WorldWideScience

Sample records for weapons systems aerosol

  1. Operational research in weapon system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Varma

    1958-04-01

    Full Text Available "The paper is divided into three parts: (a The first part deals with what operational research is. (bThe second part gives what we mean by Weapon Systems and discusses considerations that determine the choice of a particular weapon system from a class weapon systems. (cThe third part deals with some aspects of weapon replacement policy.The effectiveness of a weapon system is defined as E=D/C where E is weapon effectiveness (a comparative figure of merit; D is total damage inflicted or prevented and C is total cost, D and C being reduced to common dimensions. During the course of investigations, criteria regarding to choice of weapon or weapons from a set of weapon systems are established through production function and military effect curves. A procedure is described which maximizes the expectation of military utility in order to select a weapon system from the class of weapon systems. This is done under the following simplifying assumptions: (a Non- decreasing utility function; (b Constant average cost for each kind of weapons; and (c Independence of the performance of each unit of weapon. Some of the difficulties which arises when any of these restrictions is relaxed are briefly mentioned. Finally, the policy of weapon replacement and the factors governing the same are described."

  2. Proportionality and Autonomous Weapons Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Given the swift technologic development, it may be expected that the availability of the first truly autonomous weapons systems is fast approaching. Once they are deployed, these weapons will use artificial intelligence to select and attack targets without further human intervention. Autonomous

  3. Proportionality and Autonomous Weapons Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Given the swift technologic development, it may be expected that the availability of the first truly autonomous weapons systems is fast approaching. Once they are deployed, these weapons will use artificial intelligence to select and attack targets without further human intervention. Autonomous weap

  4. Acquiring Affordable Weapons Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    a greater emphasis on O&S costs during system development may result in somewhat increased development, acquisition and/or produccion costs. This...assumed levels of manpower pools fur other functions, and where manual backup procedures must supplant automated operations when equipment casualties...identified, 25 and the final CIS was to be computer based although inputs to the system could either be manually generated or provided on automatic

  5. Aerosol Observation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The aerosol observation system (AOS) is the primary Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) platform for in situ aerosol measurements at the surface. The principal...

  6. Weapon Control System for Airborne Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sankar Kishore

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The integrated fire' control system (IFCS plays an important role in the present-day fighter aircraft and helicopters. Wecapons, such as missiles (active/passive, rockets and guns may be present on thelfighter aircraft or helicopter .IFCS monitors the status of the weapons present on the vehicle and passes the information to pilot/co-pilot. Depending upon the health/availability of the weapons, IFCS selects/fires the weapons. An attempt has been made to bring out the details of one such IFCS. As a I stepping stone, smaller version is developed and same philosophy can be used for integrating ftlore and I more weapons. Here, emphasis has been made on design and development of weapon control unit which is the heart f IFCS, both in hardware and software. The system has been developed using a 486 DX2 processor, and an elaborate software has been developed in PL/M.

  7. The Importance of Designating Cyberspace Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    PerspectiveSpace Focus Cyberspace Vulnerability Assessment / Hunter Weapon System The Air Force Cyberspace Vulnerability Assessment ( CVA ) / Hunter  weapon...system can perform defensive sorties worldwide via remote or on-site access. The  CVA /Hunter weapon sys- tem is operated by one active duty unit, the...support all of the mission crews. Developed by the for- mer Air Force Information Operations Center, the  CVA /Hunter  weapon system was fielded to the 688th

  8. 48 CFR 217.173 - Multiyear contracts for weapon systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... weapon systems. 217.173 Section 217.173 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Mulityear Contracting 217.173 Multiyear contracts for weapon systems. As authorized by 10 U.S.C. 2306b(h... contract for— (a) A weapon system and associated items, services, and logistics support for a weapon system...

  9. Computation of Weapons Systems Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Aircraft Dive Angle : Initial Weapon Release Velocity at x-axis VOx VOz x: x-axis z: z-axis : Initial Weapon Release Velocity at z...altitude Impact Velocity (x− axis), Vix = VOx (3.4) Impact Velocity (z− axis), Viz = VOz + (g ∗ TOF) (3.5) Impact Velocity, Vi = �Vix2 + Viz2 (3.6...compute the ballistic partials to examine the effects that varying h, VOx and VOz have on RB using the following equations: ∂RB ∂h = New RB−Old RB

  10. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  11. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  12. Task Analyses of Three Selected Weapons Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    using weapons is a joint function of the specific weapon system, the goals (missions) of the system, and the environment in which it is used. The first...Identification of fire mission profiles which state general job functions for each type of typical mission. Documentary sources such as Field Manuals...nd Arin,,, Ui, Guni i A,!i" tant uuPnrr No. I Can; n , r Grup - ( nile. .rs and Prir Diff,-ront S, tm: -inch L,,t.’r _, Fort Hood l::t Cavall, I

  13. Optical countermeasures against CLOS weapon systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Benoist, K.W.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    There are many weapon systems in which a human operator acquires a target, tracks it and designates it. Optical countermeasures against this type of systems deny the operator the possibility to fulfill this visual task. We describe the different effects that result from stimulation of the human

  14. Demand Analysis of Informational Shipboard Gun Weapon System Interface Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hui-chuan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available According to development demand of informational shipboard gun weapon system, design concept of shipboard gun weapon system interface is proposed. System composition is put forward and function demand of interface is analyzed from combat, training and detection aspects. General principle need to be followed in design process. A new concept is provided for development of shipboard gun weapon system interface.

  15. Agent-based Modeling Methodology for Analyzing Weapons Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    43 Figure 14: Simulation Study Methodology for the Weapon System Analysis Metrics Definition and Data Collection The analysis plan calls for...AGENT-BASED MODELING METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYZING WEAPONS SYSTEMS THESIS Casey D. Connors, Major, USA...AGENT-BASED MODELING METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYZING WEAPONS SYSTEMS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences

  16. 2007-2008 Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Begin destruction of binary neutralent in the Wet Air Oxidation system at Texas Molecular in Deer Park, TX • 3QFY07: Achieve 100 percent... Lufkin , TX) Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) LMTV A1 Cargo MTV A1 Cargo Payload: 5,000 pounds 10,000 pounds Towed load: 12,000 pounds 21,000...FOREIGN MILITARY SALES None CONTRACTORS EADS North America (Arlington, VA) American Eurocopter (Columbus, MS; Grand Prairie, TX) CAE USA (Tampa, FL

  17. Peruvian Weapon System Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    for comparable weaponry, one dear advantage the Soviet Union offers a Third World client is the speed with which it can fill an arms order. This... client states. Finally and possibly more importantly, arms trading allows the Soviets to have access to strategic regions. There are indications that...include system development, implemetation and start up costo . Some may occur during the opetting life cycle. Normally, nonrecurring costs include

  18. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  19. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  20. HFE (Human Factors Engineering) Technology for Navy Weapon System Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    uncovering of improved propulsion systems, sensors , weapons, etc., by industry or governr-ient agencies, may in.tiate the development of a new weapon system...needs. (No. A-109) _L a f. Tailor an acquisition stratagy for each program, as soon as the agency decides to solict alternative system design concepto

  1. Adapting the Law of Armed Conflict to Autonomous Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    remains in the realm of theory . Still, several modern highly- automated—and some would call them autonomous—weapon systems already exist. These are...CROSS, 483, 507 (2012). 58. Backstrom & Henderson, supra note 57, at 401. 59. Justin McClelland , The Review of Weapons in Accordance with Article 36

  2. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  3. Automated Navigation System based on Weapon-Target Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairudin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating of weapon on the tank is mostly by manually. It is not desired performance for a critical operation. An automatic control system is required to operate the weapon with the target while maintaining the accuracy. In this paper has designed an automatic weapon control system using object image proccessing. Various an image processing methods used to improve the weapon accuracy to obtain the intended target. The method used in digital image processing is the Camshift motion tracking method. This method is compared with the Lucas Canade motion tracking method. This comparison is conducted to found more precise results between the two methods. Results of object image processing are used to control the direction of the weapon that towards the desired goal. The results show that the implementation of the Lucas Canade motion tracking method using fire simulation tools have been successful. The performance of the Lucas Canade motion tracking methods is better than the CamShift method. Using Lucas Canade method for weapon controller is accordance with the purposes.

  4. Millimeter Wave Radar Applications to Weapons Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    ocity, and azimuth and elevation arRles ; assignment of target to L weapon for engagement; and assessment of the damage by the indication of cessa- tion...paper. 29 D.E. Gray, American institute of Physics Handbook ," McGraw-Hill, New S~York, 1957. --. . - - . .A • -•• =_ . . . . •,,- - - The complex...B-13) is the target-to-clutter power ratio. I. 41I 7 Handbook of Mathematical Functions, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards

  5. Historical Cost Growth of Completed Weapon System Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Management Program of RAND Project AIR FORCE. The project’s technical monitor is Jay Jordan, Technical Director of the Air Force Cost Analysis Agency. Other...CGFs for development costs range from a low of 1.16 for the nine ship weapon systems reviewed in Asher and Mag- gelet (1984) to a high of 2.26 for six...to procurement) for each weapon system 2.26 (n = 6) 1.43 (n = 6) Not reported Asher and Maggelet (1984) Last SAR for program or December 1983 As of

  6. Autonomous Weapon Systems and Risk Management in Hybrid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Katrine

    In recent years, the development of autonomous weapon systems and so-called ‘killer robots’, has caused a number of serious legal and ethical concerns in the international community, including questions of compliance with International Humanitarian Law and the Laws of Armed Conflict. On the other...... hand, governments and military services hope to develop game-changing technologies, that are ‘better, faster and cheaper’. In this paper, I wish to show how different and competing regimes of justification shape the technopolitical controversy and risk management of autonomous weapon systems...

  7. Autonomous Weapon Systems and Risk Management in Hybrid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Katrine

    hand, governments and military services hope to develop game-changing technologies, that are ‘better, faster and cheaper’. In this paper, I wish to show how different and competing regimes of justification shape the technopolitical controversy and risk management of autonomous weapon systems...... of justification and risk management in contemporary conflicts....

  8. Power Systems and Energy Storage Modeling for Directed Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    electron laser kW Kilo-watt LCS Littoral Combat Ship LAWS Laser Weapon System MLD Maritime Laser Demonstration MW Mega -watt NiMH Nickel metal...and various littoral combat ships. Also, an accurate, working model of the capacitor energy bank is being developed and the flywheel model is being

  9. Supply Chain Resilience: Assessing USAF Weapon System Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Appendix E: Supply Chain Resilience Storyboard ........................................................... 87 Bibliography...bolt that, in March 2000, struck a Philips semiconductor plant in Albuquerque, New Mexico , created a 10-minute blaze that contaminated millions of...strategic planning of weapon systems as they mature and progress through the life cycle. 87 Appendix E: Supply Chain Resilience Storyboard 88

  10. Shipborne Laser Beam Weapon System for Defence against Cruise Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Dudeja

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea-skim~ing cruise missiles pose the greatest threat to a surface ship in the present-day war scenario. The convenitional close-in-weapon-systems (CIWSs are becoming less reliable against these new challenges requiring extremely fast reaction time. Naval Forces see a high energy laser as a feasible andjeffective directed energy weapon against sea-skimming antiship cruise missiles becauseof its .ability to deliver destructive energy at the speed of light on to a distant target. The paper comparesthe technology and capability of deuterium fluoride (DF and chemical-oxygen-iodine laser (COIL in effectively performing the role of a shipborne CIWS altainst sea-skimming missiles. Out of these twolasers, it is argued that DF laser wo.uld be more effective a,s a shipborne weapon for defence against sea-skimmin,g cruise missiles. Besides the high energy laser as the primary (killing laser, othersub-systems required in the complete weapon system would be: A beacon laser to sense phase distor'ions in the primary laser, adaptive optics to compensate the atmospheric distortions, beam-directing optics, illuminating lasers, IRST sensors, surveillance and tracking radars, interfacing system, etc.

  11. 48 CFR 212.270 - Major weapon systems as commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Major weapon systems as... Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.270 Major weapon systems as commercial items. The DoD policy for acquiring major weapon systems as commercial items is in Subpart 234.70. ...

  12. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  13. Weapon System Requirements: Detailed Systems Engineering Prior to Product Development Positions Programs for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    contractor subsequently discovered problems with the aircraft wiring and aerial refueling systems and encountered a fuel contamination incident, all...WEAPON SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Detailed Systems Engineering Prior to Product Development Positions Programs for Success...Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-17-77, a report to congressional committees November 2016 WEAPON SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Detailed Systems

  14. Optimizing the Sustainment of U.S. Army Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    64 OPTIMIZING SUSTAINMENT OF ARMY SYSTEMS 6 Chapter 1 - Optimizing the Sustainment of U.S. Army Weapon Systems In a paradigm shift from...past 13 years. The result has been the erosion of perishable maintenance skills. The Army must develop the most effective plan to sustain these...communities to study and effectively manage Army sustainment . One effort is the development of Maintenance Steering Groups (MSG) to perform extensive

  15. Neurotoxic Weapons and Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The modern era of chemical and biological warfare began in World War I with the large-scale production and use of blistering and choking agents (chlorine, phosgene and mustard gases) in the battlefield. International treaties (the 1925 Geneva Protocol, the 1975 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention) banned biological and chemical weapons. However, several countries are probably still engaged in their development. Hence, there is risk of these weapons being used in the future. This chapter will focus on neurotoxic weapons (e.g. nerve agents, chemical and biological neurotoxins, psychostimulants), which act specifically or preeminently on the central nervous system and/or the neuromuscular junction. Deeply affecting the function of the nervous system, these agents either have incapacitating effects or cause clusters of casualties who manifest primary symptoms of encephalopathy, seizures, muscle paralysis and respiratory failure. The neurologist should be prepared both to notice patterns of symptoms and signs that are sufficiently consistent to raise the alarm of neurotoxic attacks and to define specific therapeutic interventions. Additionally, extensive knowledge on neurotoxic syndromes should stimulate scientific research to produce more effective antidotes and antibodies (which are still lacking for most neurotoxic weapons) for rapid administration in aerosolized forms in the case of terrorist or warfare scenarios. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The Morality of Employing Remotely Piloted Weapon Systems in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ethics of remotely piloted weapon systems involve utilitarianism and Just War Theory. Although the other two perspectives, pacifism and realism, do...perspectives of utilitarianism , Just War Theory, pacifism, and realism are evaluated to justify the claim. With the exception of pacifism, each of these...of utilitarianism , Just War Theory, pacifism, and realism are evaluated to justify the claim. With the exception of pacifism, each of these

  17. Kinematics of Laying an Automated Weapon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-19

    NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORS Joshua Stapp 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Coordinate Systems 6 Transformation of Earth Referenced Lay to Platform Reference Frame 6 Results and Discussions 7 Conclusions 8 Bibliography 9...Distribution List 11 FIGURES 1 Earth reference frame 1 2 Platform reference frame 2 3 Cartesian coordinate system 3 4 Spherical

  18. Status Reporting on Weapon System Acquisition Programs,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Systems Division ( ASSD ) and the reschedulinq of vehicle acceptance testing milestones caused by thnse !e*e box deliveries. Impact to program: Contract...is primarily due to the late delivery of the ASSD boxes (approximately 10 months late). Impact to program: None. 2 S...integration for which BCWP has been taken. The cumulative cost variance of ($22.5M) is primarily due to the late box deliveries from ASSD and the

  19. Weapons Systems, United States Army 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    in a tactical environment. The M1070 trac - tor has front- and rear-axle steering, a central tire inflation system, and cab space for six personnel to...Cavalry Regiments-Squadrons, Field Artillery Battalions A3-based BFIST planned (XM7A1) France: AMX-10 PAC-90, AMX VTT /LT; Russia: BMP PRP-3, BMP PRP-4...Sensor-Heavy, Armored Transport and Treatment Vehicle (planned) China: Type 85 ACV, WZ-506, Type 90 CV; France: AMX-10PC, AMX VTT /PC; Germany: Tpzl

  20. Tank Weapon System Management. A Program for Maximum Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-19

    flow is minimal and positive. Authorizations: Current Proposed 76D10 9100 (8571) 8850 (81%) 76D20 1400 (15%) 1650 (19,) RECOMMENDATION: Etab &~h Mte...weapon system. RECOIMENtrATION: Etab &6h a Ppon4ive, ,ositve technicat c nnee to puvidc gqudaince and to kece u Jeedbacia on’ tank .6upp’PX irazteuL...System. An integrated group of procedures, methods, policies and may include the computer(s) and its software which is used to obtain, process and analyze

  1. Microcontroller based ground weapon control system(Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sankar Kishore

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Armoured vehicles and tanks generally consist of high resolution optical (both infrared and visible and display systems for recognition and identification of the targets. Different weapons/articles to engage the targets may be present. A fire control system (FCS controls all the above systems, monitors the status of the articles present and passes the information to the display system. Depending upon the health and availability of the articles, the FCS selects and fires the articles. Design and development of ground control unit which is the heart of the FCS, both in hardware and software, has been emphasised. The system has been developed using microcontroller and software developed in ASM 51 language. The system also has a facility to test all the systems and articles as initial power on condition. From the safety point of view, software and hardware interlocks have been provided in the critical operations, like firing sequence. "

  2. Transfer alignment of shipborne inertial-guided weapon systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Changyue; Deng Zhenglong

    2009-01-01

    The transfer alignment problem of the shipborne weapon inertial navigation system (INS) is addressed. Specifically, two transfer alignment algorithms subjected to the ship motions induced by the waves are discussed. To consider the limited maneuver level performed by the ship, a new filter algorithm for transfer alignment methods using velocity and angular rate matching is first derived. And then an improved method using integrated velocity and integrated angular rate matching is introduced to reduce the effect of the ship body flexure. The simulation results show the feasibility and validity of the proposed transfer alignment algorithms.

  3. Study on combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system based on queuing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. Q.; Hao, J. X.; Li, L. J.

    2017-01-01

    Queuing Theory is a method to analyze the combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system. The model of service probability based on the queuing theory was constructed, and applied to analyzing the combat effectiveness of "Sidewinder" and "Tor-M1" air defense missile weapon system. Finally aimed at different targets densities, the combat effectiveness of different combat units of two types' defense missile weapon system is calculated. This method can be used to analyze the usefulness of air defense missile weapon system.

  4. Multi-Sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.; Leptoukh, G.

    2011-01-01

    Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS), which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient) of aerosol products from multiple spacebome sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  5. Geometry-Of-Fire Tracking Algorithm for Direct-Fire Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited GEOMETRY-OF- FIRE ...TRACKING ALGORITHM FOR DIRECT- FIRE WEAPON SYSTEMS by Caleb K. Khan September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Zachary Staples Co-Advisor: Xiaoping...2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GEOMETRY-OF- FIRE TRACKING ALGORITHM FOR DIRECT- FIRE WEAPON SYSTEMS

  6. 77 FR 55195 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Naval Weapons Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Weapons Systems Training Facility Boardman, OR AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice... and proposed DoN and Oregon National Guard training and testing activities at Naval Weapons Systems...

  7. The NASA GEOS-5 Aerosol Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarco, Peter; daSilva, Arlindo; Darmenov, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System modeling and data assimilation environment (GEOS-5) is maintained by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Near-realtime meteorological forecasts are produced to support NASA satellite and field missions. We have implemented in this environment an aerosol module based on the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) model. This modeling system has previously been evaluated in the context of hindcasts based on assimilated meteorology. Here we focus on the development and evaluation of the near-realtime forecasting system. We present a description of recent efforts to implement near-realtime biomass burning emissions derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire radiative power products. We as well present a developing capability for improvement of aerosol forecasts by assimilation of aerosol information from MODIS.

  8. Damage assessment of long-range rocket system by electromagnetic pulse weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lingyu; Liu, Guoqing; Li, Jinming

    2017-08-01

    This paper analyzes the damage mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic pulse weapon, establishes the index system of survivability of long-range rocket launcher system, and uses AHP method to establish the combat effectiveness model of long-range rocket missile system. According to the damage mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic pulse weapon, the damage effect of the remote rocket system is established by using the exponential method to realize the damage efficiency of the remote rocket system.

  9. Study on effectiveness evaluation of weapon systems based on grey relational analysis and TOPSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Hui; Song Bifeng

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of weapon systems, the advantages and disadvantages of grey relational analysis and TOPSIS for multiattribute decision-making is pointed out, and an effectiveness evaluation model of weapon systems by combining grey relational analysis and TOPSIS is proposed. The model aggregates the grey relational grade and the distance to a new integrated closeness and reflects not only the trend but also the situation of the alternative. The example illuminates that the model is effective for the effectiveness evaluation of weapon systems.

  10. Lipophilic super-absorbent swelling gels as cleaners for use on weapons systems and platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasingly stringent environmental regulations on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) demand the development of disruptive technologies for cleaning weapons systems and platforms. Currently employed techniques such as vapor degreasing, solvent, aqueous, or blast c...

  11. The health hazard assessment process in support of joint weapon system acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluchinsky, Timothy A; Jokel, Charles R; Cambre, John V; Goddard, Donald E; Batts, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Since 1981, the Army's HHA Program has provided an invaluable service to combat developers and materiel program managers by providing recommendations designed to eliminate or control health hazards associated with materiel and weapon systems. The program has consistently strived to improve its services by providing more meaningful and efficient assistance to the acquisition community. In the uncertain fiscal times ahead, the Army's HHA Program will continue to provide valuable and cost-effective solutions to mitigate the health risks of weapons systems.

  12. Simulation of Fighter Aircraft Weapon Systems for Design and Performance Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Subramanyam

    1997-01-01

    Simulation forms an essential tool in the system design and performance evaluation of fighter aircraft weapon systems. The various guidance strategies used for weapons like guns, missiles, bombs in the air-to-air or air-to-ground missions, for aiding the pilot for an effective delivery have been studied through extensive off-line and pilot-in-loop simulation. The pilot workload analysis carried out in the high fidelity cockpit simulator at the Aeronautical Development Agency , Bangalor...

  13. Mode Research on Space Weapons Systems Innovation Based Quality Function Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiuhong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available in the aviation industry, experts are enthusiastic over the research of sophisticated weapons. Little specialist pays attention to the innovation modes and methods. Up to now little quantization method suitable for aviation weapon systems innovation is presented. Base on the deep analysis and study on features of aviation weapon systems innovation and different innovation mode from the mass production, we have designed process model and quality chain model of aviation weapon systems innovation. Compared with the process model of large-scale innovation, the process models are more complex including many feedbacks and adding five steps: task decomposition, analysis of knowledge gap, accumulation of key knowledge, outsourcing selection, system integration. Meanwhile manufacturing process and R&D process are preformed simultaneously, and are involved in the process of module development. Technology application and diffusion are preformed with delivering the final innovation product to user. Quality function deployment and quality house are adopted to deal with the quality transfer among nodes. Quality demands of one node are converted into the technique features of another node in the quality house. We designed the top-down technique features transfer model and bottom-up demands transfer model to solve the quality transfer problems among nodes. At last an example is given to illustrate that this approach can accelerate to blaze the aviation weapon systems trails more than the existing methods and effectively reach quality management of aviation weapon systems innovation.

  14. US Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) style guide, Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.

    1996-09-30

    A stated goal of the U.S. Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIS) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of style guides. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide. This document, the U.S. Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide, represents the first version of that style guide. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for RT/NRT Army systems across the weapon systems domains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each domain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their domains.

  15. Modeling of C3 I system in laser countermeasure weapon system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang-xi; GUO Li-hong

    2008-01-01

    With the spectrum extended in modem Electronic War, Laser Countermeasure Weapon will be re-quested in order to snatch up and keep the Electromagnetism-Power in war field. If Command, Control, Com-munications and Intelligence called Double-Army-Power-Implement is applied to general design of Laser Coun-termeasure Weapon System, the efficiency of Weapon System can be greatly improved. The Object-Oriented a-nalysis and design approach based on UML for C3I system architecture was put forward, by which logical archi-tecture described by class diagrams and behavior diagrams can be developed through Object-Oriented analysis,and physical architecture described by component diagrams and deployment diagrams can be developed through Object-Oriented design. The framework of Modeling based UML was firstly set forth, the high process of Com-mand, Control, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance and UML Architecture was utilized., Then the Modeling process was particularly discussed through following the core ideology and basic principle of RUP(Rational Unified Process). Next, a series of diagrams of UML diagram which include Activity diagrams, Use Case diagrams, Sequence diagrams, Package diagrams and Class diagrams of system analysis, Component dia-grams, and Deployment diagrams of system design are illustrated in the process of Modeling of C3I system soft-ware. Lastly, some problems that should be noticed in the Modeling process, merit and demerit of model, next works were also put forward.

  16. The design of the multifunctional training simulation system on the platform as the same as the weapon system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu,Bin; Zhou,XiaoDong

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the way to design the multifunc-tional (fighting, testing, maintenance, query about malfunctionetc) training simulation system on the platform of hardware thatas same as the weapon system with C++ Builder language.

  17. The Future of Killing: Ethical and Legal Implications of Fully Autonomous Weapon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lark

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Warfare is moving towards full weapon autonomy. Already, there are weapons in service that replace a human at the point of engagement. The remote pilot must adhere to the law and consider the moral and ethical implications of using lethal force. Future fully autonomous weapons will be able to search for, identify and engage targets without human intervention, raising the question of who is responsible for the moral and ethical considerations of using such weapons. In the chaos of war, people are fallible, but they can apply judgement and discretion and identify subtle signals. For example, humans can identify when an enemy wants to surrender, are burying their dead, or are assisting non-combatants. An autonomous weapon may not be so discerning and may not be capable of being programmed to apply discretion, compassion, or mercy, nor can it adapt commanders’ intent or apply initiative. Before fully autonomous weapons use lethal force, it is argued that there needs to be assurances that the ethical implications are understood and that control mechanisms are in place to ensure that oversight of the system is able to prevent incidents that could amount to breaches of the laws of armed conflict.

  18. Response surface method using grey relational analysis for decision making in weapon system selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wang; Peng Meng; Baowei Song

    2014-01-01

    A proper weapon system is very important for a na-tional defense system. General y, it means selecting the optimal weapon system among many alternatives, which is a multiple-attribute decision making (MADM) problem. This paper proposes a new mathematical model based on the response surface method (RSM) and the grey relational analysis (GRA). RSM is used to obtain the experimental points and analyze the factors that have a significant impact on the selection results. GRA is used to an-alyze the trend relationship between alternatives and reference series. And then an RSM model is obtained, which can be used to calculate al alternatives and obtain ranking results. A real world application is introduced to il ustrate the utilization of the model for the weapon selection problem. The results show that this model can be used to help decision-makers to make a quick comparison of alternatives and select a proper weapon system from multiple alternatives, which is an effective and adaptable method for solving the weapon system selection problem.

  19. Simulation of Fighter Aircraft Weapon Systems for Design and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Subramanyam

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulation forms an essential tool in the system design and performance evaluation of fighter aircraft weapon systems. The various guidance strategies used for weapons like guns, missiles, bombs in the air-to-air or air-to-ground missions, for aiding the pilot for an effective delivery have been studied through extensive off-line and pilot-in-loop simulation. The pilot workload analysis carried out in the high fidelity cockpit simulator at the Aeronautical Development Agency , Bangalore, provides the system designer an effective means to tune the various subsy stems for better performance. The paper focuses on all these aspects to bring out the importance of simulation in the overall fighter aircraft weapon system design.

  20. Feature extraction from time domain acoustic signatures of weapons systems fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Christine; Goldman, Geoffrey H.

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Army is interested in developing algorithms to classify weapons systems fire based on their acoustic signatures. To support this effort, an algorithm was developed to extract features from acoustic signatures of weapons systems fire and applied to over 1300 signatures. The algorithm filtered the data using standard techniques then estimated the amplitude and time of the first five peaks and troughs and the location of the zero crossing in the waveform. The results were stored in Excel spreadsheets. The results are being used to develop and test acoustic classifier algorithms.

  1. Computing variable bounds in the conceptual design phase of guided weapon systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Buco, D.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of guided weapon systems is primarily expressed by the end-of-flight effect, routinely approximated by the miss distance. It is however equally important that certain system variables of interest are kept within given bounds all along the duration of the flight. In this paper, we pro

  2. Is Weapon System Cost Growth Increasing? A Quantitative Assessment of Completed and Ongoing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    monitor was Jay Jordan, technical director of the Air Force Cost Analysis Agency. Other RAND Project AIR FORCE documents that address weapon system...Systems, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, MG-415-AF, 2006. As of January 15, 2007: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG415/ Asher , Norman J

  3. Computing variable bounds in the conceptual design phase of guided weapon systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Buco, D.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of guided weapon systems is primarily expressed by the end-of-flight effect, routinely approximated by the miss distance. It is however equally important that certain system variables of interest are kept within given bounds all along the duration of the flight. In this paper, we

  4. U.S. Army weapon systems human-computer interface style guide. Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.; Donohoo, D.T.

    1997-12-31

    A stated goal of the US Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIs) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of HCI design guidance documents. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA), now termed the Joint Technical Architecture-Army (JTA-A). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide, which resulted in the US Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide Version 1. Based on feedback from the user community, DISC4 further tasked PNNL to revise Version 1 and publish Version 2. The intent was to update some of the research and incorporate some enhancements. This document provides that revision. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for the RT/NRT Army system domain across the weapon systems subdomains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each subdomain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their subdomains.

  5. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  6. Weapon and Sighting System Compatibility Assessment for Prototype Maxillofacial Protection Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    14 6.7 FIREBALL : M4 Weapon Compatibility ......................................................................15 6.8 FIREBALL : M240B...System Compatibility – Stryker Combat Vehicle...........................................19 7.1.1 CVCH, FIREBALL Helmet Bracket, No Maxillofacial... FIREBALL Helmet Bracket With Maxillofacial Protection (figure 32

  7. Warhead politics: Livermore and the competitive system of nuclear weapon design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Sybil [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    From the 1950s onward, US evolved a two-laboratory system to design, develop, and test nuclear weapons. LANL (New Mexico) dates from World War II. The founding in 1952 of LLNL in California effectively established the two-laboratory system. Despite essentially identical missions, LANL and LLNL adopted different strategies and approaches to the development of nuclear weapons. This thesis looks to their joint history for an explanation of this and consequent questions (how did the two-laboratory system originate and evolve? how did it function? what impact did it have on nuclear weapons development?) The incentives and constraints that shaped laboratory strategies and outputs was determined by military demand for nuclear weapons, an informal mandate against laboratory duplication, congressional support for competition, and Livermore`s role as the ``second lab.`` This thesis discusses the laboratories` role in the arms race, organizational strategies for coping with changing political environments, dynamics of technological innovation, and the leverage of policymakers over large organizations.

  8. WSTIAC: Weapon Systems Technology Information Analysis Center. Volume 6, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Computational Neuroscience Program 2004. Associate Editor; Journal of Counter Ordinance Technology. Joel L EDavis, Program Manager, Cognitive and Neural...tests were against unitary (nonseparating) targets representative of the Journal of the Optical Society of America A, involves of SCUD-type ballistic...Agent ( CSEA ) and prime contractor for the Aegis Weapon System agencies. A single query searches across 30 databases and and Vertical Launch System

  9. Aerosol mass spectrometry systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergenson, David P.; Gard, Eric E.

    2013-08-20

    A system according to one embodiment includes a particle accelerator that directs a succession of polydisperse aerosol particles along a predetermined particle path; multiple tracking lasers for generating beams of light across the particle path; an optical detector positioned adjacent the particle path for detecting impingement of the beams of light on individual particles; a desorption laser for generating a beam of desorbing light across the particle path about coaxial with a beam of light produced by one of the tracking lasers; and a controller, responsive to detection of a signal produced by the optical detector, that controls the desorption laser to generate the beam of desorbing light. Additional systems and methods are also disclosed.

  10. Experimental Investigations of a Precision Sensor for an Automatic Weapons Stabilizer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobiichuk, Igor

    2016-12-24

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of a precision sensor for an automatic weapons stabilizer system. It also describes the experimental equipment used and the structure of the developed sensor. A weapons stabilizer is designed for automatic guidance of an armament unit in the horizontal and vertical planes when firing at ground and air targets that are quickly maneuvering, and at lower speeds when firing anti-tank missiles, as well as the bypass of construction elements by the armament unit, and the automatic tracking of moving targets when interacting with a fire control system. The results of experimental investigations have shown that the error of the precision sensor developed on the basis of a piezoelectric element is 6 × 10(-10) m/s² under quasi-static conditions, and ~10(-5) m/s² for mobile use. This paper defines metrological and calibration properties of the developed sensor.

  11. New rapid transfer alignment method for SINS of airborne weapon systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Chen; Yan Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Transfer alignment is an effective alignment method for the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) of airborne weapon systems. The traditional transfer alignment methods for large misalignment angles alignment use nonlinear transfer align-ment models and incorporate nonlinear filtering. A rapid transfer alignment method with linear models and linear filtering for ar-bitrary misalignment angles is presented. Through the attitude quaternion decomposition, the purpose of transfer alignment is converted to estimate a constant quaternion. Employing special manipulations on measurement equation, velocity and attitude linear measurement equations are derived. Then the linear trans-fer alignment model for arbitrary misalignment angles is built. An adaptive Kalman filter is developed to handle modeling errors of the measurement noise statistics. Simulation results show feasibili-ty and effectiveness of the proposed method, which provides an alternative rapid transfer alignment method for airborne weapons.

  12. A Study of New Method for Weapon System Effectiveness Evaluation Based on Bayesian Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Dai-wei; GU Liang-xian; PAN Lei

    2008-01-01

    As weapon system effectiveness is affected by many factors, its evaluation is essentially a multi-criterion decision making problem for its complexity. The evaluation model of the effectiveness is established on the basis of metrics architecture of the effectiveness. The Bayesian network, which is used to evaluate the effectiveness, is established based on the metrics architecture and the evaluation models. For getting the weights of the metrics by Bayesian network, subjective initial values of the weights are given, gradient ascent algorithm is adopted, and the reasonable values of the weights are achieved. And then the effectiveness of every weapon system project is gained. The weapon system, whose effectiveness is relative maximum, is the optimization system. The research result shows that this method can solve the problem of AHP method which evaluation results are not compatible to the practice results and overcome the shortcoming of neural network in multilayer and multi-criterion decision. The method offers a new approaeh for evaluating the effectiveness.

  13. Defense Acquisitions: How DOD Acquires Weapon Systems and Recent Efforts to Reform the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    Weapon Systems and Recent Efforts to Reform the Process 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT ...oversee and mange acquisition programs. At each milestone, a program must meet specific statutory and regulatory requirements before the program can...the FY2007 defense authorization bill stated Simply put, the Department of Defense (DOD) acquisition process is broken. The ability of the

  14. Geometry-of-fire tracking algorithm for direct-fire weapon systems

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Caleb K.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The continuous cycle for validating geometry of fires on a battlefield impedes momentum. A force that can decide and act quicker than the enemy has an advantage. The goal of this thesis is to provide dismounted infantry units with this advantage by developing a sensor network that streamlines the geometry-of-fire validation cycle for direct-fire weapon systems. This is the first attempt to develop technology for this specific applicati...

  15. The vulnerability of laser warning systems against guided weapons based on low power lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jaberi, Mubarak

    2006-01-01

    Laser assisted weapons, such as laser guided bombs, laser guided missiles and laser beam-riding missiles pose a significant threat to military assets in the modern battlefield. Laser beam-riding missiles are particularly hard to detect because they use low power lasers. Most laser warning systems produced so far can not detect laser beam-riding missiles because of their weak emissions which have signals less than 1% of laser range finder power . They are even harder to defeat because current ...

  16. Visibility Characteristics of Terrain and Their Effects on Weapon-System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    range of the weapon and if "LOS" exists. The existence and duration of LOS in these modelo is deterministically assessed by computations on the...defenders had visibility to the same target. vihile it does make sense to discuss those areas separately, there are aspects of the experiment, which, being...and other sensing systems which might exist in battlefield conditions, and their implications on the utility of laser guided beam rider and TOW

  17. Using Heuristics for Supportability Analysis of Adaptive Weapon Systems in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Defense ARJ, January 2017, Vol. 24 No. 1 : 30–41 Using Heuristics for Supportability Analysis http://www.dau.mil In a limited data situation , a decision...USING HEURISTICS for Supportability Analysis of Adaptive Weapon Systems in Combat Samuel H. Amber The new U.S. Army vision contends that heuristics...Image designed by Diane Fleischer 32 Defense ARJ, January 2017, Vol. 24 No. 1 : 30–41 Using Heuristics for Supportability Analysis http

  18. Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrenko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient of aerosol products from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua, MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  19. The Mechanisms and Value of Competition for Major Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    technology. MUOS is intended to replace the Ultra-High Frequency Follow-On system ( UFO ), which was fielded between 1993 and 2003. Launch of the first......performance on the UFO system was considered an outstanding success. Based on rather limited evidence, Scearce concludes that Boeing’s bid for MUOS was based

  20. An Evaluation of Aerosol Extinguishing Systems for Machinery Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    MSC/Cir. 1007) “Guidelines for the Approval of Fixed Aerosol Fire-Extinguishing Systems Equivalent to Fixed Gas Fire -Extinguishing Systems...Committee/Circular (MSC/Circ.) 1007 “Guidelines for the Approval of Fixed Aerosol Fire-Extinguishing Systems Equivalent to Fixed Gas Fire -Extinguishing...combustibles in machinery spaces. This test is also required in the approval of both halocarbon and inert gas fire extinguishing systems. These issues

  1. Internal Versus External Acquisition for Small Weapons Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    early 1800s. Other examples of repeating history include Lowering the Cost of Federal System Acquisition ( Kasser , 1996), Spare Parts Horror Stories...Spare Parts”, 1997), and Back to Basics (Dornheim, 2006). Kasser recommends moving system testing and inspection to an earlier phase of the...Katobe, M. “Hollowing –Out of US Multinationals and Their Global Competitiveness,” Journal of International Business Studies. 1989, Vol 19:1-15. Kasser

  2. Review and Analysis of GAO Reports on Major Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    that controls the health and status of the space vehicle was found to be inadequate when it unexpectedly failed during testing in 2007. In April...Outsourcing the Pearl Harbor MK-48 Intermediate Maintenance Activity  Pallet Management System  PBL (4)  Privatization-NOSL/NAWCI  RFID (6)  Risk

  3. From Marginal Adjustments to Meaningful Change: Rethinking Weapon System Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Management in Expeditionary Operations, 2007. GAO—See U.S. Government Accountability Offi ce. Garcia , A., H. Keyner, T. Robillard, and M. Van Mullekom... Marquez , R. B. Magnaye, and W. Tan, System Maturity Indices for Decision Support in the Defense Acquisition Process, proceedings of the 5th Annual

  4. Digital Guided Weapons Technology. Volume 1. Digital Processor System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    Subsystem 4. 1. 3 LORAN Subsystem 4. 1.4 E-O Data Link Subsystem 4. 1. 5 TERCOM Subsystem 4.1.6 DME Subsystem 4. 1.7 Global Positioning System...Subsystem Block Diagram 16 Electro-Optical Data Link Subsystem Block Diagram 17 TERCOM Subsystem Block Diagram 18 GPS Subsystem Functional Flow...Processing Requirements — EO Data Link 6 Processing Requirements - TERCOM Subsystem 7 GPS Guidance Subsystem Digital Processing Requirements 8

  5. A dollar cost evaluation of mainland China's major weapon systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chih-Hsiang

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis analyzes the requirements and design considerations of a video teletraining (VTT) delivery system for 25 Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) centers located throughout the continental United States. Current DFAS VTT capabilities are reviewed and included. The study's sponsor, the Defense Business Management University (DBMU), has been tasked by the DoD comptroller to implement a training program for these centers. Th...

  6. Technical analysis of US Army Weapons Systems and related advanced technologies of military interest. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-06-14

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of an US Army technology security project designed to identify and develop effective policy guidelines for militarily critical technologies in specific Army systems and in broad generic technology areas of military interest, Individual systems analyses are documented in separate Weapons Systems Technical Assessments (WSTAs) and the general generic technology areas are evaluated in the Advanced Technology Assessment Reports (ATARs), However, specific details of these assessments are not addressed here, only recommendations regarding aspects of the defined approach, methodology, and format are provided and discussed.

  7. Challenges in the application of modular open system architecture to weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Jonathan; Rose, Leo; Young, Quinn; Christensen, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    The overarching objective for Flexible Weapons is to replace current inventory weapons that will not fully utilize the increased capabilities of 6th generation platforms, with a single weapons kit made up of flexible, open architecture components. Flexible Weapon will develop a common architecture to enable modular subsystems to achieve flexible weapons capability while allowing technology refresh at the pace of technology discovery in an affordable and sustainable design. The various combinations of weapons to address multiple missions must be 100% compatible with 6th generation delivery platforms (fighters, bombers, RPAs) and backwards compatible with 4th and 5th generation platforms.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) nuclear weapons effects on submarine cable systems. Volume 1. Experiments and analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    This report presents a study of the nuclear weapons magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects on submarine communications cables. The study consisted of the analysis and interpretation of currently available data on submarine cable systems TAT-4, TAT-6, and TAT-7. The primary result of the study is that decrease of the effective resistivity with frequency over the available experimental range, coupled with the model results, leads to quite small effective resistivities at the MHD characteristic frequencies, and hence small earth potential differences. Thus, it appears that submarine cable systems are less susceptible to an MHD threat than their land-based counter-parts.

  9. LACROS: the Leipzig Aerosol and Cloud Remote Observations System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühl, Johannes; Seifert, Patric; Wandinger, Ulla; Baars, Holger; Kanitz, Thomas; Schmidt, Jörg; Myagkov, Alexander; Engelmann, Ronny; Skupin, Annett; Heese, Birgit; Klepel, André; Althausen, Dietrich; Ansmann, Albert

    2013-10-01

    The study of interactions between aerosol particles, atmospheric dynamics and clouds and their resulting corresponding indirect effects on precipitation and radiative transfer demand new measurement strategies combining the strength of lidar, radar, and in-situ instrumentation. To match this challenge the Leipzig Aerosol and Cloud Remote Observations System (LACROS) has been set up at TROPOS, combining the strengths of a unique set of active and passive remote sensing and in-situ measurement systems.

  10. Aerosol generation by blower motors as a bias in assessing aerosol penetration into cabin filtration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitbrink, William A; Collingwood, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In cabin filtration systems, blower motors pressurize a vehicle cabin with clean filtered air and recirculate air through an air-conditioning evaporator coil and a heater core. The exposure reduction offered by these cabins is evaluated by optical particle counters that measure size-dependent aerosol concentration inside and outside the cabin. The ratio of the inside-to-outside concentration is termed penetration. Blower motors use stationary carbon brushes to transmit an electrical current through a rotating armature that abrades the carbon brushes. This creates airborne dust that may affect experimental evaluations of aerosol penetration. To evaluate the magnitude of these dust emissions, blower motors were placed in a test chamber and operated at 12 and 13.5 volts DC. A vacuum cleaner drew 76 m3/hour (45 cfm) of air through HEPA filters, the test chamber, and through a 5 cm diameter pipe. An optical particle counter drew air through an isokinetic sampling probe and measured the size-dependent particle concentrations from 0.3 to 15 microm. The concentration of blower motor aerosol was between 2 x 10(5) and 1.8 x 10(6) particles/m3. Aerosol penetration into three stationary vehicles, two pesticide application vehicles and one tractor were measured at two conditions: low concentration (outside in the winter) and high concentration (inside repair shops and burning incense sticks used as a supplemental aerosol source). For particles smaller than 1 microm, the in-cabin concentrations can be explained by the blower motor emissions. For particles larger than 1 microm, other aerosol sources, such as resuspended dirt, are present. Aerosol generated by the operation of the blower motor and by other sources can bias the exposure reduction measured by optical particle counters.

  11. A new atmospheric aerosol phase equilibrium model (UHAERO: organic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Amundson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In atmospheric aerosols, water and volatile inorganic and organic species are distributed between the gas and aerosol phases in accordance with thermodynamic equilibrium. Within an atmospheric particle, liquid and solid phases can exist at equilibrium. Models exist for computation of phase equilibria for inorganic/water mixtures typical of atmospheric aerosols; when organic species are present, the phase equilibrium problem is complicated by organic/water interactions as well as the potentially large number of organic species. We present here an extension of the UHAERO inorganic thermodynamic model (Amundson et al., 2006c to organic/water systems. Phase diagrams for a number of model organic/water systems characteristic of both primary and secondary organic aerosols are computed. Also calculated are inorganic/organic/water phase diagrams that show the effect of organics on inorganic deliquescence behavior. The effect of the choice of activity coefficient model for organics on the computed phase equilibria is explored.

