertainty analysis of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.; Doeswijk, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    The indoor climate of many storage facilities for agricultural produce is controlled by mixing ambient air with the air flow through the store room. Hence, the indoor climate is affected by the ambient weather conditions. Given hourly fluctuating energy tariffs, weather forecasts over some days are

  5. Uncertainty analysis of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.; Doeswijk, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    The indoor climate of many storage facilities for agricultural produce is controlled by mixing ambient air with the air flow through the store room. Hence, the indoor climate is affected by the ambient weather conditions. Given hourly fluctuating energy tariffs, weather forecasts over some days are

  6. Adaptive Weather Forecasting using Local Meteorological Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, meteorological parameters such as temperature, rain and global radiation are important for agricultural systems. Anticipating on future conditions is most often needed in these systems. Weather forecasts then become of substantial importance. As weather forecasts are subject to uncertain

  7. The Early Years: About the Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Observing and documenting elements of weather teach children about using tools and their senses to learn about the environment. This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. This month's issue describes an activity where students indirectly document local weather by counting outdoor clothing types worn…

  8. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  9. Wireless Mesh Network Routing Under Uncertain Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Jonathan; Dai, Liang; Chang, Bin; Xue, Yuan

    Traffic routing plays a critical role in determining the performance of a wireless mesh network. Recent research results usually fall into two ends of the spectrum. On one end are the heuristic routing algorithms, which are highly adaptive to the dynamic environments of wireless networks yet lack the analytical properties of how well the network performs globally. On the other end are the optimal routing algorithms that are derived from the optimization problem formulation of mesh network routing. They can usually claim analytical properties such as resource use optimality and throughput fairness. However, traffic demand is usually implicitly assumed as static and known a priori in these problem formulations. In contrast, recent studies of wireless network traces show that the traffic demand, even being aggregated at access points, is highly dynamic and hard to estimate. Thus, to apply the optimization-based routing solution in practice, one must take into account the dynamic and uncertain nature of wireless traffic demand. There are two basic approaches to address the traffic uncertainty in optimal mesh network routing (1) predictive routing that infers the traffic demand with maximum possibility based in its history and optimizes the routing strategy based on the predicted traffic demand and (2) oblivious routing that considers all the possible traffic demands and selects the routing strategy where the worst-case network performance could be optimized. This chapter provides an overview of the optimal routing strategies for wireless mesh networks with a focus on the above two strategies that explicitly consider the traffic uncertainty. It also identifies the key factors that affect the performance of each routing strategy and provides guidelines towards the strategy selection in mesh network routing under uncertain traffic demands.

  10. A Study Issues Related To Improve Route Stability In AODY Routing Protocol In VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annu Mor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET is a sub class of mobile ad hoc networks. VANET provides wireless communication among vehicles and vehicle to road side equipments, according to IEEE 802.11 p standard for end to end communication between vehicles . For end to end communication between vehicles a routing protocols is used to find a route based on link properties. One of the most important routing protocols used in ad hoc networks is AODV. This protocol is connectivity based reactive protocol that searches routes only when they are needed. It always exchanges control packets between neighbor nodes for routing. In this article author present cross layer technique that find channel security at link layer to AODV routing protocol to improve the communication in vehicles for safety purpose. To eliminate route discovery routers, propose PAODV as routing protocol. It improves AODV control overhead and makes routes more stable.

  11. Learn about Earth Science: Weather. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This CD-ROM, designed for students in grades K-2, explores the world of weather. Students investigate weather to learn about climate and the seasons, how animals adapt to weather changes, how clouds tell us about conditions, and how weather plays a part in our everyday lives. The weather calendar lets students record and write about conditions…

  12. Pushing the Envelope of Extreme Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme Space Weather events are large solar flares or geomagnetic storms, which can cost billions of dollars to recover from. We have few examples of such events; the Carrington Event (the solar superstorm) is one of the few that had superlatives in three categories: size of solar flare, drop in Dst, and amplitude of aa. Kepler observations show that stars similar to the Sun can have flares releasing millions of times more energy than an X-class flare. These flares and the accompanying coronal mass ejections could strongly affect the atmosphere surrounding a planet. What level of solar activity would be necessary to strongly affect the atmosphere of the Earth? Can we map out the envelope of space weather along the evolution of the Sun? What would space weather look like if the Sun stopped producing a magnetic field? To what extreme should Space Weather go? These are the extremes of Space Weather explored in this talk.

  13. Space weather: European Space Agency perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, E. J.; Hilgers, A.

    Spacecraft and payloads have become steadily more sophisticated and therefore more susceptible to space weather effects. ESA has long been active in applying models and tools to the problems associated with such effects on its spacecraft. In parallel, ESA and European agencies have built a highly successful solar-terrestrial physics capability. ESA is now investigating the marriage of these technological and scientific capabilities to address perceived user needs for space weather products and services. Two major ESA-sponsored studies are laying the groundwork for a possible operational European space weather service. The wide-ranging activities of ESA in the Space Weather/Space Environment domain are summarized and recent important examples of space weather concerns given.

  14. Weatherization works: Final report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kinney, L.F.

    1994-09-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation`s largest residential energy conservation program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed the five-part study. This document summarizes the findings of the evaluation. Its conclusions are based mainly on data from the 1989 program year (supplemented by data from 1991-92). The evaluation concludes that the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement. Specifically, it (1) saves energy, (2) lowers fuel bills, and (3) improves the health and safety of dwellings occupied by low-income people. In addition, the Program achieves its mission in a cost-effective manner based on each of three perspectives employed by the evaluators. Finally, the evaluation estimates that the investments made in 1989 will, over a 20-year lifetime, save the equivalent of 12 million barrels of oil, roughly the amount of oil added to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in each of the past several years.

  15. Using Music to Communicate Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P.; Aplin, K. L.; Brown, S.; Jenkins, K.; Mander, S.; Walsh, C.

    2016-12-01

    Depictions of weather and other atmospheric phenomena are common throughout the arts. Unlike in the visual arts, however, there has been little study of meteorological inspiration in music. This presentation will discuss the frequencies with which different weather types have been depicted in music over time, covering the period from the seventeenth century to the present day. Beginning with classical orchestral music, we find that composers were generally influenced by their own country's climate in the type of weather they chose to represent. Depictions of weather vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. Pieces depicting stormy weather tend to be in minor keys, whereas pieces depicting fair weather tend to be in major keys. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Moving onto modern popular music, we have identified and analyzed over 750 songs referring to different weather types. We find that lyrical references to bad weather peaked in songs written during the stormy 1950s and 60s, when there were many hurricanes, before declining in the relatively calm 1970s and 80s. This finding again suggests a causal link between song-writers' meteorological environments and compositional outputs. Composers and song-writers have a unique ability to emotionally connect their listeners to the environment. This ability could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broader audience. Our work provides a catalogue of cultural responses to weather before (and during the early stages of) climate change. The effects of global warming may influence musical expression in future, in which case our work will provide a baseline for comparison.

  16. Deterministic 1-k routing on meshes with applications to worm-hole routing

    OpenAIRE

    Sibeyn, J.; Kaufmann, M.

    1993-01-01

    In $1$-$k$ routing each of the $n^2$ processing units of an $n \\times n$ mesh connected computer initially holds $1$ packet which must be routed such that any processor is the destination of at most $k$ packets. This problem reflects practical desire for routing better than the popular routing of permutations. $1$-$k$ routing also has implications for hot-potato worm-hole routing, which is of great importance for real world systems. We present a near-optimal deterministic algorithm running in...

  17. Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Program First Steps Toward Tribal Weatherization – Human Capacity Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiita, Joanne

    2013-07-30

    The Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Project expanded weatherization services for tribal members’ homes in southeast Alaska while providing weatherization training and on the job training (OJT) for tribal citizens that lead to jobs and most probably careers in weatherization-related occupations. The program resulted in; (a) 80 Alaska Native citizens provided with skills training in five weatherization training units that were delivered in cooperation with University of Alaska Southeast, in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy Core Competencies for Weatherization Training that prepared participants for employment in three weatherizationrelated occupations: Installer, Crew Chief, and Auditor; (b) 25 paid OJT training opportunities for trainees who successfully completed the training course; and (c) employed trained personnel that have begun to rehab on over 1,000 housing units for weatherization.

  18. A Century of Monitoring Weather and Crops: The Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddinghaus, Thomas R.; Le Comte, Douglas M.

    1992-02-01

    Publication of a national weekly weather summary called the Weekly Weather Chronicle began in 1872. This summary was the precursor of today's Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin (WWCB), a publication that reports global weather and climate conditions relevant to agricultural interests, as well as current national activities and assessments of crop and livestock conditions. The WWCB is produced by the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility (JAWF), a world agricultural weather information center located in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) headquarters in Washington, D.C., and jointly staffed by units of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climats. Analysis Center and USDA's World Agricultural Outlook Board and National Agricultural Statistics Service. Besides featuring charts and tables (e.g., temperature and precipitation maps and crop progress and condition tables), the WWCB contains summaries and special stories highlighting significant weather events affecting agriculture, such as droughts, torrential rains, floods, unusual warmth, heat waves, severe freezes, heavy snowfall, blizzards, damaging storms, and hurricanes.

  19. Distributed multiple path routing in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Wang, San-Xiu; Wu, Ling-Wei; Mei, Pan; Yang, Xu-Hua; Wen, Guang-Hui

    2016-12-01

    Routing in complex transmission networks is an important problem that has garnered extensive research interest in the recent years. In this paper, we propose a novel routing strategy called the distributed multiple path (DMP) routing strategy. For each of the O-D node pairs in a given network, the DMP routing strategy computes and stores multiple short-length paths that overlap less with each other in advance. And during the transmission stage, it rapidly selects an actual routing path which provides low transmission cost from the pre-computed paths for each transmission task, according to the real-time network transmission status information. Computer simulation results obtained for the lattice, ER random, and scale-free networks indicate that the strategy can significantly improve the anti-congestion ability of transmission networks, as well as provide favorable routing robustness against partial network failures.

  20. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  1. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kirst, Christoph; Battaglia, Demian

    2015-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this generic mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyze how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs coact to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine non-local network-wide communication. These results help...

  2. Zone routing in a torus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer

    2013-01-29

    A system for routing data in a network comprising a network logic device at a sending node for determining a path between the sending node and a receiving node, wherein the network logic device sets one or more selection bits and one or more hint bits within the data packet, a control register for storing one or more masks, wherein the network logic device uses the one or more selection bits to select a mask from the control register and the network logic device applies the selected mask to the hint bits to restrict routing of the data packet to one or more routing directions for the data packet within the network and selects one of the restricted routing directions from the one or more routing directions and sends the data packet along a link in the selected routing direction toward the receiving node.

  3. The Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    This paper introduces the Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the Pyramidal Traveling Salesman Problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...... found in many optimal solutions to CVRP instances. An optimal solution to the PCVRP may therefore be useful in itself as a heuristic solution to the CVRP. Further, an attempt can be made to find an even better CVRP solution by solving a TSP, possibly leading to a non-pyramidal route, for each...... of the routes in the PCVRP solution. This paper develops an exact branch-and-cut-and-price (BCP) algorithm for the PCVRP. At the pricing stage, elementary routes can be computed in pseudo-polynomial time in the PCVRP, unlike in the CVRP. We have therefore implemented pricing algorithms that generate only...

  4. Forecasting Space Weather from Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Large flares and fast CMEs are the drivers of the most severe space weather including Solar Energetic Particle Events (SEP Events). Large flares and their co-produced CMEs are powered by the explosive release of free magnetic energy stored in non-potential magnetic fields of sunspot active regions. The free energy is stored in and released from the low-beta regime of the active region s magnetic field above the photosphere, in the chromosphere and low corona. From our work over the past decade and from similar work of several other groups, it is now well established that (1) a proxy of the free magnetic energy stored above the photosphere can be measured from photospheric magnetograms, maps of the measured field in the photosphere, and (2) an active region s rate of production of major CME/flare eruptions in the coming day or so is strongly correlated with its present measured value of the free-energy proxy. These results have led us to use the large database of SOHO/MDI full-disk magnetograms spanning Solar Cycle 23 to obtain empirical forecasting curves that from an active region s present measured value of the free-energy proxy give the active region s expected rates of production of major flares, CMEs, fast CMEs, and SEP Events in the coming day or so (Falconer et al 2011, Space Weather, 9, S04003). For each type of event, the expected rate is readily converted to the chance that the active region will produce such an event in any given forward time window of a day or so. If the chance is small enough (e.g. <5%), the forecast is All Clear for that type of event. We will present these forecasting curves and demonstrate the accuracy of their forecasts. In addition, we will show that the forecasts for major flares and fast CMEs can be made significantly more accurate by taking into account not only the value of the free energy proxy but also the active region s recent productivity of major flares; specifically, whether the active region has produced a major flare

  5. Weather Station and Sensor Locations, MDTA Roadway weather station, weather stations, weather sensors, Roadway weather sensors, RWIS, MDTA weather sensors, Published in 2009, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Weather Station and Sensor Locations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2009. It...

