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Sample records for wear-resistant cu-10cr-3ag electrical

  1. Correlation between Wear Resistance and Lifetime of Electrical Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical contacts are usually plated in order to prevent corrosion. Platings of detachable electrical contacts experience wear because of the motion between contacts. Once the protecting platings have been worn out, electrical contacts will fail rapidly due to corrosion or fretting corrosion. Therefore the wear resistance of the platings is a very important parameter for the long lifetime of electrical contacts. Many measures which improve the wear resistance can diminish the conductivity of the platings. Due to the fact that platings of electrical contacts must have both a high wear resistance and a high electrical conductivity, the manufacturing of high performance platings of electrical contacts poses a great challenge. Our study shows firstly the correlation between the wear resistance of platings and lifetime of electrical contacts and then the measures, which improve the wear resistance without impairing the electrical performance of the contacts.

  2. Silver nanosheet-coated copper nanowire/epoxy resin nanocomposites with enhanced electrical conductivity and wear resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ningning; Ma, Jingyi; Zhang, Yujuan; Yang, Guangbin; Zhang, Shengmao, E-mail: zsm@henu.edu.cn; Zhang, Pingyu [Henan University, Engineering Research Center for Nanomaterials (China)

    2017-03-15

    Silver (Ag) nanosheet-coated Cu nanowires (denoted as Cu@AgNWs) were prepared with a facile transmetalation reaction method. The effect of reaction conditions on the morphology and microstructure of the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs was investigated, and the thermal stability of Cu@AgNWs was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis. In the meantime, the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs were used as the nanofillers of epoxy resin (EP), and their effect on the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of the EP-matrix composites was examined. Results indicate that the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs consist of CuNW core and Ag nanosheet shell. The Ag nanosheet shell can well inhibit the oxidation of the CuNW core, thereby providing the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs with good thermal stability even at an elevated temperature of 230 °C. The reaction temperature, Cu/Ag molar ratio, Cu dispersion concentration, and the dropping speed of silver ammonia reagent are suggested to be 40 °C, 5:1, 1% (mass fraction), and poured directly, respectively. Resultant Cu@AgNWs exhibit desired morphology and performance and can effectively increase the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of EP. This could make it feasible for the Cu@AgNW-EP composite to be applied as an electrostatic conductive material.

  3. Wear resistance of hydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, MA; Abenojar, J.; Pantoja, M.; López de Armentia, S.

    2017-05-01

    Nature has been an inspiration source to develop artificial hydrophobic surfaces. During the latest years the development of hydrophobic surfaces has been widely researched due to their numerous ranges of industrial applications. Industrially the use of hydrophobic surfaces is being highly demanded. This is why many companies develop hydrophobic products to repel water, in order to be used as coatings. Moreover, these coating should have the appropriated mechanical properties and wear resistance. In this work wear study of a hydrophobic coating on glass is carried out. Hydrophobic product used was Sika Crystal Dry by Sika S.A.U. (Alcobendas, Spain). This product is currently used on car windshield. To calculate wear resistance, pin-on-disk tests were carried out in dry and water conditions. The test parameters were rate, load and sliding distance, which were fixed to 60 rpm, 5 N and 1000 m respectively. A chamois was used as pin. It allows to simulate a real use. The friction coefficient and loss weight were compared to determinate coating resistance

  4. Sliding wear resistance of iron aluminides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ordered intermetallic alloy (Johnson et al 1990, 1994,. 1996; Maupin et al 1992, 1993; Tu and Liu 1997; Kim and Kim 1998). Maupin et al (1992, 1993) had shown that the Fe3Al alloy having DO3 structure possesses mar- ginally lower wear rate than those with B2 structure. The wear resistance of Fe3Al alloy was found to ...

  5. Wear Resistant Amorphous and Nanocomposite Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racek, O

    2008-03-26

    Glass forming materials (critical cooling rate <10{sup 4}K.s{sup -1}) are promising for their high corrosion and wear resistance. During rapid cooling, the materials form an amorphous structure that transforms to nanocrystalline during a process of devitrification. High hardness (HV 1690) can be achieved through a controlled crystallization. Thermal spray process has been used to apply coatings, which preserves the amorphous/nanocomposite structure due to a high cooling rate of the feedstock particles during the impact on a substrate. Wear properties have been studied with respect to process conditions and feedstock material properties. Application specific properties such as sliding wear resistance have been correlated with laboratory tests based on instrumented indentation and scratch tests.

  6. Low friction wear resistant graphene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Berman, Diana; Erdemir, Ali

    2017-02-07

    A low friction wear surface with a coefficient of friction in the superlubric regime including graphene and nanoparticles on the wear surface is provided, and methods of producing the low friction wear surface are also provided. A long lifetime wear resistant surface including graphene exposed to hydrogen is provided, including methods of increasing the lifetime of graphene containing wear surfaces by providing hydrogen to the wear surface.

  7. THE WEAR RESISTANCE INCREASE OF CHROMIUM CAST IRON

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    V. M. Ilyushenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the tests on the wear resistance of chromium cast irons of different compositions obtained in sand forms. It has been shown that increase of the wear resistance and mechanical properties of the cast iron is possible to obtain using the casting in metal molds. A further increase in wear resistance of parts produced in metal molds is possible by changing the technological parameters of casting and alloying by titanium.

  8. Adhesion and wear resistance of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies into the nature of bonding at the interface between two solids in contact or a solid and deposited film have provided a better understanding of those properties important to the adhesive wear resistance of materials. Analytical and experimental progress are reviewed. For simple metal systems the adhesive bond forces are related to electronic wave function overlap. With metals in contact with nonmetals, molecular-orbital energy, and density of states, respectively can provide insight into adhesion and wear. Experimental results are presented which correlate adhesive forces measured between solids and the electronic surface structures. Orientation, surface reconstruction, surface segregation, adsorption are all shown to influence adhesive interfacial strength. The interrelationship between adhesion and the wear of the various materials as well as the life of coatings applied to substrates are discussed. Metallic systems addressed include simple metals and alloys and these materials in contact with themselves, both oxide and nonoxide ceramics, diamond, polymers, and inorganic coating compounds, h as diamondlike carbon.

  9. Wear Resistance Assessment of Fluoropolymer Coated Gears

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    Lidia Nedeloni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Power transmissions that incorporate gears dissipate a significant amount of energy and noise. Thus, any improvement in their performance contributes to reducing energy consumption and noise pollution. In recent years, the opportunities offered by conventional technologies to increase gear performance have been fully exploited. Therefore, surface depositions on gear teeth have become increasingly important technologies in achieving objectives such as: improving energy performance, providing greater protection against superficial defects, increasing load capacity and reducing acoustic emissions generated during operation. However, gear coating technologies have begun to be developed, but the investigations are still insufficient. In this study, we carried out wear resistance investigations performed on fluoropolymer coatings for different working speeds, loads and lubrication conditions. The results point out that the deterioration rate of the coating increases with the increase of the working speed and the applied load. In addition, a slight lubrication, applied at the start of testing, leads to a noticeable improvement in wear behaviour. This study represents one step further in understanding the wear process of fluoropolymer coated gears

  10. WEAR-RESISTANCE OF CHROMIC CAST IRONS OF EUTECTIC COMPOSITION

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    K. E. Baranovskij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Casting of wear-resistant chrome cast irons in combined molds and iron chills is studied. Application of these ways of casting results in blending of carbides and increasing of hardness of castings.

  11. Aluminum nanocomposites having wear resistance better than stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Linan [University of Central Florida; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Luo, Jinsong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Fan, Yi [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhang, Ligong [University of Central Florida; Liu, Jinling [University of Central Florida; Xu, Chengying [University of Central Florida; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Tribological behavior of alumina-particle-reinforced aluminum composites made by powder metallurgy process has been investigated. The nanocomposite containing 15 vol% of Al2O3 nanoparticles exhibits excellent wear resistance by showing significantly low wear rate and abrasive wear mode. The wear rate of the nanocomposite is even lower than stainless steel. We have also demonstrated that such excellent wear resistance only occurred in the composite reinforced with the high volume fraction of nanosized reinforcing particles. The results were discussed in terms of the microstructure of the nanocomposite.

  12. Engineering wear-resistant surfaces in automotive aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavorkijan, V.

    2003-02-01

    Inadequate wear resistance and low seizure loads prevent the direct use of aluminum alloys in automotive parts subject to intensive friction combined with high thermal and mechanical loading, such as brake discs, pistons, and cylinder liners. To enable the use of aluminum alloys in the production of automotive brake discs and other wear-resistant products, the insertion of a monolithic friction cladding rather than surface coating has been considered in this work. Three experimental approaches, two based on the pressure-less infiltration of porous ceramic preforms and one based on the subsequent hot rolling of aluminum and metal-matrix composite strips, are currently under investigation.

  13. Wear resistance of experimental titanium alloys for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Claro, Ana Paula Rosifini Alves; da Gloria Chiarello de Mattos, Maria; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2011-11-01

    The present study evaluated microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of experimental titanium alloys containing zirconium and tantalum. Alloys were melted in arc melting furnace according to the following compositions: Ti-5Zr, Ti-5Ta and Ti-5Ta-5Zr (%wt). Hemispheres and disks were obtained from wax patterns that were invested and cast by plasma. Microstructures were evaluated using optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and also Vickers microhardness was measured. Hemispherical samples and disks were used for 2-body wear tests, performed by repeated grinding of the samples. Wear resistance was assessed as height loss after 40,000 cycles. The data were compared using ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test. Ti-5Zr presented a Widmanstätten structure and the identified phases were α and α' while Ti-5Ta and Ti-5Ta-5Zr presented α, β, α' and α" phases, but the former presented a lamellar structure, and the other, acicular. The microhardness of Ti-5Zr was significantly greater than other materials and cp Ti presented wear resistance significantly lower than experimental alloys. It was concluded that wear resistance was improved when adding Ta and Zr to titanium and Zr increased microhardness of Ti-5Zr alloy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. (AJST) EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON WEAR RESISTANCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The effects of heat treatment on the hardness and by extension the wear resistance of locally produced grinding plate ... from the grinding plate and were heat treated at 840°C, 860°C and 880°C and quenched at different rate. Some of the ... during dry sliding at low loading conditions has been attributed to the ...

  15. Wear-resistance of Aluminum Matrix Microcomposite Materials

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    M. Kandeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A procedure is developed for the study of wear of aluminum alloys AlSi7 obtained by casting, reinforced by TiC microparticles, before and after heat treatment. Tribological study is realized under conditions of friction on counterbody with fixed abrasive. Experimental results were obtained for mass wear, wear rate, wear intensity and wear-resistance of the alloys with different wt% of microparticles.

  16. Evaluation of hardness and wear resistance of interim restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savabi, Omid; Nejatidanesh, Farahnaz; Fathi, Mohamad Hossein; Navabi, Amir Arsalan; Savabi, Ghazal

    2013-03-01

    The interim restorative materials should have certain mechanical properties to withstand in oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hardness and wear resistance of interim restorative materials. Fifteen identical rectangular shape specimens with dimensions of 2 mm × 10 mm × 30 mm were made from 7 interim materials (TempSpan, Protemp 3 Garant, Revotek, Unifast LC, Tempron, Duralay, and Acropars). The Vickers hardness and abrasive wear of specimens were tested in dry conditions and after 1 week storage in artificial saliva. The depth of wear was measured using surface roughness inspection device. Data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between hardness and wear (α =0.05). TempSpan had the highest hardness. The wear resistance of TempSpan (in dry condition) and Revotek (after conditioning in artificial saliva) was significantly higher (P materials (P = 0.281, r = -0.31). Hardness and wear resistance of interim resins are material related rather than category specified.

  17. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm(2) and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm(2)of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics.

  18. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Asefi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow, Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists. A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm2 and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm2of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics.

  19. Progress in Wear Resistant Materials for Total Hip Arthroplasty

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    Rohit Khanna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Current trends in total hip arthroplasty (THA are to develop novel artificial hip joints with high wear resistance and mechanical reliability with a potential to last for at least 25–30 years for both young and old active patients. Currently used artificial hip joints are mainly composed of femoral head of monolithic alumina or alumina-zirconia composites articulating against cross-linked polyethylene liner of acetabular cup or Co-Cr alloy in a self-mated configuration. However, the possibility of fracture of ceramics or its composites, PE wear debris-induced osteolysis, and hypersensitivity issue due to metal ion release cannot be eliminated. In some cases, thin ultra-hard diamond-based, TiN coatings on Ti-6A-4V or thin zirconia layer on the Zr-Nb alloy have been fabricated to develop high wear resistant bearing surfaces. However, these coatings showed poor adhesion in tribological testing. To provide high wear resistance and mechanical reliability to femoral head, a new kind of ceramic/metal artificial hip joint hybrid was recently proposed in which 10–15 μm thick dense layer of pure α-alumina was formed onto Ti-6Al-4V alloy by deposition of Al metal layer by cold spraying or cold metal transfer methods with 1–2 μm thick Al3Ti reaction layer formed at their interface to improve adhesion. An optimal micro-arc oxidation treatment transformed Al to dense α-alumina layer, which showed high Vickers hardness 1900 HV and good adhesion to the substrate. Further tribological and cytotoxicity analyses of these hybrids will determine their efficacy for potential use in THA.

  20. Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J. L.; Russel, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by an Ames-led project team under a 4-year DOE-ITP sponsored project titled, 'Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency.' The Report serves as the project deliverable for the CPS agreement number 15015. The purpose of this project was to develop and commercialize a family of lightweight, bulk composite materials that are highly resistant to degradation by erosive and abrasive wear. These materials, based on AlMgB{sub 14}, are projected to save over 30 TBtu of energy per year when fully implemented in industrial applications, with the associated environmental benefits of eliminating the burning of 1.5 M tons/yr of coal and averting the release of 4.2 M tons/yr of CO{sub 2} into the air. This program targeted applications in the mining, drilling, machining, and dry erosion applications as key platforms for initial commercialization, which includes some of the most severe wear conditions in industry. Production-scale manufacturing of this technology has begun through a start-up company, NewTech Ceramics (NTC). This project included providing technical support to NTC in order to facilitate cost-effective mass production of the wear-resistant boride components. Resolution of issues related to processing scale-up, reduction in energy intensity during processing, and improving the quality and performance of the composites, without adding to the cost of processing were among the primary technical focus areas of this program. Compositional refinements were also investigated in order to achieve the maximum wear resistance. In addition, synthesis of large-scale, single-phase AlMgB{sub 14} powder was conducted for use as PVD sputtering targets for nanocoating applications.

  1. The problem of wear-resistant coatings quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi. I. Abashin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at solving a problem concerning the express evaluation of the wear-resistant nanostructure coatings quality using the method of ultra-fluid jet examination. Conducted research activities have shown that an intensity of the coating delamination from the substrate depends on the stress concentration level in the test sample. The proposed informatively methodological procedure of ultra-fluid jet examination will allow prompt estimation of physical-and-mechanical parameters and operational condition of coatings being deposited on samples and passed fatigue loading. The offered procedure can be effectively used for selecting the coating material, substrate, and efficient modes of application.

  2. Standard Test Method for Abrasive Wear Resistance of Cemented

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of abrasive wear resistance of cemented carbides. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI equivalents of inch-pound units are in parentheses and may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Titanium aluminide intermetallic alloys with improved wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jun; Lin, Hua-Tay; Blau, Peter J.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2014-07-08

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a titanium aluminide intermetallic alloy composition having an improved wear resistance, the method comprising heating a titanium aluminide intermetallic alloy material in an oxygen-containing environment at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a top oxide layer and underlying oxygen-diffused layer, followed by removal of the top oxide layer such that the oxygen-diffused layer is exposed. The invention is also directed to the resulting oxygen-diffused titanium aluminide intermetallic alloy, as well as mechanical components or devices containing the improved alloy composition.

  4. The Abrasive Wear Resistance of Chromium Cast Iron

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    Kopyciński D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of cast iron to abrasive wear depends on the metal abrasive hardness ratio. For example, hardness of the structural constituents of the cast iron metal matrix is lower than the hardness of ordinary silica sand. Also cementite, the basic component of unalloyed white cast iron, has hardness lower than the hardness of silica. Some resistance to the abrasive effect of the aforementioned silica sand can provide the chromium white cast iron containing in its structure a large amount of (Cr, Fe7C3 carbides characterised by hardness higher than the hardness of the silica sand in question. In the present study, it has been anticipated that the white cast iron structure will be changed by changing the type of metal matrix and the type of carbides present in this matrix, which will greatly expand the application area of castings under the harsh operating conditions of abrasive wear. Moreover, the study compares the results of abrasive wear resistance tests performed on the examined types of cast iron. Tests of abrasive wear resistance were carried out on a Miller machine. Samples of standard dimensions were exposed to abrasion in a double to-and-fro movement, sliding against the bottom of a trough filled with an aqueous abrasive mixture containing SiC + distilled water. The obtained results of changes in the sample weight were approximated with a power curve and shown further in the study.

  5. Development of wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselkorn, M.H. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Improved fuel economy and a reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, insulating the combustion chamber components will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150{degree}C to over 300{degree}C. Existing ring/liner materials can not withstand these higher operating temperatures and for this reason, new materials need to be developed for this critical tribological interface. The overall goal of this program is the development of piston ring/cylinder liner material pairs which would be able to provide the required friction and wear properties at these more severe operating conditions. More specifically, this program first selected, and then evaluated, potential d/wear resistant coatings which could be applied to either piston rings an or cylinder liners and provide, at 350{degree}C under lubricated conditions, coefficients of friction below 0.1 and wear rates of less than 25 {times} lO{sup {minus}6} mm/hour. The processes selected for applying the candidate wear resistant coatings to piston rings and/or cylinder liners were plasma spraying, chemical vapor, physical vapor and low temperature arc vapor deposition techniques as well as enameling techniques.

  6. On the Durability and Wear Resistance of Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

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    Ilker S. Bayer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent liquid repellent coatings with exceptional wear and abrasion resistance are very demanding to fabricate. The most important reason for this is the fact that majority of the transparent liquid repellent coatings have so far been fabricated by nanoparticle assembly on surfaces in the form of films. These films or coatings demonstrate relatively poor substrate adhesion and rubbing induced wear resistance compared to polymer-based transparent hydrophobic coatings. However, recent advances reported in the literature indicate that considerable progress has now been made towards formulating and applying transparent, hydrophobic and even oleophobic coatings onto various substrates which can withstand certain degree of mechanical abrasion. This is considered to be very promising for anti-graffiti coatings or treatments since they require resistance to wear abrasion. Therefore, this review intends to highlight the state-of-the-art on materials and techniques that are used to fabricate wear resistant liquid repellent transparent coatings so that researchers can assess various aptitudes and limitations related to translating some of these technologies to large scale stain repellent outdoor applications.

  7. Wear resistance of polypropylene-SiC composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenojar, J.; Enciso, B.; Martínez, MA; Velasco, F.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, the wear resistance of thermoplastic composites with a high amount of ceramic is evaluated. Composites made of polypropylene (PP) and silicon carbide (SiC) powder at 50 wt% were used with the final objective of manufacturing ablative materials. This is the first part of a project studying the wear resistance and the mechanical properties of those composites, to be used in applications like habitat industry. In theory, the exposure to high temperature of ablative materials involves the elimination of thermal energy by the sacrifice of surface polymer. In our case, PP will act as a heat sink, up to the reaction temperature (melting or sublimation), where endothermic chemical decomposition into charred material and gaseous products occurs. As the surface is eroded, it is formed a SiC like-foam with improved insulation performance. Composites were produced by extrusion and hot compression. The wear characterization was performed by pin-on-disk test. Wear test was carried out under standard ASTM G99. The parameters were 120 rpm speed, 15 N load, a alumina ball with 6 mm as pin and 1000 m sliding distance. The tracks were also observed by opto-digital microscope.

  8. The Tribological Performance of Hardfaced/ Thermal Sprayed Coatings for Increasing the Wear Resistance of Ventilation Mill Working Parts

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    A. Vencl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the coal pulverizing, the working parts of the ventilation mill are being worn by the sand particles. For this reason, the working parts are usually protected with materials resistant to wear (hardfaced/thermal sprayed coatings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tribological performance of four different types of coatings as candidates for wear protection of the mill’s working parts. The coatings were produced by using the filler materials with the following nominal chemical composition: NiFeBSi-WC, NiCrBSiC, FeCrCTiSi, and FeCrNiCSiBMn, and by using the plasma arc welding and flame and electric arc spraying processes. The results showed that Ni-based coatings exhibited higher wear resistance than Fe-based coatings. The highest wear resistance showed coating produced by using the NiFeBSi-WC filler material and plasma transferred arc welding deposition process. The hardness was not the only characteristic that affected the wear resistance. In this context, the wear rate of NiFeBSi-WC coating was not in correlation with its hardness, in contrast to other coatings. The different wear performance of NiFeBSi-WC coating was attributed to the different type and morphological features of the reinforcing particles (WC.

  9. Ultrathin wear-resistant coatings for the tape bearing surface of thin-film magnetic heads for digital compact cassette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieren, V.; Dejongh, M.; Vangroenou, A. Broese; Vanzon, J. B. A.; Lasinski, P.; Theunissen, G. S. A. M.

    1994-03-01

    The introduction of the digital compact cassette (DCC) system into the consumer market imposed some severe requirements on the durability of the thin-film heads used in this system. The reliability of the head's record and playback functions has to be maintained under a wide variety of climatic conditions and tape types, as a consequence of the system's backward compatibility with the analog compact cassette. This paper describes the results of several accelerated wear tests as well as of durability tests against tape, which were set-up to find the best material and process conditions for a wear-resistant coating on the tape bearing surface of a DCC head. This ultrathin coating (less than 75 nm) appeared to be the best solution as a safeguard against severe pole-tip recession, which would cause an unacceptable distance loss in the recording system. The first material which showed a very high wear resistance was CrN. As CrN fulfils all requirements for wear and corrosion resistance in the home application, this material is presently used in all DCC home decks. However, under extremely abrasive conditions, such as may be encountered in a car environment (e.g. cold start at -20 C), CrN is surpassed by an even more wear-resistant material, called SPL (super protective layer). Therefore, SPL is preferred as a coating on thin-film heads for car stereo (as well as portable) DCC apparatus. Both materials are characterized by their specific wear performance, which has a superior impact on the electrical (record and playback) properties of the head during its lifetime.

  10. Technology for improving the wear resistance of aggregates by materials impregnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    The use of impregnation as a means of improving the wear resistance of natural aggregates was investigated. A series of tests were conducted using four aggregates of varying quality, selected from a sampling of 40 different aggregates. Tests performe...

  11. Characterization of the wear resistant aluminum oxide - 40% titaniumdioxide coating

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    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasma spray coatings play an important role in the design of surface properties of engineering components in order to increase their durability and performance under different operating conditions. Coatings are the most often used for wear resistance. This paper presents the microstructure and mechanical properties Al2O3_­40wt.%TiO2 coating resistant to dry friction slide, grain abrasion and erosion of particles at operating temperatures up to 540°C. In order to obtain the optimal characteristics of coating was performed  optimization  of deposition parameters. The powder Al2O3­40wt.%TiO2 is deposited atmospheric plasma spraying (APS process with a plasma current of 700, 800 and 900A. Evaluate the quality of the coating Al2O3­40wt.%TiO2 were made on the basis of their hardness, tensile bond strength and microstructure. The best performance showed the deposited layers with 900A. The morphology of the powder particles Al2O3­40wt.%TiO2 was examined with SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope. Microstructure of the coatings was examined by light microscopy. Analysis of the deposited layers was performed in accordance with standard Pratt & Whitney. Evaluation of mechanical properties of the layers was done by examining HV0.3 microhardness and tensile strength of the tensile testing. Studies have shown that plasma currents significantly affects the mechanical properties and microstructure of coatings which are of crucial importance for the protection for components subjected to wear       

  12. Deposition of Coatings for Raising the Wear Resistance of Friction Surfaces of Spherical Sliding Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlenko, A. O.; Davydov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The process of finishing plasma hardening with deposition of a multilayer amorphous coating of the Si - O - C - N system is considered as applied to hardening of the friction surfaces of spherical sliding bearings. The microrelief, the submicrorelief, and the tribological characteristics of the deposited wear-resistant antifriction amorphous coating, which are responsible for the elevated wear resistance of spherical sliding bearings, are investigated.

  13. Effect of Isothermal Bainitic Quenching on Rail Steel Impact Strength and Wear Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Fatih Hayati; Çelik, Osman Nuri

    2017-09-01

    The effect of heat treatment regimes on hardness, impact strength, and wear resistance of rail steel for high-speed tracks (rail quality category R350HT) is studied. Analysis of steel properties with a different structure is compared: pearlitic, and upper and lower bainite. It is shown that the steel with bainitic structure has the best impact strength, but wear resistance is better for steel with a lower bainite structure.

  14. Evaluation Of Saltstone Mixer Paddle Configuration For Improved Wear Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M.; Fowley, M. D.; Pickenheim, B. R.

    2012-09-27

    A soft metal with low wear resistance (6000 series aluminum), was used to minimize run time while maximizing wear rate. Two paddle configurations were tested, with the first four paddles after the augers replaced by the wear paddles. The first configuration was all flat paddles, with the first paddle not aligned with the augers and is consistent with present SPF mixer. The second configuration had helical paddles for the first three stages after the augers and a flat paddle at the fourth stage. The first helical paddle was aligned with the auger flight for the second configuration. The all flat paddle configuration wear rate was approximately double the wear rate of the helical paddles for the first two sets of paddles after the augers. For both configurations, there was little or no wear on the third and fourth paddle sets based on mass change, indicating that the fully wetted premix materials are much less abrasive than the un-wetted or partially wetted premix. Additionally, inspection of the wear surface of the paddles at higher magnification showed the flat paddles were worn much more than the helical and is consistent with the wear rates. Aligning the auger discharge flight with the first set of helical paddles was effective in reducing the wear rate as compared to the flat paddle configuration. Changing the paddle configuration from flat to helical resulted in a slight increase in rheological properties. Although, both tests produced grout-like material that is within the processing rage of the SPF, it should be noted that cement is not included in the premix and water was used rather than salt solution, which does affect the rheology of the fresh grout. The higher rheological properties from the helical wear test are most likely due to the reduced number of shearing paddles in the mixer. In addition, there is variation in the rheological data for each wear test. This is most likely due to the way that the dry feeds enter the mixer from the dry feeder. The

  15. Self-lubricating, wear resistant protic ionic liquid-epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Aviles

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new self-lubricating, wear resistant epoxy resin material (ER+DCi has been obtained by addition of a 9 wt.% of the room-temperature protic ionic liquid (PIL tri-[bis(2-hydroxyethylammonium] citrate (DCi to the mixture of the prepolymer and the hardener composed of a mixture of amines. The highly polar tricationic protic ammonium carboxylate ionic liquid shows a high contact angle on the resin surface and distributes inside the epoxy matrix as spheres of around 50 µm in diameter, with a mean density of approximately 38 mm2. The presence of the ionic liquid fluid phase inside the cavities has been determined by SEM observation of fracture surfaces and FTIR microscopy. The DCi phase reduces the residual curing enthalpy and the glass transition temperature, as determined by DSC, without significantly changing microhardness or electrical resistivity values. DMA analysis shows that DCi reduces storage modulus, loss modulus and tan δ values. The tribological performance of the new material has been compared with that of the neat epoxy resin under pin-on-disc sliding conditions. ER+DCi shows more than 50% reduction of the friction coefficient with respect to neat epoxy resin, and no surface damage, in contrast with the severe wear that takes place in the case of neat epoxy resin. A self-lubrication mechanism by release of the ionic liquid lubricant under load is proposed.

  16. FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth L. Knittel

    2005-05-09

    The work performed on this program was to develop wear resistant, tough FM composite materials with efforts focused on WC-Co based FM systems. The materials were developed for use in mining industry wear applications. Components of interest were drill bit inserts for drilling blast holes. Other component applications investigated included wear plates for a variety of equipment such as pit shovels, wear surfaces for conveyors, milling media for ball milling operations, hydrocyclone cones, grader blades and dozer teeth. Cross-cutting technologies investigated included hot metal extrusion dies, drill bits for circuit board fabrication, cutting tools for cast iron and aluminum machining. An important part of the work was identification of the standard materials used in drilling applications. A materials trade study to determine those metals and ceramics used for mining applications provided guidance for the most important materials to be investigated. WC-Co and diamond combinations were shown to have the most desirable properties. Other considerations such as fabrication technique and the ability to consolidate shifted the focus away from diamond materials and toward WC-Co. Cooperating partners such as Kennametal and Kyocera assisted with supplies, evaluations of material systems, fabricated parts and suggestions for cross-cutting technology applications for FM architectures. Kennametal provided the raw materials (WC-Co and Al-TiCN powders) for the extent of the material evaluations. Kyocera shared their research into various FM systems and provided laboratory testing of fabricated materials. Kyocera also continued research of the FM systems with the intention of developing commercial markets for a variety of applications. The continued development of FM technology by Kyocera is seen as a direct result of the cooperation established under this funding. Kyocera has a specific interest in the commercial development of the FM technology and have licensed it and have paid

  17. Wear resistance of machine tools' bionic linear rolling guides by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqiang; Liu, Botao; Guo, Zhengcai

    2017-06-01

    In order to improve the rolling wear resistance (RWR) of linear rolling guides (LRG) as well as prolong the life of machine tools, various shape samples with different units spaces ranged from 1 to 5 mm are designed through the observation of animals in the desert and manufactured by laser cladding. Wear resistance tests reproducing closely the real operational condition are conducted by using a homemade linear reciprocating wear test machine, and wear resistance is evaluated by means of weight loss measurement. Results indicate that the samples with bionic units have better RWR than the untreated one, of which the reticulate treated sample with unit space 3 mm present the best RWR. More specifically, among the punctuate treated samples, the mass loss increases with the increase of unit space; among the striate treated samples, the mass loss changes slightly with the increase of unit space, attaining a minimum at the unit space of 4 mm; among the reticulate treated samples, with the increase of unit space, the mass loss initially decreases, but turns to increase after reaching a minimum at the unit space of 3 mm. Additionally, the samples with striate shape perform better wear resistance than the other shape groups on the whole. From the ratio value of laser treated area to contacted area perspective, that the samples with ratio value between 0.15 and 0.3 possess better wear resistance is concluded.

  18. Influence on the wear resistance of the particle size used in coatings of Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A.; Guzmán, R.; Ramirez, Z. Y.

    2017-01-01

    In the literature, it is common to find that the size of the particles used in coatings through thermal spraying processes influences the hardness and wear resistance thereof; this project aimed to quantify the importance of this parameter in the adhesive and abrasive wear resistance when aluminium oxide is deposited on a substrate of AISI 1020 steel, through a thermal spraying by flame process. The methodology consisted of: a) morphological characterization of the powder used in the coatings by scanning electron microscopy, b) deposition of coatings, c) testing of adhesive and abrasive wear (ASTM G99-05 Standard test method for wear testing with a pin-on-disk apparatus and ASTM G65-04 Standard test method for measuring abrasion using dry sand/rubber wheel apparatus), and d) statistical analysis to determine the influence of particle size on wear resistance. The average size of the powder used for coatings was 92, 1690, 8990 and 76790nm. The obtained results allow to identify an inversely proportional behaviour between particle size and wear resistance, in both types of wear (adhesive and abrasive) is shown a logarithmic trend indicating an increase in loss mass during the test as the particle size is also increased and therefore a decrease in wear resistance of the coating.

  19. Improvement of wear resistance for C45 steel using plasma nitriding, nitrocarburizing and nitriding/ manganese phosphating duplex treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, T. V.; Kusmič, D.; Pospíchal, M.; Dobrocký, D.

    2017-02-01

    This article focuses on effect of plasma nitriding, nitrocarburizing and nitriding/manganese phosphating duplex treatments to wear resistance of C45 steel substrate. The wear test “ball on disc” was conducted to evaluate the coefficient of friction and wear rate using the BRUKER UMT-3 tribometer. The analysis results indicated that nitrocarburizing obtained the best wear resistance; the worst wear resistance was plasma nitriding. Manganese phosphating coating enabled to reduce the coefficient of friction enhanced wear resistance nitrided layer. The used surface treatments also improve non-equal wear of tempered surface over the sliding track.

  20. Effect of molybdenum on the microstructure and wear resistance of Fe-based hardfacing coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xinhongwang@sdu.edu.cn; Han, F. [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, College of Weifang, Weifang 261021 (China); Liu, X.M.; Qu, S.Y.; Zou, Z.D. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2008-08-20

    Fe-based hardfacing alloys containing molybdenum compound have been deposited on AISI 1020 steel substrates by shield manual arc welding (SMAW) process. The effect of Mo on the microstructure and wear resistance of the Fe-based hardfacing alloys were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis, as well as wear test. The results indicated that cuboidal and rod-type complex carbides were synthesized in the lath martensite matrix. The fraction of carbides in hardfacing layer increased with an increasing of Mo content. The hardfacing layer with good cracking resistance and wear resistance could be obtained when the amounts of Fe-Mo was controlled within a range of 3-4 wt.%. The improvement of hardness and wear resistance of the hardfacing layers attributed to the formation of Mo{sub 2}C carbide and the solution strengthening of Mo.

  1. Microstructure and wear resistance of high chromium cast iron containing niobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhiguo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the effect of niobium addition on the microstructure, mechanical properties and wear resistance of high chromium cast iron has been studied. The results show that the microstructure of the heat-treated alloys is composed of M7C3 and M23C6 types primary carbide, eutectic carbide, secondary carbide and a matrix of martensite and retained austenite. NbC particles appear both inside and on the edge of the primary carbides. The hardness of the studied alloys maintains around 66 HRC, not significantly affected by the Nb content within the selected range of 0.48%-0.74%. The impact toughness of the alloys increases with increasing niobium content. The wear resistance of the specimens presents little variation in spite of the increase of Nb content under a light load of 40 N. However, when heavier loads of 70 and 100 N are applied, the wear resistance increases with increasing Nb content.

  2. Effect of Anode Pulse-Width on the Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Microarc Oxidation Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Wei Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microarc oxidation (MAO coatings were prepared on 2024-T4 aluminum alloys using a pulsed bipolar power supply at different anode pulse-widths. After the MAO coatings were formed, the micropores and microcracks on the surface of the MAO coatings were filled with Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP dispersion for preparing MAO self-lubricating composite coatings containing FEP. The effect of the anode pulse-width on the microstructure and wear resistance of the microarc oxidation coatings was investigated. The wear resistance of the microarc oxidation self-lubricating composite coatings was analyzed. The results revealed that the MAO self-lubricating composite coatings integrated the advantages of wear resistance of the MAO ceramic coatings and a low friction coefficient of FEP. Compared to the MAO coatings, the microarc oxidation self-lubricating composite coatings exhibited a lower friction coefficient and lower wear rates.

  3. Effects of sintering temperatures on microstructure and wear resistance of iron-silica composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Adibah; Mamat, Othman

    2015-07-01

    Ceramic particle reinforced into metal base matrix composite has been reported to produce higher strength and wear resistance than its alloys because the ceramic phases can strongly resist abrasion. In this study the iron matrix was reinforced with two compositions of 20 and 25 wt. % fine silica particles. The compacts were produced by using powder metallurgy fabrication technique and sintered at three sintering temperatures: 1000, 1100 and 1200°C. Effects of various sintering temperatures on microstructures and the composite's wear resistance were evaluated via optical and SEM microscopy. Both compositions were also subjected to ball-on-disk wear test. The results showed the reinforcement weight fraction of 20 wt.% of silica and sintering temperature at 1100°C exhibited better result, in all aspects. It possessed higher mechanical properties, it's microstructure revealed most intact reinforcing region and it displayed higher wear resistance during wear test.

  4. The comparative studies of ADI versus Hadfield cast steel wear resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Kaczorowski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of comparative studies of wear resistance of ADI versus high manganese Hadfield cast steel are presented. For evaluation ofwear resistance three type of ADI were chosen. Two of them were of moderate strength ADI with 800 and 1000MPa tensile strength whilethe third was 1400MPa tensile strength ADI. The specimens were cut from ADI test YII type casting poured and heat treated in Institute ofFoundry in Krakow. The pin on disc method was used for wear resistance experiment. The specimens had a shape of 40mm long rod withdiameter 6mm. The load and speed were 100N and 0,54m/s respectively. It was concluded that the wear resistance of ADI is comparablewith high manganese cast steel and in case of low tensile grade ADI and is even better for high strength ADI than Hadfield steel.

  5. Comparative in vitro wear resistance of CAD/CAM composite resin and ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Li; Bortolotto, Tissiana; Krejci, Ivo

    2016-02-01

    Composite resin is a promising option in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) dentistry; however, the wear resistance of composite resin remains a primary concern. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the wear resistance of 5 CAD/CAM materials (n=10), consisting of 4 composite resins (3M Lava Ultimate, Kerr experimental composite resin material, Vita Enamic, 3M Paradigm MZ100) and 1 ceramic (Vita Mark II) in contact with natural human enamel cusps. Specimens were loaded into a computer-controlled mastication simulator and subjected to 200000 mechanical cycles (49 N) against natural human enamel simultaneously with 500 thermal cycles (5°C to 50°C to 5°C). The wear resistance was analyzed by measuring the vertical substance loss (the maximum depth of the worn area) in the contact point area of the specimen. The worn surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy to determine the wear patterns. Vita Mark II exhibited the best wear resistance among the tested materials, followed by 3M Lava Ultimate, Vita Enamic, and 3M Paradigm MZ100. The Kerr experimental material exhibited the lowest wear resistance, yet its results were not significantly different from those of the 3 other composite resin blocks (P>.05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the wear resistance of composite resin blocks in contact with enamel cusps was significantly lower than that of a ceramic block. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Features of Wear-Resistant Cast Iron Coating Formation During Plasma-Powder Surfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, K. N.; Emelyushin, A. N.; Nefed'ev, S. P.

    2017-09-01

    The structure of coatings deposited on steel 45 by plasma-powder surfacing of white wear-resistant cast iron is studied. The effects of surfacing regime and additional production effects on the welding bath during surfacing produced by current modulation, accelerated cooling of the deposited beads by blowing with air, and accelerated cooling of the substrate with running water on the structure, are determined. A new composition is suggested for powder material for depositing wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant coatings on a carbon steel by the plasma-powder process.

  7. Investigation of Wear Resistant of Low-Alloyed and Chromium Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigations of wear resistant of two species of cast steel were introduced in the article (low-alloyed and chromium cast steel on the background of the standard material which was low alloy wear resistant steel about the trade name CREUSABRO ®8000. The investigations were executed with two methods: abrasive wears in the stream of loose particles (the stream of quartz sand and abrasive wears particles fixed (abrasive paper with the silicon carbide. Comparing the results of investigations in the experiments was based about the counted wear index which characterizes the wears of the studied material in the relation to the standard material.

  8. The analysis of mechanism of rhenium-coated tools' wear-resistance rising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Petrosyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to obtain wear-resistant layers on the hard-alloy materials by thermochemical treatment. In the different field of production – mechanical engineering, metallurgy and military technologies, with machine parts demanding high wearproof and corrosion-proof machinery parts on the surfaces of syntheses of diamonds, with metal surface thermal-diffusion with rhenium, to receive diffusion wearing layers for the first time. A method for thermochemical treatment of hard alloy plates has been investigated, allowing to raise the wear-resistance of cutting and mining tools.

  9. Effect of Boronizing on Microhardness and Wear Resistance of Steel AISI 1050 and Chilled Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Adnan; Simsek, Mithat; Karakas, Mustafa Serdar; Ucar, Nazim

    2014-05-01

    Steel AISI 1050 (steel 50) and chilled cast iron are studied after 5-h solid-phase boronizing from a powder environment at 900 °C. The surfaces of the boronized specimens are studied by x-ray and electron microscopic analyses and their Vickers microhardness is measured. The wear resistance is determined by the pin-on-disc method.

  10. STRUCTURE FORMATION OF WEAR RESISTANT COMBINED TITANIUM-BASED COATINGS ON HIGH SPEED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Andreyev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology of wear resistant coating formation on the basis of Ti. The combined technology includes electro arc evaporation in vacuum and ionic nitriding. Every technological stage of coating application has an influence on tiie structure formation of the combined coating.

  11. Effect of heat treatment on wear resistance of a grinding plate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of heat treatment on the hardness and by extension the wear resistance of locally produced grinding plate of known composition were investigated. Specimens were prepared from the grinding plate and were heat treated at 840°C, 860°C and 880°C and quenched at different rate. Some of the specimens were ...

  12. Enhanced Wear Resistance of Transparent Epoxy Composite Coatings with Vertically Aligned Halloysite Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kenan; Chen, Dayong; Polak, Roberta; Rubner, Michael F; Cohen, Robert E; Askar, Khalid A

    2016-12-28

    The influence of nanoparticle orientation on wear resistance of transparent composite coatings has been studied. Using a nozzle spray coating method, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were aligned in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions and in various randomly oriented states. Nanoscratching, falling sand, and Taber Abrasion tests were used to characterize the wear resistance at different length scales. Composites consistently displayed better wear resistance than pure epoxy. Samples with out-of-plane particle orientations exhibited better wear-resistant behavior than those with in-plane particle distributions. In nanoscratching tests, the out-of-plane orientation decreases the normalized scratch volume by as much as 60% compared to pure epoxy. In the falling sand and Taber Abrasion tests, out-of-plane aligned halloysite particles resulted in surfaces with smaller roughness based on stylus profilometry and SEM observations. The decrease in roughness values after these wear tests can be as large as 67% from pure epoxy to composites. Composites with higher out-of-plane particle orientation factors exhibited better light transmittance after sand impingements and other wear tests. This study suggests a useful strategy for producing material systems with enhanced mechanical durability and more durable optical properties.

  13. Improvement of wear-resistance of solid lubricants by ionic impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1993-01-01

    A solid lubricating material, preferentially as a coating, deposited on a substrate surface by conventional technique such as dipping in a suspension, painting, or spraying is bombarded with energetic ions fron an ion accelerator or in a plasma discharge. By such a treatment the wear resistance...... crystalline planes which are parellel to the component surface to be lubricated....

  14. INFLUENCE OF ADDITIVES ON THE STRUCTURE FORMING OF ECONOMICALLY-ALLOYED WEAR RESISTING STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Garost

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of vanadium and nitrogencontaining economically-alloyed wear-resisting steels are investigated. The micro-composition and nature of nonmetallic impurities of steels with lowered content of manganese are studied. The optimal compositions of alloys for castings are offered.

  15. Influence of Titanium on Crystallization and Wear Resistance of High Chromium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studnicki A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the results of studies on primary crystallization and wear resistance of high chromium cast iron inoculated with ferrotitanium intended for work in abrasive conditions. Primary crystallization was examined with use of TDA method, wear tests of the samples were conducted using the modified pin-on-disk method.