  12. A new atmospheric aerosol phase equilibrium model (UHAERO: organic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Amundson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In atmospheric aerosols, water and volatile inorganic and organic species are distributed between the gas and aerosol phases in accordance with thermodynamic equilibrium. Within an atmospheric particle, liquid and solid phases can exist at equilibrium. Models exist for computation of phase equilibria for inorganic/water mixtures typical of atmospheric aerosols; when organic species are present, the phase equilibrium problem is complicated by organic/water interactions as well as the potentially large number of organic species. We present here an extension of the UHAERO inorganic thermodynamic model (Amundson et al., 2006c to organic/water systems. Phase diagrams for a number of model organic/water systems characteristic of both primary and secondary organic aerosols are computed. Also calculated are inorganic/organic/water phase diagrams that show the effect of organics on inorganic deliquescence behavior. The effect of the choice of activity coefficient model for organics on the computed phase equilibria is explored.

  13. Study of Direction Probability and Algorithm of Improved Marriage in Honey Bees Optimization for Weapon Network System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chen-guang; TU Xu-yan; CHEN Jie

    2009-01-01

    To solve the weapon network system optimization problem against small raid objects with low attitude, the concept of direction probability and a new evaluation index system are proposed. By calculating the whole damaging probability that changes with the defending angle, the efficiency of the whole weapon network system can be subtly described. With such method, we can avoid the inconformity of the description obtained from the traditional index systems. Three new indexes are also proposed, I.e. Join index, overlap index and cover index, which help manage the relationship among several sub-weapon-networks. By normalizing the computation results with the Sigmoid function, the matching problem between the optimization algorithm and indexes is well settled. Also, the algorithm of improved marriage in honey bees optimization that proposed in our previous work is applied to optimize the embattlement problem. Simulation is carried out to show the efficiency of the proposed indexes and the optimization algorithm.

  14. Hand calculations for transport of radioactive aerosols through sampling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Mark; Thompson, Martha; Farfan, Eduardo; Hadlock, Dennis

    2014-05-01

    Workplace air monitoring programs for sampling radioactive aerosols in nuclear facilities sometimes must rely on sampling systems to move the air to a sample filter in a safe and convenient location. These systems may consist of probes, straight tubing, bends, contractions and other components. Evaluation of these systems for potential loss of radioactive aerosols is important because significant losses can occur. However, it can be very difficult to find fully described equations to model a system manually for a single particle size and even more difficult to evaluate total system efficiency for a polydispersed particle distribution. Some software methods are available, but they may not be directly applicable to the components being evaluated and they may not be completely documented or validated per current software quality assurance requirements. This paper offers a method to model radioactive aerosol transport in sampling systems that is transparent and easily updated with the most applicable models. Calculations are shown with the R Programming Language, but the method is adaptable to other scripting languages. The method has the advantage of transparency and easy verifiability. This paper shows how a set of equations from published aerosol science models may be applied to aspiration and transport efficiency of aerosols in common air sampling system components. An example application using R calculation scripts is demonstrated. The R scripts are provided as electronic attachments.

  15. Special Weapons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  16. Grey Prediction Fuzzy Control of the Target Tracking System in a Robot Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-zhong; JI Jiang-tao; WANG Hong-ru

    2007-01-01

    Grey modeling can be used to predict the behavioral development of a system and find out the lead control values of the system. By using fuzzy inference, PID parameters can be adjusted on line by the fuzzy controller with PID parameters self-tuning. According to the characteristics of target tracking system in a robot weapon, grey prediction theory and fuzzy PID control ideas are combined. A grey prediction mathematical model is constructed and a fuzzy PID controller with grey prediction was developed. Simulation result shows fuzzy PID control algorithm with grey prediction is an efficient method that can improve the control equality and robustness of traditional PID control and fuzzy PID control, and has much better performance for target tracking.

  17. Multidisciplinary model-based-engineering for laser weapon systems: recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Steve; Panthaki, Malcolm

    2013-09-01

    We are working to develop a comprehensive, integrated software framework and toolset to support model-based engineering (MBE) of laser weapons systems. MBE has been identified by the Office of the Director, Defense Science and Engineering as one of four potentially "game-changing" technologies that could bring about revolutionary advances across the entire DoD research and development and procurement cycle. To be effective, however, MBE requires robust underlying modeling and simulation technologies capable of modeling all the pertinent systems, subsystems, components, effects, and interactions at any level of fidelity that may be required in order to support crucial design decisions at any point in the system development lifecycle. Very often the greatest technical challenges are posed by systems involving interactions that cut across two or more distinct scientific or engineering domains; even in cases where there are excellent tools available for modeling each individual domain, generally none of these domain-specific tools can be used to model the cross-domain interactions. In the case of laser weapons systems R&D these tools need to be able to support modeling of systems involving combined interactions among structures, thermal, and optical effects, including both ray optics and wave optics, controls, atmospheric effects, target interaction, computational fluid dynamics, and spatiotemporal interactions between lasing light and the laser gain medium. To address this problem we are working to extend Comet™, to add the addition modeling and simulation capabilities required for this particular application area. In this paper we will describe our progress to date.

  18. Evaluations of tropospheric aerosol properties simulated by the community earth system model with a sectional aerosol microphysics scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Owen B.; Bardeen, Charles G.; Mills, Michael J.; Fan, Tianyi; English, Jason M.; Neely, Ryan R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A sectional aerosol model (CARMA) has been developed and coupled with the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Aerosol microphysics, radiative properties, and interactions with clouds are simulated in the size‐resolving model. The model described here uses 20 particle size bins for each aerosol component including freshly nucleated sulfate particles, as well as mixed particles containing sulfate, primary organics, black carbon, dust, and sea salt. The model also includes five types of bulk secondary organic aerosols with four volatility bins. The overall cost of CESM1‐CARMA is approximately ∼2.6 times as much computer time as the standard three‐mode aerosol model in CESM1 (CESM1‐MAM3) and twice as much computer time as the seven‐mode aerosol model in CESM1 (CESM1‐MAM7) using similar gas phase chemistry codes. Aerosol spatial‐temporal distributions are simulated and compared with a large set of observations from satellites, ground‐based measurements, and airborne field campaigns. Simulated annual average aerosol optical depths are lower than MODIS/MISR satellite observations and AERONET observations by ∼32%. This difference is within the uncertainty of the satellite observations. CESM1/CARMA reproduces sulfate aerosol mass within 8%, organic aerosol mass within 20%, and black carbon aerosol mass within 50% compared with a multiyear average of the IMPROVE/EPA data over United States, but differences vary considerably at individual locations. Other data sets show similar levels of comparison with model simulations. The model suggests that in addition to sulfate, organic aerosols also significantly contribute to aerosol mass in the tropical UTLS, which is consistent with limited data. PMID:27668039

  19. Object Recognition System in Remote Controlled Weapon Station using SIFT and SURF Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midriem Mirdanies

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Object recognition system using computer vision that is implemented on Remote Controlled Weapon Station (RCWS is discussed. This system will make it easier to identify and shoot targeted object automatically. Algorithm was created to recognize real time multiple objects using two methods i.e. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF combined with K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC for verification. The algorithm is designed to improve object detection to be more robust and to minimize the processing time required. Objects are registered on the system consisting of the armored personnel carrier, tanks, bus, sedan, big foot, and police jeep. In addition, object selection can use mouse to shoot another object that has not been registered on the system. Kinect™ is used to capture RGB images and to find the coordinates x, y, and z of the object. The programming language used is C with visual studio IDE 2010 and opencv libraries. Object recognition program is divided into three parts: 1 reading image from kinect™ and simulation results, 2 object recognition process, and 3 transfer of the object data to the ballistic computer. Communication between programs is performed using shared memory. The detected object data is sent to the ballistic computer via Local Area Network (LAN using winsock for ballistic calculation, and then the motor control system moves the direction of the weapon model to the desired object. The experimental results show that the SIFT method is more suitable because more accurate and faster than SURF with the average processing time to detect one object is 430.2 ms, two object is 618.4 ms, three objects is 682.4 ms, and four objects is 756.2 ms. Object recognition program is able to recognize multi-objects and the data of the identified object can be processed by the ballistic computer in realtime.

  20. Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation (CAR ensemble modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-Z. Liang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation (CAR ensemble modeling system has been developed to incorporate the largest choices of alternative parameterizations for cloud properties (cover, water, radius, optics, geometry, aerosol properties (type, profile, optics, radiation transfers (solar, infrared, and their interactions. These schemes form the most comprehensive collection currently available in the literature, including those used by the world leading general circulation models (GCMs. The CAR provides a unique framework to determine (via intercomparison across all schemes, reduce (via optimized ensemble simulations, and attribute specific key factors for (via physical process sensitivity analyses the model discrepancies and uncertainties in representing greenhouse gas, aerosol and cloud radiative forcing effects. This study presents a general description of the CAR system and illustrates its capabilities for climate modeling applications, especially in the context of estimating climate sensitivity and uncertainty range caused by cloud-aerosol-radiation interactions. For demonstration purpose, the evaluation is based on several CAR standalone and coupled climate model experiments, each comparing a limited subset of the full system ensemble with up to 896 members. It is shown that the quantification of radiative forcings and climate impacts strongly depends on the choices of the cloud, aerosol and radiation schemes. The prevailing schemes used in current GCMs are likely insufficient in variety and physically biased in a significant way. There exists large room for improvement by optimally combining radiation transfer with cloud property schemes.

  1. Design and Implementation of Simulation Environment for HLA-Compliant Torpedo Weapon System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Kai; KANG Feng-ju; GU Hao; SONG Zhi-ming

    2008-01-01

    A novel scheme for HLA(high level architecture)-compliant reconfigurable open architecture for the torpedo weapon system simulation is proposed. In addition, a kind of applied software framework for federate members based on the reusable software is put forward. The automation of time management strategy drafting and publish-subscribe declaration, and the consistent interface between RTI (run-time infrastructure) and simulation models are solved effectively. Furthermore, in order to simulate the fluctuant seabed, twinkle light spots, air bubbles, muddy effect, etc, an extended module, called as Underwater Space Vega, is developed. Finally, a distributed interactive simulation environment for underwater vehicles is set up with the aid of the software pRTI1.3. The preliminary experiment results indicate that this system friendly features GUI, reusable models and competence for real-time simulation.

  2. [Biological weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  3. Development of an aerosol assimilation/forecasting system with Himawari-8 aerosol products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, T.; Yumimoto, K.; Tanaka, T. Y.; Yoshida, M.; Kikuchi, M.; Nagao, T. M.; Murakami, H.; Ogi, A.; Sekiyama, T. T.

    2016-12-01

    A new generation geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS), Himawari-8, was launched on 7 October 2014 and became operational on 7 July 2015. Himawari-8 is equipped with more advanced multispectral imager (Advanced Himawari Imager; AHI) ahead of other planned GMSs (e.g., GEOS-R). The AHI has 16 observational bands including three visible lights (i.e. RGB) with high spatial (0.5-2 km) and temporal (every 10 minutes full-disk images) resolutions, and provides about 50 times more data than previous GMSs. It is attractive characteristics for aerosol study that the visible and near-infrared observational bands allow us to obtain full-disk maps of aerosol optical properties (i.e., aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and ångström exponent) with unprecedented temporal resolution. Meteorological Research Institute (MRI)/JMA and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) have been developing an aerosol assimilation/forecasting system with a global aerosol transport model (MASINGAR mk-2), 2 dimensional variational (2D-Var) method, and the Himawari-8 AOTs. Forecasting results are quantitatively validated by AOTs measured by AERONET and PM2.5 concentrations obtained by in-situ stations. Figure 1 shows model-predicted and satellite-observed AOTs during the 2016 Siberian wildfire. Upper and lower panels exhibit maps of AOT at analysis time (0000 UTC on May 18, 2016) and 27-hour forecast time (03 UTC on May 19, 2016), respectively. The 27-hour forecasted AOT starting with the analyzed initial condition (Figure 1f) successfully predicts heavy smokes covering the northern part of Japan, which forecast without assimilation (Figure 1e) failed to reproduces. Figure 1: Horizontal distribution of observed and forecasted AOTs at 0000 UTC 18 May, 2016 (analysis time; upper panels) and 0300 UTC 19 May, 2016 (18-h forecast from the analysis time; lower panel). (a, d) observed AOT from Himawari-8, (b, e) forecasted AOT without assimilation, and (c, f) forecast AOT with assimilation.

  4. Man-machine interface in a submarine command and weapon control system: features and design experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan H. Aas

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Important man-machine interface (MMI issues concerning a submarine command and weapon control system (CWCS such as crew organization, automation level and decision support are discussed in this paper. Generic submarine CWCS functions and operating conditions are outlined. Detailed, dynamic and real-time prototypes were used to support the MMI design. The prototypes are described and experience with detailed prototyping is discussed. Some of the main interaction principles are summarized and a restricted example of the resulting design is given. Our design experience and current work have been used to outline future perspectives of MMI design in naval CWCSs. The need for both formal and experimental approaches is emphasized.

  5. 75 FR 13262 - Reporting on Offsets Agreements in Sales of Weapon Systems or Defense-Related Items to Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Reporting on Offsets Agreements in Sales of Weapon Systems or Defense-Related Items to Foreign Countries or Foreign Firms for Calendar Year 2009 AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and...

  6. The Aerosol-Monsoon Climate System of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kyu-Myong, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In Asian monsoon countries such as China and India, human health and safety problems caused by air-pollution are worsening due to the increased loading of atmospheric pollutants stemming from rising energy demand associated with the rapid pace of industrialization and modernization. Meanwhile, uneven distribution of monsoon rain associated with flash flood or prolonged drought, has caused major loss of human lives, and damages in crop and properties with devastating societal impacts on Asian countries. Historically, air-pollution and monsoon research are treated as separate problems. However a growing number of recent studies have suggested that the two problems may be intrinsically intertwined and need to be studied jointly. Because of complexity of the dynamics of the monsoon systems, aerosol impacts on monsoons and vice versa must be studied and understood in the context of aerosol forcing in relationship to changes in fundamental driving forces of the monsoon climate system (e.g. sea surface temperature, land-sea contrast etc.) on time scales from intraseasonal variability (weeks) to climate change ( multi-decades). Indeed, because of the large contributions of aerosols to the global and regional energy balance of the atmosphere and earth surface, and possible effects of the microphysics of clouds and precipitation, a better understanding of the response to climate change in Asian monsoon regions requires that aerosols be considered as an integral component of a fully coupled aerosol-monsoon system on all time scales. In this paper, using observations and results from climate modeling, we will discuss the coherent variability of the coupled aerosol-monsoon climate system in South Asia and East Asia, including aerosol distribution and types, with respect to rainfall, moisture, winds, land-sea thermal contrast, heat sources and sink distributions in the atmosphere in seasonal, interannual to climate change time scales. We will show examples of how elevated

  7. Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2012-10-01

    Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern.

  8. Development and validation of a CCD-laser aerosol detective system for measuring the ambient aerosol phase function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol phase function represents the angular scattering property of aerosols, which is crucial for understanding the climate effects of aerosols that have been identified as one of the largest uncertainties in the evaluation of radiative forcing. So far, there is a lack of instruments with which to measure the aerosol phase function directly and accurately in laboratory studies and in situ measurements. A portable instrument with high angular range and resolution has been developed for the measurement of the phase function of ambient aerosols in this study. The charge-coupled device-laser aerosol detective system (CCD-LADS measures the aerosol phase function both across a relatively wide angular range of 10–170° and at a high resolution of 0.1°. The system includes a continuous laser, two charge-coupled device cameras and the corresponding fisheye lenses. The CCD-LADS was validated by both a laboratory study and a field measurement. The comparison between the aerosol phase function retrieved from CCD-LADS and Mie-scattering model shows good agreement. Compared with the TSI polar nephelometer, CCD-LADS has the advantages of wider detection range and better stability.

  9. Generation and characterization of biological aerosols for laser measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Barr, E.B.

    1995-12-01

    Concerns for proliferation of biological weapons including bacteria, fungi, and viruses have prompted research and development on methods for the rapid detection of biological aerosols in the field. Real-time instruments that can distinguish biological aerosols from background dust would be especially useful. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a laser-based, real-time instrument for rapid detection of biological aerosols, and ITRI is working with SNL scientists and engineers to evaluate this technology for a wide range of biological aerosols. This paper describes methods being used to generate the characterize the biological aerosols for these tests. In summary, a biosafe system has been developed for generating and characterizing biological aerosols and using those aerosols to test the SNL laser-based real-time instrument. Such tests are essential in studying methods for rapid detection of airborne biological materials.

  10. INTEGRATED PROTECTIVE FABRIC SYSTEM (IPFS) PHASE III PROGRAM: AEROSOL PROTECTION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-16

    one layer control. It was observed that aerosol swatch measurements showed no correlation to aerosol system test performance for the materials and...the BRHA model employed. It was observed that aerosol swatch measurements showed no correlation to aerosol system test performance for the...was used as a negative control with the purpose of providing a high-efficiency filter to demonstrate that if the suit fabric was highly efficient at

  11. Aerosol assisted depositions of polymers using an atomiser delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Colin R; Clausen-Thue, Victoria; Parkin, Ivan P

    2011-09-01

    The hydrophobicity, robustness and anti-microbial properties of Sylgard 184 polymer films deposited via AACVD were optimised by using aerosol droplets from an atomiser delivery system, polymer coating substrates and the swell encapsulation of methylene blue. By using an atomiser deposition system (average droplet size 0.35 microm) rather than a misting aerosol system (45 microm) lead to a surface with smaller surface features, which improved hydrophobicity (water contact angle 165 degrees) in addition to increasing the films transparency from ca 10 to 65%. Pre-treating the substrates with the same Sylgard 184 elastomer lead to a highly consistent surface hydrophobicity and an increase in average water contact angle measured (169 degrees). This paper shows the first example of dye incorporation in a CVD derived polymer film-these films have potential as antimicrobial surfaces.

  12. Alveolar targeting of aerosol pentamidine. Toward a rational delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonds, A.K.; Newman, S.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Talaee, N.; Lee, C.A.; Clarke, S.W. (Royal Free Hospital, London (England))

    1990-04-01

    Nebulizer systems that deposit a high proportion of aerosolized pentamidine on large airways are likely to be associated with marked adverse side effects, which may lead to premature cessation of treatment. We have measured alveolar deposition and large airway-related side effects (e.g., cough, breathlessness, and effect on pulmonary function) after aerosolization of 150 mg pentamidine isethionate labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-Sn-colloid. Nine patients with AIDS were studied using three nebulizer systems producing different droplet size profiles: the Acorn System 22, Respirgard II, and Respirgard II with the inspiratory baffle removed. Alveolar deposition was greatest and side effects least with the nebulizer producing the smallest droplet size profile (Respirgard II), whereas large airway-related side effects were prominent and alveolar deposition lowest with the nebulizer producing the largest droplet size (Acorn System 22). Values for alveolar deposition and adverse airway effects were intermediate using the Respirgard with inspiratory baffle removed, thus indicating the importance of the baffle valve in determining droplet size. Addition of a similar baffle valve to the Acorn System 22 produced a marked improvement in droplet size profile. Selection of a nebulizer that produces an optimal droplet size range offers the advantage of enhancing alveolar targeting of aerosolized pentamidine while reducing large airway-related side effects.

  13. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  14. New apparatus of single particle trap system for aerosol visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hidenori; Fujioka, Tomomi; Endo, Tetsuo; Kitayama, Chiho; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio

    2014-08-01

    Control of transport and deposition of charged aerosol particles is important in various manufacturing processes. Aerosol visualization is an effective method to directly observe light scattering signal from laser-irradiated single aerosol particle trapped in a visualization cell. New single particle trap system triggered by light scattering pulse signal was developed in this study. The performance of the device was evaluated experimentally. Experimental setup consisted of an aerosol generator, a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), an optical particle counter (OPC) and the single particle trap system. Polystylene latex standard (PSL) particles (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μm) were generated and classified according to the charge by the DMA. Singly charged 0.5 and 1.0 μm particles and doubly charged 2.0 μm particles were used as test particles. The single particle trap system was composed of a light scattering signal detector and a visualization cell. When the particle passed through the detector, trigger signal with a given delay time sent to the solenoid valves upstream and downstream of the visualization cell for trapping the particle in the visualization cell. The motion of particle in the visualization cell was monitored by CCD camera and the gravitational settling velocity and the electrostatic migration velocity were measured from the video image. The aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was in good agreement with Stokes diameter calculated from the electrostatic migration velocity for individual particles. It was also found that the aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was a one-to-one function of the scattered light intensity of individual particles. The applicability of this system will be discussed.

  15. Issues With Access to Acquisition Data and Information in the Department of Defense: Doing Data Right in Weapon System Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Szafran Abstract Acquisition data lay the foundational role for decision-making, management , and oversight of the weapon-systems acquisition...2015). This data- management strategy fails to address the complete managerial prerogatives of the USD(AT&L) and the Better Buying Power initiatives...with information managers and our literature review on Master Data Management found that data governance plays a key role in the success of acquisition

  16. ITER: The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the nuclear weapons proliferation implications of thermonuclear-fusion energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This report contains two parts: (1) A list of "points" highlighting the strategic-political and military-technical reasons and implications of the very probable siting of ITER (the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in Japan, which should be confirmed sometimes in early 2004. (2) A technical analysis of the nuclear weapons proliferation implications of inertial- and magnetic-confinement fusion systems substantiating the technical points highlighted in the first part, and showin...

  17. Improving aerosol vertical retrieval for NWP application: Studying the impact of IR-sensed aerosol on data assimilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Mayra; Marquis, Jared; Ruston, Benjamin; Campbell, James; Baker, Nancy; Westphal, Douglas; Zhang, Jianglong; Hyer, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Radiometric measurements from passive infrared (IR) sensors are important in numerical weather prediction (NWP) because they are sensitive to surface temperatures and atmospheric temperature profiles. However, these measurements are also sensitive to absorbing and scattering constituents in the atmosphere. Dust aerosols absorb in the IR and are found over many global regions with irregular spatial and temporal frequency. Retrievals of temperature using IR data are thus vulnerable to dust-IR radiance biases, most notably over tropical oceans where accurate surface and atmospheric temperatures are critical to accurate prediction of tropical cyclone development. Previous studies have shown that dust aerosols can bias retrieved brightness temperatures (BT) by up to 10K in some IR channels that are assimilated to constrain atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles. Other BT-derived parameters such as sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are susceptible to negative biases of at least 1K or higher, which conflicts with the accuracy requirement for most research and operational applications (i.e., +/- 0.3 K). This problem is not limited to just satellite retrievals. BT bias also impacts the incorporation of background fields from NWP analyses in data assimilation (DA) systems. The effect of aerosols on IR fluxes at the ocean surface is a function of both aerosol loading and vertical profile. Therefore, knowledge of the aerosol vertical distribution, and understanding of how well this distribution is captured by NWP models, is necessary to ensuring proper treatment of aerosol-affected radiances in both retrieval and data assimilation. This understanding can be achieved by conducting modeling studies and by the exploitation of a robust observational dataset, such as satellite-based lidar profiling, which can be used to characterize aerosol type and distribution. In this talk, we describe such an application using the Navy Aerosol Analysis Prediction System (NAAPS) and

  18. Into the Caves of Steel: Precaution, Cognition and Robotic Weapon Systems Under the International Law of Armed Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan David Herbach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The pace of development with respect to robotic weapons systems is staggering. Often formulated in the context of a desire of the ‘haves’ States to minimize battlefield casualties and to reduce monetary costs, technological advancement holds a number of ramifications for the law of armed conflict. Specifically, as technology introduces the possibility of increasingly autonomous forms of robotic weapon systems, the implications of augmenting precision while removing, for all intents and purposes, direct control by or involvement of human beings (‘in the loop’ must be examined, along with differentiated responsibilities of the ‘haves’ versus the ‘have-nots’. The present article takes as a foundation the international humanitarian law principle of precaution, as codified in Article 57 of Additional Protocol I, to assess various aspects of the applicability of the relevant provisions to these new weapons systems, and in particular draws conclusions as to how precaution could influence future developments.


  19. Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-04-01

    The potential for biological weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, mycotoxins, and nicotine. Toxins have properties of biological and chemical weapons. Unlike pathogens, toxins do not produce an infection. Ricin causes multiorgan toxicity by blocking protein synthesis. Botulinum blocks acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system leading to muscle paralysis. Epsilon toxin damages cell membranes. Conotoxins block potassium and sodium channels in neurons. Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes. Aflatoxins are carcinogens. Trichothecenes inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Nicotine produces numerous nicotinic effects in the nervous system.

  20. 武器装备体系需求变更管理研究%Research on Requirements Change Management of Weapon Equipment System of Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿青霞; 杨秀月; 杨雷

    2011-01-01

    According to the characteristic of requirements change of weapon equipment system-of-systems, the paper studies the basic conception, analyzes the principle and work flows of requirements change of weapon equipment system-of-systems. Moreover, it brings forward the analysis frame of requirements change supporting theory and methods for the choice and development of the tools of requirements change management of weapon equipment system-of-systems. It is significant to implement the requirements change scientific management and enhance the quality of requirements generation of weapon equipment system-of-systems.%依据武器装备体系需求变更的特点,研究了武器装备体系需求变更管理的基本概念,分析了武器装备体系需求变更管理的原则和流程,构建了武器装备体系需求变更分析框架,为体系需求变更管理工具的选择和开发提供理论和方法支持,对实现武器装备体系需求变更的科学管理,提高需求生成的质量具有重要的理论指导意义。

  1. Effects of aerosol on evaporation, freezing and precipitation in a multiple cloud system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung Soo; Kim, Byung-Gon; Yum, Seong Soo; Seo, Kyong-Hwan; Jung, Chang-Hoon; Um, Jun Shik; Li, Zhanqing; Hong, JinKyu; Chang, Ki-Ho; Jeong, Jin-Yim

    2017-02-01

    Aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation account for a large portion of uncertainties in the prediction of the future course of global hydrologic circulations and climate. As a process of a better understanding of interactions between aerosol, clouds and precipitation, simulations are performed for a mixed-phase convective multiple-cloud system over the tropics. Studies on single-cloud systems have shown that aerosol-induced increases in freezing, associated increases in parcel buoyancy and thus the intensity of clouds (or updrafts) are a main mechanism which controls aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in convective clouds. However, in the multiple-cloud system that plays much more important roles in global hydrologic circulations and thus climate than single-cloud systems, aerosol effects on condensation play the most important role in aerosol-induced changes in the intensity of clouds and the effects on freezing play a negligible role in those changes. Aerosol-induced enhancement in evaporation intensifies gust fronts and increases the number of subsequently developing clouds, which leads to the substantial increases in condensation and associated intensity of convection. Although aerosol-induced enhancement in freezing takes part in the increases in condensation by inducing stronger convergence around cloud bottom, the increases in condensation are one order of magnitude larger than those in freezing. It is found that while aerosol-induced increases in freezing create intermittent extremely heavy precipitation, aerosol-induced increases in evaporation enhance light and medium precipitation in the multiple-cloud system here. This increase in light and medium precipitation makes it possible that cumulative precipitation increases with increasing aerosol concentration, although the increase is small. It is interesting that the altitude of the maximum of the time- and domain-averaged hydrometeor mass densities is quite robust to increases in aerosol

  2. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Contracts Performed Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the combatant commander or...

  3. Calibration of a PIXE system for analysis of environmental aerosols; Calibracion de un sistema PIXE para analisis de aerosoles ambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape, F.; Diaz, R.V.; Anguiano, G.; Flores M, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-04-15

    The results of the calibration of the PIXE system for analysis of environmental aerosols in the CNM is presented. The system was calibrated in order to lead to the project study of environmental aerosols using PIXE from the qualitative dimension to the quantitative one. Part of this work it was carried out in collaboration with the expert of the IAEA Dr. D. Crumpton. The calibration of the system it was achieved bombarding thin targets of well-known composition with protons of 2.5 MeV. Using this technique it was determined the absolute elementary concentration in samples of atmospheric aerosols. As an example the calculation of the lead concentration in one of them whose result was of 662 {+-} 49 ng m{sup -3} is presented. This value agrees with the measurements made in the Crocker Nuclear Lab of the UCD. Its are also discussed the reproducibility and precision of the used technique. (Author)

  4. The Multi-Sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) for Integrated Analysis of Satellite Retrieval Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Petrenko, Maksym; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Among the known atmospheric constituents, aerosols represent the greatest uncertainty in climate research. Although satellite-based aerosol retrieval has practically become routine, especially during the last decade, there is often disagreement between similar aerosol parameters retrieved from different sensors, leaving users confused as to which sensors to trust for answering important science questions about the distribution, properties, and impacts of aerosols. As long as there is no consensus and the inconsistencies are not well characterized and understood ', there will be no way of developing reliable climate data records from satellite aerosol measurements. Fortunately, the most globally representative well-calibrated ground-based aerosol measurements corresponding to the satellite-retrieved products are available from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). To adequately utilize the advantages offered by this vital resource,., an online Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) was recently developed. The aim of MAPSS is to facilitate detailed comparative analysis of satellite aerosol measurements from different sensors (Terra-MODIS, Aqua-MODIS, Terra-MISR, Aura-OMI, Parasol-POLDER, and Calipso-CALIOP) based on the collocation of these data products over AERONET stations. In this presentation, we will describe the strategy of the MAPSS system, its potential advantages for the aerosol community, and the preliminary results of an integrated comparative uncertainty analysis of aerosol products from multiple satellite sensors.

  5. Improving performance of HVAC systems to reduce exposure to aerosolized infectious agents in buildings; recommendations to reduce risks posed by biological attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Penny J; Mair, Michael; Inglesby, Thomas V; Gross, Jonathan; Henderson, D A; O'Toole, Tara; Ahern-Seronde, Joa; Bahnfleth, William P; Brennan, Terry; Burroughs, H E Barney; Davidson, Cliff; Delp, William; Ensor, David S; Gomory, Ralph; Olsiewski, Paula; Samet, Jonathan M; Smith, William M; Streifel, Andrew J; White, Ronald H; Woods, James E

    2006-01-01

    The prospect of biological attacks is a growing strategic threat. Covert aerosol attacks inside a building are of particular concern. In the summer of 2005, the Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center convened a Working Group to determine what steps could be taken to reduce the risk of exposure of building occupants after an aerosol release of a biological weapon. The Working Group was composed of subject matter experts in air filtration, building ventilation and pressurization, air conditioning and air distribution, biosecurity, building design and operation, building decontamination and restoration, economics, medicine, public health, and public policy. The group focused on functions of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in commercial or public buildings that could reduce the risk of exposure to deleterious aerosols following biological attacks. The Working Group's recommendations for building owners are based on the use of currently available, off-the-shelf technologies. These recommendations are modest in expense and could be implemented immediately. It is also the Working Group's judgment that the commitment and stewardship of a lead government agency is essential to secure the necessary financial and human resources and to plan and build a comprehensive, effective program to reduce exposure to aerosolized infectious agents in buildings.

  6. 武器装备体系能力矩阵评估方法%Matrix Methodology Based Capability Evaluation of Weapon System of Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹强; 荆涛; 周少平

    2016-01-01

    针对武器装备体系能力难以客观、定量评估的问题,引入复杂网络理论,提出了基于矩阵运算的武器装备体系能力评估方法。分析了武器装备体系能力的概念,建立了武器装备体系的复杂层次网络模型,描述了装备网络的组成、运行过程,定义了装备网络的矩阵描述方法和矩阵运算规则,提出了装备网络作战能力描述参数,给出了装备网络能力的矩阵计算方法,进行了影响因素分析,最后通过实例验证了方法可行性、有效性和灵活性。%In order to evaluate capability of weapon system of systems more objectively and quantitively,complex networks theory is introduced,and a new matrix capability evaluation methodology is put forward. The capability definitions of weapon system of systems are analyzed,a layered complex network model of weapon system of systems is built,the components and operation process of the weapon network model are also described. Then matrix expression methods of weapon network and its special calculate rules are defined,tailor-made operation capability indexes of weapon network are brought out. The algorithm of using single-layer-matrixes and inter-layer-matrixes to compute whole weapon network’s capability is present; the influence factors of the algorithm are detailly analyzed. By the case study of a nominal operation network,the feasibility,validity and flexibility of proposed methodology are proved.

  7. System and method for multi-stage bypass, low operating temperature suppressor for automatic weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, William C.; Anderson, Andrew T.

    2015-06-09

    The present disclosure relates to a suppressor for use with a weapon. The suppressor may be formed to have a body portion having a bore extending concentric with a bore axis of the weapon barrel. An opening in the bore extends at least substantially circumferentially around the bore. A flow path communicates with the opening and defines a channel for redirecting gasses flowing in the bore out from the bore, through the opening, into a rearward direction in the flow path. The flow path raises a pressure at the opening to generate a Mach disk within the bore at a location approximately coincident with the opening. The Mach disk forms as a virtual baffle to divert at least a portion of the gasses into the opening and into the flow path.

  8. Weapon System Acquisitions: Opportunities Exist to Improve the Department of Defense’s Portfolio Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    use to plan and manage their investments. From a DOD perspective , portfolio reviews can help increase return on taxpayers’ investments in weapon...the organizations involved. However, when they want to analyze their portfolios from another perspective —for example, examining funding Page 13 GAO...who are to develop capability portfolio strategic plans, provide cross-component perspectives , recommend capability priorities to senior decision

  9. Improving the Effectiveness and Acquisition Management of Selected Weapon Systems: A Summary of Major Issues and Recommended Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-14

    delayed until after the production decision. A prime operational issue is the missile’s motor which pro- duces significant amounts of smoke under many...humidity and tempera- ture conditions. The smoke makes the launch helicopter more visible to the enemy. In addition, it can obscure the crew’s field of...Payload Remain Unresolved MASAD-81-24 04/06/81 An Assesment of the Navy’s Mine Warfare Mission (SECRET) C-MASAD-81-13 04/30/81 Aquiring Weapon Systems in

  10. Data-driven aerosol development in the GEOS-5 modeling and data assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmenov, A.; da Silva, A.; Liu, X.; Colarco, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are important radiatively active agents that also affect clouds, atmospheric chemistry, the water cycle, land and ocean biogeochemistry. Furthermore, exposure to anthropogenic and/or natural fine particulates can have negative health effects. No single instrument or model is capable of quantifying the diverse and dynamic nature of aerosols at the range of spatial and temporal scales at which they interact with the other constituents and components of the Earth system. However, applying model-data integration techniques can minimize limitations of individual data products and remedy model deficiencies. The Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) is the latest version of the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Earth system model. GEOS-5 is a modeling and data assimilation framework well suited for aerosol research. It is being used to perform aerosol re-analysis and near real-time aerosol forecast on a global scale at resolutions comparable to those of aerosol products from modern spaceborne instruments. The aerosol processes in GEOS-5 derive from the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) but it is implemented on-line, within the climate model. GEOS-5 aerosol modeling capabilities have recently been enhanced by inclusion of the Modal Aerosol Microphysics module (MAM-7) originally developed in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) model. This work will present examples of data driven model development that include refining parameterization of sea-salt emissions, tuning of biomass burning emissions from vegetation fires and the effect of the updated emissions on the modeled direct aerosol forcing. We will also present results from GOES-5/MAM-7 model evaluation against AOD and particulate pollution datasets, and outline future directions of aerosol data assimilation in the GEOS-5 system.

  11. Application of a Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Weapon Target Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Application of a Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Weapon Target Assignment Lloyd Hammond Weapons and...Combat Systems Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST Group-TR-3221 ABSTRACT Threat evaluation and weapon assignment...dynamic programming algorithm for Weapon Target Assignment which, after more rigorous testing, could be used as a concept demonstrator and as an auxiliary

  12. 机载激光武器系统作战应用分析%Operational Application Analysis of Airborne Laser Weapon System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余驰; 张立群

    2011-01-01

    机载激光武器系统是一种应用于现代战机的高能激光武器系统.介绍了机载激光武器系统组成、工作原理和特点,对机载激光武器系统的作战应用进行了研究和分析.分析了机载激光武器系统的关键技术及其应用所需要解决的技术问题.通过研究和分析提出了一些未来机载激光武器系统作战应用的思考和建议.%Airborne laser weapon system is one of the high energy laser weapon systems which is used in modem fighting aircraft. Composition、work principle and characteristics of airbome laser weapon system were introduced in the paper,operational application was studied and analyzed. Key technology of airborne laser weapon system was analyzed; its technology problem must solve in application was analyzed. Passing study and analysis, some considerations and suggestions of operational application are presented on future airborne laser weapon system.

  13. The MERRA-2 Aerosol Reanalysis, 1980 Onward. Part I: System Description and Data Assimilation Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randles, C. A. [Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; da Silva, A. M. [Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Buchard, V. [Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research/Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, Maryland; Colarco, P. R. [Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Darmenov, A. [Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Govindaraju, R. [Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, Maryland; Smirnov, A. [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, Maryland; NASA Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, Greenbelt, Maryland; Holben, B. [NASA Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, Greenbelt, Maryland; Ferrare, R. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia; Hair, J. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia; Shinozuka, Y. [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, Petaluma, California; NASA Ames Research Center Cooperative for Research in Earth Science and Technology, Moffett Field, California; Flynn, C. J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2017-09-01

    The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) updates NASA’s previous satellite era (1980 – onward) reanalysis system to include additional observations and improvements to the Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) Earth system model. As a major step towards a full Integrated Earth Systems Analysis (IESA), in addition to meteorological observations, MERRA-2 now includes assimila-tion of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from various ground- and space-based remote sensing platforms. Here, in the first of a pair of studies, we document the MERRA-2 aerosol assimilation, including a description of the prognostic model (GEOS-5 coupled to the GOCART aerosol module), aerosol emissions, and the quality control of ingested observations. We provide initial validation and evaluation of the analyzed AOD fields using independent observations rom ground, aircraft, and shipborne instruments. We demonstrate the pos-itive impact of the AOD assimilation on simulated aerosols by comparing MERRA-2 aerosol fields to an identical control simulation that does not in-clude AOD assimilation. Having shown the AOD evaluation, we take a first look at aerosol-climate interactions by examining the shortwave, clear-sky aerosol direct radiative effect. In our companion paper, we evaluate and validate available MERRA-2 aerosol properties not directly impacted by the AOD assimilation (e.g. aerosol vertical distribution and absorption). Importantly, while highlighting the skill of the MERRA-2 aerosol assimilation products, both studies point out caveats that must be considered when using this new reanalysis product for future studies of aerosols and their interactions with weather and climate.

  14. New capabilities for space-based cloud and aerosols measurements: The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.; Palm, S. P.; Hart, W. D.; Nowottnick, E. P.; Vaughan, M.; Rodier, S. D.; Colarco, P. R.; da Silva, A.; Buchard-Marchant, V.

    2013-12-01

    Current uncertainties in cloud and aerosol properties limit our ability to accurately model the Earth's climate system and predict climate change. These limitations are due primarily to difficulties in adequately measuring aerosols and clouds on a global scale. NASA's A-Train satellites provide an unprecedented opportunity to address these uncertainties. In particular, the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO) satellite provides vertical profiles of cloud and aerosol properties. The CALIOP lidar onboard CALIPSO has reached its seventh year of operation, well past its expected lifetime. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2016 or later. If the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational, there will be a gap in global lidar measurements. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS), built at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a payload for the International Space Station (ISS), is set to launch in the summer of 2014. CATS is an elastic backscatter lidar with three wavelengths (1064, 532, 355 nm) and HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all three wavelengths. The ISS orbit is a 51 degree inclination orbit at an altitude of about 405 km. This orbit provides more comprehensive coverage of the tropics and mid-latitudes than sun-synchronous orbiting sensors, with nearly a three day repeat cycle. Thus, science applications of CATS include cloud and aerosol climate studies, air quality monitoring, and smoke/volcanic plume tracking. The primary science objectives of CATS include: continuing the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud vertical profile data record, providing near real time data to support operational applications such as air quality modeling, and advancing technology in support of future mission development using the HSRL channel. Furthermore, the vertical profiles of cloud and aerosol properties provided by CATS will complement current and future passive satellite

  15. Automatic Checkout System for Ground Electronics of a Weapon System (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ashok Kumar

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available An automatic checkout system (ACOS designed and developed for a surface-to-air missile system is described. The system has a built-in self-check and has been extensively used for checking faults in the subsystems of ground electronics. It has resulted in saving a lot of effort in quickly diagnosing and rectifying faults. The salient features of the ACOS have been described and the scope for further work in this area has been outline.

  16. The evolution of the global aerosol system in a transient climate simulation from 1860 to 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stier

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the global aerosol system from 1860 to 2100 is investigated through a transient atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model climate simulation with interactively coupled atmospheric aerosol and oceanic biogeochemistry modules. The microphysical aerosol module HAM incorporates the major global aerosol cycles with prognostic treatment of their composition, size-distribution, and mixing state. Based on an SRES A1B emission scenario, the global mean sulfate burden is projected to peak in 2020 while black carbon and particulate organic matter show a lagged peak around 2070. From present day to future conditions the anthropogenic aerosol burden shifts generally from the northern high-latitudes to the developing low-latitude source regions with impacts on regional climate. Atmospheric residence- and aging-times show significant alterations under varying climatic and pollution conditions. Concurrently, the aerosol mixing-state changes with an increasing aerosol mass fraction residing in the internally mixed accumulation mode. The associated increase in black carbon causes a more than threefold increase of its co-single scattering albedo from 1860 to 2100. Mid-visible aerosol optical depth increases from pre-industrial times, predominantly from the aerosol fine fraction, peaks at 0.26 around the sulfate peak in 2020 and maintains a high level thereafter, due to the continuing increase in carbonaceous aerosols. The global mean anthropogenic top of the atmosphere clear-sky short-wave direct aerosol radiative perturbation intensifies to −1.1 W m−2 around 2020 and weakens after 2050 to −0.6 W m−2, owing to an increase in atmospheric absorption. The demonstrated modifications in the aerosol residence- and aging-times, the microphysical state, and radiative properties challenge simplistic approaches to estimate the aerosol radiative effects from emission projections.

  17. The evolution of the global aerosol system in a transient climate simulation from 1860 to 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the global aerosol system from 1860 to 2100 is investigated through a transient atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model climate simulation with interactively coupled atmospheric aerosol and oceanic biogeochemistry modules. The microphysical aerosol module HAM incorporates the major global aerosol cycles with prognostic treatment of their composition, size distribution, and mixing state. Based on an SRES A1B emission scenario, the global mean sulfate burden is projected to peak in 2020 while black carbon and particulate organic matter show a lagged peak around 2070. From present day to future conditions the anthropogenic aerosol burden shifts generally from the northern high-latitudes to the developing low-latitude source regions with impacts on regional climate. Atmospheric residence- and aging-times show significant alterations under varying climatic and pollution conditions. Concurrently, the aerosol mixing state changes with an increasing aerosol mass fraction residing in the internally mixed accumulation mode. The associated increase in black carbon causes a more than threefold increase of its co-single scattering albedo from 1860 to 2100. Mid-visible aerosol optical depth increases from pre-industrial times, predominantly from the aerosol fine fraction, peaks at 0.26 around the sulfate peak in 2020 and maintains a high level thereafter, due to the continuing increase in carbonaceous aerosols. The global mean anthropogenic top of the atmosphere clear-sky short-wave direct aerosol radiative perturbation intensifies to −1.1 W m−2 around 2020 and weakens after 2050 to −0.6 W m−2, owing to an increase in atmospheric absorption. The demonstrated modifications in the aerosol residence- and aging-times, the microphysical state, and radiative properties challenge simplistic approaches to estimate the aerosol radiative effects from emission projections.

  18. Use of non-petroleum fuels to reduce military energy vulnerabilities: self-sufficient bases and new weapon propulsion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The US fossil synfuels program may not have significant impact on domestic fuel supplies until near the year 2000, resulting in a continuing mobility fuels vulnerability for the US military until then. But there are other mobility fuel options for both propulsion systems and stationary base-energy sources, for which the base technology is commercially available or at least demonstrated. For example, for surface propulsion systems, hydrogen-fuel-cell/battery-electric hybrids may be considered; for weapons systems these may offer some new flexibilities, standardization possibilities, and multiple military-controlled fuel-supply options. Hydrogen-fueled aircraft may provide interesting longer-term possibilities in terms of military energy self-sufficiency and multiple supply options, as well as performance specifications. These scenarios will be discussed, along with possibilities for demonstrations in the MX-system ground vehicles.

  19. Summarizing of Development of Interface of Shipboard Gun Weapon System%舰炮武器系统人机界面发展综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪汇川; 赵晓哲

    2012-01-01

    The progress of Interface of shipboard gun weapon system is discussed. The circumstances and characteristics of interface of shipboard gun weapon system in start-up period, foundation period and development period is described. The development of describing and studying the interface of new shipboard gun weapon system will be open, intelligent, based on virtual reality and scientific evaluation finally.%探讨了舰炮武器系统人机界面发展历程,详述舰炮武器系统人机界面经历了初创期、奠基期和发展期三个阶段的情况与特点.最后对新型舰炮武器系统人机界面设计与研究将向开放式、智能化、虚拟现实和科学评佶方向发展作了展望.