  6. Security Verification of Secure MANET Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    the destination. The route discovery phase is complete upon receipt of the RREP at the requesting node. The DYMO protocol is a simpler version of AODV ...described in this appendix. The protocols are Secure AODV (SAODV), Secure Efficient Distance Vector (SEAD), and Secure Link State Routing Protocol (SLSP...SECURITY VERIFICATION OF SECURE MANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS THESIS Matthew F. Steele, Captain, USAF AFIT/GCS/ENG/12-03 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR

  7. Scheduling and routing Tactical Aerial Reconnaissance Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. In this thesis we study the Marine Corps Tactical Aerial Reconnaissance Vehicle routing and scheduling problem. the present method of routing and scheduling is presented, along with possible implications for routing and scheduling when future expansion of vehicle assets becomes available. A review of current literature is given and comparisons are drawn between our problem and recent work. A model for the problem, which we call the Multi...

  8. Distributed algorithms for resource allocation and routing

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zengjian

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we study distributed algorithms in the context of two fundamental problems in distributed systems, resource allocation and routing. Resource allocation studies how to distribute workload evenly to resources. We consider two different resource allocation models, the diffusive load balancing and the weighted balls-into-bins games. Routing studies how to deliver messages from source to estination efficiently. We design routing algorithms for broadcasting and gossiping in ad hoc n...

  9. Gossip Based Ad-Hoc Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Zygmunt; Halpern, Joseph Y.; Li, Erran L.

    2002-01-01

    Many ad hoc routing protocols are based on some variant of flooding. Despite various optimizations, many routing messages are propagated unnecessarily. We propose a gossiping-based approach, where each node forwards a message with some probability, to reduce the overhead of the routing protocols. Gossiping exhibits bimodal behavior in sufficiently large networks: in some executions, the gossip dies out quickly and hardly any node gets the message; in the remaining executions, a substantial fr...

  10. Flood Routing Technique for Data Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jaihyung; Breen, James

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a new routing algorithm based on a flooding method is introduced. Flooding techniques have been used previously, e.g. for broadcasting the routing table in the ARPAnet [1] and other special purpose networks [3][4][5]. However, sending data using flooding can often saturate the network [2] and it is usually regarded as an inefficient broadcast mechanism. Our approach is to flood a very short packet to explore an optimal route without relying on a pre-established routing table, a...

  11. Routing Issues in Opportunistic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marco; Crowcroft, Jon; Giordano, Silvia; Hui, Pan; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Passarella, Andrea

    The opportunistic networking idea stems from the critical review of the research field on Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). After more than ten years of research in the MANET field, this promising technology still has not massively entered the mass market. One of the main reasons of this is nowadays seen in the lack of a practical approach to the design of infrastructure-less multi-hop ad hoc networks [186, 185]. One of the main approaches of conventional MANET research is to design protocols that mask the features of mobile networks via the routing (and transport) layer, so as to expose to higher layers an Internet-like network abstraction. Wireless networks’ peculiarities, such as mobility of users, disconnection of nodes, network partitions, links’ instability, are seen—as in the legacy Internet—as exceptions. This often results in the design of MANET network stacks that are significantly complex and unstable [107].

  12. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle R...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown.......This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle...

  13. On-line data acquisition system for Aanderaa weather station

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    Aanderaa Weather Station can be installed at unattended remote places for collection of various weather parameters at regular preselected intervals. The weather parameters are recorded on the magnetic spool inside a battery operated datalogger which...

  14. Operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukkonen, J.; Balk, T.; Schultz, D.M.; Baklanov, A.; Klein, T.; Miranda, A.I.; Monteiro, A.; Hirtl, M.; Tarvainen, V.; Boy, M.; Peuch, V.H.; Poupkou, A.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Finardi, S.; Sofiev, M.; Sokhi, R.; Lehtinen, K.; Karatzas, K.; San José, R.; Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Schaap, M.; Reimer, E.; Jakobs, H.; Eben, K.

    2011-01-01

    Numerical models that combine weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry are here referred to as chemical weather forecasting models. Eighteen operational chemical weather forecasting models on regional and continental scales in Europe are described and compared in this article. Topics discussed

  15. Weatherization Works: Final Report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    2001-02-01

    In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation's largest residential energy conservation program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed the five-part study. This document summarizes the findings of the evaluation. Its conclusions are based mainly on data from the 1989 program year. The evaluation concludes that the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement. Specifically, it saves energy, lowers fuel bills, and improves the health and safety of dwellings occupied by low-income people. In addition, the Program achieves its mission in a cost-effective manner based on each of three perspectives employed by the evaluators. Finally, the evaluation estimates that the investments made in 1989 will, over a 20-year lifetime, save the equivalent of 12 million barrels of oil, roughly the amount of oil added to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in each of the past several years. The Program's mission is to reduce the heating and cooling costs for low-income families--particularly the elderly, persons with disabilities, and children by improving the energy efficiency of their homes and ensuring their health and safety. Substantial progress has been made, but the job is far from over. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) reports that the average low-income family spends 12 percent of its income on residential energy, compared to only 3% for the average-income family. Homes where low-income families live also have a greater need for energy efficiency improvements, but less money to pay for them.

  16. MEASURING SYSTEM OF ADVERSE WEATHER PHENOMENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ćurić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring system of adverse weather phenomena. The adverse weather phenomena in nowadays are becoming an extraordinary problem in human life and human activity. Therefore, it seems very important to know the thresholds of adverse weather phenomena. These thresholds can be calculated in different ways, but some experience has shown that for weather elements which departures from normal follow the normal distribution suits to use the Gaussian curve of frequency distribution (temperature and pressure. For such weather elements the normal curve of frequency distribution may be used for classification of thresholds. For weather elements which departures do not depend on such a frequency distribution configuration (precipitation amounts may be used a decile method. For wind speed thresholds, the Beaufort scale units can be used for calculation. In this paper the threshold scales for four basic weather elemnts are presented. All these scales contain four steps each. They are defined: normal, above normal, much above normal and extraordinary above normal or normal, below normal, much below normal and extraordinary below normal. The examples by observations of Meteorological Observatory in Belgrade are presented.

  17. The Integrated Space Weather Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, M. M.; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M.; Rastaetter, L.; MacNeice, P. J.; Jain, P.; Garneau, J. W.; Berrios, D. H.; Pulkinnen, A.; Rowland, D.

    2008-12-01

    Space weather affects virtually all of NASA's endeavors, from robotic missions to human exploration. Knowledge and prediction of space weather conditions is therefore essential to NASA operations. The diverse nature of currently available space environment measurements and modeling products, along with the lack of single-portal access, renders its practical use for space weather analysis and forecasting unfeasible. There exists a compelling need for accurate real-time forecasting of both large-scale and local space environments - and their probable impacts for missions. A vital design driver for any system that is created to solve this problem lies in the fact that information needs to be presented in a form that is useful and as such, must be both easily accessible and understandable. The Integrated Space Weather Analysis System is a joint development project at NASA GSFC between the Space Weather Laboratory, Community Coordinated Modeling Center, Applied Engineering & Technology Directorate, and NASA HQ Office Of Chief Engineer. The iSWA system will be a turnkey, web-based dissemination system for NASA-relevant space weather information that combines forecasts based on the most advanced space weather models with concurrent space environment information. It will be customer configurable and adaptable for use as a powerful decision making tool offering an unprecedented ability to analyze the present and expected future space weather impacts on virtually all NASA human and robotic missions. We will discuss some of the key design considerations for the system and present some of the initial space weather analysis products that have been created to date.

  18. Fast 3D route-planning approach for air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jilin; Ding, Mingyue; Zhou, Chengping; Ai, Haojun

    1997-06-01

    A fast 3-D route planning method for unmanned air vehicle is proposed which can generate physically realizable 3-D route within a reasonable time. Our method includes two steps: First, 2-D route planning generates a route which satisfies turning radius constraint(abbreviated as R-constrained below); second, 3-D route planning generates 3-D route in vertical profile of the 2-D route. To make 2-D route R-constrained, a method is proposed by supposing 2-D route of air vehicle is composed of a sequence of arc route segments and tangential points between neighboring arcs are searching nodes. 3 -D route planning is considered as optimal control problem, and its route can be determined by applying motion equations of air vehicle. The experiments show that our method can produce feasible 3-D routes within a reasonable time, and ensure the planned 3-D routes satisfy aerodynamics constraints of air vehicle.

  19. A Privacy-Preserving Prediction Method for Human Travel Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chen Hu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a kind of location-based research, human travel route prediction, which is to predict the track of a subject's future movements. The proposed method works as follows. The mobile user sends his/her current route along with several dummy routes to the server by using a 3D route matrix, which encodes a set of routes. The server restores the routes from the 3D matrix and matches the restored routes to the saved routes. The predicted route is found as the trunk of the tree, which is built by superimposing the matching results. The server then sends the predicted routes back to the user, who will apply the predicted route to a real-world problem such as traffic control and planning. Preliminary experimental results show the proposed method successfully predicts human travel routes based on current and previous routes. User privacy is also rigorously protected by using a simple method of dummy routes.

  20. Bus Routes, Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database, Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  1. US Hazardous Materials Routes, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [hazardous_material_routes_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  2. Dynamic Route Shortening and Route Repairing Mechanism for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Rangaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc Networks are wireless networks without any fixed infrastructure. The network topology changes frequently and unpredictably due to the random movement of the nodes. The ad hoc on Demand Distant Vector Routing (AODV protocol works in a dynamic fashion, by establishing a route on demand and continues that route until it breaks. Due to the changing network topology of ad hoc networks, if other routes with less hop count become available, the network topology is not able to adapt until the route break occurs. Hence in the route shortening scheme is some redundant nodes in the active route is replaced with a node that is not on the active route. When there is any link failure between any two nodes, the alternative route with optimum route to be constructed and not sending RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. Approach: This study proposes a new routing protocol called, Dynamic Route Shortening and Repairing mechanism (DRSR. The route shortening is incorporated with route repairing mechanism, to improve the performance of the AODV. The route shortening scheme works by replacing some redundant nodes in the active route, with a node that is not on the active route. If there is a link failure between the two nodes, the route repairing mechanism repairs the route, by using the nodes that are close enough to the route to overhear the message. Whenever the links go down, the DRSR replaces the failed links with the optimum route that is adjacent to the main route and not sending and RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. The alternative route construction process could be initiated at any time, not just when a route has failed. The dynamically constructed alternative route’s information is passed on to the upstream nodes, which then determine by themselves when to direct their packets to the Normal 0 false false false EN-US X

  3. Weather station with a web server

    OpenAIRE

    Repinc, Matej

    2013-01-01

    In this diploma thesis we present the process of making a cheap weather station using Arduino prototyping platform and its functionality. The weather station monitors current temperature, humidity of air and air pressure. The station has its own simple HTTP server that is used to relay current data in two different formats: JSON encoded data and simple HTML website. The weather station can also send data to a pre-defined server used for data collection. We implemented a web site where data an...

  4. The quiet revolution of numerical weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Peter; Thorpe, Alan; Brunet, Gilbert

    2015-09-01

    Advances in numerical weather prediction represent a quiet revolution because they have resulted from a steady accumulation of scientific knowledge and technological advances over many years that, with only a few exceptions, have not been associated with the aura of fundamental physics breakthroughs. Nonetheless, the impact of numerical weather prediction is among the greatest of any area of physical science. As a computational problem, global weather prediction is comparable to the simulation of the human brain and of the evolution of the early Universe, and it is performed every day at major operational centres across the world.

  5. Space weather and coronal mass ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Space weather has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Severe space weather can disrupt spacecraft, and on Earth can be the cause of power outages and power station failure. It also presents a radiation hazard for airline passengers and astronauts. These ""magnetic storms"" are most commonly caused by coronal mass ejections, or CMES, which are large eruptions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun that can reach speeds of several thousand km/s. In this SpringerBrief, Space Weather and Coronal Mass Ejections, author Timothy Howard briefly introduces the coronal mass ejection, its sc

  6. PRESIDENT MUSHARRAF: All Weather Friendship Keeps Rising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Tangible Suggestions on Promoting All Weather Bilateral Trade I would first of all like to extend warm greetings from the people of Pakistan to the people of China on the 55th year of all weather friendship between our two countries and this all weather friendship will keep rising. Succeeding generations in both countries have ever since carefully nurtured this friendship which has blossomed into beautiful and all comprehensive partnership for peace and development. Pakistan China friendship is rooted in the ethos of our peoples.It evokes spontaneous love, respect, admiration and touches a receptive cord in every heart that resonates and energizes this unique relationship.