  16. Influence of Titanium on Crystallization and Wear Resistance of High Chromium Cast Iron

    OpenAIRE

    Studnicki A.; Dojka R.; Gromczyk M.; Kondracki M.

    2016-01-01

    Paper presents the results of studies on primary crystallization and wear resistance of high chromium cast iron inoculated with ferrotitanium intended for work in abrasive conditions. Primary crystallization was examined with use of TDA method, wear tests of the samples were conducted using the modified pin-on-disk method.

  17. Influence of Cycle Temperature on the Wear Resistance of Vermicular Iron Derivatized with Bionic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qi; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong; Liu, Yan; Ren, Luquan

    2016-11-01

    Depending on their applications, such as in brake discs, camshafts, etc., the wear behavior of vermicular iron is influenced by the thermal cycling regime. The failure of a working part during its service life is a consequence of both thermal fatigue and wear. Previously, the wear and thermal fatigue resistance properties of vermicular iron were separately investigated by researchers, rather than a study combining these two factors. In the present work, the effect of cycle temperature on the wear resistance of specimens with bionic units processed by laser has been investigated experimentally. The wear behavior pre- and post-thermal cycling has also been investigated, and the influence of different cycle temperatures on the wear resistance is discussed. The results indicate that the thermal cycling regime brought about negative influences with varying degrees, on the material properties, such as the microstructures, micro-hardness, cracks, and oxidation resistance properties. All these factors synergistically reduced the wear resistance of vermicular iron. In particular, the negative influence apparently increased with an increase in cycle temperature. Nevertheless, the post-thermal-cycle wear resistance of the specimens with bionic units was superior to those without bionic units. Hence, the laser bionic process is an effective way to improve the performance of vermicular iron in combined thermal cycling and wear service conditions.

  18. Concrete surface with nano-particle additives for improved wearing resistance to increasing truck traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study focused on the use of nanotechnology in concrete to improve the wearing resistance of concrete. The nano : materials used were polymer cross-linked aerogels, carbon nanotubes, and nano-SiO2, nano-CaCO3, and nano-Al2O3 : particles. As an in...

  19. Effect of bionic coupling units' forms on wear resistance of gray cast iron under dry linear reciprocating sliding condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Xie, Guofeng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Ren, Luquan

    2015-07-01

    In order to get close to the wear form of guide rails, the homemade linear reciprocating wear testing machine was used for the wear test. In order to improve the wear-resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, bionic coupling units of different forms were manufactured by a laser. Wear behavior of gray-cast-iron with bionic-coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using the wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that bionic coupling unit could improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron. The wear resistance of gray cast iron with reticulation bionic coupling unit is the best. When the load and speed changed, reticulation bionic coupling unit still has excellent performance in improving the wear resistance of gray cast iron.

  20. Comparison of Wear Resistance of Hawley and Vacuum Formed Retainers: An in-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkelgosha V

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: As a physical property, wear resistance of the materials used in the fabrication of orthodontic retainers play a significant role in the stability and long term use of the appliances. Objectives: To evaluate the wear resistance of two commonly used materials for orthodontic retainers: Acropars OP, i.e. a polymethyl methacrylate based material, and 3A-GS060, i.e. a polyethylene based material. Materials and Methods: For each material, 30 orthodontic retainers were made according to the manufacturers’ instructions and a 30×30×2 mm block was cut out from the mid- palatal area of each retainer. Each specimen underwent 1000 cycles of wear stimulation in a pin on disc machine. The depth of wear of each specimen was measured using a Nano Wizard II atomic force microscope in 3 random points of each specimen’s wear trough. The average of these three measurements was calculated and considered as mean value wear depth of each specimen (µm. Results: The mean wear depth was 6.10µm and 2.15µm for 3A-GS060 and Acropars OP groups respectively. Independent t-test showed a significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.001. The results show Polymethyl methacrylate base (Acropars is more wear resistance than the polyethylene based material (3A-GS060. Conclusions: As the higher wear resistance of the fabrication material can improve the retainers’ survival time and its cost-effectiveness, VFRs should be avoided in situations that the appliance needs high wear resistance such as bite blocks opposing occlusal forces.

  1. Improvement of Wear Resistance in Alumina Matrix Composites Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Wan; Chung, Won Sub; Sohn, Kee-Sun; Son, Chang-Young; Lee, Sunghak

    2010-02-01

    Alumina matrix composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) fabricated by CNT purification, mixing, compaction, and sintering processes, and the effects of the CNT addition on wear resistance were investigated in relation to the relative density, hardness, and fracture toughness. Wear resistance and fracture toughness were measured by the dry sliding wear test method and the indentation fracture test method, respectively. Zero to ~3 vol pct of CNTs were homogeneously distributed in the composites, although some pores existed. The wear resistance and fracture toughness increased with an increasing CNT fraction, but the composite specimen containing 3.0 vol pct of CNTs hardly showed an increase over the specimen containing 2.25 vol pct of CNTs. Observations of worn surfaces revealed that the wear mechanism involved both the abrasive and delamination wear modes in the specimens containing 0 to ~0.75 vol pct of CNTs, whereas the surface was worn largely in an abrasive wear mode in the specimens containing 1.5 to ~3.0 vol pct of CNTs. This was because CNTs helped to change the delamination wear mode to the abrasive wear mode by preventing crack initiation and propagation at alumina grains. The fracture toughness increase provided beneficial effects in the resistance to crack initiation and propagation, the reduction in delamination wear on the worn surface, and the consequent improvement in wear resistance. Because the effect of the porosity increase due to the CNT addition unfavorably affected the improvement of wear resistance and fracture toughness in the specimen containing 3.0 vol pct of CNTs, the appropriate level of CNT fraction was 1.5 to ~2.25 vol pct.

  2. Use of microhardness as a simple means of estimating relative wear resistance of carbide thermal spray coatings: Part 2. wear resistance of cemented carbide coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Michael; Roman, Itzhak

    2002-12-01

    A selection of WC-Co and Cr3C2-25%NiCr coatings produced by plasma spray and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) deposition techniques were subjected to various wear tests designed to simulate abrasion, cavitation, sliding, and particle erosion type wear mechanisms. All of the coatings were at least 200 µm thick and were deposited onto stainless steel substrates. In Part 1 of this contribution, the microstructures of the coatings were characterized and their mechanical properties were assessed using microindentation procedures. In this second part of the article, the behavior of the coatings when subjected to the various wear tests is reported and the utility of microhardness testing as an indication of relative wear resistance is discussed. It is shown that correctly performed, appropriate microhardness measurements are a good indication of abrasion resistance and sliding wear resistance, and also correlate well with cavitation resistance in Cr3C2-NiCr. The measurements were less useful for predicting erosion resistance for both Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co, however, and for abrasion resistance when WC-Co was ground against SiC. Here the contribution of micromechanisms involving fracturing and brittle failure is greater than that indicated by the coating microhardness, which is essentially a measurement of resistance to plastic deformation under equilibrium conditions.

  3. Effect of the microhardness difference between base metal and bionic coupling unit on wear resistance of gray cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Chang, Fang; Zhang, Peng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Wang, Chuanwei; Ren, Luquan

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, the samples with different microhardness difference between bionic coupling units and base metal were manufactured by laser surface remelting. Wear behavior of gray cast iron with bionic coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using a homemade liner reciprocating wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that when the microhardness difference is 561 HV0.2, the wear resistance of sample is the best.

  4. Influence of aging solutions on wear resistance and hardness of selected resin-based dental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chladek, Grzegorz; Basa, Katarzyna; Żmudzki, Jarosław; Malara, Piotr; Nowak, Agnieszka J; Kasperski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different plasticizing aging solutions on wear resistance and hardness of selected universal resin-based dental composites. Three light cured (one nanofilled, two microhybride) and one hybride chemical cured composites were aged at 37 °C for 48 h in distillated water, ethyl alcohol solution or Listerine mouthwash. After aging the microhardness tests were carried out and then tribological tests were performed in the presence of aging solution at 37 °C. During wear testing coefficients of friction were determined. The maximal vertical loss in micrometers was determined with profilometer. Aging in all liquids resulted in a significant decrease in hardness of the test materials, with the largest values obtained successively in ethanol solution, mouthwash and water. The effect of the liquid was dependent on the particular material, but not the type of material (interpreted as the size of filler used). Introduction of mouthwash instead of water or ethanol solution resulted in a significant reduction in the coefficient of friction. The lowest wear resistance was registered after aging in ethanol and for the chemical cured hybrid composite, but the vertical loss was strongly material dependent. The effect of different aging solution, including commercial mouthrinse, on hardness and wear was material dependent, and cannot be deduced from their category or filler loading. There is no simple correlation between hardness of resin-based dental composites and their wear resistance, but softening of particular composites materials during aging leads to the reduction of its wear resistance.

  5. A review of the use of wear-resistant coatings in the cutting-tool industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salik, J.

    1983-01-01

    The main mechanisms involved in the wear of cutting tools are reviewed. Evaluation of the different coating properties required for the reduction of the different kinds of wear was also reviewed. The types of coatings and their ranges of applicability are presented and discussed in view of their properties. Various coating processes as well as their advantages and shortcomings are described. Potential future developments in the field of wear-resistant coatings are discussed.

  6. Effect of Anode Pulse-Width on the Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Microarc Oxidation Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-Wei Li; Shi-Chun Di

    2017-01-01

    Microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings were prepared on 2024-T4 aluminum alloys using a pulsed bipolar power supply at different anode pulse-widths. After the MAO coatings were formed, the micropores and microcracks on the surface of the MAO coatings were filled with Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) dispersion for preparing MAO self-lubricating composite coatings containing FEP. The effect of the anode pulse-width on the microstructure and wear resistance of the microarc oxidation coatings was...

  7. Wear Resistance of Bulk-fill Composite Resin Restorative Materials Polymerized under different Curing Intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhudhairy, Fahad

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the wear resistance of four bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials cured using high- and low-intensity lights. Twenty-four samples were prepared from each composite resin material (Tetric N-Ceram, SonicFill, Smart Dentin Replacement, Filtek Bulk-Fill) resulting in a total of 96 samples; they were placed into a mold in a single increment. All of the 96 samples were cured using the Bluephase N light curing unit for 20 seconds. Half of the total specimens (n = 48) were light cured using high-intensity output (1,200 mW/cm2), while the remaining half (n = 48) were light cured using low-intensity output (650 mW/cm2). Wear was analyzed by a three-dimensional (3D) noncontact optical profilometer (Contour GT-I, Bruker, Germany). Mean and standard deviation (SD) of surface loss (depth) after 120,000 cycles for each test material was calculated and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a significance level at p materials with each other without taking the curing light intensity into consideration (p = 0.352). A significant difference in the mean surface loss was observed between SonicFill cured using high-intensity light compared with that cured using low-intensity light (p resistance of the four bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials tested compared with lower curing light intensity (650 mW/cm2). Furthermore, SonicFill cured using low-intensity light was the most wear-resistant material tested, whereas Tetric N-Ceram cured using high-intensity light was the least wear resistant. The wear resistance was better with the newly introduced bulk-fill composite resins under low-intensity light curing.

  8. Nano-hardness, wear resistance and pseudoelasticity of hafnium implanted NiTi shape memory alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Li, Yan; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Xinqing

    2012-09-01

    NiTi shape memory alloy was modified by Hf ion implantation to improve its wear resistance and surface integrity against deformation. The Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the oxide thickness of NiTi alloy was increased by the formation of TiO₂/HfO₂ nanofilm on the surface. The nano-hardness measured by nano-indentation was decreased even at the depth larger than the maximum reach of the implanted Hf ion. The lower coefficient of friction with much longer fretting time indicated the remarkable improvement of wear resistance of Hf implanted NiTi, especially for the sample with a moderate incident dose. The formation of TiO₂/HfO₂ nanofilm with larger thickness and decrease of the nano-hardness played important roles in the improvement of wear resistance. Moreover, Hf implanted NiTi exhibited larger pseudoelastic recovery strain and retained better surface integrity even after being strained to 10% as demonstrated by in situ scanning electron microscope observation. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation and Properties of Superamphiphobic Wear-resistance PPS-based Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Huai-yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Superamphiphobic wear-resistance PPS-based coatings were prepared by a simple spraying method with a pore-forming reagent of NH4HCO3 and nano-filler of carbon nanotubes (CNTs.The surface morphology and the hydrophobicity,oleophobicity of the coating were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM and contact angle meter.The wear-resistance of the coating was verified by sanding method with given load.The results indicate that a rough surface is obtained after pore-forming,and the porous structures in combination with the CNTs construct the special micro/nano-scale network structures.When the mass fraction of NH4HCO3 is 5%,the contact angles of the coating for water,glycerine and ethylene glycol are 162°,158° and 152°,showing superamphiphobic property.After polished 10000 times by abrasive paper,the coating shows slight friction marks and remains high hydrophobicity,exhibiting excellent wear-resistance.

  10. Micro-Abrasion Wear Resistance of Borided 316L Stainless Steel and AISI 1018 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reséndiz-Calderon, C. D.; Rodríguez-Castro, G. A.; Meneses-Amador, A.; Campos-Silva, I. E.; Andraca-Adame, J.; Palomar-Pardavé, M. E.; Gallardo-Hernández, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    The 316L stainless steel has high corrosion resistance but low tribological performance. In different industrial sectors (biomedical, chemical, petrochemical, and nuclear engineering), improvement upon wear resistance of 316L stainless steel components using accessible and inexpensive methods is critical. The AISI 1018 steel is widely used in industry, but its tribological performance is not the best among steels. Therefore, in this study the behavior of the borided 316L stainless steel and 1018 steel is evaluated under micro-abrasion wear. The boriding was carried out at 1223 K over 6 h of exposure time, resulting in a biphase layer composed of FeB/Fe2B phases. In order to evaluate Fe2B phase with no influence from FeB phase, AISI 1018 steel samples were borided at 1273 K for over 20 min and then diffusion annealed at 1273 K over 2 h to obtain a Fe2B mono-phase layer. Micro-abrasion wear resistance was evaluated by a commercial micro-abrasion testing rig using a mix of F-1200 SiC particles with deionized water as abrasive slurry. The obtained wear rates for FeB and Fe2B phases and for the 316L stainless steel were compared. Wear resistance of 316L stainless steel increases after boriding. The wear mechanisms for both phases and for the stainless steel were identified. Also, transient conditions for rolling and grooving abrasion were determined for the FeB and Fe2B phases.

  11. Micro-Abrasion Wear Resistance of Borided 316L Stainless Steel and AISI 1018 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reséndiz-Calderon, C. D.; Rodríguez-Castro, G. A.; Meneses-Amador, A.; Campos-Silva, I. E.; Andraca-Adame, J.; Palomar-Pardavé, M. E.; Gallardo-Hernández, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    The 316L stainless steel has high corrosion resistance but low tribological performance. In different industrial sectors (biomedical, chemical, petrochemical, and nuclear engineering), improvement upon wear resistance of 316L stainless steel components using accessible and inexpensive methods is critical. The AISI 1018 steel is widely used in industry, but its tribological performance is not the best among steels. Therefore, in this study the behavior of the borided 316L stainless steel and 1018 steel is evaluated under micro-abrasion wear. The boriding was carried out at 1223 K over 6 h of exposure time, resulting in a biphase layer composed of FeB/Fe2B phases. In order to evaluate Fe2B phase with no influence from FeB phase, AISI 1018 steel samples were borided at 1273 K for over 20 min and then diffusion annealed at 1273 K over 2 h to obtain a Fe2B mono-phase layer. Micro-abrasion wear resistance was evaluated by a commercial micro-abrasion testing rig using a mix of F-1200 SiC particles with deionized water as abrasive slurry. The obtained wear rates for FeB and Fe2B phases and for the 316L stainless steel were compared. Wear resistance of 316L stainless steel increases after boriding. The wear mechanisms for both phases and for the stainless steel were identified. Also, transient conditions for rolling and grooving abrasion were determined for the FeB and Fe2B phases.

  12. Machining efficiency and wear resistance of nickel-titanium endodontic files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, R B; Stenman, E; Spångberg, L S

    1996-05-01

    Nickel-titanium endodontic files are more flexible than stainless steel. Little information is reported concerning machining efficiency and wear resistance of nickel titanium. This study assessed the dentin-machining ability and wear resistance of nickel titanium endodontic files in vitro. The method described earlier to assess machining efficiency and wear resistance of stainless steel files was used. Eight different types and brands of nickel titanium files were studied: Ultra-Flex Hedström, Ultra-Flex K, Mity Hedstrom, Mity K, Mity Turbo, Hedstrom Naviflex NT, NiTiFlex, and Hyflex X-file. Thirty files of each brand were evaluated. One-way ANOVA and t tests were performed to analyze the data. Considerable variation was found in matching efficiency and wear. The best initial machining ability of all nickel titanium instruments was recorded for the Hyflex-X file (0.60 +/- 0.16 mm2); the poorest performance was for the Mity Turbo file, which machined less than one third of the best performing instrument (0.19 +/- 0.12 mm2). We compared our results with results of a previous study of stainless steel endodontic files and concluded that nickel titanium instruments are as aggressive as or better than stainless steel instruments in removing dentin. They are also more durable than their stainless steel counterparts.

  13. Microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of VCp/Fe surface composites fabricated in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fangxia; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Xu, Yunhua; Zhong, Lisheng; Zhao, Nana; Li, Yaping; Huang, Xing

    2013-09-01

    The vanadium carbide particles (VCp)/Fe surface composites were in situ fabricated by a technique combining infiltration casting with subsequent heat treatment. The effects of different heat treatment times on the phase evolution, microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of the composite were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Vickers hardness tester and wear resistance testing instrument, respectively. The results show that only graphite, α-Fe and V8C7 phases dominate in the composite after being heat treated at 1164 °C for 3 h. The amount of V8C7 decreases gradually from the top surface of the composite to the matrix mainly composed of gray cast iron. The average microhardness of the VCp/Fe surface composites varies according to the different reaction zones as follows: 505 HV0.1 (vanadium plate), 1096 HV0.1 (composite region), and 235 HV0.1 (iron matrix). The microhardness of the composite region is four times higher than that of the iron matrix and two times higher than that of the vanadium plate. This is attributed to the formation of vanadium carbide (V2C and V8C7) crystallites as reinforcement phases within the iron matrix. The VCp/Fe surface composites exhibit a good wear resistance under two-body abrasive wear test.

  14. EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATION OF SALTSTONE MIXER AUGER/PADDLES MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION FOR IMPROVED WEAR RESISTANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Torres, R.

    2012-08-15

    Wear and corrosion testing were conducted to evaluate alternate materials of construction for the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles. These components have been degraded by wear from the slurry processed in the mixer. Material test options included PVD coatings (TiN, TiCN, and ZrN), weld overlays (Stellite 12 and Ultimet) and higher hardness steels and carbides (D2 and tungsten carbide). The corrosion testing demonstrated that the slurry is not detrimental to the current materials of construction or the new candidates. The ASTM G75 Miller wear test showed that the high hardness materials and the Stellite 12 weld overlay provide superior wear relative to the Astralloy and CF8M stainless steel, which are the current materials of construction, as well as the PVD coatings and Ultimet. The following recommendations are made for selecting new material options and improving the overall wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer components: A Stellite 12 weld overlay or higher hardness steel (with toughness equivalent to Astralloy) be used to improve the wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer paddles; other manufacturing specifications for the mixer need to be considered in this selection. The current use of the Stellite 12 weld overlay be evaluated so that coverage of the 316 auger can be optimized for improved wear resistance of the auger. The wear surfaces of the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles be evaluated so that laboratory data can be better correlated to actual service. The 2-inch Saltstone mixer prototype be used to verify material performance.

  15. Effect of dry cryogenic treatment on Vickers hardness and wear resistance of new martensitic shape memory nickel-titanium alloy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinothkumar, Thilla Sekar; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Prabhakaran, Gopalakrishnan; Rajadurai, Arunachalam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of dry cryogenic treatment (CT) temperature and time on the Vickers hardness and wear resistance of new martensitic shape memory (SM) nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy...

  16. Wear resistance of laser-deposited boride reinforced Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloy composites for orthopedic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Sonia [Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Nag, Soumya [Department of Materials Science and Engineering Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Scharf, Thomas W.; Banerjee, Rajarshi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The inherently poor wear resistance of titanium alloys limits their application as femoral heads in femoral (hip) implants. Reinforcing the soft matrix of titanium alloys (including new generation {beta}-Ti alloys) with hard ceramic precipitates such as borides offers the possibility of substantially enhancing the wear resistance of these composites. The present study discusses the microstructure and wear resistance of laser-deposited boride reinforced composites based on Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloys. These composites have been deposited using the LENS{sup TM} process from a blend of elemental Ti, Nb, Zr, Ta, and boron powders and consist of complex borides dispersed in a matrix of {beta}-Ti. The wear resistance of these composites has been compared with that of Ti-6Al-4V ELI, the current material of choice for orthopedic femoral implants, against two types of counterfaces, hard Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and softer SS440C stainless steel. Results suggest a substantial improvement in the wear resistance of the boride reinforced Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloys as compared with Ti-6Al-4V ELI against the softer counterface of SS440. The presence of an oxide layer on the surface of these alloys and composites also appears to have a substantial effect in terms of enhanced wear resistance.

  17. Plasma powder coating of rods of hydraulic cylinders with white wear resistance cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Nefedyev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the features to form a structure and properties of Fe-C-Cr-V system coverings provided by the plasma and powder coating (build-up on the low carbon steel.It is shown that it is possible to restore a rod of hydraulic cylinders of small diameter by the plasma and powder coating. Thus, to avoid buckling and provide the built-up metal structure with the best wear resistance it is necessary to find a reasonable approach to a choice of the operation conditions to provide coating.The paper offers a way for efficient control of heat input at coating and a superheat value of the welding bath. It is noted that the coverings, which have been built up at the smallest heat input in a substrate, possess the best wear resistance, with a fusion zone formed with an austenitic crystallization interlayer.The paper defines consistent patterns to form a structure of coverings under various operation conditions of a plasma and powder coating. It shows the influence of the cooling speed after built-up metal crystallization on the formation of covering structure components.The paper formulates requirements for operation conditions of plasma and powder coating to provide coverings to be subjected to shock and abrasive wear, and shows the influence of additional heat treatment on formation of structure and properties of the built-up metal.The article under review meets available lacks in studying high-carbon chrome-vanadium coverings and is useful for scientists, graduates, and students investigating the wear resistance coating materials and effective methods for their deposition.

  18. Effects of heat treatment on properties of multi-element low alloy wear-resistant steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Xu-ding

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper has studied the mechanical properties and heat treatment effects on multi-element low alloy wear-resistant steel (MLAWS used as a material for the liner of rolling mill torii. The results show that when quenched at 900-920℃ and tempered at 350-370℃, the MLAWS has achieved hardness above 60 HRC, tensile strength greater than 1 600 MPa, impact toughness higher than 18J/cm2 and fracture toughness greater than 37 MPa

  19. Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Resistance of 18Cr-4Ni-2.5Mo Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalandyk B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An influence of a decreased Cr content on the microstructure of the highly alloyed Cr-Ni cast steel, duplex type, melted under laboratory conditions, was characterized in the paper. The microstructure investigations were performed in the initial state and after the heat treatment (solution annealing at 1060°C as well as the phase transformation kinetics at continuous cooling was measured. The wear resistance of the investigated cast steel was tested and compared with the 24%Cr-5%Ni-2.5%Mo cast steel.

  20. Restoration of the wear-resistant coatings on a GTE compressor airfoil shroud platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraimov, N. V.; Geikin, V. A.; Chekalova, E. A.; Lukina, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    The deposition of a VT20 alloy onto the airfoil shroud platform of a compressor in an argon atmosphere and the composition, the structure, and the properties of a restored wear-resistant VK-25M coating are studied. The coating deposited onto the built-up material is found to contain (%) 3-4 C, 72-74 W, and 23-24 Co. This coating does not undergo cracking when a diamond pyramid is indented at a load of 50 kg or a diamond cone is indented at a load of 100 kg at a layer thickness of 0.15, 0.25, and 0.38 mm.

  1. Scanning probe microscopy estimation of the wear resistance of the surface of a modified PVC film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkova, A. S.; Gorbushin, P. N.; Sosnov, E. A.; Kolert, K.; Malygin, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    An atomic force microscopy technique is proposed to determine the wear resistance of a protective coating deposited by the sol-gel method on the surface of a polyvinylchloride film. The force of action of a probe on a sample is estimated under various scanning conditions. It is shown that the obtained data on the resistance of a coating to the action of a probe in the contact mode can be used to qualitatively estimate the adhesion of the coating to the surface of a polymer matrix.

  2. Influence of Heat Treatment on Abrasive Wear Resistance of Silumin Matrix Composite Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawdzińska K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors attempted at examining the effect of heat treatment on abrasive wear resistance of metal composite castings. Metal matrix composites were made by infiltrating preforms created from unordered short fibers (graphite or silumin with liquid aluminium alloy AlSi12(b. Thus prepared composites were subject to solution heat treatment at a temperature of 520°C for four hours, then aging at a temperature of 220°C for four hours. Abrasion resistance of the material was tested before and after thermal treatment.

  3. Analysis of the relationship between the surface hardness and wear resistance of indirect composites used as veneer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Benassi, Ubiratan Menezes; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello de

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the surface hardness and wear resistance of indirect composites (Artglass and Solidex) and the existence of a correlation between these properties. Twenty-four specimens (12 per material) were fabricated using a polytetrafluoroethylene matrix (5.0 mm in diameter; 7.0 mm high) following an incremental technique. Polymerization was done with a xenon stroboscopic light curing unit. After polishing, the specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C during either 1 day (n=6 per material) or 55 days (n=6 per material), after which Vickers surface hardness and wear resistance were assessed. Data were analyzed statistically by unpaired Student t-test, two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. SURFACE HARDNESS: Artglass had higher surface hardness than Solidex after 1-day immersion period (pmaterials (p>0.05). Comparing the materials at both periods, Artglass means differed significantly to each other (p0.05). WEAR RESISTANCE: Solidex had higher wear than Artglass after 1-day immersion period (pmaterials after 55 days (p>0.05). Comparing the materials at both periods, Artglass means differed significantly to each other (p0.05). These results suggest that Artglass was better than Solidex in terms of hardness and wear resistance after 1-day water immersion. However, it was more susceptible to degradation, showing greater wear after 55 days. In conclusion, there was an inverse correlation between surface hardness and wear resistance for both Artglass and Solidex indirect composites, that is the higher the hardness, the lower the wear.

  4. Effect of thermal fatigue on the wear resistance of graphite cast iron with bionic units processed by laser cladding WC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Zhengjun; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chuanwei; Meng, Chao; Cong, Dalong

    2013-04-01

    Thermal fatigue and wear exist simultaneously during the service life of brake discs. Previous researchers only studied thermal fatigue resistance or abrasion resistance of compact graphite cast iron (CGI), rather than combining them together. In this paper, wear resistance after thermal fatigue of CGI was investigated basing on the principle of bionics, which was close to actual service condition of the brake discs. In the meanwhile, the effect of thermal fatigue on wear resistance was also discussed. Non-smooth bionic units were fabricated by laser cladding WC powder with different proportions (50 wt.%, 60 wt.%, 70 wt.%). Microstructure and microhardness of the units were investigated, and wear mass losses of the samples were also compared. The results indicate that thermal fatigue has a negative effect on the wear resistance. After the same thermal fatigue cycles times, the wear resistance of laser cladding WC samples is superior to that of laser remelting ones and their wear resistance enhances with the increase of WC content.

  5. Microstructure and wear resistance of NiCrBSi laser clad layer on titanium alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, R.L.; Yang, D.Z.; Guo, L.X.; Dong, S.L. [Harbin Inst. of Technol. (China). Sch. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.

    2000-10-23

    Laser cladding of NiCrBSi powders on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate was performed, and microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of the clad layers were evaluated. Results show that the laser clad layer is divided into three regions: the clad, the dilution and the heat-affected zones. In the clad zone, fine particles of TiB{sub 2}, TiC and M{sub 23}(CB){sub 6} are distributed in the matrix of the primary {gamma}-Ni and the multi-phase eutectics consisting of {gamma}-Ni, Ni{sub 3}B and silicides. Microhardness of the clad zone is very high, being approximately HV 1000. The dilution zone is a mixture of melted Ni-base and Ti-base alloys, and possesses a characteristic of directional crystallization. The heat-affected zone has an acicular martensitic structure, and the microhardness is HV 360-380. Compared to titanium alloy, the wear resistance of clad layer is improved. The mechanism of wearing of clad layer is a mixed type of slight peeling-off and abrasion. (orig.)

  6. An in vitro investigation of wear resistance and hardness of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liqun; Zhao, Xinyi; Gong, Xu; Zhao, Shouliang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the wear resistance and hardness of five kinds of composite resins. Sixty-five specimens were fabricated with one nano-hybrid (Charisma Diamond), two micro-hybrid (3MZ250, Clearfil AP-X) and two packable (3MP60, Surefil) composite resins, according to a randomized complete block design (n=13, 8 for wear test; 5 for hardness test). The composites were filled in a rectangular mold, and light polymerization. After storage in 37°C deionized water for 24h, all specimens were tested with a custom-made toothbrush machine with a stainless-steel ball as antagonist (3N loads, 1Hz, 6×10(5) cycles) immersed in calcium fluoride slurry. Wear volume, hardness and surface structure of each tested material was examined by a three-dimensional non-contact optical profilometer, Vickers indentation technique and scanning electron microscope. The volume loss ranked from least to most as follows: Charisma Diamond, P60, Z250, Clearfil AP-X and Surefil. Regarding hardness, the rank from highest to lowest as follows: Clearfil AP-X, P60, Surefil, Z250, Charisma Diamond. The interactions between wear resistance and microhardness were not significant. The custom-made machine is considered suitable to simulate sliding of an antagonist cusp on an opposing occlusal composite restoration. Nanofilled composite may have superior wear compared to other composite resins.

  7. Hardness and Wear Resistance of TiC-Fe-Cr Locally Reinforcement Produced in Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase wear resistance cast steel casting the TiC-Fe-Cr type composite zones were fabricated. These zones were obtained by means of in situ synthesis of substrates of the reaction TiC with a moderator of a chemical composition of white cast iron with nickel of the Ni-Hard type 4. The synthesis was carried out directly in the mould cavity. The moderator was applied to control the reactive infiltration occurring during the TiC synthesis. The microstructure of composite zones was investigated by electron scanning microscopy, using the backscattered electron mode. The structure of composite zones was verified by the X-ray diffraction method. The hardness of composite zones, cast steel base alloy and the reference samples such as white chromium cast iron with 14 % Cr and 20 % Cr, manganese cast steel 18 % Mn was measured by Vickers test. The wear resistance of the composite zone and the reference samples examined by ball-on-disc wear test. Dimensionally stable composite zones were obtained containing submicron sizes TiC particles uniformly distributed in the matrix. The macro and microstructure of the composite zone ensured three times hardness increase in comparison to the cast steel base alloy and one and a half times increase in comparison to the white chromium cast iron 20 % Cr. Finally ball-on-disc wear rate of the composite zone was five times lower than chromium white cast iron containing 20 % Cr.

  8. Initial Assessment of Abrasive Wear Resistance of Austempered Cast Iron with Vermicular Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soiński M. S.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The work compares the abrasive wear resistance of cast iron containing vermicular graphite, measured in the as-cast state and after austempering carried out at 290°C, 340°C, or 390°C. Theexaminations were performed by means of the T-01M tribological tester using the pin-on-disc configuration. Specimens used for examinations were taken from the end tabs of the tensile specimens, these being cut out of the test walls of the double-leg keel block test castings. Examinations proved that the austempering process increases the abrasive wear resistance of vermicular cast iron by several times as compared with the as-cast material. A tendency for a slight decrease in abrasive wear with an increase in austempering temperature can be stated. The coefficient of friction took a little higher values for cast iron after thermal treatment than for the as-cast material. The work was completed with roughness examination by means of electron scanning microscopy.

  9. Wear Resistance and Mechanical Behaviour of Epoxy/Mollusk Shell Biocomposites developed for Structural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Oladele

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy resin is one of the strongest commercially exploitable thermosetting polymers in the polymer family; however its expensive nature in comparison with other thermosetting polymers such as vinylester and polyester limits its applications as a structural material. Inexpensive fillers on the other hand, especially those derived from agro-industrial wastes are very important in reducing the overall cost of polymer composites and furthermore influential in enhancing some of their engineering properties. In the present study, the wear resistance and mechanical behaviour of epoxy polymer matrix filled with <75 and 75 μm calcined particles of African land snail shells have been comparatively investigated. The wear resistance and the mechanical behaviour of the composites were studied via Taber Abraser and INSTRON universal testing machine. Also, the elemental constituents of the calcined snail shell and the epoxy biocomposites were characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy. From the experimental results, it was observed that, at the highest filler loading, smaller particle size presented a biocomposite with significant enhancement in wear and mechanical properties. However, it was also observed that increase in particle size showed no significant enhancement in the mechanical properties of the biocomposites.

  10. Recycled Aluminium Cans/Eggshell Composites: Evaluation of Mechanical and Wear Resistance Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Agunsoye

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium based metal matrix composites have been produced from recycled aluminium cans and 150µm sized eggshell particles using a stir cast process. The mechanical properties of the control and aluminium can/eggshell composites produced have been investigated. The microstructures of the aluminium can/eggshell composites were examined with the aids of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM after the sample surfaces have been carefully prepared and etched with aqueous solution of 0.5 cm3 nitric acid. Micrographs revealed that there was a homogenous distribution of eggshell particles within the aluminium can matrix. An indication of effective stirring action during the melting process. The wear resistance was also investigated under different applied loads (6 to 14 N on an abrasive surface emery paper of grade 220. The results revealed an increase in Young’s modulus of elasticity and yield stress from 1,206.45 and 50.23 Mpa respectively of the cast aluminium can with 0 % eggshell particle to the maximum of 3,258.87and 73.2 MPa of aluminium can/12 % eggshell composites. The hardness values increased from 66.23 to 75.13 VN. There was a gradual increase in wear rate of the tested samples as the applied load increased. However, the wear resistance of the aluminium can/6 % eggshell and aluminium can/12 % eggshell composites increased significantly. Hence, recycling of aluminium cans and eggshells can be harnessed into development of useful engineering metal matrix composite materials.

  11. Development of wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselkorn, M.H. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Improved fuel economy and a reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, insulating the combustion chamber components will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150{degree}C to over 300{degree}C. Existing ring/liner materials can not withstand these higher operating temperatures and for this reason, new materials need to be developed for this critical tribological interface. The overall goal of this program is the development of piston ring/cylinder liner material pairs which would be able to provide the required friction and wear properties at these more severe operating conditions. More specifically, this program first selected, and then evaluated, potential d/wear resistant coatings which could be applied to either piston rings an or cylinder liners and provide, at 350{degree}C under lubricated conditions, coefficients of friction below 0.1 and wear rates of less than 25 {times} lO{sup {minus}6} mm/hour. The processes selected for applying the candidate wear resistant coatings to piston rings and/or cylinder liners were plasma spraying, chemical vapor, physical vapor and low temperature arc vapor deposition techniques as well as enameling techniques.

  12. Abrasive Wear Resistance of the Iron- and WC-based Hardfaced Coatings Evaluated with Scratch Test Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vencl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abrasive wear is one of the most common types of wear, which makesabrasive wear resistance very important in many industries. Thehard facing is considered as useful and economical way to improve theperformance of components submitted to severe abrasive wear conditions, with wide range of applicable filler materials. The abrasive wear resistance of the three different hardfaced coatings (two iron‐based and one WC‐based, which were intended to be used for reparation of the impact plates of the ventilation mill, was investigated and compared. Abrasive wear tests were carried‐out by using the scratch tester under the dry conditions. Three normal loads of 10, 50 and 100 N and the constant sliding speed of 4 mm/s were used. Scratch test was chosen as a relatively easy and quick test method. Wear mechanism analysis showed significant influence of the hardfaced coatings structure, which, along with hardness, has determined coatings abrasive wear resistance.

  13. Study on quantitative relation between characteristics of striature bionic coupling unit and wear resistance of gray cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Wang, Chuanwei; Ren, Luquan

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, striature bionic coupling units of different characteristics were manufactured by laser surface remelting. Wear behavior of gray cast iron with striature bionic coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using a homemade linear reciprocating wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that there is a relationship between weight loss and the area of striature bionic coupling units and α: Δm = Δm0 - 0.0212S × cos α - 0.0241S × sin α.

  14. Comparison of Wear Resistance Between Innovative Composites and Nano- and Microfilled Composite Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asefi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the most common causes of failure in class 2 posterior composite restorations is occlusal and proximal wear. Estelite composites used supra-nano monodispersing spherical fillers and a new photoinitiator, and the manufacturer claimed that the wear of these composites is less than 1 mm3 volumetric wear. Objectives Compare the wear resistance of new Estelite composites with that of other composites generations. Materials and Methods Thirty-five specimens were evaluated in five groups: three kinds of Estelite composites (Estelite Sigma Quick, Estelite Flow Quick, and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow, Filtek Z350, and Filtek Z250. All specimens were prepared in 25 mm disks and cured with laboratory light for 120 seconds (60 s for each side. Then, they were polished by 600 grit sand paper and stored for one week in distilled water at room temperature. We used a two-body abrasion test and the pin-on-disk method with distilled water as medium. All specimens were worn under 15 N load, 0.05 m/seconds speed, 100 m distance, and steatite ceramic balls antagonists. After wearing, we measured wear volume by calculating the wear track cross-section area with a profilometer and analyzed the data with the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test. Results The wear amounts of the composites are as follows in order: Estelite sigma quick (1886.9 ± 518.5 μm2, Estelite flow quick (2708.9 ± 578.1 μm2, Estelite high flow (3206 ± 2445.1 μm2, Filtek Z350 (3840 ± 1963.4 μm2, and Filtek Z250 (4667.2 ± 2351.1 μm2. No statistical difference was found among the groups (P value > 0.05. Conclusions Estelite sigma quick composite had wear resistance similar to that of nano- and microfilled composites. Estelite flowable composites demonstrated similar wear resistance to that of a posterior composite.

  15. High Thermal Conductivity and High Wear Resistance Tool Steels for cost-effective Hot Stamping Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, I.; Hamasaiid, A.; Padré, A.

    2017-09-01

    In hot stamping/press hardening, in addition to its shaping function, the tool controls the cycle time, the quality of the stamped components through determining the cooling rate of the stamped blank, the production costs and the feasibility frontier for stamping a given component. During the stamping, heat is extracted from the stamped blank and transported through the tool to the cooling medium in the cooling lines. Hence, the tools’ thermal properties determine the cooling rate of the blank, the heat transport mechanism, stamping times and temperature distribution. The tool’s surface resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear is also an important cost factor, as it determines the tool durability and maintenance costs. Wear is influenced by many tool material parameters, such as the microstructure, composition, hardness level and distribution of strengthening phases, as well as the tool’s working temperature. A decade ago, Rovalma developed a hot work tool steel for hot stamping that features a thermal conductivity of more than double that of any conventional hot work tool steel. Since that time, many complimentary grades have been developed in order to provide tailored material solutions as a function of the production volume, degree of blank cooling and wear resistance requirements, tool geometries, tool manufacturing method, type and thickness of the blank material, etc. Recently, Rovalma has developed a new generation of high thermal conductivity, high wear resistance tool steel grades that enable the manufacture of cost effective tools for hot stamping to increase process productivity and reduce tool manufacturing costs and lead times. Both of these novel grades feature high wear resistance and high thermal conductivity to enhance tool durability and cut cycle times in the production process of hot stamped components. Furthermore, one of these new grades reduces tool manufacturing costs through low tool material cost and hardening through readily

  16. Selected Plastics Wear Resistance to Bonded Abrasive Particles Compared to Some Ferrous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Brožek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are macromolecular materials without we cannot imagine any branch of human activity with. Plastics have unique properties, often very different from metals. At the choice of the concrete plastic for the concrete application it is necessary to evaluate its mechanical, physical, chemical and technological properties. In last years producers offer also plastics for production of parts exposed to different types of wear. In the contribution the results of wear resistance studying of 10 types of plastics (PTFE, PVC, POM-C, PC, PETP, PEEK, PA66, PP, PA6E and PE-UHMW of one producer are published and compared with test results of four different Fe alloys (grey iron, structural steel, cast steel wear resistant and high-speed steel. The laboratory tests were carried out using the pin-on-disk machine with abrasive cloth (according to ČSN 01 5084, when the abrasive clothes of three different grits (240, 120 and 60 were used. It corresponds to the average abrasive grain sizes of 44.5 µm, 115.5 µm and 275 µm. During the test the test sample was pressed to the abrasive cloth by the pressure of 0.1 MPa. The wear intensity was assessed by the volume, weight and length losses of tested samples. The technical-economical evaluation was the part of the carried out tests. It was univocally proved that at the intensive abrasive wear using the abrasive cloth the best results shows the High-Speed Steel HSS Poldi Radeco 19 810 according to ČSN 41 9810, although its price is relatively high. Other tested Fe alloys, namely grey iron according to ČSN 42 2415, structural steel 11 373 according to ČSN 41 1373 and wear resistant cast steel VPH 6 showed also very favourable properties at the material low price. In comparison with Fe alloys the wear of all plastics was considerably higher and the plastics were considerably more expensive.

  17. Wear Resistance of Steels with Surface Nanocrystalline Structure Generated by Mechanical-Pulse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykyforchyn, Hryhoriy; Kyryliv, Volodymyr; Maksymiv, Olha

    2017-02-01

    The influence of the surface mechanical-pulse treatment based on high-speed friction with a rapid cooling by the technological environment on the wear resistance of medium- and high-carbon steels was considered. The treatment due to a severe plastic deformation enabled obtaining the nanocrystalline structure with a grain size of 14-40 nm. A high positive effect of this treatment was obtained not only because of metal nanocrystallization but also thanks to other factors, namely, structural-phase transformations, carbon saturation of the surface due to decomposition of the coolant and the friction coefficient decrease. Higher carbon content leads to better strengthening of the surface, and its microhardness can reach 12 GPa.

  18. Wear resistance analysis of the aluminum 7075 alloy and the nanostructured aluminum 7075 - silver nanoparticles composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada-Ruiz R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured composites of the aluminum 7075 alloy and carbon-coated silver nanoparticles were synthetized by the mechanical milling technique using a high-energy mill SPEX 8000M; the powders generated were compacted, sintered and hot-extruded to produce 1 cm-diameter bars. The composites were then subjected to a wear test using a pin-on-disc device to validate the hypothesis that second phase-ductile nanometric particles homogenously distributed throughout the metalmatrix improve the wear resistance of the material. It was found that silver nanoparticles prevent the wear of the material by acting as an obstacle to dislocations movement during the plastic deformation of the contact surface, as well as a solid lubricant when these are separated from the metal-matrix.