  20. Effects of aerosols on clear-sky solar radiation in the ALADIN-HIRLAM NWP system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Emily; Toll, Velle; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Rontu, Laura; Masek, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The direct shortwave radiative effect of aerosols under clear-sky conditions in the Aire Limitee Adaptation dynamique Developpement InterNational - High Resolution Limited Area Model (ALADIN-HIRLAM) numerical weather prediction system was investigated using three shortwave radiation schemes in diagnostic single-column experiments: the Integrated Forecast System (IFS), acraneb2 and the hlradia radiation schemes. The multi-band IFS scheme was formerly used operationally by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) whereas hlradia and acraneb2 are broadband schemes. The former is a new version of the HIRLAM radiation scheme while acraneb2 is the radiation scheme in the ALARO-1 physics package. The aim was to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the numerical weather prediction (NWP) system regarding aerosols and to prepare it for use of real-time aerosol information. The experiments were run with particular focus on the August 2010 Russian wildfire case. Each of the three radiation schemes accurately (within ±4 % at midday) simulates the direct shortwave aerosol effect when observed aerosol optical properties are used. When the aerosols were excluded from the simulations, errors of more than +15 % in global shortwave irradiance were found at midday, with the error reduced to +10 % when standard climatological aerosols were used. An error of -11 % was seen at midday if only observed aerosol optical depths at 550 nm, and not observation-based spectral dependence of aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedos and asymmetry factors, were included in the simulations. This demonstrates the importance of using the correct aerosol optical properties. The dependency of the direct radiative effect of aerosols on relative humidity was tested and shown to be within ±6 % in this case. By modifying the assumptions about the shape of the IFS climatological vertical aerosol profile, the inherent uncertainties associated with assuming fixed vertical

  1. Aerosol deposition in the human respiratory system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    Attempts were made to develop mathematical models for the deposition of aerosols in the human respiratory system. Expressions were obtained for the mean deposition efficiency for nasal inspiration, nasal expiration, and mouth inspiration. A determination was made of statistical properties associated with each deposition efficiency due to intersubject and intrasubject variabilities. Expressions were then derived for head deposition with combined nose and mouth breathing. In the lung, deposition is a result primarily of impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. While there was no adequate model for impaction, several deposition formulae for sedimentation were derived as well as ones for diffusion. Studies were also made of the particle charge effect, as the electrostatic image force on a particle contributes to its deposition. There is, however, a threshold charge per particle below which the particle charge has no effect on deposition. Deposition data on ultrafine particles is scarce due to the difficulties in conducting proper experiments.

  2. The Deconvolution of Aerosol Backscattered Optical Pulses to Obtain System-Independent Aerosol Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERI.) Dennis Mc~uire Michael/~Conner 2. PERFOMN ORGANIZATION NAME AND AOORESS I0. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASKC Harry...tech- niques has shown that exellent results can be obtained in simple cases (where the aerosol is known to be uniformly distributed and to completely

  3. Tracking system to maximize the engagement envelope of a data linked weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, James M.; Ralph, Jason F.; Oxtoby, Neil P.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the results of an integrated target tracking, pursuit and intercept strategy. It is designed to maximize the overlap between the engagement envelope of a data linked weapon and the possible predicted locations of an agile target. Once the target track has been initialized, a Markov Model calculates all possible locations of the target up to the time of intercept, approximately 30 seconds from launch. These locations and associated probabilities are updated during the tracking process. This includes target maneuvers, which are detected using an IMM estimator. The engagement envelope is maximized at fixed points in time. In doing so the intercept decision is delayed until, there is a high probability of a successful interception.

  4. Research on Inferring ELECTRE-III’s Parameters with Fuzzy information and A Case on Naval Gun Weapon System Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Shi Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple attributes decision making (MADM method is an important measure for system integration. Robustness analysis on MADM is a hotspot in these years which wins academe’s great attention, and is supposed to be an effective way when countering imperfect information. Setting parameters in ELECTRE-III’s is a vital and difficult step. In this paper, a method of inferring ELECTRE-III’s parameters with fuzzy information based on robustness analysis is presented. First, ELECTRE-III is transformed into a continuous smooth function of each parameter vector. Then, robustness analysis structure and a parameters inferring algorithm are provided by maximizing robustness margin based on mathematics programming. Moreover, how to resolve the programming problem is also discussed. At last, a illustrative example of Naval Gun Weapon System Integration is put forward.

  5. Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions in the Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and thus have a powerful effect on cloud properties. Increased aerosol concentrations resulting from pollution lead to higher cloud droplet concentrations, but smaller droplet sizes. This in turn affects the physical processes inside clouds that lead to the initiation of precipitation. Depending on a number of factors, including aerosol composition, atmospheric stability, and cloud water content, increasing CCN concentrations may either decrease or increase rainfall. In convective clouds, early rain formation is suppressed, which makes more water and energy available to rise higher in the atmosphere and form ice particles. This may invigorate the dynamics of convection, encourage the formation of hail and lightning, and enhance the transport of materials to the upper troposphere. In turn, cloud processing also affects the concentrations, composition, and distribution of atmospheric aerosols. In order to understand and quantify the effects of air pollution on climate, and precipitation in particular, knowledge of natural abundance and characteristics of aerosols is as essential as the observation of perturbed conditions. I will present recent advances in the conceptual understanding of aerosol-precipitation interactions, as well as results of measurements on aerosol and cloud characteristics in pristine and polluted conditions.

  6. Development of the Ensemble Navy Aerosol Analysis Prediction System (ENAAPS) and its application of the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) in support of aerosol forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Juli I.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Hansen, James A.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Collins, Nancy; Hoar, Timothy J.; Hogan, Timothy; Lynch, Peng; McLay, Justin; Reynolds, Carolyn A.; Sessions, Walter R.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Jianglong

    2016-03-01

    An ensemble-based forecast and data assimilation system has been developed for use in Navy aerosol forecasting. The system makes use of an ensemble of the Navy Aerosol Analysis Prediction System (ENAAPS) at 1 × 1°, combined with an ensemble adjustment Kalman filter from NCAR's Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART). The base ENAAPS-DART system discussed in this work utilizes the Navy Operational Global Analysis Prediction System (NOGAPS) meteorological ensemble to drive offline NAAPS simulations coupled with the DART ensemble Kalman filter architecture to assimilate bias-corrected MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrievals. This work outlines the optimization of the 20-member ensemble system, including consideration of meteorology and source-perturbed ensemble members as well as covariance inflation. Additional tests with 80 meteorological and source members were also performed. An important finding of this work is that an adaptive covariance inflation method, which has not been previously tested for aerosol applications, was found to perform better than a temporally and spatially constant covariance inflation. Problems were identified with the constant inflation in regions with limited observational coverage. The second major finding of this work is that combined meteorology and aerosol source ensembles are superior to either in isolation and that both are necessary to produce a robust system with sufficient spread in the ensemble members as well as realistic correlation fields for spreading observational information. The inclusion of aerosol source ensembles improves correlation fields for large aerosol source regions, such as smoke and dust in Africa, by statistically separating freshly emitted from transported aerosol species. However, the source ensembles have limited efficacy during long-range transport. Conversely, the meteorological ensemble generates sufficient spread at the synoptic scale to enable observational impact through the ensemble data

  7. Development and characterization of a resistance spot welding aerosol generator and inhalation exposure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Aliakbar; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; McKinney, Walter; Chen, Bean T; Jackson, Mark; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Friend, Sherri; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared L; Leonard, H Donny; Meighan, Terence G; Frazer, David G; Antonini, James M

    2014-10-01

    Limited information exists regarding the health risks associated with inhaling aerosols that are generated during resistance spot welding of metals treated with adhesives. Toxicology studies evaluating spot welding aerosols are non-existent. A resistance spot welding aerosol generator and inhalation exposure system was developed. The system was designed by directing strips of sheet metal that were treated with an adhesive to two electrodes of a spot welder. Spot welds were made at a specified distance from each other by a computer-controlled welding gun in a fume collection chamber. Different target aerosol concentrations were maintained within the exposure chamber during a 4-h exposure period. In addition, the exposure system was run in two modes, spark and no spark, which resulted in different chemical profiles and particle size distributions. Complex aerosols were produced that contained both metal particulates and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Size distribution of the particles was multi-modal. The majority of particles were chain-like agglomerates of ultrafine primary particles. The submicron mode of agglomerated particles accounted for the largest portion of particles in terms of particle number. Metal expulsion during spot welding caused the formation of larger, more spherical particles (spatter). These spatter particles appeared in the micron size mode and accounted for the greatest amount of particles in terms of mass. With this system, it is possible to examine potential mechanisms by which spot welding aerosols can affect health, as well as assess which component of the aerosol may be responsible for adverse health outcomes.

  8. Development Analysis of Airborne Weapon Control System%机载武器控制系统的发展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国柱

    2014-01-01

    机载武器控制系统在现代战争中发挥着越来越重要的作用。文章介绍了机载武器控制系统的发展历程以及装备的研制、改进情况,指出了在现代战争中发展机载武器控制系统的优势和重要性,重点探讨了几种机载武器控制系统的性能及其特点,最后论述了机载武器控制系统的发展动向与分析。%Airborne weapon control system plays more and more roles in the war today .The process of development of the Airborne weapon control system abroad and equipment in some countries in the world and its modification are described . The technique performance and properties of several airborne weapon control system seekers are analyzed ;and development trend and analysis of airborne weapon control system are discussed .

  9. New weapons and the arms race

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsipis, K.

    1983-01-01

    In speaking about technologies that could further animate the weapons competition between the US and the USSR, it is useful to distinguish between technologies that have already been incorporated into specific weapons systems, and new technologies that are of a generic nature, can be used in a variety of applications, and can best be described by the tasks that they can perform rather than any specific weapons' application. The author discusses these in reverse order.

  10. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): A New Lidar for Aerosol and Cloud Profiling from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; McGill, Mathew J.; Yorks. John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064,532,355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time (NRT) data capability ofthe ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as aerosol and air quality forecasting and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a

  11. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  12. A Ground Network Micro-Weapon System%一种地面网域化微武器系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡美艳; 杨卫; 徐薇; 岳元

    2011-01-01

    A ground network micro-weapon system is a new concept high-performance micro-smart weapon which proposed in this paper.It bases on wireless sensor network, integrates with perception,identification, location and attack.It is a sense of the battlefield area, can automatic identify and locate the person and vehicles target; complete preparations for battlefield reconnaissance and attack; it can make use of wireless sensor network to communicate, compose a group of micro-combat units to be some clusters in multi-mode coordinated attack ; it will play an important role in the fortress defense, the resident duty,border control and counter-terrorism operation.%基于无线传感器网络,集感知、识别、定位、攻击于一体的地面网域化微武器系统,提出的一种全新概念的高性能微型智能武器.能感知网域内战场态势,自动对人员、车辆目标识别和定位,完成战场侦察和攻击准备;能利用网络进行通讯,将一群微战斗单元组成若干个簇来对目标实施多模协同攻击;将在要塞防御、驻地值勤、边防职守以及反恐作战等方面发挥重要作用.

  13. Research on demonstration methodology for system of systems on weapon and equipment%关于武器装备体系论证方法的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏继才; 崔颢; 任庭光; 董杰

    2011-01-01

    Characteristic of development and demonstration for system of systems on weapon and equipment were analyzed. Issue of demonstration was also analyzed. Demonstration methodology for system of systems on weapon and equipment was built based on the analysis means and methods. This could be adapted for development of system of systems on weapon and equipment in information age. The essential characteristics of stratagem research are discussed and the stratagem research methodology is brought forward and constructed. Then under the guidance of the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, the meta-synthetic integrated environment of stratagem research is designed, realized and applied to solve the stratagem research problem.%针对武器装备体系建设的特点,简述了目前武器装备体系论证特点和存在的方法问题.通过分析武器装备体系论证手段,剖析武器装备体系论证方法,提出应合理建立武器装备体系论证方法体系,形成武器装备体系论证方法论,以适应在信息化条件下武器装备体系建设的论证要求.依据上述方法论结合武器装备体系论证的特点,建立了软件综合集成环境,环境中每个软件工具或软件分系统,可根据不同论证任务,灵活形成针对该论证任务的软件环境,以满足相应论证任务的需要,体现定性分析与定量评估相结合.

  14. Weapons Acquisition. Processes of Selected Foreign Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    period from 1977 to 1985: (1) 5.56mm calibre assault rifle. (2) Milan and Hot antitank weapon systems. (3) Roland ground-to-air weapon system. (4) AMX 30...and standardization edicts . Awards and penalties are laid on accordingly. (7/17, 13/20) The ministries stand apart from one another in the same way

  15. Amplified Feedback Mechanism of the Forests-Aerosols-Climate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change very likely has effects on vegetation so that trees grow faster due to carbon dioxide fertilization (a higher partial pressure increases the rate of reactions with Rubisco during photosynthesis and that trees can be established in new territories in a warmer climate. This has far-reaching significance for the climate system mainly due to a number of feedback mechanisms still under debate. By simulating the vegetation using the Lund-Potsdam-Jena guess dynamic vegetation model, a territory in northern Russia is studied during three different climate protocols assuming a doubling of carbon dioxide levels compared to the year 1975. A back of the envelope calculation is made for the subsequent increased levels of emissions of monoterpenes from spruce and pine forests. The results show that the emissions of monoterpenes at the most northern latitudes were estimated to increase with over 500% for a four-degree centigrade increase protocol. The effect on aerosol and cloud formation is discussed and the cloud optical thickness is estimated to increase more than 2%.

  16. Simulation of atmospheric aerosols in East Asia using modeling system RAMS-CMAQ: Model evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is applied in this paper to East Asia to simulate the temporo-spatial concentration distributions of atmospheric aerosols. For evaluating its performances, modeled concentrations of aerosols such as sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon and organic carbon were compared with observations obtained in East Asia on board of two aircrafts in the springtime of 2001. The comparison showed generally good agreement, and, in particular, that the modeling system captured most of the important observed features, including vertical gradients of the aerosols of the Asian outflow over the western Pacific. The evaluation results provide us with much confidence for further use of the modeling system to investigate the transport and transformation processes of atmospheric aerosols over East Asia and to assess their impacts on the Earth's radiation budget.

  17. 鱼雷作战效能评估方法分析%Analysis of Evaluation Model for Torpedo Weapon System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋保维; 宋晓茹; 毛昭勇

    2012-01-01

    The torpedo weapon systems with high operational effectiveness have been playing a decisive role in the modern warfare under high-tech conditions. The paper describes the definition for torpedo weapon operational effectiveness. Some key researches are paid to introduce several typical newly analysis and evaluation methods for torpedo weapon systems, which is along with the characteristic and many dedicated applications of each method discussed. Finally, the existing problems of the operational effectiveness evaluations for torpedo weapon operational effectiveness analyses and evaluation are pointed out, and the development trends of it have been prospected.%高作战效能的鱼雷武器装备系统在现代高技术战争中起着决定性作用.给出了鱼雷作战效能定义,重点对比几种典型新颖的鱼雷武器系统作战效能分析方法,并讨论了各自的特点和适用场合.最后提出了当前鱼雷武器作战效能评估的现存问题,并对其研究领域的发展方向作了展望.

  18. Investigation on scalable high-power lasers with enhanced 'eye-safety' for future weapon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigotta, S.; Diener, K.; Eichhorn, M.; Galecki, L.; Geiss, L.; Ibach, T.; Scharf, H.; von Salisch, M.; Schöner, J.; Vincent, G.

    2016-10-01

    The possible use of lasers as weapons becomes more and more interesting for military forces. Besides the generation of high laser power and good beam quality, also safety considerations, e. g. concerning eye hazards, are of importance. The MELIAS (medium energy laser in the "eye-safe" spectral domain) project of ISL addresses these issues, and ISL has developed the most powerful solid-state laser in the "eye-safe" wavelength region up to now. "Eye safety" in this context means that light at a wavelength of > 1.4 μm does not penetrate the eye and thus will not be focused onto the retina. The basic principle of this technology is that a laser source needs to be scalable in power to far beyond 100 kW without a significant deterioration in beam quality. ISL has studied a very promising laser technology: the erbium heat-capacity laser. This type of laser is characterised by a compact design, a simple and robust technology and a scaling law which, in principle, allows the generation of laser power far beyond megawatts at small volumes. Previous investigations demonstrated the scalability of the SSHCL and up to 4.65 kW and 440 J in less than 800 ms have been obtained. Opticalto- optical efficiencies of over 41% and slope efficiencies of over 51% are obtained. The residual thermal gradients, due to non perfect pumping homogeneity, negatively affect the performance in terms of laser pulse energy, duration and beam quality. In the course of the next two years, ISL will be designing a 25 to 30 kW erbium heat-capacity laser.

  19. Analysis of laser energy characteristics of laser guided weapons based on the hardware-in-the-loop simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yawen; Cui, Xiaohong; Wang, Qianqian; Tong, Qiujie; Cui, Xutai; Li, Chenyu; Zhang, Le; Peng, Zhong

    2016-11-01

    The hardware-in-the-loop simulation system, which provides a precise, controllable and repeatable test conditions, is an important part of the development of the semi-active laser (SAL) guided weapons. In this paper, laser energy chain characteristics were studied, which provides a theoretical foundation for the SAL guidance technology and the hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. Firstly, a simplified equation was proposed to adjust the radar equation according to the principles of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. Secondly, a theoretical model and calculation method were given about the energy chain characteristics based on the hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. We then studied the reflection characteristics of target and the distance between the missile and target with major factors such as the weather factors. Finally, the accuracy of modeling was verified by experiment as the values measured experimentally generally follow the theoretical results from the model. And experimental results revealed that ratio of attenuation of the laser energy exhibited a non-linear change vs. pulse number, which were in accord with the actual condition.

  20. Impact of Aerosols on Atmospheric Attenuation Loss in Central Receiver Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, M.; Wagner, M. J.

    2011-08-01

    Atmospheric attenuation loss between the heliostat field and receiver has been recognized as a significant source of loss in Central Receiver Systems. In clear sky situations, extinction of Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) is primarily by aerosols in the atmosphere. When aerosol loading is high close to the surface the attenuation loss between heliostat and receivers is significantly influenced by the amount of aerosols present on a particular day. This study relates measured DNI to aerosol optical depths close to the surface of the earth. The model developed in the paper uses only measured DNI to estimate the attenuation between heliostat and receiver in a central receiver system. The requirement that only a DNI measurement is available potentially makes the model a candidate for widespread use.

  1. Assessing DRAGON Measurements for Evaluation and Assimilation in the GEOS-5 Aerosol Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    GEOS-5 is the latest version of the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) earth system model. GEOS-5 contains components for atmospheric circulation and composition (including data assimilation), ocean circulation and biogeochemistry, and land surface processes. In addition to traditional meteorological parameters, GEOS-5 includes modules representing the atmospheric composition, most notably aerosols and tropospheric/stratospheric chemical constituents, taking explicit account of the impact of these constituents on the radiative processes of the atmosphere. The assimilation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in GEOS-5 involves very careful cloud screening and homogenization of the observing system by means of a Neural Net scheme that translates MODIS radiances into AERONET calibrated AOD. These measurements are further quality controlled using an adaptive buddy check scheme, and assimilated using the Local Displacement Ensemble (LDE) methodology. The near real-time GEOS-5 aerosol forecasting system runs at a nominal 25km horizontal resolution with 72 vertical layers (top at ~85km). GEOS-5 is driven by daily biomass burning emissions derived from MODIS fire radiative power retrievals. In this talk we will utilize aerosol measurements from the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) to evaluate the temporal and spatial distribution of aerosols in GEOS-5. While NRT assimilation of MODIS optical depth observations constrains the GEOS-5 aerosol distributions during satellite overpasses, the diurnal cycle, mixing state and optical properties are internally determined by the model parameterizations and require careful validation. By combining DRAGON with other in-situ and remotely sensed measurements from the DISCOVER-AQ and SEAC4RS field campaigns we will present a comprehensive evaluation of the GEOS-5 aerosol state, and examine the impact of assimilating the DRAGON measurements on the quality of the GEOS-5 analysis and forecasts

  2. Cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals at a former nuclear weapons plant: piloting of an exposure surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

    2001-02-01

    Cleanup of former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facilities involves potential exposures to various hazardous chemicals. We have collaboratively developed and piloted an exposure database and surveillance system for cleanup worker hazardous chemical exposure data with a cleanup contractor at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A unique system feature is the incorporation of a 34-category work task-coding scheme. This report presents an overview of the data captured by this system during development and piloting from March 1995 through August 1998. All air samples collected were entered into the system. Of the 859 breathing zone samples collected, 103 unique employees and 39 unique compounds were represented. Breathing zone exposure levels were usually low (86% of breathing zone samples were below analytical limits of detection). The use of respirators and other exposure controls was high (87 and 88%, respectively). Occasional high-level excursions did occur. Detailed quantitative summaries are provided for the six most monitored compounds: asbestos, beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, lead, and methylene chloride. Task and job title data were successfully collected for most samples, and showed specific cleanup activities by pipe fitters to be the most commonly represented in the database. Importantly, these results demonstrate the feasibility of the implementation of integrated exposure database and surveillance systems by practicing industrial hygienists employed in industry as well as the preventive potential and research uses of such systems. This exposure database and surveillance system--the central features of which are applicable in any industrial work setting--has enabled one of the first systematic quantitative characterizations of DOE cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals.

  3. A Model for Operational Efficiency Evaluation of Air-defense Weapon System%地面防空武器系统的效能评估模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜广顺

    2012-01-01

    作战系统服务能力是衡量其作战效能的重要指标,结合现代作战系统的特点,运用排队论原理,建立了一种地面防空武器系统效能评估模型,确定了武器系统作为随机服务系统的主要性能指标,包括目标突防概率、目标杀伤概率、占用射击通道的平均数、射击通道占用概率和武器系统效率等.示例计算分析显示,该模型与外部条件和地面防空武器系统的综合特性密切相关,对辅助指挥员决策有一定的参考价值.%The combat system' s service capability is one of the important factors of its operational efficiency. Based on the characteristics of modern combat system, a model for operational efficiency evaluation of air-defense weapon system was established by applying basic principle of queuing theory. The main features of air-defense weapon system as a random service system were defined, such as target penetration probability, target kill probability, the average number of occupying the firing channel, shooting channel occupancy probability and weapon system efficiency and so on. The analysis and calculation to an example showed that this model was closely related to the external conditions and all-round property of air-defense weapon system, and could be taken as a reference for aiding decision-making for commanders.

  4. Effectiveness Evaluation of Weapon System Supported by Data Link%数据链支持下的武器系统评估体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 曹龙

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at the problems that effectiveness evaluation of weapon system supported by data link are cost high,time-consuming and on single weapon system. Operation Domain theory is quoted to build up a common effectiveness evaluation system of Weapon System Supported by Data Link,which combined with index system and integrated evaluation method. This system effectively solves the problems which evaluation object is various,man in loop facts are multiple and qualitative index lacks quantized method,which also provided a reliable way to evaluated effectiveness of weapon system supported by data link.%结合数据链作战使用需求,针对国外采用统计法评估数据链系统代价高、费时和针对单一兵器系统的问题。创新性地将作用域原则引入WSSDL作战效能评估体系过程中,完成了基于作用域的指标体系构建和综合评估方法设计工作,首次有效地解决了数据链支持下武器系统的评估对象多样化、人在回路因素多、定性指标缺乏量化手段的问题,为数据链支持下的武器系统作战效能评估提供了可靠手段和方法。

  5. Analysis of army-wide hearing conservation database for hearing profiles related to crew-served and individual weapon systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Ahroon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage-risk criteria (DRC for noise exposures are designed to protect 95% of the exposed populations from hearing injuries caused by those noise exposures. The current DRC used by the US military follows OSHA guidelines for continuous noise. The current military DRC for impulse exposures follows the recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA and are contained in the current military standard, MIL-STD-1474D "Noise Limits." Suggesting that the MIL-STD for impulse exposure is too stringent, various individuals have proposed that the DRC for exposure to high-level impulses be relaxed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current hearing status of US Army Soldiers, some of whom can be, by their military occupational specialties (MOS, reasonably expected to be routinely exposed to high-level impulses from weapon systems. The Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System - Hearing Conservation (DOEHRS-HC was queried for the hearing status of enlisted Soldiers of 32 different MOSs. The results indicated that less than 95% of the Soldiers in the DOEHRS-HC database were classified as having normal hearing. In other words, the goal of the DRC used for limiting noise injuries (from continuous and impulse exposures was not stringent enough to prevent hearing injuries in all but the most susceptible Soldiers. These results suggest that the current military noise DRC should not be relaxed.

  6. Improving Our Fundamental Understanding of the Role of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the Climate System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seinfeld, John H.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Carslaw, K. S.; Coe, H.; DeMott, Paul J.; Dunlea, Edward J.; Feingold, G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Guenther, Alex B.; Kahn, Ralph; Kraucunas, Ian P.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Molina, Mario J.; Nenes, Athanasios; Penner, J.; Prather, Kimberly; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Ramaswamy, V.; Rasch, Philip J.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Stephens, Graeme; Wood, R.

    2016-05-24

    The effect of an increase in atmospheric aerosol concentrations on the distribution and radiative properties of Earth’s clouds is the most uncertain component of the overall global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time. General Circulation Models (GCMs) are the tool for predicting future climate, but the treatment of aerosols, clouds, and aerosol-cloud radiative effects carries large uncertainties that directly affect GCM predictions, such as climate sensitivity. Predictions are hampered by the large range of scales of interaction between various components that need to be captured. Observation systems (remote sensing, in situ) are increasingly being used to constrain predictions but significant challenges exist, to some extent because of the large range of scales and the fact that the various measuring systems tend to address different scales. Fine-scale models represent clouds, aerosols, and aerosol-cloud interactions with high fidelity but do not include interactions with the larger scale and are therefore limited from a climatic point of view. We suggest strategies for improving estimates of aerosol-cloud relationships in climate models, for new remote sensing and in situ measurements, and for quantifying and reducing model uncertainty.

  7. Lidar System for Airborne Measurement of Clouds and Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matthew; Scott, V. Stanley; Izquierdo, Luis Ramos; Marzouk, Joe

    2008-01-01

    A lidar system for measuring optical properties of clouds and aerosols at three wavelengths is depicted. The laser transmitter is based on a Nd:YVO4 laser crystal pumped by light coupled to the crystal via optical fibers from laser diodes that are located away from the crystal to aid in dissipating the heat generated in the diodes and their drive circuits. The output of the Nd:YVO4 crystal has a wavelength of 1064 nm, and is made to pass through frequency-doubling and frequency-tripling crystals. As a result, the net laser output is a collinear superposition of beams at wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm. The laser operates at a pulse-repetition rate of 5 kHz, emitting per-pulse energies of 50 microJ at 1064 nm, 25 microJ at 532 nm and 50 microJ at 355 nm. An important feature of this system is an integrating sphere located between the laser output and the laser beam expander lenses. The integrating sphere collects light scattered from the lenses. Three energy-monitor detectors are located at ports inside the integrating sphere. Each of these detectors is equipped with filters such that the laser output energy is measured independently for each wavelength. The laser output energy is measured on each pulse to enable the most accurate calibration possible. The 1064-nm and 532-nm photodetectors are, more specifically, single photon-counting modules (SPCMs). When used at 1064 nm, these detectors have approximately 3% quantum efficiency and low thermal noise (fewer than 200 counts per second). When used at 532 nm, the SPCMs have quantum efficiency of about 60%. The photodetector for the 355-nm channel is a photon-counting photomultiplier tube having a quantum efficiency of about 20%. The use of photon-counting detectors is made feasible by the low laser pulse energy. The main advantage of photon-counting is ease of inversion of data without need for complicated calibration schemes like those necessary for analog detectors. The disadvantage of photon-counting detectors

  8. Latent heating and aerosol-precipitation interactions within mesoscale convective systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Peter James

    Two studies are presented in this thesis that focus on understanding cloud processes within simulations of two mesoscale convective system (MCS) events that occurred during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). Simulations are conducted with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and are compared with a suite of observations obtained during MC3E. It is concluded that the simulations reasonably reproduce the two MCS events of interest. Both studies provide information that can assist in the advancement of cloud process parameterizations in atmospheric models. The first study details the microphysical process contributions to latent heating profiles within MCS convective and stratiform regions and the evolution of these profiles throughout the MCS lifetime. Properly representing the distinctions between the latent heating profiles of MCS convective and stratiform regions has significant implications for the atmospheric responses to latent heating on various scales. The simulations show that throughout the MCSs, condensation and deposition are the primary contributors to latent warming, as compared to riming and nucleation processes. In terms of latent cooling, sublimation, melting, and evaporation all play significant roles. Furthermore, it is evident that throughout the MCS lifecycle, convective regions demonstrate an approximately linear decrease in the magnitudes of latent heating rates, while the evolution of latent heating within stratiform regions is associated with transitions between MCS flow regimes. The second study addresses the relative roles of middle-tropospheric and lower-tropospheric aerosol particles on MCS precipitation during the mature stage. A suite of sensitivity simulations for each MCS event is conducted, where the simulations are initialized with different aerosol profiles that vary in the vertical location of the peak aerosol particle number concentrations. Importantly, the total integrated aerosol mass

  9. 36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a... of this chapter, the following are prohibited— (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying a...

  10. 50 CFR 27.43 - Weapons other than firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons other than firearms. 27.43 Section... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Weapons § 27.43 Weapons other than firearms. The use or possession of cross bows, bows and arrows, air guns, spears, gigs...

  11. The Trend of Missile-Gun Combined Weapon System for Aerial Defense%弹炮结合防空武器系统新趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈薇; 王军

    2016-01-01

    Since the Kosovo War started to use a form of simple air raids and counter-air raids,a increasing number of wars use air raids to attack the enemy,so how to defense the enemy in the air become more and more important. Missile-Gun combined weapon system not only has a big air defense area but also has a high effective-cost,so it will become the trend of air defense weapon system. This paper describes the structure and classification of Missile-Gun combined weapon system,and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems; finally the trend of Missile-Gun combined weapon system is proposed.%自从科索沃战争开创了单纯空袭作战与反空袭作战的先例之后,空袭就成为了战争的焦点,如何更好地抵御空中目标的来袭成为各国战争防御的主题。弹炮结合防空武器系统具有防空区域大、效费比高等优点,是防空武器系统的发展趋势之一。在分析现有典型弹炮结合防空武器系统的基础上,依据弹炮结合武器系统是否共用火控系统将其分为弹炮混编式和弹炮同控式两种形式;随后,结合现代空袭的特点提出了弹炮结合武器系统的发展趋势。

  12. 某武器系统阵地通话器的设计%Design of Technology for Intercom in the Some Weapon System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王原会; 王桂兰; 彭涛; 孔祥善

    2014-01-01

    Features of the intercom associated with some weapon system are introduced in the paper, options and design based on PBL3764 (SLIC),composition of the independent system and effects on application of PBL3764 to the weapon system are explored as well. Effectiveness of the weapon system coordination is enhanced due to reliability and effectiveness of the key technology.%介绍了配套某武器系统阵地通话器的主要技术与功能要求,探讨了其关键技术用户电路PBL3764(SLIC)的选型设计,及其PBL3764应用在该武器系统的效果,阐述了该阵地通话器通信系统,提高了阵地式武器系统协调的效能,以及通信系统的独立构成功能。

  13. Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Allen R.; Hogg, R. Douglas; Foreman, William

    1998-12-01

    Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and require the cooperation of the person being searched. The new generation of detectors under development that focuses primarily on imaging methods, faces problems associated with privacy issues. There remains a need for a weapons detector which is portable, detects weapons remotely, avoids the issues associated with privacy rights, can tell the difference between car keys and a knife, and is affordable enough that one can be issued to every peacekeeper and law enforcement officer. AKELA is developing a concealed weapons detector that uses wideband radar techniques to excite natural electromagnetic resonances that characterize the size, shape, and material composition of an object. Neural network processing is used to classify the difference between weapons and nuisance objects. We have constructed both time and frequency domain test systems and used them to gather experimental data on a variety of armed and unarmed individuals. These experiments have been performed in an environment similar to the operational environment. Preliminary results from these experiments show that it is possible to detect a weapon being carried by an individual from a distance of 10 to 15 feet, and to detect a weapon being concealed behind the back. The power required is about 100 milliwatts. A breadboard system is being fabricated and will be used by AKELA and our law enforcement partner to gather data in operationally realistic situations. While a laptop computer will control the breadboard system, the wideband radar electronics will fit in a box the

  14. Geometrical configurations of unphased diffraction-limited antennas in passive millimetre-wave imaging systems for concealed weapon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenelli, Roberto

    2004-12-01

    This paper analyzes simple imaging configurations to scan a human body, suitable as passive or active millimetre-wave imaging systems for concealed weapon detection (CWD). The first cylindrical configuration allows a 360 degrees scan: N unphased diffraction-limited antennas each of size L are placed on a circular support surrounding the subject (allowing scanning in the horizontal plane with N non-overlapping independent beams), and this circle is mechanically displaced over the whole body height. An analytical formula gives the maximum obtainable spatial resolution for different dimensions of the circular scanning device and operating frequencies, and the number of receivers achieving this optimal resolution. Constraints to be taken into account are diffraction, the usable total length of the circle, and the full coverage by the N beams over the subject, which is modelled as a cylinder with variable radius, coaxial with the scanning circle. Numerical calculations of system resolution are shown for different operating microwave (MW) and millimetre-wave (MMW) frequencies; in order to study off-axis performances, situations where the subject is not coaxial with the scanning device are also considered. For the case of a parallelepiped to be imaged instead of a cylinder, a linear array configuration is analyzed similarly to the circular one. A theoretical study is carried out to design other curved arrays, filled with unphased diffraction-limited antennas, for the imaging of linear subjects with finer resolution. Finally, the application of such configurations is considered for the design of active imaging systems, and different system architectures are discussed.

  15. Device 2F112 (F-14A WST (Weapon System Trainers)) Instructor Console Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Cockpit Section- Trainee Station, b. Instructor Operator Station (OS), c. Computer System, d. Wide-Angle Visual System (WAVS), e. Auxiliary Systems. The...d) Printer 2) TRAINEE AREA 3) HYDRAULIC POWFR ROOM 4) ELEC. POWER/AIR COMPRESSORS 5) COMPUTER/PERIPHERAL AREA Figure 1. Device 2FI12 general layout...l-" ._, .: < .’ --.,,.. .’ ., . .,. - NAVTRAEQUIPCEN 81-M-1121-1 • )I,1(Immendat ion 15. MO Billet. The Mission Operator has ;,tit v,,n elt ctive

  16. New liquid aerosol generation devices: systems that force pressurized liquids through nozzles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, David E

    2002-12-01

    Over the past few decades, aerosol delivery devices have been relatively inefficient, wasteful, and difficult for patients to use. These drawbacks have been tolerated because the drugs available for inhalation have wide therapeutic margins and steep dose-response curves at low doses. Recently several forces have converged to drive innovation in the aerosol device industry: the ban on chlorofluorocarbon propellants in metered-dose inhalers, the need for more user-friendly devices, and the invention of expensive inhalable therapies for topical and systemic lung delivery. Numerous devices are in development to improve the efficiency, ease of use, and reproducibility of aerosol delivery to the lung, including systems that force liquid through a nozzle to form the aerosol cloud. The Respimat is a novel, compact, propellant-free, multi-dose inhaler that employs a spring to push drug solution through a nozzle, which generates a slow-moving aerosol. Deposition studies show that the Respimat can deliver 39-44% of a dose to the lungs. Clinical asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease trials with bronchodilators show that the Respimat is 2-8 times as effective as a metered-dose inhaler. Respimat has been tested with bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids. The AERx device uses sophisticated electronics to deliver aerosol from a single-dose blister, using an integral, disposable nozzle array. The electronics control dose expression and titration, timing of aerosol generation with the breath, and provide feedback for proper inhalation technique. Lung deposition ranges from 50 to 80% of the loaded dose, with remarkable reproducibility. AERx has been tested with a variety of drugs, for both topical and systemic delivery, including rhDNase (dornase alfa), insulin, and opioids. These novel devices face competition from other technologies as well as financial and regulatory hurdles, but they both offer a marked improvement in the efficiency of pulmonary drug delivery.

  17. Vessel Weapon System Baseline Deviation Analysis Based on ANSYS%基于ANSYS的舰船武器装备基准变化分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 王安国; 李辉

    2013-01-01

    Vessel weapon system baseline deviation caused by external condition affects attack accuracy. The finite element model is constructed by ANSYS. 3D wave loads calculation method is used to simulate the wave force in sailing condition. Vessel weapon system baseline deviation in the case of two limit sea conditions is researched. The simulation result indicates that vessel weapon system baseline deviation of certain vessel structure of this text is remarkable in the rolling condition and the weapon baseline near stem and broadside has a tremendous influence. Therefore this certain vessel should be sailing a-gainst wave while it carries out combat duty in order to decrease the influence of rolling.%舰船武器装备基准在外界因素作用下产生变化,从而影响武器系统的打击精度.应用ANSYS平台建立舰船有限元模型,利用三维波浪载荷的计算方法模拟航行条件下舰船所受载荷,研究了舰船甲板面武器装备基准在两种极限海况下的变化情况.仿真结果表明:针对所选取的某型舰船主体结构而言,舰船横摇使武器装备基准产生较大的变化,并且靠近船体尾部和两舷位置处装备的基准变化较为显著,所以该型舰船在执行作战任务中,应尽量采取顶浪航行,减小舰船横摇对武器装备基准的影响.

  18. Study of System United Integration to Weapon Equipment%信息化武器装备系统综合集成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范海文; 李建伟; 王世尧

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of weapon equipment from mechanization to information demand system united integration technique. This pager explain the meaning of united Integration and the specialties for weapon equipment,give some way and suggest according as experience too.%武器装备由机械化向信息化的转型需要应用综合集成技术。论述了综合集成的内涵及信息化武器装备系统综合集成的必要性、特点和原则,并结合所从事项目的实践,提出系统综合集成的一些方法和几点建议。

  19. The CCTC Quick-Reacting General War Gaming System (QUICK) Users Manual. Volume 3. Weapon Allocation Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-15

    a weapon group with multiple independently targetable reentry veh.cles (ZIRV) i. atich a manner that there are no feasible footprints that towr that...PLANSET) 0Index numberDesignator code/country location code/flag code Task/subtask ~Target multiplicity ~Target latitude %1 Target longitude §Depenetration... alteracions or other change;. Input to the ALOCV modul. A;- noted in 3.1.1.1 above the Weapon/Target Data 1l!e is creAted without refer- ence to these execution

  20. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-03

    William Potter , and Nikolai Sokov, Reducing and Regulating Tactical (Nonstrategic) Nuclear Weapons in Europe, The James Martin Center For...See William C. Potter and Nikolai Sokov, “Nuclear Weapons that People Forget,” International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2000. 87 Sam Nunn, Igor...their security.97 94 Kent Harris , “NATO Allies Want U.S. Nuclear Weapons out of Europe

  1. 信息化武器装备系统中的软件思维%Software Thought in Information Weapon Equipment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾滨兵; 刘庆峰; 于慧媛

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the software is very important under the information environment, but profound infection to weapon equipment system of weapon equipment software must think much of not only in the area of function and technology, but also in the thought area. After making logical relation of software and hardware clearly and researching infection of software in thought layer, apprehends weapon equipment system in software point of view, and is cognizant of software's function like spirit.%在信息化条件下,重视软件成为共识,但是重视装备软件不仅是在功能技术层面上,还应在思维层面上审视其对武器装备系统的思想内涵和发展思路的深刻影响.从武器装备系统中软硬件的逻辑关系出发,研究软件如何从思维层面影响现代武器装备系统,可以更好地从软件的视角上去理解和把握武器装备系统,真正认识到软件的“灵魂”作用.

  2. On Development of Fire Control System for Neutralizing Weapon%压制兵器火控系统发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆玉焕; 王秀春; 张振华

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of status quo of the digitalized fire control for the neutralizing weapon in China and development trend of the modern weapon systems in the overseas, the developing trend of the neutralizing weapon is discussed and analyzed, technical characteristics of the new generation of the fire netted,intelligent and integrated fire control system.%在目前国内压制兵器数字化火控系统发展现状的基础上,根据世界先进武器装备系统的发展趋势,总结分析压制兵器的发展趋势,并归纳提炼出新一代或控股系统的技术特征.为研制出具有信息化、网络化、智能化、一体化火控系统的炮兵武器装备进行理论探索.

  3. Research on Quantization System of Weapon Equipment Combat Capability%武器装备作战能力量化体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国社; 马亚平

    2011-01-01

    Weapon equipmen combat capability quantity is a primary data engineering in the field of war game.As the basic element of weapon equipmen combat capability , "five kinds capability" is decomposed into some factors reasonably.Through the scientific and reasonable partition of weapon equipmen combat capability quantization level, the framework of weapon equipmen combat capability quantization is set up.Finally, the main works and interrelated methods about index system setting up and model system designing is introduced simply.%武器装备作战能力量化问题是现代作战模拟领域的一项基础数据工程.以"五力"为武器装备作战能力的基本构成要素,对其适度分解,形成了武器装备作战能力内涵较为全面、详细的描述.对武器装备作战能力量化层次进行了科学、合理划分,确定了武器装备作战能力各分量的首要量化层次,形成了武器装备作战能力量化体系结构.介绍了武器装备作战能力量化指标体系建立和量化模型体系构建所涉及的主要工作及相应研究思路.

  4. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  5. Quantification and risks associated with bacterial aerosols near domestic greywater-treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benami, Maya; Busgang, Allison; Gillor, Osnat; Gross, Amit, E-mail: amgross@exchange.bgu.ac.il

    2016-08-15

    Greywater (GW) reuse can alleviate water stress by lowering freshwater consumption. However, GW contains pathogens that may compromise public health. During the GW-treatment process, bioaerosols can be produced and may be hazardous to human health if inhaled, ingested, or come in contact with skin. Using air-particle monitoring, BioSampler®, and settle plates we sampled bioaerosols emitted from recirculating vertical flow constructed wetlands (RVFCW) – a domestic GW-treatment system. An array of pathogens and indicators were monitored using settle plates and by culturing the BioSampler® liquid. Further enumeration of viable pathogens in the BioSampler® liquid utilized a newer method combining the benefits of enrichment with molecular detection (MPN-qPCR). Additionally, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was applied to assess risks of infection from a representative skin pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. According to the settle-plate technique, low amounts (0–9.7 × 10{sup 4} CFU m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) of heterotrophic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli were found to aerosolize up to 1 m away from the GW systems. At the 5 m distance amounts of these bacteria were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from background concentrations tested over 50 m away from the systems. Using the BioSampler®, no bacteria were detected before enrichment of the GW-aerosols. However, after enrichment, using an MPN-qPCR technique, viable indicators and pathogens were occasionally detected. Consequently, the QMRA results were below the critical disability-adjusted life year (DALY) safety limits, a measure of overall disease burden, for S. aureus under the tested exposure scenarios. Our study suggests that health risks from aerosolizing pathogens near RVFCW GW-treatment systems are likely low. This study also emphasizes the growing need for standardization of bioaerosol-evaluation techniques

  6. Preliminary results from the new multiwavelength aerosol lidar scanning system in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseyinoglu, M. F.; Salaeva, Z.; Secgin, A.; Allakhverdiev, K. R.

    2012-01-01

    , and thus it made possible to cover a large spatial area and to evaluate the changes in the aerosol microphysical properties in space and time. It uses Newport ESP301 Motion Controller allowing to make measurements in 340° azimuthal and +/- 15° vertical scanning angles by a 300 x 600 mm plane mirror. In this paper, the description of the new multiwavelength aerosol lidar scanning system installed in the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Marmara Research Center (MRC), KA09 Laser and Lidar Laboratory is explained, and the first results obtained from the data acquired during Spring and Summer 2012 are presented by integrating the results with a geographical map of Gebze Area.