  7. NASA GSFC Space Weather Center - Innovative Space Weather Dissemination: Web-Interfaces, Mobile Applications, and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Marlo; Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Lee, Hyesook; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Mullinix, Richard; hide

    2012-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing forecasts, alerts, research, and educational support to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to the needs of the general space weather community. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, custom space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. There are many challenges in providing accurate descriptions of past, present, and expected space weather events - and the Space Weather Center at NASA GSFC employs several innovative solutions to provide access to a comprehensive collection of both observational data, as well as space weather model/simulation data. We'll describe the challenges we've faced with managing hundreds of data streams, running models in real-time, data storage, and data dissemination. We'll also highlight several systems and tools that are utilized by the Space Weather Center in our daily operations, all of which are available to the general community as well. These systems and services include a web-based application called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), two mobile space weather applications for both IOS and Android devices, an external API for web-service style access to data, google earth compatible data products, and a downloadable client-based visualization tool.

  8. Powernext weather, benchmark indices for effective weather risk management; Powernext Weather, des indices de reference pour gerer le risque meteo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the Powernext/Meteo France partnership for the elaboration of efficient weather-related risk management indices. (J.S.)

  9. Route churn: an analysis of low-cost carrier route continuity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.G.; Zuidberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Discontinuity of air routes is a subject that has been analysed in various ways. For example, the complex network approach focuses on network robustness and resilience due to route interruptions during a relatively short period. Also seasonal interruptions of air routes are a well-documented

  10. What Is the Best Route? Route-Finding Strategies of Middle School Students Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigglesivorth, John C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes a research project conducted to investigate the strategies developed by middle school students to solve a route-finding problem using Arc View GIS software. Three different types of route-finding strategies were identified. Some students were visual route-finders and used a highly visual strategy; others were logical route…

  11. Route churn: an analysis of low-cost carrier route continuity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.G.; Zuidberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Discontinuity of air routes is a subject that has been analysed in various ways. For example, the complex network approach focuses on network robustness and resilience due to route interruptions during a relatively short period. Also seasonal interruptions of air routes are a well-documented phenome

  12. Development of a Healthy Urban Route Planner for cyclists and pedestrians in Amsterdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Michiel; Ligtenberg, Arend; Vreugdenhil, Corne; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Cities are hotspots of air pollution and heat stress, the exposure to which results in nuisance, health risks, cost of medication, reduced labour productivity and sick leave for citizens. Yet the air pollution and heat stress are spatially and temporally unevenly distributed over the city, depending on pollutant emissions, street design and atmospheric turbulent mixing and radiation. This spatiotemporal variation allows pedestrians and bikers to choose alternative routes to minimize their exposure, if the distribution is known. In this project, we develop a route planner for bicyclists and pedestrians for Amsterdam (NL), that proposes routes and departure times based on model simulations of weather and air quality. We use the WRF-Chem atmosphere and air quality model at unprecedented grid spacing of 100-m (Ronda et al, 2015, Super et al, 2016), with an underlying urban canopy model and NOx and PM10 emissions. The emissions by traffic are calculated based on observed traffic intensities and emission factors. An urban land use map will characterize urban density and street configuration to estimate urban heat storage (Attema et al, 2015). WRF-Chem runs will be issued daily for a lead time of 48 hours, resulting in forecast maps of temperature and pollutant concentrations that will be uniquely expressed in a metric that combines both threats. The hourly fields of this metric are provided to the route planner based on the open source routing library pgRouting to identify the more healthy routes on the route network of Amsterdam. The objectives of the healthy urban route planner are to raise awareness of heat and air quality issues in Amsterdam, to provide an innovative adaptation tool for citizens and tourists, to locate the most important bottlenecks in (the exposure to) air pollution and heat stress, and ultimately to test the readiness of the travellers to use the information and adapt the route. We expect to particularly target a group of lung- and cardiovascular

  13. Layout and Routing Methods for Warehouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Roodbergen (Kees-Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractLayout and Routing Methods for Warehouses discusses aspects of order picking in warehouses. Order picking is the process by which products are retrieved from storage to meet customer demand. Various new routing methods are introduced to determine efficient sequences in which products hav

  14. On green routing and scheduling problem

    CERN Document Server

    Touati, Nora

    2012-01-01

    The vehicle routing and scheduling problem has been studied with much interest within the last four decades. In this paper, some of the existing literature dealing with routing and scheduling problems with environmental issues is reviewed, and a description is provided of the problems that have been investigated and how they are treated using combinatorial optimization tools.

  15. On green routing and scheduling problem

    OpenAIRE

    Touati, Nora; Jost, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The vehicle routing and scheduling problem has been studied with much interest within the last four decades. In this paper, some of the existing literature dealing with routing and scheduling problems with environmental issues is reviewed, and a description is provided of the problems that have been investigated and how they are treated using combinatorial optimization tools.

  16. Joint Route Planning under Varying Market Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Braysy, O.; Dullaert, W.; Fleuren, H.A.; Salomon, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - To provide empirical evidence on the level of savings that can be attained by joint route planning and how these savings depend on specific market characteristics.Design/methodology/approach - Joint route planning is a measure that companies can take to decrease the costs of their distribu

  17. TBRF: Trust Based Routing Framework for WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Gulaskar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The multi-hop routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs offers little protection against identity deception through replaying routing information. An adversary can exploit this defect to launch various harmful or even devastating attacks against the routing protocols, including sinkhole attacks, wormhole attacks and Sybil attacks. The situation is further aggravated by mobile and harsh network conditions. Traditional cryptographic techniques or efforts at developing trust-aware routing protocols do not effectively address this severe problem. To secure the WSNs against adversaries misdirecting the multi-hop routing, we have designed and implemented TBRF, a robust trust-aware routing framework for dynamic WSNs. Without tight time synchronization or known geographic information, TBRF provides trustworthy and energy-efficient route. Most importantly, TBRF proves effective against those harmful attacks developed out of identity deception; the resilience of TBRF is verified through extensive evaluation with both simulation and empirical experiments on large-scale WSNs under various scenarios including mobile and RF-shielding network conditions. Further, we have implemented a low-overhead TBRF module in TinyOS; as demonstrated, this implementation can be incorporated into existing routing protocols with the least effort. Based on TBRF, we also demonstrated a proof-of-concept mobile target detection application that functions well against an anti-detection mechanism

  18. Inventory routing for dynamic waste collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of collecting waste from sensor equipped underground containers. These sensors enable the use of a dynamic collection policy. The problem, which is known as a reverse inventory routing problem, involves decisions regarding routing and container selection. In more dense

  19. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    sookhak, Mehdi; Haghparast, Mahboobeh; ISnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2011-01-01

    In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been substantially investigated by researches. Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN) and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Sunny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is an autonomous system that is composed of the mobile nodes which communicates through wireless links without any preexisting infrastructure. MANET is a collection of mobile nodes which can self-organize freely and dynamically into arbitrary and temporary network topologies. Mobile nodes in ad-hoc networks function as a router and can dynamically establish routes among themselves by means of a routing protocol. Routing protocols in mobile ad-hoc network helps node to send and receive packets. Therefore, selection of an appropriate routing protocol is an integral part of establishing a MANET. A suitable and effective routing mechanism helps to extend the successful deployment of mobile ad-hoc networks. An attempt has been made to compare the performance between on-demand reactive routing protocols namely AODV, DSR and proactive routing protocol namely DSDV for Constant Bit Rate (CBR traffic by varying network scope i.e. number of participating nodes as well as by varying the speed. The parameters used for evaluation are Packet delivery ratio (PDR, Normalized routing overhead, Average end to end delay (Delay, Throughput and Average Energy consumption. The simulations are carried out using Network Simulator NS2:34.

  1. Optimizing departure times in vehicle routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, E.W.; Schutten, J.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Most solution methods for the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) develop routes from the earliest feasible departure time. In practice, however, temporary traffic congestion make such solutions non-optimal with respect to minimizing the total duty time. Furthermore, the VRPTW does not

  2. Optimizing departure times in vehicle routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, E.W.; Schutten, J.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Most solution methods for the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) develop routes from the earliest feasible departure time. However, in practice, temporal traffic congestions make that such solutions are not optimal with respect to minimizing the total duty time. Furthermore, VRPTW sol

  3. Routing in Optical and Stochastic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.

    2015-01-01

    In most types of networks (e.g., optical or transportation networks), finding one or more best paths from a source to a destination, is one of the biggest concerns of network users and providers. This process is known as routing. The routing problems differ accordingly depending on different applica

  4. Hierarchical Routing over Dynamic Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tschopp, Dominique; Grossglauser, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Wireless network topologies change over time and maintaining routes requires frequent updates. Updates are costly in terms of consuming throughput available for data transmission, which is precious in wireless networks. In this paper, we ask whether there exist low-overhead schemes that produce low-stretch routes. This is studied by using the underlying geometric properties of the connectivity graph in wireless networks.

  5. Inventory routing for dynamic waste collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of collecting waste from sensor equipped underground containers. These sensors enable the use of a dynamic collection policy. The problem, which is known as a reverse inventory routing problem, involves decisions regarding routing and container selection. In more dense

  6. 45 CFR 1310.20 - Trip routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip routing. 1310.20 Section 1310.20 Public... PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Special Requirements § 1310.20 Trip routing. (a) Each agency providing... the primary consideration. (b) The agency must also ensure that the following basic principles of trip...

  7. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi sookhak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN have been substantially investigated by researches Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  8. National Ignition Facility wet weather construction plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, A N

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a wet weather construction plan for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction project. Construction of the NIF commenced in mid- 1997, and excavation of the site was completed in the fall. Preparations for placing concrete foundations began in the fall, and above normal rainfall is expected over the tinter. Heavy rainfall in late November impacted foundation construction, and a wet weather construction plan was determined to be needed. This wet weather constiction plan recommends a strategy, techniques and management practices to prepare and protect the site corn wet weather effects and allow construction work to proceed. It is intended that information in this plan be incorporated in the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) as warranted.

  9. Improving Local Weather Forecasts for Agricultural Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    For controlling agricultural systems, weather forecasts can be of substantial importance. Studies have shown that forecast errors can be reduced in terms of bias and standard deviation using forecasts and meteorological measurements from one specific meteorological station. For agricultural systems

  10. Space weather research and forecast in USA

    CERN Document Server

    Pevtsov, Alexei A

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, scientific research in space weather is funded by several Government Agencies including the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). For commercial purposes, space weather forecast is made by the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Observations come from the network of groundbased observatories funded via various sources, as well as from the instruments on spacecraft. Numerical models used in forecast are developed in the framework of individual research projects. Later, the most promising models are selected for additional testing at SWPC. In order to increase the application of models in research and education, NASA in collaboration with other agencies created Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). In mid-1990, US scientific community presented compelling evidence for developing the National Program on Space Weather, and in 1995, such program has been formally created...

  11. Improving Local Weather Forecasts for Agricultural Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    For controlling agricultural systems, weather forecasts can be of substantial importance. Studies have shown that forecast errors can be reduced in terms of bias and standard deviation using forecasts and meteorological measurements from one specific meteorological station. For agricultural systems

  12. Europe's First Space Weather Think Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilensten, Jean; Clark, Toby; Belehaki, Anna

    2004-04-01

    A new European intergovernmental action devoted to space weather has been recently approved. This paper describes the political and scientific context in which this action takes place, and the goals of this action, called COST 724.

  13. The fate of chromium during tropical weathering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Frei, Robert

    2014-01-01

    . The negatively fractionated δ53Cr values measured in the weathering profile relative to the unaltered tonalitic bedrock characterized by a high temperature magmatic inventory Cr isotope signature are consistent with loss of a positively fractionated Cr(VI) pool formed during weathering. The predicted existence......We performed a mineral, geochemical and Cr–Sr–Pb isotope study on a laterite profile developed on ca. 540 Ma old tonalitic bedrock in Madagascar with special emphasis on the behavior of chromium during tropical weathering. The observed strong depletions of Ca, Si, and P, and enrichment of Fe and Al...... of the soil profile relative to stage one altered saprolite. This gain in Cr is accompanied by decreasing δ53Cr values and can be explained by partial immobilization (possibly by adsorption/coprecipitation on/with Fe-oxy-hydroxides) of mobile Cr(III) during upward transport in the weathering profile...

  14. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Anshul

    2012-01-01

    In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context oblivious based schemes are only way to enable communication between users. As soon as users become more social, context data spreads in the network, and context based routing becomes an efficient solution. In this paper we design an integrated routing protocol that is able to use context data as soon as it becomes available and falls back to dissemination based routing when context information is not available. Then, we provide a comparison between Epidemic and PROPHET, these are representative of context oblivious and co...