  19. Wear resistant PTFE thin film enabled by a polydopamine adhesive layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckford, Samuel [Microelectronics-Photonics Graduate Program, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Zou, Min, E-mail: mzou@uark.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Arkansas, 863 West Dickson Street, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The influence of a polydopamine (PDA) adhesive layer on the friction and wear resistance of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin films coated on stainless steel was investigated. The friction and wear tests were carried out using a ball on flat configuration under a normal load of 50 g, sliding speed of 2.5 mm/s, and stroke length of 15 mm. It is found that the PDA/PTFE film is able to withstand approximately 500 times more rubbing cycles than the PTFE film alone. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that a tenacious layer of PTFE remains adhered to the PDA layer, which enables the durability of the PDA/PTFE film. Because of the relatively low thickness of the film, PDA/PTFE shows great potential for use in applications where durable, thin films are desirable.

  20. Wear Resistance of Steel 20MnCr5 After Surfacing with Micro-jet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasiuk W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of experimental research concerning the impact of an innovative method of micro-jet cooling on the padding weld performed with MIG welding. Micro-jet cooling is a novel method patented in 2011. It enables to steer the parameters of weld cooling in a precise manner. In addition, various elements which may e.g. enhance hardness or alter tribological properties can be entered into its top surface, depending on the applied cooling gas. The material under study was steel 20MnCr5, which was subject to the welding process with micro-jet cooling and without cooling. Nitrogen was used as a cooling gas. The main parameter of weld assessment was wear intensity. The tests were conducted in a tribological pin-on-disc type position. The following results exhibit growth at approximately 5% in wear resistance of padding welds with micro-jet cooling.

  1. Friction and wear resistance of the electroless Ni-P-CNTs composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G.; Zhang, H.; Wang, Z.

    2007-07-01

    Ni-P-Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite coatings as well as Ni-P-SiC and Ni-P coatings were prepared by electroless plating. The characteristics of the coatings were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and microhardness test. The friction and wear performance of the produced composite coatings were investigated at room temperature on a ball-on-disc type tribometer under non-lubricated conditions. The results show that the Ni-P-CNTs composite coatings exhibited lowed friction coefficient and better anti-wear performance compared to Ni-P-SiC and Ni-P coatings due to improved mechanical properties, self-lubrication and unique microstructure of the Ni-P-CNTs composite coatings. The effect of CNTs on the friction and wear resistance was discussed in detail.

  2. High Strength and Wear Resistant Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.; Chen, Po Shou

    2003-01-01

    Originally developed by NASA as high performance piston alloys to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low exhaust emission, the novel NASA alloys now offer dramatic increase in tensile strength for many other applications at elevated temperatures from 450 F (232 C) to about 750 F (400 C). It is an ideal low cost material for cast automotive components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. It can be very economically produced from conventional permanent mold, sand casting or investment casting, with silicon content ranging from 6% to 18%. At high silicon levels, the alloy exhibits excellent thermal growth stability, surface hardness and wear resistant properties.

  3. Mechanical Properties and Sliding-impact Wear Resistance of Self-adhesive Resin Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, T; Takamizawa, T; Tsujimoto, A; Miyazaki, M; Barkmeier, W W; Latta, M A

    2016-01-01

    The present study determined the mechanical properties and impact-sliding wear characteristics of self-adhesive resin cements. Five self-adhesive resin cements were used: G-CEM LinkAce, BeautiCem SA, Maxcem Elite, Clearfil SA Automix, and RelyX Unicem 2. Clearfil Esthetic Cement was employed as a control material. Six specimens for each resin cement were used to determine flexural strength, elastic modulus, and resilience according to ISO specification #4049. Ten specimens for each resin cement were used to determine the wear characteristics using an impact-sliding wear testing apparatus. Wear was generated using a stainless-steel ball bearing mounted inside a collet assembly. The maximum facet depth and volume loss were determined using a noncontact profilometer in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Data were evaluated using analysis of variance followed by the Tukey honestly significantly different test (α=0.05). The flexural strength of the resin cements ranged from 68.4 to 144.2 MPa; the elastic modulus ranged from 4.4 to 10.6 GPa; and the resilience ranged from 4.5 to 12.0 MJ/m(3). The results for the maximum facet depth ranged from 25.2 to 235.9 μm, and volume loss ranged from 0.0107 to 0.5258 mm(3). The flexural properties and wear resistance were found to vary depending upon the self-adhesive resin cement tested. The self-adhesive cements tended to have lower mechanical properties than the conventional resin cement. All self-adhesive resin cements, apart from G-CEM LinkAce, demonstrated significantly poorer wear resistance than did the conventional resin cement.

  4. Study on Composition, Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Fe-B-C Wear-Resistant Surfacing Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Minghui; Li, Muqin; Wang, Jun; Ma, Zhen; Yuan, Shidan

    2017-11-01

    Fe-B-C alloy layers with various microstructures were welded on Q235 steel plates using welding powders/H08Mn2Si and welding wires composite surfacing technology. The relationship existing between the chemical composition, microstructure and wear resistance of the surfacing alloy layers was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction and wear tests. The results demonstrated that the volume fractions and morphologies of the microstructures in the surfacing alloy layers could be controlled by adjusting the boron and carbon contents in the welding powders, which could further regulate the wear resistance of the surfacing alloy layers. The typical microstructures of the Fe-B-C surfacing alloy layers included dendritic Fe, rod-like Fe2B, fishbone-like Fe2B and daisy-like Fe3(C, B). The wear resistance of the alloy layers with various morphologies differed. The wear resistance order of the different microstructures was: rod-like Fe2B > fishbone-like Fe2B > daisy-like Fe3(C, B) > dendritic Fe. A large number of rod-like Fe2B with high microhardness could be obtained at the boron content of 5.70 5.90 wt.% and the carbon content of 0.50 0.60wt.%. The highest wear resistance of the Fe-B-C alloy layers reached the value of 24.1 g-1, which demonstrates the main microscopic cutting wear mechanism of the Fe-B-C alloy layers.

  5. Wear resistance of a modified polymethyl methacrylate artificial tooth compared to five commercially available artificial tooth materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamonwanon, Pranithida; Yodmongkol, Sirasa; Chantarachindawong, Rojcharin; Thaweeboon, Sroisiri; Thaweeboon, Boonyanit; Srikhirin, Toemsak

    2015-08-01

    Wear resistance is a limitation of artificial denture teeth. Improving the wear resistance of conventional artificial denture teeth is of value to prosthodontic patients. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the wear resistance and hardness of modified polymethyl methacrylate artificial denture teeth compared to 5 commercially available artificial tooth materials. This study evaluated 180 artificial denture teeth (6 groups) that included 3 groups of conventional artificial teeth (MajorDent, Cosmo HXL, and Gnathostar), 2 groups of composite resin artificial teeth (Endura and SR Orthosit PE), and 1 group of modified surface artificial teeth. The flattened buccal surface of each tooth (n=15) was prepared for investigation with the Vickers hardness test and the elucidate wear test (n=15) by using a brushing machine. Each group was loaded for 18,000 cycles, at 2 N, and 150 rpm. The wear value was identified with a profilometer. The data were statistically analyzed by using 1-way ANOVA and post hoc Turkey honestly significant difference tests (α=.001). The tribologies were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and the cytotoxicities were evaluated by MTT assay. The Vickers hardnesses ranged from 28.48 to 39.36. The wear depths and worn surface area values ranged from 1.12 to 10.79 μm and from 6.74 to 161.95 μm(2). The data revealed that the modified artificial denture teeth were significantly harder and exhibited significantly higher wear resistance than did the conventional artificial teeth (Pmaterial. Within the limitations of this study, the polymethyl methacrylate modified surface artificial denture teeth was not significantly different from that of the composite resin artificial denture teeth, with the exceptions that the surface was harder and more wear resistant. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the wear resistance of new nanocomposite resin restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil, Zeynep Duymus; Alapati, Satish; Johnston, William; Seghi, Robert R

    2008-06-01

    The use of composite resins for the restoration of posterior teeth is popular because of the improved performance and appearance of these materials. Wear resistance continues to be of particular importance when restoring large occlusal areas in posterior teeth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative wear characteristics of 2 recently introduced nanofiller-based composite resins (Filtek Supreme, Premise) and compare them to the more traditional microhybrid (Point 4) and microfill (Heliomolar RO) materials that have been used for many years. Six specimens (2 mm thick and 15 mm in diameter) of each material were subjected to 3-body wear tests using the Oregon Health Sciences University Oral Wear Simulator to produce abrasive wear and attrition for all specimens using human enamel as the opposing cusp. Profilometric tracings of the worn surfaces were used to determine the relative abrasive wear, attrition wear, and roughness (Ra) of the composite resin substrate. The mean diameter of the antagonist enamel wear facets was determined under a measuring microscope. Qualitative SEM analysis was also used to assess the surface appearance of the resulting enamel and composite resin wear facets. The data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple range post hoc test (alpha=.05). The results indicated that the composite resin type did not significantly affect the amount of measured attrition (P=.15) but did significantly affect abrasive wear (P=.02). The conventional microfill composite resin (Heliomolar RO) exhibited significantly less abrasive wear than the nanohybrid material (Premise). There was no significant difference in the average size of the opposing enamel wear facet generated by the different composite resin materials. Heliomolar RO resulted in a significantly rougher surface within the wear track than either nanohybrid composite resin (Premise) or microhybrid composite resin (Point 4) but was not significantly different than nanofilled

  7. Effect of second phase morphology on wear resistance of Fe-TiC composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rajabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the second phase morphology (TiC on wear behavior in Fe-TiC composites. Fe-TiC composites were successfully produced by an in-situ melting method under an inert argon gas in which raw materials, namely cast iron (Fe-3.5wt%C and 10wt%ferrotitanium (Fe-72wt%Ti were used. The obtained melting was centrifugally casted in mold ceramic to produce the samples required. XRD instrument was also used to identify the acquired phases. The size of TiC and hardness of composites were examined by an image analyser and Vickers hardness respectively. Morphological investigation of the microstructure was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Weight lost was measured under the condition of using a pin-on-wheel configuration with normal load 20N, sliding distance up to 2000m and speed 0.8m/s. The results indicated the wear resistance in re-melt composites improved due to TiC good uniform distribution with its regular form.

  8. Study on wear resistant cast B-containing 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Jiacai

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The developed 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel containing 1.63 wt.%B have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA, optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and Vickers microhardness measurement. The microstructural evolution and property of high boron stainless steel after solution treatment at the temperature of 1050℃ are also investigated. The results show that the main compositions of borides are Fe, Cr and B, and with small amount of Ni, Mn and C elements. Silicon is insoluble in the borides. The hardness of borides is over 1,500 HV. It has been found that borides do not decompose during solution treatment, but part of borides dissolves into the matrix. The effect of increasing the solubility of boron element in the austenitic matrix favours the hardness enhancement by 8.54%. High boron stainless steel has excellent wear resistance in corrosive environment. Lifetime of transfer pipe made of high boron-containing stainless steel is 1.5-1.8 times longer than that of boron-free 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel.

  9. Cerium Addition Improved the Dry Sliding Wear Resistance of Surface Welding AZ91 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqiang Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of cerium (Ce addition on the friction and wear properties of surface welding AZ91 magnesium alloys were evaluated by pin-on-disk dry sliding friction and wear tests at normal temperature. The results show that both the friction coefficient and wear rate of surfacing magnesium alloys decreased with the decrease in load and increase in sliding speed. The surfacing AZ91 alloy with 1.5% Ce had the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate. The alloy without Ce had the worst wear resistance, mainly because it contained a lot of irregularly shaped and coarse β-Mg17Al12 phases. During friction, the β phase readily caused stress concentration and thus formed cracks at the interface between β phase and α-Mg matrix. The addition of Ce reduced the size and amount of Mg17Al12, while generating Al4Ce phase with a higher thermal stability. The Al-Ce phase could hinder the grain-boundary sliding and migration and reduced the degree of plastic deformation of subsurface metal. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the surfacing AZ91 alloy with 1.5% Ce had a total of four types of wear mechanism: abrasion, oxidation, and severe plastic deformation were the primary mechanisms; delamination was the secondary mechanism.

  10. Cerium Addition Improved the Dry Sliding Wear Resistance of Surface Welding AZ91 Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingqiang; Zhao, Zhihao; Zhu, Qingfeng; Wang, Gaosong; Tao, Kai

    2018-02-06

    In this study, the effects of cerium (Ce) addition on the friction and wear properties of surface welding AZ91 magnesium alloys were evaluated by pin-on-disk dry sliding friction and wear tests at normal temperature. The results show that both the friction coefficient and wear rate of surfacing magnesium alloys decreased with the decrease in load and increase in sliding speed. The surfacing AZ91 alloy with 1.5% Ce had the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate. The alloy without Ce had the worst wear resistance, mainly because it contained a lot of irregularly shaped and coarse β-Mg 17 Al 12 phases. During friction, the β phase readily caused stress concentration and thus formed cracks at the interface between β phase and α-Mg matrix. The addition of Ce reduced the size and amount of Mg 17 Al 12 , while generating Al₄Ce phase with a higher thermal stability. The Al-Ce phase could hinder the grain-boundary sliding and migration and reduced the degree of plastic deformation of subsurface metal. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the surfacing AZ91 alloy with 1.5% Ce had a total of four types of wear mechanism: abrasion, oxidation, and severe plastic deformation were the primary mechanisms; delamination was the secondary mechanism.

  11. Nanostructured wear resistant coating for reversible cultivator shovels: An experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, V., E-mail: vdaditya1000@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering,College of Technology and Engineerin, MPUAT Udaipur, 313001,India (India); Rao, G. P., E-mail: ragrao38@gmail.com; Tiwari, G. S., E-mail: tiwarigsin@yahoo.com [Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, MPUAT Udaipur, 313001,India (India); Sanger, A., E-mail: amitsangeriitr@gmail.com; Kumar, A., E-mail: 01ashraj@gmail.com; Chandra, R., E-mail: ramesfic@gmail.com [Institute Instrumentation Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2016-04-13

    Cultivator, one of the agriculture farm tool, extensively suffers from the wear problem. In this paper, we report nanostructured chromium nitrite (CrN) coating for the cultivator shovels to mitigate wear problem. The (CrN) coating was developed using DC magnetron sputtering technique at 200 °C. The structural, morphological, hydrophobic and wear properties were investigated using X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, contact angle goniometer and custom designed soil bin assembly. The XRD reveals that the deposited coating was polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure. Also, The deposited coating was found to be anti wear resistant as well as hydrophobic in nature. The gravimetric wear for the coating developed at 200 °C coated was found out to be 8.15 gm and for non coated it was 14.48 gm tested for 100 hrs. The roughness of the coating plays an important role in determining the hydrophobicity of the coated film. Roughness and contact angle measured for 200 °C coated shovel was found out to be 11.17 nm and 105 ° respectively.

  12. Effects of Rare Earth Metal Addition on Wear Resistance of Chromium-Molybdenum Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinska J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses changes in the microstructure and abrasive wear resistance of G17CrMo5-5 cast steel modified with rare earth metals (REM. The changes were assessed using scanning microscopy. The wear response was determined in the Miller test to ASTM G75. Abrasion tests were supplemented with the surface profile measurements of non-modified and modified cast steel using a Talysurf CCI optical profilometer. It was demonstrated that the modification substantially affected the microstructure of the alloy, leading to grain size reduction and changed morphology of non-metallic inclusions. The observed changes in the microstructure resulted in a three times higher impact strength (from 33 to 99 kJ/cm2 and more than two times higher resistance to cracking (from 116 to 250 MPa. The following surface parameters were computed: Sa: Arithmetic mean deviation of the surface, Sq: Root-mean-square deviation of the surface, Sp: Maximum height of the peak Sv: Maximum depth of the valley, Sz: Ten Point Average, Ssk: Asymmetry of the surface, Sku: Kurtosis of the surface. The findings also indicated that the addition of rare earth metals had a positive effect on the abrasion behaviour of G17CrMo5-5 cast steel.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cell interaction with ultra-smooth nanostructured diamond for wear-resistant orthopaedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, William C; Chowdhury, Shafiul; Catledge, Shane A; Weimer, Jeffrey J; Shaikh, Faheem M; Hennessy, Kristin M; Konovalov, Valery V; Hill, Michael R; Waterfeld, Alfred; Bellis, Susan L; Vohra, Yogesh K

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-smooth nanostructured diamond (USND) can be applied to greatly increase the wear resistance of orthopaedic implants over conventional designs. Herein we describe surface modification techniques and cytocompatibility studies performed on this new material. We report that hydrogen (H)-terminated USND surfaces supported robust mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adhesion and survival, while oxygen- (O) and fluorine (F)-terminated surfaces resisted cell adhesion, indicating that USND can be modified to either promote or prevent cell/biomaterial interactions. Given the favorable cell response to H-terminated USND, this material was further compared with two commonly used biocompatible metals, titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) and cobalt chrome (CoCrMo). MSC adhesion and proliferation were significantly improved on USND compared with CoCrMo, although cell adhesion was greatest on Ti-6Al-4V. Comparable amounts of the pro-adhesive protein, fibronectin, were deposited from serum on the three substrates. Finally, MSCs were induced to undergo osteoblastic differentiation on the three materials, and deposition of a mineralized matrix was quantified. Similar amounts of mineral were deposited onto USND and CoCrMo, whereas mineral deposition was slightly higher on Ti-6Al-4V. When coupled with recently published wear studies, these in vitro results suggest that USND has the potential to reduce debris particle release from orthopaedic implants without compromising osseointegration.

  14. Mesenchymal stem cell interaction with ultra smooth nanostructured diamond for wear resistant orthopaedic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, William C.; Chowdhury, Shafiul; Catledge, Shane A.; Weimer, Jeffrey J.; Shaikh, Faheem M.; Hennessy, Kristin M.; Konovalov, Valery V.; Hill, Michael R.; Waterfeld, Alfred; Bellis, Susan L.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2008-01-01

    Ultra smooth nanostructured diamond (USND) can be applied to greatly increase the wear resistance of orthopaedic implants over conventional designs. Herein we describe surface modification techniques and cytocompatibility studies performed on this new material. We report that hydrogen (H) -terminated USND surfaces supported robust mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adhesion and survival, while oxygen (O) and fluorine (F) -terminated surfaces resisted cell adhesion, indicating that USND can be modified to either promote or prevent cell/biomaterial interactions. Given the favorable cell response to H-terminated USND, this material was further compared with two commonly-used biocompatible metals, titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) and cobalt chrome (CoCrMo). MSC adhesion and proliferation were significantly improved on USND compared with CoCrMo, although cell adhesion was greatest on Ti-6Al-4V. Comparable amounts of the proadhesive protein, fibronectin, were deposited from serum on the three substrates. Finally, MSCs were induced to undergo osteoblastic differentiation on the three materials, and deposition of a mineralized matrix was quantified. Similar amounts of mineral were deposited onto USND and CoCrMo, whereas mineral deposition was slightly higher on Ti-6Al-4V. When coupled with recently published wear studies, these in vitro results suggest that USND has the potential to reduce debris particle release from orthopaedic implants without compromising osseointegration. PMID:18490051

  15. Investigation of Parent Austenite Grains from Martensite Structure Using EBSD in a Wear Resistant Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyhlesten Back, Jessica; Engberg, Göran

    2017-04-26

    Crystallographic reconstruction of parent austenite grain boundaries from the martensitic microstructure in a wear resistant steel was carried out using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The present study mainly aims to investigate the parent austenite grains from the martensitic structure in an as-rolled (reference) steel sample and samples obtained by quenching at different cooling rates with corresponding dilatometry. Subsequently, this study is to correlate the nearest cooling rate by the dilatometer which yields a similar orientation relationship and substructure as the reference sample. The Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationship was used to reconstruct the parent austenite grain boundaries from the martensite boundaries in both reference and dilatometric samples using EBSD crystallographic data. The parent austenite grain boundaries were successfully evaluated from the EBSD data and the corresponding grain sizes were measured. The parent austenite grain boundaries of the reference sample match the sample quenched at 100 °C/s (CR100). Also the martensite substructures and crystallographic textures are similar in these two samples. The results from hardness measurements show that the reference sample exhibits higher hardness than the CR100 sample due to the presence of carbides in the reference sample.

  16. Tribaloy intermetallic alloy compositions: new materials or additives for wear resistant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.B.; Hoffman, R.A.; Poskitt, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Properties and uses of TRIBALOY alloys in powder metallurgy fabrication are discussed. Powders of TRIBALOY can be blended with essentially any powder processed by powder metallurgy. Green strength of the blended powder parts is reduced as the amount of TRIBALOY is increased. The concentration of TRIBALOY, however, is usually 15 to 20 volume percent, a compromise between green strength and effectiveness as a wear resistant part. Blended powders are sintered at the temperature normally used for the base metal with special consideration given to a low dew point in the atmosphere. The sintered parts can be coined, carburized, machined, or impregnated in any of the well-known ways. TRIBALOY as a powder blending agent has extended the useful life of P/M parts by factors of 5 and more. A variety of industries are presently using P/M parts at higher temperatures, heavier loads, in poorer or non-lubricated conditions or at higher speeds because of the addition of TRIBALOY. More important, however, is that TRIBALOY can be incorporated in parts to be made by powder metallurgy which until now had not been feasible. The overall effect has been considerable savings for the customer by switching to the powder metal method of manufacturing and increased activity for the fabricator.

  17. The Use of Nitriding to Enhance Wear Resistance of Cast Irons and 4140 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zaidao

    This research is focused on using nitriding to enhance the wear resistance of austempered ductile iron (ADI), ductile iron (DI), and gray iron (GI), and 4140 steel. Three gas nitriding processes, namely "Gas nitriding + nitrogen cooled down to 800°F (Blue)", "Gas nitriding + cooled down to 300°F (Gray)", and "Gas nitriding + oil quenched (Oil)" were used for the cast irons. Three salt bath nitriding processes, namely Isonite, QP (Quench, Polish) and QPQ (Quench, Polish, Quench) were used for the 4140 steel. This study was carried out through optical metallography, roughness measurements, microhardness, and SEM. The ball-on-disc wear tests were conducted under lubricated conditions. It was found that COF for all materials in all nitrided conditions was small (Gray and Oil gas nitriding processes. For the 4140 steel, The surface microhardness of the ISONITE specimen was around 1400HV. QP and QPQ processes produce a surface microhardness of 2000-2200HV, which suggests that they may show improved wear behaviour compared to ISONITE- treated steels.

  18. Wear resistance of alloy вт-22 with non-ferrous alloys at reverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.М. Хімко

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available  The article presents the results of tests of non hardened titanium alloy ВТ-22 with aviation non-ferrous alloys in reverse sliding friction. The main objective of the work is the selection of the optimum combination of materials depending on changes in loading conditions. Study of alloy ВТ-22 wear resistance was carried out in pairs with БрОФ-10-1, БрБ2, БрАЖ-9-4, ВТ-22, МЛ5, Д16Т, 7Х21ГАН5Ш and 95Х18Ш. The dependencies of the materials wear at pressures 10, 20 and 30 Mpa we determined. The linear nature of titanium alloy wear curves indicates that the change in the wear mechanism occurs gradually. The histograms of non-ferrous materials wear and the total wear of the friction pair are presented. It is established that the bronze БрАЖ-9-4 is the most preferable material for contact with non hardened titanium alloy ВТ-22, the least wear among the tested materials. The established coefficients of the titanium alloy ВТ-22 friction in pair with aviation structural non-ferrous alloys are presented. The results of research will be relevant for the engineering industry, where non hardened titanium alloy ВТ-22 in pair with non-ferrous alloys is applied.

  19. A nanometric cushion for enhancing scratch and wear resistance of hard films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Gotlib-Vainshtein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Scratch resistance and friction are core properties which define the tribological characteristics of materials. Attempts to optimize these quantities at solid surfaces are the subject of intense technological interest. The capability to modulate these surface properties while preserving both the bulk properties of the materials and a well-defined, constant chemical composition of the surface is particularly attractive. We report herein the use of a soft, flexible underlayer to control the scratch resistance of oxide surfaces. Titania films of several nm thickness are coated onto substrates of silicon, kapton, polycarbonate, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. The scratch resistance measured by scanning force microscopy is found to be substrate dependent, diminishing in the order PDMS, kapton/polycarbonate, Si/SiO2. Furthermore, when PDMS is applied as an intermediate layer between a harder substrate and titania, marked improvement in the scratch resistance is achieved. This is shown by quantitative wear tests for silicon or kapton, by coating these substrates with PDMS which is subsequently capped by a titania layer, resulting in enhanced scratch/wear resistance. The physical basis of this effect is explored by means of Finite Element Analysis, and we suggest a model for friction reduction based on the "cushioning effect” of a soft intermediate layer.

  20. Laser clad NiCrBSi alloy wear-resistance coating with RE addition on heavy duty spur gear flank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, N.; Tao, L.; Guo, H.; Zhang, M. Q.

    2017-10-01

    In this research the wear-resistance composite coating successfully produced on heavy duty gear work surface by laser was reported. The coating containing 99 wt.% NiCrBSi alloy and 1 wt.% RE (rare earth element) oxidation powder. The RE addition coupled with laser operating parameters optimization caused elimination of both cracks and pores meanwhile further enhanced comprehensive properties of the laser layer. The coating microhardness, microstructure, phase construction and wear behaviors were tested by hardness tester, SEM equipped with EDS, XRD and tribometer, respectively. The results reflected the fact that the RE addition enhanced the coating ability of wear resistance and laser clad layer properly bonded with the gear flank. The wear volume loss rate of coating was half of that of the gear flank metal the COF curve of coating kept bellow that of the gear flank steel.

  1. Improvements in Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Fe-Based Amorphous Coating by Laser-Remelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chaoping; Chen, Hong; Wang, Gui; Chen, Yongnan; Xing, Yazhe; Zhang, Chunhua; Dargusch, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Amorphous coating technology is an attractive way of taking advantage of the superior properties of amorphous alloys for structural applications. However, the limited bonds between splats within the plasma-sprayed coatings result in a typically lamellar and porous coating structure. To overcome these limitations, the as-sprayed coating was treated by a laser-remelting process. The microstructure and phase composition of two coatings were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The wear resistance of the plasma-sprayed coating and laser-remelted coating was studied comparatively using a pin-on-disc wear test under dry friction conditions. It was revealed that the laser-remelted coating exhibited better wear resistance because of its defect-free and amorphous-nanocrystalline composited structure.

  2. Hardness, elastic modulus, and wear resistance of hafnium oxide-based films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdova, Maria; Liu, Xuwen; Franssila, Sami, E-mail: sami.franssila@aalto.fi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Wiemer, Claudia; Lamperti, Alessio; Tallarida, Grazia; Cianci, Elena [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Fanciulli, Marco [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB), Italy and Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università degli studi di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    The investigation of mechanical properties of atomic layer deposition HfO{sub 2} films is important for implementing these layers in microdevices. The mechanical properties of films change as a function of composition and structure, which accordingly vary with deposition temperature and post-annealing. This work describes elastic modulus, hardness, and wear resistance of as-grown and annealed HfO{sub 2}. From nanoindentation measurements, the elastic modulus and hardness remained relatively stable in the range of 163–165 GPa and 8.3–9.7 GPa as a function of deposition temperature. The annealing of HfO{sub 2} caused significant increase in hardness up to 14.4 GPa due to film crystallization and densification. The structural change also caused increase in the elastic modulus up to 197 GPa. Wear resistance did not change as a function of deposition temperature, but improved upon annealing.

  3. Mechanical And Microstructural Evaluation Of A Wear Resistant Steel; Avaliacao mecanica e microestrutural de um aco resistente ao desgaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, F.L.F. dos; Vieira, A.G.; Correa, E.C.S.; Pinheiro, I.P., E-mail: falletti@hotmail.co [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, the analysis of the mechanical properties and the microstructural features of a high strength low alloy steel, containing chromium, molybdenum and boron, subjected to different heat treatments, was conducted. After austenitizing at 910 deg C for 10 minutes, three operations were carried out: oil quenching, oil quenching followed by tempering at 200 deg C for 120 minutes and austempering at 400 deg C for 5 minutes followed by water cooling. The analysis was performed through tensile and hardness tests, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The bainitic structure led to high strength and toughness, both essential mechanical properties for wear resistant steels. The occurrence of allotriomorphic ferrite and retained austenite in the samples also increased the wear resistance. This phenomenon is related to the fact that both structures are able to be deformed and, in the case of the retained austenite, the transformation induced plasticity TRIP effect may take place as the material is used. (author)

  4. Wear Resistance Analysis of A359/SiC/20p Advanced Composite Joints Welded by Friction Stir Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cuevas Mata

    Full Text Available Abstract Advancement in automotive part development demands new cost-effective materials with higher mechanical properties and improved wear resistance as compared to existing materials. For instance, Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMC shows improved mechanical properties as wear and abrasion resistance, high strength, chemical and dimensional stability. Automotive industry has focused in AMC for a variety of applications in automotive parts in order to improve the fuel economy, minimize vehicle emissions, improve design options, and increase the performance. Wear resistance is one of the most important factors in useful life of the automotive components, overall in those components submitted to mechanical systems like automotive brakes and suspensions. Friction Stir Welding (FSW rises as the most capable process to joining AMC, principally for the capacity to weld without compromising their ceramic reinforcement. The aim of this study is focused on the analysis of wear characteristics of the friction-stir welded joint of aluminum matrix reinforced with 20 percent in weight silicon carbide composite (A359/SiC/20p. The experimental procedure consisted in cut samples into small plates and perform three welds on these with a FSW machine using a tool with 20 mm shoulder diameter and 8 mm pin diameter. The wear features of the three welded joints and parent metal were analyzed at constant load applying 5 N and a rotational speed of 100 rpm employing a Pin-on - Disk wear testing apparatus, using a sapphire steel ball with 6 mm diameter. The experimental results indicate that the three welded joints had low friction coefficient compared with the parent metal. The results determine that the FSW process parameters affect the wear resistance of the welded joints owing to different microstructural modifications during welding that causes a low wear resistance on the welded zone.

  5. Wear Resistance Limited by Step Edge Failure: The Rise and Fall of Graphene as an Atomically Thin Lubricating Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yizhou; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji; Dong, Yalin; Li, Qunyang

    2017-01-11

    Owing to its intrinsically lubricious property, graphene has a high potential to be an atomically thin solid lubricant for sliding interfaces. Despite its ultrahigh breaking strength at the nanoscale, graphene often fails to maintain its integrity when subjected to macroscale tribological tests. To reveal the true wear characteristics of graphene, a nanoscale diamond tip was used to scratch monolayer graphene mechanically exfoliated to SiO2 substrates. Our experimental results show that while graphene exhibited extraordinary wear resistance in the interior region, it could be easily damaged at the step edge under a much lower normal load (∼2 orders of magnitude smaller). Similar behavior with substantially reduced wear resistance at the edge was also observed for monatomic graphene layer on graphite surface. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we attributed this markedly weak wear resistance at the step edge to two primary mechanisms, i.e., atom-by-atom adhesive wear and peel induced rupture. Our findings shed light on the paradox that graphene is nanoscopically strong yet macroscopically weak. As step edge is ubiquitous for two-dimensional materials at the macroscale, our study also provides a guiding direction for maximizing the mechanical and tribological performance of these atomically thin materials.

  6. Effect of molybdenum on wear resistance of Cr-Nb hard-faced S355JR steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thongchitrugsa, Nut; Chianpairot, Amnuaysak; Hartung, Fritz; Lothongkum, Gobboon [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    2014-03-01

    The effect of Mo on the abrasive wear resistance of (20-23)Cr-(7-8)Nb hard-faced S355JR steel by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) was studied. Four types of flux, consisting of fixed Cr and Nb but varying Mo contents, coated on hard-facing electrode were used. Microstructure, micro hardness, and abrasive wear resistance of the hard-faced surface were investigated by ASTM G65 D procedure. The original microstructures consist of the primary coarse and eutectic carbides. Mo affects morphology of carbides by decreasing primary carbide size. When Mo content in the hard-faced surface was up to 6.43 wt.-%, the highest abrasive wear resistance and micro hardness were obtained. The decrease of primary carbide size is attributed to the increased nucleation induced by Mo addition. Network structure was observed when the Mo content reaches 10.19 wt.-%. The main mechanisms of wear are micro-cutting and carbide pulling out. (orig.)

  7. Effect of post weld heat treatment on wear resistance of hot forging cast steel die coated with surfacing layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wujiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wear resistance capability of die surfacing layer under different Post Weld Heat Treatments (PWHT was analysed by Finite Element Method (FEM simulation and experiments. Taking the hot forging process of crankshaft as example, a wear model of hot forging die coated with surfacing layer was established by the software DEFORM-3D. The simulation results indicate that the wear resistance capability of the die surfacing layer is optimal when tempering temperature and holding time are 550 ∘C and 4h respectively. To verify the wear calculation result, 16 groups of different PWHT orthogonal wear tests were performed under atmospheric condition at 400 ∘C. The wear test result shows a good agreement with the FEM simulation result. SEM observation of the wear debris shows that oxidative wear plays a dominant role in 400 ∘C among 16 specimens. Furthermore, when tempering temperature and holding time are 550 ∘C and 4h respectively, the alloy carbide dispersively distributes in the metallographic structure, which can improve the wear resistance of the surfacing.

  8. Effect of post-welding heat treatment on wear resistance of cast-steel die with surfacing layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wujiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wear resistance capability of die surfacing layer under different Post-Welding Heat Treatments (PWHT was analysed by Finite Element (FE simulation and experiments. Taking hot forging process of a crankshaft as an example, a wear model of the hot forging die coated with surfacing layer was established using FE software DEFORM-3D. The simulation results indicated that the wear resistance capability of the die surfacing layer is optimal when tempering temperature and holding time are 550 °C and 4 h respectively. To verify the wear computational results, 16 groups of PWHT orthogonal wear tests were performed at a temperature of 400 °C, which is a similar temperature to that occurs in an actual hot forging die. The wear-test result showed a good agreement with the FE simulation. SEM observation of the wear debris on 16 specimens showed that oxidative wear is dominant when the temperature was in 400 °C. Furthermore, when tempering temperature and holding time were 550 °C and 4 h respectively, the carbide alloy dispersively distributes in the metallographic structure, which helps to improve the wear resistance of the surfacing layer.

  9. Facile and scalable preparation of highly wear-resistance superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shanshan; Liu, Ming [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Wu, Yiqiang, E-mail: wuyq0506@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Hunan Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Wood and Bamboo Resources, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Luo, Sha [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Qing, Yan, E-mail: qingyan0429@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Hunan Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Wood and Bamboo Resources, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Chen, Haibo [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Highly wear-resistance superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates was fabricated using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates was efficiently fabricated using nanoparticles modified by VTES. • The superhydrophobic surface exhibited a CA of 154° and a SAclose to 0°. • The superhydrophobic surface showed a durable and robust wear-resistance performance. - Abstract: In this study, an efficient, facile method has been developed for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES. The as-prepared superhydrophobic wood surface had a water contact angle of 154° and water slide angle close to 0°. Simultaneously, this superhydrophobic wood showed highly durable and robust wear resistance when having undergone a long period of sandpaper abrasion or being scratched by a knife. Even under extreme conditions of boiling water, the superhydrophobicity of the as-prepared wood composite was preserved. Characterizations by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that a typical and tough hierarchical micro/nanostructure was created on the wood substrate and vinyltriethoxysilane contributed to preventing the agglomeration of silica nanoparticles and serving as low-surface-free-energy substances. This superhydrophobic wood was easy to fabricate, mechanically resistant and exhibited long-term stability. Therefore, it is considered to be of significant importance in the industrial production of functional wood, especially for outdoor applications.

  10. Improving corrosion and wear resistance of FV520B steel by high current pulsed electron beam surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Shengzhi, E-mail: ebeam@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Material Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Limin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Zhang, Yanlong; Wang, Huihui [Key Laboratory of Material Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • HCPEB surface treatment was conducted on FV520B steel. • Surface layer ∼10 μm was refined with elements homogenization. • Remelted layer exhibited 〈2 0 0〉 preferential orientation. • Corrosion potential increased and corrosion rate decreased one order of magnitude. • Wear resistance increased by 3 times. - Abstract: High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) surface treatment was conducted on FV520B steel with accelerating voltage 27 kV, pulse duration 2.5 μs, energy density 5 J/cm{sup 2} and 1–25 pulses. The surface microstructure and element distribution were examined by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. After HCPEB treatments, the surface microstructure became refined and uniform with an average grain size less than 2 μm and a preferential solidification orientation in 〈2 0 0〉 direction. The thickness of surface remelted layer was ∼4 μm. The initial precipitated particles in surface layer of depth ∼10 μm were dissolved into the base matrix and gave a homogenous element distribution. The HCPEB modified surface exhibited an effective improvement in corrosion and wear resistance. The corrosion potential shifted towards positive and the corrosion rate decreased nearly one order of magnitude, while the wear resistance after 25 pulses of HCPEB treatment increased by 3 times as compared with the initial FV520B steel.

  11. Research on microstructure and wear resistance of coatings obtained by adding nanoparticles of refractory compounds in laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzakov, M. A.; Chirikov, S. N.; Markushov, Y. V.

    2016-09-01

    The paper is aimed at research of coatings, which are achieved by means of laser cladding with additives of nanoparticles of high-melting compounds in form of tungsten carbide and tantalum (WC and TaC). In the course of experiment, various ceramic powder concentrations were tested. Main technological characteristics were determined. Power density amounted to 0.68-0.98 MW/cm2. During the coating wear resistance measurement, it was discovered that increase in nanopowder concentration extended wear resistance of coating 2-6 times. Wear resistance measurement and wear coefficient calculation were performed using Brinell-Howarth method. The load was 15 N, load time was 10 minutes. Optical metallographic microscope Neophot-30 was used to study microstructure of the deposited coatings. To reveal microstructure of the deposited coatings, the samples were exposed to chemical etching. Elemental composition of the samples was determined by the methods of X- ray microanalysis in testing solution using electron microscope EVO-50 under acceleration voltage 10-20 kV (probe current 5-50 nA) using energy- and wavelength-dispersive spectrometers.

  12. The effects of homogenization treatment on wear resistance of AZ61 magnesium alloy fabricated by extrusion-shear process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.-J.; Ying, Y.-L.; OU, Z.-W.; Wang, X.-Q.

    2017-12-01

    Wear resistance of extrusion shear-processed AZ61 magnesium samples with as-cast state and homogenization treatment state has been studied by wear tests using pin-on-disc experiments under dry sliding conditions. Wear rates and friction coefficients between AZ61 magnesium alloy and GCr15 steel have been used to evaluate wear resistances of AZ61 magnesium alloys, and obtained from dry sliding with different frequencies and loads. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) were used to analyze microstructures before and after the wear tests to find the wear mechanisms of AZ61 magnesium samples with as-cast state and homogenization treatment state. The wear resistances of the homogeneous state samples prepared by extrusion-shear process are close to those of as cast state, which are due to the little differences of microstructures. In addition, the wear mechanisms change from mild wear to severe wear with rise of exerted loads and reciprocating frequencies.

  13. Investigating Corrosion, Wear Resistance and Friction of AA5454-O Series after its Severe Deformation by Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan SEZEK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AA5454-O is an easily wrought, or in other words, a ductile aluminium alloy, however, its mechanical properties are inferior as compared to those of other alloys. The change taking place in corrosion resistance of AA5454-O alloy as a result of its severe plastic deformation (SPD by rolling has been investigated in this study. It has been observed that significant changes occurred in abrasion wear and corrosion resistances of AA5454-O alloy, which was severely deformed up to 80 % by rolling process. Corrosion resistance of the alloy that was severely deformed by rolling has increased. The effect of deformation rate on corrosion has been investigated by applying potentiodynamic test whereas on the other hand such change has been evidenced also through corrosion test. It has been observed that friction coefficient of severely deformed AA5454-O alloy varied by around 10 %, and that, associated with such change, its wear resistance also increased considerably. It has been determined that, as a result of severe deformation by rolling, hardness values rose in areas where the alloy was in contact with rolling surface. In this study, wear resistance of severely deformed alloy has been investigated as well. It has been observed that deformation value contributed positively to the increase in wear resistance.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14650

  14. Improvement in Abrasion Wear Resistance and Microstructural Changes with Deep Cryogenic Treatment of Austempered Ductile Cast Iron (ADI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šolić, Sanja; Godec, Matjaž; Schauperl, Zdravko; Donik, Črtomir

    2016-10-01

    The application of a deep cryogenic treatment during the heat-treatment processes for different types of steels has demonstrated a significant influence on their mechanical and tribological properties. A great deal of research was conducted on steels, as well as on other kinds of materials, such as hard metal, gray cast iron, aluminum, aluminum alloys, etc., but not on austempered ductile iron (ADI). In this research the influence of a deep cryogenic treatment on the microstructure and abrasive wear resistance of austempered ductile iron was investigated. The ductile cast iron was austempered at the upper ausferritic temperature, deep cryogenically treated, and afterwards tempered at two different temperatures. The abrasion wear resistance was tested using the standard ASTM G65 method. The microstructure was characterized using optical microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scattered diffraction, and X-ray diffraction in order to define the microstructural changes that influenced the properties of the ADI. The obtained results show that the deep cryogenic treatment, in combination with different tempering temperatures, affects the matrix microstructure of the austempered ductile iron, which leads to an increase in both the abrasion wear resistance and the hardness.

  15. Abrasive Wear Resistance of a Ti–Fe–Cr Alloy Obtained by Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis and Modified with Boron and Carbon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O. O. Onyshchuk

    2016-01-01

    ...–Cr system obtained by self-propagating hightemperature synthesis. It is shown that, as a result of the addition of carbon and boron, the heterogeneity of the structure and its wear resistance increase...

  16. RESEARCH OF PROCESSES ON FORMATION AND TRIBOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF WEAR-RESISTANT COMPOSITE GAS THERMAL COATINGS BEING DISPERSIVELY STRENGTHENED BY SYNTHETIC DIAMONDS AND ELECTRO-CORUNDUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kobjakov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation processes, tribotechnical and wear-resistant properties of composite gas thermal coatings being dispersively strengthened by synthetic diamonds and electro-corundum are investigated in the paper.

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR-RESISTANCE AND SERVICE LIFE OF MULTI-DISK BRAKE MECHANISMS OF «BELARUS» TRACTOR BY LASER THERMAL HARDENING OF FAST WEARING PARTS

    OpenAIRE

    O. S. Kobjakov; N. V. Spiridonov; A. A. Barkun

    2008-01-01

    Problems concerning wear resistance improvement of «Belarus» tractor brake mechanism parts are considered in the paper. Properties of ВЧ-50-pig iron are investigated as a result of laser thermal hardening by various technological methods.