  7. Commander’s Guide to Money as a Weapons System: Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    events, diffuse potential unrest, and foster relations and stability with the local Afghan people. Provincial reconstruction teams (PRT) and...more advanced techniques such as reverse osmosis . The distribution of drinking water is accomplished via municipal water systems or as bottled water

  8. Climate Change: Anticipated Effects on High-Energy Laser Weapon Systems in Maritime Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    assess variability and uncer- tainty in system performance arising from spatial, spectral, and temporal variations in operating conditions (Fiorino et al...profiles of data for highly specific modeling scenarios. Worldwide seasonal, diurnal, and geographical spatial– temporal variations in these parameters...codes, both driven by parameters from the Surface Marine Gridded Clima - tology database, provides enhanced representation of atmospheric effects over

  9. Weapons of Mass Secretion : The Type III Secretion System of Shigella flexneri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sani, Musa

    2007-01-01

    In bacteria that are pathogenic for animals, type III secretion systems allow extracellular bacteria adhering to the surface of a host cell to inject specialized proteins across the plasma membrane. The injected proteins subvert the functioning of the aggressed cell or destroy its communications, fa

  10. Weapons of Mass Secretion : The Type III Secretion System of Shigella flexneri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sani, Musa

    2007-01-01

    In bacteria that are pathogenic for animals, type III secretion systems allow extracellular bacteria adhering to the surface of a host cell to inject specialized proteins across the plasma membrane. The injected proteins subvert the functioning of the aggressed cell or destroy its communications,

  11. ManTech Implementing a Strategy to Deliver Weapon Systems Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    print for sensor grid production • Developed...developed and demonstrated a prototype virtual- reality welder training system that simulates the gas metal arc welding process • The 3D head-mounted...processes for lighter, durable and more comfortable composite prosthetics – Provided improved combat rations with high quality,

  12. Novel Organelles with Elements of Bacterial and Eukaryotic Secretion Systems Weaponize Parasites of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, Mary Ellen; Ramroop, Johnny; Gueguen, Gwenaelle; Ramrattan, Girish; Dolios, Georgia; Scarpati, Michael; Kwiat, Jonathan; Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Wang, Rong; Singh, Shaneen; Govind, Shubha

    2017-09-06

    The evolutionary success of parasitoid wasps, a highly diverse group of insects widely used in biocontrol, depends on a variety of life history strategies in conflict with those of their hosts [1]. Drosophila melanogaster is a natural host of parasitic wasps of the genus Leptopilina. Attack by L. boulardi (Lb), a specialist wasp to flies of the melanogaster group, activates NF-κB-mediated humoral and cellular immunity. Inflammatory blood cells mobilize and encapsulate Lb eggs and embryos [2-5]. L. heterotoma (Lh), a generalist wasp, kills larval blood cells and actively suppresses immune responses. Spiked virus-like particles (VLPs) in wasp venom have clearly been linked to wasps' successful parasitism of Drosophila [6], but the composition of VLPs and their biotic nature have remained mysterious. Our proteomics studies reveal that VLPs lack viral coat proteins but possess a pharmacopoeia of (1) the eukaryotic vesicular transport system, (2) immunity, and (3) previously unknown proteins. These novel proteins distinguish Lh from Lb VLPs; notably, some proteins specific to Lh VLPs possess sequence similarities with bacterial secretion system proteins. Structure-informed analyses of an abundant Lh VLP surface and spike-tip protein, p40, reveal similarities to the needle-tip invasin proteins SipD and IpaD of Gram-negative bacterial type-3 secretion systems that breach immune barriers and deliver virulence factors into mammalian cells. Our studies suggest that Lh VLPs represent a new class of extracellular organelles and share pathways for protein delivery with both eukaryotic microvesicles and bacterial surface secretion systems. Given their mixed prokaryotic and eukaryotic properties, we propose the term mixed-strategy extracellular vesicle (MSEV) to replace VLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Program Manager’s Methodology for Developing Structured Design in Embedded Weapons Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    conversion among various data types and provide interfacing with existing sensor and ship’s equipment. The WCIP provides visual status information to -he...the new concept. A rather simple way of viewing this requires one to visualize the principle to be added as needing a set of prerequisite traits. For...system specifications from their totally graphic fcrm into a short narrativa form. This trans.tion is a necessary first step toward using an SDL, an

  14. Guidance, Control and Positioning of Future Precision Guided Stand-off Weapons Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    ngcessairsment lieu entre deux missiles adjacents. Les missiles i et i+1 entrent en collision si l𔄀cart relatif &. passe par le domajne & entre deux recal ... airbag manufacturers. The resulting ejection concept incorporates a dual airbag system in which individual submunitions are grouped into subpacks...consisting of submunitions, an airbag and foam dunnage. These subpacks are arranged around one or more primary airbags which are used to eject the subpacks

  15. Systems Engineering and Program Management. Trends and Costs for Aircraft and Guided Weapons Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Project AIR FORCE PCA Physical Configuration Audit P&D Production and Deployment PDR Preliminary Design Review P3I Preplanned Product Improvement PIN ...Program Management SEPM LOT Lot Cost of SE/PM (in production) SEPM UC Unit Cost of SE/PM (in production) SFR System Functional Review ii SE/PM...perform as intended, without a mission critical failure , for a specified period of time. Maintainability engineers are concerned with the resource re

  16. Warranties in Weapon System Procurement: An Analysis of Practice and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    warranty usage by DoD drawn from civil commercial codes, court rulings, and claims commission findings. It evolved from the ASPRs through the DARs...parts whose materials and labor costs me less than $50. The contrato is protected against claims when DoD personnel have taken certain improper actions...relieved of his liability. If the systemic defect threshold is breached, a contingent liability ceiling Is sot for the contrato equal to tha thrshoLd

  17. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waysbort, Daniel [Israel Institute for Biological Research, PO Box 19, Ness-Ziona 74100 (Israel); McGarvey, David J. [R and T Directorate, Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, MD 21010 (United States)], E-mail: david.mcgarvey@us.army.mil; Creasy, William R.; Morrissey, Kevin M.; Hendrickson, David M. [SAIC, P.O. Box 68, Gunpowder Branch, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Durst, H. Dupont [R and T Directorate, Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, MD 21010 (United States)

    2009-01-30

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Green{sup TM}, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO{sub 4}{sup -2}) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t{sub 1/2} {<=} 4 min), 1:10 for HD (t{sub 1/2} < 2 min with molybdate), and 1:10 for GD (t{sub 1/2} < 2 min). The vapor concentrations of GD above the dry sorbent and the sorbent with decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD.

  18. Logistics: Implementation of Performance - Based Logistics for the Javelin Weapon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the c.ontext of each lice within the Automated Cost 24 Batimating-hTasgraled Tools ( ACEIT ) mode], the Army’s standard cost model, containing the EA was...fully validated the EA, The Javelin E.A was valihdted through an extensive review of the EA cost documentation in (te ACEIT file in coordination with... ACEIT file of the system cost estimate- This documentation was conndered to be suflicienT by the CEAC Director once the EA was determinmd to be valid

  19. Multifunction lidar system and its application for detecting aerosol and wind in boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liquan; Qiu, Jinhuan; Zheng, Siping; Huang, Qirong

    1998-08-01

    A backscatter Nd-YAG lidar system has been constructed in our institute, which was designed to measure and image the four- dimensional structure the aerosol and to detect wind in lower atmosphere. It contains a Nd-YAG laser with maximum repetition rate of 15 pulses per second and a 20-cm telescope with maximum field of view of 3 mrad. A fast computer controlled angular scanning system provides can make the lidar to fire at the set position and time. Data logging system provides a logarithmic amplifier of 80 dB, 8 bit A/D conversion with range resolution of 7.5 m and high pixel resolution lidar images in a graphics computer. The system allows observations of inhomogeneities in natural aerosol in boundary layer showing the spatial distribution of aerosol scattering. A model to use triple angle azimuth scan method for measuring wind velocity is developed, which agrees well with the supposed wind in numerical experiment. The lidar system is been used in observations of aerosol and wind in boundary layer during February to July of 1998 and some results are presented.

  20. 四代火力打击体系的信息化特征%Informationization Characteristics of Four Generations Weapon Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡毅

    2014-01-01

    根据火力打击体系的信息化特征将其分为4代:第一代火力打击体系的信息化特征为“惯性打击”--按发射时初始条件确定的弹道、由惯性保持弹丸/炸弹飞行直至命中目标;第二代火力打击体系的信息化特征为“相对打击”--依靠目标与背景之间信号的对比度产生制导信号控制/修正弹道,使导弹/制导炸弹精确命中目标;第三代火力打击体系的信息化特征为“绝对打击”--依靠目标的地理坐标、用全球卫星定位系统的信息作为控制/修正弹道的信号实现精确打击;第四代火力打击体系的信息化特征为“绝对打击+相对打击+数据链+人在环路”--即依靠目标的地理坐标、用全球卫星定位系统的信息作为控制/修正弹道的信号完成导弹/制导炸弹的中段制导,再利用“相对打击”、双向数据链和“人在环路”实现末制导,不仅能精确命中目标,还具有主动选择打击位置、控制打击程度、评估毁伤效果的能力。%In this paper, weapon systems were divided into four generations according to their informationization characteristics. The first generation weapon system features “Inertial Weapon”, with which the munitions approaches the target following the ballistic trajectory that preset by the launching platform using initial conditions. The second generation weapon system’s informationization characteristic is“Relative Striking”, which utilizes contrast signatures (e.g. radar, laser, wire, visible, or infrared signatures) between the target and the background to produce the signal to guide the precision weapon to aim at the target.“Absolute Striking”is the main attribute of the third generation weapon system. The guided weapon is guided to acquire the target via its geographical coordinate and a GPS signal. The fourth generation weapon system integrates “Absolute Striking” with “Relative Striking”,

  1. 基于Multi-Agent的防空导弹武器系统模型设计%Design of Multi-Agent Based Model on Air Defense Missile Weapon System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝印; 栾立秋; 张成斌

    2011-01-01

    建立科学的结构模型是进行防空导弹武器系统仿真的基础和关键环节.针对防空导弹武器系统的特点,提出了基于Multi-Agent的防空导弹武器系统模型建模方法,设计了防空导弹武器系统模型结构.利用Multi-Agent建模技术,把防空导弹武器系统实体映射成相应的Multi-Agent系统,并以Agent的形式对防空导弹武器系统这一客观复杂系统进行了深刻的认识,为防空导弹武器系统建模仿真奠定了基础.%Forming a scientific system model is the key of Air Defense Missile Weapon System simulation. According to the characters of Air Defense Missile Weapon System, a modeling method of multi-agent based model on Air Defense Missile Weapon System is given. The framework on Air Defense Missile Weapon System is designed. Using the Multi-Agent modeling technology, maps the Air Defense Missile Weapon System entity the corresponding Multi-Agent system, and carries on the profound understanding by the Agent form to Air Defense Missile Weapon System this objective complicated, which will be helpful to realize the modeling simulation on Air Defense Missile Weapon System.

  2. Aerosol-cloud-precipitation system as a predator-prey problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham

    2011-07-26

    We show that the aerosol-cloud-precipitation system exhibits characteristics of the predator-prey problem in the field of population dynamics. Both a detailed large eddy simulation of the dynamics and microphysics of a precipitating shallow boundary layer cloud system and a simpler model built upon basic physical principles, reproduce predator-prey behavior with rain acting as the predator and cloud as the prey. The aerosol is shown to modulate the predator-prey response. Steady-state solution to the proposed model shows the known existence of bistability in cloudiness. Three regimes are identified in the time-dependent solutions: (i) the weakly precipitating regime where cloud and rain coexist in a quasi steady state; (ii) the moderately drizzling regime where limit-cycle behavior in the cloud and rain fields is produced; and (iii) the heavily precipitating clouds where collapse of the boundary layer is predicted. The manifestation of predator-prey behavior in the aerosol-cloud-precipitation system is a further example of the self-organizing properties of the system and suggests that exploiting principles of population dynamics may help reduce complex aerosol-cloud-rain interactions to a more tractable problem.

  3. Backscatter and depolarization measurements of aerosolized biological simulants using a chamber lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David M.; Thrush, Evan P.; Thomas, Michael E.; Santarpia, Josh; Quizon, Jason; Carter, Christopher C.

    2010-04-01

    To ensure agent optical cross sections are well understood from the UV to the LWIR, volume integrated measurements of aerosolized agent material at a few key wavelengths is required to validate existing simulations. Ultimately these simulations will be used to assess the detection performance of various classes of lidar technology spanning the entire range of the optical spectrum. The present work demonstrates an optical measurement architecture based on lidar allowing the measurement of backscatter and depolarization ratio from biological aerosols released in a refereed, 1-m cubic chamber. During 2009, various upgrades have been made to the chamber LIDAR system, which operates at 1.064 μm with sub nanosecond pulses at a 120 Hz repetition rate. The first build of the system demonstrated a sensitivity of aerosolized Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) on the order of 5×105 ppl with 1 GHz InGaAs detectors. To increase the sensitivity and reduce noise, the InGaAs detectors were replaced with larger-area silicon avalanche photodiodes for the second build of the system. In addition, computer controlled step variable neutral density filters are now incorporated to facilitate calibrating the system for absolute back-scatter measurements. Calibrated hard target measurements will be combined with data from the ground truth instruments for cross-section determination of the material aerosolized in the chamber. Measured results are compared to theoretical simulations of cross-sections.

  4. Aerosolized Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Marcos I; Keyt, Holly; Reyes, Luis F

    2015-06-01

    Administration of medications via aerosolization is potentially an ideal strategy to treat airway diseases. This delivery method ensures high concentrations of the medication in the targeted tissues, the airways, with generally lower systemic absorption and systemic adverse effects. Aerosolized antibiotics have been tested as treatment for bacterial infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis (NCFB), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The most successful application of this to date is treatment of infections in patients with CF. It has been hypothesized that similar success would be seen in NCFB and in difficult-to-treat hospital-acquired infections such as VAP. This review summarizes the available evidence supporting the use of aerosolized antibiotics and addresses the specific considerations that clinicians should recognize when prescribing an aerosolized antibiotic for patients with CF, NCFB, and VAP.

  5. 人工智能技术在武器投放系统中的应用%Application of Artificial Intelligence Technology on Weapon Delivery Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾云涛

    2013-01-01

    The application of artificial intelligence on armament adapt to the requirement of warfare which is rapid, accurate and efficient. The system which is combined artificial intelligence technology with weapon system is able to autonomous or semiautonomous accomplish the reconnaissance, searching, identify, aiming and attack missions. The concept research of the intelligent weapon delivery system is presented, the system is designed by using artificial intelligence technology and its function is described. And then, based on the current state of art, the tradeoff research is done between automate weapon delivery and pilot, making using of each merits in order to achieve the optimal performance.%人工智能的军事应用适应了快速、精确、高效的作战需求。人工智能技术与武器系统结合能够自主或半自主完成侦察、搜索、识别、瞄准、攻击目标等任务。本文对智能武器投放系统进行了概念研究,用人工智能技术对系统进行了设计,对系统功能上进行了描述。另外,分析了当前技术水平,对自动武器投放应用和驾驶员之间权衡研究,发挥各自优点,使整体性能达到最优。

  6. Weapons Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Defense Review, 10, 43-47 (1977). [429] Brains, S. J., Game Theory and Politics, The Free Press, New York, New York (1975). [430] Bresson , M. M., "Les...Study in Conflict and Cooperation, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan (1965). [505] Roberts , D. M. and J. C. Gittins, "The Search For An

  7. Apparent chlorofluorocarbon age of ground water of the shallow aquifer system, Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Yorktown, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, David L.; Harlow, George E.; Brockman, Allen R.

    2001-01-01

    Apparent ages of ground water are useful in the analysis of various components of flow systems, and results of this analysis can be incorporated into investigations of potential pathways of contaminant transport. This report presents the results of a study in 1997 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Base Civil Engineer, Environmental Directorate, to describe the apparent age of ground water of the shallow aquifer system at the Station. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), dissolved gases, stable isotopes, and water-quality field properties were measured in samples from 14 wells and 16 springs on the Station in March 1997.Nitrogen-argon recharge temperatures range from 5.9°C to 17.3°C with a median temperature of 10.9°C, which indicates that ground-water recharge predominantly occurs in the cold months of the year. Concentrations of excess air vary depending upon geohydrologic setting (recharge and discharge areas). Apparent ground-water ages using a CFC-based dating technique range from 1 to 48 years with a median age of 10 years. The oldest apparent CFC ages occur in the upper parts of the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer, whereas the youngest apparent ages occur in the Columbia aquifer and the upper parts of the discharge area setting, especially springs. The vertical distribution of apparent CFC ages indicates that groundwater movement between aquifers is somewhat retarded by the leaky confining units, but the elapsed time is relatively short (generally less than 35 years), as evidenced by the presence of CFCs at depth. The identification of binary mixtures by CFC-based dating indicates that convergence of flow lines occurs not only at the actual point of discharge, but also in the subsurface.The CFC-based recharge dates are consistent with expected 3H concentrations measured in the water samples from the Station. The concentration of 3H in ground water ranges from below the USGS laboratory minimum

  8. The response of a simulated Mesoscale Convective System to increased aerosol pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Michal

    This work focuses on the impacts of aerosols on the total precipitation amount, rates and spatial distribution of precipitation produced by a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS), as well as the characteristics of a derecho event. Past studies have shown that the impacts on MCS-produced precipitation to changes in aerosol concentration are strongly dependent on environmental conditions, primarily humidity and environmental wind shear. Changes in aerosol concentrations were found to alter MCS-precipitation production directly by modifying precipitation processes and indirectly by affecting the efficiency of the storm's self-propagation. Observational and numerical studies have been conducted that have examined the dynamics responsible for the generation of widespread convectively-induced windstorms, primarily focusing on environmental conditions and the MCS features that generate a derecho event. While the sensitivity of the formation of bow-echoes, the radar signature associated with derecho events, to changes in microphysics has been examined, a study on a derecho-producing MCS characteristics to aerosol concentrations has not. In this study different aerosol concentrations and their effects on precipitation and a derecho produced by an MCS are examined by simulating the 8 May 2009 "Super-Derecho" MCS. The MCS was simulated using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a cloud-resolving model (CRM) with sophisticated aerosol and microphysical parameterizations. Three simulations were conducted that varied in their initial aerosol concentration, distribution and hygroscopicity as determined by their emission sources. The first simulation contained aerosols from only natural sources and the second with aerosols sourced from both natural and anthropogenic emissions The third simulation contained the same aerosol distribution as in the second simulation, however multiplied by a factor of 5 in order to represent a highly polluted scenario. In all three of the

  9. Relative influence of meteorological conditions and aerosols on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sudip; Fu, Rong; Massie, Steven T.; Stephens, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    Using collocated measurements from geostationary and polar-orbital satellites over tropical continents, we provide a large-scale statistical assessment of the relative influence of aerosols and meteorological conditions on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Our results show that MCSs’ lifetime increases by 3-24 h when vertical wind shear (VWS) and convective available potential energy (CAPE) are moderate to high and ambient aerosol optical depth (AOD) increases by 1 SD (1σ). However, this influence is not as strong as that of CAPE, relative humidity, and VWS, which increase MCSs’ lifetime by 3-30 h, 3-27 h, and 3-30 h per 1σ of these variables and explain up to 36%, 45%, and 34%, respectively, of the variance of the MCSs’ lifetime. AOD explains up to 24% of the total variance of MCSs’ lifetime during the decay phase. This result is physically consistent with that of the variation of the MCSs’ ice water content (IWC) with aerosols, which accounts for 35% and 27% of the total variance of the IWC in convective cores and anvil, respectively, during the decay phase. The effect of aerosols on MCSs’ lifetime varies between different continents. AOD appears to explain up to 20-22% of the total variance of MCSs’ lifetime over equatorial South America compared with 8% over equatorial Africa. Aerosols over the Indian Ocean can explain 20% of total variance of MCSs’ lifetime over South Asia because such MCSs form and develop over the ocean. These regional differences of aerosol impacts may be linked to different meteorological conditions.

  10. An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) Investigating the OMI Aerosol Products Using Simulated Aerosol and Atmospheric Fields from the NASA GEOS-5 Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarco, P. R.; Gasso, S.; Jethva, H. T.; Buchard, V.; Ahn, C.; Torres, O.; daSilva, A.

    2016-12-01

    Output from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5) Earth system model is used to simulate the top-of-atmosphere 354 and 388 nm radiances observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Aura spacecraft. The principle purpose of developing this simulator tool is to compute from the modeled fields the so-called OMI Aerosol Index (AI), which is a more fundamental retrieval product than higher level products such as the aerosol optical depth (AOD) or absorbing aerosol optical depth (AAOD). This lays the groundwork for eventually developing a capability to assimilate either the OMI AI or its radiances, which would provide further constraint on aerosol loading and absorption properties for global models. We extend the use of the simulator capability to understand the nature of the OMI aerosol retrieval algorithms themselves in an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE). The simulated radiances are used to calculate the AI from the modeled fields. These radiances are also provided to the OMI aerosol algorithms, which return their own retrievals of the AI, AOD, and AAOD. Our assessment reveals that the OMI-retrieved AI can be mostly harmonized with the model-derived AI given the same radiances provided a common surface pressure field is assumed. This is important because the operational OMI algorithms presently assume a fixed pressure field, while the contribution of molecular scattering to the actual OMI signal in fact responds to the actual atmospheric pressure profile, which is accounted for in our OSSE by using GEOS-5 produced atmospheric reanalyses. Other differences between the model and OMI AI are discussed, and we present a preliminary assessment of the OMI AOD and AAOD products with respect to the known inputs from the GEOS-5 simulation.

  11. Vulnerability of populations and the urban health care systems to nuclear weapon attack – examples from four American cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, William C; Dallas, Cham E

    2007-01-01

    Background The threat posed by the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) within the United States has grown significantly in recent years, focusing attention on the medical and public health disaster capabilities of the nation in a large scale crisis. While the hundreds of thousands or millions of casualties resulting from a nuclear weapon would, in and of itself, overwhelm our current medical response capabilities, the response dilemma is further exacerbated in that these resources themselves would be significantly at risk. There are many limitations on the resources needed for mass casualty management, such as access to sufficient hospital beds including specialized beds for burn victims, respiration and supportive therapy, pharmaceutical intervention, and mass decontamination. Results The effects of 20 kiloton and 550 kiloton nuclear detonations on high priority target cities are presented for New York City, Chicago, Washington D.C. and Atlanta. Thermal, blast and radiation effects are described, and affected populations are calculated using 2000 block level census data. Weapons of 100 Kts and up are primarily incendiary or radiation weapons, able to cause burns and start fires at distances greater than they can significantly damage buildings, and to poison populations through radiation injuries well downwind in the case of surface detonations. With weapons below 100 Kts, blast effects tend to be stronger than primary thermal effects from surface bursts. From the point of view of medical casualty treatment and administrative response, there is an ominous pattern where these fatalities and casualties geographically fall in relation to the location of hospital and administrative facilities. It is demonstrated that a staggering number of the main hospitals, trauma centers, and other medical assets are likely to be in the fatality plume, rendering them essentially inoperable in a crisis. Conclusion Among the consequences of this outcome would be the probable loss

  12. Vulnerability of populations and the urban health care systems to nuclear weapon attack – examples from four American cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallas Cham E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The threat posed by the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD within the United States has grown significantly in recent years, focusing attention on the medical and public health disaster capabilities of the nation in a large scale crisis. While the hundreds of thousands or millions of casualties resulting from a nuclear weapon would, in and of itself, overwhelm our current medical response capabilities, the response dilemma is further exacerbated in that these resources themselves would be significantly at risk. There are many limitations on the resources needed for mass casualty management, such as access to sufficient hospital beds including specialized beds for burn victims, respiration and supportive therapy, pharmaceutical intervention, and mass decontamination. Results The effects of 20 kiloton and 550 kiloton nuclear detonations on high priority target cities are presented for New York City, Chicago, Washington D.C. and Atlanta. Thermal, blast and radiation effects are described, and affected populations are calculated using 2000 block level census data. Weapons of 100 Kts and up are primarily incendiary or radiation weapons, able to cause burns and start fires at distances greater than they can significantly damage buildings, and to poison populations through radiation injuries well downwind in the case of surface detonations. With weapons below 100 Kts, blast effects tend to be stronger than primary thermal effects from surface bursts. From the point of view of medical casualty treatment and administrative response, there is an ominous pattern where these fatalities and casualties geographically fall in relation to the location of hospital and administrative facilities. It is demonstrated that a staggering number of the main hospitals, trauma centers, and other medical assets are likely to be in the fatality plume, rendering them essentially inoperable in a crisis. Conclusion Among the consequences of this

  13. Electrical Control System Design of Shipboard Box Weapon%舰载箱式无人机电控传送系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉川; 夏冉

    2014-01-01

    在现今的自动控制领域,PLC的应用已十分广泛。首先对舰载箱式无人机的设计进行简要介绍。为实现舰载箱式无人机发射系统传动的高精度、高效率,提出PLC电控传送系统并进行相应设计。通过对液压执行系统硬件结构设计,高精度电液比例控制设计,控制流程设计,PLC选型,控制软件设计等完成了整个电控系统设计过程,在对控制系统程序调试后,控制系统完成了相应的功能需求,达到了设计要求。%In automatic control domain,PLC has been widely used. One design of ship-borne box of unmanned aerial vehicle firstly been introduced briefly. To achieve high precision and high efficiency of carrier box weapon launch system transmission,system choose PLC as the core of the electrical control system. Through the design of electronic control system hardware structure and control software design,it implements the shipboard box -type weapons sent efficiency and precision positioning.

  14. 舰载弹炮结合近程武器系统技术研究%Study on Shipped Missile-Gun Integrated Defense Weapon System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白奕

    2014-01-01

    现代高性能反舰导弹是舰艇末端防御的最大威胁,而舰载弹炮结合近程武器系统为舰艇的末端防御提供了一种有效的途径。分析了舰载弹炮结合近程武器系统的作战使用和主要特点,针对海上空袭武器的特点,重点研究了增强系统抗饱和攻击能力的设计方法,并探讨了舰载弹炮结合近程武器系统在现代海战中的使用方向。%Modern high-powered antiship missile is the main threaten of ship,and shipped missile-gun integrated defense weapon system is an effective way to the terminal defense of ship. This paper first analyzes the combat operation and main characteristic of missile-gun integrated defense weapon system,then studies the key factor of designing a system. At last the system usage is discussed in the modern sea war.

  15. 印度导弹武器装备体系发展与前景分析%Analysis of Indian Missile Weapon System Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹

    2012-01-01

    随着国际安全环境的重大变化,印度加紧了其军事战略的调整和军队建设的步伐,大力发展导弹武器体系建设,对周边国家和地区形成了安全威胁.在分析印度军事战略的基础上,重点阐述印度弹道导弹、巡航导弹、防空导弹和导弹防御系统等武器装备体系的建设情况,并分析了其发展趋势和未来前景.%With the tremendous changes of the international security environment, India promotes the military strategy adjustment and the military construction, and pays great attention to the development of missile weapon system, threatening to the security of neighboring countries and regions. Beginning with the Indian military strategy, this paper describes the Indian weapon system construction in depth, such as the ballistic missile, cruise missile, air defense system and ballistic missile defense system .ete. Finally future development trend and prospect are analyzed.

  16. Update on the NASA GEOS-5 Aerosol Forecasting and Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarco, Peter; da Silva, Arlindo; Aquila, Valentina; Bian, Huisheng; Buchard, Virginie; Castellanos, Patricia; Darmenov, Anton; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Govindaraju, Ravi; Keller, Christoph; hide

    2017-01-01

    GEOS-5 is the Goddard Earth Observing System model. GEOS-5 is maintained by the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office. Core development is within GMAO,Goddard Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and with external partners. Primary GEOS-5 functions: Earth system model for studying climate variability and change, provide research quality reanalyses for supporting NASA instrument teams and scientific community, provide near-real time forecasts of meteorology,aerosols, and other atmospheric constituents to support NASA airborne campaigns.

  17. The System of the Calibration for Visibility Measurement Instrument Under the Atmospheric Aerosol Simulation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visibility is one of the most important parameters for meteorological observation and numerical weather prediction (NWP.It is also an important factor in everyday life, mainly for surface and air traffic especially in the Aeronautical Meteorology. The visibility decides the taking off and landing of aircraft. If the airport visibility is lower than requirement for aircraft taking off stipulated by International Civil Aviation Administration, then the aircraft must be parked at the airport. So the accurate measurement of visibility is very important. Nowadays, many devices can be measured the visibility or meteorological optical range (MOR such as Scatterometers, Transmissometers and visibility lidar. But there is not effective way to verify the accuracy of these devices expect the artificial visual method. We have developed a visibility testing system that can be calibration and verification these devices. The system consists of laser transmitter, optical chopper, phase-locking amplifier, the moving optic receiving system, signal detection and data acquisition system, atmospheric aerosol simulation chamber. All of them were placed in the atmosphere aerosol simulation chamber with uniform aerosol concentration. The Continuous wave laser, wavelength 550nm, has been transmitted into the collimation system then the laser beam expanded into 40mm diameter for compressing the laser divergence angle before modulated by optical chopper. The expanding beam transmitting in the atmosphere aerosol cabin received by the optic receiving system moving in the 50m length precision guide with 100mm optical aperture. The data of laser signal has been acquired by phase-locking amplifier every 5 meter range. So the 10 data points can be detected in the 50 meters guide once. The slope of the fitting curve can be obtained by linear fitting these data using the least square method. The laser extinction coefficient was calculated from the slope using the Koschmieder

  18. The Framework of Comprehensive Analysis for the Combat Capability of Weapon System of Systems%武器装备体系作战能力综合分析框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵相安; 姜志平; 黄新生

    2011-01-01

    为了分析武器装备体系的整体作战能力,提出了一种武器装备体系作战能力的综合分析框架,该框架将武器装备体系的作战能力分析划分为3个层次,并针对每个层次分别提出了相应的能力分析方法.首先研究了如何描述和度量单个武器装备的作战能力;其次研究了如何将多个同类型武器装备的作战能力进行折合形成新的作战能力;最后是研究了多个及多种类型武器装备的作战能力如何合成新的作战能力.并进行案例分析,证明了该框架的可用性.%To analyze the capability of the weapon System of Systems, a kind of analyzing framework is provided in the paper. The framework divides the combat capability analysis of the weapon System of Systems into three levels, and to each level, the corresponding capability analysis method is provided. Firstly, how to describe and measure the combat capability of the single weapon is researched. Secondly, how to discount the combat capability of many weapons into new ones is researched. Thirdly, how to compose the combat capability of many and many kinds of weapons into new ones is researched. Lastly, the case that proves the framework's availability is analyzed.

  19. Aerosol-climate interactions in the Norwegian Earth System Model - NorESM1-M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkevåg, A.; Iversen, T.; Seland, Ø.; Hoose, C.; Kristjánsson, J. E.; Struthers, H.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Ghan, S.; Griesfeller, J.; Nilsson, E. D.; Schulz, M.

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study is to document and evaluate recent changes and updates to the module for aerosols and aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in the atmospheric module CAM4-Oslo of the core version of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM), NorESM1-M. Particular attention is paid to the role of natural organics, sea salt, and mineral dust in determining the gross aerosol properties as well as the anthropogenic contribution to these properties and the associated direct and indirect radiative forcing. The aerosol module is extended from earlier versions that have been published, and includes life-cycling of sea salt, mineral dust, particulate sulphate, black carbon, and primary and secondary organics. The impacts of most of the numerous changes since previous versions are thoroughly explored by sensitivity experiments. The most important changes are: modified prognostic sea salt emissions; updated treatment of precipitation scavenging and gravitational settling; inclusion of biogenic primary organics and methane sulphonic acid (MSA) from oceans; almost doubled production of land-based biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA); and increased ratio of organic matter to organic carbon (OM/OC) for biomass burning aerosols from 1.4 to 2.6. Compared with in situ measurements and remotely sensed data, the new treatments of sea salt and dust aerosols give smaller biases in near-surface mass concentrations and aerosol optical depth than in the earlier model version. The model biases for mass concentrations are approximately unchanged for sulphate and BC. The enhanced levels of modeled OM yield improved overall statistics, even though OM is still underestimated in Europe and overestimated in North America. The global anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of the atmosphere has changed from a small positive value to -0.08 W m-2 in CAM4-Oslo. The sensitivity tests suggest that this change can be attributed to the new treatment of biomass

  20. Virtual nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  1. Monitoring O3 and Aerosols with the NASA LaRC Mobile Ozone Lidar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganoe, Rene; Gronoff, Guillaume; Berkoff, Timothy; DeYoung, Russell; Carrion, William

    2016-01-01

    The NASA's Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar (LMOL) system routinely measures tropospheric ozone and aerosol profiles, and is part of the Tropospheric Lidar Network (TOLNet). Recent upgrades to the system include a new pump laser that has tripled the transmission output power extending measurements up to 8 km in altitude during the day. In addition, software and algorithm developments have improved data output quality and enabled a real-time ozone display capability. In 2016, a number of ozone features were captured by LMOL, including the dynamics of an early-season ozone exceedance that impacted the Hampton Roads region. In this presentation, we will review current LMOL capabilities, recent air quality events observed by the system, and show a comparison of aerosol retrieval through the UV channel and the green line channel.

  2. Monitoring O3 and Aerosols with the NASA LaRC Mobile Ozone Lidar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronoff, G.; Ganoe, R. E.; Berkoff, T.; De Young, R.; Carrion, W.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA's Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar (LMOL) system routinely measures tropospheric ozone and aerosol profiles, and is part of the Tropospheric Lidar Network (TOLNet). Recent upgrades to the system include a new pump laser that has tripled the transmission output power extending measurements up to 8 km in altitude. In addition, software and algorithm developments have improved data output quality and enabled a real-time ozone display capability. In 2016, a number of ozone features were captured by LMOL, including the dynamics of an early-season ozone exceedance that impacted the Hampton Roads region. In this presentation, we will review current LMOL capabilities, recent air quality events observed by the system, and we show a comparison of aerosol retrieval through the UV channel and the green line channel.

  3. Particle Loss Calculator – a new software tool for the assessment of the performance of aerosol inlet systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-L. von der Weiden

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Most aerosol measurements require an inlet system to transport aerosols from a select sampling location to a suitable measurement device through some length of tubing. Such inlet systems must be optimized to minimize aerosol sampling artifacts and maximize sampling efficiency. In this study we introduce a new multifunctional software tool (Particle Loss Calculator, PLC that can be used to quickly determine aerosol sampling efficiency and particle transport losses due to passage through arbitrary tubing systems. The software employs relevant empirical and theoretical relationships found in established literature and accounts for the most important sampling and transport effects that might be encountered during deployment of typical, ground-based ambient aerosol measurements through a constant-diameter sampling probe. The software treats non-isoaxial and non-isokinetic aerosol sampling, aerosol diffusion and sedimentation as well as turbulent inertial deposition and inertial deposition in bends and contractions of tubing. This software was validated through comparison with experimentally determined particle losses for several tubing systems bent to create various diffusion, sedimentation and inertial deposition properties. As long as the tube geometries are not "too extreme", agreement is satisfactory. We discuss the conclusions of these experiments, the limitations of the software and present three examples of the use of the Particle Loss Calculator in the field.

  4. Particle Loss Calculator – a new software tool for the assessment of the performance of aerosol inlet systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-L. von der Weiden

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Most aerosol measurements require an inlet system to transport aerosols from a select sampling location to a suitable measurement device through some length of tubing. Such inlet systems must be optimized to minimize aerosol sampling artifacts and maximize sampling efficiency. In this study we introduce a new multifunctional software tool (Particle Loss Calculator, PLC that can be used to quickly determine aerosol sampling efficiency and particle transport losses due to passage through arbitrary tubing systems. The software employs relevant empirical and theoretical relationships found in established literature and accounts for the most important sampling and transport effects that might be encountered during deployment of typical, ground-based ambient aerosol measurements. The software treats non-isoaxial and non-isokinetic aerosol sampling, aerosol diffusion and sedimentation as well as turbulent inertial deposition and inertial deposition in bends and contractions of tubing. This software was validated through comparison with experimentally determined particle losses for several tubing systems bent to create various diffusion, sedimentation and inertial deposition properties. As long as the tube geometries are not "too extreme", agreement is satisfactory. We discuss the conclusions of these experiments, the limitations of the software and present three examples of the use of the Particle Loss Calculator in the field.

  5. 生物战剂/气溶胶探测和识别系统综述%Detection and Identification System of Biological Aerosols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨辉; 宗军君; 薛向锋; 侯智斌

    2015-01-01

    Easy and inexpensive manufacturing of biological weapons ,complicated detection ,expensive protection ,dif‐ficult treating of affected individuals ,selective impact only for people ,animals or plants ,are all factors making an effective defense against biological warfare agents .The aim of this study is to introduce the systems for the detection and identification of biological aerosols containing dangerous bioagents .The basic techniques used for detection and identification of bioagents are described ,including physical ,molecular ,immunochemical ,and other ligand assays .Measuring systems and equipment for the individual techniques are summarized .%生物战剂/武器具有针对性强(人体、动物或植物)、易于制造、廉价、探测困难、防护代价高、感染群体诊治困难等特性,对生物战剂的防御极具挑战性。论文对生物气溶胶/生物战剂探测识别系统的技术路线(如物理、分子、免疫及配合基检验等)、特点和运用情况进行了分析梳理和总结。

  6. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote. ...

  7. Implementation of a new aerosol HAM model within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mashayekhi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new coupled system of aerosol HAM model and the Weather, Research and Forecasting (WRF model is presented in this paper. Unlike the current aerosol schemes used in WRF model, the HAM is using a "pseudomodal" approach for the representation of the particle size distribution. The aerosol components considered are sulfate, black carbon, particulate organic matter, sea salt and mineral dust. The preliminary model results are presented for two different 6-day simulation periods from 22 to 28 February 2006 as a winter period and 6 to 12 May 2006 as a mild period. The mean shortwave radiation and thermal forcing were calculated from the model simulations with and without aerosols feedback for two simulation periods. A negative radiative forcing and cooling of the atmosphere were found mainly over the regions of high emission of mineral dust. The absorption of shortwave radiation by black carbon caused warming effects in some regions with positive radiative forcing. The simulated daily mean sulfate mass concentration showed a rather good agreement with the measurements in the European EMEP network. The diurnal variation of the simulated hourly PM10 mass concentration at Tehran was also qualitatively close to the observations in both simulation periods. The model captured diurnal cycle and the magnitude of the observed PM10 concentration during most of the simulation periods. The differences between the observed and simulated PM10 concentration resulted mostly from limitation of the model in simulating the clouds and precipitation, transport errors and uncertainties in the particulate emission rates. The inclusion of aerosols feedback in shortwave radiation scheme improved the simulated daily mean shortwave radiation fluxes in Tehran for both simulation periods.

  8. Measurements of fluorescent aerosols using a mutil-channel lidar spectrometer system during DUBI 2016 Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Huang, J.; Zhou, T.; Shi, J.; Sugimoto, N.; Tang, K.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric bioaerosols are relevant for public health and may play an important role in the climate system. Previous studies have shown that abundant bioaerosols (such as microorganisms) injected into the atmosphere along with dust events, could affect leeward ecosystem and human health, even induce globe climate change. However, the challenge in quantifying bioaerosol climate effects (e.g., radiative forcing and aerosol-cloud interactions) arises from large spatial and temporal heterogeneity of their concentrations, compositions, sizes, shape and optical properties. Lidar, as one of most advanced active remote sensing, is used to offer some remarkable advantages for determining the vertical structure of atmospheric aerosols and their related optical properties. In order to investigate the characterization of atmospheric bioaerosols along transported pathways of dust aerosols, we carried out DUBI (DUst BIoaerosol) 2016 Campaign over Northern China in spring of 2016. Lots of instruments, including bioaerosol sampling, lidar as well as others, were installed at three sites­ (Erenhot, Zhangbei and Jinan) simultaneously. A multi-channel lidar spectrometer system was developed to observe Mie, Raman scattering and laser-induced fluorescence excitation at 355 nm from the atmosphere. The lidar system operated polarization measurements at 355nm, aiming to identify dust particles from other aerosols. It employs a high power pulsed laser with energy of 80mJ at 355nm and a received telescope with 350mm diameter. The receiver could simultaneously detect a wide fluorescent spectrum between 360nm and 720nm with spectral resolution 5.7 nm using two spectrometers simultaneously. The spectrometer mainly includes an F/3.7 Crossed Czerny-Turner spectrographs, a grating (1200 gr/mm) and a PMT array with 32 photocathode elements. Vertical structure of fluorescent aerosols in the atmosphere was observed by the developed lidar system at Zhangbei during DUBI 2016 Campaign. It has been

  9. 某型武器通信系统脆性建模与分析%Brittleness Modeling and Analysis on A Weapon's Communication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俊

    2015-01-01

    某型武器通信系统进行脆性建模与分析的目的是找到该通信系统的脆性源,为改进装备维修保障工作提供依据.运用图论建立通信系统脆性模型,对模型进行分层重构.找到通信系统的脆性源,得到分层的系统脆性模型.分析结果表明:在某型武器通信系统中,通信控制机是其脆性源,对完善某型武器通信系统建构、改善通信控制机性能、开展通信控制机操作训练和故障诊断训练等具有很强的指导作用,同时也为建设某型通信控制机故障诊断训练系统提供理论依据.%Brittleness modeling and analysis that was adopted to a weapon's communication system aimed to find the brittle source of the communication system and to provide basis for improve the work of equipment's maintenance. Brittleness model of communication system was constructed by the graph theory, then the model was reconstructed hierarchically. And brittle source of communication system was found, hierarchical system brittle model was got at last. It was demonstrated by the analysis result that communication controller was brittle source of a weapon's communication system. As a result it has stronger directive function to consummate the construction of a weapon's communication system, improve the performance of communication controller, develop the operation training and fault diagnosis training of communication controller, theoretical support was afforded to construct a fault diagnosis training system of communication controller at the same time.

  10. Granular analyzing of weapon SoS demand description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qingsong; Yang Kewei; Chen Yingwu; Li Mengjun

    2009-01-01

    The systematism of weapon combat is the typical characteristic of a modern battlefield. The process of combat is complex and the demand description of weapon system of systems (SOS) is difficult. Granular analyzing is an important method for solving the complex problem in the world. Granular thinking is introduced into the demand description of weapon SoS. Granular computing and granular combination based on a relation of compatibility is proposed. Based on the level of degree and degree of detail, the granular resolution of weapon SoS is defined and an example is illustrated at the end.

  11. Aerosol-climate interactions in the Norwegian Earth System Model - NorESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkevåg, A.; Iversen, T.; Seland, Ø.; Hoose, C.; Kristjánsson, J. E.; Struthers, H.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Ghan, S.; Griesfeller, J.; Nilsson, E. D.; Schulz, M.