  15. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    by proposing a methodology for collecting and analyzing behavioural indicators and modelling route choices of individuals driving habitually from home to their workplace. A web-based survey was designed to collect attitudinal data and observed route choices among faculty and staff members of Turin Polytechnic......A behaviourally realistic description of the route choice process should consider variables that are both observable, such as travel time and cost, and unobservable, such as attitudes, perceptions, spatial abilities and network knowledge. This manuscript focuses on automotive route choice behaviour....... A reliable dataset was prepared through measures of internal consistency and sampling adequacy, and data were analyzed with a proper application of factor analysis to the route choice context. For the dataset obtained from the survey, six latent constructs affecting driver behaviour were extracted and scores...

  16. CRADE OF SAND AND DUST STORM WEATHER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Ruoyun; Tian Cuiying; Bi Baogui; Yang Keming; Wang Youheng; Tuo Ya; Ding Haifang; Zhang Tairen

    2011-01-01

    Background Sand and dust storm,as one of the main disastrous weathers that affect northern China,not only affect the people health and normal life,but cause the short-term climatic changes due to the direct and indirect radiation of the earth-atmosphere system through the dust floating in the sky.The sand end dust weather and its potential harm on the national economy,ecological environment,social activities and other aspects have aroused worldwide concern.

  17. Space Weather Gets Real—on Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Crowley, Geoff; Oh, Seung Jun; Guhathakurta, Madhulika

    2010-10-01

    True to the saying that "a picture is worth a thousand words," society's affinity for visual images has driven innovative efforts to see space weather as it happens. The newest frontiers of these efforts involve applications, or apps, on cellular phones, allowing space weather researchers, operators, and teachers, as well as other interested parties, to have the ability to monitor conditions in real time with just the touch of a button.

  18. Key findings of the national weatherization evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.

    1994-10-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation`s largest residential energy conservation program. The primary goal of the evaluation was to establish whether the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement, to reduce the heating and cooling costs for low-income families-particularly the elderly, persons with disabilities, and children by improving the energy-efficiency of their homes and ensuring their health and safety. Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed a five-part study which produced a series of documents evaluating the Program. The objective of this document is to summarize the findings of the five-part National Weatherization Evaluation. The five studies were as follows: (1) Network Study-this study characterized the weatherization network`s leveraging, capabilities, procedures, staff, technologies, and innovations; (2) Resources and Population Study-this study profiled low-income weatherization resources, the weatherized population, and the population remaining to be served; (3) Multifamily Study-this study described the nature and extent of weatherization activities in larger multifamily buildings; (4) Single-family Study-this study estimated the national savings and cost- effectiveness of weatherizing single-family and small multifamily dwellings that use natural gas or electricity for space heating; (5) Fuel-Oil Study-this study estimated the savings and cost-effectiveness of weatherizing single-family homes, located in nine northeastern states, that use fuel oil for space heating. This paper provides a brief overview of each study`s purposes, research methods and most important findings.

  19. Dew architectures - Dew annouces the good weather

    OpenAIRE

    Beysens, Daniel; Broggini, Filippo; Milimouk-Melnytchouk, Iryna; Ouazzani, Jalil; Tixier, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Dew is a natural phenomenon that occurs under particular weather conditions (clear nocturnal sky, humid air, low wind) and on a surface specially designed for this purpose (high radiative cooling properties, special architectural design). Depending on the weather conditions and the surface characteristics, the water yield can give up to 0.7 litres per square meter and per night. Although the collection of rain water on roof turns out to be relatively simple, dew harves...

  20. Climate change and extreme events in weather

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    monsoon and b) tropical cyclones. Basically the climate of India is domi- nated by the south west monsoon season which accounts for about 75% of the annual rainfall. The extreme weather events occur over India are: Floods, Droughts, Tropical Cyclones..., Heat Waves and Cold Waves, Storms Surges, Hail Storms, Thunderstorms, Dust Storms. Floods, droughts and tropical cyclones have specific significance a far as India is concerned. Floods and droughts are the two sides of the weather phenomena...

  1. Topographic imprint on chemical weathering in deeply weathered soil-mantled landscapes (southern Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Veerle; Schoonejans, Jerome; Ameijeiras-Marino, Yolanda; Opfergelt, Sophie; Minella, Jean

    2017-04-01

    The regolith mantle is defined as the thin layer of unconsolidated material overlaying bedrock that contributes to shape the Earth's surface. The development of the regolith mantle in a landscape is the result of in-situ weathering, atmospheric input and downhill transport of weathering products. Bedrock weathering - the physical and chemical transformations of rock to soil - contributes to the vertical development of the regolith layer through downward propagation of the weathering front. Lateral transport of soil particles, aggregates and solutes by diffusive and concentrated particle and solute fluxes result in lateral redistribution of weathering products over the hillslope. In this study, we aim to expand the empirical basis on long-term soil evolution at the landscape scale through a detailed study of soil weathering in subtropical soils. Spatial variability in chemical mass fluxes and weathering intensity were studied along two toposequences with similar climate, lithology and vegetation but different slope morphology. This allowed us to isolate the topographic imprint on chemical weathering and soil development. The toposequences have convexo-concave slope morphology, and eight regolith profiles were analysed involving the flat upslope, steep midslope and flat toeslope part. Our data show a clear topographic imprint on soil development. Along hillslope, the chemical weathering intensity of the regolith profiles increases with distance from the crest. In contrast to the upslope positions, the soils in the basal concavities develop on in-situ and transported regolith. While the chemical weathering extent on the slope convexities (the upslope profiles) is similar for the steep and gentle toposequence, there is a clear difference in the rate of increase of the chemical weathering extent with distance from the crest. The increase of chemical weathering extent along hillslope is highest for the steep toposequence, suggesting that topography enhances soil particle

  2. Seasonal Forecasting of Fire Weather Based on a New Global Fire Weather Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Andrew J.; Field, Robert D.; Spessa, Allan C.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal forecasting of fire weather is examined based on a recently produced global database of the Fire Weather Index (FWI) system beginning in 1980. Seasonal average values of the FWI are examined in relation to measures of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). The results are used to examine seasonal forecasts of fire weather conditions throughout the world.

  3. Introducing GFWED: The Global Fire Weather Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5 latitude by 2-3 longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia,Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DCD1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRAs precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphereocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  4. Development of a Global Fire Weather Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-06-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 2/3° longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia, Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA-based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DC = 1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRA's precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphere-ocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  5. Operational Space Weather in USAF Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithtro, C.; Quigley, S.

    2006-12-01

    Most education programs offering space weather courses are understandably and traditionally heavily weighted with theoretical space physics that is the basis for most of what is researched and modeled. While understanding the theory is a good and necessary grounding for anyone working the field of space weather, few military or commercial jobs employ such theory in real-time operations. The operations sites/centers are much more geared toward use of applied theory-resultant models, tools and products. To ensure its operations centers personnel, commanders, real-time system operators and other customers affected by the space environment are educated on available and soon-to-be operational space weather models and products, the USAF has developed applicable course/lecture material taught at various institutions to include the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) and the Joint Weather Training Complex (335th/TRS/OUA). Less frequent training of operational space weather is available via other venues that will be discussed, and associated course material is also being developed for potential use at the National Security Space Institute (NSSI). This presentation provides an overview of the programs, locations, courses and material developed and/or taught by or for USAF personnel dealing with operational space weather. It also provides general information on student research project results that may be used in operational support, along with observations regarding logistical and professional benefits of teaching such non-theoretical/non-traditional material.

  6. Drug targeting through pilosebaceous route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, Rashmi; Jain, Sanjay K

    2009-10-01

    Local skin targeting is of interest for the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industry. A topically applied substance has basically three possibilities to penetrate into the skin: transcellular, intercellular, and follicular. The transfollicular path has been largely ignored because hair follicles constitute only 0.1% of the total skin. The hair follicle is a skin appendage with a complex structure containing many cell types that produce highly specialised proteins. The hair follicle is in a continuous cycle: anagen is the hair growth phase, catagen the involution phase and telogen is the resting phase. Nonetheless, the hair follicle has great potential for skin treatment, owing to its deep extension into the dermis and thus provides much deeper penetration and absorption of compounds beneath the skin than seen with the transdermal route. In the case of skin diseases and of cosmetic products, delivery to sweat glands or to the pilosebaceous unit is essential for the effectiveness of the drug. Increased accumulation in the pilosebaceous unit could treat alopecia, acne and skin cancer more efficiently and improve the effect of cosmetic substances and nutrients. Therefore, we review herein various drug delivery systems, including liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, lipid nanocarriers, gene therapy and discuss the results of recent researches. We also review the drugs which have been investigated for pilosebaceous delivery.

  7. Guard Sets for Onion Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Jamie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Entry” guards protect the Tor onion routing system from variants of the “predecessor” attack, that would allow an adversary with control of a fraction of routers to eventually de-anonymize some users. Research has however shown the three guard scheme has drawbacks and Dingledine et al. proposed in 2014 for each user to have a single long-term guard. We first show that such a guard selection strategy would be optimal if the Tor network was failure-free and static. However under realistic failure conditions the one guard proposal still suffers from the classic fingerprinting attacks, uniquely identifying users. Furthermore, under dynamic network conditions using single guards offer smaller anonymity sets to users of fresh guards. We propose and analyze an alternative guard selection scheme by way of grouping guards together to form shared guard sets. We compare the security and performance of guard sets with the three guard scheme and the one guard proposal. We show guard sets do provide increased resistance to a number of attacks, while foreseeing no significant degradation in performance or bandwidth utilization.

  8. CCMC: Serving research and space weather communities with unique space weather services, innovative tools and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Maddox, Marlo

    2015-04-01

    With the addition of Space Weather Research Center (a sub-team within CCMC) in 2010 to address NASA’s own space weather needs, CCMC has become a unique entity that not only facilitates research through providing access to the state-of-the-art space science and space weather models, but also plays a critical role in providing unique space weather services to NASA robotic missions, developing innovative tools and transitioning research to operations via user feedback. With scientists, forecasters and software developers working together within one team, through close and direct connection with space weather customers and trusted relationship with model developers, CCMC is flexible, nimble and effective to meet customer needs. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of CCMC/SWRC’s space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases, and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  9. The scope of the Weatherization Assistance Program: The weatherized population and the resource base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, M.; Eisenberg, J.F.; Michels, E. [Economic Opportunity Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Witherspoon, M.J. [National Association for State Community Service Programs, Washington, DC (United States); Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This study is one of five parts of the US Department of Energy`s national evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). It has three major goals: (1) to enumerate the size and sources of investment in low-income weatherization; (2) to provide a count of the number of low-income units weatherized by all weatherization programs and characterized the type and tenure of those homes; and (3) to document the extent to which the DOE/WAP funding has been expanded though use of external resources.

  10. The scope of the Weatherization Assistance Program: The weatherized population and the resource base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, M.; Eisenberg, J.F.; Michels, E. (Economic Opportunity Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States)); Witherspoon, M.J. (National Association for State Community Service Programs, Washington, DC (United States)); Brown, M.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This study is one of five parts of the US Department of Energy's national evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). It has three major goals: (1) to enumerate the size and sources of investment in low-income weatherization; (2) to provide a count of the number of low-income units weatherized by all weatherization programs and characterized the type and tenure of those homes; and (3) to document the extent to which the DOE/WAP funding has been expanded though use of external resources.

  11. Location and Routing of the Defense Courier Service Aerial Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem ................ 8 Vehicle Routing Problem Modifications ...... .0 Multiple Depot Problems...several specific formulations are applicable to the DCS aerial network. Those addressed in this review include: 1) the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP); 2...methodologies show great promise for adaptation to the DCS network. The Vehicle Routing Problem The Travelling Salesman Problem seeks the shortest route which

  12. Chain Routing: A new routing framework for the Internet based on complete orders

    CERN Document Server

    Arjona-Villicaña, P David; Stepanenko, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    A new framework to perform routing at the Autonomous System level is proposed in this paper. This mechanism, called Chain Routing, uses complete orders as its main topological unit, which enables a group of Autonomous Systems to define an acyclic structure to route packets to a destination. The employment of complete orders also allows easy identification and avoidance of persistent route oscillations, eliminates the possibility of developing transient loops in paths, and provides a structure that facilitates the implementation of traffic engineering. Moreover, by combining Chain Routing with other mechanisms that implement complete orders in time, we surmise it is possible to design a new routing protocol which could be more reliable and stable than BGP. Although Chain Routing will require an increase of the message overhead and greater coordination between network administrators, the rewards in stability and resilience should more than compensate for this effort.