  18. Non-Magnetic, Tough, Corrosion- and Wear-Resistant Knives From Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Douglas C.; Potter, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Quality knives are typically fabricated from high-strength steel alloys. Depending on the application, there are different requirements for mechanical and physical properties that cause problems for steel alloys. For example, diver's knives are generally used in salt water, which causes rust in steel knives. Titanium diver's knives are a popular alternative due to their salt water corrosion resistance, but are too soft to maintain a sharp cutting edge. Steel knives are also magnetic, which is undesirable for military applications where the knives are used as a tactical tool for diffusing magnetic mines. Steel is also significantly denser than titanium (8 g/cu cm vs. 4.5 g/cu cm), which results in heavier knives for the same size. Steel is hard and wear-resistant, compared with titanium, and can keep a sharp edge during service. A major drawback of both steel and titanium knives is that they must be ground or machined into the final knife shape from a billet. Since most knives have a mirrored surface and a complex shape, manufacturing them is complex. It would be more desirable if the knife could be cast into a net or near-net shape in a single step. The solution to the deficiencies of titanium, steel, and ceramic knives is to fabricate them using bulk metallic glasses (or composites). These alloys can be cast into net or near-net shaped knives with a combination of properties that exceed both titanium and steel. A commercially viable BMG (bulk metallic glass) or composite knife is one that exhibits one or all of the following properties: It is based on titanium, has a self-sharpening edge, can retain an edge during service, is hard, is non-magnetic, is corrosion-resistant against a variety of corrosive environments, is tough (to allow for prying), can be cast into a net-shape with a mirror finish and a complex shape, has excellent wear resistance, and is low-density. These properties can be achieved in BMG and composites through alloy chemistry and processing. For

  19. Wear Resistance Properties Reinforcement Using Nano-Al/Cu Composite Coating in Sliding Bearing Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongtao; Li, Zhixiong; Wang, Jianmei; Sheng, Chenxing; Liu, Wanli

    2018-03-01

    Sliding bearing maintenance is crucial for reducing the cost and extending the service life. An efficient and practical solution is to coat a restorative agent onto the worn/damaged bearings. Traditional pure-copper (Cu) coating results in a soft surface and poor abrasion resistance. To address this issue, this paper presents a nano-composite repairing coating method. A series of nano-Al/Cu coatings were prepared on the surface of 45 steel by composite electro-brush plating (EBP). Their micro-hardness was examined by a MHV-2000 Vickers hardness tester, and tribological properties by a UMT-2M Micro-friction tester, 3D profiler and SEM. Then, the influence of processing parameters such as nano-particle concentration and coating thickness on the micro-hardness of nano-Al/Cu coating was analyzed. The experimental analysis results demonstrate that, when the nano-Al particle concentration in electrolyte was 10 g/L, the micro-hardness of the composite coating was 1.1 times as much as that of pure-Cu coating. When the Al nano-particle concentration in electrolyte was 20 g/L, the micro-hardness of the composite coating reached its maximum value (i.e., 231.6 HV). Compared with the pure-Cu coating, the hardness and wear resistance of the nano-composite coating were increased, and the friction coefficient and wear volume were decreased, because of the grain strengthening and dispersion strengthening. The development in this work may provide a feasible and effective nano-composite EBP method for sliding bearing repair.

  20. Effect of Carbide Ceramic Zone on Wear Resistance of the (Fe,Cr)7C3/Fe Surface Gradient Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fangxia; Xu, Yunhua; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Lai, Yujun; Wang, Chong; Wang, Xin

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we report on the influence of microstructure and mechanical properties of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 ceramic zone on wear resistance of the (Fe,Cr)7C3/Fe surface gradient composite fabricated by in situ synthesis method followed by a post-heat treatment at 1100 °C for 20 h in argon atmosphere. The phase composition, microstructure, nanoindentation hardness, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and relative wear resistance of the (Fe,Cr)7C3/Fe surface gradient composite were investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation tester, and wear resistance testing instrument, respectively. The XRD results showed that (Fe,Cr)7C3 is the predominant crystalline phases in the fabricated composite. The volume fraction of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 particulates formed has a gradient distribution from the surface to the iron matrix, and the microstructure also changes significantly. The (Fe,Cr)7C3 bulk ceramic zone with the volume fraction of about 100% and the (Fe,Cr)7C3 dense ceramic zone with the volume fraction of about 90% were synthesized on the upper surface of the (Fe,Cr)7C3/Fe surface gradient composite, respectively. The average nanoindentation hardness and elastic modulus of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 bulk ceramic zone of the composite were determined to be 12.711 and 256.054 GPa, respectively. The fracture toughness of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 bulk ceramic zone is in the range of 2.06-4.19 MPa m1/2, and its relative wear resistance is about 56 times higher than that of the iron matrix. The (Fe,Cr)7C3 dense ceramic zone with rod-like, secondary (Fe,Cr)7C3 particulates was formed at the bottom of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 bulk ceramic zone. Rod-like, secondary (Fe,Cr)7C3 particulates are dense and grew in the direction of the iron substrate, providing higher wear resistance to the composite. The wear mechanisms of the (Fe,Cr)7C3 bulk and dense ceramic zones are considered to be microcutting, microcracking, and spalling pit.

  1. Development of wear-resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, M.G.S. (Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The tribological properties of a variety of advanced coating materials have been evaluated under conditions which simulate the piston ring -- cylinder liner environment near top ring reversal in a heavy duty diesel engine. Coated ring'' samples were tested against a conventional pearlitic grey cast iron liner material using a high temperature reciprocating wear test rig. Tests were run with a fresh CE/SF 15W40lubricant at 200 and 350{degrees}C, with a high-soot, engine-tested oil at 200{degrees}C and with no lubrication at 200{degrees}C. For lowest wear under boundary lubricated conditions, the most promising candidates to emerge from this study were high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) Cr{sub 3} C{sub 2} - 20% NiCr and WC - 12% Co cermets, low temperature arc vapor deposited (LTAVD) CrN and plasma sprayed chromium oxides. Also,plasma sprayed Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} materials were found to give excellent wear resistance in unlubricated tests and at extremely high temperatures (450{degrees}C) with a syntheticoil. All of these materials would offer substantial wear reductions compared to the conventional electroplated hard chromium ring facing and thermally sprayed metallic coatings, especially at high temperatures and with high-soot oils subjected to degradation in diesel environments. The LTAVD CrN coating provided the lowest lubricated wear rates of all the materials evaluated, but may be too thin (4 {mu}m) for use as a top ring facing. Most of the coatings evaluated showed higher wear rates with high-soot, engine-tested oil than with fresh oil, with increases of more than a factor of ten in some cases. Generally, metallic materials were found to be much more sensitive to soot/oil degradation than ceramic and cermet coatings. Thus, decreased soot sensitivity'' is a significant driving force for utilizing ceramic or cermet coatings in diesel engine wear applications.

  2. Self-assembled thin film of imidazolium ionic liquid on a silicon surface: Low friction and remarkable wear-resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusain, Rashi [CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, Mohkampur, Dehardun 248005 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi 110025 (India); Kokufu, Sho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Bakshi, Paramjeet S. [CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, Mohkampur, Dehardun 248005 (India); Utsunomiya, Toru; Ichii, Takashi; Sugimura, Hiroyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Khatri, Om P., E-mail: opkhatri@iip.res.in [CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, Mohkampur, Dehardun 248005 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ionic liquid thin film is deposited on a silicon surface via covalent interaction. • Chemical and morphological features of ionic liquid thin film are probed by XPS and AFM. • Ionic liquid thin film exhibited low and steady friction along with remarkable wear-resistivity. - Abstract: Imidazolium-hexafluorophosphate (ImPF{sub 6}) ionic liquid thin film is prepared on a silicon surface using 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane as a bifunctional chemical linker. XPS result revealed the covalent grafting of ImPF{sub 6} thin film on a silicon surface. The atomic force microscopic images demonstrated that the ImPF{sub 6} thin film is composed of nanoscopic pads/clusters with height of 3–7 nm. Microtribological properties in terms of coefficient of friction and wear-resistivity are probed at the mean Hertzian contact pressure of 0.35–0.6 GPa under the rotational sliding contact. The ImPF{sub 6} thin film exhibited low and steady coefficient of friction (μ = 0.11) along with remarkable wear-resistivity to protect the underlying silicon substrate. The low shear strength of ImPF{sub 6} thin film, the covalent interaction between ImPF{sub 6} ionic liquid thin film and underlying silicon substrate, and its regular grafting collectively reduced the friction and improved the anti-wear property. The covalently grafted ionic liquid thin film further shows immense potential to expand the durability and lifetime of M/NEMS based devices with significant reduction of the friction.

  3. Laser surface modification of Ti6Al4V-Cu for improved microhardness and wear resistance properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erinosho, MF

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available sample was etched for 10 -15 seconds, cleaned with ethanol, rinsed under running water and dried off prior to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and optical microscopic (OM) observations. The SEM was conducted on the samples using the TESCAN...Laser Surface Modification of Ti6Al4V-Cu for Improved Microhardness and Wear Resistance Properties The microstructures of the selected Ti6Al4V-3Cu and Ti6Al4V-5Cu alloys observed by SEM and Optical microscope (OM) are presented Figure 5. The SEM...

  4. Influence of Melt State on the Properties of Nickel-based Powders for Wear-Resistant Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshev, E.; Tyagunov, G.; Kostina, T.; Shmakova, K.

    2017-06-01

    The influence of time-temperature treatment on properties of the PG-SR-type alloys in cast condition, in produced powders and coatings is studied in this work. The temperature dependence of physical properties were obtained. These results and the comparative metallographic analysis have allowed offering the mode for time-temperature treatment of the liquid PG-SR-type alloys. Use of the time-temperature treatment when producing metal powders and coatings are as follows: the dispersibility of powders increases; the yield of powder fractions used for applying coatings increases; the powder porosity and oxidation decreases; oxidation resistance in various media increases; corrosion-, heat-, and wear resistance increases.

  5. Influence of high sintering pressure on the microhardness and wear resistance of diamond powder and silicon carbide-based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipov Oleksandr Sergueevitch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The work reported on here involved the development of several samples of "diamond-SiC" composite produced under sintering pressures of up to 9.0 GPa at temperatures of up to 1973 7K. The average size of the diamond micropowder crystals used was 40/28 µm. The sintering process was carried out in a 2500-ton hydraulic press equipped with an anvil-type high-pressure device having a toroidal work surface and a central concavity diameter of 20 mm. The microhardness and wear resistance of the samples were found to be dependent on the sintering pressure. The experimental results indicated that the maximum microhardness and minimum wear resistance coefficients of each compact were attained when the pressure applied during sintering exceeded 6.5 GPa. Based on the established values of pressure, this study served to identify the types of devices applicable for the manufacture of composite material inserts for a variety of rock drilling applications.

  6. A Study on Wear Resistance of HVOF-Sprayed Ni-MoS2 Self-Lubricating Composite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. L.; Jeng, M. C.; Hwang, J. R.; Chang, C. H.

    2015-02-01

    Composite coating techniques are becoming increasingly popular owing to their peculiar performances. In this study, the wear resistance of thermally sprayed Ni-MoS2 composite coatings on an AISI 1020 steel substrate was investigated. Ni-MoS2 composite powder (size: 60-90 μm) containing 25 wt.% of dispersed MoS2 was prepared by electroless plating. Ni-MoS2 composite coatings were then prepared by HVOF thermal spraying. The coatings were characterized by structural, surface morphological, and compositional analyses by means of microhardness tests, SEM/EDS, XRD, and ICP-AES. For the evaluation of their anti-wear properties, the composites were subjected to ball-on-disk dry wear tests based on the ASTM G99 standard at room temperature. Experimental results showed that some of the MoS2 content dispersed in the Ni-based composite coating burnt away during the high-temperature spraying process, thereby reducing the MoS2 concentration in the coating. In the wear test, the weight loss in the Ni-MoS2 composite coating was minimal under a low load (30 N). The average wear rate of the coatings was found to be ~1/40 times that of a Ni coating, showing that the wear resistance of the composite coatings was significantly improved by MoS2 addition.

  7. Wear-resistant rose petal-effect surfaces with superhydrophobicity and high droplet adhesion using hydrophobic and hydrophilic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Daniel; Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-10-15

    Surfaces exhibiting the so-called "petal effect" (superhydrophobicity with high droplet adhesion) have potential for applications such as the transport of small volumes of liquid. It is known that the microstructure pitch value and nanostructure density are important in achieving this effect, both in rose petals themselves and in synthetic petal-effect surfaces. However, the effect of the surface energy of materials on these values has not been systematically studied. In addition, wear resistance, which is critical for industrial applications, has rarely been examined for petal-effect surfaces. In this study, surfaces of varying microstructure pitch and nanostructure density were fabricated by depositing ZnO nanoparticles onto micropatterned substrates. The prepared surfaces were then modified with octadecylphosphonic acid (ODP) in order to hydrophobize the ZnO nanoparticles. The wettability of the surfaces was characterized both before and after ODP modification. The effect of hydrophobizing the nanostructure was examined with regards to the values of microstructure pitch and nanostructure density necessary to achieve the petal effect. In addition, to study wear resistance for industrial applications, a wear experiment was performed using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Orientations of Bionic Unit Fabricated by Laser Remelting on Fatigue Wear Resistance of Gray Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Kai; Zhou, Ti; Zhang, Hai-feng; Yang, Wan-shi; Zhou, Hong

    2015-06-01

    Fatigue wear resistance improvements were researched by studying experimental samples with gray cast iron fabricated with bionic units in different orientations. Experimental samples were modified by laser surface remelting, including parallel, vertical, and gradient units to the wear direction. The remelting pool was then studied to determine the micro-hardness, microstructure, alteration of phase, and etc. Lab-control fatigue wear test method was applied with the treated and untreated samples tested under the laboratorial conditions. Wear resistance result was considered as the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) resistance and mechanisms of the modified samples were experimentally investigated and discussed. Results suggested that all treated samples demonstrated the beneficial effect on the RCF improvement due to lack of graphite and reinforcement of treated region. Results also indicated the sample with fastigiated units was more effective than that with vertical units or parallel units to the wear direction. Influence of the sample unit's angle which intensely depended on the conditions of actual application, however, was not identified.

  9. Effect of Cobalt on Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Ni-Based Alloy Coating Fabricated by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiming Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ni-based alloy powders with different contents of cobalt (Co have been deposited on a 42CrMo steel substrate surface using a fiber laser. The effects of Co content on the microstructure, composition, hardness, and wear properties of the claddings were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, a hardness tester, and a wear tester. The results show that the phases in the cladding layers are mainly γ, M7(C, B3, M23(C, B6, and M2B. With the increase in Co content, the amounts of M7(C, B3, M23(C, B6, and M2B gradually decrease, and the width of the eutectic structure in the cladding layer also gradually decreases. The microhardness decreases but the wear resistance of the cladding layer gradually improves with the increase of Co content. The wear resistance of the NiCo30 cladding layer is 3.6 times that of the NiCo00 cladding layer. With the increase of Co content, the wear mechanism of the cladding layer is changed from abrasive wear to adhesive wear.

  10. Microstructure Characterization and Wear-Resistant Properties Evaluation of an Intermetallic Composite in Ni-Mo-Si System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Boyuan; Song, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Gui, Yongliang

    2017-02-04

    Intermetallic compounds have been studied for their potential application as structural wear materials or coatings on engineering steels. In the present work, a newly designed intermetallic composite in a Ni-Mo-Si system was fabricated by arc-melting process with commercially pure metal powders as starting materials. The chemical composition of this intermetallic composite is 45Ni-40Mo-15Si (at %), selected according to the ternary alloy diagram. The microstructure was characterized using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and the wear-resistant properties at room temperature were evaluated under different wear test conditions. Microstructure characterization showed that the composite has a dense and uniform microstructure. XRD results showed that the intermetallic composite is constituted by a binary intermetallic compound NiMo and a ternary Mo₂Ni₃Si metal silicide phase. Wear test results indicated that the intermetallic composite has an excellent wear-resistance at room-temperature, which is attributed to the high hardness and strong atomic bonding of constituent phases NiMo and Mo₂Ni₃Si.

  11. Lubricated wear resistance of Al-Cu-Mn-Mg-Si and Al-Si-Cu-Mn-Mg alloys against JIS ADC12 aluminium diecast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T. [Junior Coll., Hikone, Shiga (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Aluminium alloys are light, easy to shape by plastic working, and in the case of casting alloys, can give better products and higher productivity by diecasting. Accordingly, the demand for mechanical components made from aluminium alloys has increased. In addition to strength, wear resistance is often required since moving aluminium components that make sliding contact with each other are becoming more common as machinery becomes lighter. For such applications the wear resistance of aluminium alloys is not generally sufficient unless greatly improved by the use of a lubricant. Thus, designs in which aluminium alloy components slide against one another can be used when the contact conditions are appropriate. (orig.)

  12. Alternate paddle configuration for improved wear resistance in the saltstone mixer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-09-23

    The Saltstone Production Facility has a 10-inch Readco-Kurimoto continuous mixer that mixes the premix dry feeds and low-level waste salt solution to make fresh (uncured) saltstone. Inspection of the mixer in January 2013 showed significant wear on the third, fourth and fifth paddle pairs after the conveying augers. A 2-inch Readco-Kurimoto continuous mixer was used to test alternate paddle configurations for use in the 10-inch mixer to decrease the wear rate on the paddles. Two wear tests were conducted to investigate a method of reducing wear on the mixer paddles. The first test (wear test 2a) had a paddle configuration similar to the currently installed 10-inch mixer in the SPF. This test established baseline wear. The second test (wear test 2b) had a reconfigured paddle arrangement that replaced the flat paddles with helical paddles for paddle pairs 2 - 6 and aligned paddle pair 1 with the augers. The intent of the reconfiguration was to more effectively convey the partially wetted dry feeds through the transition region and into the liquid feed where paddle wear is reduced due to dry feeds and salt solution being mixed at the intended water to premix ratio. The design of the helical paddles provides conveyance through the transition region to the liquid feed inlet. The alignment with the auger is aimed to provide a smoother transition (minimizing the discontinuity between the auger and paddle pair 1) into the downstream paddles. A soft metal with low wear resistance (6000 series aluminum) was used for the wear testing paddles to determine wear patterns while minimizing run time and maximizing wear rate. For the two paddle configurations tested using the scaled 2-inch Readco-Kurimoto continuous mixer, with the first six paddles after the augers replaced by the wear paddles and the remaining paddles were stainless steel. Since the 10-inch SPF mixer is designed with the liquid inlet centered over paddle pairs 5 and 6, the scaled 2-inch mixer was configured the

  13. A New Design of In Situ Ti(C,N) Reinforced Composite Coatings and Their Microstructures, Interfaces, and Wear Resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingliang; Cui, Hongzhi; Wei, Na; Ding, Lei; Zhang, Xinjie; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Canming; Song, Qiang

    2018-01-31

    Here, a unique combination of a novel carbon-nitrogen source (g-C 3 N 4 ) with different mole ratios of Ti/g-C 3 N 4 has been utilized to fabricate iron matrix composite coatings by a synchronized powder feeding plasma transferred arc (PTA) cladding technology. The results show that submicron Ti(C,N) particles are successfully fabricated in situ on a Q235 low carbon steel substrate to reinforce the iron matrix composite coatings and exhibit dense microstructures and good metallurgical bonding between the coating and the substrate. The microstructure of the coating consists of an α-Fe matrix and Ti(C,N) particles when the mole ratio of Ti/g-C 3 N 4 is no more than 5:1. The microhardness and wear resistance of the coating gradually improve with increasing abundance of the in-situ-synthesized Ti(C,N) particles. Interestingly, for a Ti/g-C 3 N 4 mole ratio of 6:1, a fine lamellar eutectic Laves phase (Fe 2 Ti) appears, and this phase further improves the microhardness and wear resistance of the coating. The microhardness of the coating is 3.5 times greater than that of the Q235 substrate, and the wear resistance is enhanced 7.66 times over that of the substrate. The Ti(C,N)/Fe 2 Ti and Fe 2 Ti/α-Fe interfaces are very clean, and the crystallographic orientation relationships between the phases are analyzed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and an edge-to-edge matching model. The theoretical predictions and the experimental results are in good agreement. Furthermore, based on the present study, for the solidification process near equilibrium, smaller interatomic spacing misfits and interplanar spacing d-value mismatches contribute to the formation of crystallographic orientation relationships between phases during the PTA cladding process. The existence of orientation relationships is beneficial for improving the properties of the coatings. This work not only expands the application fields of g-C 3 N 4 but also provides a new idea for the

  14. Effect of Fe2B boride orientation on abrasion wear resistance of Fe-B cast alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-wei Yi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures and abrasion wear resistance of directional solidification Fe-B alloy have been investigated using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning microscopy. The results show that the microstructure of as-cast Fe-B alloy consists of ferrite, pearlite and eutectic boride. After heat treatment, the microstructure is composed of boride and martensite. The plane which is perpendicular to the boride growth direction possesses the highest hardness. In two-body abrasive wear tests, the silicon carbide abrasive can cut the boride and martensite matrix synchronously, and the wear mechanism is micro cutting mechanism. The worn surface roughness and the wear weight loss both increase with the increasing contact load. Moreover, when the boride growth direction is perpendicular to the worn surface, the highest hardness plane of the boride can effectively oppose abrasion, and the martensite matrix can surround and support borides perfectly.

  15. Application of ceramic coating to improve abrasive wear resistance of die inserts used to press-mould stampings of refractories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Orłowicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study on abrasive wear resistance of die inserts for composite moulds used to pressmould stampings from refractory materials, determined based on susceptibility to scratching with a diamond indenter. For the study, two inserts of high-chromium cast iron were prepared, of which one was provided with a ceramic coating (60 % Al2O3 + 40 % TiO2 with a metallic interlayer (NiAlCrSi. Both layers were deposited by means of the Atmospheric Plasma Spraying (APS method. The obtained scratch test results indicate that with the use of the same load force (20 N, die inserts with ceramic coating are characterized with less indenter penetration depth which should translate to higher resistance to abrasive wear.

  16. Tribological tests of wear-resistant coatings used in the production of drill bits of horizontal and inclined drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, A. L.; Markova, I. Yu; Zakharova, E. S.; Polushin, N. I.; Laptev, A. I.

    2017-05-01

    It is known that modern drilling bit body undergoes significant abrasive wear in the contact area with the solid and the retracted cuttings. For protection of the body rationally use wear-resistant coating, which is welded directly to the body of bit. Before mass use of the developed coverings they need to be investigated by various methods that it was possible to characterize coatings and on the basis of the obtained data to perform optimization of both composition of coatings and technology. Such methods include microstructural studies tribological tests, crack resistance and others. This work is devoted to the tribological tests of imported brand of coatings WokaDur NiA and and domestic brand of coating HR-6750 (both brands manufactured by Ltd “Oerlikon Metco Rus”), used to protect the bit body from abrasive wear.

  17. High Kinetic Energy Penetrator Shielding and High Wear Resistance Materials Fabricated with Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTS) and BNNT Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin C. (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert George (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), boron nitride nanoparticles (BNNPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphites, or combinations, are incorporated into matrices of polymer, ceramic or metals. Fibers, yarns, and woven or nonwoven mats of BNNTs are used as toughening layers in penetration resistant materials to maximize energy absorption and/or high hardness layers to rebound or deform penetrators. They can be also used as reinforcing inclusions combining with other polymer matrices to create composite layers like typical reinforcing fibers such as Kevlar.RTM., Spectra.RTM., ceramics and metals. Enhanced wear resistance and usage time are achieved by adding boron nitride nanomaterials, increasing hardness and toughness. Such materials can be used in high temperature environments since the oxidation temperature of BNNTs exceeds 800.degree. C. in air. Boron nitride based composites are useful as strong structural materials for anti-micrometeorite layers for spacecraft and space suits, ultra strong tethers, protective gear, vehicles, helmets, shields and safety suits/helmets for industry.

  18. Resistencia al desgaste de recubrimientos de bronce al aluminio producidos con técnica de proyección térmica//Wear resistance of aluminum bronze coatings produced by thermal spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Carolina Cárdenas-Feria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la resistencia al desgaste adhesivo de recubrimientos de bronce al aluminio depositados con la técnica de proyección térmica por llama sobre bronce fosforado SAE 62. Los recubrimientos fueron fabricados variando las presiones parciales de los gases de combustión, oxígeno y acetileno. El material utilizado fue caracterizado estructuralmente mediante difracción de rayosX (X-ray diffraction, XRD y el estudio morfológico mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido (Scanning electron microscopy, SEM. La resistencia al desgaste adhesivo de los recubrimientos se determinó por medio del ensayo de bola sobre disco, utilizando como bola una esférica de acero 100Cr6. Los resultados obtenidos permiten establecer que los recubrimientos proyectados con una presión de oxigeno de 78 psi y una presión de acetileno de 8 psi presentan la mejor resistencia al desgaste en comparación a los tratamientos producidos. El modo de falla de desgaste en los recubrimientos producidos es discutido en esta investigación.Palabras clave: desgaste abrasivo y adhesivo,  proyección térmica,  recubrimientos.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractWe studied the adhesive wear resistance of aluminum bronze coatings deposited by thermal spray on phosphor bronze SAE 62 substrates. The coatings were deposited by varying the partial pressures of the combustion gases: oxygen and acetylene. The structural characterization was made through X-ray diffraction (XRD and the morphological analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The adhesive wear resistance of the coatings was determined by the bole on disc test using a spherical ball made of steel 100Cr6 and with a diameter of 6 mm. The results obtained show that the coating projected with an oxygen pressure of 78 psi and an acetylene pressure of 8 psi have the better wear resistance compared with the substrate and the others treatments deposited

  19. Way to increase back-up rolls cracking and wearing resistances at high-speed deposition with low heat input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Вікторович Щетинін

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rolling-mill back-up rolls operate under high specific pressures conditions and are produced of high-carbon steel, prone to hot and cold cracking. Therefore crack resistance increase is an important scientific and technical problem. The impact of the electrode shape and heat input on the arc motion, and heat affected zone, the size of which determines the cold cracks formation and deposited metal flaking has been found. The arc moves along the electrode end face along the longitudinal axis or perpendicular to the weld pool in dependence on the ribbon position. The arc movement governs the heat input in the pool and if the surfacing regime is constant, the heating and cooling rates of the molten metal and heat affected zone as well. At surfacing with a perpendicular ribbon the heat affected zone decreases; at surfacing with a longitudinal ribbon and wire the heat affected zone increases. At surfacing with a composite electrode the heat affected zone reduces sharply while resistance to cracking and wearing increases. With the heat input reduction in weld pool side edges the heat affected zone reduces as well. At high speed surfacing with low heat input, the heat affected zone reduces, the tendency to cold cracking and deposited metal flaking decrease, welding stresses and specific pressure decrease, what results in resistance to cracking increase as well as the increase in wearing resistance. When energy decreases the deposited metal quality increases. Energy minimum results in maximum quality. The process of energy-saving high-speed deposition with low heat input, which provides microstructure reduction, heat input in the base metal and heat affected zone decrease, prevent cold cracking and deposited metal flaking increases both rolling mill back-up cracking resistance and wearing resistance has been developed

  20. Industrial scale HP-HT synthesis of hard and wear resistant c-Zr3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzivenko, Dmytro; Riedel, Ralf; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chauveau, Thierry; Zerr, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    We present a large scale high-pressure high-temperature (HP-HT) synthesis of hard and wear resistant cubic zirconium nitride having Th3P4-type structure,c-Zr3N4. This material, also available as well-adhesive coatings with exceptional wear resistance, represents a compound competitive to diamond and c-BN with respect to machining of low-carbon steels and other ferrous alloys. We obtained c-Zr3N4 powder at pressures as low as 6.5 GPa and temperatures of 1400-1600 °C from nanocrystalline Zr3N4+x precursor using a belt-type apparatus - a static HP-HT device widely employed for the commercial production of diamond and c-BN. The HP products are characterized in details by means of powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and combustion elemental analysis. In addition to major polycrystalline c-Zr3N4, we unveil the formation of a quaternary compound c-(Zr1-xTax)3 (N1-yOy)4 which indicates the possibility of doping of c-Zr3N4, thus introducing it for practical application as a multifunctional material. Moreover, we consider ways of cementing the c-Zr3N4 powders (similar to cemented tungsten carbides) which would allow economic fabrication of large bodies based on this compound. Supported by the DFG (Bonn, Germany) within SPP 1236 and by the IFR ``Paris Nord Plaine de France''.

  1. Influence of Hardness, Matrix and Carbides in Combination with Nitridation on Abrasive Wear Resistance of X210Cr12 Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Orečný

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Materials used in abrasive wear conditions are usually selected according to their microstructure and hardness, however, other factors such as grain size, matrix saturation, carbides size and morphology are rarely considered. Therefore, the present study deals with the influence of different heat and chemical-heat treatments including their combination on abrasive wear resistance of X210Cr12 tool steel. The effects of material hardness, carbide morphology and microstructure on wear resistance after quenching and nitriding were also investigated. One sample series was quenched after austenitization at 960 °C for 20 min and tempered at 180 °C for 2 h. The second sample series was quenched from 1060 °C austenitization for 20 min and afterwards twice tempered at 530 °C for 1 h. From both the quenched and tempered states, one half of the samples was gas nitrided in NH3 atmosphere for 3 h and then diffusion annealed in N2 atmosphere for 4 h. Abrasion wear tests were performed by sliding the samples on Al2O3 paper. The samples weight loss was considered the main criterion for the wear resistance evaluation. The microstructures, nitrided layers and worn surfaces were observed using SEM microscopy. The highest abrasion wear resistance was obtained for the nitrided samples that were previously quenched from 1060 °C and tempered at 530 °C.

  2. Scanning velocity influence on microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance performance of laser deposited Ti6Al4V/TiC composite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ti6Al4V is the most widely used titanium alloy in the aerospace industry because of its excellent properties. However, the wear resistance behaviour of this material is not very impressive and surface damage occurs in applications involving contact...

  3. Effect of high-manganese cast steel strain hardening on the abrasion wear resistance in a mixture of SiC and water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalandyk B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to determine the impact of the high-manganese cast steel strain hardening on its abrasion wear resistance in a mixture of SiC and water prepared in accordance with ASTM G75. For tests, the high-manganese cast steel containing 10.7, 17.9 and 20.02% Mn was selected. The results of microstructure examinations and abrasion wear resistance tests carried out on the material in non-hardened condition and after strain hardening with a force of 539.55kN were disclosed. Additionally, the surface of samples after a 16-hour cycle of abrasion tests was examined. Moreover, based on the obtained results, the effect of different contents of Mn in cast steel was studied, mainly in terms of its impact on the abrasion wear resistance. The results obtained on the tested materials were compared with the results obtained on the low-alloyed abrasion wear-resistant cast steel L35GSM.

  4. IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR-RESISTANCE AND SERVICE LIFE OF MULTI-DISK BRAKE MECHANISMS OF «BELARUS» TRACTOR BY LASER THERMAL HARDENING OF FAST WEARING PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kobjakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems concerning wear resistance improvement of «Belarus» tractor brake mechanism parts are considered in the paper. Properties of ВЧ-50-pig iron are investigated as a result of laser thermal hardening by various technological methods.

  5. Creep behavior and wear resistance of Al 5083 based hybrid composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and boron carbide (B{sub 4}C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Ali [Faculty of Materials & Manufacturing Processes, Malek-e-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Alireza, E-mail: alirezaabdollahi1366@gmail.com [Faculty of Materials & Manufacturing Processes, Malek-e-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biukani, Hootan [Faculty of Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-25

    In the current research, aluminum based hybrid composite reinforced with boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was produced by powder metallurgy method. creep behavior, wear resistance, surface roughness, and hardness of the samples were investigated. To prepare the samples, Al 5083 powder was milled with boron carbide particles and carbon nanotubes using planetary ball mill under argon atmosphere with ball-to-powder weight ratio of 10:1 for 5 h. Afterwards, the milled powders were formed by hot press process at 380{sup °}C and then were sintered at 585{sup °}C under argon atmosphere for 2 h. There was shown to be an increase in hardness values of composite with an increase in B{sub 4}C content. The micrograph of worn surfaces indicate a delamination mechanism due to the presence of CNTs and abrasion mechanism in composite containing 10 vol.%B{sub 4}C. Moreover, it was shown that increasing B{sub 4}C content increases the wear resistance by 3 times under a load of 20 N and 10 times under a load of 10 N compared to CNTs-reinforced composite. surface roughness of the composite containing 5 vol.%CNT has shown to be more than other samples. The results of creep test showed that adding carbon nanotubes increases creep rate of Al 5083 alloy; however, adding B{sub 4}C decreases its creep rate. - Highlights: • Al 5083/(CNTs + B{sub 4}C) hybrid composite was produced by powder metallurgy method. • Creep behavior, wear resistance, surface roughness, and Hardness of samples were investigated. • Addition of CNTs to Al 5083 matrix reduces alloy hardness, wear resistance and creep strength. • By addition of B{sub 4}C and composite hybridization, creep strength and wear resistance increased. • Surface roughness of Al-5 vol.%CNT has shown to be more than other samples.

  6. Clinical safety and wear resistance of the phospholipid polymer-grafted highly cross-linked polyethylene liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Toru; Takatori, Yoshio; Tanaka, Sakae; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Oda, Hiromi; Kim, Yoon Taek; Umeyama, Takashige; Fukatani, Eisei; Ito, Hideya; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Oshima, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo

    2017-09-01

    To reduce the production of wear particles and subsequent aseptic loosening, we created a human articular cartilage-mimicked surface for a highly cross-linked polyethylene liner, whose surface grafted layer consisted of a biocompatible phospholipid polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine). Although our previous in vitro findings showed that poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted particles were biologically inert and caused no subsequent bone resorptive responses, and poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) grafting markedly decreased wear in hip joint simulator tests, the clinical safety, and in vivo wear resistance of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted highly cross-linked polyethylene liners remained open to question. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated clinical and radiographic outcomes of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted highly cross-linked polyethylene liners 5 years subsequent to total hip replacement in 68 consecutive patients. No reoperation was required for any reason, and no adverse events were associated with the implanted liners. The average Harris Hip Score increased from 38.6 preoperatively to 96.5 5 years postoperatively, and health-related quality of life, as indicated by the Short Form 36 Health Survey, improved. Radiographic analyses showed no periprosthetic osteolysis or implant migration. Between 1 and 5 years postoperatively, the mean steady-state wear rate was 0.002 mm/year, which represented a marked reduction relative to other highly cross-linked polyethylene liners, and appeared to be unaffected by patient-related or surgical factors. Although longer follow up is required, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted highly cross-linked polyethylene liners improved mid-term clinical outcomes. The clinical safety and wear-resistance results are encouraging with respect to the improvement of long-term clinical outcomes with poly(2

  7. Hydrophobicity attainment and wear resistance enhancement on glass substrates by atmospheric plasma-polymerization of mixtures of an aminosilane and a fluorocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Múgica-Vidal, Rodolfo, E-mail: rodolfo.mugica@alum.unirioja.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, c/ Luis de Ulloa 20, 26004, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Alba-Elías, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.alba@unirioja.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, c/ Luis de Ulloa 20, 26004, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Sainz-García, Elisa, E-mail: elisa.sainzg@unirioja.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, c/ Luis de Ulloa 20, 26004, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Pantoja-Ruiz, Mariola, E-mail: mpruiz@ing.uc3m.es [Materials Science and Engineering Department, IAAB, Materials Performance Group, University Carlos III of Madrid, Av. Universidad 30, 28911, Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • APTES and PFH were used to coat glass by non-thermal atmospheric jet plasma. • A mixture of 75% of APTES and 25% PFH produced the best sample of this work. • Hydrophobicity was achieved by changes in surface morphology and chemistry. • Wear resistance was enhanced by the formation of siloxane groups. - Abstract: Mixtures of different proportions of two liquid precursors were subjected to plasma-polymerization by a non-thermal atmospheric jet plasma system in a search for a coating that achieves a hydrophobic character on a glass substrate and enhances its wear resistance. 1-Perfluorohexene (PFH) was chosen as a low-surface-energy precursor to promote a hydrophobic character. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) was chosen for its contribution to the improvement of wear resistance by the formation of siloxane bonds. The objective of this work was to determine which of the precursors’ mixtures that were tested provides the coating with the most balanced enhancement of both hydrophobicity and wear resistance, given that coatings deposited with fluorocarbon-based precursors such as PFH are usually low in resistance to wear and coatings deposited with APTES are generally hydrophilic. The coatings obtained were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), static Water Contact Angle (WCA) measurements, tribological ball-on-disc tests and contact profilometry. A relationship between the achievement of a hydrophobic character and the modifications to roughness and surface morphology and the incorporation of fluorocarbon groups in the surface chemistry was observed. Also, it was seen that the wear resistance was influenced by the SiOSi content of the coatings. In turn, the SiOSi content appears to be directly related to the percentage of APTES used in the mixture of precursors. The best conjunction of

  8. In-situ electro-charging for friction reduction and wear resistant film formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, S.C.; Wang, S.S. (GM Research Laboratories, Warren, MI (USA))

    1991-10-01

    A technique has been developed to form friction-reducing and antiwear films in situ by means of an electric field applied between rubbing metal surfaces. Using this in situ charging technique, the effectiveness of zinc organodithiophosphate (ZDP) additives as antiwear and friction reducing agents can be enhanced by electrochemical reactions which form surface coatings. The coatings formed on sliding surfaces compared with uncharged surfaces reduce friction by up to 35 percent. In addition, during the sliding process, the films formed on the surfaces are replenished and protect the rubbing surfaces from wear. A steel plate subjected to rubbing and in situ charging for four hours had a smooth surface and a yellowish reaction film; the one without charging was rougher and no yellowish reaction film was formed. The improved tribological characteristics are attributed to an increase in the electrochemical reactivity of the ZDP-mineral oil blends and the formation of phosphate or sulfate films on the metal surfaces. 16 refs.

  9. Enhancement of the wear resistance and microhardness of aluminum alloy by Nd:YaG laser treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Haitham T; Kadhim, Abdulhadi; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Influence of laser treatment on mechanical properties, wear resistance, and Vickers hardness of aluminum alloy was studied. The specimens were treated by using Nd:YaG laser of energy 780 mj, wavelength 512 nm, and duration time 8 ns. The wear behavior of the specimens was studied for all specimens before and after treatment by Nd:YaG laser and the dry wear experiments were carried out by sing pinon-disc technique. The specimens were machined as a disk with diameter of 25 mm and circular groove in depth of 3 mm. All specimens were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDS), optical microscopy, and Vickers hardness. The results showed that the dry wear rate was decreased after laser hardening and increased Vickers hardness values by ratio of 2.4:1. The results showed that the values of wear rate for samples having circular grooves are less than samples without grooves after laser treatment.

  10. Facile and scalable preparation of highly wear-resistance superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shanshan; Liu, Ming; Wu, Yiqiang; Luo, Sha; Qing, Yan; Chen, Haibo

    2016-11-01

    In this study, an efficient, facile method has been developed for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES. The as-prepared superhydrophobic wood surface had a water contact angle of 154° and water slide angle close to 0°. Simultaneously, this superhydrophobic wood showed highly durable and robust wear resistance when having undergone a long period of sandpaper abrasion or being scratched by a knife. Even under extreme conditions of boiling water, the superhydrophobicity of the as-prepared wood composite was preserved. Characterizations by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that a typical and tough hierarchical micro/nanostructure was created on the wood substrate and vinyltriethoxysilane contributed to preventing the agglomeration of silica nanoparticles and serving as low-surface-free-energy substances. This superhydrophobic wood was easy to fabricate, mechanically resistant and exhibited long-term stability. Therefore, it is considered to be of significant importance in the industrial production of functional wood, especially for outdoor applications.

  11. Plasma immersion ion implantation on 15-5PH stainless steel: influence on fatigue strength and wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, R.; Cioffi, M. O. H.; Voorwald, H. J. C.

    2017-05-01

    Surface improvement in steels is of great interest for applications in industry. The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the axial fatigue strength and wear resistance of 15-5 PH stainless steel. It is well know that electroplated coatings, which are used to improve abrasive wear and corrosion properties, affects negatively the fatigue strength. It is also important to consider requirements to reduce the use of coated materials with electroplated chromium and cadmium, that produce waste, which is harmful to health and environment. The HVOF (High velocity oxygen fuel) process provides hardness, wear strength and higher fatigue resistance in comparison to electroplated chromium. Plasma immersion ion implantation has been used to enhance the hardness, wear, fatigue and corrosion properties of metals and alloys. In the present research the fatigue life increased twice for 15-5 PH three hours PIII treated in comparison to base material. From the abrasive wear tests a lower pin mass reduction was observed, associated to the superficial treatments. The improvement of fatigue and mechanical performance is attributed to a combination of nitrides phase structure and compressive residual stresses during the PIII treatment.

  12. Development of low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for low-cost Al hot stamping tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, advanced surfaces and coatings have been developed using plasma thermochemical treatment, PVD coating, electroless Ni-BN plating and duplex surface engineering to produce low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for cast iron stamping tools. Their microstructural and nano-mechanical properties were systematically analysed and the tribological behaviour of these new surfaces and coatings were evaluated. The experimental results have shown that under dry sliding condition, the tribological behaviour of aluminium differed great from that of steel regardless of the counterpart material. Highly reactive aluminium had a strong tendency to solder with tool surfaces during dry sliding. However, the lubricity of gray cast irons can be significantly improved by Ni-BN and DLC coatings. The coefficient of friction reduced from about 0.5 for untreated cast irons to about 0.2 sliding against aluminium. Duplex treatment combining plasma nitrocarburising with low-friction coatings showed superior durability than both DLC and Ni-BN coatings.

  13. Effects of Heat-Treatment on the Microstructure and Wear Resistance of a High-Chromium Cast Iron for Rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hong Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of microstructure and mechanical properties of a high-chromium cast iron for rolls were studied from as-cast to the final heat treatments. Results show that the as-cast microstructure of the HCCI consists of M7C3 carbide, M23C6 carbide, martensite matrix, and retained austenite. The large dendritic M7C3 carbide surrounds the matrix, and the M23C6 carbide is mainly distributed in the matrix. Part of M23C6 carbide transforms to M7C3 carbide and is dissolved in austenite during austenization at 1020°C. Thus, the amount of M23C6 carbide decreases, whereas that of M7C3 carbide increases after quenching; the highest hardness is also obtained. After tempering, the martensite transforms to a tempered martensite, and some carbide precipitates in the martensite matrix. The hardness also changes from HRC62.1, which corresponds to quenching, to HRC55.2 and HRC56.3, which correspond to once and twice tempering, respectively. However, tempering could improve the impact toughness and wear resistance of the HCCI.