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to document and evaluate recent changes and updates to the module for aerosols and aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in the atmospheric module CAM4-Oslo of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). Particular attention is paid to the role of natural organics, sea salt, and mineral dust in determining the gross aerosol properties as well as the anthropogenic contribution to these properties and the associated direct and indirect radiative forcing. The aerosol module is extended from earlier versions that have been published, and includes life-cycling of sea-salt, mineral dust, particulate sulphate, black carbon, and primary and secondary organics. The impacts of most of the numerous changes since previous versions are thoroughly explored by sensitivity experiments. The most important changes are: modified prognostic sea salt emissions; updated treatment of precipitation scavenging and gravitational settling; inclusion of biogenic primary organics and methane sulphonic acid (MSA) from oceans; almost doubled production of land-based biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA); and increased ratio of organic matter to organic carbon (OM / OC) for biomass burning aerosols from 1.4 to 2.6. Compared with in-situ measurements and remotely sensed data, the new treatments of sea salt and dust aerosols give smaller biases in near surface mass concentrations and aerosol optical depth than in the earlier model version. The model biases for mass concentrations are approximately unchanged for sulphate and BC. The enhanced levels of modeled OM yield improved overall statistics, even though OM is still underestimated in Europe and over-estimated in North America. The global direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of the atmosphere has changed from a small positive value to -0.08 W m-2 in CAM4-Oslo. The sensitivity tests suggest that this change can be attributed to the new treatment of biomass burning aerosols and gravitational settling. Although

  12. Aerosol-climate interactions in the Norwegian Earth System Model – NorESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Griesfeller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to document and evaluate recent changes and updates to the module for aerosols and aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in the atmospheric module CAM4-Oslo of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM. Particular attention is paid to the role of natural organics, sea salt, and mineral dust in determining the gross aerosol properties as well as the anthropogenic contribution to these properties and the associated direct and indirect radiative forcing. The aerosol module is extended from earlier versions that have been published, and includes life-cycling of sea-salt, mineral dust, particulate sulphate, black carbon, and primary and secondary organics. The impacts of most of the numerous changes since previous versions are thoroughly explored by sensitivity experiments. The most important changes are: modified prognostic sea salt emissions; updated treatment of precipitation scavenging and gravitational settling; inclusion of biogenic primary organics and methane sulphonic acid (MSA from oceans; almost doubled production of land-based biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA; and increased ratio of organic matter to organic carbon (OM / OC for biomass burning aerosols from 1.4 to 2.6. Compared with in-situ measurements and remotely sensed data, the new treatments of sea salt and dust aerosols give smaller biases in near surface mass concentrations and aerosol optical depth than in the earlier model version. The model biases for mass concentrations are approximately unchanged for sulphate and BC. The enhanced levels of modeled OM yield improved overall statistics, even though OM is still underestimated in Europe and over-estimated in North America. The global direct radiative forcing (DRF at the top of the atmosphere has changed from a small positive value to −0.08 W m−2 in CAM4-Oslo. The sensitivity tests suggest that this change can be attributed to the new treatment of biomass burning aerosols and gravitational

  13. Construction, Modeling and Testing of a Low-Flow, Large-Diameter Aerosol Flow System for the Study of the Formation and Reactions of Tropospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, M. J.; Johnson, S. N.; Yu, Y.; Pokkunuri, P.; Perraud, V.; Bruns, E.; Alexander, M.; Zelenyuk, A.; Dabdub, D.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    A unique, high-volume, low-flow, stainless steel aerosol flow system for the study of the formation and reactions of aerosols relevant to the troposphere has been constructed, modeled and experimentally tested. The total flow tube length is 7.3 m which includes a 1.2 m section used for mixing. The flow tube is equipped with ultraviolet lamps for photolysis. The diameter of 0.45 m results in a smaller surface to volume ratio than is found in many other flow systems and reduces the contribution of wall reactions. The latter is also reduced by frequent cleaning of the flow tube walls which is feasible due to the ease of disassembly of the flow tube. Flow systems present a major advantage over chamber studies in that continuous sampling under stable conditions over long periods of time is possible, increasing the amount of sample available for analysis and permitting a wide variety of analytical techniques to be applied simultaneously. In this system, the large volume (1000 L) and low flow speed (2 cm/minute) result in a residence time of nearly an hour; and equally spaced sampling ports allow for time-resolved measurements of aerosol and gas-phase products. The central features of this system have been modeled using computational fluid dynamics software and experimentally probed using inert gases and aerosols. Instrumentation attached directly to this flow system includes a NOx analyzer, an ozone analyzer, relative humidity and temperature probes, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) spectrometer, an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) spectrometer, GC-MS, integrating nephelometer, and FTIR. Particles are collected using impactors and filters, and analyzed by a variety of techniques including FTIR, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS), GC-MS, HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS. In addition, for selected studies, an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), a single particle mass spectrometer (SPLAT II) and

  14. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  15. Quantification and risks associated with bacterial aerosols near domestic greywater-treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benami, Maya; Busgang, Allison; Gillor, Osnat; Gross, Amit

    2016-08-15

    Greywater (GW) reuse can alleviate water stress by lowering freshwater consumption. However, GW contains pathogens that may compromise public health. During the GW-treatment process, bioaerosols can be produced and may be hazardous to human health if inhaled, ingested, or come in contact with skin. Using air-particle monitoring, BioSampler®, and settle plates we sampled bioaerosols emitted from recirculating vertical flow constructed wetlands (RVFCW) - a domestic GW-treatment system. An array of pathogens and indicators were monitored using settle plates and by culturing the BioSampler® liquid. Further enumeration of viable pathogens in the BioSampler® liquid utilized a newer method combining the benefits of enrichment with molecular detection (MPN-qPCR). Additionally, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was applied to assess risks of infection from a representative skin pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. According to the settle-plate technique, low amounts (0-9.7×10(4)CFUm(-2)h(-1)) of heterotrophic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli were found to aerosolize up to 1m away from the GW systems. At the 5m distance amounts of these bacteria were not statistically different (p>0.05) from background concentrations tested over 50m away from the systems. Using the BioSampler®, no bacteria were detected before enrichment of the GW-aerosols. However, after enrichment, using an MPN-qPCR technique, viable indicators and pathogens were occasionally detected. Consequently, the QMRA results were below the critical disability-adjusted life year (DALY) safety limits, a measure of overall disease burden, for S. aureus under the tested exposure scenarios. Our study suggests that health risks from aerosolizing pathogens near RVFCW GW-treatment systems are likely low. This study also emphasizes the growing need for standardization of bioaerosol-evaluation techniques to provide more accurate

  16. Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reichl, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Greenhouse Gas (GhG) Measurement system is a combination of two systems in series: (1) the Tower Gas Processing (TGP) System, an instrument rack which pulls, pressurizes, and dries air streams from an atmospheric sampling tower through a series of control and monitoring components, and (2) the Picarro model G2301 cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS), which measures CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor; the primary measurements of the GhG system.

  17. Development of a new aerosol monitoring system and its application in Fukushima nuclear accident related aerosol radioactivity measurement at the CTBT radionuclide station in Sidney of Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weihua, E-mail: weihua.zhang@hc-sc.gc.ca [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 1C1 (Canada); Bean, Marc; Benotto, Mike; Cheung, Jeff; Ungar, Kurt; Ahier, Brian [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    A high volume aerosol sampler ('Grey Owl') has been designed and developed at the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable sampler to provide daily aerosol monitoring samples that can be used as reference samples for radiological studies. It has been developed to provide a constant air flow rate at low pressure drops ({approx}3 kPa for a day sampling) with variations of less than {+-}1% of the full scale flow rate. Its energy consumption is only about 1.5 kW for a filter sampling over 22,000 standard cubic meter of air. It has been demonstrated in this Fukushima nuclear accident related aerosol radioactivity monitoring study at Sidney station, B.C. that the sampler is robust and reliable. The results provided by the new monitoring system have been used to support decision-making in Canada during an emergency response. - Highlights: > A new high volume aerosol sampler ('Grey Owl') has been developed in this study. > It operates at low pressure drops with low energy consumption. > The variation of air flow rate is less than {+-}1% of the full scale. > Fukushima accident nuclide monitoring at Sidney shows that it is robust and reliable.

  18. Measurements of profiles of aerosol/cloud in the lower atmosphere using a lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Khaled

    2016-10-01

    Preliminary measurements of profiles of aerosol/cloud in the lower atmosphere using a homemade stationary groundbased lidar system will be presented. In addition, information on basic characteristics and performance of the lidar system will be provided. Aerosol/Cloud lidar system in monostatic coaxial configuration uses the fundamental (1064 nm) and the second harmonic (532 nm) of a pulsed solid state Nd:YAG laser to provide information on the relative concentration and spatial distribution of aerosol particles and cloud water droplets. Beam expander is used to reduce the laser beam divergence before to be transmitted into the atmosphere. In this study, high-resolution vertical profiles from the near ground up to 15 km altitude are obtained. A Newtonian telescope of diameter 400 mm with an adjustable field of view (FOV) is used to collect the elastic backscattered signal. A photomultiplier tube (PMT) is used for the 532 nm wavelength detection channel, while an avalanche photodiode (APD) is used for the 1064 nm wavelength detection channel. The optoelectronic detection channels use two similar very high frequency preamplification circuit. Data are acquired with a nominal spatial resolution of 7.5 m using a 12-bit 20 MHz analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for each channel. Many functions, such as, range determination, background subtraction, digitization, and averaging are performed by the receiver subsystem. In addition, spatial resolution and linear dynamic range were optimized during signal processing.

  19. Research on the Capability Generation of Weapon System-of-Systems Based on Fuzzy Consensus%基于模糊共识的武器装备体系能力生成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄魏; 梁晓庆; 谭跃进

    2011-01-01

    武器装备体系能力生成是武器装备体系构建与发展的基础,是专家群体研讨并最终形成武器装备体系能力发展的共识过程,专家意见共识的形成是武器装备体系能力生成的核心环节.为便于专家理解并对各种方案进行比较,采用模糊共识的思想,通过建立专家的模糊偏好矩阵,计算专家意见的一致度,在此基础上获得专家意见的模糊共识度.%The capability generation of weapon system-of-systems is foundation of construct and development of weapon system-of-systems. It is the process of expert group discussion then form consensus of capability development. The forming of expert opinion consensus is the significant segment of capability generation of weapon system-of-systems. In order to facilitate the understanding of experts and to compare various options, adopts the idea of fuzzy consensus, through the establishment of the expert's fuzzy preference matrix, the calculation of the same degree of expert opinion, then acquire fuzzy degree of consensus.

  20. Impact of Interactive Aerosol on the African Easterly Jet in the NASA GEOS-5 Global Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, O.; Lau, K. M.; da Silva, A.

    2010-01-01

    The real-time treatment of interactive realistically varying aerosol in a global operational forecasting system, as opposed to prescribed (fixed or climatologically varying) aerosols, is a very difficult challenge that only recently begins to be addressed. Experiment results from a recent version of the NASA GEOS-5 forecasting system, inclusive of interactive aerosol treatment, are presented in this work. Four sets of 30 5-day forecasts are initialized from a high quality set of analyses previously produced and documented to cover the period from 15 August to 16 September 2006, which corresponds to the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (NAMMA) observing campaign. The four forecast sets are at two different horizontal resolutions and with and without interactive aerosol treatment. The net impact of aerosol, at times in which there is a strong dust outbreak, is a temperature increase at the dust level and decrease in the near-surface levels, in complete agreement with previous observational and modeling studies. Moreover, forecasts in which interactive aerosols are included depict an African Easterly (AEJ) at slightly higher elevation, and slightly displace northward, with respect to the forecasts in which aerosols are not include. The shift in the AEJ position goes in the direction of observations and agrees with previous results.

  1. The Electronic Delivery of Automated Technical Information for Logistics Support of Navy Weapon Systems: Potential, System Description and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Charles S. Sawyer. Test and Evaluation of The Navy Technical Information Presentation System (NTIPS), AN/SPA-25D Test Results. DTRC-88-035, September 1988...L. LeBeau; Anne S. Mavor; Theodore J. Post; and Charles S. Sawyer. Test and Evaluation of The Navy Technical Information Presentpl ier System (NTIPS...Karpovich 1 EER Systems 1 NPFC-100 H. Bukowski LCDR F. Harmer 2 EG&G 1 NOSC WASC L. Snodgrass R. Smillie WASCI R. Beckham 1 NOS Indianhead 4 Essex Corp. G

  2. Sub 2 nm Particle Characterization in Systems with Aerosol Formation and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang

    Aerosol science and technology enable continual advances in material synthesis and atmospheric pollutant control. Among these advances, one important frontier is characterizing the initial stages of particle formation by real time measurement of particles below 2 nm in size. Sub 2 nm particles play important roles by acting as seeds for particle growth, ultimately determining the final properties of the generated particles. Tailoring nanoparticle properties requires a thorough understanding and precise control of the particle formation processes, which in turn requires characterizing nanoparticle formation from the initial stages. The knowledge on particle formation in early stages can also be applied in quantum dot synthesis and material doping. This dissertation pursued two approaches in investigating incipient particle characterization in systems with aerosol formation and growth: (1) using a high-resolution differential mobility analyzer (DMA) to measure the size distributions of sub 2 nm particles generated from high-temperature aerosol reactors, and (2) analyzing the physical and chemical pathways of aerosol formation during combustion. Part. 1. Particle size distributions reveal important information about particle formation dynamics. DMAs are widely utilized to measure particle size distributions. However, our knowledge of the initial stages of particle formation is incomplete, due to the Brownian broadening effects in conventional DMAs. The first part of this dissertation studied the applicability of high-resolution DMAs in characterizing sub 2 nm particles generated from high-temperature aerosol reactors, including a flame aerosol reactor (FLAR) and a furnace aerosol reactor (FUAR). Comparison against a conventional DMA (Nano DMA, Model 3085, TSI Inc.) demonstrated that the increased sheath flow rates and shortened residence time indeed greatly suppressed the diffusion broadening effect in a high-resolution DMA (half mini type). The incipient particle

  3. Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation (CAR) Ensemble Modeling System:Overall Accuracy and Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng ZHANG; Xin-Zhong LIANG; ZENG Qingcun; Yu GU; Shenjian SU

    2013-01-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation (CAR) ensemble modeling system has recently been built to better understand cloud/aerosol/radiation processes and determine the uncertainties caused by different treatments of cloud/aerosol/radiation in climate models.The CAR system comprises a large scheme collection of cloud,aerosol,and radiation processes available in the literature,including those commonly used by the world's leading GCMs.In this study,detailed analyses of the overall accuracy and efficiency of the CAR system were performed.Despite the different observations used,the overall accuracies of the CAR ensemble means were found to be very good for both shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation calculations.Taking the percentage errors for July 2004 compared to ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project)data over (60°N,60°S) as an example,even among the 448 CAR members selected here,those errors of the CAR ensemble means were only about-0.67% (-0.6 W m-2) and-0.82% (-2.0 W m-2) for SW and LW upward fluxes at the top of atmosphere,and 0.06% (0.1 W m-2) and-2.12% (-7.8 W m-2) for SW and LW downward fluxes at the surface,respectively.Furthermore,model SW frequency distributions in July 2004 covered the observational ranges entirely,with ensemble means located in the middle of the ranges.Moreover,it was found that the accuracy of radiative transfer calculations can be significantly enhanced by using certain combinations of cloud schemes for the cloud cover fraction,particle effective size,water path,and optical properties,along with better explicit treatments for unresolved cloud structures.

  4. Wounds and weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Dootz, B. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: X-ray findings are described, which are typical for injuries due to conventional weapons. It is intended to demonstrate that radiographs can show findings characteristic for weapons. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected in Vietnam, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Chad, Iran, Afghanistan, USA, Great Britain, France, Israel, Palestine, and Germany. Results: Radiograms of injuries due to hand grenades show their content (globes) and cover fragments. The globes are localized regionally in the victim's body. Survivors of cluster bombs show singular or few globes; having been hit by many globes would have been lethal. Shotguns produce characteristic distributions of the pallets and depth of penetration different from those of hand grenades and cluster bombs; cover fragments are lacking. Gunshot wounds (GSW) can be differentiated in those to low velocity bullets, high velocity projectiles, and projectiles, which disintegrate on impact. The radiogram furnishes the information about a dangerous shock and helps to recognize the weapon. Radiograms of victims of explosion show fragments and injuries due to the blast, information valid for therapy planning and prognosis. The radiogram shows details which can be used in therapy, forensic medicine and in war propaganda - examples could be findings typical for cluster bombs and for dumdum bullets; it shows the cruelty of the employment of weapons against humans and the conflict between the goal of medical care and those of military actions. Conclusion: Radiographs may show, which weapon has been employed; they can be read as war reports.

  5. Wounds and weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H; Dootz, B

    2007-08-01

    X-ray findings are described, which are typical for injuries due to conventional weapons. It is intended to demonstrate that radiographs can show findings characteristic for weapons. The radiograms have been collected in Vietnam, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Chad, Iran, Afghanistan, USA, Great Britain, France, Israel, Palestine, and Germany. Radiograms of injuries due to hand grenades show their content (globes) and cover fragments. The globes are localized regionally in the victim's body. Survivors of cluster bombs show singular or few globes; having been hit by many globes would have been lethal. Shotguns produce characteristic distributions of the pallets and depth of penetration different from those of hand grenades and cluster bombs; cover fragments are lacking. Gunshot wounds (GSW) can be differentiated in those to low velocity bullets, high velocity projectiles, and projectiles, which disintegrate on impact. The radiogram furnishes the information about a dangerous shock and helps to recognize the weapon. Radiograms of victims of explosion show fragments and injuries due to the blast, information valid for therapy planning and prognosis. The radiogram shows details which can be used in therapy, forensic medicine and in war propaganda - examples could be findings typical for cluster bombs and for dumdum bullets; it shows the cruelty of the employment of weapons against humans and the conflict between the goal of medical care and those of military actions. Radiographs may show, which weapon has been employed; they can be read as war reports.

  6. Interesting Scientific Questions Regarding Interactions in the Gas-aerosol-cloud System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabazadeh, Azadeh

    2002-01-01

    The growth of human population and their use of land, food and energy resources affect the Earth's atmosphere, biosphere and oceans in a complex manner. Many important questions in earth sciences today deal with issues regarding the impact of human activities on our immediate and future environment, ranging in scope from local (i.e. air pollution) to global (i.e. global warming) scale problems. Because the mass of the Earth's atmosphere is negligible compare to that found in the oceans and the biosphere, the atmosphere can respond quickly to natural and/or manmade perturbations. For example, seasonal 'ozone hole' formation in the Antarctic is a result of manmade CFC emissions in just the last 40 years. Also, the observed rise in global temperatures (known as global warming) is linked to a rapid increase in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas concentrations (emitted primarily by combustion processes) over the last century. The Earth's atmosphere is composed of a mixture of gases, aerosol and cloud particles. Natural and anthropogenic emissions of gases and aerosols affect the composition of the Earth's atmosphere. Changes in the chemical and physical makeup of the atmosphere can influence how the Earth will interact with the incoming solar radiation and the outgoing infrared radiation and vise versa. While, some perturbations are short-lived, others are long-lived and can affect the Earth's global climate and chemistry in many decades to come, In order to be able to separate the natural effects from anthropogenic ones, it is essential that we understand the basic physics and chemistry of interactions in the gas-aerosol-cloud system in the Earth's atmosphere. The important physics and chemistry that takes place in the coupled gas-aerosol-cloud system as it relates to aircraft observations are discussed.

  7. Tropospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    m, PM10=1.1 μg m-3; estimated coefficient of light scattering by particulate matter, σep, at 570 nm=12 Mm-1). (b) High aerosol concentration (PM2.5=43.9 μg m-3; PM10=83.4 μg m-3; estimated σep at 570 nm=245 Mm-1) (reproduced by permission of National Park Service, 2002). Although comprising only a small fraction of the mass of Earth's atmosphere, aerosol particles are highly important constituents of the atmosphere. Special interest has focused on aerosols in the troposphere, the lowest part of the atmosphere, extending from the land or ocean surface typically to ˜8 km at high latitudes, ˜12 km in mid-latitudes, and ˜16 km at low latitudes. That interest arises in large part because of the importance of aerosol particles in geophysical processes, human health impairment through inhalation, environmental effects through deposition, visibility degradation, and influences on atmospheric radiation and climate.Anthropogenic aerosols are thought to exert a substantial influence on Earth's climate, and the need to quantify this influence has sparked much of the current interest in and research on tropospheric aerosols. The principal mechanisms by which aerosols influence the Earth radiation budget are scattering and absorbing solar radiation (the so-called "direct effects") and modifying clouds and precipitation, thereby affecting both radiation and hydrology (the so-called "indirect effects"). Light scattering by aerosols increases the brightness of the planet, producing a cooling influence. Light-absorbing aerosols such as black carbon exert a warming influence. Aerosols increase the reflectivity of clouds, another cooling influence. These radiative influences are quantified as forcings, where a forcing is a perturbation to the energy balance of the atmosphere-Earth system, expressed in units of watts per square meter, W m-2. A warming influence is denoted a positive forcing, and a cooling influence, negative. The radiative direct and indirect forcings by

  8. Marine Aerosol Precursor Emissions for Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltrud, Mathew Einar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-25

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is generated by marine ecosystems and plays a major role in cloud formation over the ocean. Currently, Earth System Models use imposed flux of DMS from the ocean to the atmosphere that is independent of the climate state. We have added DMS as a prognostic variable to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that depends on the distribution of phytoplankton species, and thus changes with climate.

  9. Weapon of the Weak?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amber, Van der Graaf; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Social media have the potential to offset existing inequalities in representation among interest groups and act as a ‘weapon of the weak’ by providing a technological infrastructure that allows even groups with limited resources to create content and interact across the globe. We expand on the sp......Social media have the potential to offset existing inequalities in representation among interest groups and act as a ‘weapon of the weak’ by providing a technological infrastructure that allows even groups with limited resources to create content and interact across the globe. We expand...

  10. The Optimum Replacement of Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao; ZHANG Jin-chun

    2002-01-01

    The theory of LCC (Life Cycle Cost) is applied in this paper. The relation between the economic life of weapon and the optimum replacement is analyzed. The method to define the optimum replacement time of weapon is discussed.

  11. Multiple smart weapons employment mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlynn, M.P.; Meiklejohn, W.D.

    1993-07-20

    A digital communications armament network adaptor is described for carrying multiple smart weapons on a single wing pylon station of an aircraft, comprising: an aircraft having a weapons controller configured in compliance with MIL-STD 1553; multiple wing-mounted pylons on said aircraft, each providing a weapons station with communications and ejection and release mechanisms electrically connected to said controller for the airborne launch of smart weapons; a multiple ejector rack affixed to at least one pylon, said rack holding a plurality of smart weapons; and an electronic digital network connected between the controller and said rack-mounted smart weapons, said network located in said rack and including circuitry which receives coded digital communications from said controller and selectively rebroadcasts said communications to one of said smart weapons on said rack designated by said coded communications, thereby controlling all required functions of said designated smart weapon.

  12. Nuclear weapon detection categorization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This statement of work is for the Proof of Concept for nuclear weapon categories utility in Arms control. The focus of the project will be to collect, analyze and correlate Intrinsic Radiation (INRAD) calculation results for the purpose of defining measurable signatures that differentiate categories of nuclear weapons. The project will support START III negotiations by identifying categories of nuclear weapons. The categories could be used to clarify sub-limits on the total number of nuclear weapons.

  13. The olfactory system is affected by steroid aerosol treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucignat-Caretta, C; Bondí, M; Rubini, A; Calabrese, F; Barbato, A

    2009-12-01

    Asthma needs continuous treatment often for years. In humans, some drugs are administered via aerosol, therefore they come in contact with both respiratory and olfactory mucosa. We explored the possibility that antiasthma corticosteroid treatment could influence the olfactory function by passage through the nose. A group of mice was exposed twice daily for 42 days to fluticasone propionate aerosol and was compared with a control group. Olfactory behavior, respiratory mechanics, histology, and immunoreactivity in the olfactory system were assessed. Fluticasone-treated mice were slower in retrieving a piece of hidden food, but both groups were similarly fast when the food was visible. When a clearly detectable odor was present in the environment, all mice behaved in a similar way. Respiratory mechanics indices were similar in all mice except for the viscose resistance, which was reduced in fluticasone-treated mice. Olfactory mucosa of fluticasone-treated mice was thicker than that of controls. Slight but consistent differences in staining were present for Olfactory Marker Protein but not for other proteins. A mild impairment of olfactory function is present in mice chronically treated with fluticasone aerosol, apparently accompanied by slight modifications of the olfactory receptor cells, and suggests monitoring of olfactory function modifications in long-term steroid users.

  14. Applying Agile MethodstoWeapon/Weapon-Related Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D; Armendariz, M; Blackledge, M; Campbell, F; Cloninger, M; Cox, L; Davis, J; Elliott, M; Granger, K; Hans, S; Kuhn, C; Lackner, M; Loo, P; Matthews, S; Morrell, K; Owens, C; Peercy, D; Pope, G; Quirk, R; Schilling, D; Stewart, A; Tran, A; Ward, R; Williamson, M

    2007-05-02

    This white paper provides information and guidance to the Department of Energy (DOE) sites on Agile software development methods and the impact of their application on weapon/weapon-related software development. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of Agile methods, examine the accepted interpretations/uses/practices of these methodologies, and discuss the applicability of Agile methods with respect to Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Technical Business Practices (TBPs). It also provides recommendations on the application of Agile methods to the development of weapon/weapon-related software.

  15. Financial Condition of Government Contractors and Control of Production Costs in the Procurement of Major DoD Aircraft Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Technology ( FLYTECH )=ASP; 3. Weapons and Avionics System Technology (SYSTECH) =ASP/AP. The SYSTECH measure was derived from the two others and was a rough...PLA7TECH SYSTECH FLYTECH I A-IJ 6.57 0.50837 3.34 2 A- I7EG’H 6.S7 0.s0877 1-.4 A- :AI 1 32.8 0.87645 10.74 4 -4C 6. N !.076: 5.45 5 -464 7.33 i.162S s.S...0001 Variance explained (R’): .5812 Adjusted R’-. .5719 F Value: 62.44 Model Significance: .0001 FLYTECH =-30.943 4 .7063 YEAR 8.386 .0001 Variance

  16. Bayesian Decision Evaluation on Probability Index of Weapon System%武器系统概率指标的贝叶斯决策评定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾旭山; 金振中

    2011-01-01

    剖析了武器系统试验工程领域中常用二项分布经典假设检验方法存在的问题,从贝叶斯决策思想和理论出发提出了概率指标评定的新方法,通过实例对比证明了贝叶斯决策评定方法有效解决了二项分布经典假设检验方法中存在的问题.%The problem of classical hypothesis testing for binomial distribution in weapon system test domain is analyzed. A new method of probability evaluating index is provided based on Bayesian decision idea and theory , it is proved that the problem of classical hypothesis testing for binomial distribution can be solved by means of the Bayesian decision evaluation method.

  17. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-21

    have eased in recent years, with their nuclear tests in 1998 and continued animosity toward each other, India and Pakistan have joined the list of...could be complex, difficult, and very time- consuming . 137 Given the large disparity in the numbers of U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons

  18. Medicalized weapons & modern war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development?

  19. Neutrino Counter Nuclear Weapon

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    Radiations produced by neutrino-antineutrino annihilation at the Z0 pole can be used to heat up the primary stage of a thermonuclear warhead and can in principle detonate the device remotely. Neutrino-antineutrino annihilation can also be used as a tactical assault weapon to target hideouts that are unreachable by conventional means.

  20. Nuclear weapons in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Calogero, F

    1981-01-01

    Information speech given by Prof. Calogero from the university of Roma to describe the actual situation of nuclear weapons in Europe, the strategical reasons or justifications for this deployment, the prospects of negociations, and what scientists could do and do on this issue.

  1. Pakistans Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Memorandum from Air Commodore Khalid Banuri, 2011. 84 Mahmud Ali Durrani, “Pakistan’s Strategic Thinking and the Role of Nuclear Weapons...Richard P. Cronin , K. Alan Kronstadt, and Sharon Squassoni. Also see CRS Report RL33498, Pakistan-U.S. Relations, by K. Alan Kronstadt. 168 For a

  2. 虚拟现实技术在武器对抗仿真中的应用研究%The Research of Virtual Reality's Application on the Simulation of Weapon Systems' Antagonism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹荣开; 王宏伟; 贺汉根

    2001-01-01

    Traditional military drill or weapon system's performance evaluation is often accomplished by a sham battle with true weapon systems.With the fast development of virtual reality,virtual sham battle,which integrates virtual reality and weapon systems' simulation,has become possible.Based on the summarization to virtual reality,this paper emphatically discusses virtual reality's application on the simulation of weapon systems'antagonism and a few typical problems in it.At last,a few future development directions are listed.%传统的军事训练或武器系统性能评估通常都采用有真实武器系统的训练或军事演习来进行。随着虚拟现实技术的迅速发展,将它与系统仿真相结合来进行虚拟对抗演练已经成为可能。文中在概述虚拟现实技术的基础上,着重探讨了虚拟现实技术在武器对抗仿真中的应用及其中几个较为典型的问题,并提出了今后的发展方向。

  3. 基于ADC方法的复杂武器系统效能评估方法%Research on Effect Valuation to the Complicated Weapon System Based on ADC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晅; 陶禹; 樊丹瑛

    2016-01-01

    ADC method is one of the important methods to assess the effectiveness of weapon equipment. Traditional ADC methods also simplify individual subsystems of weapon system to the series system. In this paper,the ADC methods is optimizes aimed at the various subsystems composed of numerous,complex series-parallel relationship,varying degree of impact on the operational of complex weapon systems. On this method,ADC approach allows a more objective assessment of multiple parallel systems. The actual verification by a certain type of weaponry ADC improved method reasonably practicable,can have a more objective and comprehensive evaluation of complex weapons systems,can be used as reference to other complex weapon system effectiveness assessment methods.%ADC方法是武器装备效能评估的重要方法之一。传统ADC方法一般将武器系统各个分系统简化为串联系统计算。针对复杂武器系统中各个分系统组成繁多、串并联关系复杂、对作战影响程度不一等特点,对ADC方法进行了优化,使得ADC方法可以针对多并联系统更客观地评估。通过某型武器装备的实际验证,改进后的ADC方法合理可行,可以对复杂武器系统拥有更客观和更全面地评价,可作为其他复杂武器系统效能评估方法的参考。

  4. Non-lethal weapons and their characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    DAMJANOVIC DRAGAN Z.

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons. It is often understood that accidental, incidental, and correlative casualties are risked wherever force is applied, but non-lethal weapons try to minimise the risk as much as possible. Non-lethal weapons are used in combat situations to limit the escalation of c...

  5. NON-LETHAL WEAPONS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons. It is often understood that accidental, incidental, and correlative casualties are risked wherever force is applied, but non-lethal weapons try to minimise the risk as much as possible. Non-lethal weapons are used in combat situations to limit the escalation of c...

  6. Prediction of the wounded and rescue algorithm for emergent events during destruction of Japanese-abandoned chemical weapons(JACW in transportable system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-cheng YU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the potential injuries and amount of the wounded during destruction of JACW in transportable system(TSD,thereby to formulate the rational allocation of medical staff at the scene and the scientific algorithm of medical rescue in emergent events.Methods Prediction of the different injuries and amount of the wounded,allocation of the force for emergency medical rescue(EMR,and EMR algorithm were formulated based on the detailed investigation on the types of chemical weapons,working processes and risks during the elimination of JACW in the TSD background.Results The JACW in Nanjing Depository were diphenylcyanarsine,diphenylchloroarsine,chloroacetophenone,mustard gas and lewisite,among them the foremost two were in the majority.Red tanks containing the chemical toxicants are the main types of chemical weapons in warfare,and there were also a few chemical bombs.It was estimated that four to seven workers might be injured in one accident,of them two or three might be seriously injured.The types of injury might be due to intoxication of chemical agent,chemical burn,explosion injury,or combined injuries.The rational allocation of EMR force combined with the scientific rescue algorithm was made according to the information.Conclusions It is of great significance to scientifically allocate the EMR force and formulate algorithm based on the rational prediction of the types and amount of the wounded during elimination process of JACW with TSD in Nanjing.Theory and experience from this research will provide important reference for the same kind of work in other cities later.

  7. Development of a new aerosol monitoring system and its application in Fukushima nuclear accident related aerosol radioactivity measurement at the CTBT radionuclide station in Sidney of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Bean, Marc; Benotto, Mike; Cheung, Jeff; Ungar, Kurt; Ahier, Brian

    2011-12-01

    A high volume aerosol sampler ("Grey Owl") has been designed and developed at the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable sampler to provide daily aerosol monitoring samples that can be used as reference samples for radiological studies. It has been developed to provide a constant air flow rate at low pressure drops (∼3 kPa for a day sampling) with variations of less than ±1% of the full scale flow rate. Its energy consumption is only about 1.5 kW for a filter sampling over 22,000 standard cubic meter of air. It has been demonstrated in this Fukushima nuclear accident related aerosol radioactivity monitoring study at Sidney station, B.C. that the sampler is robust and reliable. The results provided by the new monitoring system have been used to support decision-making in Canada during an emergency response.

  8. Aerosol Layering Characterization Near the Gobi Desert by a Double Polarization Lidar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y.

    2016-01-01

    Optical properties of aerosol layers developing in the atmosphere have been analyzed and lidar data are discussed in terms of profiles of aerosol backscatter coefficient at 355nm, 532nm, aerosol extinction coefficient at 355nm, aerosol depolarization ratio at 355nm and 532nm and water vapor mixing ratio. Depolarization ratio measured simultaneously at two wavelengths allowed also to study its dependence on the wavelength.

  9. Aerosol source apportionment based on multi-wavelength photoacoustic light absorption measurements: a simulation method for system's optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Károly; Ajtai, Tibor; Kiss-Albert, Gergely; Utry, Noémi; Pintér, Máté; Szabó, Gábor; Bozóki, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Aerosol source apportionment is currently one of the outstanding challenges for environmental monitoring. In most cases atmospheric aerosol is a heterogeneous mixture as it typically originates from various sources. Consequently, each aerosol type has distinct chemical and physical properties. Contrary to chemical properties, optical absorption and size distribution of airborne particles can be measured in real time with high time resolution i.e. their measurement facilitates real time source apportionment (Favez et al (2009), Ajtai et al (2011), Favez et al (2010)). The wavelength dependency of the optical absorption coefficient (OAC) is usually characterised by the Absorption Angström Exponent (AAE). So far, the selection of light sources (lasers) into a photoacoustic aerosol measuring system was based on rule of thumb type estimations only. Recently, we proposed a simulation method that can be used to estimate the accuracy of aerosol source apportionment in case of a dual wavelength photoacoustic system (Simon et al., (2017)). This simulation is based on the assumption that the atmospheric aerosol load is dominated by two distinct sources and each of them is strongly light absorbing with specific AAE values. This is a typical scenario e.g. for urban measurements under wintry conditions when dominating aerosol sources are fossil fuel and wood burning with characteristic AAE 1 and 2, respectively. The wavelength pair of 405 and 1064 nm was found to be optimal for source apportionment in this case. In the presented study we investigated the situation when there are aerosol components with only slightly different AAE values and searched for a photoacoustic system which is optimal for distinguishing these components. Ajtai, T.; Filep, Á.; Utry, N.; Schnaiter, M.; Linke, C.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G. and Leisner T. (2011) Journal of Aerosol Science 42, 859-866. Favez, O.; Cachier, H.; Sciare, J.; Sarda-Estève, R. and Martinon, L. (2009) Atmospheric Environment 43

  10. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter du Toit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the Regulation of Gatherings Act 205 of 1993 to prohibit the possession of any dangerous weapon at a gathering or demonstration. The Dangerous Weapons Act provides for a uniform system of law governing the use of dangerous weapons for the whole of South Africa and it furthermore no longer places the onus on the individual charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon to show that he or she did not have any intention of using the firearm for an unlawful purpose. The Act also defines the meaning of a dangerous weapon. According to our court’s interpretation of the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 a dangerous weapon was regarded as an object used or intended to be used as a weapon even if it had not been designed for use as a weapon. The Act, however, requires the object to be capable of causing death or inflicting serious bodily harm if it were used for an unlawful purpose. The possession of a dangerous weapon, in circumstances which may raise a reasonable suspicion that the person intends to use it for an unlawful purpose, attracts criminal liability. The Act also provides a useful set of guidelines to assist courts to determine if a person charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon had indeed intended to use the weapon for an unlawful purpose. It seems, however, that the Act prohibits the possession of a dangerous weapon at gatherings, even if the person carrying the weapon does not intend to use it for an unlawful purpose. The state will, however, have to prove that the accused had the necessary control over the object and the intention to exercise such control, as well as that the object is capable of

  11. Illegal Weapons Exports?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Amnesty International, a human rights organization, released a report on June 11 accusing China of facilitating regional conflicts and human rights violations by exporting a large quantity of weapons to Sudan, Nepal, Myanmar and the Great Lakes countries of Africa. Responding to such charges, Teng Jianqun, a researcher with the China Arms Control and Disarmament Association, told the official Xinhua News Agency that China has always put its limited arms exports under strict control and surveillance, deno...

  12. Counterproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    an occurrence. In his book, Atomic Tragedy, Sean Malloy writes that Henry Stimson, the United States Secretary of War, warned in April, 1945 that...Ibid., 380. 41 Ibid. 42 Sean L. Malloy , Atomic Tragedy: Henry L. Stimson and the Decision to use the Bomb Against Japan (Ithaca, New York...Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East, 96-97. 45 Robert M. Gates, National Defense Strategy (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office

  13. A dichotomy in primary marine organic aerosol-cloud-climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceburnis, D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Martucci, G.; Bialek, J.; Monahan, C.; Rinaldi, M.; Facchini, C.; Berresheim, H.; Worsnop, D. R.; O'Dowd, C.

    2011-12-01

    D. Ceburnis1, J. Ovadnevaite1, G. Martucci1, J. Bialek1, C. Monahan1, M. Rinaldi2, M. C. Facchini2, H. Berresheim1, D. R. Worsnop3,4 and C. D. O'Dowd1 1School of Physics & Centre for Climate and Air Pollution Studies, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland 2Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, Bologna, 20129, Italy. 3 Aerodyne Research, Inc., 45 Manning Road, Billerica, MA 01821-3976, USA 4 Physics Department, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014, Helsinki, Finland Organic matter has been observed to significantly contribute to particulate matter in every environment including pristine remote oceans. A significant if not dominant contribution of insoluble organic matter to marine aerosol has been proved to be of biogenic origin1,2. High time resolution measurements of marine organic matter have demonstrated a dynamic system with regular organic matter plume events occurring during summer3 as well as frequent open ocean particle formation events4. High-time resolution measurements of primary marine organic sea-spray physico-chemical properties reveal an apparent dichotomous behavior in terms of water uptake: specifically sea-spray aerosol enriched in organic matter possesses a low hygroscopic Growth Factor (GF~1.25) while simultaneously having a cloud condensation nucleus/condensation nuclei (CCN/CN) activation efficiency of between 83% at 0.25% supersaturation and 100% at 0.75%5. Simultaneous retrieval of Cloud Droplet Number Concentration (CDNC) during primary organic aerosol plumes reveal CDNC concentrations of 350 cm-3 in newly formed marine stratocumulus cloud for boundary layer organic mass concentrations of 3-4 ug m-36. It is suggested that marine hydrogels are responsible for this dichotomous behavior which has profound impacts to aerosol-cloud-climate system along with a better understood process analysis of aerosol formation by sea-spray7. A hydrophobic character of organic matter

  14. Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

  15. GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

    2013-11-12

    This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

  16. Impact of anthropogenic aerosols from global, East Asian, and non-East Asian sources on East Asian summer monsoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyan; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the total effects due to anthropogenic aerosols from global, East Asian, and non-East Asian sources on East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system is studied using an aerosol-climate online model BCC_AGCM2.0.1_CUACE/Aero. The results show that the summer mean net all-sky shortwave fluxes averaged over East Asian monsoon region (EAMR) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface reduce by 4.8 and 5.0 W m- 2, respectively, due to the increases of global aerosol emissions in 2000 relative to 1850. Changes in radiations and their resulting changes in heat and water transport and cloud fraction contribute together to the surface cooling over EAMR in summer. The increases in global anthropogenic aerosols lead to a decrease of 2.1 K in summer mean surface temperature and an increase of 0.4 hPa in summer mean surface pressure averaged over EAMR, respectively. It is shown that the changes in surface temperature and pressure are significantly larger over land than ocean, thus decreasing the contrast of land-sea surface temperature and pressure. This results in the marked anomalies of north and northeast winds over eastern and southern China and the surrounding oceans in summer, thereby weakening the EASM. The summer mean precipitation averaged over the EAMR reduces by 12%. The changes in non-East Asian aerosol emissions play a more important role in inducing the changes of local temperature and pressure, and thus significantly exacerbate the weakness of the EASM circulation due to local aerosol changes. The weakening of circulation due to both is comparable, and even the effect of non-local aerosols is larger in individual regions. The changes of local and non-local aerosols contribute comparably to the reductions in precipitation over oceans, whereas cause opposite changes over eastern China. Our results highlight the importance of aerosol changes outside East Asia in the impact of the changes of anthropogenic aerosols on EASM.

  17. The morality of weapons research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forge, John

    2004-07-01

    I ask whether weapons research is ever justified. Weapons research is identified as the business of the engineer. It is argued that the engineer has responsibility for the uses to which the tools that he designs can be put, and that responsibility extends to the use of weapons. It is maintained that there are no inherently defensive weapons, and hence there is no such thing as 'defensive' weapons research. The issue then is what responsibilities as a professional the engineer has in regard to such research. An account is given to ground the injunction not to provide the means to harm as a duty for the engineers. This account is not, however, absolutist, and as such it allows justifiable exceptions. The answer to my question is thus not that weapons research is never justified but there must be a strong assurance that the results will only be used as a just means in a just cause.

  18. Interim Report of the Defense Science Board (DSB) Task Force on the Survivability of Systems and Assets to Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) and other Nuclear Weapon Effects (NWE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    major platforms for High Altitude EMP ( HEMP ) protection, and the Navy implemented a requirements review process. United States Strategic Command...Army improving process for independent review of survivability – Air Force committing resources for testing major platforms for HEMP protection...battlespaces where nuclear weapons are threatening or are being employed. The most likely case(s) are use of nuclear weapons by others. Although

  19. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized under this section, the following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon. (3) Using a weapon. (b) This section...

  20. Projected response of East Asian summer monsoon system to future reductions in emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2016-09-01

    The response of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system to reductions in emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors at the end of the twenty-first century projected by Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 is studied using an aerosol-climate model with aerosol direct, semi-direct, and indirect effects included. Our results show that the global annual mean aerosol effective radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is +1.45 W m-2 from 2000 to 2100. The summer mean net all-sky shortwave fluxes averaged over the East Asian monsoon region (EAMR) at the TOA and surface increased by +3.9 and +4.0 W m-2, respectively, due to the reductions of aerosols in 2100 relative to 2000. Changes in radiations affect local thermodynamic and dynamic processes and the hydrological cycle. The summer mean surface temperature and pressure averaged over the EAMR are shown to increase by 1.7 K and decreased by 0.3 hPa, respectively, due to the reduced aerosols. The magnitudes of these changes are larger over land than ocean, causing a marked increase in the contrast of land-sea surface temperature and pressure in the EAMR, thus strengthening the EASM. The summer mean southwest and south winds at 850 hPa are enhanced over eastern and southern China and the surrounding oceans, and the East Asian subtropical jet shifted northward due to the decreases of aerosols. These factors also indicate enhanced EASM circulation, which in turn causes a 10 % increase in summer mean precipitation averaged over the EAMR.

  1. Reduction of nanoparticle exposure to welding aerosols by modification of the ventilation system in a workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myong-Hwa; McClellan, William J.; Candela, Joe; Andrews, Dan; Biswas, Pratim

    2007-01-01

    Nanometer particle size distributions were measured in booths with two different ventilation patterns in an occupational environment with welding operations underway. The measurements were used to illustrate the impact of change of ventilation methods (existing - with ventilation ducts located at the top, modified - with ventilation ducts located below the weld bench) on the aerosol size distributions at different locations: close to the weld, in the vicinity of the welder's face, and in the exhaust duct. Particle number concentrations measured in the vicinity of the welder's face (mask) during a horizontal standard arc welding process in a booth with ventilation at the top was in the range of 7.78×105 particles cm-3 with a geometric mean size of 181 nm and geometric standard deviation of 1.8. This reduced to 1.48×104 particles cm-3 in the vicinity of the welder's face with the modified ventilation system. The clearance of the welding aerosol was also faster in the modified booth (6 min compared to 11 min in a conventional booth). Particles were collected in the booth for the various test conditions, and analyzed to determine their composition and morphology. The particles were composed of hazardous heavy metals such as manganese, chromium and nickel, and had varying morphologies.

  2. Handheld ultrasound concealed weapons detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, Franklin S.; Wild, Norbert C.; Nunan, Scott C.; Breuner, Dennis; Doft, Frank

    1998-12-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a remove concealed weapons detector has been built and tested. The concealed weapons detector will enable law enforcement and security officers to detect metallic and nonmetallic weapons concealed beneath clothing remotely from beyond arm's length to about 20 feet. These detectors may be used to: (1) allow hands-off, stand-off frisking of suspects for metallic and nonmetallic weapons; and (2) search for metallic and nonmetallic weapons on cooperative subjects at courthouse entrances and other monitored security portals. We have demonstrated that we image weapons concealed under heavy clothing, not just detect them, at ranges up to 15 feet using the same ultrasound frequency (40 kHz) used by commercial rangefinders. The concealed weapons detector operates much as a rangefinder, but at higher peak fluxes and pulse repetition frequencies. The detector alerts the user to concealed weapons audibly and visibly by detecting ultrasound glints above a body/clothing baseline, and by compensating for changing range and attenuation. The detector locates concealed weapons within a 6-inch illuminated spot at 10 feet. The signal processor eliminates any signal from behind the target.

  3. Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNR) provides neutron and proton beams for basic, applied, and defense-related research. Neutron beams with energies ranging...