  13. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Route Planning in the Presence of a Threat Environment Based on a Virtual Globe Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Route planning is a key technology for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV to fly reliably and safely in the presence of a threat environment. Existing route planning methods are mainly based on the simulation scene, whereas approaches based on the virtual globe platform have rarely been reported. In this paper, a new planning space for the virtual globe and the planner is proposed and a common threat model is constructed for threats including a no-fly zone, hazardous weather, radar coverage area, missile killing zone and dynamic threats. Additionally, an improved ant colony optimization (ACO algorithm is developed to enhance route planning efficiency and terrain masking ability. Our route planning methods are optimized on the virtual globe platform for practicability. A route planning system and six types of planners were developed and implemented on the virtual globe platform. Finally, our evaluation results demonstrate that our optimum planner has better performance in terms of fuel consumption, terrain masking, and risk avoidance. Experiments also demonstrate that the method and system described in this paper can be used to perform global route planning and mission operations.

  14. Petrography and whole-rock geochemistry of Oligocene-Miocene Khojak Formation Khojak-Pishin Belt, Pakistan: Implications on provenance and source-area weathering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kakar, Din Muhammad; Kasi, Aimal K.; Kassi, Aktar Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    . The higher SiO2/Al2O3 ratios (4.0) show moderately mature nature of the sandstone. The weathering indices such as Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA; 76.69), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW; 86.79), Chemical Proxy of Alteration (CPA; 92.33) and Index of Chemical Variability (ICV; 16.83) suggest moderate...... to intense weathering of the source terrain. The high Th/U values (5.25) as compared to Upper Continental Crust (UCC; 3.82) also support the enhanced weathering of the source area. Trace elements such as Zr, Nb, Y, Th and U are slightly enriched compared to UCC suggest the dominantly felsic sources...... by distant Kohistan Island Arc and en-route Waziristan, Zhob and Muslim Bagh Ophiolite and associated Mélages. The sediment dispersal towards south-southwest was controlled by Chaman-Nushki transform fault system....

  15. HYPERstream: a multi-scale framework for streamflow routing in large-scale hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Di Lazzaro, Michele; Zarlenga, Antonio; Majone, Bruno; Bellin, Alberto; Fiori, Aldo

    2016-05-01

    We present HYPERstream, an innovative streamflow routing scheme based on the width function instantaneous unit hydrograph (WFIUH) theory, which is specifically designed to facilitate coupling with weather forecasting and climate models. The proposed routing scheme preserves geomorphological dispersion of the river network when dealing with horizontal hydrological fluxes, irrespective of the computational grid size inherited from the overlaying climate model providing the meteorological forcing. This is achieved by simulating routing within the river network through suitable transfer functions obtained by applying the WFIUH theory to the desired level of detail. The underlying principle is similar to the block-effective dispersion employed in groundwater hydrology, with the transfer functions used to represent the effect on streamflow of morphological heterogeneity at scales smaller than the computational grid. Transfer functions are constructed for each grid cell with respect to the nodes of the network where streamflow is simulated, by taking advantage of the detailed morphological information contained in the digital elevation model (DEM) of the zone of interest. These characteristics make HYPERstream well suited for multi-scale applications, ranging from catchment up to continental scale, and to investigate extreme events (e.g., floods) that require an accurate description of routing through the river network. The routing scheme enjoys parsimony in the adopted parametrization and computational efficiency, leading to a dramatic reduction of the computational effort with respect to full-gridded models at comparable level of accuracy. HYPERstream is designed with a simple and flexible modular structure that allows for the selection of any rainfall-runoff model to be coupled with the routing scheme and the choice of different hillslope processes to be represented, and it makes the framework particularly suitable to massive parallelization, customization according to

  16. 14 CFR 135.213 - Weather reports and forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weather reports and forecasts. 135.213... Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.213 Weather reports and forecasts. (a) Whenever a person operating an aircraft under this part is required to use a weather report or forecast, that...

  17. 44 CFR 15.3 - Access to Mt. Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to Mt. Weather. 15.3... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.3 Access to Mt. Weather. Mt. Weather contains classified material and...

  18. 46 CFR 44.01-13 - Heavy weather plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heavy weather plan. 44.01-13 Section 44.01-13 Shipping... VOYAGES Administration § 44.01-13 Heavy weather plan. (a) Each heavy weather plan under § 44.01-12(b) must... Inspection. Approval of a heavy weather plan is limited to the current hurricane season. (b) The...

  19. Highlights of Space Weather Services/Capabilities at NASA/GSFC Space Weather Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Zheng, Yihua; Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Maria; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Mays, Leila; Chulaki, Anna; Lee, Hyesook

    2012-01-01

    The importance of space weather has been recognized world-wide. Our society depends increasingly on technological infrastructure, including the power grid as well as satellites used for communication and navigation. Such technologies, however, are vulnerable to space weather effects caused by the Sun's variability. NASA GSFC's Space Weather Center (SWC) (http://science.gsfc.nasa.gov//674/swx services/swx services.html) has developed space weather products/capabilities/services that not only respond to NASA's needs but also address broader interests by leveraging the latest scientific research results and state-of-the-art models hosted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC: http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov). By combining forefront space weather science and models, employing an innovative and configurable dissemination system (iSWA.gsfc.nasa.gov), taking advantage of scientific expertise both in-house and from the broader community as well as fostering and actively participating in multilateral collaborations both nationally and internationally, NASA/GSFC space weather Center, as a sibling organization to CCMC, is poised to address NASA's space weather needs (and needs of various partners) and to help enhancing space weather forecasting capabilities collaboratively. With a large number of state-of-the-art physics-based models running in real-time covering the whole space weather domain, it offers predictive capabilities and a comprehensive view of space weather events throughout the solar system. In this paper, we will provide some highlights of our service products/capabilities. In particular, we will take the 23 January and the 27 January space weather events as examples to illustrate how we can use the iSWA system to track them in the interplanetary space and forecast their impacts.

  20. Routing problems based on hils system platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Adamski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The logistic systems are very complex socio-technical systems. In this paper the proposal of application of the hierarchical multi-layers system platform HILS approach for the solution of the complex vehicle routing problems is presented. The interactive system functional structure was proposed which by intelligent dedicated inter-layers interactions enables the professional solutions of these practical problems. To illustrate these capabilities the complex example of the real-time VRP-SPD-TW routing problem was presented in which upper layers offers the context-related real-time updating network specifications that stimulates the adequate routing parameters and specifications updating for problem solution in optimization layer. At the bottom dispatching control layer the DISCON (Dispatching CONtrol method from public transport was adopted to logistics applications in which the actual routing is treated as obligatory reference schedule to be stabilized. The intelligence aspects are related among others to HILS based decomposition, context-related trade-offs between routing modifications and corrective dispatching control capabilities e.g. priority or route guidance actions. Methods: Decomposition of the vehicle routing problem for the HILS layers tasks creating the ILS system hierarchical structure. Dedicated solution method for the VRP-SPD-TW routing problem. The recognition of the control preferences structure by AHP-Entropy methods. DISCON and PIACON multi-criteria interacting control methods. Results: Original formulation and solution of the vehicle routing problem by system-wide approach with essential practical advantages: consistency, lack of redundancy, essential reduction of dimension, dedicated formulation, multi-criteria approach, exploration of the integration and intelligence features supported by the intelligent PIACON-DISCON methods control activities Conclusions: The presented proposal creates the professional

  1. CME front and severe space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, N.; Skoug, R.; Tulasi Ram, S.; Rajesh, P. K.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Batista, I. S.; Ebihara, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    2014-12-01

    Thanks to the work of a number of scientists who made it known that severe space weather can cause extensive social and economic disruptions in the modern high-technology society. It is therefore important to understand what determines the severity of space weather and whether it can be predicted. We present results obtained from the analysis of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), solar energetic particle (SEP) events, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), CME-magnetosphere coupling, and geomagnetic storms associated with the major space weather events since 1998 by combining data from the ACE and GOES satellites with geomagnetic parameters and the Carrington event of 1859, the Quebec event of 1989, and an event in 1958. The results seem to indicate that (1) it is the impulsive energy mainly due to the impulsive velocity and orientation of IMF Bz at the leading edge of the CMEs (or CME front) that determine the severity of space weather. (2) CMEs having high impulsive velocity (sudden nonfluctuating increase by over 275 km s-1 over the background) caused severe space weather (SvSW) in the heliosphere (failure of the solar wind ion mode of Solar Wind Electron Proton Alpha Monitor in ACE) probably by suddenly accelerating the high-energy particles in the SEPs ahead directly or through the shocks. (3) The impact of such CMEs which also show the IMF Bz southward from the leading edge caused SvSW at the Earth including extreme geomagnetic storms of mean DstMP power outages happened during some of these SvSW events. (4) The higher the impulsive velocity, the more severe the space weather, like faster weather fronts and tsunami fronts causing more severe damage through impulsive action. (5) The CMEs having IMF Bz northward at the leading edge do not seem to cause SvSW on Earth, although, later when the IMF Bz turns southward, they can lead to super geomagnetic storms of intensity (Dstmin) less than even -400 nT.

  2. Daily Weather and Children's Physical Activity Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, Teun; Thijs, Carel; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, J O; Veitch, Jenny; Kremers, Stef P J; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how the weather affects physical activity (PA) may help in the design, analysis, and interpretation of future studies, especially when investigating PA across diverse meteorological settings and with long follow-up periods. The present longitudinal study first aims to examine the influence of daily weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns among primary school children across four seasons, reflecting day-to-day variation within each season. Second, we investigate whether the influence of weather elements differs by day of the week (weekdays vs weekends), gender, age, and body mass index. PA data were collected by ActiGraph accelerometers for 1 wk in each of four school terms that reflect each season in southeast Australia. PA data from 307 children (age range 8.7-12.8 yr) were matched to daily meteorological variables obtained from the Australian Government's Bureau of Meteorology (maximum temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, day length, and rainfall). Daily PA patterns and their association with weather elements were analyzed using multilevel linear mixed models. Temperature was the strongest predictor of moderate and vigorous PA, followed by solar radiation and humidity. The relation with temperature was curvilinear, showing optimum PA levels at temperatures between 20°C and 22°C. Associations between weather elements on PA did not differ by gender, child's age, or body mass index. This novel study focused on the influence of weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns in children. As weather influences cannot be controlled, knowledge of its effect on individual PA patterns may help in the design of future studies, interpretation of their results, and translation into PA promotion.

  3. Using Artificial Intelligence to Inform Pilots of Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2006-01-01

    An automated system to assist a General Aviation (GA) pilot in improving situational awareness of weather in flight is now undergoing development. This development is prompted by the observation that most fatal GA accidents are attributable to loss of weather awareness. Loss of weather awareness, in turn, has been attributed to the difficulty of interpreting traditional preflight weather briefings and the difficulty of both obtaining and interpreting traditional in-flight weather briefings. The developmental automated system not only improves weather awareness but also substantially reduces the time a pilot must spend in acquiring and maintaining weather awareness.

  4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ROUTING IN SENSOR NETWORKS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cetin, Bilge Kartal

    for dierent network parameters is de- veloped by considering a duty-cycling mechanism in the network. Upper bound on network lifetime is sought by considering idle and sleep mode energy consumption as well as energy consumption in transmission and reception for sensor networks. The solution of the developed...... optimization problems gives an analytical benchmark for designing of maximum lifetime routing algorithms by giving the most energy balanced trac allocation between the possible routes in the network by considering a duty-cycling mechanism. Lastly, an energy ecient routing protocol is proposed and evaluated...

  5. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    . Additionally it is of utmost importance that the employed communication system is suitable integrated with the firm’s enterprise application system and business processes. On basis of a case study, we describe in this paper a system that is cheap and easy to implement due to the use of simple mobile phones......On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology...

  6. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt the concept of pheromone to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81, 016113(2010)]. In the test stage, pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded by the global dynamic routing strategy. After that, static paths are generated according to the density of pheromone. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resource than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  7. Traffic Performance Analysis of Manet Routing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Rajeswari, S; 10.5121/ijdps.2011.2306

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this research work is to study and investigate the performance measures of Gossip Routing protocol and Energy Efficient and Reliable Adaptive Gossip routing protocols. We use TCP and CBR based traffic models to analyze the performance of above mentioned protocols based on the parameters of Packet Delivery Ratio, Average End-to-End Delay and Throughput. We will investigate the effect of change in the simulation time and Number of nodes for the MANET routing protocols. For Simulation, we have used ns-2 simulator.

  8. Multimedia Traffic Routing in Multilayer WDM Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Amphawan, Angela; Hasan, Hassanuddin

    2012-01-01

    The advent of real-time multimedia services over the Internet has stimulated new technologies for expanding the information carrying capacity of optical network backbones. Multilayer wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) packet switching is an emerging technology for increasing the bandwidth of optical networks. Two algorithms for the routing of the multimedia traffic flows were applied: (i) Capacitated Shortest Path First (CSPF) routing, which minimizes the distance of each flow linking the given source and destination nodes and satisfying capacity constraints; and (ii) Flow Deviation Algorithm (FDA) routing, which minimizes the network?wide average packet delay.