  14. EFECT OF PLASMA IMMERSION ION IMPLANTATION TREATEMENT IN THE WEAR RESISTANCE OF Ti-6Al-4V ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zepka, Susana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was the evaluation of wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy after plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII in different immersion times. The goal of this process was the modification of surface properties of the alloy to obtain better tribology properties. In this process, atoms can be injected on the material´s surface changing the mechanical properties in the region near the surface independently of thermodynamics variables, as solubility and difusivity. The samples were submitted to 120 e 180 minutes of implantation at 250°C in the three samples for each condition. The wear analyses were made by pin-on-disk process, where the lost volumes and wear coefficients were compared in the samples. It was observed the decreasing of attrite coefficient and the lost volume of the material during wear test. The implanted sample by 180 minutes has showed the wear coefficient 35.12% lower in comparison of the sample without treatment, and 11.09% lower in comparison of implanted sample by 120 minutes. It can be observed that the sample implanted by 180 minutes showed lower wear coefficient.

  15. DIFFUSIVELY ALLOYED COMPOUNDS MADE OF METAL DISCARD WITH A REDUCED MELTING TEMPERATURE FOR OBTAINING WEAR RESISTANT COATINGS USING INDUCTION HARD-FACING TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Shcherbakou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of obtaining diffusion doped alloys made from metal scrap is reviewed in the article. The influence of short term preprocessing at high temperature on structure formation by concentrated energy sources within the further induction deposit is reviewed. A mechanism of a contact eutectic melting in diffusion doped alloys at short term high temperature treatment is described and suggested in this work. It was shown that such kind of processing of diffusion doped alloys is a perspective way of treatment when using induction hard-facing technologies for obtaining wear resistant coatings. A resource and energy saving technology was developed for obtaining wear resistant coatings based on diffusion doped alloys from metal scrap treated using induction hard-facing process.

  16. Effect of Age-Hardening Treatment on Microstructure and Sliding Wear-Resistance Performance of WC/Cu-Ni-Mn Composite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yang, Shuai; Liu, Kai; Gui, Chibin; Xia, Weisheng

    2017-06-01

    The Cu-Ni-Mn alloy-based hardfacing coatings reinforced by WC particles (WC/Cu-Ni-Mn) were deposited on a steel substrate by a manual oxy-acetylene weld hardfacing method. A sound interfacial junction was formed between the WC particles and the Cu-Ni-Mn alloy metal matrix binder even after the age-hardening treatment. The friction and wear behavior of the hardfacing coatings was investigated. With the introduction of WC particles, the sliding wear resistance of the WC/Cu-Ni-Mn hardfacing coatings was sharply improved: more than 200 times better than that of the age-hardening-treated Cu-Ni-Mn alloy coating. The sliding wear resistances of the as-deposited and the age-hardening-treated WC/Cu-Ni-Mn hardfacing coatings were 1.83 and 2.26 times higher than that of the commercial Fe-Cr-C hardfacing coating, which is mainly ascribed to the higher volume fraction of carbide reinforcement. Owing to the precipitation of the NiMn secondary phase in the Cu-Ni-Mn metal matrix, the age-hardening-treated coating had better wear resistance than that of the as-deposited coating. The main sliding wear mechanisms of the age-hardening-treated coatings are adhesion and abrasion.

  17. Enhancing Corrosion and Wear Resistance of AA6061 by Friction Stir Processing with Fe78Si9B13 Glass Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy samples including annealed Fe78Si9B13 particles were prepared by friction stir processing (FSP and investigated by various techniques. The Fe78Si9B13-reinforced particles are uniformly dispersed in the aluminum alloy matrix. The XRD results indicated that the lattice parameter of α-Al increases and the preferred orientation factors F of (200 plane of α-Al reduces after friction stir processing. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE for FSP samples increases at first with the temperature but then decreases as the temperature further increased, which can be explained by the dissolving of Mg and Si from β phase and Fe78Si9B13 particles. The corrosion and wear resistance of FSP samples have been improved compared with that of base metal, which can be attributed to the reduction of grain size and the CTE mismatch between the base metal and reinforced particles by FSP, and the lubrication effect of Fe78Si9B13 particles also plays a role in improving wear resistance. In particular, the FSP sample with reinforced particles in amorphous state exhibited superior corrosion and wear resistance due to the unique metastable structure.

  18. Non-contact evaluation of mechanical properties of electroplated wear resistant Ni-P layer from the velocity dispersion of laser SAW; Laser reiki Rayleigh ha no sokudo bunsan wo mochiita taimamo Ni-P mekkiso tokusei no hisesshoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Y.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Nakayama, T. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    We developed a new laser surface acoustic wave (SAW) system and applied this to estimate the mechanical properties of the wear-resistant Ni-P layer electroplated on a stainless steel. The velocity dispersions of Rayleigh wave of the as -plated and heat-treated Ni-P layer were obtained by the one point time domain signal processing. The Ni-P layers with excellent wear resistance produced by the heated treatment higher than 725K were found to show higher Rayleigh velocities than that of the substrate steel, while the Ni-P layer with poor wear resistance showed lower velocities. Young`s moduli of the Ni-P layer, estimated so as the computed velocity dispersion agreed with the measured one, increased with the increase of wear resistance. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Polishability and wear resistance of splint material for oral appliances produced with conventional, subtractive, and additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettig, Fabian; Kustermann, Achim; Kuscu, Ebru; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Spintzyk, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Occlusal splints to treat bruxism are commonly made from polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in a manual workflow (powder-liquid technique). Today digitalization allows a machine-based manufacturing in subtractive (milling) and additive (printing) means using industrial-made PMMA or comparable resins. An in-vitro study should assess the surface finish and screen the wear resistance of conventional and industrial materials. Therefore, a total of 30 specimens made from conventionally PMMA (group C; powder-liquid, Palapress), polycarbonate ingots (group S; innoBlanc splint plus), and light-curing resin (group A; VarseoWax splint) were polished to examine the surface roughness (Ra) by profilometry and further analyzed by SEM. The specimens were loaded with a steatite ball moving 5000 times along 1cm with 5N of surface pressure under constant wetting (artificial saliva). The total height of profile (Pt) was calculated by further profilometry of the specimens. All specimen showed initially comparable Ra values ranging between 0.06 and 0.05µm (SD = 0.01) after polishing. SEM investigations revealed no visual cues for scratches or irregularities in any group. After abrasion test, the comparison of the wear depths, revealed mean Pt values of 111.4µm (SD = 18.5) in C, 85.7µm (SD = 21.5) in S, and 99.1µm (SD = 21.5) in A, whereas the mean of S was statistically different from C (p = 0.025). No signs of abrasion were found on the steatite balls. All materials showed comparable polished surfaces and a similar scale of wear. It remains questionable if the detected statistical differences are of clinical relevance, but indicates the need for tests of novel materials, especially in additive manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anodized porous titanium coated with Ni-CeO2 deposits for enhancing surface toughness and wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Ouyang, Chun

    2017-05-01

    In order to make large improvements of surface toughness and wear resistance for pure titanium (Ti) substrate, anodic titanium oxide (ATO) surface with nanoporous structure was coated with the Ni-CeO2 nanocomposite coatings. Regarding TiO2 barrier layer on Ti surface to inhibit its electrochemical activity, pre-treatments were successively processed with anodizing, sensitizing, activating, and then followed by electroless Ni-P film to be acted as an activated layer for electroplating Ni-CeO2 deposits. The existing Pd atoms around ATO nanopores were expected as the heterogeneous nucleation sites for supporting the growing locations of electroless Ni-P film. The innovative of interface design using porous structure was introduced for bonding pinholes to achieve a metallurgical adhesion interface between Ti substrate and surface coatings. Besides the objectives of this work were to elucidate how effects by the adding CeO2 nanoparticles on modifying microstructures and wear mechanisms of Ni-CeO2 nanocomposite coatings. Many efforts of XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and Nanoindentation tests were devoted to comparing different wear behaviors of Ni-CeO2 coatings relative to pure nickel. Results indicated that uniform-distributed Ti nanopores with an average diameter size of ∼200 nm was achieved using the Phosphate-type anodizing solution at DC 150 V. A worn surface without fatigue cracks was observed for TAO surface coated with Ni-CeO2 deposits, showing the existing Ce-rich worn products to be acted as a solid lubricant phase for making a self-healing effect on de-lamination failures. More important, this finding will be the guidelines for Ce-rich precipitations to be expected as the strengthening phase in anodized porous of Ti, Al and Mg alloys for intensifying their surface properties.

  1. Hydrophobicity attainment and wear resistance enhancement on glass substrates by atmospheric plasma-polymerization of mixtures of an aminosilane and a fluorocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múgica-Vidal, Rodolfo; Alba-Elías, Fernando; Sainz-García, Elisa; Pantoja-Ruiz, Mariola

    2015-08-01

    Mixtures of different proportions of two liquid precursors were subjected to plasma-polymerization by a non-thermal atmospheric jet plasma system in a search for a coating that achieves a hydrophobic character on a glass substrate and enhances its wear resistance. 1-Perfluorohexene (PFH) was chosen as a low-surface-energy precursor to promote a hydrophobic character. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) was chosen for its contribution to the improvement of wear resistance by the formation of siloxane bonds. The objective of this work was to determine which of the precursors' mixtures that were tested provides the coating with the most balanced enhancement of both hydrophobicity and wear resistance, given that coatings deposited with fluorocarbon-based precursors such as PFH are usually low in resistance to wear and coatings deposited with APTES are generally hydrophilic. The coatings obtained were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), static Water Contact Angle (WCA) measurements, tribological ball-on-disc tests and contact profilometry. A relationship between the achievement of a hydrophobic character and the modifications to roughness and surface morphology and the incorporation of fluorocarbon groups in the surface chemistry was observed. Also, it was seen that the wear resistance was influenced by the SiOSi content of the coatings. In turn, the SiOSi content appears to be directly related to the percentage of APTES used in the mixture of precursors. The best conjunction of hydrophobicity and wear resistance in this work was found in the sample that was coated using a mixture of APTES and PFH in proportions of 75 and 25%, respectively. Its WCA (100.2 ± 7.5°) was the highest of all samples that were measured and more than three times that of the uncoated glass (31 ± 0.7°). This sample underwent a change from a hydrophilic to a

  2. Wear resistant pavement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the construction of three special pavement test sections on I-90 east of Spokane, Washington. The test sections included ultra-thin and thin whitetopping, Modified Class D open graded asphalt concrete, and micro/macro surfacing ...

  3. Anodized porous titanium coated with Ni-CeO{sub 2} deposits for enhancing surface toughness and wear resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaowei, E-mail: zhouxiaowei901@163.com; Ouyang, Chun

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Structural design of anodized nanoporous Ti was introduced for bonding pinholes to achieve a metallurgical bonding interface. • Anodized porous Ti substrate was activated by electroless Ni-P film to be acted as transitional layer to deposit Ni-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings. • An analytical model was validated for predicting the Ce-rich worn products as a self-lubricant phase for monitoring wear mechanisms. - Abstract: In order to make large improvements of surface toughness and wear resistance for pure titanium (Ti) substrate, anodic titanium oxide (ATO) surface with nanoporous structure was coated with the Ni-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings. Regarding TiO{sub 2} barrier layer on Ti surface to inhibit its electrochemical activity, pre-treatments were successively processed with anodizing, sensitizing, activating, and then followed by electroless Ni-P film to be acted as an activated layer for electroplating Ni-CeO{sub 2} deposits. The existing Pd atoms around ATO nanopores were expected as the heterogeneous nucleation sites for supporting the growing locations of electroless Ni-P film. The innovative of interface design using porous structure was introduced for bonding pinholes to achieve a metallurgical adhesion interface between Ti substrate and surface coatings. Besides the objectives of this work were to elucidate how effects by the adding CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles on modifying microstructures and wear mechanisms of Ni-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings. Many efforts of XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and Nanoindentation tests were devoted to comparing different wear behaviors of Ni-CeO{sub 2} coatings relative to pure nickel. Results indicated that uniform-distributed Ti nanopores with an average diameter size of ∼200 nm was achieved using the Phosphate-type anodizing solution at DC 150 V. A worn surface without fatigue cracks was observed for TAO surface coated with Ni-CeO{sub 2} deposits, showing the existing Ce-rich worn products to be acted as a

  4. Evaluation of permanent die coatings to improve the wear resistance of die casting dies. Final project report, January 1, 1995--April 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivpuri, R.

    1997-09-18

    Die Casting dies are subject to severe service conditions during the die casting operation. While these severe conditions are necessary to achieve high production rates, they cause the dies which are commonly made of H13 die steel, to suffer frequent failures. The major die failure mechanisms are erosion or washout, Heat checking, soldering and corrosion. Due to their geometrical complexity, die casting dies are very expensive (some dies cost over a million dollars), and thus a large number of parts have to be produced by a die, to justify this cost and leverage the advantages of the die casting process (high production rates, low manpower costs). A potential increase in the die service life, thus has a significant impact on the economics of the die; casting operation. There are many ways to extend die life: developing new wear resistant die materials, developing new surface treatments including coatings, improving heat treatment of existing H13 dies, using better lubricants that can protect the die material, or modifying the die geometry and process parameters to reduce the intensity of wear. Of these the use of coatings to improve the wear resistance of the die surface has shown a lot of promise. Consequently, use of coatings in the die casting industry and their wide use to decrease die wear can improve significantly the productivity of shop operations resulting in large savings in material and energy usage.

  5. Effect of short LED lamp exposure on wear resistance, residual monomer and degree of conversion for Filtek Z250 and Tetric EvoCeram composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopperud, Hilde M; Johnsen, Gaute F; Lamolle, Sébastien; Kleven, Inger S; Wellendorf, Hanne; Haugen, Håvard J

    2013-08-01

    The latest LED dental curing devices claim sufficient curing of restorative materials with short curing times. This study evaluates mechanical and chemical properties as a function of curing time of two commercial composite filling materials cured with three different LED lamps. The composites were Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) and Tetric EvoCeram (Ivoclar Vivadent) and the LED curing devices were bluephase 16i (Ivoclar Vivadent), L.E.Demetron II (Kerr) and Mini L.E.D. (Satelec). Control samples were cured with a QTH-lamp (VCL 400, Kerr). The wear resistance after simulated tooth brushing, degree of conversion, curing depth, and amounts of residual monomers were measured after different curing times. The results of this study show that short curing time with high-intensity LEDs may influence the bulk properties of the materials, resulting in lower curing depth and increased residual monomer content. The measured surface properties of the materials, degree of conversion and wear resistance, were not affected by short curing times to the same extent. This study demonstrates that reduced exposure time with high intensity LEDs can result in composite restorations with inferior curing depth and increased leaching of monomers. Dentists are recommended to use sufficient curing times even with high intensity LEDs to ensure adequate curing and minimize the risk of monomer leaching. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microstructure and wear resistance of Al2O3-M7C3/Fe composite coatings produced by laser controlled reactive synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui; Luo, Zhen; Li, Yang; Yan, Fuyu; Duan, Rui

    2015-05-01

    Based on the principle of thermite reaction of Al and Fe2O3 powders, the Al2O3 ceramic reinforced Fe-based composite coatings were fabricated on a steel substrate by laser controlled reactive synthesis and cladding. The effects of different additions of thermite reactants on the phase transition, microstructure evolution, microhardness and wear resistance of the composite coatings were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Vickers microhardness and block-on-ring wear test, respectively. The results show that Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbide are in situ synthesized via the laser controlled reactive synthesis. The Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbides prefer to distribute along the γ-Fe phase boundary continuously, which separates the γ-Fe matrix and is beneficial to the grain refinement. With the increase of thermite reactants, the amount of Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbide in the composite coatings increases gradually. Moreover the cladding layer changes from dendritic structure to columnar structure and martensite structure in the heat affected zone becomes coarse. The increased thermite reactants improve the microhardness and wear resistance of the in situ composite coatings obviously and enhance the hardness of the heat affected zone, which should be ascribed to the grain refinement, ceramic and carbide precipitation and solid solution strengthening.

  7. Microstructure and wear resistance of laser cladded Ni-Cr-Co-Ti-V high-entropy alloy coating after laser remelting processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhaobing; Cui, Xiufang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Yang; Dong, Meiling; Jin, Guo

    2018-02-01

    An attempt, combined with the technologies of laser cladding and laser remelting, has been made to develop a Ni-Cr-Co-Ti-V high entropy alloy coating. The phase composition, microstructure, micro-hardness and wear resistance (rolling friction) were studied in detail. The results show that after laser remelting, the phase composition remains unchanged, that is, as-cladded coating and as-remelted coatings are all composed of (Ni, Co)Ti2 intermetallic compound, Ti-rich phase and BCC solid solution phase. However, after laser remelting, the volume fraction of Ti-rich phase increases significantly. Moreover, the micro-hardness is increased, up to ∼900 HV at the laser remelting parameters: laser power of 1 kW, laser spot diameter of 3 mm, and laser speed of 10 mm/s. Compared to the as-cladded high-entropy alloy coating, the as-remelted high-entropy alloy coatings have high friction coefficient and low wear mass loss, indicating that the wear resistance of as-remelted coatings is improved and suggesting practical applications, like coatings on brake pads for wear protection. The worn surface morphologies show that the worn mechanism of as-cladded and as-remelted high-entropy alloy coatings are adhesive wear.

  8. Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Laser-Clad (Co, Ni61.2B26.2Si7.8Ta4.8 Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that a quaternary Co61.2B26.2Si7.8Ta4.8 alloy is a good glass former and can be laser-clad to an amorphous composite coating with superior hardness and wear resistance. In this paper, alloys with varying Ni contents to substitute for Co are coated on the surface of #45 carbon steel using a 5-kW CO2 laser source for the purpose of obtaining protective coatings. In contrast to the quaternary case, the clad layers are characterized by a matrix of α-(Fe, Co, Ni solid solution plus CoB, Co3B, and Co3Ta types of precipitates. The cladding layer is divided into four regions: Near-surface dendrites, α-(Fe, Co, Ni solid solution plus dispersed particles in the middle zone, columnar bonding zone, and heat-affected area that consists of martensite. The hardness gradually decreases with increasing Ni content, and the maximum hardness occurs in the middle zone. Both the friction coefficient and wear volume are minimized in the alloy containing 12.2% Ni. Compared with the previous cobalt-based quaternary alloy Co61.2B26.2Si7.8Ta4.8, the addition of the Ni element reduces the glass-forming ability and henceforth the hardness and wear resistance of the clad layers.

  9. Microstructures and tribological properties of plasma sprayed WC-Co-Cu-BaF 2/CaF 2 self-lubricating wear resistant coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Yingchun; Ji, Heng; Zheng, Xuebing; Ruan, Qichao; Niu, Yaran; Liu, Ziwei; Zeng, Yi

    2010-06-01

    A promising WC-Co-Cu-BaF 2/CaF 2 self-lubricating wear resistant coating was deposited via atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process by using homemade feedstock powders composed of WC-Co, Cu and BaF 2/CaF 2 eutectic. The as-prepared cermet coatings had better frictional behavior comparing with the WC-Co coating. Moreover, the often-occurred decarburization of WC in APS process was noticeably improved due to the binding of copper and BaF 2/CaF 2 phase, which not only offered effective solid lubrication, but also acted as bind phases to mend the microstructure and protected WC from decomposition. The optimized specimen contained 10 wt.% Cu and 10 wt.% BaF 2/CaF 2 in a WC-Co matrix, which had excellent frictional and wear performance. The wear mechanism of the self-lubricating wear resistant coating was discussed with the microstructures, compositions and mechanical properties of the composite materials in detail.

  10. Synthesis of High-Temperature Self-lubricating Wear Resistant Composite Coating on Ti6Al4V Alloy by Laser Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian; Liu, Xiu-Bo; Xiang, Zhan-Feng; Shi, Shi-Hong; Chen, Yao; Shi, Gao-Lian; Wu, Shao-Hua; Wu, Yu-Nan

    2015-05-01

    Laser deposition was adopted to prepare novel Ni-based solid solution (γ-NiCrAlTi)/ TiC/α-Ti/CaF2 high-temperature self-lubricating wear resistant composite coating on Ti6Al4V alloy. Microstructure, micro-hardness, wear behavior, and counter-body effect of the coating were investigated systematically. It can be seen that the coating mainly consists of γ-NiCrAlTi, TiC, α-Ti, and small fine CaF2 particles. Average micro-hardness of the coating is 1023 HV0.3, which is about three-factor higher than that of Ti6Al4V substrate (380 HV0.3). The friction coefficient and wear rate of the coating decrease at all test temperatures to different extents with respect to the substrate. The improvement in wear resistance is believed to be the combined effects of the γ-NiCrAlTi solid solution, the dominating anti-wear capabilities of the reinforced TiC carbides, and the self-lubricating property of CaF2.

  11. Hardness and wear resistance of steel-based surface composites fabricated with Fe-based metamorphic alloy powders by high-energy electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyuhong [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Duk-Hyun [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sunghak [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: shlee@postech.ac.kr; Kim, Choongnyun Paul [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-25

    In this study, steel-based surface composites were fabricated with Fe-based metamorphic alloy powders by high-energy electron beam irradiation, and their microstructure, hardness, and wear resistance were investigated. Two kinds of Fe-based metamorphic powders were deposited on a plain carbon steel substrate, and then electron beam was irradiated on these powders to fabricate one-layered surface composites. Two-layered surface composites were also fabricated by irradiating electron beam again onto the powders deposited on the one-layered surface composites. The composite layers of 2.6-3.1 mm in thickness were homogeneously formed without defects, and contained a large amount (up to 64 vol.%) of Cr{sub 2}B or Cr{sub 1.65}Fe{sub 0.35}B{sub 0.96} borides in the Cr{sub 0.19}Fe{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 0.11} or martensite matrix. Since the hardness and wear resistance of the surface composite layers were directly influenced by hard borides, they were two to four times greater than those of the steel substrate. These borides also played a role in improving the high-temperature hardness because they are insoluble and thermally stable even at high temperatures. These findings suggested that various applications of the fabricated surface composites to materials requiring high resistance to heat and abrasion were expected.

  12. Sliding-wear resistance of pure near fully-dense B4C under lubrication with water, diesel fuel, and paraffin oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, Angel L.; Leal, Victor Manuel Candelario; Borrero-López, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    The sliding-wear resistance of pure near fully-dense B4C is investigated, and the wear mode/mechanisms identified, under lubrication with water, diesel fuel, and paraffin oil. It is found that the wear is mild in the three cases, with specific wear rates (SWRs) of 10−16–10−17 m3/N m. Nonetheless......, the wear resistance of the B4C ceramic is one order of magnitude greater under oil lubrication (1016 N m/m3) than under water lubrication (1015 N m/m3), and twice as great for the specific case of paraffin oil than diesel fuel, attributable to the lubricant’s viscosity. It is also found that the wear mode...... is always abrasion, and that the wear mechanisms are plastic deformation and localized fracture with grain pullout. However, in agreement with the macro-wear data, the severity of the wear damage is lower under lubrication with paraffin oil, followed by diesel fuel, and lastly water. Finally...

  13. Effect of deep cryogenic treatment and tempering on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of a wear-resistant austempered alloyed bainitic ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liqing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of deep cryogenic treatment in combination with conven- tional heat treatment process was investigated on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of alloyed bainitic ductile iron. Three processing schedules were employed to treat this alloyed ductile iron including direct tempering treatment, tempering.+deep cryogenic treatment and deep cryogenic treatment.+tempering treatments. The microstructure and mechanical behavior, especially the wear resistance, have been evaluated after treated by these three schedules. The results show that martensite microstructure can be obviously refined and the precipitation of dispersed carbides is promoted by deep cryogenic treatment at .−196 ∘C for 3 h after tempered at 450 ∘C for 2 h. In this case, the alloyed bainitic ductile iron possesses rather high hardness and wear-resistance than those processed by other two schedules. The main wear mechanism of the austempered alloyed ductile iron with deep cryogenic treatment and tempering is micro-cutting wear in association with plastic deformation wear.

  14. Microstructure, Residual Stress, Corrosion and Wear Resistance of Vacuum Annealed TiCN/TiN/Ti Films Deposited on AZ31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite titanium carbonitride (TiCN thin films deposited on AZ31 by DC/RF magnetron sputtering were vacuum annealed at different temperatures. Vacuum annealing yields the following on the structure and properties of the films: the grain grows and the roughness increases with an increase of annealing temperature, the structure changes from polycrystalline to single crystal, and the distribution of each element becomes more uniform. The residual stress effectively decreases compared to the as-deposited film, and their corrosion resistance is much improved owing to the change of structure and fusion of surface defects, whereas the wear-resistance is degraded due to the grain growth and the increase of surface roughness under a certain temperature.

  15. "Bio-glues" to enhance slipperiness of mucins: improved lubricity and wear resistance of porcine gastric mucin (PGM) layers assisted by mucoadhesion with chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikogeorgos, Nikolaos; Efler, Petr; Kayitmazer, A Basak; Lee, Seunghwan

    2015-01-21

    A synergetic lubricating effect between porcine gastric mucin (PGM) and chitosan based on their mucoadhesive interaction is reported at a hydrophobic interface comprised of self-mated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces. In acidic solution (pH 3.2) and low concentrations (0.1 mg mL(-1)), the interaction of PGM with chitosan led to surface recharge and size shrinkage of their aggregates. This resulted in higher mass adsorption on the PDMS surface with an increasing weight ratio of [chitosan]/[PGM + chitosan] up to 0.50. While neither PGM nor chitosan exhibited slippery characteristics, the coefficient of friction being close to 1, their mixture improved considerably the lubricating efficiency (the coefficient of friction is 0.011 at an optimum mixing ratio) and wear resistance of the adsorbed layers. These findings are explained by the role of chitosan as a physical crosslinker within the adsorbed PGM layers, resulting in higher cohesion and lower interlayer chain interpenetration and bridging.

  16. Endurance in Al Alloy Melts and Wear Resistance of Titanium Matrix Composite Shot-Sleeve for Aluminum Alloy Die-casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bong-Jae; Kim, Young-Jig [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Si-Young [Korea Automotive Technology Institute, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the endurance against Al alloy melts and wear resistance of an in-situ synthesized titanium matrix composite (TMC) sleeve for aluminum alloy die-casting. The conventional die-casting shot sleeve material was STD61 tool steel. TMCs have great thermal stability, wear and oxidation resistance. The in-situ reaction between Ti and B4C leads to two kinds of thermodynamically stable reinforcements, such as TiBw and TiCp. To evaluate the feasibility of the application to a TMCs diecasting shot sleeve, the interfacial reaction behavior was examined between Al alloys melts with TMCs and STD61 tool steel. The pin-on-disk type dry sliding wear test was also investigated for TMCs and STD61 tool steel.

  17. The Influence Of Temperature Gradient On Stereological Parameters Of Carbide Phase On Cross-Section Of Abrasive Wear Resistant Chromium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studnicki A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper analysis of temperature gradient and parameters of structure on casting cross-section of abrasive wear resistant chromium cast iron at carbon content of 2,5%wt. and chromium 17%wt. with nickel and molybdenum additives are presented. The castings were made with use of special tester ϕ100mm (method of temperature gradient and derivative analysis with temperature recording in many points from thermal centre to surface (to mould of casting. Registered cooling curves were used to describe the temperature gradient on cross-section of analyzed casting. On the basis of determined curves of temperature gradient measurement fields were selected to make the quantitative studies of structure. The results of studies show significant influence of temperature gradient on quantitative parameters of chromium cast iron structure. Moreover was affirmed that exists a critical temperature gradient for which is present rapid change of quantitative parameters of chromium cast iron structure.

  18. Combined effect of rapid nitriding and plastic deformation on the surface strength, toughness and wear resistance of steel 38CrMoAlA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, B.; Lv, Z.A.; Zhou, Z.A.

    2015-01-01

    The combined treatment of pressurized gas nitriding and cold rolling is proposed as a new approach to rapid preparation of a strong and tough nitrided layer for steel 38CrMoAlA. The microstructural characteristics and properties of the modified surface layer in comparison with those of the conven......The combined treatment of pressurized gas nitriding and cold rolling is proposed as a new approach to rapid preparation of a strong and tough nitrided layer for steel 38CrMoAlA. The microstructural characteristics and properties of the modified surface layer in comparison with those...... of the conventionally gas nitrided sample have systematically been evaluated. The results show that the hardness and toughness of the nitrided surface layer can be significantly improved by the combined treatment. Especially, the wear resistance of nitrided surface layer under heavy loads was greatly enhanced. It can...

  19. Microstructure and wear behaviors of laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-WS2 high temperature self-lubricating wear-resistant composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mao-Sheng; Liu, Xiu-Bo; Fan, Ji-Wei; He, Xiang-Ming; Shi, Shi-Hong; Fu, Ge-Yan; Wang, Ming-Di; Chen, Shu-Fa

    2012-02-01

    The high temperature self-lubricating wear-resistant NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 coating and wear-resistant NiCr/Cr3C2 coating were fabricated on 0Cr18Ni9 austenitic stainless steel by laser cladding. Phase constitutions and microstructures were investigated, and the tribological properties were evaluated using a ball-on-disc wear tester under dry sliding condition at room-temperature (17 °C), 300 °C and 600 °C, respectively. Results indicated that the laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2 coating consisted of Cr7C3 primary phase and γ-(Fe,Ni)/Cr7C3 eutectic colony, while the coating added with WS2 was mainly composed of Cr7C3 and (Cr,W)C carbides, with the lubricating WS2 and CrS sulfides as the minor phases. The wear tests showed that the friction coefficients of two coatings both decrease with the increasing temperature, while the both wear rates increase. The friction coefficient of laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 is lower than the coating without WS2 whatever at room-temperature, 300 °C, 600 °C, but its wear rate is only lower at 300 °C. It is considered that the laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 composite coating has good combination of anti-wear and friction-reducing capabilities at room-temperature up to 300 °C.

  20. Effect of pressing temperature on the wear resistance of a Co-based Cr-Mo powder alloy produced by hot pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somunkiran, Ilyas [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.; Balin, Ahmet [Siirt Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Vocational High School

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Co-based Cr-Mo powder alloy was produced at different pressing temperatures by using hot pressing technique and abrasive wear behaviors of the produced specimens were examined. Produced specimens were exposed to abrasive wear experiment using block on disc wear test device by applying a load of 50 N with 100-mesh SiC abrasive paper. Each specimen was investigated at 25, 50, 75 and 100 m. At the end of the experiment, abrasive wear results of the specimens were determined by calculating their mass losses. Microstructural properties of the specimens which were produced at different pressing temperatures were investigated by optical and SEM examinations and their wear resistances were examined by abrasive wear experiments. Consequently, it was observed that in Co-based Cr-Mo powder alloy produced by hot pressing technique; as sintering temperature increased, size of neck formations between the powder grains increased, porosity decreased and abrasive wear resistance increased. [German] In diesem Beitrag zugrunde liegenden Studie wurde eine Co-basierte Cr-Mo-Legierung mittels Heisspressens hergestellt und der Abrasivverschleisswiderstand dieser Proben untersucht. Die hergestellten Proben wurden dem Abrasivverschleissversuch durch einen Block-Scheibe-Versuchsaufbau unterzogen, wobei eine Kraft von 50 N mit einem SiC-Papier (100 mesh) verwendet wurde. Jede Probe wurde ueber eine Distanz von 25, 50, 75 und 100 m untersucht. Am Ende der jeweiligen Experimente wurden die Abrasivverschleissergebnisse ermittelt, indem die Massenverluste berechnet wurden. Die mikrostrukturellen Eigenschaften der Proben, die bei verschiedenen Presstemperaturen hergestellt wurden, wurden mittels optischer und Rasterelektronenmikroskopie bestimmt und ihr Verschleisswiderstand anhand der Verschleissversuche ermittelt. Schliesslich wurde beobachtet, dass bei steigender Sintertemperatur der heissgespressten Co-basierten Cr-Mo-Pulverlegierung die Groesse der Einschnuerungen zwischen den

  1. Effect of In-Office Carbamide Peroxide-Based Tooth Bleaching System on Wear Resistance of Silorane-Based and Methacrylate-Based Dental Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Hasani Tabatabaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Several studies have assessed the characteristics and properties of silorane-based composites and adhesive systems. Considering the extensive application of tooth-whitening agents, possible deteriorative effects of tooth bleaching agents on these restorative materials must be studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an in-office carbamide peroxide-based tooth bleaching agent on the wear resistance of a silorane-based and a conventional microhybrid dimethyl methacrylate-based dental composite with two different application times.  Materials and Methods: Thirty cylindrical specimens were made of Z250 and P90 dental composite resins (n=15 for each composite. Samples made of each composite were divided into three groups (n=5 for immersion in an in-office bleaching agent (Opalescence® Quick 45% for either three or eight hours or saline solution (control. Wear tests were conducted after bleaching using a pin-on disk apparatus under the load of 40N at a constant sliding speed of 0.5 ms-1 for a sliding distance of 300 m. The samples were weighed before and after the wear test. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to statistically analyze the obtained data (α=0.05.Results: There was a significant decrease in the weight of samples after the wear test (P<0.001. However, no significant difference was found among groups in the mean weight of samples before and after the wear test (P>0.05. Conclusion: Bleaching for three or eight hours using 45% carbamide peroxide had no deteriorative effect on the wear resistance of Z250 and P90 composites.

  2. Tribo-Mechanical Properties of HVOF Deposited Fe3Al Coatings Reinforced with TiB2 Particles for Wear-Resistant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Amiriyan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the effect of TiB2 particles on the mechanical and tribological properties of Fe3Al-TiB2 composite coatings against an alumina counterpart. The feedstock was produced by milling Fe3Al and TiB2 powders in a high energy ball mill. The high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF technique was used to deposit the feedstock powder on a steel substrate. The effect of TiB2 addition on mechanical properties and dry sliding wear rates of the coatings at sliding speeds ranging from 0.04 to 0.8 m·s−1 and loads of 3, 5 and 7 N was studied. Coatings made from unreinforced Fe3Al exhibited a relatively high wear rate. The Vickers hardness, elastic modulus and wear resistance of the coatings increased with increasing TiB2 content in the Fe3Al matrix. The wear mechanisms strongly depended on the sliding speed and the presence of TiB2 particles but were less dependent on the applied load.

  3. Investigation of silicon carbon nitride nanocomposite films as a wear resistant layer in vitro and in vivo for joint replacement applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y; Liu, D G; Bai, W Q; Tu, J P

    2017-05-01

    Silicon-contained CNx nanocomposite films were prepared using the ion beam assisted magnetron sputtering under different nitrogen gas pressure. With increase of the nitrogen pressure, silicon and nitrogen content of the CNx films drastically increase, and is saturated as the PN2 reach about 40%. Surface roughness and the contact angle are increase, while the friction coefficient decreased. The CNx film with 5.7at.% Si content possess the lowest friction coefficient of only 0.07, and exhibited the best tribological properties. The impact of CNx films with different silicon content on the growth and the activation of osteoblasts were compared to that of Ti6Al4V. The incorporation of silicon in the CNx film also showed an increase cell adhesion. Bonding structure and surface energy were determined to be the factors contributing to the improved biocompatibility. Macrophages attached to 5.7at.% Si contained CNx films down regulated their production of cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, employed with Si contained CNx coated joint replacements, which were implanted subcutaneously into Sprague-Dawley mice for up to 36days, the tissue reaction and capsule formation was significantly decreased compared to that of Ti6Al4V. A mouse implantation study demonstrated the excellent in vivo biocompatibility and functional reliability of wear resist layer for joint replacements with a Si doped a-CNx coating for 36days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The study of microstructure of wear-resistant coatings applied for protection from abrasive wear of horizontal and tilt drilling drill bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, I. Yu; Zakharova, E. S.; Maslov, A. L.; Polushin, N. I.; Laptev, A. I.; SOvchinnikova, M.

    2017-05-01

    Drill bits of the cutting type over the period of their existence have undergone significant changes - from the use of carbide cutters to diamond composite PDC elements, in which the diamond layer is applied to a hardmetal substrate. Using such elements, it was possible to significantly increase the service life of the drill bits, however, during work, there is a significant abrasive deterioration of the bit body, which does not fully realize the advantages of PDC elements. Therefore, to protect the body from wear use special wear-resistant coatings. This work is devoted to research of microstructural coatings, namely coatings brands WokaDur NiA, HR-6750, HR-6750 with sublayer Rock Dur 47 on various steel substrates which applied by the gas-thermal spraying in Ltd “Oerlikon Metko Rus”. They were examined with the use of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray phase analysis and a Vickers micro-hardness tester. It was established that the microhardness of the coating matrix is 590-660 HV, and the microhardness of tungsten carbide particles reinforcing the coating, is 2145-2455 HV.

  5. Influence of Plasma Transferred Arc Process Parameters on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Wear Resistive NiCrBSi-WC/Co Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitvydas GRUZDYS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-fluxing NiCrBSi and related coatings received considerable interest due to their good wear as well as corrosion resistance at moderate and elevated temperatures. Hard tungsten carbide (WC particles can be included in NiCrBSi for further increase of the coating hardness and abrasive wear resistance. Flame spray technique is widely used for fabrication of NiCrBSi films. However, in such a case, subsequent remelting of the deposited coatings by flame, arc discharge or high power laser beam is necessary. In present study NiCrBSi-WC/Co coatings were formed using plasma transferred arc process. By adjusting plasma parameters, such as current, plasma gas flow, shielding gas flow, a number of coatings were formed on steel substrates. Structure of the coatings was investigated using X-ray diffractometry. Microstructure of cross-sectioned coatings was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Hardness of the coating was evaluated by means of the Vickers hardness tests. Wear tests were also performed on specimens to determine resistance to abrasive wear. Acquired results allowed estimating the influence of the deposition process parameters on structure and mechanical properties of the coatings.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.482

  6. An Investigation on the Wear Resistance and Fatigue Behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V Notched Members Coated with Hydroxyapatite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza H Oskouei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, surface properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy coated with hydroxyapatite coatings were investigated. Wear resistance and fatigue behaviour of samples with coating thicknesses of 10 and 50 µm as well as uncoated samples were examined. Wear experiments demonstrated that the friction factor of the uncoated titanium decreased from 0.31 to 0.06, through a fluctuating trend, after 50 cycles of wear tests. However, the friction factor of both the coated samples (10 and 50 µm gradually decreased from 0.20 to 0.12 after 50 cycles. At the end of the 50th cycle, the penetration depth of the 10 and 50 µm coated samples were 7.69 and 6.06 µm, respectively. Fatigue tests showed that hydroxyapatite coatings could improve fatigue life of a notched Ti-6Al-4V member in both low and high cycle fatigue zones. It was understood, from fractography of the fracture surfaces, that the fatigue zone of the uncoated specimens was generally smaller in comparison with that of the coated specimens. No significant difference was observed between the fatigue life of coated specimens with 10 and 50 µm thicknesses.

  7. Increasing in the wear resistance of injection molds made of 1.2343 steel using Ti/TiN/TiCN/nc-TiCN:a-C/nc-TiC:a-C/a-C nanocomposite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupetsov, Velko; Mishev, Georgi; Dishliev, Stefan; Kopanov, Viktor; Chitanov, Vassiliy; Kolaklieva, Lilyana; Pashinski, Chavdar

    2017-02-01

    Injection molds used in production of plastic components are subject of heavy abrasion wear. The increase of their wear resistance significantly reduces the production cost. In the current work are presented research results of the wear resistance of injection molds made of steel 1.2343, coated with Ti/TiN/TiCN/nc-TiCN: a-C/nc-TiC:a -C/a-C. The study of the wear rate was done using the volumetric method and the influence of the trace length was investigated. The coating thickness, nanohardness, elastic modulus and adhesion were also tested. The coating was applied on unhardened ground specimens, hardened ground specimens and hardened polished specimens.

  8. Wear Resistance Performance of Conventional and Non-Conventional Wind Turbine Blades with TiN Nano-Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hasibul Hasan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency and durability are critical issues that affect widely-adopted aerofoil-power generator as a sustainable source of electrical power. Even though high wind power density can be achieved; installing wind turbines in desert condition has difficulties including thermal variation, high turbulence and sand storms. Sand blasting on turbine blade surface at high velocities causes erosion resulting turbine efficiency drop. Damage-induced erosion phenomena and aeroelastic performance of the blades needed to be investigated. Suitable coating may prevent erosion to a great extent. A numerical investigation of erosion on NACA 4412 wind turbine blade has been performed using commercial computational fluid dynamics software ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 release. Discrete phase model (DPM has been used for modelling multi-phase flow of air and sand particles over the turbine blade. Governing equations have been solved by finite volume method (FVM. Conventional 30-70% glass fibre resin and non-conventional jute fibre composite have been used as turbine blade material. Sand particles of  diameter have been injected from 20, 30, 45, 60 and 90 degree angles at 500C temperature. Erosion rate, wall shear stress and strain rate have been calculated for different wind velocities and impingement angles. Simulation results for higher velocities deviate from the results observed at lower wind velocities. In simulation, erosion rate is highest for impingement angle at low wind velocities, which has been validated by experiment with a mean absolute error (MAE of 5.56%. Erosion rate and wall shear stress are higher on jute composite fibre than glass fibre resin. Developed shear stress on wind turbine blade surface is highest for  impingement angle at all velocities. On the other hand, exerted pressure on turbine blade surface is found highest for 9  angle of attack. Experimental results, with or without Titanium nitride(TiN nano-coating, also revealed that surface roughness

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF WEAR RESISTANT COATINGS FORMED BY PLASMA SPRAYING OF ALLOY Ni–Fe–Cr–Si–B–C SYSTEM REINFORCED WITH CERAMICS Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available . Creating a functionally oriented, including nanostructured, anti-friction materials and coatings with qualitatively new complex of service properties is an important scientific and practical problem. In particular, for the cable industry it is urgent task of ensuring the high performance properties of fast deteriorating stretching and supporting rollers. Working surfaces of these parts operate under practically dry friction conditions with constantly updated material of stretching wire. Plasma spraying is one of the widely used methods of surface engineering to create wear resistant coatings and which is characterized with process flexibility and the ability to create coatings using various materials and alloys including composite ones. The installation UPU-3D with the PP-25 plasma torch was used for plasma spraying. The thickness of the sprayed layer was 0.8–1.1 mm. As a material for the deposition of composite coatings a powder mixture of self-fluxing nickel alloy PG-HN80SR4 (system Ni–Fe–Cr–Si–B–C and a neutral oxide ceramics Al2O3 was used. The amount of ceramics varied from 15 to 33 %. This ceramic oxide was selected due to the desire to reduce coatings’ costs while providing high durability. Carried out phase and microstructural studies have shown when ceramics was added in an amount more than 20 % a formation of conglomerates formed by not melted alumina particles often was observed. These conglomerates serve as crack formation centers in the coating. The phase composition of the coatings practically does not depend on the content of ceramics compounds. Tribological tests have shown that the best results were obtained when the content of the oxide ceramic in the coating was in the range from 15 to 20 %.