  4. Tool, weapon, or white elephant? A realist analysis of the five phases of a twenty-year programme of occupational health information system implementation in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Jerry M; Lockhart, Karen; Dyck, Carmen; Wilson, Andrea; O'Hara, Lyndsay; Yassi, Annalee

    2012-08-06

    , including technological support and software licensing models, can also affect outcome and sustainability - especially in the North-south context. Careful attention must be given to power relations between the various stakeholders at macro, meso and micro levels when implementing IS. North-South-South collaborations should be encouraged. Governance as well as technological issues are crucial determinants of IS application, and ultimately whether the system is seen as a tool, weapon, or white elephant by the various involved parties."You may call me a fool, But was there a rule The weapon should be turned into a tool? And what do we see? The first tool I step on Turned into a weapon. - Robert Frost"White (albino) elephants were regarded as holy in ancient times in Thailand and other Asian countries. Keeping a white elephant was a very expensive undertaking, since the owner had to provide the elephant with special food and provide access for people who wanted to worship it. If a Thai King became dissatisfied with a subordinate, he would give him a white elephant. The gift would, in most cases, ruin the recipient. - The Phrase Finder"

  5. Tool, weapon, or white elephant? A realist analysis of the five phases of a twenty-year programme of occupational health information system implementation in the health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel Jerry M

    2012-08-01

    outcomes of interest to all parties. Issues specific to IS development, including technological support and software licensing models, can also affect outcome and sustainability – especially in the North–south context. Careful attention must be given to power relations between the various stakeholders at macro, meso and micro levels when implementing IS. North–South-South collaborations should be encouraged. Governance as well as technological issues are crucial determinants of IS application, and ultimately whether the system is seen as a tool, weapon, or white elephant by the various involved parties. "You may call me a fool, But was there a rule The weapon should be turned into a tool? And what do we see? The first tool I step on Turned into a weapon. - Robert Frost" "White (albino elephants were regarded as holy in ancient times in Thailand and other Asian countries. Keeping a white elephant was a very expensive undertaking, since the owner had to provide the elephant with special food and provide access for people who wanted to worship it. If a Thai King became dissatisfied with a subordinate, he would give him a white elephant. The gift would, in most cases, ruin the recipient. - The Phrase Finder"

  6. Development and Application of Computational/In Vitro Toxicological Methods for Chemical Hazard Risk Reduction of New Materials for Advanced Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John M.; Mattie, D. R.; Hussain, Saber; Pachter, Ruth; Boatz, Jerry; Hawkins, T. W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is essential for reducing the chemical hazards of new weapon systems. The current collaboration between HEST (toxicology research and testing), MLPJ (computational chemistry) and PRS (computational chemistry, new propellant synthesis) is focusing R&D efforts on basic research goals that will rapidly transition to useful products for propellant development. Computational methods are being investigated that will assist in forecasting cellular toxicological end-points. Models developed from these chemical structure-toxicity relationships are useful for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints of new related compounds. Research is focusing on the evaluation tools to be used for the discovery of such relationships and the development of models of the mechanisms of action. Combinations of computational chemistry techniques, in vitro toxicity methods, and statistical correlations, will be employed to develop and explore potential predictive relationships; results for series of molecular systems that demonstrate the viability of this approach are reported. A number of hydrazine salts have been synthesized for evaluation. Computational chemistry methods are being used to elucidate the mechanism of action of these salts. Toxicity endpoints such as viability (LDH) and changes in enzyme activity (glutahoione peroxidase and catalase) are being experimentally measured as indicators of cellular damage. Extrapolation from computational/in vitro studies to human toxicity, is the ultimate goal. The product of this program will be a predictive tool to assist in the development of new, less toxic propellants.

  7. A miniature system for separating aerosol particles and measuring mass concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dao; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chen, Chuin-Shan; Dai, Chi-An

    2010-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a new sensing system which consists of two virtual impactors and two quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors for measuring particle mass concentration and size distribution. The virtual impactors utilized different inertial forces of particles in air flow to classify different particle sizes. They were designed to classify particle diameter, d, into three different ranges: d3.20 μm. The QCM sensors were coated with a hydrogel, which was found to be a reliable adhesive for capturing aerosol particles. The QCM sensor coated with hydrogel was used to measure the mass loading of particles by utilizing its characteristic of resonant frequency shift. An integrated system has been demonstrated.

  8. A Miniature System for Separating Aerosol Particles and Measuring Mass Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Liang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We designed and fabricated a new sensing system which consists of two virtual impactors and two quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM sensors for measuring particle mass concentration and size distribution. The virtual impactors utilized different inertial forces of particles in air flow to classify different particle sizes. They were designed to classify particle diameter, d, into three different ranges: d < 2.28 μm, 2.28 μm ≤ d ≤ 3.20 μm, d > 3.20 μm. The QCM sensors were coated with a hydrogel, which was found to be a reliable adhesive for capturing aerosol particles. The QCM sensor coated with hydrogel was used to measure the mass loading of particles by utilizing its characteristic of resonant frequency shift. An integrated system has been demonstrated.

  9. Infrared sensor-based aerosol sanitization system for controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Ha, Jae-Won; Park, Ki-Hwan; Chung, Myung-Sub; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    An economical aerosol sanitization system was developed based on sensor technology for minimizing sanitizer usage, while maintaining bactericidal efficacy. Aerosol intensity in a system chamber was controlled by a position-sensitive device and its infrared value range. The effectiveness of the infrared sensor-based aerosolization (ISA) system to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on spinach leaf surfaces was compared with conventional aerosolization (full-time aerosol treated), and the amount of sanitizer consumed was determined after operation. Three pathogens artificially inoculated onto spinach leaf surfaces were treated with aerosolized peracetic acid (400 ppm) for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at room temperature (22 ± 2°C). Using the ISA system, inactivation levels of the three pathogens were equal or better than treatment with conventional full-time aerosolization. However, the amount of sanitizer consumed was reduced by ca. 40% using the ISA system. The results of this study suggest that an aerosol sanitization system combined with infrared sensor technology could be used for transportation and storage of fresh produce efficiently and economically as a practical commercial intervention.

  10. Analysis of Rocket Weapon System Decision Based on Virtual Simulation%基于虚拟仿真的火箭武器系统决策分析法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付昆; 于存贵

    2011-01-01

    In view of the defects in classical expert system exist that the lack of dynamic prediction function and principium illumination problem, an improved frame work of multiple rocket weapon expert system based on virtual simulation model is proposed. By building the virtual simulation model, and multiple rocket launch weapon system performance without servo system control, process control and intermittent control three control mode of the simulation analysis, and taking an example calculation. The results show that the model is feasible and effective, can provide an efficient and intuitionistic new way for solve the weapon system analysis.%针对传统武器专家系统缺少动态预测功能和机理性解释的问题,提出基于虚拟样机仿真的多管火箭武器专家系统集成框架,建立仿真模型,对多管火箭武器发射系统性能进行没有伺服系统控制、全过程控制和间断性控制3种控制方式的仿真分析,并通过实例进行演算.结果表明:该模型是可行、有效的,可为解决武器系统分析提供一种有效、直观的新途径.

  11. Insulin as a weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Samuel D; Safavi-Hemami, Helena

    2016-12-01

    The discovery of insulin and its use for the treatment of diabetes is undoubtedly one of the true successes of modern medicine. Injectable insulin would prove the first effective treatment for a previously incurable and usually fatal disease. Soon after however, the powerful effects of insulin overdose would be reported, and subsequently exploited for dubious medical and sometimes nefarious purposes. In this article we describe the discovery that certain venomous marine snails of the genus Conus also exploit the powerful effects of insulin overdose, employing it as a weapon for prey capture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aerosol MTF revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeika, Norman S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2014-05-01

    Different views of the significance of aerosol MTF have been reported. For example, one recent paper [OE, 52(4)/2013, pp. 046201] claims that the aerosol MTF "contrast reduction is approximately independent of spatial frequency, and image blur is practically negligible". On the other hand, another recent paper [JOSA A, 11/2013, pp. 2244-2252] claims that aerosols "can have a non-negligible effect on the atmospheric point spread function". We present clear experimental evidence of common significant aerosol blur and evidence that aerosol contrast reduction can be extremely significant. In the IR, it is more appropriate to refer to such phenomena as aerosol-absorption MTF. The role of imaging system instrumentation on such MTF is addressed too.

  13. 航空武器系统通用数据管理平台的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of the General Data Management Platform for Weapon System of Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡宇; 周德云; 汪凌霄

    2011-01-01

    针对传统航空武器电子系统设计中存在的数据管理混乱和低效问题,提出了一种基于数据库的管理平台对整个设备与接口控制信息进行管理的方案。基于三层开放式结构,建立了以SQL Server为数据库引擎,结合XML进行数据管理的模型,实现了对数据存储、数据操作以及终端管理的功能,形成了拥有丰富接口的开放式武器系统辅助设计平台。该平台具有友好的人机界面和良好的可扩展性,并在作战飞机航空武器仿真系统中得到应用。%Aimed at the management chaos and ineffectiveness in traditional designing for weapon system of aircraft, gave a solution based on database technologies to manage the equipments and interface data during the weapon system designing. Based on the open structure with three layers, founded a model using SQL Server as the database engine and XML as the storage tool. Implemented the platform with the functions of data storage, data operation and terminal management, which also have open and abundant interface for developers of weapon system and its simulation system. The practice shows that this platform can improve the efficiency of the development in weapon system of aircraft, and effectively avoid mistakes.

  14. A System for Operational Aerosol Optical Depth Data Assimilation Over Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Terra MODIS aerosol products due to their fine spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions. Comparing with previous sensors such as AVHRR, the MODIS...represents any necessary spatial and temporal interpolations from background to the observational space. Pb and R are the background error covariance...seasonal 3-D aerosol clima - tology created using 3 years (2004-2006) of NAAPS data is used. The NAAPS 3-D aerosol climatology was con- structed for

  15. WRF-CMAQ two-way coupled system with aerosol feedback: software development and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Wong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Air quality models such as the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ require meteorological data as part of the input to drive the chemistry and transport simulation. The Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor (MCIP is used to convert meteorological data into CMAQ-ready input. Key shortcoming of such one-way coupling include: excessive temporal interpolation of coarsely saved meteorological input and lack of feedback of atmospheric pollutant loading on simulated dynamics. We have developed a two-way coupled system to address these issues. A single source code principle was used to construct this two-way coupling system so that CMAQ can be consistently executed as a stand-alone model or part of the coupled system without any code changes; this approach eliminates maintenance of separate code versions for the coupled and uncoupled systems. The design also provides the flexibility to permit users: (1 to adjust the call frequency of WRF and CMAQ to balance the accuracy of the simulation versus computational intensity of the system, and (2 to execute the two-way coupling system with feedbacks to study the effect of gases and aerosols on short wave radiation and subsequent simulated dynamics. Details on the development and implementation of this two-way coupled system are provided. When the coupled system is executed without radiative feedback, computational time is virtually identical when using the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM radiation option and a slightly increased (~8.5% when using the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG radiation option in the coupled system compared to the offline WRF-CMAQ system. Once the feedback mechanism is turned on, the execution time increases only slightly with CAM but increases about 60% with RRTMG due to the use of a more detailed Mie calculation in this implementation of feedback mechanism. This two-way model with radiative feedback shows noticeably reduced bias in simulated surface shortwave

  16. Nuclear Weapon Testing Limitations and International Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2017-01-01

    For over 50 years stopping nuclear weapon tests has been sought to support achieving international security without nuclear weapons. Testing is the critical path beyond primitive fission devices, e.g. to develop thermonuclear weapons, reduce weight and volume and increase yield. The 1958 Geneva Conference of Experts considered ways to verify a test ban. With then-limitations on seismology, and lack of in-country monitoring and on-site inspections, the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty prohibits testing only in the atmosphere, outer space and under water, and is verified by National Technical Means. The US and USSR agreed to a limit of 150 kilotons on underground explosions in the 1970s-80s. The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosions. Its International Monitoring System - seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide sensors - is being used, and has easily detected testing by the DPRK. On-site inspections will be available under an in-force Treaty. A 2012 National Academy report concludes that cheating attempts would not undermine U.S. security, and the program for monitoring and extending the life of US weapons has succeeded since US testing ceased in 1992.

  17. Direct and semi-direct aerosol radiative effect on the Mediterranean climate variability using a coupled regional climate system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabat, Pierre; Somot, Samuel; Mallet, Marc; Sevault, Florence; Chiacchio, Marc; Wild, Martin

    2015-02-01

    A fully coupled regional climate system model (CNRM-RCSM4) has been used over the Mediterranean region to investigate the direct and semi-direct effects of aerosols, but also their role in the radiation-atmosphere-ocean interactions through multi-annual ensemble simulations (2003-2009) with and without aerosols and ocean-atmosphere coupling. Aerosols have been taken into account in CNRM-RCSM4 through realistic interannual monthly AOD climatologies. An evaluation of the model has been achieved, against various observations for meteorological parameters, and has shown the ability of CNRM-RCSM4 to reproduce the main patterns of the Mediterranean climate despite some biases in sea surface temperature (SST), radiation and cloud cover. The results concerning the aerosol radiative effects show a negative surface forcing on average because of the absorption and scattering of the incident radiation. The SW surface direct effect is on average -20.9 Wm-2 over the Mediterranean Sea, -14.7 Wm-2 over Europe and -19.7 Wm-2 over northern Africa. The LW surface direct effect is weaker as only dust aerosols contribute (+4.8 Wm-2 over northern Africa). This direct effect is partly counterbalanced by a positive semi-direct radiative effect over the Mediterranean Sea (+5.7 Wm-2 on average) and Europe (+5.0 Wm-2) due to changes in cloud cover and atmospheric circulation. The total aerosol effect is consequently negative at the surface and responsible for a decrease in land (on average -0.4 °C over Europe, and -0.5 °C over northern Africa) and sea surface temperature (on average -0.5 °C for the Mediterranean SST). In addition, the latent heat loss is shown to be weaker (-11.0 Wm-2) in the presence of aerosols, resulting in a decrease in specific humidity in the lower troposphere, and a reduction in cloud cover and precipitation. Simulations also indicate that dust aerosols warm the troposphere by absorbing solar radiation, and prevent radiation from reaching the surface, thus

  18. Evaluations of cirrus contamination and screening in ground aerosol observations using collocated lidar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Smirnov, Alexander; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Hansell, Richard A.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Liu, Zhaoyan; Liu, Gin-Rong; Campbell, James R.; Liew, Soo Chin; Barnes, John E.

    2012-08-01

    Cirrus clouds, particularly subvisual high thin cirrus with low optical thickness, are difficult to screen in operational aerosol retrieval algorithms. Collocated aerosol and cirrus observations from ground measurements, such as the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to systematically examine the susceptibility of operational aerosol products to cirrus contamination. Quality assured aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements were also tested against the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) vertical feature mask (VFM) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thin cirrus screening parameters for the purpose of evaluating cirrus contamination. Key results of this study include: (1) quantitative evaluations of data uncertainties in AERONET AOT retrievals are conducted; although AERONET cirrus screening schemes are successful in removing most cirrus contamination, strong residuals displaying strong spatial and seasonal variability still exist, particularly over thin cirrus prevalent regions during cirrus peak seasons; (2) challenges in matching up different data for analysis are highlighted and corresponding solutions proposed; and (3) estimates of the relative contributions from cirrus contamination to aerosol retrievals are discussed. The results are valuable for better understanding and further improving ground aerosol measurements that are critical for aerosol-related climate research.

  19. Weapons barrel life cycle determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Pene Hristov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the dynamic processes within the gun barrel during the firing process in exploitation. It generally defines the basic principles of constructing tube elements, and shows the distortion of the basic geometry of the tube interior due to wear as well as the impact it causes during exploitation. The article also defines basic empirical models as well as a model based on fracture mechanics for the calculation of a use-life of the barrel, and other elements essential for the safe use of the barrel as the basic weapon element. Erosion causes are analysed in order to control and reduce wear and prolong the lifetime of the gun barrel. It gives directions for the reparation of barrels with wasted resources. In conclusion, the most influential elements of tube wear are given as well as possible modifications of existing systems, primarily propellant charges, with a purpose of prolonging lifetime of gun barrels. The guidelines for a proper determination of the lifetime based on the barrel condition assessment are given as well. INTRODUCTION The barrel as the basic element of each weapon is described as well as the processes occurring during the firing that have impulsive character and are accompanied by large amounts of energy. The basic elements of barrel and itheir constructive characteristics are descibed. The relation between Internal ballistics, ie calculation of the propellant gas pressure in the firing process, and structural elements defined by the barrel material resistance is shown. In general, this part of the study explains the methodology of the gun barrel structural elements calculation, ie. barrel geometry, taking into account the degrees of safety in accordance with Military Standards.   TUBE WEAR AND DEFORMATIONS The weapon barrel gradually wears out during exploitation due to which it no longer satisfies the set requirements. It is considered that the barrel has experienced a lifetime when it fails to fulfill the

  20. Naval Weapons Station Earle Reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    surveys for their Section 110 compliance: Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger 1999...text within brackets. Berger Report 1999 Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger... architectural treatment of buildings at NWS Earle: a traditional vernacular theme with minimal decorative detailing. This so-called minimal traditional

  1. Physical metrology of aerosols; Metrologie physique des aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulaud, D.; Vendel, J. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1996-12-31

    The various detection and measuring methods for aerosols are presented, and their selection is related to aerosol characteristics (size range, concentration or mass range), thermo-hydraulic conditions (carrier fluid temperature, pressure and flow rate) and to the measuring system conditions (measuring frequency, data collection speed, cost...). Methods based on aerosol dynamic properties (inertial, diffusional and electrical methods) and aerosol optical properties (localized and integral methods) are described and their performances and applications are compared

  2. Musculoskeletal colloquialisms based on weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anuj

    2017-01-01

    Eponyms and colloquialisms are commonly used in orthopaedic literature and convey a great deal of information in a concise fashion. Several orthopaedic conditions have characteristic clinical or radiologic appearances, mimicking the appearance of certain arms or weapons. Most of these are easy to memorise and recognise, provided the orthopaedic surgeon is aware of the colloquialism and familiar with the appearance of the weapon on which it is based. Unfortunately, many such colloquialisms are based on traditional weapons no longer in current use, and their appearances are not familiar to most orthopaedists, creating confusion and difficulty in understanding them. In this paper, we have reviewed the musculoskeletal colloquialisms based on weapons, including a brief description of the weapon with illustrations, highlighting the importance of the colloquialism in diagnosis or treatment of musculoskeletal conditions.

  3. Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded and are continuously updated throughout the weapon stockpile life. The reliability predictions and assessments depend heavily on data from both laboratory simulation and actual flight tests. An important part of the methodology are the opportunities for review that occur throughout the entire process that assure a consistent approach and appropriate use of the data for reliability evaluation purposes.

  4. 基于马尔可夫过程的武器系统相关失效分析%Analysis of Weapon Systems Subject to Correlative Cause Failures Based on Markov Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振友; 郭强; 黄立坡; 杨岐子

    2012-01-01

    利用马尔可夫过程分别对共因失效和载荷共事失效两种相关失效的系统平均失效时间进行了建模分析.针对同时出现两种相关失效的武器系统进行了实例分析,并将结果和不考虑相关失效时的计算结果进行了对比,对相关失效分析在可靠性分析和评价中的重要作用进行了阐述.%The mean time to failure of weapon systems subject to common cause failures and load share cause failures is analyzed based on Markov process, the weapon systems in which common cause failures and load share? cause failures at the same time is analyzed. The result is compared with that without considering correlative cause failures. The results show that the Analysis of Weapon systems subject to correlative cause failures is very important.

  5. Modeling and Calculation for Influence of Spot Jamming on Antiaircraft Gun Weapon System's Firing Efficiency%瞄准式干扰对高炮射击效能影响的计算分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉琳; 蒋里强; 高建军; 陈敏雅

    2015-01-01

    针对瞄准式干扰对某型高炮射击效能的影响,从炮瞄雷达的基本工作原理入手,根据电子干扰行动的基本规律,就自卫瞄准式干扰对某型高炮射击效能的影响进行数学建模与定量计算分析;研究方法及结论对定量计算电子干扰高炮武器系统射击效能的影响具有借鉴意义.%Aiming at influence of spot jamming on antiaircraft gun weapon system's firing efficiency,from the keystone of radar confront,based on the essence rule of electronic jamming action, is calculated and analyazed influence to a certain type of antiaircraft gun weapon system's firing efficiency for spot jamming. The paper offers a calculated method for spot jamming which has a influence on antiaircraft gun weapon system,the method and conclusion have a very important meaning for having a quantitative calculation to electronic jamming .

  6. Analysis of Fire Effectiveness Based on High-rate-firing Naval Gun Weapon System%基于高射频舰炮武器系统的射击效力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小利; 王炳

    2015-01-01

    In the face of the improved missile penetration ability and its speed, the author proposes to increase the gun firing rate based on the existing high⁃rate⁃firing of naval gun weapon system for an effective way, with the grim situation of sea bat⁃tlefield as a background. And this paper analyzes the Shooting effectiveness of different firing rate naval gun weapon system through the establishment of the mathematics module for damage probability. There is an important guiding significance on the development of high⁃rate⁃firing automatic gun weapon system.%以严峻的海上战场形势为背景,面对飞行速度和突防能力不断加强的反舰导弹,在现有高射频舰炮武器系统基础上,提出以增加舰炮射速为途径的改进方式,并建立对空碰炸射击毁伤模型,对不同射频的舰炮武器系统进行射击效力分析,对高射频自动炮武器系统的研制有重要指导意义。

  7. 基于技术检测的装甲装备武器系统执行任务能力评估%Ability to Implement the Mandate Assessment of Armored Equipment Weapons System Based on Technical Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辽宁; 屈洋; 张政; 邢旺

    2016-01-01

    Technology state affects the ability to implement the mandate of armored equipment weapons system greatly, yet there are few studies on its evaluation. Aimed at the problem, the paper put forward a method of evaluating the ability to implement the mandate of armored equipment based on the technical detection of equipment, and a case evaluation and analysis of a certain armored equipment weapon system is carried out. The method is operable and can provide data reference for the development of technical detection equipment and technology of armored equipment weapons system.%技术状态对装甲装备武器系统的执行任务能力有着重要影响,目前对其评估的研究还很少。针对这一问题,提出一种利用技术检测对装甲装备武器系统执行任务能力进行评估的方法,并结合某装甲装备武器系统进行了实例分析。分析结果表明:该方法具有可操作性,能够为装甲装备武器系统检测设备和技术的发展提供数据参考。

  8. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Arlen F.; Allen, Robert J.; Mayo, M. Neale; Butler, Carolyn F.; Grossman, Benoist E.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Higdon, Noah S.; Mayor, Shane D.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Hueser, Alene W.

    1994-01-01

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and greater than 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H2O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H2O absorption-line parameters were performed to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H2O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H2O radiosondes. The H2O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by less than 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN RH -DENUDED MIE ACTIVE SAMPLING SYSTEM AND TARGETED AEROSOL CALIBRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The MIE pDR 1200 nephelometer provides time resolved aerosol concentrations during personal and fixed-site sampling. Active (pumped) operation allows defining an upper PM2.5 particle size, however, this dramatically increases the aerosol mass passing through the phot...

  10. Simulation test of aerosol generation from vessels in the pre-treatment system of fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujine, Sachio; Kitamura, Koichiro; Kihara, Takehiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Aerosol concentration and droplet size are measured in off-gas of vessel under various conditions by changing off-gas flow rate, stirring air flow rate, salts concentration and temperature of nitrate solution. Aerosols are also measured under evaporation and air-lift operation. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF AN RH -DENUDED MIE ACTIVE SAMPLING SYSTEM AND TARGETED AEROSOL CALIBRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The MIE pDR 1200 nephelometer provides time resolved aerosol concentrations during personal and fixed-site sampling. Active (pumped) operation allows defining an upper PM2.5 particle size, however, this dramatically increases the aerosol mass passing through the phot...

  12. Deployable Plume and Aerosol Release Prediction and Tracking System. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Task 1. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleppe, John; Norris, William; Etezadi, Mehdi

    2006-07-19

    This contract was awarded in response to a proposal in which a deployable plume and aerosol release prediction and tracking system would be designed, fabricated, and tested. The system would gather real time atmospheric data and input it into a real time atmospheric model that could be used for plume predition and tracking. The system would be able to be quickly deployed by aircraft to points of interest or positioned for deployment by vehicles. The system would provide three dimensional (u, v, and w) wind vector data, inversion height measurements, surface wind information, classical weather station data, and solar radiation. The on-board real time computer model would provide the prediction of the behavior of plumes and released aerosols.

  13. 2.75 Inch Rocket/AH-1G Helicopter Weapons System Baseline Instrumentation Test Report. Volume 1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-04-01

    network with sharper transduers while eliminating the e a d cost eut-of characteristics than thoe ordinarily supplied of complex arrier systems...chancX in the output proportional to the displacement. Both IF LOAD series of transduers are available in seven stroke W.e s rn .Cores ane available with

  14. Human Resources Data in Weapon System Design: An Initial Plan for Development of a Unified Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    was established based o11 the results elf the first threeI tasks and oln an inilustry slur vey. This re liort DD I F’N7 1473 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS...systems) would not materialize . This would mean, of course, that the UDB experience data -51- would not be available to improve the predictive programs in

  15. Dielectric Spectra of Aerosol OT/Water Systems at Different Concentrations and Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Kong-shuang; JIA Zhan-jie; YANG Li-kun; XIAO Jin-xin

    2011-01-01

    The dielectric spectra of aerosol OT[AOT,sodium(bis-2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate]/water systems at different concentrations and temperatures were investigated by the dielectric relaxation spectroscopy(DRS).Through the dielectric spectra of different concentrations,two dielectric relaxations were observed over a frequency range from 40 Hz to 110 MHz and the mechanisms of the relaxations were also interpreted based on the Grosse's model.The low-frequency relaxation(around 105 Hz)was attributed to the radial diffusion of counterions along the long-half axis of the rod-like micelle,and the high-frequency relaxation(around 106 Hz)was ascribed to the radial diffusion of counterions along the short-half axis.Furthermore,specific emphasis was placed on studying the effects of temperature on system's conductivity.It was observed that the low-frequency limit of conductivity(k1)decreased and then increased with the increment of temperature under the measured concentration.On the other hand,the conductivity(km and kh)in meso-and high-frequency ranges always increased as temperature increased.Both the tendencies of alteration which mentioned above should be related to the phase transition of AOT/water system.

  16. Improving U. S. Army Analysis of Alternatives to Better Address the Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Hume (2012) presents ideas for building an analytical framework for the capabilities development process. TRAC (2011b) presents recommendations to...TRAC WSMR Mr. Scott Schoeb, Chief, Maneuver Systems Branch, AMSAA Mr. Alan Dinsmore, Integration Team Leader, AMSAA Mr. David Henningsen, Office...continue to be, involved in multiple Army AoAs. The name, rank, organization, and position are provided below for each person interviewed. Dr. David

  17. Research on Top-layer Planning and Overall Design Project Decision of Weapon System Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Rui-wen

    2012-01-01

    Based on analytic hierarchy process(AHP) theory,a vital important problem for top-layer planning and overall design of modern self-propelled gun-howitzer system,namely overall project decision-making,was analyzed.A hierarchy model was built to solve the complex and uncertain problem,and a decision-making index system was established.Then,the weights in all layers of the model were determined by simulating experts.Finally,according to the calculated results of the elements in each layer,the weights of the alternatives to the overall goal were calculated to conduct the hierarchy total decision.A decision example shows that the overall project of a self-propelled gun-howitzer A is much better than that of another self-propelled gun-howitzer B,digitalized in comprehensive efficiency,operability,system accuracy and economy,but inferior to it in the information capability,and there exists relatively larger gap between them in the information sharing index.

  18. Interactions between aerosol absorption, thermodynamics, dynamics, and microphysics and their impacts on a multiple-cloud system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung Soo; Li, Zhanqing; Mok, Jungbin; Ahn, Myoung-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Gon; Choi, Yong-Sang; Jung, Chang-Hoon; Yoo, Hye Lim

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates how the increasing concentration of black carbon aerosols, which act as radiation absorbers as well as agents for the cloud-particle nucleation, affects stability, dynamics and microphysics in a multiple-cloud system using simulations. Simulations show that despite increases in stability due to increasing concentrations of black carbon aerosols, there are increases in the averaged updraft mass fluxes (over the whole simulation domain and period). This is because aerosol-enhanced evaporative cooling intensifies convergence near the surface. This increase in the intensity of convergence induces an increase in the frequency of updrafts with the low range of speeds, leading to the increase in the averaged updraft mass fluxes. The increase in the frequency of updrafts induces that in the number of condensation entities and this leads to more condensation and cloud liquid that acts to be a source of the accretion of cloud liquid by precipitation. Hence, eventually, there is more accretion that offsets suppressed autoconversion, which results in negligible changes in cumulative precipitation as aerosol concentrations increase. The increase in the frequency of updrafts with the low range of speeds alters the cloud-system organization (represented by cloud-depth spatiotemporal distributions and cloud-cell population) by supporting more low-depth clouds. The altered organization in turn alters precipitation spatiotemporal distributions by generating more weak precipitation events. Aerosol-induced reduction in solar radiation that reaches the surface induces more occurrences of small-value surface heat fluxes, which in turn supports the more low-depth clouds and weak precipitation together with the greater occurrence of low-speed updrafts.

  19. Research on HLA Distributing Interactive Simulation of Torpedo Weapon System%基于HLA的鱼雷武器系统分布交互仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏静; 高立娥; 杜来毅; 王飞

    2011-01-01

    为避免传统意义上低层次、低效率的重复开发,通过对HIA联邦成员的仿真流程及内部接口关系的研究,构建了基于HLA标准的由鱼雷、发射艇、目标、对抗器材等联邦成员组成的鱼雷作战对抗分布交互仿真系统,给出了仿真系统的网络拓扑结构,完成了联邦成员的功能实现.介绍了水声对抗条件下的基本作战仿真流程,包括初始设定、仿真计算、搜索探测、决策方案、双方武器或干扰器材的对抗过程、仿真结束等六个阶段:完成了鱼雷武器系统在潜一潜,舰一潜对抗态势条件下的弹道仿真研究.%In order to ovoid low level and inefficient exploitation , by means of researching of simulation flow and inside interface of HLA federation member, based on HLA standard, torpedo warfare simulation system is established by federation members such as torpedo, launch ship, target and confront equipments.This paper introduces the principal campaign simulation flow under the different countermove.It consists of the initialization, searching, detecting, decision, and the countermine process for weapon and countermeasure, and it investigates the ballistic trajectory simulation under the submarine to submarine countermine situation.

  20. Youths Carrying a Weapon or Using a Weapon in a Fight: What Makes the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were…

  1. NASA GES DISC Level 2 Aerosol Analysis and Visualization Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jennifer; Petrenko, Maksym; Ichoku, Charles; Yang, Wenli; Johnson, James; Zhao, Peisheng; Kempler, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Overview of NASA GES DISC Level 2 aerosol analysis and visualization services: DQViz (Data Quality Visualization)MAPSS (Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System), and MAPSS_Explorer (Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System Explorer).

  2. Application of inertial confinement fusion to weapon technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, A.J.; Posey, L.D.

    1978-12-01

    This report reviews aspects of the military applications of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program at Sandia Laboratories. These applications exist in the areas of: (1) weapon physics research, and (2) weapon effects simulation. In the area of weapon physics research, ICF source technology can be used to study: (1) equations-of-state at high energy densities, (2) implosion dynamics, and (3) laboratory simulation of exoatmospheric burst phenomena. In the area of weapon effects simulation, ICF technology and facilities have direct near, intermediate, and far term applications. In the near term, short pulse x-ray simulation capabilities exist for electronic component effects testing. In the intermediate term, capabilities can be developed for high energy neutron exposures and bremsstrahlung x-ray exposures of components. In the far term, system level exposures of full reentry vehicles will be possible if sufficiently high pellet gains are achieved.

  3. Risk in the Weapons Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    When it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile, risk must be as low as possible. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk.

  4. Radiative effects of African dust and smoke observed from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, John E.; McGill, Matt; Rodier, Sharon; Vaughan, Mark; Hu, Yongxiang; Hlavka, Dennis

    2009-09-01

    Cloud and aerosol effects have a significant impact on the atmospheric radiation budget in the tropical Atlantic because of the spatial and temporal extent of desert dust and smoke from biomass burning in the atmosphere. The influences of African dust and smoke aerosols on cloud radiative properties over the tropical Atlantic Ocean were analyzed for the month of July for 3 years (2006-2008) using colocated data collected by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and Aqua satellites. Aerosol layer height and type can be accurately determined using CALIOP data through directly measured parameters such as optical depth, volume depolarization ratio, attenuated backscatter, and color ratio. On average, clouds below 5 km had a daytime instantaneous shortwave (SW) radiative flux of 270.2 ± 16.9 W/m2 and thin cirrus clouds had a SW radiative flux of 208.0 ± 12.7 W/m2. When dust aerosols interacted with clouds below 5 km, as determined from CALIPSO, the SW radiative flux decreased to 205.4 ± 13.0 W/m2. Similarly, smoke aerosols decreased the SW radiative flux of low clouds to a value of 240.0 ± 16.6 W/m2. These decreases in SW radiative flux were likely attributed to the aerosol layer height and changes in cloud microphysics. CALIOP lidar observations, which more accurately identify aerosol layer height than passive instruments, appear essential for better understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions, a major uncertainty in predicting the climate system.

  5. The Weaponization of Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    media efforts will be compared to similar Western business and civic social media centric marketing efforts from both a technical and theoretical...THE WEAPONIZATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in...The Weaponization of Social Media 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jack B. Irby III, MAJ 5d

  6. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  7. Evaluation of Operational Capability for Surface-to-Air Missile Weapon System Based on Neural Network%基于神经网络的地空导弹武器系统作战能力评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国宏; 孙健; 夏伟鹏; 康红霞

    2011-01-01

    The limitations of evaluation method of operational capability for surface-to-air missile weapon system are analyzed in the light of the characteristics of its operational use in this paper. The index system for evaluating the operational capability of surface-to-air weapon system according to the principle of setting the index system. Through analysis of the structure and characteristics of artificial neural network,the neural network model used to evaluate the operational capability of surface-to-air missile weapon system. This model needs not to determine the strict quantitative relations between different factors,overcome the negative influences of man-made factors.%根据地空导弹武器系统的作战使用特点,分析了评估其作战能力方法的局限性.根据指标体系设置的原则,建立了地空导弹武器系统作战能力评价指标体系.通过分析人工神经网络的结构和特点,设计了评估地空导弹武器系统作战能力的神经网络模型.该模型不需要确定各因素之间严格的定量关系,克服了以往由于人为因素所造成的负面影响.最后通过实际应用,说明该方法简便易行,准确可靠.

  8. Lifting options for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering: advantages of tethered balloon systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Peter; Burgoyne, Chris; Hunt, Hugh; Causier, Matt

    2012-09-13

    The Royal Society report 'Geoengineering the Climate' identified solar radiation management using albedo-enhancing aerosols injected into the stratosphere as the most affordable and effective option for geoengineering, but did not consider in any detail the options for delivery. This paper provides outline engineering analyses of the options, both for batch-delivery processes, following up on previous work for artillery shells, missiles, aircraft and free-flying balloons, as well as a more lengthy analysis of continuous-delivery systems that require a pipe connected to the ground and supported at a height of 20 km, either by a tower or by a tethered balloon. Towers are shown not to be practical, but a tethered balloon delivery system, with high-pressure pumping, appears to have much lower operating and capital costs than all other delivery options. Instead of transporting sulphuric acid mist precursors, such a system could also be used to transport slurries of high refractive index particles such as coated titanium dioxide. The use of such particles would allow useful experiments on opacity, coagulation and atmospheric chemistry at modest rates so as not to perturb regional or global climatic conditions, thus reducing scale-up risks. Criteria for particle choice are discussed, including the need to minimize or prevent ozone destruction. The paper estimates the time scales and relatively modest costs required if a tethered balloon system were to be introduced in a measured way with testing and development work proceeding over three decades, rather than in an emergency. The manufacture of a tether capable of sustaining the high tensions and internal pressures needed, as well as strong winds, is a significant challenge, as is the development of the necessary pumping and dispersion technologies. The greatest challenge may be the manufacture and launch of very large balloons, but means have been identified to significantly reduce the size of such balloons or aerostats.

  9. The Airborne Cloud-Aerosol Transport System. Part I; Overview and Description of the Instrument and Retrival Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, John E.; Mcgill, Matthew J.; Scott, V. Stanley; Kupchock, Andrew; Wake, Shane; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Selmer, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The Airborne Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (ACATS) is a multi-channel Doppler lidar system recently developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). A unique aspect of the multi-channel Doppler lidar concept such as ACATS is that it is also, by its very nature, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL). Both the particulate and molecular scattered signal can be directly and unambiguously measured, allowing for direct retrievals of particulate extinction. ACATS is therefore capable of simultaneously resolving the backscatterextinction properties and motion of a particle from a high altitude aircraft. ACATS has flown on the NASA ER-2 during test flights over California in June 2012 and science flights during the Wallops Airborne Vegetation Experiment (WAVE) in September 2012. This paper provides an overview of the ACATS method and instrument design, describes the ACATS retrieval algorithms for cloud and aerosol properties, and demonstrates the data products that will be derived from the ACATS data using initial results from the WAVE project. The HSRL retrieval algorithms developed for ACATS have direct application to future spaceborne missions such as the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS). Furthermore, the direct extinction and particle wind velocity retrieved from the ACATS data can be used for science applications such 27 as dust or smoke transport and convective outflow in anvil cirrus clouds.

  10. Characterization of biological aerosol exposure risks from automobile air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Mingzhen; Shen, Fangxia; Zou, Zhuanglei; Yao, Maosheng; Wu, Chang-yu

    2013-09-17

    Although use of automobile air conditioning (AC) was shown to reduce in-vehicle particle levels, the characterization of its microbial aerosol exposure risks is lacking. Here, both AC and engine filter dust samples were collected from 30 automobiles in four different geographical locations in China. Biological contents (bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin) were studied using culturing, high-throughput gene sequence, and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) methods. In-vehicle viable bioaerosol concentrations were directly monitored using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) before and after use of AC for 5, 10, and 15 min. Regardless of locations, the vehicle AC filter dusts were found to be laden with high levels of bacteria (up to 26,150 CFU/mg), fungi (up to 1287 CFU/mg), and endotoxin (up to 5527 EU/mg). More than 400 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, were detected in the filter dusts. In addition, allergenic fungal species were also found abundant. Surprisingly, unexpected fluorescent peaks around 2.5 μm were observed during the first 5 min use of AC, which was attributed to the reaerosolization of those filter-borne microbial agents. The information obtained here can assist in minimizing or preventing the respiratory allergy or infection risk from the use of automobile AC system.

  11. Lead Exposures and Biological Responses in Military Weapons Systems: Aerosol Characteristics and Acute Lead Effects among U.S. Army Artilleryman - Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    in I vih FiA W indi wa4 from t?(q a’jbf’foer1~~ ,e w~f-fl a! I .. ’ ’h ’h " ,not 28 lia" 0 0a~ 16a" 1 so* DaY. Tune 41 14V7: 13 ise. Day. Tlni 41 S4:5...humans by Rabinowitz after oral exposure to lead (Ra73, Ra74). Chamberlain et al. found that 30-50% of the inspired lead was deposited in the lungs...Vol. II (Griffin, T.B., and J.H. Knelson, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 221-240 (1975). Gr8l Gross, S.B. Human oral and inhalation exposures

  12. Research on Reliability Optimization of Antiaircraft Weapon System Based on Heuristic Algorithm%启发式算法的防空武器系统可靠性优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭强; 蒋里强; 高建军

    2013-01-01

    针对复杂武器系统可靠性分配最优化问题,以系统的可靠度最大为目标函数,综合考虑系统的费用、质量等约束条件,建立了武器系统的可靠性冗余分配最优化模型,提出了基于启发式方法的求解算法,通过改进各级子系统的可靠性从而使总的系统可靠性最大.算法设计比较简便,易于编程实现.通过对防空武器系统的可靠性分配优化问题进行实例分析,结果表明算法是有效、实用的.为大型复杂武器系统的可靠性设计和优化研究提供了科学有效的方法.%Aiming at the reliability redundancy optimization allotment of the complicated weapon system, using the biggest reliability as the target value, synthesize expenses, quality .etc. to control as condition, the model optimization about the reliability redundancy optimization allotment of the weapon system is builded up; put forward the heuristic algorithm solving calculated way according to opposite increase quantity through. Tthe reliability that passes the improvement all levels subsystem makes the total system reliability biggest, carrying on a solid example analysis to the reliability redundancy optimization allotment of the antiaircraft weapon system.

  13. Digital Simulation of Kill Probability on Shipborne Weapon System Against Missile Target%舰炮武器系统对导弹目标毁伤概率的数字仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云超; 冯元伟

    2011-01-01

    Taking antimissile shipbome gun weapon system as a prototype, based on the operational process of this weapon system, and by using dynamic accuracy test data of naval gun tracing real object,a mathematical model of dynamic accuracy test calculating kill probability is constructed to simulate kill probability of shipborne gun system by directly hitting against missile targets, which realizes this simulation calculation. The simulation result is similar to that of actual effect of firing. Results show that the way of the simulation can carry out dynamic accuracy calculating kill probability and provide basis for decision making for the scheme of firing tests and supply reference for fire efficiency' s evaluation and effectiveness assessment of shipborne gun weapon system.%以某型反导舰炮武器系统为原型,通过分析舰炮武器系统反导作战过程,利用靶场舰炮武器系统的动态精度试验数据,建立了动态精度计算毁伤概率的数学模型,模拟了舰炮武器系统对导弹目标着发射击的毁伤概率,实现了毁伤概率的仿真计算,仿真结果与实弹射击结果接近.结果表明,应用这种方法,可以实现动态精度预估毁伤概率,为射击试验方案制定提供决策依据,也可以为舰炮武器系统射击效力的鉴定和效能评估提供参考.

  14. Non-destructive measurement of human griping force in a human-weapon system%人枪系统中人体握持主动力非破坏测量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鑫; 周克栋; 赫雷; 黄雪鹰; 张俊斌

    2015-01-01

    Here,a measurement method of active griping force was proposed to obtain the human griping force under continuous firing.Based on bionics and ergonomics,a bionic equivalent grip was designed to replace human hand. The bionic grip could be used to measure the equivalent forces system of a human-weapon system without destroying the weapon.The explicit active griping force components emerged after the equivalent forces system was decomposed with EMD.The obtained active griping force data were significant to study affecting factors of firing accuracy.Test results showed that the proposed measurement method can accurately reflect the action of human griping force in a human-weapon system under continuous firing.%为获得连续射击时人体握持主动力参数,提出一种人体握持主动力的测量方法。该方法设计了基于仿生学及人机工程学的仿生握爪,以等效代替人手握持射击。仿生握爪能够在不破坏枪支的情况下获得连续射击时人枪作用力的等效力系,该力系经 EMD 分解可得显现的握持主动力分量。所得的握持主动力参数对研究射击精度影响因素等课题具有重要意义。实验结果表明,该方法能准确反映连续射击时人枪系统力的作用。

  15. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  16. The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

  17. Study of real time detection and size distribution measurement of ultrafine aerosol with a particle growth system (PGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebours, A.

    1994-06-29

    First, the theoretical knowledge on condensation phenomena of a supersaturated vapor in a cylindrical duct where an ultrafine aerosol of nanometers size is flowing, is recalled. Then, a Particle Growth-System (PGS) of original design is developed: the aerosol is confined in a region with a uniform vapor supersaturation profile. When imperfectly filtered atmospheric air is used as source of condensation nuclei, the produced droplets are found to be monodisperse. Therefore, our PGS offers a simple method of calibrating Optical Particle Counters because the size distribution of theses droplets is controlled. After an experimental study validated by a theoretical model, we establish that, under certain supersaturation conditions, the droplet size in our PGS is a function of ultrafine particle size on which the vapor condenses. Furthermore, when the sampled aerosol is constituted of an ultrafine fraction and a fine fraction, we show that the size distribution of the droplets that come out from the PGS is bimodal too. Finally, a simple redesign of our fluids inlet system should reduce particles losses in the PGS due to brownian diffusion and, in that manner improve their detection. (author). 72 refs., 46 figs., 8 tabs., 4 appends.

  18. Aerosol from Tobacco Heating System 2.2 has reduced impact on mouse heart gene expression compared with cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Justyna; Boué, Stéphanie; Talikka, Marja; Guedj, Emmanuel; Martin, Florian; Phillips, Blaine; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Experimental studies clearly demonstrate a causal effect of cigarette smoking on cardiovascular disease. To reduce the individual risk and population harm caused by smoking, alternative products to cigarettes are being developed. We recently reported on an apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mouse inhalation study that compared the effects of exposure to aerosol from a candidate modified risk tobacco product, Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2), and smoke from the reference cigarette (3R4F) on pulmonary and vascular biology. Here, we applied a transcriptomics approach to evaluate the impact of the exposure to 3R4F smoke and THS2.2 aerosol on heart tissues from the same cohort of mice. The systems response profiles demonstrated that 3R4F smoke exposure led to time-dependent transcriptomics changes (False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05; 44 differentially expressed genes at 3-months; 491 at 8-months). Analysis of differentially expressed genes in the heart tissue indicated that 3R4F exposure induced the downregulation of genes involved in cytoskeleton organization and the contractile function of the heart, notably genes that encode beta actin (Actb), actinin alpha 4 (Actn4), and filamin C (Flnc). This was accompanied by the downregulation of genes related to the inflammatory response. None of these effects were observed in the group exposed to THS2.2 aerosol. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of laser ablation and dried solution aerosol as sampling systems in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coedo, A G; Padilla, I; Dorado, M T

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes a study designed to determine the possibility of using a dried aerosol solution for calibration in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The relative sensitivities of tested materials mobilized by laser ablation and by aqueous nebulization were established, and the experimentally determined relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) were used in conjunction with aqueous calibration for the analysis of solid steel samples. To such a purpose a set of CRM carbon steel samples (SS-451/1 to SS-460/1) were sampled into an ICP-MS instrument by solution nebulization using a microconcentric nebulizer with membrane desolvating (D-MCN) and by laser ablation (LA). Both systems were applied with the same ICP-MS operating parameters and the analyte signals were compared. The RSF (desolvated aerosol response/ablated solid response) values were close to 1 for the analytes Cr, Ni, Co, V, and W, about 1.3 for Mo, and 1.7 for As, P, and Mn. Complementary tests were carried out using CRM SS-455/1 as a solid standard for one-point calibration, applying LAMTRACE software for data reduction and quantification. The analytical results are in good agreement with the certified values in all cases, showing that the applicability of dried aerosol solutions is a good alternative calibration system for laser ablation sampling.