  9. Analysis of Enhanced Associativity Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said A. Shaar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an analysis to the performance of the Enhanced Associativity Based Routing protocol (EABR based on two factors; Operation complexity (OC and Communication Complexity (CC. OC can be defined as the number of steps required in performing a protocol operation, while CC can be defined as the number of messages exchanged in performing a protocol operation[1]. The values represent the worst-case analysis. The EABR has been analyzed based on CC and OC and the results have been compared with another routing technique called ABR. The results have shown that EABR can perform better than ABR in many circumstances during the route reconstruction.

  10. Steganographic Routing in Multi Agent System Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Szczypiorski, Krzysztof; Mazurczyk, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an idea of trusted communication platform for Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) called TrustMAS. Based on analysis of routing protocols suitable for MAS we have designed a new proactive hidden routing. Proposed steg-agents discovery procedure, as well as further routes updates and hidden communication, are cryptographically independent. Steganographic exchange can cover heterogeneous and geographically outlying environments using available cross-layer covert channels. Finally we have specified rules that agents have to follow to benefit the TrustMAS distributed router platform.

  11. Stability Analysis of Path-vector Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitri, Papadimitriou

    2012-01-01

    Most studies on path-vector routing stability have been conducted empirically by means of ad-hoc analysis of BGP data traces. None of them consider prior specification of an analytic method including the use of stability measurement metrics for the systematic analysis of BGP traces and associated meta-processing for determining the local state of the routing system. In this paper, we define a set of metrics that characterize the local stability properties of path-vector routing such as BGP (Border Gateway Protocol). By means of these stability metrics, we propose a method to analyze the effects of BGP policy- and protocol-induced instability on local routers.

  12. Analysis of Path-vector Routing Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitri, Papadimitriou

    2012-01-01

    Most studies on path-vector routing stability have been conducted empirically by means of ad-hoc analysis of BGP data traces. None of them consider prior specification of an analytic method including the use of stability measurement metrics for the systematic analysis of BGP traces and associated meta-processing for determining the local state of the routing system. In this paper, we define a set of metrics that characterize the local stability properties of path-vector routing such as BGP (Border Gateway Protocol). By means of these stability metrics, we propose a method to analyze the effects of BGP policy- and protocol-induced instability on local routers.

  13. Novel Routing Protocol Based on Periodic Route Discovery for Mobile Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Jai KumarAssociate

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of mobile devices called as nodes, without any centralized network, communicates with each other over multi-hop links is called as an Ad-hoc Network (MANET. The military battle-field scenarios, Post-disaster rescue efforts, sensor networks, and entrepreneurs in a conference are some of the examples of mobile ad-hoc networks. Since there is no infrastructure in the network, the routing should be handled at every node. To improve the life time of network different routing protocols are consider. In present routing protocols of ad hoc networks, routing is an act of moving information from a source to destination in an internetwork. Route is selected in the route discovery phase until all the packets are sent out. Due to the continuous flow of packets in a selected route leads to the route failure. In order to reduce this problem we consider PRD-based MMBCR and considering the percentage of the optimum value for periodic route discovery. In our research we are going to analyze the performance of different routing protocols like DSR, MMBCR to get maximum optimum value using Network Simulator Software.

  14. A SURVEY ON THE ALGORITHMIC APPROACH USED IN ROUTING FOR PLACEMENT AND ROUTING FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMAL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Routing is one of the long-drawn-out processes after placement in VLSI design. The routing provides the path for nets on chip to interconnect the pins on the pads or blocks at the chip boundary. This paper provides a systematic insight of interconnect of nets in ‘Placement and Routing Flow’ based on various methods (global routing and detailed routing. Further, the work reported so far has been compared with a multiple techniques for multiple factors such as reduction in wire-length, short execution time, fast and accurate congestion, improvement in complexity, signal integrity and crosstalk. Here the methodologies adopts are the Routing congestion estimator algorithm, Ant Colony Optimization. Firefly Algorithm, Monotonic Staircase Routing and so on. It is also observed that Pattern Based Routing is much faster than the Maze Routing, and the improved parameters are there is no over-congestion and 100% routablity with Monotonic Staircase Channels. zero overflow by Simulated-Evolution(Sim-E, and Complexity improved by a Fuzzified Approach Towards Global Routing.

  15. Performance Analysis of Route Discovery by Cross Layer Routing Protocol- RDCLRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehajabeen Fatima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wired and wireless network is based on the TCP / IP architecture but it is not sufficient to cope with the dynamics of the MANET. Cross layer design can be an alternative architecture for MANET. Frequent route break is one of the major problems of mobile adhoc network (MANET. Path breaks due to less available battery power and mobility of nodes. Most of the battery power is consumed in flooding of control packets. A key challenge in the design of efficient routing protocol is to reduce link breakage and flooding of control packets. Route breakage can be reduced if the possibility of route breakage is predicted and a handoff is done without drop of data packets. If route breakage is reduced, the more battery power will be available with nodes. In turn it reduces the possibility of route breakage and the possibility of flooding. This is a cumulative effect. So a novel preemptive route repair algorithm is proposed named as RDCLRP- Route discovery by cross layer routing protocol to reduce frequency of control packet flooding and route breakage. Three variants of RDCLRP and their results are illustrated. In this paper, the impact of the number of nodes on performance of RDCLRP are investigated and analyzed. The results show 55.6% reduction in link breakage, 14.7% improvement in residual battery power and an average of 6.7% increase in throughput compared to basic AODV.

  16. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, Dan [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Francisco, Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hawkins, Beth A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brennan, Terry M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  17. Sr isotope evolution during chemical weathering of granites -- impact of relative weathering rates of minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Sr isotopic systematics in the weathering profiles of biotite granite and granite porphyry in southern Jiangxi Province were investigated. The results showed that during the chemical weathering of granites, remarked fractionation occurred between Rb and Sr. During the early stages of chemical weathering of granites, the released Sr/Si and Sr/Ca ratios are larger than those of the parent rocks, and the leaching rate of Sr is higher than those of Si, Ca, K, Rb, etc. Dynamic variations in relative weathering rates of the main Sr-contributing minerals led to fluctuation with time in 87Sr/86Sr ratios of inherent and released Sr in the weathering crust of granite. Successive weathering of biotite, plagioclase and K-feldspar made 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the weathering residues show such a fluctuation trend as to decrease first, increase, and then decrease again till they maintain stable. This work further indicates that when Sr isotopes are used to trace biogeochemical processes on both the catchment and global scales, one must seriously take account of the prefer-ential release of Sr from dissolving solid phase and the fluctuation of 87Sr/86Sr ratios caused by the variations of relative weathering rates of Sr-contributing minerals.

  18. WRF-Fire: coupled weather-wildland fire modeling with the weather research and forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice L. Coen; Marques Cameron; John Michalakes; Edward G. Patton; Philip J. Riggan; Kara M. Yedinak

    2012-01-01

    A wildland fire behavior module (WRF-Fire) was integrated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) public domain numerical weather prediction model. The fire module is a surface fire behavior model that is two-way coupled with the atmospheric model. Near-surface winds from the atmospheric model are interpolated to a finer fire grid and used, with fuel properties...

  19. An Enhanced Route Recovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangkyung; Park, Noyeul; Kim, Changhwa; Choi, Seung-Sik

    In case of link failures, many ad hoc routing protocols recover a route by employing source-initiated route re-discovery, but this approach can degrade system performance. Some use localized route recovery, which may yield non-optimal paths. Our proposal provides a mechanism that can enhance the overall routing performance by initiating route recovery at the destination node. We elucidate the effects through simulations including comparisons with AODV and AODV with local repair.

  20. Modify AODV Routing Protocol to Improve Motorway Surveillance System Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Layth Abdulkareem Hassnawi; R. Badlishah Ahmad; Abid Yahya

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to modify the Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol in order to improve the routing performance in motorway surveillance systems. The proposed protocol has all the characteristics of the original AODV routing protocol since it follows all the steps of the route discovery and route maintenance mechanism of the original AODV routing protocol. The Modified AODV (MAODV) is different from the original AODV protocol in that it modifies the origina...

  1. VANET Routing Replay Attack Detection Research Based on SVM

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Qing Gang; Wang Li; Cai Yan Ning; Li Yong Qiang; Chen Jing

    2016-01-01

    In the process of establishing routing in VANET, because of the interference of routing request (RREQ) and routing response (RREP), the nodes in the network are busy with looking for routing or establishing routing. The impact on the network performance is extremely serious, such as increasing a lot of network overhead, consuming valuable bandwidth resources. In this paper, the influence of routing replay attack in VANET is studied. Four typical characteristic are extracted by “cross layer” s...

  2. Establishing Denudation Chronology through Weathering Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, S. B.; Vasconcelos, P. M.; Farley, K. A.; Carmo, I. O.

    2011-12-01

    Planar landforms - erosion surfaces - are used as temporal markers in denudation chronology. These surfaces are interpreted as the result of long-term weathering and denudation controlled by a specific base level within a given time-interval characterized by long-term tectonic stability. The presence of several planar landforms at distinct elevations is interpreted as evidence for distinct denudation events, separated by periods of tectonic reactivation and crustal uplift. We selected an area in the Paraná-La Plata basin, southern Brazil (25°S lat.) to investigate if the application of weathering geochronology by the 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He methods could permit differentiating different elevation landsurfaces. We dated supergene Mn oxyhydroxides by 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and coexisting supergene Fe oxyhydroxides by the (U-Th)/He method from one of the three regional landsurfaces - The First, Second, and Third Paraná plateaus - previously identified in this area. Two sites were sampled from the Second Paraná Plateau: a ferricrust at Serra das Almas (7 hand specimens of goethite at 1080 m of altitude) and deeply weathered ferricretes and saprolites at Vila Velha (11 hand specimens of cryptomelane and 14 of goethite at 910 m of altitude). The Serra das Almas sites hosts a stratified weathering profile with ferricrust, and mottle zone. The Vila Velha site results from intense weathering that led to the precipitation of well-crystallized supergene minerals precipitated within fractures in the saprolites. The geochronological results are correlatable between the two sites and the two distinct methods (40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He), and they reveal three generations of weathering and mineral precipitation: Late Eocene-Oligocene, Early Miocene, and Pleistocene. The geochronological results suggested that the Second Paraná Plateau formed by regional erosion during the Oligocene, and that this landsurface has been continuously exposed to weathering and erosion since then

  3. Training Early Career Space Weather Researchers and other Space Weather Professionals at the CISM Space Weather Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, N. A.; Hughes, W.

    2011-12-01

    This talk will outline the organization of a summer school designed to introduce young professions to a sub-discipline of geophysics. Through out the 10 year life time of the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) the CISM Team has offered a two week summer school that introduces new graduate students and other interested professional to the fundamentals of space weather. The curriculum covers basic concepts in space physics, the hazards of space weather, and the utility of computer models of the space environment. Graduate students attend from both inside and outside CISM, from all the sub-disciplines involved in space weather (solar, heliosphere, geomagnetic, and aeronomy), and from across the nation and around the world. In addition, between 1/4 and 1/3 of the participants each year are professionals involved in space weather in some way, such as: forecasters from NOAA and the Air Force, Air Force satellite program directors, NASA specialists involved in astronaut radiation safety, and representatives from industries affected by space weather. The summer school has adopted modern pedagogy that has been used successfully at the undergraduate level. A typical daily schedule involves three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. During the morning lectures, student interaction is encouraged using "Timeout to Think" questions and peer instruction, along with question cards for students to ask follow up questions. During the afternoon labs students, working in groups of four, answer thought provoking questions using results from simulations and observation data from a variety of source. Through the interactions with each other and the instructors, as well as social interactions during the two weeks, students network and form bonds that will last them through out their careers. We believe that this summer school can be used as a model for summer schools in a wide variety of disciplines.

  4. Space Weather Studies at Istanbul Technical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymaz, Zerefsan

    2016-07-01

    This presentation will introduce the Upper Atmosphere and Space Weather Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University (ITU). It has been established to support the educational needs of the Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 2011 to conduct scientific research in Space Weather, Space Environment, Space Environment-Spacecraft Interactions, Space instrumentation and Upper Atmospheric studies. Currently the laboratory has some essential infrastructure and the most instrumentation for ionospheric observations and ground induced currents from the magnetosphere. The laboratory has two subunits: SWIFT dealing with Space Weather Instrumentation and Forecasting unit and SWDPA dealing with Space Weather Data Processing and Analysis. The research area covers wide range of upper atmospheric and space science studies from ionosphere, ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling, magnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms, distant magnetotail, magnetopause and bow shock studies, as well as solar and solar wind disturbances and their interaction with the Earth's space environment. We also study the spacecraft environment interaction and novel plasma instrument design. Several scientific projects have been carried out in the laboratory. Operational objectives of our laboratory will be carried out with the collaboration of NASA's Space Weather Laboratory and the facilities are in the process of integration to their prediction services. Educational and research objectives, as well as the examples from the research carried out in our laboratory will be demonstrated in this presentation.