  10. Effects of the different frequencies and loads of ultrasonic surface rolling on surface mechanical properties and fretting wear resistance of HIP Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G., E-mail: ligang_scut@outlook.com; Qu, S.G., E-mail: qusg@scut.edu.cn; Pan, Y.X.; Li, X.Q.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Effects of MUSR frequency and load on surface properties of HIP Ti-6Al-4V investigated. • The grains in surface-modified layer were refined and appeared twins and many dense dislocations. • The hardened layer depth and surface residual stress of MUSR- treated samples were significantly improved. • MUSR- treated samples showed the good fretting friction and wear resistance. • The best microstructure and properties of surface-modified layer obtained by sample treated by 30 kHz and 900 N. - Abstract: The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of the different frequencies and loads of multi-pass ultrasonic surface rolling (MUSR) on surface layer mechanical properties, microstructure and fretting friction and wear characteristics of HIP (hot isostatic pressing) Ti–6Al–4 V alloy. Some microscopic analysis methods (SEM, TEM and EDS) were used to characterize the modified surface layer of material after MUSR treatment. The results indicated that the material in sample surface layer experienced a certain extent plastic deformation, and accompanied by some dense dislocations and twins generation. Moreover surface microhardness and residual stress of samples treated by MUSR were also greatly improved compared with the untreated. The fretting friction and wear properties of samples treated by MUSR in different conditions are tested at 10 and 15 N in dry friction conditions. It could be found that friction coefficient and wear volume loss were significantly declined in the optimal result. The main wear mechanism of MUSR-treated samples included abrasive wear, adhesion and spalling.

  11. Evaluation of polymerization shrinkage, polymerization shrinkage stress, wear resistance, and compressive strength of a silorane-based composite: A finite element analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Mitthra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the mechanical properties is important in predicting the clinical behavior of composites. Finite element analysis (FEA evaluates properties of materials replicating clinical scenario. Aim: This study evaluated polymerization shrinkage and stress, wear resistance (WR, and compressive strength (CS of silorane in comparison with two methacrylate resins. Settings and Design: This study design was a numerical study using FEA. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional (3D models of maxillary premolar with Class I cavities (2 mm depth, 4 mm length, and 2.5 mm width created and restored with silorane, nanohybrid, and microhybrid; Groups I, II, and III, respectively. Loads of 200–600 N were applied. Polymerization shrinkage was first determined by displacement produced in the X, Y, and Z planes. Maximum stress distribution due to shrinkage was calculated using AN SYS software. 3D cube models of composite resins were simulated with varying filler particle size. Similar loads were applied. WR and compressive stress were calculated: K W L/H and load/cross-sectional area, respectively. Statistical analysis done using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, and Tukey's honestly significant difference test (P < 0.05. Results: Polymerization shrinkage (0.99% and shrinkage stress (233.21 Mpa of silorane were less compared to microhybrid (2.14% and 472.43 Mpa and nanohybrid (2.32% and 464.88 Mpa. Silorane (7.92×/1011 μm/mm3 and nanohybrid (7.79×/1011 showed superior WR than microhybrid (1.113×/1017. There was no significant difference in compressive stress among the groups. Conclusion: Silorane exhibited less polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress compared to methacrylates. Silorane and nanohybrid showed greater WR compared to microhybrid. CS of all groups was similar.

  12. Nanomechanical properties, wear resistance and in-vitro characterization of Ta2O5 nanotubes coating on biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraf, Masoud; Razak, Bushroa Abdul; Nasiri-Tabrizi, Bahman; Dabbagh, Ali; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Abu; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Bin Sulaiman, Eshamsul

    2017-02-01

    Tantalum pentoxide nanotubes (Ta2O5 NTs) can dramatically raise the biological functions of different kinds of cells, thus have promising applications in biomedical fields. In this study, Ta2O5 NTs were prepared on biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy (Ti64) via physical vapor deposition (PVD) and a successive two-step anodization in H2SO4: HF (99:1)+5% EG electrolyte at a constant potential of 15V. To improve the adhesion of nanotubular array coating on Ti64, heat treatment was carried out at 450°C for 1h under atmospheric pressure with a heating/cooling rate of 1°Cmin(-)(1). The surface topography and composition of the nanostructured coatings were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS), to gather information about the corrosion behavior, wear resistance and bioactivity in simulated body fluids (SBF). From the nanoindentation experiments, the Young's modulus and hardness of the 5min anodized sample were ~ 135 and 6GPa, but increased to ~ 160 and 7.5GPa, respectively, after annealing at 450°C. It was shown that the corrosion resistance of Ti64 plates with nanotubular surface modification was higher than that of the bare substrate, where the 450°C annealed specimen revealed the highest corrosion protection efficiency (99%). Results from the SBF tests showed that a bone-like apatite layer was formed on nanotubular array coating, as early as the first day of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF), indicating the importance of nanotubular configuration on the in-vitro bioactivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of wear-resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components. Volume 1, Coating development and tribological testing: Final report: DOE/ORNL Ceramic Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, M.G.S. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The tribological properties of a variety of advanced coating materials have been evaluated under conditions which simulate the piston ring -- cylinder liner environment near top ring reversal in a heavy duty diesel engine. Coated ``ring`` samples were tested against a conventional pearlitic grey cast iron liner material using a high temperature reciprocating wear test rig. Tests were run with a fresh CE/SF 15W40lubricant at 200 and 350{degrees}C, with a high-soot, engine-tested oil at 200{degrees}C and with no lubrication at 200{degrees}C. For lowest wear under boundary lubricated conditions, the most promising candidates to emerge from this study were high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) Cr{sub 3} C{sub 2} - 20% NiCr and WC - 12% Co cermets, low temperature arc vapor deposited (LTAVD) CrN and plasma sprayed chromium oxides. Also,plasma sprayed Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} materials were found to give excellent wear resistance in unlubricated tests and at extremely high temperatures (450{degrees}C) with a syntheticoil. All of these materials would offer substantial wear reductions compared to the conventional electroplated hard chromium ring facing and thermally sprayed metallic coatings, especially at high temperatures and with high-soot oils subjected to degradation in diesel environments. The LTAVD CrN coating provided the lowest lubricated wear rates of all the materials evaluated, but may be too thin (4 {mu}m) for use as a top ring facing. Most of the coatings evaluated showed higher wear rates with high-soot, engine-tested oil than with fresh oil, with increases of more than a factor of ten in some cases. Generally, metallic materials were found to be much more sensitive to soot/oil degradation than ceramic and cermet coatings. Thus, decreased ``soot sensitivity`` is a significant driving force for utilizing ceramic or cermet coatings in diesel engine wear applications.

  14. Comparative study of the wear resistance of Al2O3-coated MA956 superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canahua Loza, Hugo

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Preoxidation of the MA956 superalloy, proposed as a prosthetic biomaterial, generates a compact and inert a-alumina surface layer. The aim of this study is to assess the wear resistance provided by this alumina layer on the MA956 alloy in comparison with the same coated alloy and versus high density polyethylene. Comparative wear tests were carried out in both dry and wet conditions using the couples MA956/MA956, MA956/UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene and 316LVM/UHMWPE. The results corresponding to the couples MA956/MA956, with and without alumina layer, show that the load has more significant effect than the rotation speed on the weight loss and on the roughness. On the other hand the alumina surface layer provides a clear wear protection. The weight losses of the MA956 specimen in this couple are ten times lower when testing under wet conditions than under dry conditions. The MA956/UHMWPE couple behaves much better than the 316LVM/UHMWPE, as it presents the lowest values of friction coefíicient and weight losses of the MA956 specimen. These are only detectable after 70,000 cycles under a 70 MPa contact pressure. This couple offers the best guarantee of a prolonged service life for articulated parts in a prosthesis.

    La superaleación MA956, que se ha propuesto como biomaterial para prótesis osteoarticulares genera, mediante un adecuado tratamiento de preoxidación, una capa superficial, compacta e inerte, de alúmina alfa. El objetivo del presente trabajo es el estudio de la resistencia al desgaste de esta capa de alúmina, cuando se encuentra en contacto con la propia aleación recubierta y con polietileno de alta densidad. Se realizaron ensayos comparativos de desgaste, tanto en seco como en húmedo, con los pares MA956/MA956, MA956/UHMWPE (polietileno de muy elevado peso molecular y 316LVM/UHMWPE. Los resultados obtenidos con el par MA956/MA956, con y sin capa de alúmina, indican que la carga es el factor de mayor

  15. Correlation of microstructure with hardness and wear resistance in Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}/stainless steel surface composites fabricated by high-energy electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Eunsub [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sunghak [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: shlee@postech.ac.kr

    2005-09-25

    Correlation of microstructure with hardness and wear resistance in Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}/stainless steel surface composites fabricated by high-energy electron beam irradiation was investigated in the present study. Three kinds of powder mixtures, i.e., 50Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-50CaF{sub 2}(flux), 100Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} and 87.5Cr-12.5C (wt.%), were placed on an AISI 316L stainless steel substrate, which was then irradiated with electron beam. In the specimens fabricated without the flux addition, the surface composite layer of 3.5-4.8 mm in thickness was successfully formed without defects by the self-fluxing effect, and contained a large amount (up to 18 vol.%) of Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides in the austenite matrix. The composite layer fabricated with Cr + C powders having lower melting points than Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} powders was thicker than that fabricated with Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} powders because of more effective melting of Cr + C powders during electron beam irradiation. The hardness and wear resistance of the surface composite layer were directly influenced by hard Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides, and thus were about two times greater than those of the stainless steel substrate.

  16. Influencia de los factores microestructurales en la resistencia al desgaste por deslizamiento de las fundiciones nodulares austemperadas. // Influence of the microstructure factors in the sliding wear resistance of austempered cast ductile iron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Diez Cicero

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre los materiales metálicos de mayor demanda, el hierro dúctil con grafito esferoidal o nodular ocupa en la actualidaduno de los lugares más importantes entre los hierros fundidos de alta resistencia. Desde hace unos veinticinco años laintroducción del hierro nodular austemperado significó de hecho una revolución en el campo de las aleaciones ferrosas. Enel presente trabajo se realiza un estudio de la influencia del conteo de nódulos de grafito del hierro nodular en el proceso deaustemperado, a partir de las características de las estructuras obtenidas, por la variación de la cantidad de nódulos degrafito y de las variables de tratamiento térmico. Dichas estructuras son sometidas a la acción del desgaste, en este caso aun desgaste por deslizamiento mediante un ensayo típico disco-zapata. Con los resultados obtenidos, se realiza un análisisestadístico de la influencia del conteo de nódulos en dichas propiedades y de las causas de este comportamiento, tomandoen consideración la interrelación del conteo de nódulos con las variables de tratamiento térmico utilizadas en las muestrasensayadas y su incidencia en el mecanismo de desgaste.Palabras claves: Hierro nodular, conteo de nódulos, austemperado, desgaste por deslizamiento.____________________________________________________________________________Abstract:A study about the influence of the graphite nodules quantity and some heat treatment parameters in the characteristic of castductile iron is presented. Experimental investigation of wear resistance by sliding is applied to specimens tested ofaustempered ductile irons using a test machine based in the disc- plate system. Statistical analysis about the influence of thegraphite nodule quantity in the wear resistance properties, so as well as, the causes of this behaviour taking into account thegraphite nodule count and some heat treatment variables is done.Key words: austempered ductile iron, graphite nodules, wear

  17. The influence of Ti, N and Ti + N implantation on phase change, microstructure, growth of metallic compounds and correlated effects in hardness and wear resistance in H13 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Tonghe; Ji Chengzhou; Shen Jinghua; Chen Ju (Inst. of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal Univ. (China)); Tan Fujin (Dept. of Physics, Jinan Univ., Guangzhou (China)); Gao Yuzun (General Research Inst. for Non-Ferrous Metal, Beijing (China))

    1992-12-01

    The lattice damage, small intermetallic compound (Fe[sub 2]Ti), metallic compound (TiN, Fe[sub 2]N) formation and supersaturated solutions of Ti or Ti + N-ion implanted into steel with various ion doses and energies were measured by TEM and X-ray diffraction formation and growth of the metallic compound has found to depend on ion dose and energy. Change of phases and microstructure were particularly enhanced with high dose and high energy. Metal hardening also increases with increasing ion dose, energy and the amount and size of metallic compounds. Specimens implanted at target temperature ranging from 300degC to 400degC (HT) or implanted at room temperature (RT) and then annealed at temperature ranging from 300 to 500degC, showed significant increase in hardness. The wear resistance of high energy and high dose implanted steel is better than that of low energy and lower dose implantation. The wear rate decreases 2-2.6 times for low temperature implantation, 10.4 times for HT implantation and high energy implantation. The Fe[sub 2]Ti and TiC precipitates, phase and microstructural changes in the implanted layer are responsible for such a drastic reduction in wear. (orig.).

  18. Wear resistance of Fe-Nb-Cr-W, Nb, AISI 1020 and AISI 420 coatings produced by thermal spray wire arc; Resistencia al desgaste de recubrimientos Fe-Nb-Cr-W, Nb, AISI 1020 y AISI 420 producidos por proyeccion termica por arco electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Covaleda, E. A.; Mercado-Veladia, J. L.; Olaya-Florez, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    The commercial materials 140MXC (with iron, tungsten, chrome, niobium), 530AS (AISI 1015 steel) and 560AS (AISI 420 steel) on AISI 4340 steel were deposited using thermal spray with arc. The aim of work was to evaluate the best strategy abrasive wear resistance of the system coating-substrate using the following combinations: (1) homogeneous coatings and (2) coatings depositing simultaneously 140MXC + 530AS and 140MXC + 560AS. The coatings microstructure was characterized using Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and Laser con focal microscopy. The wear resistance was evaluated through dry sand rubber wheel test (DSRW). We found that the wear resistance depends on the quantity of defects and the mechanical properties like hardness. For example, the softer coatings have the biggest wear rates and the failure mode was characterized by plastic deformation caused by particles indentation, and the other hand the failure mode at the harder materials was grooving. The details and wear mechanism of the coatings produced are described in this investigation. (Author)

  19. Effect of microstructure and microhardness on the wear resistance of zirconia-alumina, zirconia-yttria and zirconia-ceria coatings manufactured by atmospheric plasma spraying; fecto de la microestructura y de la microdureza sobre la resistencia al desgaste de recubrimientos elaborados por proyeccion termica por plasma atmosferico a partir de circona-alumina, circona-itria y circona-ceria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanni Gonzalez, A.; Ageorges, H.; Rojas, O.; Lopez, E.; Milena Hurtado, F.; Vargas, F.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of the structure and microhardness on the wear resistance of zirconia-alumina (ATZ), zirconia-yttria (YSZ) and zirconia-ceria (CSZ) coatings manufactured by atmospheric plasma spraying was studied. The microstructure and the fracture on the cross section of the coatings were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy, the phases were identified using X-Ray Diffraction, the microhardness was measured by Vickers indentation and the wear resistance was evaluated by ball on disc test. The results showed that zirconia-alumina coating exhibits the best performance in the wear test. This behavior is closely related to their microstructure and higher microhardness, despite of its significant quantity of the monoclinic zirconia phase, which has lower mechanical properties than tetragonal zirconia phase. Tetragonal zirconia phase was predominant in the zirconia-yttria and zirconia-ceria coatings and despite this behavior; they did not have a good performance in the wear tests. This low wear resistance was mainly influenced by the columnar structure within their lamellae, which caused a greater detachment of particles in the contact surface during the ball-disc tests, increasing its wear. (Author)

  20. Preparation, characterization and wear resistance to ceramic composites Si C/Ti B{sub 2}; Elaboration, caracterisation et resistance a l`usure de composites ceramiques SiC/TiB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, C.

    1997-12-18

    The composites Si C-Ti B{sub 2} (5,10,15% vol. Ti B{sub 2}) have been synthesized by natural and reactive sintering from Ti O{sub 2}, B{sub 4} C and phenolic resin used as carbon source, by the reaction: Ti O{sub 2} + 0.5 B{sub 4} C +1.5 C -> Ti B{sub 2} + 2 CO (1400 degrees Celsius). They have been characterized from a microstructural, mechanical and tribological point of view. The dispersion of Ti B{sub 2} particles is very homogeneous in optical microscopy and in scanning electron microscopy. The images analysis has showed that most of the particles have a size smaller than 1 {mu}m. The atomic force microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy have revealed the existence of nanometrical particles. Concerning the mechanical properties, the fracture toughness increases with the Ti B{sub 2} rate and the hardness decreases. By friction, the composite materials wear slowly than the monolithic SiC. The wear mechanisms are modified in air and in water. In air, a layer of oxidized scraps, protector if it is stable, are formed for composites while there is formation of rollers for SiC. In water, composites are polished while SiC wears by cleavages. The influence of the Ti B{sub 2} phase on the wear resistance is due to the tribo-oxidation: a lubrication can take place through the tribo-oxidation products. (O.M.) 64 refs.

  1. Análise da resistência ao desgaste de revestimento duro aplicado por soldagem em facas picadoras de cana-de-açúcar Analysis of wear resistance of hardfacing applied by welding in sugarcane shredder knife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemi Coelho Lima

    2010-06-01

    cost is high due to metallic losses by wear. This paper studies the application of hardfacings by flux cored arc welding on the wear resistance of sugarcane shredder knives comparing laboratory and field-test results. Four types of consumable were used: three selfshielded flux cored wires of diameter 1.6 mm of alloys FeCrC, FeCrC+Nb and FeCrC+Ti and a covered electrode of FeCrC alloy of diameter 4.0 mm. The base metal is SAE 1020 steel. Test specimens were evaluated using rubber wheel abrasion tests (ASTM G65. Sugarcane shredder knives hardfaced in the same welding conditions were also tested on a shredder in an alcohol distillery. Wear evaluation is by mass loss. The flux cored wires were welded in short-circuit transfer mode with the same current and voltage values. The wire with Nb had the highest wear resistance in laboratory test but due to cracks and spalling had the least wear resistance in field test. The FeCrC and FeCrC+Ti wires presented the worst results in laboratory tests and the best results in field test, respectively. In comparison with the covered electrode, the FeCrC+Nb wire presented similar performance in laboratory and the FeCrC+Ti wire presented similar performance in field tests.

  2. THE BLADES OF TURBINES PROCESSED BY ELECTRICAL EROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan BADIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Processing by electro erosion EDM (Electric Discharge Machining is a process that uses a series of electric discharges (sparks to erode material from the work piece. Processing by electro erosion exploded. EDM (Electric Discharge Machining has established itself as a precision technology chosen more for what can be done than for what they can not do conventional machines. EDM (Electric Discharge Machining is a processing technology that enabled a multitude of new applications, the importance of increasingly high is placed on the graphite electrode material used. Although there are several methods to determine the correct material for an application, we believe that there are five factors that can mean the difference between success and failure, between profit and loss. These factors are: metal removal rate, wear resistance, surface finish, the processability, the cost of the material.

  3. Wear Resistant Rubber Tank Track Pads

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    panels prior to vulcanization-bonding to the ruober stocks; degreasing, glass beadblasting, solvent-wiping, brush application of bonding agent, and...umP! TABLE I? EVALUATION OF SANTOWEB D IN SBR 1500 Physical Properties Teeted at Ambient: Tensile, psl Modulus @100^ Elopgation, psl Modulus

  4. Influence of silicon content and heat treatment on wear resistance of white chromium cast irons under high speed solidification conditions; Influencia del contenido de silicio y el tratamiento termico en la resistencia al desgaste de fundiciones blancas al cromo en condiciones de rapida solidificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyo, L.; Varela, A.; Verhaege, M.; Garcia, A.; Mier, J.; Moors, M.

    2012-11-01

    The influence of silicon content and heat treatment on microstructure, abrasive and dry friction wear resistance of a 3 % C, 12 % Cr cast iron, under fast solidification conditions is studied. The fast solidification condition diminishes the carbide volume and the silicon content increases their dispersion and finesses. All matrixes obtained were perlitics, whit different finesses. No intermediate transformation products were noticed. Hardness had little variation. Austenization treatment show little effectivity, with tendency to increase wear in reference to as cast and maintenance treatments. Behavior under dry friction and abrasive wear were similar under test conditions applied whit more influence of carbide morphology in the abrasive wear conditions. (Author) 32 refs.

  5. FY 1998 annual summary report on research and development of metal-based, heat- and wear-resistant composite materials with controlled mesoscopic diplophase structures (second year); 1998 nendo mesosukopikku fukuso soshiki seigyo tainetsu taimamosei kinzokuki fukugo zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Daininendo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This R and D program is aimed at development of highly functional, heat- and wear-resistant composite materials by (1) in-situ method (dissolution and solidification), (2) compositing, based on casting and (3) MA/MM and HIP, and hot pressing, and also aimed at establishment of the techniques for applying these materials to, e.g., transportation machine members, and power generation and steel-making plant members. The heat- and wear-resistant material is characterized by the diplophase structure with a hard phase dispersed in a heat-resistant alloy matrix, where constituent phase type, composition, content, size and distribution are adequately controlled at the mesoscopic level for specific purposes. Fe-Cr-Nb-Mo-Ni-C-based alloys are prepared by the method (1). The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-28%SiO{sub 2} composite prepared by the method (2) shows excellent characteristics. Cast iron for the matrix shows excellent controllability, when its P content is increased to 1.8%. The Fe-50%Cr-4.8%C composite prepared by the method (3) is 12 times more resistant to wear than the conventional material. A mixed powder of 2.3% of high-speed steel and TiC or TiN, when MA- and then HIP-treated, shows at least 3 times more resistant to wear than the cast high-speed steel.(NEDO)

  6. Microhardness and tribological wear of the steels remelted with an electric arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adamiak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents results of a research on the surface strengthening of the C15, C45 and C90U steels by application of concentrated heat stream with the GTAW methodology. Utilizing the GTAW methodology remelting of the surface layer of the sampled steels was performed by a welding head moving at a speed ranging from 200 mm/min to 800 mm/min and the current intensity of the electric arcranging from 50A to 300A. Measurements of hardness, frictional coefficient and intensity of tribological wear were performed in theremelted surface layer. Correlation between the intensity of the electric arc versus microhardness and tribological wear resistance under conditions of dry-friction was established. Following the treatment an increase in hardness as well as increase in the tribological wear resistance could be observed in steel samples. The best results were achieved during remelting of the surface layer with electric arc at 100A intensity and the speed of the welding head in relation to treated sample of 200 mm/min.

  7. Application of a TiAIN coating for the increase wear resistance of a passage floodgate manufactured in steel T9; Aplicacion de un recubrimiento de TiAIN para el incremento de la resistencia al desgaste de una compuerta de paso fabricada en acero T9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes de Oca, J.; Gonzalez, H. J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, IPN, Unidad Altamira, Km. 14.5 Carretera Tampico-Puerto industrial Altamira, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Solis, E. [Hy-Teck Fluid Power, Blvd. A. Lopez Mateos No. 310, Col. Nuevo Aeropuerto, 89337 Tampico, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Moreno, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, IPN, UPALM Unidad Zacatenco, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Munoz S, J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)], e-mail: jmontedeocav@ipn.mx

    2009-07-01

    The present work reports a study to increase wear resistance of a ball passage floodgate (steel type T9) trough the application of a thick film (coating). This study have included a material and process selection, synthesis of the coating on steel plates as substrates and spherical device, assembling of the coated floodgate on the ball valves, and finally an evaluation of the valves in the process of a thermoelectric power station. Taking into account the different requirements, a TiAIN coating prepared by cathodic arc evaporation was finally retained. The crystal structure, morphology and chemical composition of the coating were evaluated by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Finally, mechanical properties such as hardness and Young modulus were determined by nano indentation. (Author)

  8. Avaliação da resistência ao desgaste de aluminas nanométricas produzidas a partir da decomposição térmica de acetato de alumínio liofilizado Evaluation of wear resistance of nanometric aluminas produced by thermal decomposition of lyophilized aluminum acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fagury Neto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensaios de resistência ao desgaste, na modalidade pino-contra-disco com pares deslizantes, foram realizados em pinos confeccionados a partir de pós de alumina proveniente do processo de decomposição térmica de acetato de alumínio liofilizado. Pós de alumina referentes às fases alfa-Al2O3 e gama-Al2O3, com e sem aditivos de sinterização (MgO e La2O3, foram usados para confeccionar pinos de desgaste. Pinos feitos também a partir de alumina comercial (A1000 SG foram analisados e os resultados foram comparados. Os ensaios foram feitos de acordo com norma ASTM e mostraram que os pinos confeccionados a partir de alfa-Al2O3 têm elevada resistência ao desgaste, comprovada pelos ensaios de perda de massa e microscopia eletrônica. Os pinos de gama-Al2O3 tiveram desempenho intermediário e os pinos de A1000 SG mostraram resultados menos expressivos.Wear resistance tests, using the pin-on-disk test method with sliding pairs, were carried out on pins produced from alumina powders prepared by thermal decomposition of lyophilized aluminum acetate. Alumina powders of alpha-Al2O3 and gamma-Al2O3 phases, with and without sintering additives (MgO and La2O3, were used to produce wear pins. In addition, pins made of commercial alumina (A1000 SG were tested and the results compared. The tests, carried out according to the ASTM standard, indicated that the pins made with alpha-Al2O3 powder showed high wear resistance, a finding corroborated by mass loss tests and scanning electron microscopy. The gamma-Al2O3 pins showed an intermediary performance while the A1000 SG pins showed less interesting results.

  9. Influence of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakub Ali, Mohammad; Banu, Asfana; Abu Bakar, Mazilah

    2018-01-01

    In obtaining the best quality of engineering components, the quality of machined parts surface plays an important role. It improves the fatigue strength, wear resistance, and corrosion of workpiece. This paper investigates the effects of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness of stainless steel using distilled water as dielectric fluid and brass wire as tool electrode. The parameters selected are voltage open, wire speed, wire tension, voltage gap, and off time. Empirical model was developed for the estimation of surface roughness. The analysis revealed that off time has a major influence on surface roughness. The optimum machining parameters for minimum surface roughness were found to be at a 10 V open voltage, 2.84 μs off time, 12 m/min wire speed, 6.3 N wire tension, and 54.91 V voltage gap.

  10. Cutting tools and wear resistant articles and material for same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Tseng-Ying; Huang, Zhen-Kun

    2000-01-01

    A ceramic having a relatively high proportion of an alpha prime SiAlON phase and exhibiting high hardness and toughness. In a particularly preferred embodiment, a cation of Gd is used as a modifying cation.

  11. Tantalum-based thin film coatings for wear resistant arthroprostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagna, C; Faga, M G; Spriano, S

    2011-10-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys with high carbon content (HC-CoCrMo) are widely used as materials for arthroprosthesis, in particular in metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joints. In spite of their good wear and corrosion resistance, production of metallic wear particles and metal ion release will occur on a large time-scale. An enhancement of the metal ion level in the patient's blood and urine is often reported in clinical data. Hypersensitivity, inflammatory response and cell necrosis can occur as consequence. So implants on young patients and women on childbearing age are not so widespread. The aim of this research is the realization of a thin film coating in order to improve the biocompatibility of Co-based alloys and to reduce debris production, ion release and citotoxicity. The innovative process consists of a thermal treatment in molten salts, in order to obtain a tantalum enriched thin film coating. Tantalum is chosen because it is considered a biocompatible metal with high corrosion resistance and low ion release. Three HC-CoCrMo alloys, produced by different manufacturing processes, are tested as substrates. The coating is a thin film of TaC or it can be composed by a multilayer of two tantalum carbides and metallic tantalum, depending on the temperature of the treatment and on the carbon content of the substrate. The thin films as well the substrates are characterized from the structural, chemical and morphological point of view. Moreover mechanical behaviour of treated and untreated materials is analyzed by means of nanohardness, scratch and ball-on-disc wear tests. The coating increases the mechanical and tribological properties of HC-CoCrMo.

  12. FEATURES OF CHROMIUM DOPING OF WEAR-RESISTANT CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Netrebko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work analysis of the influence of chromium on the process of carbide formation, changes in chemical composition of the metal substrate in the areas adjacent to the carbides and at the hardness of iron while economy nickel and manganesealloying.

  13. Evaluation of Wear Resistance of Friction Materials Prepared by Granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunhai; Liu, Yucheng; Menon, Carlo; Tong, Jin

    2015-10-21

    The tribological properties of friction materials prepared by hot-pressing pellets of different sizes were experimentally investigated. Friction and wear tests of the specimens were performed and morphological analysis was carried out by investigating images acquired with both scanning electron and confocal laser microscopes. The highest friction coefficient of friction materials was obtained with pellets having 1-5 mm size. The lowest wear rate was obtained with pellets having 8-10 mm size. Specimens processed by mixing pellets of different sizes had the highest density and the lowest roughness and were the least expensive to fabricate. The results show that granulation generally enabled increasing the friction coefficient, decreasing the wear rate, and reducing the number of defects on the surface of friction materials.

  14. Corrosion and wear resistant metallic layers produced by electrochemical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lasse; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1999-01-01

    Corrosion and wear-corrosion properties of novel nickel alloy coatings with promising production characteristics have been compared with conventional bulk materials and hard platings. Corrosion properties in neutral and acidic environments have been investigated with electrochemical methods...

  15. Factors Affecting the Wear Resistance of Forging Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwierzchowski M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The durability of forging tools is a function of many variables: tool heat treatment, surface quality, temperature, pressure, number of forgings, diffusion layers (nitriding and many others. The objective of study was to analyze and compare the working conditions of forging tools. For the analysis of selected flat surfaces of tools. Analyzed forging dies subjected to normal use. Presented results of laboratory tests . The effect of temperature and time on the properties of the surface layer of forging tools. The results were compared with the literature data. This article shows the results of microhardness tests for forging dies which have forged the corresponding number of forgings. The results of laboratory studies on microhardness of hot working steel 1.2344 in the furnace at various temperatures and time are also presented. The working conditions of the forging tools are very complex. The most often described in the literature are: thermal fatigue, abrasive wear, mechanical fatigue and cracks. The article discusses the effects of increased temperature on the surface properties of forging tools. Forging dies were made of hot work tool steel 1.2344. FEM modeling of changes in the surface layer should take into account changes in tool hardness as a function of time (number of forgings.

  16. NANOSCALE BOEHMITE FILLER FOR CORROSION AND WEAR RESISTANT POLYPHENYLENESULFIDE COATINGS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2003-06-26

    The authors evaluated the usefulness of nanoscale boehmite crystals as a filler for anti-wear and anti-corrosion polyphenylenesulfide (PPS) coatings exposed to a very harsh, 300 C corrosive geothermal environment. The boehmite fillers dispersed uniformly into the PPS coating, conferring two advanced properties: First, they reduced markedly the rate of blasting wear; second, they increased the PPS's glass transition temperature and thermal decomposition temperature. The wear rate of PPS surfaces was reduced three times when 5wt% boehmite was incorporated into the PPS. During exposure for 15 days at 300 C, the PPS underwent hydrothermal oxidation, leading to the substitution of sulfide linkages by the sulfite linkages. However, such molecular alteration did not significantly diminish the ability of the coating to protect carbon steel against corrosion. In fact, PPS coating filled with boehmite of {le} 5wt% adequately mitigated its corrosion in brine at 300 C. One concern in using this filler was that it absorbs brine. Thus, adding an excess amount of boehmite was detrimental to achieving the maximum protection afforded by the coatings.

  17. Selected properties of high velocity oxy liquid fuel (HVOLF - sprayed nanocrystalline WC-CO INFRALLOYTM S7412 coatings modified by high energy electric pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Spadło

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a brief study of selected properties of HVOLF-sprayed nanocrystalline WC-Co InfralloyTM S7412 coatings modified by the application of a high energy electric pulse. The anti-wear coatings were applied on carbon steel with the use of High Velocity Oxy Liquid Fuel (HVOLF spraying system TAFA – JP-5000. The process was modified by the application of the SST France & Vision Lasertechnik device WS 7000 S. The resultant type of coatings may be applied to increase the abrasive wear resistance of tools and machine parts. The properties of the powders and coatings were studied using metallographic methods and EDS analyses. The microhardness and nanohardness of the resultant layers were measured and Young’s modulus of elasticity was determined.

  18. Influence of filler alignment in the mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes/epoxy nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felisberto, M. [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); INQUIMAE-CONICET-UBA, Pab II Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Arias-Duran, A. [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Ramos, J.A.; Mondragon, I. [Dep. Ingenieria Quimica y M. Ambiente. Esc. Politecnica. UPV/EHU, Pza. Europa 1, Donostia-San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Candal, R. [INQUIMAE-CONICET-UBA, Pab II Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia-UNSAM, San Martin, Prov. De Buenos Aires (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Rubiolo, G.H., E-mail: rubiolo@cnea.gov.ar [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Dep. Materiales, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA-CAC), Avda Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, we report the mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes/epoxy composites prepared with aligned and randomly oriented nanotubes as filler. The samples are disks of 30 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness. To obtain the carbon nanotubes alignment, an external electric field (250 VAC; 50 Hz) was applied through the thickness of the sample during all the cure process. The AC electrical current was measured, during the cure, as a strategy to determine the optimum time in which the alignment reaches the maximum value. DC conductivity measured after the cure shows a percolation threshold in the filler content one order of magnitude smaller for composites with aligned nanotubes than for composites with randomly oriented filler (from 0.06 to 0.5 wt%). In the percolation threshold, the achieved conductivity was 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Sm{sup -1}. In both cases, aligned and randomly distributed carbon nanotube composites, the wear resistance increases with the addition of the filler while the Rockwell hardness decreases independently of the nanotubes alignment.

  19. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page discusses key sectors and how they use electricity. Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity.

  20. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  1. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  2. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  3. Electric Substations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Substations. Substations are facilities and equipment that switch, transform, or regulate electric voltage. The Substations feature class includes taps, a location...

  4. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  5. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can pass through your body and cause injuries. These electrical injuries can be external or internal. You may have one or both types. External injuries are skin burns. Internal injuries include damage to ...

  6. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  7. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Ephemeral Electric Potential and Electric Field Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the various embodiments provide for the minimization of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic leakage electrical currents enabling true measurements of electric potentials and electric fields. In an embodiment, an ephemeral electric potential and electric field sensor system may have at least one electric field sensor and a rotator coupled to the electric field sensor and be configured to rotate the electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency. In an embodiment, ephemeral electric potential and electric field measurements may be taken by rotating at least one electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency, receiving electrical potential measurements from the electric field sensor when the electric field sensor is rotating at the quasi-static frequency, and generating and outputting images based at least in part on the received electrical potential measurements.

  9. Deposition and micro electrical discharge machining of CVD-diamond layers incorporated with silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, R.; Berger, T.; Prieske, M.; Börner, R.; Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Zeidler, H.; Schubert, A.

    2017-10-01

    In metal forming, lubricants have to be used to prevent corrosion or to reduce friction and tool wear. From an economical and ecological point of view, the aim is to avoid the usage of lubricants. For dry deep drawing of aluminum sheets it is intended to apply locally micro-structured wear-resistant carbon based coatings onto steel tools. One type of these coatings are diamond layers prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Due to the high strength of diamond, milling processes are unsuitable for micro-structuring of these layers. In contrast to this, micro electrical discharge machining (micro EDM) is a suitable process for micro-structuring CVD-diamond layers. Due to its non-contact nature and its process principle of ablating material by melting and evaporating, it is independent of the hardness, brittleness or toughness of the workpiece material. In this study the deposition and micro electrical discharge machining of silicon incorporated CVD-diamond (Si-CVD-diamond) layers were presented. For this, 10 µm thick layers were deposited on molybdenum plates by a laser-induced plasma CVD process (LaPlas-CVD). For the characterization of the coatings RAMAN- and EDX-analyses were conducted. Experiments in EDM were carried out with a tungsten carbide tool electrode with a diameter of 90 µm to investigate the micro-structuring of Si-CVD-diamond. The impact of voltage, discharge energy and tool polarity on process speed and resulting erosion geometry were analyzed. The results show that micro EDM is a suitable technology for micro-structuring of silicon incorporated CVD-diamond layers.

  10. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface...... roughness, induced charge, electrostatic probes, and partial discharge transients, together with several follow-on aspects. Each topic is introduced and thereafter the progress achieved through the use of a field-theoretical approach is reviewed. Because the topics cover a wide spectrum of conditions......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  11. Electricity unplugged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalis, Aristeidis

    2009-02-01

    The judge was driving back late one cold winter night. Entering the garage, the battery-charging indicator in his wirelessly powered electric car came on. "Home at last," crossed his mind. He swiped his personal smartcard on the front-door detector to be let in. He heard a "charging" beep from his mobile phone. The blinking cursor on the half-finished e-mail on the laptop had been waiting all day on the side table. He picked the computer up and walked towards his desk. "Good evening, your honour. Your wirelessly heated robe," said the butler-robot as it approached from the kitchen. Putting on the electric garment, he sat on the medical desk chair. His artificial heart was now beating faster.

  12. Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Lewis Research Center undertook research toward a practical, economical battery with higher energy density. Borrowing from space satellite battery technology, Lewis came up with a nickel-zinc battery that promises longer life and twice the range of the lead-acid counterpart. Lewis researchers fabricated a prototype battery and installed it in an Otis P-500 electric utility van, using only the battery space already available and allowing battery weight equal to that of the va's conventional lead-acid battery

  13. Solar Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  14. Climate Action Benefits: Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides background on the relationship between electricity and climate change and describes what the CIRA Electricity analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Electricity Demand and Electricity Supply.

  15. UK electricity `94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    A detailed factual account is presented of the achievements of the UK electricity industry in 1994. The review is divided into sections headed: the UK energy market and electricity`s share; the electricity market; electricity prices; the electric power supply system; quality of service; protection of the environment; manpower and safety trends; business diverisification and the electricity industry in the European Union. Statistical tables are presented on power stations in the UK and key electricity and energy statistics.

  16. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  17. Basic Electricity. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    This guide, the second (part 2) in a set of four guides, is designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, and includes two units: Unit IV--Electrical Theory, covering thirteen lessons (matter, the atom, electrical charges in the atom, rules of electric charges, electricity, atoms in an electrical conductor, electrical…

  18. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  19. Research of physical and mechanical properties of electric steel, providing for the grate bars of the roasting and sintering machines improved operational stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Давидович Учитель

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The grate bars of the conveyor roasting and sintering machines work in severe, aggressive dust and gaseous medium, under cyclic modes «heating-cooling», as well as under the load of iron ore agglomerates what results in bending stress in the body of the grate bar. Consequently, electric steel grate bar must be resistant to chemical and erosion processes, high cyclically changing temperature and have high mechanical properties. The paper discusses the conditions of the grate bars of conveyor roasting and sintering machines wear, depending on the adopted loading schemes. The materials to be processed can be loaded directly from the hopper (direct download or through the use of a feeder (drum-type feeder, roller, etc.. A simplified method to predict the grate bars surface wear on the strength of a number of assumptions has been developed: normal reaction of the pallet surface to the impact of the batch is assumed constant, equal to the maximum of its value when the pallet is in horizontal position; a layer of the batch moves as a rigid body; surface batch layer sliding velocity as related to the pallet surface is taken medium during the relative motion of the layer and equal to the linear velocity of the pallets; the side faces of the grate bars wear is related to related to the surface wear by linear dependence. The dependence of the wear on the friction forces and the steel wear resistance coefficient has been found out

  20. Lead-free, bronze-based surface layers for wear resistance in axial piston hydraulic pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetterick, Gregory Alan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Concerns regarding the safety of lead have provided sufficient motivation to develop substitute materials for the surface layer on a thrust bearing type component known as a valve plate in axial piston hydraulic pumps that consists of 10% tin, 10% lead, and remainder cooper (in wt. %). A recently developed replacement material, a Cu-10Sn-3Bi (wt.%) P/M bronze, was found to be unsuitable as valve plate surface layer, requiring the development of a new alloy. A comparison of the Cu-1-Sn-10Pb and Cu-10Sn-3Bi powder metal valve plates showed that the differences in wear behavior between the two alloys arose due to the soft phase bismuth in the alloy that is known to cause both solid and liquid metal embrittlement of copper alloys.

  1. Wear resistance evaluation of palm fatty acid distillate using four-ball tribotester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshokouh, Iman; Ani, Farid Nasir; Syahrullail, S.

    2012-06-01

    Petroleum reserves are declining nowadays while ironically petroleum is a major source of pollution despite many uses. Researchers are in effort to find an alternative to replace petroleum as a lubricant. One of the best replace sources for petroleum is bio-oil. In this paper, a comparative study of friction and wear was carried out using a fourball tester. In this research, Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) and Jatropha oil, two well-known oils from the vegetable family oils were compared with Hydraulic mineral oil and commercial mineral Engine oil. All investigated oils in this study are used in industries as lubricants. PFAD is a product from refined crude palm oil. It exists as a light brown solid at room temperature and Jatropa oil is produced from the seeds of the Jatropha cruces, a plant that grows in marginal lands. For the wear test, the experimental research condition was comparing four kind of oils with ASTM condition in which the load applied was 392N. The sliding speed was 1200rpm under the lubricant temperature of 75 degree Celsius. The experiment was run for 3600 seconds. The experimental results demonstrated that the PFAD and Jatropha oils exhibited better performance in term of friction and wear compared to Hydraulic and Engine mineral oils.

  2. Impact of UHMWPE texture on friction and wear resistance of hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddoumy Fatima

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultra High Molecular Weight PolyEthylene (UHMWPE is a polymer widely used in hip implants (prostheses as a bearing surface against metal, because of its good mechanical properties and biocompatibility [1]. Nevertheless, the durability of such implants is limited because of failure resulting from osteolysis and aseptic loosening. These two phenomenons are due to the immune response of human body consecutive to the apparition of wear particles of UHMWPE with time.

  3. Laser alloying of Al with Ti and Ni based powders to improve wear resistance and hardness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available /s and 0.012m/s scanning speeds • The was no sufficient melting and infusion of the powder into the substrate obtained at high laser scanning speed • The thickness of the alloyed layer was ~0.52mm Results © CSIR 2008 www...

  4. Characterisation of WC-12Co thermal spray powders and HPHVOF wear resistant coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lovelock, HDL

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen commonly used commercially available, WC 12Co thermal spray powders were characterised in terms of their particle size distribution, surface morphology, cross-sectional morphology, and phase composition. Based on the results, four powders...

  5. ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS TO IMPROVE THE WEAR RESISTANCE OF COATING DEPOSITED ON THE METAL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurij Shalapko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It was established that existing methods show low accuracy when assessing the durability of coatings. Furthermore, they don’t allow assessment of the contribution into durability of structural components and fillers for thermodiffusion and polymer-composite coatings, respectively. A method to evaluate durability of thermal diffusion chrome coatings on carbon steel and gray cast irons has been developed - the speed υp of destruction of the structural components of the coating. In addition, the destruction of each structural component is characterized by a constant value of destruction speed υp and potential φ, and their sharp vibrations are in complete destruction of the coating and the beginning of the destruction of the base metal. From the start of the test until the abrupt change in the rate of destruction υp, which is found on the curve υp - τ is the assessment of durability coating t¶ hat is specified with the curve φ - τ. Accuracy of the durability decreases from ± 30 min to ± 2 min. Developed as a way to assess the durability fillers polymer composite coatings, along with the finding that the rate of destruction υp of the time includes total disability coverage t3aƧ and time breakdown cover τn which are fixed on the curve φ - τ.