  20. 双联装火炮武器系统零位检测和规正方法%Method of Zero Check and Adjustment for Twin-Barrelled Gun Weapon System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨广; 李卓; 吉亚林

    2014-01-01

    在交汇式双联装火炮武器系统中,火炮装置通过联装两座火炮单元来提高发射率,由于火炮单元自动机轴线与火炮装置的实际架位存在偏差,常规标定方法无法获取此类武器系统火炮架位与跟踪传感器的偏差。针对此问题提出一种交汇式双联装火炮武器系统的零位检测和规正方法,该方法通过零飞方式检查火炮瞄准误差,并根据火炮高低指向实时地计算炮管指向和火炮架位的实际偏差,以准确测量火炮与跟踪传感器的零位偏差,实现交汇式双联装火炮武器系统快速标定。%Twin-barrelled gun weapon system equips with two guns. Its shooting rate is higher. But we cannot get the error between the gun servo and the tracking sensor directly by traditional method because of its direction difference between the gun barrel and the gun servo. So a fast calibrating method is declared. In this method, the weapon system checks the aiming error of gun in zero-fly mode. It�s a fast and efficient method to check and adjust the zero of the twin-barrelled gun weapon system.

  1. Analysis of Quantity Requirement and Its Marginal Utility of Weapon System Based on Random Theory%基于随机理论的武器系统数量需求及边际效用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆捷; 赵瑾; 张杰; 郑斌

    2012-01-01

    针对武器系统作战需求中的数量需求问题,提出了一种基于作战过程状态转移的研究思路.根据“侦察—信息处理与决策—火力打击”的一般作战过程,建立了状态转移方程,推导出了数量需求函数的解析表达式,并对其边际效用进行了分析.结果表明:增加武器系统数量和提高武器系统战技性能(tactical and technical characteristics,TTC)对火力打击效能均具有补偿作用,但它们的边际效用是有区分的,分水岭就是该武器系统是否具备精确打击能力.%To study the problem of quantity requirement in weapon system operational requirement, an idea based on state transition of operational process is put forward. With the general operational process of "reconnaissance-information processing and decision-fire attack", the state transition function is built, the analytic expressions of quantity requirement function is deduced and calculated, and the marginal utility is also analyzed. The main conclusion is made as follows, the increased quantity and the improved tactical and technical characteristics(TTC) of weapon system will make up fire efficiency both, but with different marginal utility, and weather this certain weapon system has accurate fire ability or not is regarded as the watershed.

  2. Derivation of models for nuclear weapon terrorist arming and detonation risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parziale, A A

    1998-03-01

    This report investigates "use control" for the on-site arming and detonation, by terrorists, of stored weapon systems. We investigate both components of weapon "use control", which we define as: (1) weapon "use denial" * that we model as a probability, Pj (denial), that represents the chances that terrorists attempting to arm a type j weapon will commit a non-recoverable error, and (2) weapon "use delay" that we model as a random variable, Tj , that represents the arming delay imposed by the use control features of a type j weapon, before detonation can occur. Using information pertaining to the physical security system at a storage site, the postulated terrorist attack force size, and simulated combat engagement outcomes, we formulate the frequency, fj , and probability, P(dj ), of on-site detonation, for generic weapon types j. We derive a model that disjoins the performance of site physical security, from that for weapon use control, if the use control random variable Tj has a Uniform or histogram distribution. This is an especially significant result where most complex distributions can be adequately approximated with a histogram. Hence, we can conduct combat simulations to obtain the physical security performance of a specific storage site independent of the use control features associated with specific weapon types that are stored, or might be stored, at the site. In turn, we can obtain the use control performance for various weapon types, independent of where they are stored and the physical security systems surrounding them. Our models can then mathematically combine physical security performance and weapon use control performance for any combination of storage facility and weapon type.

  3. GEM-AQ/EC, an on-line global multi-scale chemical weather modelling system: model development and evaluation of global aerosol climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Gong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A global air quality modeling system GEM-AQ/EC was developed by implementing tropospheric chemistry and aerosol processes on-line into the Global Environmental Multiscale weather prediction model – GEM. Due to the multi-scale features of the GEM, the integrated model, GEM-AQ/EC, is able to investigate chemical weather at scales from global to urban domains. The current chemical mechanism is comprised of 50 gas-phase species, 116 chemical and 19 photolysis reactions, and is complemented by a sectional aerosol module CAM (The Canadian Aerosol Module with 5 aerosols types: sulphate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea-salt and soil dust. Monthly emission inventories of black carbon and organic carbon from boreal and temperate vegetation fires were assembled using the most reliable areas burned datasets by countries, from statistical databases and derived from remote sensing products of 1995–2004. The model was run for ten years from from 1995–2004 with re-analyzed meteorology on a global uniform 1° × 1° horizontal resolution domain and 28 hybrid levels extending up to 10 hPa. The simulating results were compared with various observations including surface network around the globe and satellite data. Regional features of global aerosols are reasonably captured including emission, surface concentrations and aerosol optical depth. For various types of aerosols, satisfactory correlations were achieved between modeled and observed with some degree of systematic bias possibly due to large uncertainties in the emissions used in this study. A global distribution of natural aerosol contributions to the total aerosols is obtained and compared with observations.

  4. GEM-AQ/EC, an on-line global multiscale chemical weather modelling system: model development and evaluations of global aerosol climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Gong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A global air quality modeling system GEM-AQ/EC was developed by implementing tropospheric chemistry and aerosol processes on-line into the Global Environmental Multiscale weather prediction model – GEM. Due to the multi-scale features of the GEM, the integrated model, GEM-AQ/EC, is able to investigate chemical weather at scales from global to urban domains. The current chemical mechanism is comprised of 50 gas-phase species, 116 chemical and 19 photolysis reactions, and is complemented by a sectional aerosol module CAM (The Canadian Aerosol Module with 5 aerosols types: sulphate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea-salt and soil dust. Monthly emission inventories of black carbon and organic carbon from boreal and temperate vegetation fires were assembled using the most reliable areas burned datasets by countries, from statistical databases and derived from remote sensing products of 1995–2004. The model was run for ten years from from 1995–2004 with re-analyzed meteorology on a global uniform 1 × 1° horizontal resolution domain and 28 hybrid levels extending up to 10 hPa. The simulating results were compared with various observations including surface network around the globe and satellite data. Regional features of global aerosols are reasonably captured including emission, surface concentrations and aerosol optical depth. For various types of aerosols, satisfactory correlations were achieved between modeled and observed with some degree of systematic bias possibly due to large uncertainties in the emissions used in this study. A global distribution of natural aerosol contributions to the total aerosols is obtained and compared with observations.

  5. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    1964-02-01

    This book is a revision of "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons" which was issued in 1957. It was prepared by the Defense Atomic Support Agency of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant governmental agencies and was published by the U.S. Atomc Energy Commission. Although the complex nature of nuclear weapons effects does not always allow exact evaluation, the conclusions reached herein represent the combined judgment of a number of the most competent scientists working the problem. There is a need for widespread public understanding of the best information available on the effects of nuclear weapons. The purpose of this book is to present as accurately as possible, within the limits of national security, a comprehensive summary of this information.

  6. Research on Computer Aided Innovation Model of Weapon Equipment Requirement Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Guo, Qisheng; Wang, Rui; Li, Liang

    Firstly, in order to overcome the shortcoming of using only AD or TRIZ solely, and solve the problems currently existed in weapon equipment requirement demonstration, the paper construct the method system of weapon equipment requirement demonstration combining QFD, AD, TRIZ, FA. Then, we construct a CAI model frame of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, which include requirement decomposed model, requirement mapping model and requirement plan optimization model. Finally, we construct the computer aided innovation model of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, and developed CAI software of equipment requirement demonstration.

  7. Data Fusion and Its Application of Electro-Optical Sensor and Radar in Ship Cannon Weapon System%舰炮武器系统光电传感器与雷达数据融合及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛树学; 高俊云

    2012-01-01

    目标参数的质量直接影响武器系统的命中概率,因此,光电、雷达传感器数据的选优尤为重要,数据融合解决了这一问题。针对舰炮武器系统雷达及光电传感器的数据融合,建立了数学模型,并根据所建立的模型提出工程实践,提高了武器系统的命中率。%The quality of target parameters influences the hit probability of weapon system directly. I nereIore, me opLmuzu- tion of the data of electro-optical sensor and radar is very important. Data fusion could solve the problem. In view of the data fusion of electro-opticaI sensor and radar in ship cannon system, the mathematic model is established, and the engineering practice based on the model is described. The data fusion method mentioned in this paper improves the hit probability of the weapon system.

  8. 防空导弹武器系统通用火控软件设计与实现%General Design and Accomplishment of Firepower Control Software in Air Defense Missile Weapon System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华

    2011-01-01

    针对不同防空导弹武器系统的火控软件之间不能互用的现状,分析了火控系统各主要功能模块之间的接口关系,提出了火控软件通用化设计的思路,并用C++实现了该设计.火控软件的通用化设计值碍将来防空导弹能武器系统火控软件的标准化设计和编程借鉴.%s :Contrasting the status of no interoperability in firepower control softwares among different aerial defense missile weapon system, the interface relation of functional module in firepower control system is analyzed.And the idea of general design of firepower control software is put forward.Furthermore, the idea is realized by using C++ programming.The general design of firepower control software is worth used for reference in the standard design and programming of future aerial defense missile weapon system.

  9. Research on Test Method of Ship-Borne Torpedo Defence Weapon System Intercepting Torpedo in Sea Trial%舰载鱼雷防御武器系统拦截实航鱼雷试验方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯宝娥; 陈高杰

    2014-01-01

    Based on the test destination of ship-borne torpedo defence weapon system intercepting torpedo in sea trial,this paper first introduces the system constitution and working principle briefly. And then,the feasible test sea -lanes are researched and designed. Lastly,the concrete test implementary scheme,data-processing and result assessment are proposed. The method can guide the torpedo defense fighting and the operating of torpedo defense weapon system.%针对舰载鱼雷防御武器系统拦截实航鱼雷试验目的,在简单介绍系统组成及工作原理的基础上,研究设计了可行的试验航路,并提出具体的试验实施方案、试验数据处理及结果评定方法。对水面舰的鱼雷防御作战、鱼雷防御武器系统的使用有一定的指导意义。

  10. The Combat Efficiency Evaluation of the Self-Propelled Weapon System Based on AHP and Cloud Theory%基于AHP和云理论的自行火炮武器系统作战效能评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周瑾粼; 高启航

    2014-01-01

    In view of the problem in the combat efficiency evaluation of the self-propelled weapon system,this paper establishes the index system of the combat efficiency evaluation and the mathematical model by use of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the cloud centre-of-gravity judgment process,surveys the availability and the function of this method combining to the specific living example. It also provides an effective method and way for the combat efficiency evaluation of the self-propelled weapon system.%针对自行火炮武器系统作战效能的评估问题,运用AHP和云重心评判法建立作战效能评估指标体系和评估数学模型,并结合具体实例验证了此方法的有效性和实用性,为自行火炮武器系统作战效能评估提供了一种有效的方法和途径。

  11. 一种高炮武器系统射击准备精度综合检测方法%An Integrated Test Method Based on Accuracy of Fire Preparation for Antiaircraft Artillery Weapon System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永鸿; 张文红

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the fire preparation accuracy of antiaircraft artillery weapon system, put forward an integrated test method for accuracy of fire preparation based on CCD camera. The checkout equipment includes cold gun correction sighting telescope, the single chip application system, display equipment and storage battery and so on. Through the calculation of ballistic correction and the picture deviating techniques of interpretation based on muzzle aiming direction in linkage, realize the integrated test for error of fire preparation based on antiaircraft artillery weapon system.The application results show that the executed device has these characteristics of simple structure and high check precision etc.%为提高高炮武器系统射击准备精度,提出一种基于CCD摄像的射击准备精度综合检测方法.检测装置由冷炮校正器、单片机应用系统、显示器和蓄电池等构成,通过弹道修正量计算和联动状态下炮口指向的图像偏差判别方法,实现高炮武器系统射击准备误差的综合检测.应用结果表明,该实施装置具有结构简单、检测精度高等特点.

  12. Analysis on Operational capability for Truck-mounted Howitzers Weapon System Based on AHP%基于层次分析法的车载炮武器系统作战能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋

    2011-01-01

    The truck-mounted howitzers weapon system is a sort of novel army ground fire assault system,there is lots of uncertainty factors influenced the operational capability of truck-mounted Howitzers artillery division.In the paper,it made the quantization analysis for operational capability by means of AHP,and obtained the related data and conclusion.It provided a certain reference base for training and application of truck-mounted howitzers weapon system in troops.%车载炮武器系统是一种新型陆军地面火力打击系统,影响车载炮炮兵分队作战能力的不定因素很多,本文采用层次分析法对其作战能力进行了量化分析,得出了相关数据和结论,为车载炮武器系统在部队的训练和使用提供了一定的参考依据。

  13. Modal aerosol dynamics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, E.R.; McMurry, P.H.; Shankar, U.; Binkowski, F.S.

    1991-02-01

    The report presents the governing equations for representing aerosol dynamics, based on several different representations of the aerosol size distribution. Analytical and numerical solution techniques for these governing equations are also reviewed. Described in detail is a computationally efficient numerical technique for simulating aerosol behavior in systems undergoing simultaneous heat transfer, fluid flow, and mass transfer in and between the gas and condensed phases. The technique belongs to a general class of models known as modal aerosol dynamics (MAD) models. These models solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of the particle size distribution function. Computational efficiency is achieved by representing the complete aerosol population as a sum of additive overlapping populations (modes), and solving for the time rate of change of integral moments of each mode. Applications of MAD models for simulating aerosol dynamics in continuous stirred tank aerosol reactors and flow aerosol reactors are provided. For the application to flow aerosol reactors, the discussion is developed in terms of considerations for merging a MAD model with the SIMPLER routine described by Patankar (1980). Considerations for incorporating a MAD model into the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Particulate Model are also described. Numerical and analytical techniques for evaluating the size-space integrals of the modal dynamics equations (MDEs) are described. For multimodal logonormal distributions, an analytical expression for the coagulation integrals of the MDEs, applicable for all size regimes, is derived, and is within 20% of accurate numerical evaluation of the same moment coagulation integrals. A computationally efficient integration technique, based on Gauss-Hermite numerical integration, is also derived.

  14. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    1957-06-01

    This handbook prepared by the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant government agencies and published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, is a comprehensive summary of current knowledge on the effects of nuclear weapons. The effects information contained herein is calculated for yields up to 20 megatons and the scaling laws for hypothetically extending the calculations beyond this limit are given. The figure of 20 megatons however is not be taken as an indication of capabilities or developments.

  15. Initial approach in biomass burning aerosol transport tracking with CALIPSO and MODIS satellites, sunphotometer, and a backscatter lidar system in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, E.; Lopes, F. J. S.

    2009-09-01

    Nowadays there is an increasing concern about the direct and indirect influence of the aerosols in the Earth's radiative budget. Aerosols from biomass burning activities have been identified as a significant radiative forcing agent. A significant concentration quantity of aerosol particles observed in the atmosphere can be associated with intense anthropogenic biomass burning activity. The CALIPSO satellite and ground-based Lidar systems are indispensable to provide the vertical structure and optical properties of aerosol and clouds on global and local scale, respectively. The Brazilian mid-western region is one of the biggest producers of biomass burning in the whole continent. Aerosols from biomass burning can be transported to distances of hundreds or thousands of kilometers. It has been developed a computational routine to map the CALIPSO overpasses over the whole country in order to retrieve the total coverage taking special attention in the Brazilian AERONET sites. In this context, the measured data from AERONET, CALIPSO and MODIS Satellite and the MSP-Lidar system from Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) can be used to map the aerosols biomass burning plumes transported from the mid-western to the southeastern region. In total 5 sites were chosen spanning from 0 to 23 South latitude and 46 to 60 West in longitude in coverage during 2007 and we were able to identify such transports during the months of August and September.

  16. Comparative systems toxicology analysis of cigarette smoke and aerosol from a candidate modified risk tobacco product in organotypic human gingival epithelial cultures: A 3-day repeated exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Filippo; Titz, Bjoern; Sewer, Alain; Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Scotti, Elena; Schlage, Walter K; Mathis, Carole; Leroy, Patrice; Majeed, Shoaib; Torres, Laura Ortega; Keppler, Brian R; Elamin, Ashraf; Trivedi, Keyur; Guedj, Emmanuel; Martin, Florian; Frentzel, Stefan; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Smoking is one of the major lifestyle-related risk factors for periodontal diseases. Modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) offer a promising alternative in the harm reduction strategy for adult smokers unable to quit. Using a systems toxicology approach, we investigated and compared the exposure effects of a reference cigarette (3R4F) and a heat-not-burn technology-based candidate MRTP, the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2. Human gingival epithelial organotypic cultures were repeatedly exposed (3 days) for 28 min at two matching concentrations of cigarette smoke (CS) or THS2.2 aerosol. Results showed only minor histopathological alterations and minimal cytotoxicity upon THS2.2 aerosol exposure compared to CS (1% for THS2.2 aerosol vs. 30% for CS, at the high concentration). Among the 14 proinflammatory mediators analyzed, only 5 exhibited significant alterations with THS2.2 exposure compared with 11 upon CS exposure. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis indicated a general reduction of the impact in THS2.2 aerosol-exposed samples with respect to CS (∼79% lower biological impact for the high THS2.2 aerosol concentration compared to CS, and 13 metabolites significantly perturbed for THS2.2 vs. 181 for CS). This study indicates that exposure to THS2.2 aerosol had a lower impact on the pathophysiology of human gingival organotypic cultures than CS. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Fire Command Control Model for Multi-Waveband Photoelectrical Camouflage Weapon System%多波段光电伪装武器系统射击指挥控制模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱安国; 王朝晖; 张继春; 杨槐

    2011-01-01

    快速实施大面积多波段烟幕防护,是现代战争中保护重要军事、经济目标的有效手段.多波段光电伪装武器系统是近年来因这种需求而发展起来的一种新型武器装备,但大多自主作战、缺乏统一的指挥控制功能,给出系统成建制协同作战时,从目标预测、建立空间遮障到火力分配等射击指挥控制相关模型.%To quickly carry out the large-area and multi-waveband smoke protection is the effective means for protecting the important military and electronic targets in the modern war. The multi-waveband photoelectrical weapon system is the new type of weapon device developed to meet this requirement in recent years. But it independently carries out the war task without the unified command and control function, so this paper gives the related fire command control models involving the target prediction,establishment of the space block, and the fire allocation when the system carries out the cooperative war task.

  18. Development of a preparation system for the radiocarbon analysis of organic carbon in carbonaceous aerosols in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.L.; Liu, D. [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Shen, C.D.; Ding, P. [Key Laboratory of Isotope Geochronology and Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, G., E-mail: zhanggan@gig.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Carbonaceous aerosols comprising a large fraction of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) are considered to affect both global climate and human health. Radiocarbon measurements have been proved to be a useful isotopic tracer for distinguishing contemporary and fossil emissions. An optimized system of a two-step thermal preparation system for radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) measurement of OC/TC is firstly established in China. In this system, OC/TC are converted into carbon dioxide under a pure oxygen flow at 340 {sup o}C/650 {sup o}C and then reduced to graphite for AMS target using the method of zinc reduction. Afterwards, radiocarbon measurements of the targets performed by the NEC Compact AMS System at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The measured results for estimated reference martial including HOx I, HOx II and IAEA-C6 are consistent with internationally accepted values. The radiocarbon-based source appointment of carbonaceous aerosols in China would be much more convenient and faster with the preparation system developed in this work.

  19. Security after the revolutions of 1989 and 1991: The future with nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Political scientists typically view weapons within the realm of effects, not within the realm of cause. That is, weapons are a consequence of the great causal factors in international relations. Insecurity is the most important of these factors; it follows from the uneven distribution of power among states, the security dilemma, and the ever-present possibility that violence will be used to settle disagreements because there is no higher authority above states capable of enforcing rules. According to this logic weapons cause neither war nor peace. They are simply tools that states use to gain a share of the scarcest commodity - security - by fighting other states or by threatening to do so if necessary. Nuclear weapons are a product of great industrial capabilities, knowledge, and other resources. The United States and the Soviet Union had the largest arsenals of nuclear weapons because they were superpowers, not the other way around. On this logic, nuclear weapons reflect and reinforce a distribution of power that would exist in their absence. As the distribution of power among states changes, the status of nuclear weapons in the world will also change in a way that reflects the more fundamental causes that continue to drive state-state relationships in an anarchic world. In this chapter the author treat nuclears weapons within the realm of great causes. Arguing that nuclear weapons were a fundamental cause in bringing the Cold War, and with it the last vestiges of bipolarity, to an end. International life in the 1990s will not be the same as it was between 1945 and 1989. Will it be more like the multipolar world of the 1800s, with nuclear weapons simply grafted on the way other new weapons innovations have been in the past? That is not expected because nuclear weapons have altered the fundamental causal forces that drove previous international systems from peace to war and back again. 21 refs.

  20. 32 CFR 1903.10 - Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons. 1903.10 Section 1903.10 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.10 Weapons. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, knowingly possessing or causing to be present a weapon on an Agency installation, or attempting to do so is prohibited. (b...

  1. Why are U.S. nuclear weapon modernization efforts controversial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, James

    2016-03-01

    U.S. nuclear weapon modernization programs are focused on extending the lives of existing warheads and developing new delivery vehicles to replace ageing bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarines. These efforts are contested and controversial. Some critics argue that they are largely unnecessary, financially wasteful and potentially destabilizing. Other critics posit that they do not go far enough and that nuclear weapons with new military capabilities are required. At its core, this debate centers on three strategic questions. First, what roles should nuclear weapons be assigned? Second, what military capabilities do nuclear weapons need to fulfill these roles? Third, how severe are the unintended escalation risks associated with particular systems? Proponents of scaled-down modernization efforts generally argue for reducing the role of nuclear weapons but also that, even under existing policy, new military capabilities are not required. They also tend to stress the escalation risks of new--and even some existing--capabilities. Proponents of enhanced modernization efforts tend to advocate for a more expansive role for nuclear weapons in national security strategy. They also often argue that nuclear deterrence would be enhanced by lower yield weapons and/or so called bunker busters able to destroy more deeply buried targets. The debate is further fueled by technical disagreements over many aspects of ongoing and proposed modernization efforts. Some of these disagreements--such as the need for warhead life extension programs and their necessary scope--are essentially impossible to resolve at the unclassified level. By contrast, unclassified analysis can help elucidate--though not answer--other questions, such as the potential value of bunker busters.

  2. Real life identification of partially occluded weapons in video frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Sirakov, Nikolay M.

    2016-05-01

    We empirically test the capacity of an improved system to identify not just images of individual guns, but partially occluded guns and their parts appearing in a videoframe. This approach combines low-level geometrical information gleaned from the visual images and high-level semantic information stored in an ontology enriched with meronymic part-whole relations. The main improvements of the system are handling occlusion, new algorithms, and an emerging meronomy. Well-known and commonly deployed in ontologies, actual meronomies need to be engineered and populated with unique solutions. Here, this includes adjacency of weapon parts and essentiality of parts to the threat of and the diagnosticity for a weapon. In this study video sequences are processed frame by frame. The extraction method separates colors and removes the background. Then image subtraction of the next frame determines moving targets, before morphological closing is applied to the current frame in order to clean up noise and fill gaps. Next, the method calculates for each object the boundary coordinates and uses them to create a finite numerical sequence as a descriptor. Parts identification is done by cyclic sequence alignment and matching against the nodes of the weapons ontology. From the identified parts, the most-likely weapon will be determined by using the weapon ontology.

  3. Environmental Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, R. Scott

    2016-06-01

    Environmental sensing of nuclear activities has the potential to detect nuclear weapon programs at early stages, deter nuclear proliferation, and help verify nuclear accords. However, no robust system of detection has been deployed to date. This can be variously attributed to high costs, technical limitations in detector technology, simple countermeasures, and uncertainty about the magnitude or behavior of potential signals. In this article, current capabilities and promising opportunities are reviewed. Systematic research in a variety of areas could improve prospects for detecting covert nuclear programs, although the potential for countermeasures suggests long-term verification of nuclear agreements will need to rely on methods other than environmental sensing.

  4. ATI TDA 5A aerosol generator evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, D.A.

    1998-07-27

    Oil based aerosol ``Smoke`` commonly used for testing the efficiency and penetration of High Efficiency Particulate Air filters (HEPA) and HEPA systems can produce flammability hazards that may not have been previously considered. A combustion incident involving an aerosol generator has caused an investigation into the hazards of the aerosol used to test HEPA systems at Hanford.

  5. Handheld Concealed Weapons Detector Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Enforcement, Edward M. Carapezza, Donald Spector, Eds., Proc. SPIE 2938, 110 - 119 (1997). 3. Franklin Felber, Norbert Wild, Scott Nunan , Dennis Breuner... Nunan , D. Breuner, and F. Doft, "Handheld Ultrasound Concealed-Weapons Detector," in Enforcement and Security Technologies, A. Trent DePersia, J. J

  6. A Marine Aerosol Reference Tank system as a breaking wave analogue for the production of foam and sea-spray aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Stokes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the processes governing the production of marine aerosols a repeatable, controlled method for their generation is required. The Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (MART has been designed to closely approximate oceanic conditions by producing an evolving bubble plume and surface foam patch. The tank utilizes an intermittently plunging sheet of water and large volume tank reservoir to simulate turbulence, plume and foam formation, and the water flow is monitored volumetrically and acoustically to ensure the repeatability of conditions.

  7. NATO's targeting process: ensuring human control over (and lawful use of) 'autonomous' weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, M.; Williams, A.P.; Scharre, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    The prospect of the use of so-called autonomous weapon systems has raised significant legal and moral concerns. This chapter contributes to the debate by providing an alternative perspective to the current dominant focus on the technological capabilities of future weapons. The author argues that

  8. Generation of aerosolized drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, R K; Niven, R W

    1994-01-01

    The expanding use of inhalation therapy has placed demands on current aerosol generation systems that are difficult to meet with current inhalers. The desire to deliver novel drug entities such as proteins and peptides, as well as complex formulations including liposomes and microspheres, requires delivery systems of improved efficiency that will target the lung in a reproducible manner. These efforts have also been spurred by the phase out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and this has included a directed search for alternative propellants. Consequently, a variety of new aerosol devices and methods of generating aerosols are being studied. This includes the use of freon replacement propellants, dry powder generation systems, aqueous unit spray systems and microprocessor controlled technologies. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages depending upon each principle of action and set of design variables. In addition, specific drugs may be better suited for one type of inhaler device vs. another. The extent to which aerosol generation systems achieve their goals is discussed together with a summary of selected papers presented at the recent International Congress of Aerosols in Medicine.

  9. [Modern pneumatic weapons and injuries they cause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozachenko, I N

    2013-01-01

    The data on the history of development and further improvement of pneumatic weapons are presented with special reference to specific features of different types and varieties of these weapons, cartridges for them, and the sphere of their application. Investigations into peculiarities of damages caused by high-capacity pneumatic weapons to the objects of forensic medical expertise affected from different distances are reviewed. Results of forensic medical expertise and clinical studies on the structure of body injuries inflicted by gunshots from pneumatic weapons to the human body are discussed. The author emphasizes the necessity of developing up-to-date terminology and classification of gunshot injuries caused by shooting from pneumatic weapons.

  10. Aerosol Data Assimilation at GMAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Buchard, Virginie

    2017-01-01

    This presentation presents an overview of the aerosol data assimilation work performed at GMAO. The GMAO Forward Processing system and the biomass burning emissions from QFED are first presented. Then, the current assimilation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), performed by means of the analysis splitting method is briefly described, followed by some results on the quality control of observations using a Neural Network trained using AERONET AOD. Some applications are shown such as the Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991 using the MERRA-2 aerosol dataset. Finally preliminary results on the EnKF implementation for aerosol assimilation are presented.

  11. A Case Study: Distribution of Bacterial and Fungal Aerosols in Air-Conditioning Systems in Shaanxi History Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI An-gui; HOU Juan-juan; JI Zeng-bao; ZHU Xiao-bin

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the bacteria and fungi aerosol characteristic distribution in HVAC-system and its components at Shaanxi History Museum.Measurements were performed to probe the bacteria and fungi aerosol in HVAC systems,located at Xi'an city,China.The results showed that there was fungi growth inside the ventilation ducts,fungi contamination was worse than bacteria,and both of them were distributed into occu-pied space with the air supply ducts.The dominating genera of fungi was found to be Penicillium spp. and As-Pergillus spp.,which was respectively 46.1%and 20.7% in settling fungi, and the dominating genera of fungi in dust were Cladosporium spp.and Penicillium spp., which was 41.8%and 30.1%respectively.It suggests that available measures to improve and control the performance of HVAC-systems such as the maintenance,management and cleaning should be taken to prevent this pollution and to develop strategies to keep this pollution away.

  12. Information content and sensitivity of the 3β + 2α lidar measurement system for aerosol microphysical retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Sharon P.; Chemyakin, Eduard; Liu, Xu; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Stamnes, Snorre; Sawamura, Patricia; Moore, Richard H.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    There is considerable interest in retrieving profiles of aerosol effective radius, total number concentration, and complex refractive index from lidar measurements of extinction and backscatter at several wavelengths. The combination of three backscatter channels plus two extinction channels (3β + 2α) is particularly important since it is believed to be the minimum configuration necessary for the retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties and because the technological readiness of lidar systems permits this configuration on both an airborne and future spaceborne instrument. The second-generation NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) has been making 3β + 2α measurements since 2012. The planned NASA Aerosol/Clouds/Ecosystems (ACE) satellite mission also recommends the 3β + 2α combination.Here we develop a deeper understanding of the information content and sensitivities of the 3β + 2α system in terms of aerosol microphysical parameters of interest. We use a retrieval-free methodology to determine the basic sensitivities of the measurements independent of retrieval assumptions and constraints. We calculate information content and uncertainty metrics using tools borrowed from the optimal estimation methodology based on Bayes' theorem, using a simplified forward model look-up table, with no explicit inversion. The forward model is simplified to represent spherical particles, monomodal log-normal size distributions, and wavelength-independent refractive indices. Since we only use the forward model with no retrieval, the given simplified aerosol scenario is applicable as a best case for all existing retrievals in the absence of additional constraints. Retrieval-dependent errors due to mismatch between retrieval assumptions and true atmospheric aerosols are not included in this sensitivity study, and neither are retrieval errors that may be introduced in the inversion process. The choice of a simplified model adds clarity to the

  13. Why Sexually Selected Weapons Are Not Ornaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Erin L; Miller, Christine W; Emlen, Douglas J

    2016-10-01

    The elaboration and diversification of sexually selected weapons remain poorly understood. We argue that progress in this topic has been hindered by a strong bias in sexual selection research, and a tendency for weapons to be conflated with ornaments used in mate choice. Here, we outline how male-male competition and female choice are distinct mechanisms of sexual selection, and why weapons and ornaments are fundamentally different types of traits. We call for research on the factors contributing to weapon divergence, the potential for male-male competition to drive speciation, and the specific use of weapons in the context of direct fights versus displays. Given that weapons are first and foremost fighting structures, biomechanical approaches are an especially promising direction for understanding weapon design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 某高炮武器系统自动校射系统设计%Design of Automatic Firing Calibration System of a Certain Antiaircraft Artillery Weapon System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志强; 程远增; 孙世宇; 王春平

    2011-01-01

    我国现役高炮火控系统的校射大多采用开环控制,没有自动校射功能,作战效能较低.针对某型高炮设计了一种自动校射系统,该系统采用火控解算参数与数字图像处理技术相结合的方法,火控计算机计算出虚拟弹目偏差,图像处理技术获取置信度较高的弹目偏差,对高炮射击诸元进行实时校正,克服传统校射的不足,从而实现对高炮武器系统的全过程高精度自动校射,实现高炮武器系统的快速射击,提高射击命中率,充分发挥高炮武器系统的作战效能.%China's active antiaircraft artillery fire control system mostly uses open-loop control for fireng calibration, no automatic fire calibration function, only has low operation efficiency. This paper presents a design method of automatic fire calibration system to a certain antiaircraft artillery. Combining fire control system computing parameters with digital image processing technology, automatic fire calibration system uses fire control computer computing the virtual miss distance, uses image processing technology obtaining miss distance with higher reliability in order to correct real-timely all kinds of firing data of antiaircraft artillery and overcome the deficiencies of traditional fire calibration method. For the antiaircraft artillery weapon system, this system could achieve automatic fire calibration with the whole process and high precision, ensure rapid firing and improve hit rate, give full play to the combat effectiveness.

  15. Aerosols in the CALIOPE air quality modelling system: evaluation and analysis of PM levels, optical depths and chemical composition over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basart

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The CALIOPE air quality modelling system is developed and applied to Europe with high spatial resolution (12 km × 12 km. The modelled daily-to-seasonal aerosol variability over Europe in 2004 is evaluated and analysed. Aerosols are estimated from two models, CMAQv4.5 (AERO4 and BSC-DREAM8b. CMAQv4.5 calculates biogenic, anthropogenic and sea salt aerosol and BSC-DREAM8b provides the natural mineral dust contribution from North African deserts. For the evaluation, we use daily PM10, PM2.5 and aerosol components data from 55 stations of the EMEP/CREATE network and total, coarse and fine aerosol optical depth (AOD data from 35 stations of the AERONET sun photometer network. Annual correlations between modelled and observed values for PM10 and PM2.5 are 0.55 and 0.47, respectively. Correlations for total, coarse and fine AOD are 0.51, 0.63, and 0.53, respectively. The higher correlations of the PM10 and the coarse mode AOD are largely due to the accurate representation of the African dust influence in the forecasting system. Overall PM and AOD levels are underestimated. The evaluation of the aerosol components highlights underestimations in the fine fraction of carbonaceous matter (EC and OC and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA; i.e. nitrate, sulphate and ammonium. The scores of the bulk parameters are significantly improved after applying a simple model bias correction based on the observed aerosol composition. The simulated PM10 and AOD present maximum values over the industrialized and populated Po Valley and Benelux regions. SIA are dominant in the fine fraction representing up to 80% of the aerosol budget in latitudes north of 40° N. In southern Europe, high PM10 and AOD are linked to the desert dust transport from the Sahara which contributes up to 40% of the aerosol budget. Maximum seasonal ground-level concentrations (PM10 > 30 μg m−3 are

  16. Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL`s Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents.

  17. Influence of Vertical Target Density on Hit Probabity of Shipborne Atillery Weapon System%立靶密集度指标对舰炮武器系统命中概率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晏涛

    2012-01-01

    文章分析了影响舰炮武器系统射击精度的几个因素,并以某型舰炮为例,利用典型数据对立靶密集度与命中概率的关系进行了仿真计算,总结了舰炮立靶密集度指标与系统精度的关系。%This paper analyzes the factors affecting the shooting accuracy of the shipborne atillery weapon system,in a type of sbipborne atillery as an example,use the typical data to simulate the relationship between vertiacl target density and hit probability,and summarize the relationship between vertiacl target density and the system accuracy.

  18. 光学标校技术在舰炮武器系统中的应用研究%Application of optical alignment calibration technique in naval gun weapon system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子明

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that the alignment calibration method of aiming at stars in naval gun weapon system is easily influenced by the weather, an optical alignment calibration method with need of reference object for the integrated weapon system of radar (photoelectricity) and naval gun is proposed. The gun barrel axis is led out by the laser beam and translated parallel to the radar (photoelectricity) receiving window through the alignment optical module, then the angle difference between the radar axis and barrel gun axis is obtained to be calibrated. Test and experiment results show that the method is characterized by simple operation, high efficiency and real time, it has the alignment calibration error no more than 0. 5 mrad. This method is impacted less by the weather and environment conditions compared with the method of aiming at stars, and has a significant role to give full play to the operational effectiveness of gun weapon system.%为了解决舰炮武器系统瞄星标校受天气影响较大的问题,针对雷达(光电)与舰炮一体化的武器系统,提出了一种不需要参照物的光学标校方法.该方法用激光束将炮管轴线引出,通过不失调光学组件进行平行移动并进入雷达(光电)接收窗口,从而获得雷达(光电系统)轴线与炮管轴线的角度差并进行标校.测试与试验结果表明,该方法具有操作简便、效率高、适时性强、标校误差不大于0.5 mrad等特点,与描星方法标校相比,受天气、环境因素影响较小,对充分发挥舰炮武器系统的作战效能具有显著作用.

  19. Biomechanical and performance implications of weapon design: comparison of bullpup and conventional configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard T; Moeller, Brandon F; Mayer, Robert R; Rosenquist, Bryce; Van Ryswyk, Darin; Eichorn, Drew

    2014-06-01

    Shooter accuracy and stability were monitored while firing two bullpup and two conventional configuration rifles of the same caliber in order to determine if one style of weapon results in superior performance. Considerable debate exists among police and military professionals regarding the differences between conventional configuration weapons, where the magazine and action are located ahead of the trigger, and bullpup configuration, where they are located behind the trigger (closer to the user). To date, no published research has attempted to evaluate this question from a physical ergonomics standpoint, and the knowledge that one style might improve stability or result in superior performance is of interest to countless military, law enforcement, and industry experts. A live-fire evaluation of both weapon styles was performed using a total of 48 participants. Shooting accuracy and fluctuations in biomechanical stability (center of pressure) were monitored while subjects used the weapons to perform standard drills. The bullpup weapon designs were found to provide a significant advantage in accuracy and shooter stability, while subjects showed considerable preference toward the conventional weapons. Although many mechanical and maintenance issues must be considered before committing to a bullpup or conventional weapon system, it is clear in terms of basic human stability that the bullpup is the more advantageous configuration. Results can be used by competitive shooter, military, law enforcement, and industry experts while outfitting personnel with a weapon system that leads to superior performance.

  20. An Adaptive H infinity Control Algorithm for Jitter Control and Target Tracking in a Directed Energy Weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    system, (2) free electron laser for weapons of mass destruction detection, (3) high power microwave weapon, (4) electric fiber weapon system, and (5...1980’s and 1990’s1. Free-space laser communication provides many advantages to traditional microwave communication: broader bandwidth, lower power...eliminate torsional and bending modes below approximately 200 Hz. The mass of the bread board is 71.3 kg. Figure 10 Newport Breadboard7 2.1.6

  1. Lidar and Laser Technology for NASA’S Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS Payload on The International Space Station (JEM-EF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storm Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the ISS lidar technology provided by Fibertek, Inc. in support of the NASA GSFC CATS mission and provides an assessment of the in-flight systems performance and lessons learned. During February the systems successfully operated in space for more than 300 hours using 25 W average power lasers and photon counting of aerosol atmospheric returns.

  2. Lidar and Laser Technology for NASA'S Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) Payload on The International Space Station (JEM-EF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Mark; Stevenson, Gary; Hovis, Floyd; Gavert, William; Dang, Xung; Darab, Abe; Chuang, Ti; Burns, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the ISS lidar technology provided by Fibertek, Inc. in support of the NASA GSFC CATS mission and provides an assessment of the in-flight systems performance and lessons learned. During February the systems successfully operated in space for more than 300 hours using 25 W average power lasers and photon counting of aerosol atmospheric returns.

  3. Investigation of aerosol distribution patterns and its optical properties at different time scale by using LIDAR system and AERONET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fuyi; Khor, Wei Ying; Hee, Wan Shen; Choon, Yeap Eng; San, Lim Hwee; Abdullah, Khiruddin

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol is a major health-impairment issue in Malaysia especially during southeast monsoon period (June-September) due to the active open burning activities. However, hazy days were an issue in Penang, Malaysia during March, 2014. Haze intruded Penang during March and lasted for a month except for the few days after rain. Rain water had washed out the aerosols from the atmosphere. Therefore, this study intends to analyse the aerosol profile and the optical properties of aerosol during this haze event and after rain. Meanwhile, several days after the haze event (during April, 2014) were also analyzed for comparison purposes. Additionally, the dominant aerosol type (i.e., dust, biomass burning, industrial and urban, marine, and mixed aerosol) during the study period was identified according to the scattering plots of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) against the Angstrom exponent.

  4. History of Laser Weapon Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    surgery/medicine, hair re- moval, presentation pointers, law enforcement, ranging and sighting devices, welding applications, and much more. Using...other laser technology develop- ments. The first chemical laser, hydrogen fluoride ( HF ), was built in 1965, producing 1 kW. It was then that DoD became...energy laser (HEL) weapons. In industry, the more powerful CO2 lasers are used for weld - ing, drilling, and cutting. There are many different types

  5. Deterrence and Cyber-Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    67, no. 4 (2012): 41. 4 Scott Shackelford , “Estonia Three Years Later,” Journal of Internet Law 8, no. 13 (2010): 25. 3 weapons were employed...effects of 134 Scott Shackelford , “From Nuclear War to Net War: Analogizing Cyber-Attacks in...International Law,” (unpublished paper, Stanford University), 5-6. 135 Shackelford , unpublished paper, 76. 136 Ibid., 73. 137 Mary Ellen O’Connell, “Cyber

  6. An ambient experimental study of phase equilibrium in the atmospheric system: Aerosol H +, NH 4+, SO 2-4, NO 3--NH 3(g), HNO 3(g)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Roger L.

    A major simplification in the quantitative modeling of the atmospheric impact of the major aerosol and gaseous sulfur and nitrogen compounds would result from demonstration of phase equilibrium between the gases NH 3, HNO 3 and the appropriate aerosol-phase ionic or molecular species in the ambient atmosphere. The phase diagram of the (NH 4) 2SO 4-H 2SO 4-H 2O and NH 4NO 3-H 2O systems have been recently refined by experimental measurements and preliminary calculations of the mixed nitrate-sulfate system have also been made. Experiments to test the applicability of existing phase equilibria considerations to the ambient atmosphere have been designed and conducted based on newly devised techniques for continuous determination of gaseous NH 3 with time resolution acid and aerosol nitrate with time resolution of ~ 15 min. Preliminary results suggest that during a daytime period with aerosol composition approximating a letovicite-NH 4NO 3 mixture, observed products of NH 3 (g) and HNO 3(g) concentrations agreed very well with the equilibrium constant calculated for the ammonium nitrate-NH 3(g), HNO 3(g) equilibrium. During a night-time period, the predicted ammonia concentrations, based on bulk aerosol composition data, were much lower and nitric acid concentrations much higher, respectively, than the observed values. The error sources in the measured and calculated values do not appear to account for the apparent deviations from gas-phase concentrations based on the droplet-pH controlling bisulfate-sulfate equilibrium.

  7. 小口径速射舰炮武器系统反导射击方法研究%Antimissile Firing Method Research of Minor-caliber Rapid,-firing Naval Gun Weapon System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德耀; 孙朝江; 赵岩

    2011-01-01

    小口径速射舰炮受弹鼓容量及舰炮发射系统限制,一般不能在舰炮武器系统有效射击范围内全航路持续射击,这就要求对射击方法进行研究.应用蒙特卡洛法,在MATLAB软件平台上计算了小口径速射舰炮武器系统对匀速直线运动导弹的命中概率与弹丸相遇点距离间的关系,提出了以全航路最大概率命中导弹有效部位为基础制定射击终止点,反推射击起始点的射击方法,提高了舰炮武器系统在全航路射弹数限定条件下的命中概率;以舰炮武器系统跟踪器最大跟踪角速度限制因素为例,分析了导弹运动速度、航路捷径与射击区域的对应关系,并应用本方法对导弹典型航路的射击方案进行了仿真.仿真结果表明该方法在一定条件下能有效提高舰炮武器系统对导弹的全航路命中概率.%The magazine capacity and the launch system of naval gun are limit the minor-caliber rapid-firing naval gun to full-track continuous firing in the effective firing range of the naval gun weapon system, so we study the firing method. By means of Monte Carlo calculated the relationship between hit probability of minor-caliber rapid-firing naval gun weapon system on the missile of constant velocity movement and the distance of bullet meeting point in MATLAB. Based on full-track maximum probability hit the effective place of missile to set firing ending, to deduce firing beginning was presented and the method improved the hit probability of naval gun weapon system under the ammunition's limiting condition. Take the limiting factor of tracker's maximum tracking angular velocity as an example to analysis the relation of missile moving speed and track shortcut and firing area. And adopt this method to simulation the fire method of typical track of missile. Simulation results show that the method can effective increase full-track hit probability of naval gun weapon system on missile below some conditions.