  5. ESA situational awareness of space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Keil, Ralf; Kraft, Stefan; Lupi, Adriano

    2016-07-01

    ESA SSA Period 2 started at the beginning of 2013 and will last until the end of 2016. For the Space Weather Segment, transition to Period 2 introduced an increasing amount of development of new space weather service capability in addition to networking existing European assets. This transition was started already towards the end of SSA Period 1 with the initiation of the SSA Space Weather Segment architecture definition studies and activities enhancing existing space weather assets. The objective of Period 2 has been to initiate SWE space segment developments in the form of hosted payload missions and further expand the federated service network. A strong focus has been placed on demonstration and testing of European capabilities in the range of SWE service domains with a view to establishing core products which can form the basis of SWE service provision during SSA Period 3. This focus has been particularly addressed in the SSA Expert Service Centre (ESC) Definition and Development activity that was started in September 2015. This presentation will cover the current status of the SSA SWE Segment and the achievements during SSA Programme Periods 1 and 2. Particular attention is given to the federated approach that allow building the end user services on the best European expertise. The presentation will also outline the plans for the Space Weather capability development in the framework of the ESA SSA Programme in 2017-2020.

  6. Visually Comparing Weather Features in Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinan, P Samuel; Meyer, Miriah

    2016-01-01

    Meteorologists process and analyze weather forecasts using visualization in order to examine the behaviors of and relationships among weather features. In this design study conducted with meteorologists in decision support roles, we identified and attempted to address two significant common challenges in weather visualization: the employment of inconsistent and often ineffective visual encoding practices across a wide range of visualizations, and a lack of support for directly visualizing how different weather features relate across an ensemble of possible forecast outcomes. In this work, we present a characterization of the problems and data associated with meteorological forecasting, we propose a set of informed default encoding choices that integrate existing meteorological conventions with effective visualization practice, and we extend a set of techniques as an initial step toward directly visualizing the interactions of multiple features over an ensemble forecast. We discuss the integration of these contributions into a functional prototype tool, and also reflect on the many practical challenges that arise when working with weather data.

  7. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantle, Matthew S.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2003-10-01

    The biological activity on continents and the oxygen content of the atmosphere determine the chemical pathways through which Fe is processed at the Earth's surface. Experiments have shown that the relevant chemical pathways fractionate Fe isotopes. Measurements of soils, streams, and deep-sea clay indicate that the {sup 56}Fe/{sup 54}Fe ratio ({delta}{sup 56}Fe relative to igneous rocks) varies from +1{per_thousand} for weathering residues like soils and clays, to -3{per_thousand} for dissolved Fe in streams. These measurements confirm that weathering processes produce substantial fractionation of Fe isotopes in the modern oxidizing Earth surface environment. The results imply that biologically-mediated processes, which preferentially mobilize light Fe isotopes, are critical to Fe chemistry in weathering environments, and that the {delta}{sup 56}Fe of marine dissolved Fe should be variable and negative. Diagenetic reduction of Fe in marine sediments may also be a significant component of the global Fe isotope cycle. Iron isotopes provide a tracer for the influence of biological activity and oxygen in weathering processes through Earth history. Iron isotopic fractionation during weathering may have been smaller or absent in an oxygen-poor environment such as that of the early Precambrian Earth.

  8. Infiltration as Ventilation: Weather-Induced Dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, William J.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of outdoor air ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants to which occupants are exposed. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially older homes, weather-driven infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the total ventilation. As we seek to provide good indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to evaluate correctly the contribution infiltration makes to the total outdoor air ventilation rate. Because weather-driven infiltration is dependent on building air leakage and weather-induced pressure differences, a given amount of air leakage will provide different amounts of infiltration. Varying rates of infiltration will provide different levels of contaminant dilution and hence effective ventilation. This paper derives these interactions and then calculates the impact of weather-driven infiltration for different climates. A new “N-factor” is introduced to provide a convenient method for calculating the ventilation contribution of infiltration for over 1,000 locations across North America. The results of this work could be used in indoor air quality standards (specifically ASHRAE 62.2) to account for the contribution of weather-driven infiltration towards the dilution of indoor pollutants.

  9. Weather-centric rangeland revegetation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegree, Stuart P; Abatzoglou, John T.; Brunson, Mark W; Germino, Matthew; Hegewisch, Katherine C; Moffet, Corey A; Pilliod, David; Roundy, Bruce A.; Boehm, Alex R; Meredith, Gwendwr R

    2017-01-01

    Invasive annual weeds negatively impact ecosystem services and pose a major conservation threat on semiarid rangelands throughout the western United States. Rehabilitation of these rangelands is challenging due to interannual climate and subseasonal weather variability that impacts seed germination, seedling survival and establishment, annual weed dynamics, wildfire frequency, and soil stability. Rehabilitation and restoration outcomes could be improved by adopting a weather-centric approach that uses the full spectrum of available site-specific weather information from historical observations, seasonal climate forecasts, and climate-change projections. Climate data can be used retrospectively to interpret success or failure of past seedings by describing seasonal and longer-term patterns of environmental variability subsequent to planting. A more detailed evaluation of weather impacts on site conditions may yield more flexible adaptive-management strategies for rangeland restoration and rehabilitation, as well as provide estimates of transition probabilities between desirable and undesirable vegetation states. Skillful seasonal climate forecasts could greatly improve the cost efficiency of management treatments by limiting revegetation activities to time periods where forecasts suggest higher probabilities of successful seedling establishment. Climate-change projections are key to the application of current environmental models for development of mitigation and adaptation strategies and for management practices that require a multidecadal planning horizon. Adoption of new weather technology will require collaboration between land managers and revegetation specialists and modifications to the way we currently plan and conduct rangeland rehabilitation and restoration in the Intermountain West.

  10. Sustainable Arctic observing network for predicting weather extremes in mid-latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, J.; Sato, K.; Yamazaki, A.

    2016-12-01

    Routine atmospheric observations within and over the Arctic Ocean are very expensive and difficult to conduct because of factors such as logistics and the harsh environment. Nevertheless, the great benefit of such observations is their contribution to an improvement of skills of weather predictions over the Arctic and mid-latitudes. The Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP) from mid-2017 to mid-2019 proposed by the World Weather Research Programme - Polar Prediction Project (WWRP-PPP) would be the best opportunity to address the issues. The combination of observations and data assimilation is an effective way to understand the predictability of weather extremes in mid-latitudes. This talk presents the current activities related to PPP based on international special radiosonde observing network in the Arctic, and challenges toward YOPP. Comparing with summer and winter cases, the additional observations over the Arctic during winter were more effective for improving the predicting skills of weather extremes because the impact of the observations would be carried toward the mid-latitudes by the stronger jet stream and its frequent meanderings. During summer, on the other hand, the impact of extra observations was localized over the Arctic region but still important for precise weather forecasts over the Arctic Ocean, contributing to safe navigation along the Northern Sea Route. To consolidate the sustainable Arctic radiosonde observing network, increasing the frequency of observations at Arctic coastal stations, instead of commissioning special observations from ships and ice camps, would be a feasible way. In fact, several existing stations facing the Arctic Ocean have already increased the frequency of observations during winter and/or summer.

  11. Prioritization Scheme for Proposed Road Weather Information System Sites: Montana Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Kaisy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A model for prioritization of new proposed environmental sensor station (ESS sites is developed and presented in this paper. The model assesses the overall merit (OM of a proposed ESS site as part of a Road Weather Information System (RWIS using weather, traffic, and safety data among other variables. The purpose of the proposed model is to help in selecting optimum sites for new ESS locations, which is important in guiding RWIS system expansion. Inputs to the OM model include weather index (WI, traffic index (TI, crash index, geographic coverage, and opportunistic factors. The WI at a proposed site is determined using multiple indicators of weather severity and variability. The crash index, another major input to the OM model, incorporates crash rate along the route and the percentage of weather-related crashes over the analysis period. The TI, in turn, reflects the amount of travel on the highway network in the area surrounding the proposed ESS site. The fourth input to the merit model accounts for the ESS existing coverage in the area where the proposed site is located, while the fifth and last input is concerned with the availability and ease of access to power and communications. Model coefficients are represented by weights that reflect the contribution of each input (variable to the OM of the ESS site. Those weights are user-specified and should be selected to reflect the agency preferences and priorities. The application of the proposed merit model on sample sites in Montana demonstrated the utility of the model in ranking candidate sites using data readily available to highway agencies.

  12. Review on space weather in Latin America. 2. The research networks ready for space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. Americo

    2016-11-01

    The present work is the second of a three-part review of space weather in Latin America, specifically observing its evolution in three countries (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico). This work comprises a summary of scientific challenges in space weather research that are considered to be open scientific questions and how they are being addressed in terms of instrumentation by the international community, including the Latin American groups. We also provide an inventory of the networks and collaborations being constructed in Latin America, including details on the data processing, capabilities and a basic description of the resulting variables. These instrumental networks currently used for space science research are gradually being incorporated into the space weather monitoring data pipelines as their data provides key variables for monitoring and forecasting space weather, which allow these centers to monitor space weather and issue watches, warnings and alerts.

  13. Review on space weather in Latin America. 3. Development of space weather forecasting centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. Americo

    2016-11-01

    The present work is the third of a three-part review of space weather in Latin America, specifically observing its evolution in three countries (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico). This work presents the decision process for the spinning off of space weather prediction centers from space science groups with our interpretation of the reasons/opportunities that lead to this. Lastly, the constraints for the progress in space weather monitoring, research, and forecast are listed with recommendations to overcome them, which we believe will lead to the access of key variables for the monitoring and forecasting space weather, which will allow these centers to better monitor space weather and issue warnings, ​watches and alerts.

  14. Performance Evaluation of MANET Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrituparna Paul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The task of finding and sustaining routes in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETS is an important factor in determining the efficiency of any MANET protocol. MANET characteristically is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links without any centralised infrastructure. Absence of fixed infrastructures and host mobility thus network may experience rapid and unpredictable topology changes. Hence, routing is required in order to perform communication among the entire network. There are several routing protocols namely proactive, reactive and hybrid etc. In this paper we will discuss the active research work on these routing protocols and its performance evaluation. To this end, we adopt a simulation approach, which is more suitable to this kind of analysis

  15. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    . A reliable dataset was prepared through measures of internal consistency and sampling adequacy, and data were analyzed with a proper application of factor analysis to the route choice context. For the dataset obtained from the survey, six latent constructs affecting driver behaviour were extracted and scores...... by proposing a methodology for collecting and analyzing behavioural indicators and modelling route choices of individuals driving habitually from home to their workplace. A web-based survey was designed to collect attitudinal data and observed route choices among faculty and staff members of Turin Polytechnic...... on each factor for each survey participant were calculated. Path generation algorithms were examined with respect to observed behaviour, through a measure of reproduction with deterministic techniques of the routes indicated in the answers to the survey. Results presented evidence that the majority...

  16. Coordinated Platoon Routing in a Metropolitan Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Jeffrey; Munson, Todd; Sokolov, Vadim

    2016-10-10

    Platooning vehicles—connected and automated vehicles traveling with small intervehicle distances—use less fuel because of reduced aerodynamic drag. Given a network de- fined by vertex and edge sets and a set of vehicles with origin/destination nodes/times, we model and solve the combinatorial optimization problem of coordinated routing of vehicles in a manner that routes them to their destination on time while using the least amount of fuel. Common approaches decompose the platoon coordination and vehicle routing into separate problems. Our model addresses both problems simultaneously to obtain the best solution. We use modern modeling techniques and constraints implied from analyzing the platoon routing problem to address larger numbers of vehicles and larger networks than previously considered. While the numerical method used is unable to certify optimality for candidate solutions to all networks and parameters considered, we obtain excellent solutions in approximately one minute for much larger networks and vehicle sets than previously considered in the literature.

  17. Integrating routing decisions in public transportation problems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    This book treats three planning problems arising in public railway transportation planning: line planning, timetabling, and delay management, with the objective to minimize passengers’ travel time. While many optimization approaches simplify these problems by assuming that passengers’ route choice is independent of the solution, this book focuses on models which take into account that passengers will adapt their travel route to the implemented planning solution. That is, a planning solution and passengers’ routes are determined and evaluated simultaneously. This work is technically deep, with insightful findings regarding complexity and algorithmic approaches to public transportation problems with integrated passenger routing. It is intended for researchers in the fields of mathematics, computer science, or operations research, working in the field of public transportation from an optimization standpoint. It is also ideal for students who want to gain intuition and experience in doing complexity proofs ...