  6. Sliding wear resistance of metal matrix composite layers prepared by high power laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, Vaclav; Matthews, D; de Hosson, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Two laser surface engineering techniques, Laser Cladding and Laser Melt Injection (LMI), were used to prepare three different metal matrix composite layers with a thickness of about 1 mm and approximately 25-30% volume fraction of ceramic particles. SiC/Al-8Si, WC/Ti-6Al-4V and TiB2/Ti-6Al-4V layers

  7. TiC/a-C nanocomposite coatings for low friction and wear resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Galvan, D.; Hosson, J.T.M. De; Zhong, ZY; Saka, H; Kim, TH; Holm, EA; Han, YF; Xie, XS

    2005-01-01

    TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings have been deposited by magnetron sputtering and are composed of 2-5nm TiC nanocrystallites well separated by amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H) of about 2nm separation width. A transition from columnar to glassy microstructure has been observed with increasing substrate

  8. Formation of Wear Resistant Steel Surfaces by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mändl, S.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2003-08-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is a versatile and fast method for implanting energetic ions into large and complex shaped three-dimensional objects where the ions are accelerated by applying negative high voltage pulses to a substrate immersed in a plasma. As the line-of-sight restrictions of conventional implanters are circumvented, it results in a fast and cost-effective technology. Implantation of nitrogen at 30 - 40 keV at moderate temperatures of 200 - 400 °C into steel circumvents the diminishing thermal nitrogen activation encountered, e.g., in plasma nitriding in this temperature regime, thus enabling nitriding of additional steel grades. Nitride formation and improvement of the mechanical properties after PIII are presented for several steel grades, including AISI 316Ti (food industry), AISI D2 (used for bending tools) and AISI 1095 (with applications in the textile industry).

  9. Laser surface alloying of aluminium with WC+Co+NiCr for improved wear resistance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nath, S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, laser surfac ealloying of aluminium with WC + Co + NiCr (in the ratio of 70:15:15) has been conducted using a 5 kW continuous wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser (at a beam diameter of 0.003 m), with the output power ranging from 3 to 3.5 k...

  10. Laser surface alloying of aluminium with WC+Co+NiCr for improved wear resistance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nath, S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, laser surface alloying of aluminium with WC + Co + NiCr (in the ratio of 70:15:15) has been conducted using a 5 kW continuous wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser (at a beam diameter of 0.003 m), with the output power ranging from 3 to 3.5 k...

  11. Detonation wear-resistant coatings, alloy powders based on Cr-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Г. Довгаль

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available  Coatings from composition material Cr-Si-B on steel by detonation spraying method are obtained. Composition, structure and tribotechnical characteristics of coatings in comparison with traditional materials on the basis of Ni-Cr and alloy of tungsten and cobalt are investigated.

  12. Wear resistance of high chromium white cast iron for coal grinding rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ortega-Cubillos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las fundiciones blancas al alto cromo utilizadas en componentes demolinos de carbón son materiales que presentan diferentes resistencias al desgaste,dependiendo del tratamiento térmico usado en su fabricación. Las propiedades mecánicas,microestructurales y tribológicas de la aleación con 22% de cromo y 3% de carbono (II DASTM A532-10 y su infl uencia en la resistencia al desgaste fueron investigadas. Para lacaracterización de la aleación fueron realizados diversos ensayos, utilizando los siguientesequipos de laboratorio: durómetro, microdurómetro, microscopio óptico, microscopioelectrónico de barrido, difracción de rayos X, espectrofotómetro de emisión óptica, yequipo para ensayo de desgaste abrasivo de acuerdo con la norma ASTM G65-04 (2010.Los resultados encontrados mostraron que la resistencia al desgaste incrementa cuandola matriz tiene una baja fracción volumétrica de austenita retenida y una alta fracción decarburos secundarios. También indican que no es necesario usar largos tiempos durante ladesestabilización en la aleación II D para obtener una óptima resistencia al desgaste, cuandola aleación fue previamente recocida. Estos resultados indican que la industria puede usartiempos cortos durante la desestabilización de los rodillos de molinos de carbón.

  13. Toughened and corrosion- and wear-resistant composite structures and fabrication methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Ripley, Edward B; Hallman, Russell L

    2014-04-08

    Composite structures having a reinforced material interjoined with a substrate and methods of creating a composite material interjoined with a substrate. In some embodiments the composite structure may be a line or a spot or formed by reinforced material interjoined with the substrate. The methods typically include disposing a precursor material comprising titanium diboride and/or titanium monoboride on at least a portion of the substrate and heating the precursor material and the at least a portion of the substrate in the presence of an oxidation preventative until at least a portion of the precursor material forms reinforced material interjoined with the substrate. The precursor material may be disposed on the substrate as a sheet or a tape or a slurry or a paste. Localized surface heating may be used to heat the precursor material. The reinforced material typically comprises a titanium boron compound, such as titanium monoboride, and preferably comprises .beta.-titanium. The substrate is typically titanium-bearing, iron-bearing, or aluminum-bearing. A welding rod is provided as an embodiment. The welding rod includes a metal electrode and a precursor material is disposed adjacent at least a portion of the metal electrode. A material for use in forming a composite structure is provided. The material typically includes a precursor material that includes one or more materials selected from the following group: titanium diboride and titanium monoboride. The material also typically includes a flux.

  14. Microhardness and wear resistance of PEO-coated 5754 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyaliy, I. E.; Egorkin, V. S.; Sinebryukhov, S. L.; Minaev, A. N.; Gnedenkov, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    We present results of the study aimed at assessing the effect of duty cycle (D) during plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on protective properties of the coatings produced on 5754 aluminum alloy. It is shown that increasing the duty cycle of a microsecond current pulses leads to increased hardness and reduced abrasive wear of the PEO-layers, improving mechanical properties. The obtained data allowed confirming, that increasing the amount of energy consumed for coating growth leads to the formation of thicker PEO-layers with improved tribological properties. The effect of duty cycle during plasma electrolytic oxidation on protective properties of the produced coatings was assessed.

  15. Nanostructured TiC/a-C coatings for low friction and wear resistant applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Galvan, D.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Cavaleiro, A.

    2005-01-01

    Closed-field unbalanced and balanced magnetron sputtering was used to deposit nanocrystalline TiC (nc-TiC)/amorphous carbon (a-C) nanocomposite coatings with hydrogenated or hydrogen-free a-C matrix, respectively. The contents of Ti and C in the coatings have been varied over the full range of

  16. FORMATION OF WEAR-RESISTANT CHROMIUM CAST IRON CASTING INTO THE CHILL MOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of thermal processes of formation of castings from wearproof chromic cast irons for replaceable details of centrifugal mills and crushers is carried out. Influence of protective and dividing coverings on intensity of heating of the chill mold is investigated.

  17. Hybrid metallic nanocomposites for extra wear-resistant diamond machining tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loginov, P.A.; Sidorenko, D.A.; Levashov, E.A.

    2018-01-01

    The applicability of metallic nanocomposites as binder for diamond machining tools is demonstrated. The various nanoreinforcements (carbon nanotubes, boron nitride hBN, nanoparticles of tungsten carbide/WC) and their combinations are embedded into metallic matrices and their mechanical properties...

  18. Page 1 Deposition of Ni-B composites 32.5 The wear resistance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The corrosion resistance was evaluated by counting the number of rust spots, seen at low magnification, on the sample immersed in 3% sodium chloride solution for 24hr. 3. Results. 3.1 Deposit composition. The nickel deposits formed by chemical reduction with sodium borohydride are alloys of nickel and boron. Nickel ...

  19. PRODUCTION OF MASSIVE PROFILE SLUGS AND WEAR-RESISTANT CASTINGS FOR DETAILS OF IMPORTANT ASSIGNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Saikov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of production of massive wearresisting castings and profile slugs for the details of important assignment are studied. It is offered to use economdoped antifriction cast irons and the ways of casting with intensive heat-exchange for creation of such castings.

  20. Improving hardness and wear resistance of austenitic stainless steel; Harte und verschleissfeste Randschicht auf korrosionsbestaendigen Staehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guempel, Paul [Hochschule Konstanz (Germany). Werkstoffprueflabor; Waegner, Martina [Bodycote Hardiff GmbH, Huerth (Germany). S3P-Gruppe

    2010-09-15

    Nowadays more stainless steels are used in the field of automotive technology. These austenitic or ferritic steels have a high corrosion resistance but they are not hardenable and therefore they are susceptible to gallig / fretting during mechanical / tribological loading, for example in connecting rods. With a new surface hardening treatment these detrimental effects can be avoided. Hochschule Konstanz and Bodycote jointly develop this process further to open up new market areas. (orig.)

  1. Sputter deposition and characterisation of hard wear-resistant Ti/TiN multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmonds, M.C.; Swygenhoven, H. van [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Multilayered Ti/TiN thin films have been synthesized by magnetron sputter deposition. Alternating layers of Ti and TiN with layer thickness in the 5-50 nm range are sequentially deposited. The structure of the films have been characterised by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction and reflection and Auger depth profiling. The mechanical properties have been investigated using pin-on-disc wear rate testing, nanoindentation determination of hardness and micro scratch testing. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  2. Characterisation of Wear Resistant Boride Layers on a Tool Steel by Activity Controlled Pack Boronising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The present work addresses the production and characterisation of iron boride layers by pack boronising of a Vanadis 6 tool steel. The boride layers were produced at 900°C for 2h using different pack compositions in order to obtain a single-phase boride layer. The layers were characterized by ele...

  3. Wear resistance of four types of vacuum-formed retainer materials: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Taiyub A; Littlewood, Simon J; Munyombwe, Theresa; Bubb, Nigel L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the resistance to wear of four different vacuum-formed retainer (VFR) materials: Essix C+, Essix ACE, Duran, and Tru-Tain. Essix C+ is a polypropylene polymer; the other materials are polyethylene co-polymers. The study was undertaken at the Leeds Dental Institute, Leeds, UK, with 26 samples in each group. The specimens were vacuum-formed according to the manufacturers' guidelines, and a custom-made wear-simulation machine was used to conduct the test. Each specimen was subjected to 1000 cycles of the wear simulation, with steatite balls as the antagonist material. The resistance to wear of the VFR materials was evaluated by measuring the maximum wear depth using noncontact, three-dimensional surface profilometry. The wear depth was given in micrometers. The median wear depth was 63.20 µm for the Essix C+ group, 7.88 µm for the Essix ACE group, 9.75 µm for the Duran group, and 12.08 µm for the Tru-Tain group. The Kruskal-Wallis test to compare the four VFR materials detected a statistically significant difference between the groups (P materials-Essix ACE, Duran, and Tru-Tain-exhibited significantly less wear than the polypropylene material, Essix C+.

  4. Magnetic head having a wear-resistant layer, and method of manufacturing such a magnetic head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirne, F.W.A.; Zieren, V.; Broese van Groenou, A.; Oorschot, L.F.M. van; Lasinski, P.; Jongh, M. de; Roozeboom, F.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic head having a head face (5) and comprising a head structure composed of thin layers and provided with a transducing element (E11), in which different materials occurring in different areas are present in the head face. The head face is provided with a first layer (31) of a material which is

  5. Abrasive wear resistance optimization of three different carbide coatings by the Taguchi method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guer, Ali Kaya [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials; Kaya, Sinan [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Faculty of Technology

    2017-06-01

    In this study, FeCrC, SiC and B{sub 4}C powders were alloyed on the surface of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel by plasma arc welding. The mass losses of the abrasive wear of the AISI 430 substrate were examined under the loads of 6, 10 and 16 N and in the distances of 10, 20 and 30 m by using Taguchi design method. The results of abrasive wear test were optimized by the minimum optimal control characteristics of the Taguchi procedure and the results were analyzed by using graphical methods. The Taguchi procedure is an important approach to achieve high quality without increasing the cost during the optimization of process parameters. The orthogonal planes of maximum effects of the controllable process parameters and minimum effects of uncontrollable process parameters were employed in the Taguchi method.

  6. Effect of heat treatment on wear resistance of a grinding plate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  7. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance When Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  8. Recycled Aluminium Cans/Eggshell Composites: Evaluation of Mechanical and Wear Resistance Properties

    OpenAIRE

    J.O. Agunsoye; Bello, S. A.; I.S. Talabi; A.A. Yekinni; I.A. Raheem; A.D. Oderinde; T.E. Idegbekwu

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium based metal matrix composites have been produced from recycled aluminium cans and 150µm sized eggshell particles using a stir cast process. The mechanical properties of the control and aluminium can/eggshell composites produced have been investigated. The microstructures of the aluminium can/eggshell composites were examined with the aids of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) after the sample surfaces have been carefully prepared and etched with aqueous solution of 0.5 cm3 nitric ac...

  9. Microstructure and wear-resistance of laser clad TiC particle-reinforced coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, T.C.; Ouyang, J.H.; Pei, Y.T.; Zhou, Y.

    A TiC-Ni alloy composite coating was clad to 1045 steel substrate using a 2kW CO2 laser. The microstructural constituents of the clad layer are found to be gamma-Ni and TiCp in the dendrites, and a fine eutectic of gamma-Ni plus (Fe, Cr)(23)C-6 in the interdendritic areas. Partial dissolution and

  10. Abrasive Wear Resistance of Overlay Composite Alloy with Addition of Carbide Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Tadao, ARAKI; Minoru, NISHIDA; Akio, HIROSE; Kouji, YANO; HIroshi, FUJITA; Faculty of Eng., Ehime University; Faculty of Eng., Ehime University; Faculty of Eng., Osaka University; Kawasaki Steel Co., Ltd.; Tokuden Co., Ltd.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to provide data showing how carbide powder in addition to base alloy powder can be used effectively to increase hardness of overlay alloy and resistance to abrasive wear. An experimental study was performed to examine combinations of base alloy powders and reinforcing powders. The base alloy powders considered were stainless steel, Ni-base alloy, Co-base alloy and high speed steel powder, while reinforcing powders considered were metal-carbide and cera...

  11. Wear resistant composite structure of vitreous carbon containing convoluted fibers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, R.G.; Burton, R.A.

    1996-05-28

    Energy Related Inventions Program Number 613 was a two year program to commercialize a unique new wear material, Metal Reinforced Carbon Composite, MRCC. The program was designed to manufacture sample components of MRCC for evaluation by potential users and manufacturers. As a result of the program Burton Technologies Inc. and Rotary Power International are forming a joint company to manufacture, market and license MRCC materials to a wide range of industries.

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF COMPOSITION, STRUCTURE, TECHNOLOGICAL, MECHANICAL AND RUNNING ABILITIES OF CASTINGS OF WEAR-RESISTANT ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Melnikov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at organization of production of broad and small-serial nomenclature of casting slugs of iron-carbon alloys the complex approach to solving of problem of the melt preparation is necessary.

  13. PTFE-nanocomposites structure and wear-resistance changing in various methods of structural modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashkov, Yu K.; Ruban, A. S.; Rogachev, E. A.; Chemisenko, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    Conditions of polymer materials usage containing nanoelements as modifiers significantly affect the requirements for their physic-mechanical and tribological properties. However, the mechanisms of nanoparticles effect to the polymers tribotechnical properties have not been studied enough. The article aim is to analyze the results of studying polytetrafluoroethylene modified with cryptocrystalline graphite and silicon dioxide and to determine the effectiveness of the modification methods used and methods for further improving filled PTFE mechanical and tribotechnical properties. The effect of modifiers to PCM supramolecular structure was analyzed with SEM methods. The results of modifying the PCM samples surface by depositing a copper film with ion-vacuum deposition methods and changing the structural-phase composition and tribological characteristics are considered. The findings make possible to characterize the physicochemical processes under frictional interaction in metal polymer tribosystems.

  14. Development of a New ATD-P Tester for Hard Wear Resistant Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojka M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented studies was to develop a new geometry of the overflow part of standard ATD-C tester for derivative thermal analysis in a way that it would allow to obtain samples for abrasion and mechanical properties tests in the same mould without the need of cutting them from a block of material. The pattern of new ATD-P tester has parts reflecting implemented samples. Computer simulations regarding initial verification of new tester were performed in NovaFlow software. Chromium cast iron melts were made for testing the sampler in real conditions and TDA analysis for casting material were conducted. The sandmix was prepared on silica sand matrix per the ALPHASET technology. This new solution greatly simplifies the preparations of materials difficult to machine.

  15. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  16. Electric Vehicles in Imperfect Electricity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power mark...

  17. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  18. Agricultural Electricity. Electric Motors. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert T.

    Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…

  19. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  20. DOE handbook electrical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  1. Electrical safety guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  2. Electricity market module: Electricity fuel dispatch submodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    In previous Annual Energy Outlooks (AEO), international electricity trade was represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Electricity Market Module (EMM) modeling framework as an exogenous input. The exception to this exogenous treatment was for firm power projections, i.e., new Canadian hydroelectric model builds. The AEO95 implementation of EMM allowed Canadian hydroelectric projects to be selected in the Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP) submodule on an annual basis and otherwise addressed as any other purchased power commitments. This technical memorandum addresses modifications to the Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule implemented in AEO96 to enhance the treatment of international electricity trade through the representation of economy imports from Canada.

  3. Electrical installations technology

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1968-01-01

    Electrical Installations Technology covers the syllabus of the City and Guilds of London Institute course No. 51, the "Electricians B Certificate”. This book is composed of 15 chapters that deal with basic electrical science and electrical installations. The introductory chapters discuss the fundamentals and basic electrical principles, including the concept of mechanics, heat, magnetic fields, electric currents, power, and energy. These chapters also explore the atomic theory of electric current and the electric circuit, conductors, and insulators. The subsequent chapter focuses on the chemis

  4. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhaoguang [State Grid Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zheng [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  5. Electric circuit theory applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, R

    1981-01-01

    Electric Circuit Theory provides a concise coverage of the framework of electrical engineering. Comprised of six chapters, this book emphasizes the physical process of electrical engineering rather than abstract mathematics. Chapter 1 deals with files, circuits, and parameters, while Chapter 2 covers the natural and forced response of simple circuit. Chapter 3 talks about the sinusoidal steady state, and Chapter 4 discusses the circuit analysis. The fifth chapter tackles frequency response of networks, and the last chapter covers polyphase systems. This book will be of great help to electrical

  6. Electricity market 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have had a common electricity market since 1996. The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the 'Electricity market 2001' publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. Iceland is not included in the description. The publication also includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment. The publication contains data on electricity generation and use during the past years, structure of the electricity market, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic countries and other countries as well as impact of electricity generation system on the environment.

  7. Facile fabrication of iron-based superhydrophobic surfaces via electric corrosion without bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Qinghe [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht100@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Chen, Tianchi [College of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Wei, Yan; Wei, Zhu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion without a bath. • It has a vital significance to the industrialization of the fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on hard metal due to the advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, can be prepared in a large area, easy to construct in the field. • The preparation approach is so facile and time-saving that it delivers an opportunity to construct a superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate and provides the feasibility for industrial application of superhydrophobic surface. • The as-prepared surface has many excellent properties, like low adhesive property, anti-corrosion ability, mechanical durability and anti-icing performance. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surface is of wide application in the field of catalysis, lubrication, waterproof, biomedical materials, etc. The superhydrophobic surface based on hard metal is worth further study due to its advantages of high strength and wear resistance. This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion and studies the properties of as-prepared superhydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic properties were characterized by a water sliding angle (SA) and a water contact angle (CA) measured by the Surface tension instrument. A Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the structure of the corrosion surface. The surface compositions were characterized by an Energy Dispersive Spectrum. The Electrochemical workstation was used to measure its anti-corrosion property. The anti-icing performance was characterized by a steam-freezing test in Environmental testing chamber. The SiC sandpaper and 500 g weight were used to test the friction property. The research result shows that the superhydrophobic surface can be successfully fabricated by electrocorrosion on

  8. Swedish electricity market 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The organization of the Swedish electricity market has been in a state of continual change since the electricity market reform was started in the early 1990s. The conditions for the development of the electricity market have changed since the new Electricity Act came into force on 1 January 1996. The purpose of the reform is to introduce greater competition on the electricity market and provide the consumers with greater freedom of choice and, by open trade in electricity, to create the conditions for more efficient pricing. Being the central energy authority, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, was entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market. The Network Authority, which has the supervisory function for the new electricity market, were entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market and regularly compiling and reporting current market information. The new electricity market has now been operative for ten months. The Network Authority has submitted to the Government a detailed report entitled `Developments on the electricity market`, dealing with the experience gained from the electricity market reform. The purpose of the publication is to provide the players on the electricity market - the decision makers, the media and the general public - with comprehensive and easily accessible information on the market conditions. The publication includes summaries of information on electricity production and use in recent years, the structure of the electricity market from the perspective of a player, electricity trade in Sweden and in northern Europe, electricity prices in Sweden and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  9. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  10. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  11. Electric potential and electric field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, E. R.

    2017-02-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for "illuminating" volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e-Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  12. Electricity market 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsfeldt, T.; Petsala, B.

    2000-08-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have a common electricity market since 1996.The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition,to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the present publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic markets.The publication includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment.

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  17. Home Electrical Safety Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bathrooms, and other areas where the risk of electric shock is higher. Consider having GFCIs installed in locations required by the National Electrical Code, such as kitchens, bathrooms, garages, unfinished basements and ...

  18. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  19. Electricity and Man (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asimov, Isaac

    1974-01-01

    Our whole industrial civilization depends upon cheap energy streaking out in all directions and under fingertip controls—and that would be very difficult without electric current. It would take enormous ingenuity to find substitutes. If all electricity were shut off, then all electronic devices would be dead. Electric lights would darken. Aluminum would become a rare metal. All factories would have to develop power sources on the spot and would have to switch to primitive, mechanical controls. Every house and every farm would have to give up items we have come to take for granted—not only electric lights, but electric irons, electric toasters, electric water pumps, electric control of furnaces, and so on.

  20. Microreactors with electrical fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, A.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2010-01-01

    The use of electric fields in chemistry is considered an important concept of process intensification. The combination of electricity with chemistry becomes particularly valuable at smaller scales, as they are exploited in microreaction technology. Microreactor systems with integrated electrodes

  1. Electric Field Imaging Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Burke, Eric; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields. This work is intended to bring electrostatic imaging to the forefront of new inspection technologies, and new technologies in general. The specific goals are to specify the electric potential and electric field including the electric field spatial components emanating from, to, and throughout volumes containing objects or in free space.

  2. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Keshri, Ritesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  3. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  4. Schneider Electric sozdajot set

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Maailma juhtiv elektriseadmete müüja Schneider Electric ühendab oma ettevõtted Balti- ja Põhjamaades uude divisjoni, mille nimeks saab Schneider Nordic Baltic. Eestis luuakse AS Schneider Electric Eesti, mis seni tegutses AS-i Lexel Electric nime all

  5. Electric glass capturing markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, K.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Electric glass has found its place on the construction market. In public buildings, electrically heatable windows are becoming the leading option for large glass walls. Studies on detached houses, both new and renovated, show that floor heating combined with electrically heatable windowpanes is the best choice with respect to resident`s comfort. (orig.)

  6. Future Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The changing face of energy production in Europe necessitates a rethink in the way that electricity markets are structured. The ‘5s’ (Future Electricity Markets) project is a multi-disciplinary project that is looking to challenge the current approach to the design and operation of electricity...... markets as penetration of renewable energy sources increases...

  7. Electric field analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravorti, Sivaji

    2015-01-01

    This book prepares newcomers to dive into the realm of electric field analysis. The book details why one should perform electric field analysis and what are its practical implications. It emphasizes both the fundamentals and modern computational methods of electric machines. The book covers practical applications of the numerical methods in high voltage equipment, including transmission lines, power transformers, cables, and gas insulated systems.

  8. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  9. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  10. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  11. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  12. Electrical Power Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Electrical power converter for converting electrical power of a power source connected or connectable at an input to electrical DC-power at an output, wherein between the input and the output a first circuit of submodules is provided, wherein said first circuit of submodules and the power source

  13. Managing electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, James H, Jr

    2001-01-01

    Managing Electrical Safety provides an overview of electric basics, hazards, and established standards that enables you to understand the hazards you are likely to encounter in your workplace. Focusing on typical industrial environments-which utilize voltages much higher than household or office circuits-the author identifies the eight key components of an electrical safety program and examines each using a model safety management process. You'll learn how to identify electrical hazards, how to prescribe necessary electrical Personal Protective Equipment, how to ensure that equipment is de-ene

  14. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  15. Pragmatic electrical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Fundamentals introduces the fundamentals of the energy-delivery part of electrical systems. It begins with a study of basic electrical circuits and then focuses on electrical power. Three-phase power systems, transformers, induction motors, and magnetics are the major topics.All of the material in the text is illustrated with completely-worked examples to guide the student to a better understanding of the topics. This short lecture book will be of use at any level of engineering, not just electrical. Its goal is to provide the practicing engineer with a practi

  16. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  17. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development...... of electric vehicles is not that good. This paper selects four cities-Los Angeles, Kanagawa, Hamburg, Amsterdam-that promote electric vehicles successfully and deeply analyzes the development of electric vehicles in these four cities and analyzes the factors that affect the development of electric vehicles...... in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...

  18. An Investigation of the Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining of Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy Using Grey Relations Coupled with Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustufa Haider Abidi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs are advanced engineering materials which possess shape memory effects and super-elastic properties. Their high strength, high wear-resistance, pseudo plasticity, etc., makes the machining of Ni-Ti based SMAs difficult using traditional techniques. Among all non-conventional processes, micro-electric discharge machining (micro-EDM is considered one of the leading processes for micro-machining, owing to its high aspect ratio and capability to machine hard-to-cut materials with good surface finish.The selection of the most appropriate input parameter combination to provide the optimum values for various responses is very important in micro-EDM. This article demonstrates the methodology for optimizing multiple quality characteristics (overcut, taper angle and surface roughness to enhance the quality of micro-holes in Ni-Ti based alloy, using the Grey–Taguchi method. A Taguchi-based grey relational analysis coupled with principal component analysis (Grey-PCA methodology was implemented to investigate the effect of three important micro-EDM process parameters, namely capacitance, voltage and electrode material.The analysis of the individual responses established the importance of multi-response optimization. The main effects plots for the micro-EDM parameters and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA indicate that every parameter does not produce same effect on individual responses, and also that the percent contribution of each parameter to individual response is highly varied. As a result, multi-response optimization was implemented using Grey-PCA. Further, this study revealed that the electrode material had the strongest effect on the multi-response parameter, followed by the voltage and capacitance. The main effects plot for the Grey-PCA shows that the micro-EDM parameters “capacitance” at level-2 (i.e., 475 pF, “discharge voltage” at level-1 (i.e., 80 V and the “electrode material” Cu provided the best multi-response.

  19. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  20. Electrical system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL

    2008-07-15

    An electrical system for a vehicle includes a first power source generating a first voltage level, the first power source being in electrical communication with a first bus. A second power source generates a second voltage level greater than the first voltage level, the second power source being in electrical communication with a second bus. A starter generator may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus, and at least one additional power source may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus. The electrical system also includes at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the first bus and at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the second bus.

  1. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  2. Essays on electricity theft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Keva Ullanda

    Electricity theft is a relatively unknown crime with high economic costs. In this dissertation, I try to identify the factors that motivate persons to steal electricity. First, I use a panel dataset of 97 countries spanning the five year period 2003--2007 to estimate a model that describes the effect of the unemployment rate, GDP per capita, male population and urbanization on theft, robbery and homicide rates. The results are consistent with previous empirical work on crime and economic opportunity. The second and main contribution of this paper is to estimate the same model using distribution loss as a proxy for electricity theft. The results show that the unemployment rate, a key explanatory economic factor for crime, cannot explain variation in electricity theft, although there is some evidence, albeit weak, supporting correlation in rich countries. Therefore, policies that target the reduction of property crime through a reduction in unemployment will have no effect on electricity theft. The third contribution relates to the role that political institutions play in the incentives to steal electricity. After control for socioeconomic factors, I find that there is no relationship between political governance indicators and electricity theft. In the second and third chapters, I compare the United States, a high income, low electricity theft country with Jamaica, a middle income, high electricity theft country. The effect of unemployment on electricity theft mirrors the results found in the first chapter. In the United States, electricity theft is affected by changes in economic conditions but in Jamaica, it is not. These results suggest that the state of institutions plays a role in how social norms are determined. Poor countries will be more likely than rich countries to have weak institutions with social norms that encourage electricity theft.

  3. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  4. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  5. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  6. Electric power annual 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  7. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  8. Electrical Circuit Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Frank

    2006-04-18

    An electrical circuit testing device is provided, comprising a case, a digital voltage level testing circuit with a display means, a switch to initiate measurement using the device, a non-shorting switching means for selecting pre-determined electrical wiring configurations to be tested in an outlet, a terminal block, a five-pole electrical plug mounted on the case surface and a set of adapters that can be used for various multiple-pronged electrical outlet configurations for voltages from 100 600 VAC from 50 100 Hz.

  9. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  10. Electrical applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, David W

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Applications 2 covers the BTEC NII level objectives in Electrical Applications U86/330. To understand the applications, a knowledge of the underlying principles is needed and these are covered briefly in the text. Key topics discussed are: the transmission and distribution of electrical energy; safety and regulations; tariffs and power factor correction; materials and their applications in the electrical industry; transformers; DC machines; illumination; and fuse protection. Included in each chapter are worked examples which should be carefully worked through before progressing to t

  11. Novel Electrically Small Spherical Electric Dipole Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel electrically small spherical meander antenna. Horizontal sections of the meander are composed of wire loops, radii of which are chosen so that the whole structure is conformal to a sphere of radius a. To form the meander the loops are connected by wires at a meridian...... plane. The antenna operates as an electric dipole, i.e. it radiates the TM10 spherical mode. The antenna is self-resonant and can be matched to a wide range of input feed lines without an external matching network. In this paper, a spherical meander antenna of the size ka = 0.27 and the input impedance...

  12. electrical and thermo-electric characterization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-09-04

    Sep 4, 2005 ... in Semiconductors, Phys. Rev. 93, 632. -637. Champness, C. H. and Chen, C. H. (1995):. Electrical and Optical Properties of. Sputtered CdO Thin Films, Solar. Energy Mater. Solar Cells 37, 72 -'76. Chu, T. L. and Chu, S. S. (1990): Degenerate. Cadmium Oxide Films for Electronic. Devices, J. Electron. Mater ...

  13. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  14. Electricity Real Options Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Broszkiewicz-Suwaj, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a real option approach for the valuation of real assets is presented. Two continuous time models used for valuation are described: geometric Brownian motion model and interest rate model. The valuation for electricity spread option under Vasicek interest model is placed and the formulas for parameter estimators are calculated. The theoretical part is confronted with real data from electricity market.

  15. Sustainable Use of Electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    analyses of the demand side indicated a need for such analyses. A model of the energy chain from primary energy to energy services is presented. Electricity consumption pattern are discussed. The vast options for saving electricity through more efficent end-use technologies are presented, and the barriers...

  16. Pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of pulsed electric fields (PEF) was first proposed in 1967 to change the behavior or microorganisms. The electric field phenomenon was identified as membrane rupture theory in the 1980s. Increasing the membrane permeability led to the application of PEF assisted extraction of cellular co...

  17. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  18. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  19. Electric bus systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Pure electric buses (EBs) offer an alternative fuel for the nations transit bus systems. To : evaluate EBs in a transit setting, this project investigated the five electric bus fleet of the : StarMetro transit system of the city of Tallahassee, FL...

  20. Static and Current Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.; Murtha, Kathy T.

    This is a copy of the script for the electrical relationships unit in an auto-tutorial physical science course for non-science majors, offered at the University of Maine at Orono. The unit includes 15 simple experiments designed to allow the student to discover various fundamental electrical relationships. The student has the option of reading the…

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  6. Electricity from wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable electricity generation by the plant microbial fuel cell Fossil fuels are currently the main source of electricity production. Combustion of fossil fuels causes air pollution severely affecting human health and nature. This results in an increasing demand for renewable

  7. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  8. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  9. Planetary Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M

    2008-01-01

    This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...

  10. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  11. Electric power substations engineering

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, John D

    2012-01-01

    The use of electric power substations in generation, transmission, and distribution remains one of the most challenging and exciting areas of electric power engineering. Recent technological developments have had a tremendous impact on all aspects of substation design and operation. With 80% of its chapters completely revised and two brand-new chapters on energy storage and Smart Grids, Electric Power Substations Engineering, Third Edition provides an extensive updated overview of substations, serving as a reference and guide for both industry and academia. Contributors have written each chapt

  12. Intelligent Electricity Broker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Væggemose, Poul Erik; Kulik, Tomas

    when feasible to the system owner. This paper describes how the IEB can be used by house owners, in building clusters, and/or by energy providers to take advantage of electricity stock market prices and weather forecasts to control energy surplus storage suffers as well as to lower electricity bills......The Intelligent Electricity Broker (IEB) is a new energy storage and energy broker facility that serves two purposes. Firstly, it allows for storing excessive energy in the Smart Grid [1, 2, 3] it is connected to. Secondly, it runs a broker-algorithm that ensures that energy is purchased and sold...

  13. Atoms to electricity. [Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to help meet our national energy demand. Nuclear power accounted for over 16 percent of the US electric energy supply in 1986 and was second only to coal as a source of our electric power. In the 1990s, nuclear energy is expected to provide almost 20 percent of the Nation's electricity. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Atoms to electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to help meet our national energy demand. Nuclear power accounted for some 12 percent of the US electric energy supply in 1982. In the 1990's, it is expected to become second only to coal as a source of our electric power, almost doubling its present contribution to our national electricity supply. 14 references, 40 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Electrical futures past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooday, Graeme J N

    2005-12-01

    Futurist writing about technology emerged in the late 19th century at the same time as new kinds of electrical technology were making utopian futures seem practically attainable. Electrical writers and novelists alike thus borrowed from the popular "science" fiction of Jules Verne, Edward Bellamy and others to try to create self-fulfilling prophecies of a future in which electrical gadgets and machines met all major practical needs of civilization. To the extent that many parts of our world are populated by the hardware that they forecast, they succeeded in their goal.

  16. Electric distribution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sallam, A A

    2010-01-01

    "Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery of electricity to end users. The only book that deals with the key topics of interest to distribution system engineers, Electric Distribution Systems presents a comprehensive treatment of the subject with an emphasis on both the practical and academic points of view. Reviewing traditional and cutting-edge topics, the text is useful to practicing engineers working with utility companies and industry, undergraduate graduate and students, and faculty members who wish to increase their skills in distribution system automation and monitoring."--

  17. Drives for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dustmann, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    Internal combustion and electricity as engine driving forces are compared with regard to their specific weight, engine characteristics, efficiency in converting the primary energy and trends of development. Electric drives show a number of advantages especially in cities where frequent stop-and-go traffic is the rule: low emissions, low noise and good utilization of the primary energy are the main advantages here. Technically one needs to have suitable batteries and driving systems. With the Na-S-heavy duty battery coming on to the market a wave of innovations on the area of high-efficiency electric drives is expected in the following years. (orig.).

  18. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  19. Electric power distribution handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Thomas Allen

    2014-01-01

    Of the ""big three"" components of electrical infrastructure, distribution typically gets the least attention. In fact, a thorough, up-to-date treatment of the subject hasn't been published in years, yet deregulation and technical changes have increased the need for better information. Filling this void, the Electric Power Distribution Handbook delivers comprehensive, cutting-edge coverage of the electrical aspects of power distribution systems. The first few chapters of this pragmatic guidebook focus on equipment-oriented information and applications such as choosing transformer connections,

  20. Dielectrics in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur G

    2003-01-01

    Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.

  1. Coaxial Electric Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Coaxial electric heaters have been conceived for use in highly sensitive instruments in which there are requirements for compact heaters but stray magnetic fields associated with heater electric currents would adversely affect operation. Such instruments include atomic clocks and magnetometers that utilize heated atomic-sample cells, wherein stray magnetic fields at picotesla levels could introduce systematic errors into instrument readings. A coaxial electric heater is essentially an axisymmetric coaxial cable, the outer conductor of which is deliberately made highly electrically resistive so that it can serve as a heating element. As in the cases of other axisymmetric coaxial cables, the equal magnitude electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the inner and outer conductors give rise to zero net magnetic field outside the outer conductor. Hence, a coaxial electric heater can be placed near an atomic-sample cell or other sensitive device. A coaxial electric heater can be fabricated from an insulated copper wire, the copper core of which serves as the inner conductor. For example, in one approach, the insulated wire is dipped in a colloidal graphite emulsion, then the emulsion-coated wire is dried to form a thin, uniform, highly electrically resistive film that serves as the outer conductor. Then the film is coated with a protective layer of high-temperature epoxy except at the end to be electrically connected to the power supply. Next, the insulation is stripped from the wire at that end. Finally, electrical leads from the heater power supply are attached to the exposed portions of the wire and the resistive film. The resistance of the graphite film can be tailored via its thickness. Alternatively, the film can be made from an electrically conductive paint, other than a colloidal graphite emulsion, chosen to impart the desired resistance. Yet another alternative is to tailor the resistance of a graphite film by exploiting the fact that its resistance

  2. Shipboard electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2011-01-01

    Shipboard Electrical Power Systems addresses new developments in this growing field. Focused on the trend toward electrification to power commercial shipping, naval, and passenger vessels, this book helps new or experienced engineers master cutting-edge methods for power system design, control, protection, and economic use of power. Provides Basic Transferable Skills for Managing Electrical Power on Ships or on LandThis groundbreaking book is the first volume of its kind to illustrate optimization of all aspects of shipboard electrical power systems. Applying author Mukund Patel's rare combina

  3. Sensible production processes with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eerola, P.; Annala, T.; Wickstroem, T. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    Small and medium-sized industrial enterprises use electricity increasingly for both heating and production, as electricity offers easy adjustability and has little need for maintenance. In production processes, the advantages of electricity also include uniform quality, automation and cleanness

  4. Electric vehicle energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and : renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports : and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state...

  5. Electric current locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  6. Electric & Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reading Introduction Electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) are invisible areas of energy, often referred to as radiation , ... Abstract ] Staff Directory Freedom of Information Act OIG Web Policies Request Translation Services Employment Verification Contact Us ...

  7. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-11-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements.

  8. Restructuring the Electricity Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Buehler, Stefan

    We study the role of vertical structure in determining generating capacities and retail prices in the electricity industry. Allowing for uncertain demand, we compare three market configurations: (i) integrated monopoly, (ii) integrated duopoly with wholesale trade, and (iii) separated duopoly...

  9. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 .mu.m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures.

  10. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Northrup, M.A.

    1999-08-31

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer is disclosed. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 {mu}m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures. 7 figs.

  11. [History of electric defibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Wan, Zhi

    2007-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most effective methods in rescuing those in critical situations. In recent decades, electric cardiac defibrillation has made the biggest advance in the field of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It has been found that the rate of successful resuscitation with electric defibrillation is much higher than by bare-handed or drug resuscitations by which more lives have been saved, has become the most essential and most important means of first aid. The history of the development of electric defibrillation is a successful modality of multidisciplinary cooperation of physicians, biologists, physiologists, and engineers. Although "early defibrillation" has been recognized as an idea of standard therapy and a basic measure of life support by international organizations as American Heart Association, it is far from being perfect and has a long way to go. A review of the history may help to bring the technique of electric defibrillation into perfection, and to save more lives in the future.

  12. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  13. Electric power annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-08

    This report presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and state levels: generating capability and additions, net generation, fossil-fuel statistics, retail sales and revenue, finanical statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, demand side management, nonutility power producers. Purpose is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets.

  14. Integrated Electric Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Millsaps, Knox T.

    2010-01-01

    Patent An integrated electric gas turbine comprises a compressor that includes a plurality of airfoils. An electric motor is arranged to drive the compressor, and a combustor is arranged to receive compressed air from the compressor and further arranged to receive a fuel input. A turbine is arranged to receive the combustion gases from the combustor. A generator is integrated with the turbine and arranged to provide a power output. A controller is connected between the...

  15. Electric Drive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    equivalent turbine moment of inertia for the vehicle about a central vertical axis (assumed equal to 33000 slug ft2 for the 19.5 ton vehicle), v... hydrokinetic transmissions. A comparison of the ’acceleration times (from zero to 20 miles per hour) for the electric and hydrokinetic transmissions is given...in table 5.5-4. The electric transmis- sions in most cases meet or exceed the speed on grade achievable with the hydrokinetic transmissions. 5-214

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).

  17. Essays on electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rud, Linda

    2009-07-01

    The report covers several topics of electricity markets: The first essay, 'Selected Topics on Early Electricity Market Design in Norway' studies market design issues in establishing the market-based Norwegian electricity market. Essays 2-4 focus on issues of network congestion: 'Capacity Charges: A Price Adjustment Process for Managing Congestion in Electricity Transmission Networks' presents the capacity charge approach for managing transmission constraints in electricity networks. 'Understanding the Stochastics of Nodal Prices: Price Processes in a Constrained Network' seeks a further understanding of stochastic nodal prices processes. 'Investment Evaluation in a Constrained Electricity Network with Stochastic Nodal Price Processes' studies how the interaction of the competitive market and the capacitated network affects the evaluation of investments under uncertainty, and points out potential pitfalls of evaluation. In the last essay, 'A Newsboy Model Perspective on the Power Market: The Case of a Wind Power Producer' we discuss aspects of optimal bidding for a wind power producer. (Author)

  18. Electricity and magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2005-01-01

    Shocked by static? Mixed up about magnets? Curious about currents? This book will help you get beyond memorizing electricity-related formulas, rules, and procedures so you can understand the topic at a deep level deep enough to teach it with confidence and comfort. By covering the basics of static electricity, current electricity, and magnetism, the book develops a scientific model showing that electricity and magnetism are really the same phenomenon in different forms. A bonus feature: access to interactive software that you can download from the NSTA Web site. The software will help you investigate electrical circuits from simple to complex without having to buy a lot of expensive materials (or risking electrocution!). Electricity and Magnetism is the fifth title in the award-winning NSTA Press Stop Faking It! Series. As author Bill Robertson writes, The book you have in your hands is not a textbook. It is, however, designed to help you get science at a level you never thought possible, and also to bring yo...

  19. Remarkable improvement of the wear resistance of poly(vinylidene difluoride) by incorporating polyimide powder and carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chunying; Liu, Dengdeng; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Qiaqia; Shen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Kan

    2017-10-01

    Poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) composites reinforced via adding different fillers have attracted wide attention in the field of dielectric materials, but few have been reported in the tribological area. In this paper, the effect of polyimide (PI) powder and carbon nanofibers (CF) as reinforcement phases on the friction and wear performance of PVDF composites has been investigated. It was found that PI powder enhances the mechanical and tribological properties of PVDF and especially as the content of the PI powder reaches 5 wt%. In addition, CF and PI exhibited synergistic effect on the tribological properties of PVDF. With PVDF containing 5 wt% PI powder and 20 wt% CF, the friction and wear behavior of the PVDF composite showed the best performance. PVDF, PI powder and CF can form a consistent network structure, which prevents the polymer molecular chains from moving or deformation, decreasing the wear loss of PVDF composites.