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Alternative Administration Routes of Melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetner, D.; Andersen, L. P.H.; Rosenberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Melatonin is traditionally administered orally but has a poor and variable bioavailability. This study aims to present an overview of studies investigating the pharmacokinetics of alternative administration routes of melatonin. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed...... and included experimental or clinical studies, investigating pharmacokinetics of alternative administration routes of melatonin in vivo. Alternative administration routes were defined as all administration routes except oral and intravenous. Results: 10 studies were included in the review. Intranasal...... administration exhibited a quick absorption rate and high bioavailability. Transdermal administration displayed a variable absorption rate and possible deposition of melatonin in the skin. Oral transmucosal administration of melatonin exhibited a high plasma concentration compared to oral administration...

  19. Language and Spatial Cognition in Route Navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋娟

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the contrast between using street names or landmarks to process spatial in⁃structions. The study confirms the special cognitive status of landmarks in the mental representation of routes.

  20. IPv6 Network Mobility Route Optimization Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer S. Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study describes that the Next Generation of Networks (NGN communication will supports multiple technologies, handles the mobility of end users to move through heterogeneous access networks, with ability to connect to different networks. Where the Internet Engineer Task Force maintain (IETF the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6 to handles the mobility of networks (NEMO, to provide wide band and more scalable network services. One of the MIPv6 built-in features is Route Optimization (RO to solve the inefficient route problem. Conclusion/Recommendations: The main objective of this article is to survey, classify and make a compression between the available schemes for route optimization over the last years depends on the basic criteria generated from the published articles within different network topology. This article presents the problem of suboptimal route which is further increased with increasing of nesting levels and there is no such one scheme is perfect for all network environments.

  1. Recommended Cross-Desert Driving Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Beijing - Duolun - Dalai Nur- Hexigten Banner -Saihanba - Weichang - Luanping - Miyun - Beijing. Along this 1,600-kilometer route is a 150-kin section(between Duolun and Darhan) of desert with no surfaced road - a paradise for desert drivers.

  2. A new routing assignment model for Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper builds a new traffic assignment model for Internet. The routing policy based on this model can realize load splitting in a network automatically, which overcomes the shortcoming of OSPF and satisfies the load balancing requirement of IETF.

  3. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Murafuji, Toshihiro [Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    We have been investigating “quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development” using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF{sub 3} as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings.

  4. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...... depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0....

  5. Rich Vehicle Routing Problems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most important and challenging optimization problems in the field of Operations Research. It was introduced by Dantzig and Ramser (1959) and defined as the problem of designing the optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles in order to serve...... a given set of customers. The VRP is a computationally hard combinatorial problem and has been intensively studied by numerous researchers in the last fifty years. Due to the significant economic benefit that can be achieved by optimizing the routing problems in practice, more and more attention has been...... given to various extensions of the VRP that arise in real life. These extensions are often called Rich Vehicle Routing Problems (RVRPs). In contrast to the research of classical VRP that focuses on the idealized models with unrealistic assumptions, the research of RVRPs considers those complicated...

  6. Dams and Obstructions along Iowa's Canoe Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset represents obstruction to canoe and boat users of the canoe routes of Iowa. This may represent actual dams, rock dams (natural or man made), large...

  7. Landslides as weathering reactors; links between physical erosion and weathering in rapidly eroding mountain belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, R.; Hovius, N.; Galy, A.

    2014-12-01

    The link between physical erosion and chemical weathering is generally modelled with a surface-blanketing weathering zone, where the supply of fresh minerals is tied to the average rate of denudation. In very fast eroding environments, however, sediment production is dominated by landsliding, which acts in a stochastic fashion across the landscape, contrasting strongly with more uniform denudation models. If physical erosion is a driver of weathering at the highest erosion rates, then an alternative weathering model is required. Here we show that landslides can be effective 'weathering reactors'. Previous work modelling the effect of landslides on chemical weathering (Gabet 2007) considered the fresh bedrock surfaces exposed in landslide scars. However, fracturing during the landslide motion generates fresh surfaces, the total surface area of which exceeds that of the exposed scar by many orders of magnitude. Moreover, landslides introduce concavity into hillslopes, which acts to catch precipitation. This is funnelled into a deposit of highly fragmented rock mass with large reactive surface area and limited hydraulic conductivity (Lo et al. 2007). This allows percolating water reaction time for chemical weathering; any admixture of macerated organic debris could yield organic acid to further accelerate weathering. In the South island of New Zealand, seepage from recent landslide deposits has systematically high solute concentrations, far outstripping concentration in runoff from locations where soils are present. River total dissolved load in the western Southern Alps is highly correlated with the rate of recent (erosion; this contrasts with persistent and ubiquitous weathering associated with soil production. Solute fluxes from fast eroding landscapes therefore likely depend on climatic or tectonic forcing of mass wasting; greater precipitation would drive increased weathering, while earthquakes, in generating landslides (Dadson et al. 2003; Chen & Hawkins 2009

  8. Light olefins - challenges from new production routes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, H. [Linde Engineering, Pullach (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Light Olefins are the building blocks for many modern plastic products and are produced in large quantities. Driven by high crude oil prices, production is shifted to regions with low cost raw materials. Alternatives to the traditional production from Naphta, AGO and other crude products are becoming attractive. This paper evaluates several methods Ethylene and Pro-pylene production economically and also the regional advantageous routes. The analysis includes Steamcracking, dehydrogenation, dehydration of Ethanol, Methanol based routes and olefin conversion by Metathesis. (orig.)

  9. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, a broad array of disciplines has shown a general interest in enhancing discrete choice models by considering the incorporation of psychological factors affecting decision making. This paper provides insight into the comprehension of the determinants of route choice behavior by...... results illustrate that considering latent variables (i.e., memory, habit, familiarity, spatial ability, time saving skills) alongside traditional variables (e.g., travel time, distance, congestion level) enriches the comprehension of route choice behavior....

  10. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...... and have a steady power supply. Protocol optimizations for the nomadic scenario are presented and validated through simulations...

  11. A CONTRIBUTION TO SECURE THE ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed ERRITALI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a contribution to secure the routing protocol GPSR (Greedy Perimeter StatelessRouting for vehicular ad hoc networks, we examine the possible attacks against GPSR and securitysolutions proposed by different research teams working on ad hoc network security. Then, we propose asolution to secure GPSR packet by adding a digital signature based on symmetric cryptographygenerated using the AES algorithm and the MD5 hash function more suited to a mobile environment

  12. Routing Games : From Egoism to Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Azad, Amar Prakash; Altman, Eitan; El-Azouzi, Rachid

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The paper studies the routing in the network shared by several users. Each user seeks to optimize either its own performance or some combination between its own performance and that of other users, by controlling the routing of its given flow demand. We parameterize the degree of cooperation which allows to cover the fully non-cooperative behavior, the fully cooperative behavior, and even more, the fully altruistic behavior, all these as special cases of the parameter'...

  13. Improved Multispanning Tree Routing Using Efficient and Reliable Routing Algorithm for Irregular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Keerthana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Strategy of Multispanning Tree Zone Ordered Label Based routing is improved with Efficient and Reliable (EAR routing for irregular networks is presented and analyzed in this work. Most existing deadlock free routing methods for irregular topologies impose several limitations on node and channel labeling in an irregular network is based on a pre-defined spanning tree.It is not possible to form a deadlock free zone of three or four channel labels for two spanning tree. So this existing Multispanning Tree Zone Ordered Label Based routing is modified with Efficient and Reliable (EAR routing. EAR is based on four parameters length of the path,distance traversed,transmission of link and energy levels to dynamically determine and maintain the best routes.. The simulation results have shown highest packet delivery ratio, minimum latency, and energy consumption.

  14. Genetic algorithm to solve constrained routing problem with applications for cruise missile routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latourell, James L.; Wallet, Bradley C.; Copeland, Bruce

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the use of a Genetic Algorithm to solve a constrained vehicle routing problem is explored. The problem is two-dimensional with obstacles represented as ellipses of uncertainty surrounding each obstacle point. A route is defined as a series of points through which the vehicle sequentially travels from the starting point to the ending point. The physical constraints of total route length and maximum turn angle are included and appear in the fitness function. In order to be valid, a route must go from start to finish without violating any constraint. The effects that different mutation rates and population sizes have on the algorithm's computation speed and ability to find a high quality route are also explored. Finally, possible applications of this algorithm to the problem of route planning for cruise missiles are discussed.

  15. Space Weather and the Ground-Level Solar Proton Events of the 23rd Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.

    2012-10-01

    Solar proton events can adversely affect space and ground-based systems. Ground-level events are a subset of solar proton events that have a harder spectrum than average solar proton events and are detectable on Earth's surface by cosmic radiation ionization chambers, muon detectors, and neutron monitors. This paper summarizes the space weather effects associated with ground-level solar proton events during the 23rd solar cycle. These effects include communication and navigation systems, spacecraft electronics and operations, space power systems, manned space missions, and commercial aircraft operations. The major effect of ground-level events that affect manned spacecraft operations is increased radiation exposure. The primary effect on commercial aircraft operations is the loss of high frequency communication and, at extreme polar latitudes, an increase in the radiation exposure above that experienced from the background galactic cosmic radiation. Calculations of the maximum potential aircraft polar route exposure for each ground-level event of the 23rd solar cycle are presented. The space weather effects in October and November 2003 are highlighted together with on-going efforts to utilize cosmic ray neutron monitors to predict high energy solar proton events, thus providing an alert so that system operators can possibly make adjustments to vulnerable spacecraft operations and polar aircraft routes.

  16. Weathering a Perfect Storm from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme space-weather events — intense solar and geomagnetic storms — have occurred in the past: most recently in 1859, 1921 and 1989. So scientists expect that, sooner or later, another extremely intense spaceweather event will strike Earth again. Such storms have the potential to cause widespread interference with and damage to technological systems. A National Academy of Sciences study projects that an extreme space-weather event could end up costing the American economy more than $1 trillion. The question now is whether or not we will take the actions needed to avoid such expensive consequences. Let’s assume that we do. Below is an imagined scenario of how, sometime in the future, an extreme space-weather event might play out.

  17. Space Weather Research Towards Applications in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean

    2007-01-01

    This book shows the state of the art in Europe on a very new discipline, Space Weather. This discipline lies at the edge between science and industry. This book reflects such a position, with theoretic papers and applicative papers as well. It is divided into 5 chapters. Each chapter starts with a short introduction, which shows the coherence of a given domain. Then, 4 to 5 contributions written by the best specialists in Europe give detailed hints of a hot topic in space weather. From the reading of this book, it becomes evident that space weather is a living discipline, full of promises and already full of amazing realizations. The strength of Europe is clear through the book, but it is also clear that this discipline is world wide.

  18. ISES Experience in Delivering Space Weather Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boteler, David

    The International Space Environment Service has over eighty years experience in providing space weather services to meet a wide variety of user needs. This started with broadcast on December 1, 2008 from the Eiffel Tower about radio conditions. The delivery of information about ionospheric effects on high frequency (HF) radio propagation continue to be a major concern in many parts of the world. The movement into space brought requirements for a new set of space weather services, ranging from radiation dangers to man in space, damage to satellites and effects on satellite communication and navigation systems. On the ground magnetic survey, power system and pipeline operators require information about magnetic disturbances that can affect their operations. In the past these services have been delivered by individual Regional Warning Centres. However, the needs of new trans-national users are stimulating the development of new collaborative international space weather services.

  19. Weather effects on aerial snow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollan, O.

    1979-01-01

    When aerial snow measurements are carried out, various weather phenomena have influence on the survey operations and the registered gamma radiation values. Among these phenomena are low visibility and wind causing problems to aircraft operations, and temperature inversions which may trap radioactive gases and particles in the air layer near the ground. The pressure and temperature of the air and its humidity influence the gamma radiation field above the ground, and this should be taken into consideration. As some types of weather may cause delays and errors in the snow measurement, it is important for the operators to have a reliable account of the weather situation prior to and during the survey flights. This will reduce the cost of the measurement operation and improve the quality of the collected data.

  20. Healthy Housing Opportunities During Weatherization Work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.; Tohn, E.

    2011-03-01

    In the summer and early fall of 2010, the National Center for Healthy Housing interviewed people from a selection of state and local agencies that perform weatherizations on low-income housing in order to gauge their approach to improving the health and safety of the homes. The interviews provided a strong cross section of what work agencies can do, and how they go about funding this work when funds from the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) do not cover the full extent of the repairs. The report also makes recommendations for WAP in how to assist agencies to streamline and maximize the health and safety repairs they are able to make in the course of a standard weatherization.