  20. The Influence of Chemical Alloying on the High Temperature Wear Resistance of H-Free DLC Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvan, D.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.T.M. De; Cavaleiro, A.; Chandra, T; Tsuzaki, K; Militzer, M; Ravindran, C

    2007-01-01

    A commercial RF-sputtering deposition rig was employed to deposit H-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings. The influence of alloying elements such as Ti and Si on the structure, mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings was investigated. The coating was observed in cross section and

  1. Microstructure Characterization and Wear-Resistant Properties Evaluation of an Intermetallic Composite in Ni–Mo–Si System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Boyuan; Song, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Gui, Yongliang

    2017-01-01

    ... compounds have been studied for their potential application as structural wear materials or coatings on engineering steels. In the present work, a newly designed intermetallic composite in a Ni–M...

  2. PHASE TRANSFORMATION IN WEAR-RESISTANT MICROALLOYED CHROME-MANGANESE ALLOYS OF TRANSIENT CLASS AND THEIR MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Levchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of regularities of phasestructural transformations at high-temperature thermal processing in complex doped alloy of a transitive class of system Fe-Mn-Cr-Ti-V-C is given.

  3. Wear resistance of WCp/Duplex Stainless Steel metal matrix composite layers prepared by laser melt injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do Nascimento, A. M.; Ocelik, V.; Ierardi, M. C. F.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2008-01-01

    Laser Melt Injection (LMI) was used to prepare metal matrix composite layers with a thickness of about 0.7 mm and approximately 10% volume fraction of WC particles in three kinds of Cast Duplex Stainless Steels (CDSSs). WC particles were injected into the molten surface layer using Nd:YAG high power

  4. Laser surface alloying of AISI 304 stainless steel with WC+Co+NiCr for improving wear resistance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakraborty, A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available � � � ���������� �) � � ��� ���� �� ���,��� �� �� �� ���� ���� �� ������ ���� �� ���������� ���,�� 0���� ()� �����) ������ �� �)� ���,�� 0��� � � �� ����� �� �"�#!�� /C6 � ��� ��� �� �!� /C6 �� �#�������� ��+��� ��� ()� �� � ������ ��� �� ���, � � �� ����� �������� ���, ��� �� �� �� ���������� �� ������� �� :23:�23 2...

  5. Laser Surface Modification of Ti6Al4V-Cu for Improved Microhardness and Wear Resistance Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Erinosho, Mutiu Folorunsho; Akinlabi, Esther Titilayo; Pityana, Sisa; Owolabi, Gbadebo

    2017-01-01

    To modify the properties of Ti6Al4V alloy, Cu has been added to host an antimicrobial effect in the revised alloy for marine application. The Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process on the Ti6Al4V alloy and Cu was been investigated for surface modification in order to combat the problem of biofouling in the marine industry. The investigations focused on the microstructural observations, micro-hardness measurements and dry sliding wear in the presence of 3 and 5 weight percents of Cu. The microst...

  6. Effect of Multipath Laser Shock Processing on Microhardness, Surface Roughness, and Wear Resistance of 2024-T3 Al Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Kadhim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser shock processing (LSP is an innovative surface treatment technique with high peak power, short pulse, and cold hardening for strengthening metal materials. LSP is based on the application of a high intensity pulsed laser beam (I>1 GW/cm2;  t<50 ns at the interface between the metallic target and the surrounding medium (a transparent confining material, normally water forcing a sudden vaporization of the metallic surface into a high temperature and density plasma that immediately develops inducing a shock wave propagating into the material. The shock wave induces plastic deformation and a residual stress distribution in the target material. In this paper we study the increase of microhardness and surface roughness with the increase of laser pulse energy in 2024-T3 Al alloy. The influence of the thickness of the confining layer (water on microhardness and surface roughness is also studied. In addition, the effect of LSP treatment with best conditions on wear behaviors of the alloy was investigated.

  7. Explore the electron work function as a promising indicative parameter for supplementary clues towards tailoring of wear-resistant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Lu, Hao; Bin Yu [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Wang, Rongfeng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology (China); Hua, Guomin [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Yan, Xianguo [School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology (China); Parent, Leo [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada T9H 3E3 (Canada); Tian, Harry [Metallurgical/Materials R& D, GIW Industries, Grovetown, GA 30813-2842 (United States); Chung, Reinaldo [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada T9H 3E3 (Canada); Li, Dongyang, E-mail: dongyang.li@ualberta.ca [School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada)

    2016-07-04

    For materials used under dynamic loading conditions such as impact and impact wear, an appropriate balance between hardness and toughness is highly desired. However, determination of such a balance is challenging, since the toughness depends on both the mechanical strength and ductility, which complicates the judgement and control. Besides, local defects, poor phases and interfaces all could trigger local cracking and consequent global failure. These undesired structural or microstructural imperfections increase the difficulty in controlling the hardness-toughness balance. In this article, using high-Cr cast irons (HCCI) as example, we demonstrate that electron work function is a promising indicative parameter for supplementary clues to adjust the balance between hardness and toughness for HCCIs towards improved performance.

  8. Corrosive-wear resistance of stainless steels for the impeller of slurry pump used in zinc hydrometallurgy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping LI

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents corrosive-wear (C-W behaviors of three kinds of steels under the simulating condition of traditional zinc hydrometallurgy process by using a self-made rotating disk apparatus. Result shows that pure wear loss rate is significantly larger than pure corrosion loss rate. Under this C-W condition, the ranking of C-W resistance is S2 > S3 > S1 (S1: austenite stainless steel; S2: CD-4MCu duplex stainless steel; S3 :17-4PH stainless steel. S2 has excellent C-W resistance due to strong surface deformation strengthening effect of high-density dislocations of the γ phase. S3 also has excellent C-W resistance owing to high hardness and strength. However, S1 does not show good C-W resistance under strong erosion of liquid-solid slurry because of its single-phase austenitic structure and very low hardness. As a result, duplex stainless steels as well as 17-4 PH stainless steel can be used as impeller candidate materials in the zinc hydrometallurgy process due to their excellent C-W resistance and lower cost.

  9. Laser composite surfacing of A681 steel with WC + Cr + Co for improved wear resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Felipe Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying (LSA is a surface treatment technique. It involves the near surface melting by a powerful laser beam with a pre-deposited or concomitantly added alloying element along with a part of the underlying substrate to form a surface alloyed zone. In this paper, it is reported the treatment by laser surface alloying of a cold work steel ASTM A681 substrate simultaneously fed with a powder mixture of 86 wt.% WC + 8 wt.% Cr + 6 wt.% Co. It was carried out using a continuous wave λ = 1064 nm fiber-coupled diode laser with five different laser intensities – resulting in five specimens – and then studied and analyzed their microstructure, phases, composition and microhardness. One of these configurations was applied to enhance a deep drawing tool for automotive steel sheet stamping. The process modified the specimens near surface layer, from a ferritic structure into an austenitic matrix with a refined dendritic microstructure, with an enhanced surface hardness from 250 HV to ∼560 HV. The treated deep drawing tool showed remarkable wear improvement compared to a non-treated one after one thousand stamps. This result allows the process for industrial applications.

  10. Influence of halogen irradiance on short- and long-term wear resistance of resin-based composite materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhamra, Gurcharn S

    2009-02-01

    The Oregon Health Science University (OHSU) four-chamber oral wear simulator was used to examine the impact of halogen irradiance on the short- and long-term wear behavior of four-methacrylate resin-based composites (RBCs). The hypothesis proposed was that exacerbated wear would occur following the long-term wear of RBCs irradiated under non-optimized irradiance conditions.

  11. Qualitative Assessment of Wear Resistance and Surface Hardness of Different Commercially Available Dental Porcelain: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Nagpal, Abhishek; Pawah, Salil; Pathak, Chetan; Issar, Gaurav; Sharma, Pankaj

    2016-09-01

    In an attempt to minimize wear damage to the enamel of antagonist teeth, new low and medium fusing ceramic materials have been developed. Manufacturers usually claim that these ceramics are wear-friendly because of their lower hardness, lower concentrations of crystal phase, and smaller crystal sizes. This study aimed to quantitatively analyze the wear strength of various commercially available dental porcelain with tooth enamel as well as the surface hardness of these dental porcelain. The basic model was designed as a pin on plate arrangement. The tooth specimens were mounted on the stylus which was centered on the ceramic specimen in a wear testing machine. The dental ceramic specimen was centered in the metal die. A load of 40 N was applied at a rate of 80 cycles/minute for 15 minutes. In the current study, mean wear depth (Ra) value, volumetric loss, and surface hardness were obtained by standard quantification method and were statistically evaluated. Ceramco-3 was reported to be most abrasive for enamel; however, Duceram love significantly more abraded itself than the other two, Ceramco-3 and Vita Alpha, and generated the lowest loss of enamel. Also, same abrasive type of wear was revealed for all three variants of tested ceramics. Ceramco-3 was the most abrasive for enamel, while surface roughness (mean wear depth) of Duceram love was maximum and for Ceramco-3 it was minimum. The value of surface roughness for Vita Alpha was in between Duceram love and Ceramco-3. Nonetheless, the mean surface hardness of Duceram love was found to be least and maximum for Vita Alpha. In situations of dental wear and wasting tooth disease (Attrition/Abrasion), Duceram can be applied in lieu of Ceramco-3 so as to prevent worsening of existing dentition. However, in younger patients Vita Alpha would offer maximum durability due to its greater surface hardness.

  12. The Effect of Shielding Gas Composition on Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Resistance Fabricated with PTA Alloying Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çay V.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Powierzchnie stalowe SAE 1020 były oddzielnie stopowane z wcześniej nałożonymi proszkami wysokowęglowego żelazo- chromu (FeCr, żelazo-molibdenu (FeMo i żelazo-tytanu (FeTi za pomocą techniki PTA. Dzięki zastosowaniu trzech różnych typów gazu osłonowego w trakcie procesu wytwarzania stopu, badano wpływ modyfikacji składu gazu osłonowego na mikro- strukturę, twardość i odporność na ścieranie próbek. Najbardziej jednorodną mikrostrukturę i najwyższą odporność na ścieranie otrzymuje się w środowisku gazowym, które zawiera 3% H2. Zwiększenie zawartości H2 do 5% w składzie gazu osłonowego spowodowało powstanie luk i porów w mikrostrukturze oraz spadek odporności na ścieranie. Badania dyfrakcji rentgenowskiej próbek pozwoliły zidentyfikować roztwory stałe żelazo-molibdenu i żelazo-tytanu, ferryt, austenit i martenzyt jako pierwszą fazę w ich mikrostrukturze, oraz FeC. Cr7C3, G3C2, Fe3C, Fe7C3. MoC i TiC jako drugą fazę. W związku z tym stwierdzono, że zmiany w składu gazu osłonowego w procesie stopowania wpłynęły na mikrostrukturę próbek i właściwości ścierne.

  13. The Abrasive Wear Resistance of the Segmented Linear Polyurethane Elastomers Based on a Variety of Polyols as Soft Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Kwiatkowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented results make an original contribution to the development of knowledge on the prediction and/or modeling of the abrasive wear properties of polyurethanes. A series of segmented linear polyurethane elastomers (PUR—In which the hard segments consist of 4,4′-methylene bis(phenylisocyanate and 1,4-butanodiol, whilst polyether, polycarbonate, or polyester polyols constitute the soft segments—Were synthesized and characterized. The hardness and wear performance as functions of the variable chemical composition of polyurethane elastomers were evaluated in order to define the relationship between studied factors. The microstructure was characterized in detail, including analysis of the hydrogen bonding by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and the phase structure by X-ray scattering (WAXS and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC methods. The presented studies provide the key features of the polymer composition affecting the abrasive resistance as well as attempts to explain the origin of the differences in the polyurethane elastomers’ performance.

  14. Imposed Thermal Fatigue and Post-Thermal-Cycle Wear Resistance of Biomimetic Gray Cast Iron by Laser Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qi; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Deping; Chen, Zhikai; Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The present study aims to create coupling biomimetic units on gray cast iron substrate by laser surface treatment (LST). LSTs for single-step (LST1) and two-step (LST2) processes, were carried out on gray cast iron in different media (air and water). Their effects on microstructure, thermal fatigue, and post-thermal-cycle wear (PTW) resistance on the specimens were studied. The tests were carried out to examine the influence of crack-resistance behavior as well as the biomimetic surface on its post-thermal-cycle wear behavior and different units, with different laser treatments for comparison. Results showed that LST2 enhanced the PTW behaviors of gray cast iron, which then led to an increase in its crack resistance. Among the treated cast irons, the one treated by LST2 in air showed the lowest residual stress, due to the positive effect of the lower steepness of the thermal gradient. Moreover, the same specimen showed the best PTW performance, due to its superior crack resistance and higher hardness as a result of it.

  15. Effect of welding parameters of plasma transferred arc welding method on abrasive wear resistance of 12V tool steel deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Keränen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    In the plasma transferred arc, PTA, welding method the powder consumable makes it possible to weld wide variety of alloys. The dilution of the deposit is typically 3-10 % and, thus, the properties of the deposit can be achieved with one-layer deposit. The studied alloy was an iron-based 12V tool steel reinforced with primarily precipitating vanadium carbides. Wide deposits are welded by oscillating the plasma arc and overlapping the weld beads. The mobility of the molten pool of 12V tool...

  16. Wear resistance and friction reduction in acrylo nitrile butadiene rubber through hybrid combination of graphite flakes and nano tungsten disulphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Neha, E-mail: neha87bhu@gmail.com [Defence Material Store Research Development and Establishment (DMSRDE), DRDO, GT Road, Kanpur 208013, U.P (India); Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India); Pandey, Akanksha; Parihar, A. S.; Mishra, A. K.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Prasad, N. E. [Defence Material Store Research Development and Establishment (DMSRDE), DRDO, GT Road, Kanpur 208013, U.P (India); Gandhi, M. N.; Bhattacharyya, A. R. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India)

    2016-05-06

    Friction and wear have considerable role in the life span of two interacting parts. Incorporation of nanofillers in polymers/elastomers matrix causes commendable changes in its tribologicalproperties. The main purpose of this work is to reduce the coefficient of friction and wear rate of Acrylo Nitrile Butadiene rubber (NBR). To achieve such objective traditionally well knownlubricants graphite(G), tungsten disulphide (WS{sub 2}) and there hybrid combination was incorporated in NBR matrix. Effect of applied load (force) and concentration of fillers on tribological properties of NBR had been studied. The filler incorporation enhanced the hardnessby 8%, showed resistance to hydraulic oil and aging effect also got improved significantly. A particular optimized concentration of NBR with hybrid combination of 2% WS{sub 2} and 4% Graphite showed minimum coefficient of friction as well as wear rate. A hypothesis could be attributed that similar lamellar structure of WS{sub 2} and Graphite along with formation of a stable nanoscale disulfide tribofilmcould result in lowering of friction. These substantially improved properties of nanoreinforced rubber materials would definitely pave promising path for plethora of potential technological applications.

  17. Experimental investigation on wear resistance of a new cutting fluid using a four ball tribometer – optimization of additive percent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paleu Viorel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutting fluid manufacturers aim to obtain the best products at the lowest possible price. To achieve such a compromise experimental work is needed, trying to get the lowest allowed content of additive in the base oil. The paper presents the results of standard tests carried out on four ball machine. This tribometer is used to analyze the load-carrying properties of cutting fluids. The results are compared with the standard requirements, related to the measured wear scar on the three lower balls of the four ball device. An optimum of sulphur additive content into the base oil was found around 10%. According to the actual standards and following the results of carried-out tests, for this specific case the lowest acceptable content of additive is around 4%.

  18. Electrical Equipment of Electrical Stations and Substations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-25

    cosm =0.6 it is necessary to lower the load of generator approximately/exemplarily to 140/0 (according to the data of plant "electric power"). As a...cooling gas: the less gai density, that is less than loss. with hydrogen cooling with overpressure 0.035-0.05 Atm(gage) the density of the cooling gas is...under creation condition in machine frame of the overpressure of DOC = 79134822 PAGE gas on the order of 5-6 atm( gaye ) L42-5]. However, at such pressures

  19. An Education in Electrical Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, John W.; Chiappetta, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses teaching electrical safety guidelines in the process of teaching the concepts related to electricity. Discusses household current; electrical insulation; and examples of electrical safety in the home related to appliances, the bathroom, the yard and the neighborhood. (10 references) (MDH)

  20. Electric sales and revenue 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1996. 16 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Fully electric waste collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    Since 15 June, Transvoirie, which provides waste collection services throughout French-speaking Switzerland, has been using a fully electric lorry for its collections on the CERN site – a first for the region!   Featuring a motor powered by electric batteries that charge up when the brakes are used, the new lorry that roams the CERN site is as green as can be. And it’s not only the motor that’s electric: its waste compactor and lifting mechanism are also electrically powered*, making it the first 100% electric waste collection vehicle in French-speaking Switzerland. Considering that a total of 15.5 tonnes of household waste and paper/cardboard are collected each week from the Meyrin and Prévessin sites, the benefits for the environment are clear. This improvement comes as part of CERN’s contract with Transvoirie, which stipulates that the firm must propose ways of becoming more environmentally friendly (at no extra cost to CERN). *The was...

  2. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  3. Solar electric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, G.

    Subjects discussed in connection with solar electricity are related to solar radiation fundamentals, wind electric conversion and utilization, the basic theory of solar cells, photovoltaic materials, photovoltaic technology, components of solar thermal electric systems, solar thermal power plants, and integrated solar thermal electric complexes. The solar technology development in the Arab world is also examined, taking into account the horizon of solar energy in the Arab countries, solar energy activities at the Scientific Research Council in Iraq, solar energy activities at the Royal Scientific Society in Jordan, the solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, application of solar energy in Libya, prospects of solar energy for Egypt, solar energy programs in Qatar, performance characteristics of a 350 kW photovoltaic power system for Saudi Arabian villages, nonconventional energy in Syria, wind and solar energies in Sudan, solar electric research and development program in Tunisia, and solar energy research and utilization in Yemen Arab Republic. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  4. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  5. Electric sales and revenue 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1997. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Electric sales and revenue 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the United States. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1994.

  7. Our Lives with Electric Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schick, Lea

    2017-01-01

    Our lives with electric things are positively charged with meaning. Our bodies pulse with electrical activity. The electric appliances, devices, and technologies around us bring hope and anxiety, possibility and danger. Some have transformed our possibilities for reproducing, nurturing......, and sustaining life. Some mediate human sociality across time and space, while others knit ecological and interspecies relationships together. Still others create possibilities for controlling, managing, exploiting, and ending life. Against this backdrop any anthropology of electricity seems to require electric...... things. Can we still imagine the possibility of lives without electric things? Can electric things help us to address the possibilities and limits of life with electricity? Can our lives with electricity ever be disentangled from electric things? What are the unique capacities and material politics...

  8. Electric power emergency handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labadie, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Emergency Electric Power Administration's Emergency Operations Handbook is designed to provide guidance to the EEPA organization. It defines responsibilities and describes actions performed by the government and electric utilities in planning for, and in operations during, national emergencies. The EEPA Handbook is reissued periodically to describe organizational changes, to assign new duties and responsibilities, and to clarify the responsibilities of the government to direct and coordinate the operations of the electric utility industry under emergencies declared by the President. This Handbook is consistent with the assumptions, policies, and procedures contained in the National Plan for Emergency Preparedness. Claimancy and restoration, communications and warning, and effects of nuclear weapons are subjects covered in the appendices.

  9. Practical electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    N Makarov, Sergey; Bitar, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides comprehensive, in-depth coverage of the fundamental concepts of electrical and computer engineering. It is written from an engineering perspective, with special emphasis on circuit functionality and applications. Reliance on higher-level mathematics and physics, or theoretical proofs has been intentionally limited in order to prioritize the practical aspects of electrical engineering. This text is therefore suitable for a number of introductory circuit courses for other majors such as robotics, mechanical, biomedical, aerospace, civil, architecture, petroleum, and industrial engineering. The authors’ primary goal is to teach the aspiring engineering student all fundamental tools needed to understand, analyze and design a wide range of practical circuits and systems. Their secondary goal is to provide a comprehensive reference, for both major and non-major students as well as practicing engineers. Provides a self-contained, fundamental textbook on electric circuits and basic electronic...

  10. Electric generators: Roesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.

    1977-04-01

    A new and unique type of electrical generator is described that will provide constant frequency output (within 0.01% or better) regardless of rotational speed variations. It accomplishes this with no added bulk over conventional generators, and with excellent efficiency. The same principle that permits constant frequency output also provides the means for output voltage regulation with varying drive speed and/or varying load. Onsite power generation aspects of the Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) concept include the requirement to follow community electric loads and the possible use of internal combustion piston engines with waste heat recovery to drive electric generators. The diesel engine is a prime candidate from commercially available technologies for which part-load shaft efficiency is better at reduced speed than for constant-speed operation required by conventional AC generators. The unique characteristics of the Roesel generator allow prime mover speed to decrease with load and offer improved engine-generator system efficiency in ICES applications.

  11. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  12. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    After a Sect. 1.1 devoted to electrical conductivity and a section that deals with magnetic and dielectric losses ( 1.2 ), this chapter explores the theory of thermal conduction in solids. The examined categories of solids are: metals Sect. 1.3.2 , Dielectrics Sects. 1.3.3 and 1.3.4 and Nanocomposites Sect. 1.3.5 . In Sect. 1.3.6 the problem of thermal and electrical contact between materials is considered because contact resistance occurring at conductor joints in magnets or other high power applications can lead to undesirable electrical losses. At low temperature, thermal contact is also critical in the mounting of temperature sensors, where bad contacts can lead to erroneous results, in particular when superconductivity phenomena are involved.

  13. Electricity market modeling trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventosa, Mariano E-mail: mariano.ventosa@iit.upco.es; Baillo, Alvaro; Ramos, Andres; Rivier, Michel

    2005-05-01

    The trend towards competition in the electricity sector has led to efforts by the research community to develop decision and analysis support models adapted to the new market context. This paper focuses on electricity generation market modeling. Its aim is to help to identify, classify and characterize the somewhat confusing diversity of approaches that can be found in the technical literature on the subject. The paper presents a survey of the most relevant publications regarding electricity market modeling, identifying three major trends: optimization models, equilibrium models and simulation models. It introduces a classification according to their most relevant attributes. Finally, it identifies the most suitable approaches for conducting various types of planning studies or market analysis in this new context.

  14. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  15. Electricity consumption and electricity saving in the Swedish households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstroem, B.M.; Eklund, Y.; Sjoeberg, L.

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine which factors influence electricity consumption behavior of Swedish households, the level of knowledge about electricity use and the willingness to pay for the use of electricity. In Sweden, as in many other developed countries, the need for electric power is constantly increasing. The major reason for this increase in electricity consumption is the lifestyle of a modern society. A feature in the nuclear power discussion is that the government in Sweden is having a hard time to establish how to phase-out all nuclear power plants by 2010. An additional major change in Swedish energy policy is the deregulation of the electricity market, which started in the beginning of 1996. There is an increased demand for strategies to save electricity among households. The results of this study stress the difficulties in reducing electricity consumption and to develop new electricity saving strategies in Sweden 125 refs, 6 figs, 21 tabs

  16. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  17. Electric power quality

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Sengupta, Samarjit

    2011-01-01

    In the present day deregulated power market electric power quality issues have become great concerns of utilities, end users and manufacturers. Worldwide researches are going on to address those issues. Electric Power Quality has evolved from the researches carried out by the authors. The key features of the book can be highlighted as follows: the contents focuses, on one hand, different power quality issues, their sources and effects and different related standards, which are required for students, researchers and practising engineers and, on the other hand, measurement techniques for differe

  18. The new electricity age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinhold, Michael; Willnow, Klaus

    2010-09-15

    A sustainable energy system requires optimal integration of all components resulting in an integrated energy system. To setup the integrated energy system three steps have to be completed: 1. Optimal selection and allocation of the Energy Mix 2. Efficiency increase along all steps of the energy conversion chain 3. Holistic optimization across infrastructures and across regions using Smart Grid Technologies Due to greater complexity caused by growing demand for electricity and decentralized generation only end-to-end intelligence from power plants via networks to end-use applications, so-called smart grid technologies will enable the integrated energy system and thus the New Electricity Age.

  19. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  20. Electric drive design methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Jufer, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    An electric drive that is designed or adapted to a specific application must take into account all the elements of the chain of constituent elements in its use and deployment. In addition to the motor, the transmission, power electronics, control, sensors, and electrical protection systems must be taken into account. The motor and the transmission can be optimized and designed to obtain the best energy efficiency assessment, in particular for dynamic nodes. An inventory and a characterization of these various components is proposed as part of this book's examination and explanation

  1. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  2. Electrical estimating methods

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2014-01-01

    Simplify the estimating process with the latest data, materials, and practices Electrical Estimating Methods, Fourth Edition is a comprehensive guide to estimating electrical costs, with data provided by leading construction database RS Means. The book covers the materials and processes encountered by the modern contractor, and provides all the information professionals need to make the most precise estimate. The fourth edition has been updated to reflect the changing materials, techniques, and practices in the field, and provides the most recent Means cost data available. The complexity of el

  3. The greening of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, J.; Wikstroem, T. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    As people`s values change, the requirements imposed on products change as well. One value which is becoming increasingly important is that of an environmental orientation. Consumers are demanding that manufacturers supply information on the extent to which the production, use, and disposal of products negatively affect the natural environment. For industry, electricity is one of the factors of production. As such, it is also a commodity. The power industry must respond to the demands of consumers and be prepared to explain how electricity is generated

  4. Newnes electrical pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, E A

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electrical Pocket Book, Twenty-first Edition, provides engineers with convenient access to various facts, tables, and formulae relating to the particular branch of engineering being dealt with. In the case of electrical engineering, it is essential that the engineer have a clear understanding of the methods by which the various formulae are derived to ensure that any particular formulae is applicable to the conditions being considered. The first section of the Pocket Book is devoted to the theoretical groundwork upon which all the practical applications are based. This covers symbols,

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMeo, E.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

  7. Electrical termination techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakey, W. E.; Schleicher, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A technical review of high reliability electrical terminations for electronic equipment was made. Seven techniques were selected from this review for further investigation, experimental work, and preliminary testing. From the preliminary test results, four techniques were selected for final testing and evaluation. These four were: (1) induction soldering, (2) wire wrap, (3) percussive arc welding, and (4) resistance welding. Of these four, induction soldering was selected as the best technique in terms of minimizing operator errors, controlling temperature and time, minimizing joint contamination, and ultimately producing a reliable, uniform, and reusable electrical termination.

  8. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  9. Electric field changes and cloud electrical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krider, E. Philip

    1989-09-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station are currently operating a large network of electric field mills to detect lightning and electrified clouds that might present hazards to ground operations, launches, and landings. Here we summarize recent results of least squares analyses of multistation measurements of field changes that were produced by cloud-to-ground (Q model) and intracloud (P model) lightning. The values of the optimum parameters of 113 lightning events that occurred in one small storm on July 11, 1978, and a portion of a large storm on July 6, 1978, are tabulated and graphed. We note that, in both storms, there is considerable symmetry in the direction of P vectors around the Q region and that this pattern is consistent with the classic double-dipole model of thundercloud charges. We note also that the vertical separation of the Q and P regions depends on the storm intensity.

  10. An electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Huang, Hai-Jun; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we apply the relationships between the macro and micro variables of traffic flow to develop an electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow. We use the proposed model to study the quantitative relationships between the electricity consumption/total power and speed/density under uniform flow, and the electricity consumptions during the evolution processes of shock, rarefaction wave and small perturbation. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can perfectly describe the electricity consumption for electric vehicular flow, which shows that the proposed model is reasonable.

  11. Electric Guitar and Violin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Colin

    Almost all the instruments described in this book have their origins in historical cultures dating back over many centuries. In contrast, the electric guitar and violin are clearly twentieth-century innovations. They are products of the electronics age following invention of the rectifying thermionic valve (tube) by John Ambrose Fleming in 1904, the amplifying triode valve (tube) by Lee de Forest in 1907, and the vacuum-filled amplifying valve (tube) by Irving Langmuir in 1915. By 1916, such valves were already being used in radio receivers, and important advances were being made in microphone, amplifier, and loudspeaker design. This, and the increasingly wide distribution of mains electricity in the 1920s, provided the technology and infrastructure for the development of the electric guitar and violin and their lower-pitched relations - the bass guitar, viola, cello, and string-bass. Although we focus here on the electric guitar and violin, almost everything discussed in this chapter is also relevant to their lower-pitched relations.

  12. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  13. Graphing Electric Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Marvin L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the powerful graphing ability of computer algebra systems (CAS) to create three-dimensional graphs or surface graphics of electric potentials. Provides equations along with examples of the printouts. Lists the programs Mathematica, Maple, Derive, Theorist, MathCad, and MATLAB as promising CAS systems. (MVL)

  14. Electricity and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This invited presentation first deals with the potentials and environmantal advantages of reducing electricity demand. The policies for implementing these savings are dicussed and proposal for future strategies are suggested. The mephasis is on the conflicts between a free European trade with ele...

  15. Electrical aspects of rainout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  16. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  17. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  18. Wind farm electrical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  19. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  20. Electrical energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    El-Hawary, Mohamed E

    2007-01-01

    Features discussions ranging from the technical aspects of generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization to power system components, theory, protection, and the energy control center that offer an introduction to effects of deregulating electric power systems, blackouts and their causes, and minimizing their effects.

  1. Solar Electricity for Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Every day, the sun showers the Earth with millions of times more energy than its people use. The only problem is that energy is spread out over the entire Earth's surface and must be harvested. Engineers are learning to capture and use some of this energy to make electricity for homes. Solar panels make up the heart of a solar system. They can be…

  2. Turning Sunlight into Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cells are therefore packaged together to form a 'solar module' or a 'solar panel' that provides a useful voltage and current. The efficiency of silicon solar cells for the conversion of light energy to electricity has increased steadily over the years to present values of up to 18% for amorphous silicon, and 25% for.

  3. Restructuring the Electricity Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Buehler, Stefan

    We study the role of vertical structure in determining generating capacities, retail prices, and welfare in the electricity industry. Welfare is maximized if market liberalization is combined with vertical separation. The driving force behind this result is the risk of rent extraction faced...

  4. Electrical steering of vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2006-01-01

    solutions and still meet strict requirements to functional safety. The paper applies graph-based analysis of functional system structure to find a novel fault-tolerant architecture for an electrical steering where a dedicated AC-motor design and cheap voltage measurements ensure ability to detect all...

  5. Electrical Sensing Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This unit of instruction on electrical sensing devices is designed especially for use with freshman vocational agriculture students. A unit plan discusses the general aims and goals, lesson titles, student and teacher activities, and references. The unit consists of four lessons. A lesson plan for each lesson provides these components: need;…

  6. Electrically Mediated Trauma Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-07

    to cervical motor units, one polarity of the applied field (rostrally negative) was found sufficient to recover the reflex. To be able to achieve a...C.D. (1987) Spinal neurite reabsorption and regrowth in vitro depend on the polarity of an applied electric field, Development, 100:31-34. *Metcalf

  7. Electric-car simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. P.; Slusser, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    PARAMET, interactive simulation program for parametric studies of electric vehicles, guides user through simulation by menu and series of prompts for input parameters. Program considers aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, linear and rotational acceleration, and road gradient as forces acting on vehicle.

  8. Electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goennenwein, S.T.B.; Schink, S.W.; Brandlmaier, A.; Boger, A.; Opel, M.; Gross, R.; Keizer, R.S.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Gupta, A.; Huebl, H.; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    We study the magnetoresistance properties of thin ferromagnetic CrO2 and Fe3O4 films under microwave irradiation. Both the sheet resistance ? and the Hall voltage VHall characteristically change when a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) occurs in the film. The electrically detected ferromagnetic

  9. Electric vehicle battery systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dhameja, Sandeep

    2001-01-01

    ... what has been written, Butterworth- Heinemann prints its books on acid-free paper whenever possible. Butterworth- Heinemann supports the efforts of American Forests and the Global ReLeaf program in its campaign for the betterment of trees, forests, and our environment. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Dhameja, Sandeep. Electric vehi...

  10. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  11. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  12. Electric Bicycle Design

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar López, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The thesis consists of the design of an electric bike. Based on the analysis of the needs arising from urban transport in Sweden and its people.We wanted to develop a bicycle that could be manufactured in the coming years and be widely accepted by the Swedish population and later also in Europe.

  13. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 9. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity. Suresh V Vettoor. General Article Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 41-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/09/0041-0048 ...

  14. Electric Six : Ettevaatust! Kõrgepinge!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika rockansamblist Electric Six, albumitest "Fire", "Swizerland". Ameerika rockauljast-kitarristist Nick Oliveri'st, ansambli Mondo Generator (www.mondogenerator.com) albumist "Dead Planet: SonicSlowMotionTrails". Info festivalist: www.rabarock.delfi.ee / www.rabarock.ee

  15. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  16. Electrical Materials Research for NASAs Hybrid Electric Commercial Aircraft Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Randy

    2017-01-01

    A high-level description of NASA GRC research in electrical materials is presented with a brief description of the AATTHGEP funding project. To be presented at the Interagency Advanced Power Group Electrical Materials panel session.

  17. ELECTRICITY DIRECTIVES AND EVOLUTION OF THE EU INTERNAL ELECTRICITY MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovac, Pavle

    2012-01-01

    The liberalization of the electricity market in the EU is aimed at creating a competitive market in order to increase economic efficiency and reduce the role of the state. For a long period of time, the electricity sector in the EU member states was organized in the form of a natural vertically integrated state-owned monopoly. It proved to be ineffective in terms of ensuring the (competitive) market price of electricity. With technological advances in electricity generation and transmission, ...

  18. Electric Vehicles in Imperfect Electricity Markets: A German Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market with a game-theoretic model. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine their effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players being in charge of vehicle operations. We find that vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplu...

  19. Noise emission of electric and hybrid electric vehicles : deliverable FOREVER

    OpenAIRE

    PALLAS, Marie-Agnès; KENNEDY, John; WALKER, Ian; CHATAGNON, Roger; BERENGIER, Michel; LELONG, Joël

    2015-01-01

    The project FOREVER aims primarily to provide data and information on the potential future noise impacts of electric vehicles on national roads. Work Package 2 (WP2) of the project is intended to identify the noise emission levels from electric and hybrid-electric vehicles. This involves a review of the state-of-the-art in vehicle noise evaluation methods and how these can be applied to electric vehicles, considering the issue from the perspective of operation in controlled conditions rather ...

  20. Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics. Section II. Trade Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This second section of a three-part syllabus for a flexible curriculum in trade electricity-electronics contains four semi-independent units: (1) Advanced Electricity, (2) Residential and Commercial Wiring, (3) Industrial Electricity, and (4) Motor Controls. Introductory sections describe development of the curriculum, outline the total trade…

  1. Electricity markets theories and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Electricity Markets: Theories and Applications offers students and practitioners a clear understanding of the fundamental concepts of the economic theories, particularly microeconomic theories, as well as information on some advanced optimization methods of electricity markets. The authors--noted experts in the field--cover the basic drivers for the transformation of the electricity industry in both the United States and around the world and discuss the fundamentals of power system operation, electricity market design and structures, and electricity market operations. The text also explores advanced topics of power system operations and electricity market design and structure including zonal versus nodal pricing, market performance and market power issues, transmission pricing, and the emerging problems electricity markets face in smart grid and micro-grid environments. The authors also examine system planning under the context of electricity market regime. They explain the new ways to solve problems with t...

  2. Electric Shock Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Electric Shock Injuries in Children Page Content ​When the ... comes into direct contact with a source of electricity, the current passes through it, producing what's called ...

  3. Device for measuring electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S. H.; Harrison, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Measurement of low-intensity electric fields in space and in presence of weak magnetic fields is accomplished by utilizing a device which permits determination of the extent a beam of cesium ions is deflected by an electric field.

  4. Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoudis, Christos; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Electricity is nowadays commonly exchanged through electricity markets, designed in a context where dispatchable generators, with non-negligible marginal costs, were dominating. By depending primarily on conventional (fossil, hydro and nuclear) power generation based on marginal pricing......, deterministic market designs were considered adequate with straightforward setups consisting of a forward optimal allocation accompanied by a real-time balancing mechanism. However, as the share of renewable sources of energy (RES) increases, such market designs tend to become inefficient since they were...... not designed to take into account the uncertainty brought by the substantial variability and limited predictability associated with stochastic sources, most notably wind power and solar energy. Due to these developments, the need for decision making models able to account for the uncertainty introduced by high...

  5. Electric circuits and signals

    CERN Document Server

    Sabah, Nassir H

    2007-01-01

    Circuit Variables and Elements Overview Learning Objectives Electric Current Voltage Electric Power and Energy Assigned Positive Directions Active and Passive Circuit Elements Voltage and Current Sources The Resistor The Capacitor The Inductor Concluding Remarks Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Circuit Connections and Laws Overview Learning Objectives Circuit Terminology Kirchhoff's Laws Voltage Division and Series Connection of Resistors Current Division and Parallel Connection of Resistors D-Y Transformation Source Equivalence and Transformation Reduced-Voltage Supply Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics and Examples on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Analysis of Resistive Circuits Overview Learning Objectives Number of Independent Circuit Equations Node-Voltage Analysis Special Considerations in Node-Voltage Analysis Mesh-Current Analysis Special Conside...

  6. Electrical properties of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Solymar, L; Syms, R R A

    2014-01-01

    An informal and highly accessible writing style, a simple treatment of mathematics, and clear guide to applications have made this book a classic text in electrical and electronic engineering. Students will find it both readable and comprehensive. The fundamental ideas relevant to the understanding of the electrical properties of materials are emphasized; in addition, topics are selected in order to explain the operation of devices having applications (or possible future applications) in engineering. The mathematics, kept deliberately to a minimum, is well within the grasp of a second-year student. This is achieved by choosing the simplest model that can display the essential properties of a phenomenom, and then examining the difference between the ideal and the actual behaviour. The whole text is designed as an undergraduate course. However most individual sections are self contained and can be used as background reading in graduate courses, and for interested persons who want to explore advances in microele...

  7. THERMO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, K.C.

    1958-07-22

    The conversion of heat energy into electrical energy by a small compact device is descrtbed. Where the heat energy is supplied by a radioactive material and thermopIIes convert the heat to electrical energy. The particular battery construction includes two insulating discs with conductive rods disposed between them to form a circular cage. In the center of the cage is disposed a cup in which the sealed radioactive source is located. Each thermopile is formed by connecting wires from two adjacent rods to a potnt on an annular ring fastened to the outside of the cup, the ring having insulation on its surface to prevent electrica1 contact with the thermopiles. One advantage of this battery construction is that the radioactive source may be inserted after the device is fabricated, reducing the radiation hazard to personnel assembling the battery.

  8. Electric Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    literature) the implications to nuclear shielding should be reviewed. The presence of high rotational speeds on space vehicles may become important to...levitation by rapidly rotating magnets. There have been claims of antigravity , high electric fields, perpetual motion, inertial loss, gas ionization. All...check of coupling, it may be possible to search existing data for relevant information. Since beta batteries are being used on some spac-.- vehicles , it

  9. Electrical grounding prong socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a socket for a grounding prong used in a three prong electrical plug and a receptacle for the three prong plug. The socket being sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having a ridge to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket.

  10. Electricity Distribution Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Waldemar Szpyra; Wiesław Nowak; Rafał Tarko

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic concepts of cost accounting in the power industry and selected ways of assessing the effectiveness of electricity distribution. The results of effectiveness analysis of MV/LV distribution transformer replacement are presented, and unit costs of energy transmission through various medium-voltage line types are compared. The calculation results confirm the viability of replacing transformers manufactured before 1975. Replacing transformers manufactured after...

  11. Electricity generation from biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isensee, E.; Wenzlaff, R.

    1982-01-01

    A biogas plant produces energy throughout the year. This results in high gas surplus in summer. For this reason, the high demand in winter-time cannot be covered as a rule. This incongruity cannot be removed by storage since storage will compensate but short-term supply variations or is to cover short-term peak loads. In addition, electricity generation allows whole-year utilization of the plant.

  12. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  13. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, e.......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  14. Modelling momentary electricity demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrels, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to develop a load shape simulation model for the public electricity network in the Netherlands with special reference to social and economic phenomena underlying its development. The main structure of the model consists of the electric power planning environment in which the altering requirements concerning load shape assessment are defined, and three subsets of modules describing the manufacturing industry, the services and the residential sector (households). The load shapes of the three main sectors are aggregated and augmented with the loads of the remaining sectors in order to produce an overall load shape. Part A of this book depicts the planning environment, and gives historical and future aspects of the Dutch electricity demand. Part B offers a theoretical and methodological discussion about the translation of a firm's operational behaviour into electricity demand by time of day, describes the simulation modules for the manufacturing industry and services, and several simulation experiments are discussed. Part C, devoted to the residential sector, deals with household behaviour and time allocation, presents an operational model of timing integrated in the household model. Also various simulation results are presented and compared with other simulation studies. Part D contains comprehensive experiments with the model system. Comparisons are made with load shapes of the public network in recent years. Next, overall forecasts are made in the framework of three scenario's: (a) low growth - normal conservation; (b) high growth - more conservation - extension of production times; (c) as (b) plus extensive teleworking. The results of the scenario exercises are discussed in connection with strategic management prospects of the public network. 65 figs., 26 tabs., 11 apps., 126 refs.

  15. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  16. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  17. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Andersen, Peter Bach; Sørensen, Thomas Meier; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for contr...

  18. Protection of electricity distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gers, Juan M

    2004-01-01

    Written by two practicing electrical engineers, this second edition of the bestselling Protection of Electricity Distribution Networks offers both practical and theoretical coverage of the technologies, from the classical electromechanical relays to the new numerical types, which protect equipment on networks and in electrical plants. A properly coordinated protection system is vital to ensure that an electricity distribution network can operate within preset requirements for safety for individual items of equipment, staff and public, and the network overall. Suitable and reliable equipment sh

  19. Transdisciplinary electric power grid science

    CERN Document Server

    Brummitt, Charles D; Dobson, Ian; Moore, Cristopher; D'Souza, Raissa M

    2013-01-01

    The 20th-century engineering feat that most improved the quality of human life, the electric power system, now faces discipline-spanning challenges that threaten that distinction. So multilayered and complex that they resemble ecosystems, power grids face risks from their interdependent cyber, physical, social and economic layers. Only with a holistic understanding of the dynamics of electricity infrastructure and human operators, automatic controls, electricity markets, weather, climate and policy can we fortify worldwide access to electricity.

  20. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p