  8. Aerosol modeling in CNRM-CM: evaluation of recent developments on natural aerosols and implications for aerosol radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabat, Pierre; Michou, Martine; Watson, Laura; Saint-Martin, David

    2017-04-01

    Aerosols interact with shortwave and longwave radiation with ensuing consequences on the radiative budget and climate. Their representation in climate models is consequently essential to estimate their radiative forcing and their role in the climate system. However, up to now, the evaluation of these aerosol schemes is often limited to the integrated atmospheric aerosol content given by the aerosol optical depth (AOD). In the climate model CNRM-CM, the TACTIC (Tropospheric Aerosols for ClimaTe in CNRM-CM, Michou et al., 2015) aerosol scheme includes the five main aerosol species (desert dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black carbon and organic matter). Recent developments have been carried out to improve the representation of natural aerosols, namely the inclusion of the parameterization of Grythe et al. (2014) for sea-salt emissions, the revision of the size distribution of sea-salt aerosols, and the increase of the number of bins to represent dust aerosols. The objective of this work is to evaluate the contribution of these developments to the representation of aerosols in CNRM-CM, using not only AOD from satellite data, but also aerosol vertical distribution and concentrations from in-situ measurements. Simulations have thus been carried out using different configurations of the aerosol scheme over the period 2000-2015, to allow for an evaluation against available measurements. The results show a relatively good performance of the model, but also reveal some discrepancies in the aerosol vertical distribution. The impact on the radiative budget of these changes in aerosol loads has been estimated, and shows the importance of the representation of natural aerosols for the estimation of aerosol radiative forcing.

  9. The Southern Ocean Clouds, Radiation, Aerosol Transport Experimental Study (SOCRATES): An Observational Campaign for Determining Role of Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation in Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarquhar, G. M.; Wood, R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Alexander, S.; Jakob, C.; Marchand, R.; Protat, A.; Quinn, P.; Siems, S. T.; Weller, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Ocean (SO) region is one of the cloudiest on Earth, and as such clouds determine its albedo and play a major role in climate. Evidence shows Earth's climate sensitivity and the Intertropical Convergence Zone location depend upon SO clouds. But, climate models are challenged by uncertainties and biases in the simulation of clouds, aerosols, and air-sea exchanges in this region which trace back to a poor process-level understanding. Due to the SO's remote location, there have been sparse observations of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, radiation and the air-sea interface apart from those from satellites. Plans for an upcoming observational program, SOCRATES, are outlined. Based on feedback on observational and modeling requirements from a 2014 workshop conducted at the University of Washington, a plan is described for obtaining a comprehensive dataset on the boundary-layer structure and associated vertical distributions of liquid and mixed-phase cloud and aerosol properties across a range of synoptic settings, especially in the cold sector of cyclonic storms. Four science themes are developed: improved climate model simulation of SO cloud and boundary layer structure in a rapidly varying synoptic setting; understanding seasonal and synoptic variability in SO cloud condensation and ice nucleus concentration and the role of local biogenic sources; understanding supercooled liquid and mixed-phase clouds and their impacts; and advancing retrievals of clouds, precipitation, aerosols, radiation and surface fluxes. Testable hypotheses for each theme are identified. The observational strategy consists of long-term ground-based observations from Macquarie Island and Davis, continuous data collection onboard Antarctic supply ships, satellite retrievals, and a dedicated field campaign covering 2 distinct seasons using in-situ and remote sensors on low- and high-altitude aircraft, UAVs, and a ship-borne platform. A timeline for these activities is proposed.

  10. Atmosphere aerosol satellite project Aerosol-UA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinevsky, Gennadi; Yatskiv, Yaroslav; Syniavskyi, Ivan; Bovchaliuk, Andrii; Degtyaryov, Oleksandr; Sosonkin, Mikhail; Mishchenko, Michael; Danylevsky, Vassyl; Ivanov, Yury; Oberemok, Yevgeny; Masley, Volodymyr; Rosenbush, Vera; Moskalev, Sergii

    2017-04-01

    The experiment Aerosol-UA is Ukrainian space mission aimed to the terrestrial atmospheric aerosol spatial distribution and microphysics investigations. The experiment concept is based on idea of Glory/APS mission of precise orbital measurements of polarization and intensity of the sunlight scattered by the atmosphere, aerosol and the surface the multichannel Scanning Polarimeter (ScanPol) with narrow field-of-view. ScanPol measurements will be accompanied by the wide-angle MultiSpectral Imager-Polarimeter (MSIP). The ScanPol is designed to measure Stokes parameters I, Q, U within the spectral range from the UV to the SWIR in a wide range of phase angles along satellite ground path. Expected ScanPol polarimetric accuracy is 0.15%. A high accuracy measurement of the degree of linear polarization is provided by on-board calibration of the ScanPol polarimeter. On-board calibration is performed for each scan of the mirror scanning system. A set of calibrators is viewed during the part of the scan range when the ScanPol polarimeter looks in the direction opposite to the Earth's surface. These reference assemblies provide calibration of the zero of the polarimetric scale (unpolarized reference assembly) and the scale factor for the polarimetric scale (polarized reference assembly). The zero of the radiometric scale is provided by the dark reference assembly.The spectral channels of the ScanPol are used to estimate the tropospheric aerosol absorption, the aerosol over the ocean and the land surface, the signals from cirrus clouds, stratospheric aerosols caused by major volcanic eruptions, and the contribution of the Earth's surface. The imager-polarimeter MSIP will collect 60°x60° field-of-view images on the state of the atmosphere and surface in the area, where the ScanPol polarimeter will measure, to retrieve aerosol optical depth and polarization properties of aerosol by registration of three Stokes parameters simultaneously in three spectral channels. The two more

  11. Defensive weapons and defense signals in plants: some metabolites serve both roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Daniel; Erb, Matthias; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    The defense of plants against herbivores and pathogens involves the participation of an enormous range of different metabolites, some of which act directly as defensive weapons against enemies (toxins or deterrents) and some of which act as components of the complex internal signaling network that insures that defense is timed to enemy attack. Recent work reveals a surprising trend: The same compounds may act as both weapons and signals of defense. For example, two groups of well-studied defensive weapons, glucosinolates and benzoxazinoids, trigger the accumulation of the protective polysaccharide callose as a barrier against aphids and pathogens. In the other direction, several hormones acting in defense signaling (and their precursors and products) exhibit activity as weapons against pathogens. Knowing which compounds are defensive weapons, which are defensive signals and which are both is vital for understanding the functioning of plant defense systems. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cooperative Security: A New Paradigm For A World Without Nuclear Weapons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Finaud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If there is a loose consensus on aiming at a world free of nuclear weapons in the future, there are clear oppositions as to the timeframe as well as the means for achieving this goal. The approach to nuclear disarmament followed to date has only yielded limited success because it has been conceived in isolation from global and regional security environments and threat perceptions. A new paradigm should thus be sought in order to reconcile nuclear powers’ security doctrines with global aspirations for a safer world, and ensure that nuclear powers derive their security less from others’ insecurity but from mutually beneficial cooperative security. This should not become a pretext for preserving nuclear weapons for ever. It will on the contrary require parallel tracks addressing the initial motivations for acquiring nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD, in particular in the context of regional conflicts, as well as dealing with the current issues necessarily related to nuclear disarmament (missile defence, weaponization of space, conventional imbalances and future weapon systems. Ultimately, in a globalised nuclear-weapon free world, state security will not require nuclear weapons because it will be inserted into a broader network encompass­ing all aspects of security addressed in cooperative and multilateral approaches.

  13. Modeling of metallic aerosol formation in a multicomponent system at high temperatures using a discrete-sectional model. Appendix 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    A multicomponent discrete-sectional model was used to simulate the fate of lead in a high temperature system. The results show the ability of the developed model to simulate metallic aerosol systems at high temperatures. The PbO reaction and nucleation rate can be determined by comparing the simulations and the experimental data. Condensation on SiO{sub 2} particle surfaces is found important for removing the PbO vapor. The value of the accommodation factor that is applied to account for nonidealities in the condensation process are determined. The differences between the nanosized particles and the bulk particles are elucidated. The use of such a model helped to understand the effects of various mechanisms in determining the metal oxide vapor concentration profile and in establishing the ultimate particle size distribution.

  14. Green and ultraviolet pulse generation with a compact, fiber laser, chirped-pulse amplification system for aerosol fluorescence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Janet W.; Currie, Marc; Sivaprakasam, Vasanthi; Eversole, Jay D.

    2010-10-01

    We use a compact chirped-pulse amplified system to harmonically generate ultrashort pulses for aerosol fluorescence measurements. The seed laser is a compact, all-normal dispersion, mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser with a 1050 nm center wavelength operating at 41 MHz. Average powers of more than 1.2 W at 525 nm and 350 mW at 262 nm are generated with biofluorescence measurements as it allows faster sampling rates as well as the higher peak powers as compared to previously demonstrated Q-switched systems while maintaining a pulse period that is longer than the typical fluorescence lifetimes. Thus, the fluorescence excitation can be considered to be quasicontinuous and requires no external synchronization and triggering.

  15. Inter-comparison of laboratory smog chamber and flow reactor systems on organic aerosol yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bruns

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of tools are used to simulate atmospheric aging, including smog chambers and flow reactors. Traditional, large-scale smog chambers age emissions over the course of hours to days, whereas flow reactors rapidly age emissions using high oxidant concentrations to reach higher degrees of oxygenation than typically attained in smog chamber experiments. The atmospheric relevance of the products generated under such rapid oxidation warrants further study. However, no previously published studies have compared the yields and chemical composition of products generated in flow reactors and smog chambers from the same starting mixture. The yields and composition of the organic aerosol formed from the photo-oxidation of α-pinene and of wood combustion emissions were determined using aerosol mass spectrometry in a smog chamber (SC and two flow reactors: a potential aerosol mass reactor (PAM and a micro-smog chamber (MSC. Reactants were sampled from the SC and aged in the MSC and PAM using a range of hydroxyl radical (OH concentrations and then photo-chemically aged in the SC. The maximum yields/emission factors and the chemical composition of the products in both the α-pinene and wood combustion systems determined with the PAM and SC agreed reasonably well. High OH exposures have been shown previously to lower yields by breaking carbon-carbon bonds and forming higher volatility species, which reside largely in the gas phase, however, fragmentation in the PAM was not observed. The yields determined using the PAM for the α-pinene system were slightly lower than in the SC, possibly from increased wall losses of gas-phase species due to the higher surface area to volume ratios in the PAM, even when offset with better isolation of the sampled flow from the walls. The α-pinene SOA results for the MSC were not directly comparable, as particles were smaller than the optimal AMS transmission range. For the wood combustion system, emission factors

  16. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  17. Proceedings of the Tungsten Workshop for Hard Target Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.; Davis, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to review and exchange information and provide technical input for improving technologies relevant to the Hard Target Weapons Program. This workshop was attended by representatives from 17 organizations, including 4 Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, 8 industrial companies, and 5 laboratories within DOE. Hard targets are defined as reinforced underground structures that house enemy forces, weapon systems, and support equipment. DOE-ORO and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) have been involved in advanced materials research and development (R&D) for several DOE and DoD programs. These programs are conducted in close collaboration with Eglin AFB, Department of the Army`s Picatinny Arsenal, and other DoD agencies. As part of this ongoing collaboration, Eglin AFB and Oak Ridge National Laboratory planned and conducted this workshop to support the Hard Target Weapons Program. The objectives of this workshop were to (1) review and identify the technology base that exists (primarily due to anti-armor applications) and assess the applicability of this technology to the Hard Target Weapons Program requirements; (2) determine future directions to establish the W materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies suitable for use in fixed, hard target penetrators; and (3) identify and prioritize the potential areas for technical collaboration among the participants.

  18. Characterization and Detection of Biological Weapons with Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin, A J; Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; McPherson, A

    2006-09-25

    Critical gaps exist in our capabilities to rapidly characterize threat agents which could be used in attacks on facilities and military forces. DNA-based PCR and immunoassay-based techniques provide unique identification of species, strains and protein signatures of pathogens. However, differentiation between naturally occurring and weaponized bioagents and the identification of formulation signatures are beyond current technologies. One of the most effective and often the only definitive means to identify a threat agent is by its direct visualization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a rapid imaging technique that covers the size range of most biothreat agents (several nanometers to tens of microns), is capable of resolving pathogen morphology and structure, and could be developed into a portable device for biological weapons (BW) field characterization. AFM can detect pathogens in aerosol, liquid, surface and soil samples while concomitantly acquiring their weaponization and threat agent digital signatures. BW morphological and structural signatures, including modifications to pathogen microstructural architecture and topology that occur during formulation and weaponization, provide the means for their differentiation from crude or purified unformulated agent, processing signatures, as well as assessment of their potential for dispersion, inhalation and environmental persistence. AFM visualization of pathogen morphology and architecture often provides valuable digital signatures and allows direct detection and identification of threat agents. We have demonstrated that pathogens, spanning the size range from several nanometers for small agricultural satellite viruses to almost half micron for pox viruses, and to several microns for bacteria and bacterial spores, can be visualized by AFM under physiological conditions to a resolution of {approx}20-30 {angstrom}. We have also demonstrated that viruses from closely related families could be differentiated by AFM on

  19. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a weapon...

  20. 基于使命和方法框架的武器装备体系结构建模%Stracture Modeling of Weapon Equipment System of Systems Based on Missions and Means Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶国青; 舒宇; 葛冰峰; 陈英武

    2012-01-01

    针对武器装备体系的特点,提出一种基于使命和方法框架(Missions and Means Framework,MMF)的武器装备体系结构建模方法.MMF模型包含使命的确定、方法的分配和使命完成的评价.采用使命-方法框架对武器装备体系进行组织和描述.在自上而下的规划和决策过程中,实现了使命的确定和方法的分配,以数据要素的形式完成对武器装备体系结构模型的构建.并以"超地平线登陆"作战装备体系为例,验证了该方法的可行性.%To model the stracture of weapon equipment system-of-systems (WESoS), a new method based on the mission and means framework (MMF) is presented according to its characteristics. The MMF model comprises the specification of the mission. allocation of the means and assessment of the mission accomplishment. Using the MMF to organize and describe the WESoS, It addresses the structure modeling of the WESoS as a top-down planning and decision making process that accomplishes the specification of the missions and the allocation of the means in data element form. The case study of the over-the-horizon landing WESoS demonstrates the feasibility of the method.

  1. Rainout assessment: the ACRA system and summaries of simulation results. [Computer systems to estimate threats from precipitation scavenging of radioactive debris clouds from nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, C.W.; Barr, S.; Allenson, R.E.

    1977-09-01

    A generalized, three-dimensional, integrated computer code system was developed to estimate collateral-damage threats from precipitation-scavenging (rainout) of airborne debris-clouds from defensive tactical nuclear engagements. This code system, called ACRA for Atmospheric-Contaminant Rainout Assessment, is based on Monte Carlo statistical simulation methods that allow realistic, unbiased simulations of probabilistic storm, wind, and precipitation fields that determine actual magnitudes and probabilities of rainout threats. Detailed models (or data bases) are included for synoptic-scale storm and wind fields; debris transport and dispersal (with the roles of complex flow fields, time-dependent diffusion, and multidimensional shear effects accounted for automatically); microscopic debris-precipitation interactions and scavenging probabilities; air-to-ground debris transport; local demographic features, for assessing actual threats to populations; and nonlinear effects accumulations from multishot scenarios. We simulated several hundred representative shots for West European scenarios and climates to study single-shot and multishot sensitivities of rainout effects to variations in pertinent physical variables.

  2. Optimization of Aimpoints for Coordinate Seeking Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    process. The program works by first taking in the number of weapons used and arranging them in a fixed uniform spacing on a circle centered on the...MATLAB program is used as the coding tool for the development of this algorithm and the optimization process. The program works by first taking in the...number of weapons used and arranging them in a fixed uniform spacing on a circle centered on the assumed target location. Then, the weapon

  3. On the robustness of aerosol effects on an idealized supercell storm simulated with a cloud system-resolving model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Morrison

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A cloud system-resolving model (the Weather Research and Forecasting model with 1 km horizontal grid spacing is used to investigate the response of an idealized supercell storm to increased cloud droplet concentrations associated with polluted conditions. The primary focus is on exploring robustness of simulated aerosol effects in the face of complex process interactions and feedbacks between the cloud microphysics and dynamics. Simulations are run using sixteen different model configurations with various microphysical or thermodynamic processes modified or turned off. Robustness of the storm response to polluted conditions is also explored for each configuration by performing additional simulations with small perturbations to the initial conditions. Differences in the domain-mean accumulated surface precipitation and convective mass flux between polluted and pristine conditions are small for almost all model configurations, with relative differences in each quantity generally less than 15%. Configurations that produce a decrease (increase in cold pool strength in polluted conditions also tend to simulate a decrease (increase in surface precipitation and convective mass flux. Combined with an analysis of the dynamical and thermodynamic fields, these results indicate the importance of interactions between microphysics, cold pool evolution, and dynamics along outflow boundaries in explaining the system response. Several model configurations, including the baseline, produce an overall similar storm response (weakening in polluted conditions despite having different microphysical or thermodynamic processes turned off. With hail initiation turned off or the hail fallspeed-size relation set to that of snow, the model produces an invigoration instead of weakening of the storm in polluted conditions. These results highlight the difficulty of foreseeing impacts of changes to model parameterizations and isolating process interactions that drive the system

  4. A different kind of weapon focus: simulated training with ballistic weapons reduces change blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J. Eric T.; Witt, Jessica K.; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Attentional allocation is flexibly altered by action-related priorities. Given that tools – and specifically weapons – can affect attentional allocation, we asked whether training with a weapon or holding a weapon during search would affect change detection. In three experiments, participants searched for changes to agents, shootable objects, or environments in the popular flicker paradigm. Participants trained with a simulated weapon or watched a video from the same training perspective and ...

  5. Aerosol measurement program strategy for global aerosol backscatter model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdle, David A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to propose a balanced program of aerosol backscatter research leading to the development of a global model of aerosol backscatter. Such a model is needed for feasibility studies and systems simulation studies for NASA's prospective satellite-based Doppler lidar wind measurement system. Systems of this kind measure the Doppler shift in the backscatter return from small atmospheric aerosol wind tracers (of order 1 micrometer diameter). The accuracy of the derived local wind estimates and the degree of global wind coverage for such a system are limited by the local availability and by the global scale distribution of natural aerosol particles. The discussions here refer primarily to backscatter model requirements at CO2 wavelengths, which have been selected for most of the Doppler lidar systems studies to date. Model requirements for other potential wavelengths would be similar.

  6. Aerosol measurement program strategy for global aerosol backscatter model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdle, David A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to propose a balanced program of aerosol backscatter research leading to the development of a global model of aerosol backscatter. Such a model is needed for feasibility studies and systems simulation studies for NASA's prospective satellite-based Doppler lidar wind measurement system. Systems of this kind measure the Doppler shift in the backscatter return from small atmospheric aerosol wind tracers (of order 1 micrometer diameter). The accuracy of the derived local wind estimates and the degree of global wind coverage for such a system are limited by the local availability and by the global scale distribution of natural aerosol particles. The discussions here refer primarily to backscatter model requirements at CO2 wavelengths, which have been selected for most of the Doppler lidar systems studies to date. Model requirements for other potential wavelengths would be similar.

  7. Aerosol and monsoon climate interactions over Asia: AEROSOL AND MONSOON CLIMATE INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhanqing [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Lau, W. K. -M. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Ramanathan, V. [Department of Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, University of California, San Diego California USA; Wu, G. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Ding, Y. [National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing China; Manoj, M. G. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Liu, J. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Qian, Y. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Li, J. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Zhou, T. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Fan, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Rosenfeld, D. [Institute of Earth Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem Israel; Ming, Y. [Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory, NOAA, Princeton New Jersey USA; Wang, Y. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Huang, J. [College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou China; Wang, B. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Hawaii USA; School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Xu, X. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Lee, S. -S. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Cribb, M. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Zhang, F. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Yang, X. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Zhao, C. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Takemura, T. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka Japan; Wang, K. [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Xia, X. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Yin, Y. [School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Zhang, H. [National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing China; Guo, J. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Zhai, P. M. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Sugimoto, N. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba Japan; Babu, S. S. [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram India; Brasseur, G. P. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg Germany

    2016-11-15

    Asian monsoons and aerosols have been studied extensively which are intertwined in influencing the climate of Asia. This paper provides a comprehensive review of ample studies on Asian aerosol, monsoon and their interactions. The region is the primary source of aerosol emissions of varies species, influenced by distinct weather and climatic regimes. On continental scale, aerosols reduce surface insolation and weaken the land-ocean thermal contrast, thus inhibiting the development of monsoons. Locally, aerosol radiative effects alter the thermodynamic stability and convective potential of the lower atmosphere leading to reduced temperatures, increased atmospheric stability, and weakened wind and atmospheric circulation. The atmospheric thermodynamic state may also be altered by the aerosol serving as cloud condensation nuclei or ice nuclei. Many mechanisms have been put forth regarding how aerosols modulate the amplitude, frequency, intensity, and phase of numerous monsoon climate variables. A wide range of theoretical, observational, and modeling findings on the Asian monsoon, aerosols, and their interactions are synthesized. A new paradigm is proposed on investigating aerosol-monsoon interactions, in which natural aerosols such as desert dust, black carbon from biomass burning, and biogenic aerosols from vegetation are considered integral components of an intrinsic aerosol-monsoon climate system, subject to external forcings of global warming, anthropogenic aerosols, and land use and change. Future research on aerosol-monsoon interactions calls for an integrated approach and international collaborations based on long-term sustained observations, process measurements, and improved models, as well as using observations to constrain model simulations and projections.

  8. 76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and Request for... ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This guidance would be used by licensees and certificate holders applying to the NRC to obtain enhanced weapons under the NRC's proposed rule titled ``Enhanced Weapons...

  9. 地面武器机动工程创新实践教学体系建设%The Construction of Ground Mobile Weapons Engineering Innovation and Practice Teaching System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏才; 闫清东

    2011-01-01

    Practice teaching plays an important role in improving the overall quality of students' innovative spirit and practical ability. To enhance the innovation and hands-on capability of undergraduates majored in ground mobile weapons engineering, an innovative practices teaching system featured with a combination of practical skill-training and innovation capacity-building in ground mobile weapons engineering was Set up, which combined the new development of the expertise and was based on modem technology and teaching philosophy. Provides a broad platform for independent design and development, the platform could help undergraduates their hands-on operation, expand training, simulation and design, which is extremely important to improve student learning and quality, practical and creative ability.%实践教学对于提高学生的综合素质、培养学生的创新精神和实践能力具有重要作用。为提升大学本科地面武器机动工程专业学生动手实践能力、创新能力,结合专业技术的新发展,依据现代技术和教育教学理念,建设实践技能锻炼和创新能力培养有机结合的地面武器机动工程专业创新实践教学体系。为大学生提供了动手操作、拓展训练、设计仿真和自主设计开发的广阔平台,对提高学生学习的兴趣和质量、实践能力和创新能力具有极其重要意义。

  10. A new zenith-looking narrow-band radiometer-based system (ZEN) for dust aerosol optical depth monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansa, A. Fernando; Cuevas, Emilio; Torres, Benjamín; Barreto, África; García, Rosa D.; Cachorro, Victoria E.; de Frutos, Ángel M.; López, César; Ramos, Ramón

    2017-02-01

    A new zenith-looking narrow-band radiometer based system (ZEN), conceived for dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) monitoring, is presented in this paper. The ZEN system comprises a new radiometer (ZEN-R41) and a methodology for AOD retrieval (ZEN-LUT). ZEN-R41 has been designed to be stand alone and without moving parts, making it a low-cost and robust instrument with low maintenance, appropriate for deployment in remote and unpopulated desert areas. The ZEN-LUT method is based on the comparison of the measured zenith sky radiance (ZSR) with a look-up table (LUT) of computed ZSRs. The LUT is generated with the LibRadtran radiative transfer code. The sensitivity study proved that the ZEN-LUT method is appropriate for inferring AOD from ZSR measurements with an AOD standard uncertainty up to 0.06 for AOD500 nm ˜ 0.5 and up to 0.15 for AOD500 nm ˜ 1.0, considering instrumental errors of 5 %. The validation of the ZEN-LUT technique was performed using data from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) Cimel Electronique 318 photometers (CE318). A comparison between AOD obtained by applying the ZEN-LUT method on ZSRs (inferred from CE318 diffuse-sky measurements) and AOD provided by AERONET (derived from CE318 direct-sun measurements) was carried out at three sites characterized by a regular presence of desert mineral dust aerosols: Izaña and Santa Cruz in the Canary Islands and Tamanrasset in Algeria. The results show a coefficient of determination (R2) ranging from 0.99 to 0.97, and root mean square errors (RMSE) ranging from 0.010 at Izaña to 0.032 at Tamanrasset. The comparison of ZSR values from ZEN-R41 and the CE318 showed absolute relative mean bias (RMB) < 10 %. ZEN-R41 AOD values inferred from ZEN-LUT methodology were compared with AOD provided by AERONET, showing a fairly good agreement in all wavelengths, with mean absolute AOD differences < 0.030 and R2 higher than 0.97.

  11. The comprehensive model system COSMO-ART – Radiative impact of aerosol on the state of the atmosphere on the regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stanelle

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A new fully online coupled model system developed for the evaluation of the interaction of aerosol particles with the atmosphere on the regional scale is described. The model system is based on the operational weather forecast model of the Deutscher Wetterdienst. Physical processes like transport, turbulent diffusion, and dry and wet deposition are treated together with photochemistry and aerosol dynamics using the modal approach. Based on detailed calculations we have developed parameterisations to examine the impact of aerosol particles on photolysis and on radiation. Currently the model allows feedback between natural and anthropogenic aerosol particles and the atmospheric variables that are initialized by the modification of the radiative fluxes. The model system is applied to two summer episodes, each lasting five days, with a model domain covering Western Europe and adjacent regions. The first episode is characterised by almost cloud free conditions and the second one by cloudy conditions. The simulated aerosol concentrations are compared to observations made at 700 stations distributed over Western Europe.

    For each episode two model runs are performed; one where the feedback between the aerosol particles and the atmosphere is taken into account and a second one where the feedback is neglected. Comparing these two sets of model runs, the radiative feedback on temperature and other variables is evaluated.

    In the cloud free case a clear correlation between the aerosol optical depth and changes in global radiation and temperature is found. In the case of cloudy conditions the pure radiative effects are superposed by changes in the liquid water content of the clouds due to changes in the thermodynamics of the atmosphere. In this case the correlation between the aerosol optical depth and its effects on temperature is low. However, on average a decrease in the 2 m temperature is still found.

    For the area of Germany we

  12. Armas estratégicas e poder no sistema internacional: o advento das armas de energia direta e seu impacto potencial sobre a guerra e a distribuição multipolar de capacidades Strategic weapons and power in international system: the arise of direct energy weapons and their potential impact over the war and multipolar distribution of capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Schiavo Ávila

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O pós-Guerra Fria (1991-2006 apresenta uma mudança significativa no cenário estratégico: a maior acessibilidade da tecnologia militar e o surgimento de novas armas capazes de modificar o poder coercitivo dos países - como as armas de energia direta - acabam pondo em xeque a ideia de que a primazia nuclear é condição suficiente para garantir a unipolaridade. Focando-se no atual recrudescimento das tensões entre EUA e Rússia - especialmente com a proposta norte-americana de implementação do Escudo Antimíssil no Leste Europeu - e analisando as relações de poder entre os três países, procuramos revelar que tipo de competição ocorrerá no sistema internacional nas próximas décadas. O presente artigo analisa as reais possibilidades de que a primazia nuclear norte-americana se torne efetiva, uma vez que, para tanto, é necessário o desarmamento estratégico das demais potências. Como uma guerra nuclear entre os três países possui um custo político muito elevado, as disputas tendem a ser decididas na esfera das operações. Para ilustrar esta última afirmação, usamos um cenário contrafactual de guerra nuclear limitada entre Estados Unidos, Rússia e China, por meio do qual tentamos evidenciar as precondições táticas e operacionais para uma eventual vitória da coalizão sino-russa.The evolution of the Post-Cold War (1991-2006 international system shows a significant amount of change regarding the strategic capabilities of United States, Russia, and China. The rise of a new class of strategic weapons called directed energy weapons (lasers and high power microwaves, as well as the great costs associated with the quest for nuclear primacy, demand closer examination of the current assumption about the links between nuclear primacy and unipolar distribution of power in the International System. Starting with the current tensions between US and Russia, we try to reveal in this article what kind of competition might be observed

  13. Lab-scale development of a high temperature aerosol particle sampling probe system for field measurements in thermochemical conversion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindskog, M.; Malik, A.; Pagels, J.; Sanati, M. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology

    2010-07-01

    Thermochemical conversion of biomass requires both combustion in an oxygen rich environment and gasification in an oxygen deficient environment. Therefore, the mass concentration of fly ash from combustion processes is dominated by inorganic compounds, and the particulate matter obtained from gasification is dominated by carbonaceous compounds. The fine fly ash particles can initiate corrosion and fouling and also increases emissions of fine particulates to the atmosphere. This study involved the design of a laboratory scale setup consisting of a high temperature sampling probe and an aerosol generation system to study the formation of fine particle from biomass gasification processes. An aerosol model system using potassium chloride (KCl) as the ash compound and Di Octyl Sebacate oil (DOS) as the volatile organic part was used to test the high temperature sampling probe. Tests conducted at 200 degrees C showed good reproducibility of the aerosol generator. The tests also demonstrated suitable dilution ratios which enabled the denuder to absorb all of the gaseous organic compounds in the set up, thus enabling measurement of only the particle phase. Condensable organic concentrations of 1-68 mg/m{sup 3} were easily handled by the high temperature sampling probe system, indicating that the denuder worked well. Additional tests will be performed using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMST) to verify that the denuder can capture all of the gaseous organic compounds also when condensed onto agglomerated soot particles. 6 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  14. Optical properties of mixed aerosol layers over Japan derived with multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yukari; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Pan, Xiaole; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Osada, Kazuo; Uno, Itsushi

    2017-02-01

    Mixing state of aerosols and optical properties including lidar ratio, particle depolarization ratio, and Ångström exponent were investigated at Fukuoka in western Japan using a multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidar (MMRL), various aerosol mass-concentration measurements, and a polarization optical particle counter during Winter-Spring 2015. Aerosol extinction coefficient, backscatter coefficient, and depolarization at 355 and 532 nm and attenuated backscatter coefficient at 1064 nm are obtained from the MMRL measurements. Ten aerosol episodes were classified into three categories (air pollution, mineral dust, and marine aerosol) based on aerosol mass-concentration measurements in the fine-mode (particle diameter Dplidar ratio for air pollution was 57±4 sr at 355 nm and 53±8 sr at 532 nm with Ångström exponent of 1.4±0.5. For mineral dust, a slightly high averaged lidar ratio (50±7 sr at 355 nm and 54±9 sr at 532 nm) was obtained with relatively high Ångström exponent of 0.8±0.3 owing to contributions from fine-mode particles (PMf). The mean particle depolarization ratios of 13±8% at 355 nm and 16±6% at 532 nm also suggest mixing of mineral dust and anthropogenic fine-mode aerosols. The lowest lidar ratio was obtained for marine case. Classification of aerosol types using the lidar ratio and particle depolarization ratio was conducted based on the results obtained in this study. The classified aerosol types almost corresponded to aerosol category obtained by previous studies. We found no remarkable correlation between the fraction of black carbon and the lidar ratio: this might be due to the complexity of the mixing state among various aerosols. The obtained lidar ratio was rather correlated with the ratio of PMf to PM10, representing the mixing state of fine- and coarse-mode particles.

  15. The Russian biological weapons program: vanished or disappeared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Dany; Wolfson, Ze'ev

    2004-01-01

    The legacy and arsenal of biological weapons Russia inherited from USSR in 1991 became a lingering unsolved issue, in terms of a prime strategic arm that ought to be eliminated, advisably, in accordance with the Biological Weapons Convention Russia is committed to, and considering further undertakings and declarations made by the Russian regime. Indeed, that inheritance was created by USSR as a powerful, highly sophisticated component of utmost importance within the Soviet military paradigm, based on a wide spectrum of virulent, stabilized pathogens and toxins plus delivery systems. Moreover, remarkably advanced biotechnologies were thus applied to procure stockpiles of military-grade pathogens and toxins. Yet, an intriguing debate aroused with regard to the extent of the weaponized biological inventory accumulated by USSR, as well as the in effect attitude of Russia towards perpetuating or wiping out that inheritance. It turned out to form a far reaching and challenging complexity, both strategically and scientifically. The present study concentrates on the strategic as well as scientific spheres shaping that overall issue at large, attempting to thoroughly analyze it through an innovative methodology. One main conclusion thereby reached at is that the Russian military still poses a potential menance, in terms of both stockpiled, probably deployable biological weapons, and prevailing production capacities.

  16. A fibre-optic UV system for H(2)SO(4) production in aerosol chambers causing minimal thermal effects

    CERN Document Server

    Kupc, A; Onnela, A; Duplissy, J; Mathot, S; Danielczok, A; Walther, H; Minginette, P; Rondo, L; Ickes, L; Curtius, J; Wagner, P E; Amorim, A; Lima, J M; Ehrhart, S; Kurten, A

    2011-01-01

    A novel fibre-optic UV illumination system for sulphuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) production has been developed. The illumination system described in this paper provides sufficient ultraviolet light (UV) power while causing practically no thermal effect on the aerosol chamber (temperature variation <0.005 degrees C at full UV illumination). A similar thermal stability has not been achieved in other comparable experimental set-ups so far. The spectrum provided by the fibre-optic UV system corresponds to the UVB region, illuminates the chamber in a reasonably uniform way and is comparable to the ground level actinic flux. The UV system has been installed for the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber experiments at CERN. Precise, easily-adjustable and reproducible concentrations of H(2)SO(4) were generated by adjusting the UV light intensity. This paper gives an overview on the design of this new system as well as insights on its performance and application. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Myocardial infarction after conduction electrical weapon shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, H; Bouzouita, K; Selmi, K; Chelli, M; Mokaddem, A; Ben Ameur, Y; Boujnah, M R

    2013-04-01

    Controversy persists over the safety of conducted electrical weapons, which are increasingly used by law enforcement agencies around the world. We report a case of 33-year-old man who had an acute inferior myocardial infarction after he was shot in the chest with an electrical weapon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Radioactive Fallout From Nuclear Weapons Testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Detonating nuclear weapons above ground sends radioactive materials into the atmosphere from the ground level up to very high elevations. Overtime, these materials settle out of the atmosphere and fall to the ground. Fallout typically contains hundreds of different radionuclides. Since the end of aboveground nuclear weapons testing, radionuclides have largely decayed away.

  19. Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the

  20. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  1. Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the

  2. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  3. Description and evaluation of tropospheric chemistry and aerosols in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tilmes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM, version 5, is now coupled to extensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, called CAM5-chem, and is available in addition to CAM4-chem in the Community Earth System Model (CESM version 1.2. Both configurations are well suited as tools for atmospheric-chemistry modeling studies in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, whether with internally derived "free running" (FR meteorology, or "specified dynamics" (SD. The main focus of this paper is to compare the performance of these configurations against observations from surface, aircraft, and satellite, as well as understand the origin of the identified differences. We particularly focus on comparing present-day methane lifetime estimates within the different model configurations, which range between 7.8 years in the SD configuration of CAM5-chem and 8.8 years in the FR configuration of CAM4-chem. We find that tropospheric surface area density is an important factor in controlling the burden of the hydroxyl radical (OH, which causes differences in tropical methane lifetime of about half a year between CAM4-chem and CAM5-chem. In addition, different distributions of nitrogen oxides (NOx produced from lightning production explain about half of the difference between SD and FR model versions in both CAM4-chem and CAM5-chem. Remaining differences in the tropical OH burden are due to enhanced tropical ozone burden in SD configurations compared to the FR versions, which are not only caused by differences in chemical production or loss, but also by transport and mixing. For future studies, we recommend the use of CAM5-chem, due to improved aerosol description and inclusion of aerosol-cloud interactions. However, smaller tropospheric surface area density in the current version of CAM5-chem compared to CAM4-chem results in larger oxidizing capacity in the troposphere and therefore a shorter methane lifetime.

  4. Fire and smoke in the earth system: Evaluating the impact of fire aerosols on regional and global climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosca, Michael G.

    Landscape and wildland fires across the globe emit black and organic carbon smoke particles that have atmospheric lifetimes of days to weeks. Some regions, like Africa, experience strong seasonal burning, and other regions, like equatorial Asia, experience substantial interannual variability associated with changes in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. In equatorial Asia, anthropogenic fires in tropical forests and peatlands produce regionally expansive smoke clouds that have important effects on atmospheric radiation and air quality. I estimated the height of smoke on Borneo and Sumatra and characterized its sensitivity to El Nino and regional drought. My measurements and analyses suggested that direct injection of smoke into the free troposphere within fire plumes was not an important mechanism for vertical mixing of aerosols in equatorial Asia. I also characterized the sensitivity of smoke clouds to regional drought, and investigated how climate responded to the smoke forcing using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), version 3. Together, the satellite and modeling results imply a possible positive feedback loop in which anthropogenic burning in the region intensifies drought stress during El Nino. I expanded the scope of this project beyond equatorial Asia and characterized the global climate response to smoke aerosols using the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), embedded within the Community Earth System Model (CESM). A combination of smoke-induced tropospheric heating and reduced surface temperatures increased equatorial subsidence and weakened and expanded the Hadley cells. As a consequence, precipitation decreased over tropical forests in South America, Africa and equatorial Asia. These results are consistent with the observed correlation between global temperatures and the strength of the Hadley circulation and studies linking black carbon tropospheric heating and tropical expansion.

  5. 基于任务的炮兵武器系统信息能力需求指标分析%Indexes Analysis of Artillery Weapon System Information Ability Requirements Based on Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆捷; 吴柏林; 郑斌; 赵瑾

    2011-01-01

    Information ability is regarded as an important part of combat requirement demonstration of artillery weapon system. Based on artillery mission procedure of future combat model-reconnaissance strike integration, the definition of information ability is put forwarded, the continuation of mission flow is taken as the premier of information flow continuation is also made as the conclusion based on the guarantee of information quantity and quality. Thus the three parts of information ability requirements of artillery weapon system are taken as information support ability, information defense ability, and information attack ability. The requirements indexes system and the corresponding indexes of information support ability and information defense ability are mainly discussed based on the criterion and method of building indexes system.%信息能力是炮兵武器系统作战需求论证中的一个重要内容,分析了信息能力的内涵,依据炮兵的未来作战模式-侦察打击一体化作战的炮兵任务流程,从完成火力毁伤任务的角度,得出在保证用户所需信息数量、质量的基础上,信息流的连续是任务流连续的前提的结论。在这一结论下,提出了炮兵武器系统的信息能力需求包含信息支持能力、信息防护能力和信息攻击能力3个方面,从构建指标体系原则、方法出发,结合炮兵的任务和武器系统编成特点,重点研究了信息支持能力、信息防护能力的需求指标体系及相应的测评指标。

  6. Childhood maltreatment and threats with weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, Hygiea; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between childhood maltreatment and future threats with weapons is unknown. We examined data from the nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 5692) and conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lifetime behavior of threatening others with a gun or other weapon. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing domestic violence were significantly associated with threats made with a gun (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] ranging between 3.38 and 4.07) and other weapons (AOR ranging between 2.16 and 2.83). The greater the number of types of maltreatment experienced, the stronger the association with lifetime threats made to others with guns and any weapons. Over 94% of respondents who experienced maltreatment and made threats reported that the maltreatment occurred prior to threatening others with weapons. Prevention efforts that reduce exposure to maltreatment may reduce violent behavior in later life.

  7. International Cooperative for Aerosol Prediction Workshop on Aerosol Forecast Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to reinforce the working partnership between centers who are actively involved in global aerosol forecasting, and to discuss issues related to forecast verification. Participants included representatives from operational centers with global aerosol forecasting requirements, a panel of experts on Numerical Weather Prediction and Air Quality forecast verification, data providers, and several observers from the research community. The presentations centered on a review of current NWP and AQ practices with subsequent discussion focused on the challenges in defining appropriate verification measures for the next generation of aerosol forecast systems.

  8. Weapon Involvement in the Victimization of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Hamby, Sherry L; Turner, Heather A; Shattuck, Anne; Jones, Lisa M

    2015-07-01

    To report the prevalence of weapons involved in the victimization of youth with particular emphasis on weapons with a "high lethality risk" and how such exposure fits into the broader victimization and life experiences of children and adolescents. Data were collected as part of the Second National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence, a nationally representative telephone survey of youth ages 2 to 17 years and caregivers (N = 4114) conducted in 2011. Estimates from the Second National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence indicate that almost 14 million youth, ages 2–17, in the United States have been exposed to violence involving a weapon in their lifetimes as witnesses or victims,or .1 in 5 children in this age group [corrected]. More than 2 million youth in the United States (1 in 33) have been directly assaulted in incidents where the high lethality risk weapons of guns and knives were used. Differences were noted between victimizations involving higher and lower lethality risk weapons as well as between any weapon involvement versus none. Poly-victims, youth with 7 or more victimization types, were particularly likely to experience victimization with any weapon, as well as victimization with a highly lethal weapon compared with nonpoly-victims. Findings add to the field's broadening conceptualization of youth victimization highlighting the potentially highly consequential risk factor of weapon exposure as a component of victimization experiences on the mental health of youth. Further work on improving gun safety practices and taking steps to reduce children's exposure to weapon-involved violence is warranted to reduce this problem. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Rudolf, F.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols affect the atmospheric energy balance by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation. They also can alter stratospheric chemical cycles by catalyzing heterogeneous reactions which markedly perturb odd nitrogen, chlorine and ozone levels. Aerosol measurements by satellites began in NASA in 1975 with the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) program, to be followed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) starting in 1979. Both programs employ the solar occultation, or Earth limb extinction, techniques. Major results of these activities include the discovery of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres in winter, illustrations of the impacts of major (El Chichon 1982 and Pinatubo 1991) eruptions, and detection of a negative global trend in lower stratospheric/upper tropospheric aerosol extinction. This latter result can be considered a triumph of successful worldwide sulfur emission controls. The SAGE record will be continued and improved by SAGE III, currently scheduled for multiple launches beginning in 2000 as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The satellite program has been supplemented by in situ measurements aboard the ER-2 (20 km ceiling) since 1974, and from the DC-8 (13 km ceiling) aircraft beginning in 1989. Collection by wire impactors and subsequent electron microscopic and X-ray energy-dispersive analyses, and optical particle spectrometry have been the principle techniques. Major findings are: (1) The stratospheric background aerosol consists of dilute sulfuric acid droplets of around 0.1 micrometer modal diameter at concentration of tens to hundreds of monograms per cubic meter; (2) Soot from aircraft amounts to a fraction of one percent of the background total aerosol; (3) Volcanic eruptions perturb the sulfuric acid, but not the soot, aerosol abundance by several orders of magnitude; (4) PSCs contain nitric acid at temperatures below 195K, supporting chemical hypotheses

  10. Aerosols, Clouds, and Precipitation as Scale Interactions in the Climate System and Controls on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Leo

    Clouds are major regulators of atmospheric energy flows. Their character depends on atmospheric composition, dynamics, and thermodynamic state. Clouds can assume organized structures whose scales are planetary, while processes important for determining basic properties occur on the scale of microns. The range of processes, scales, and interactions among them has precluded the development of concise theories for the role of clouds in climate, and limitations in modeling clouds in complex climate models remain among the key uncertainties in understanding and projecting climate change. The distribution function of vertical velocities (updraft speeds) in clouds is an important control on climate forcing by clouds and possibly a strong correlate with climate sensitivity. (Climate forcing refers to the change in Earth's energy balance as atmospheric composition changes, in particular, due to human activity. Climate sensitivity is defined here as the equilibrium change in globally averaged annual surface temperature as a result of doubled carbon dioxide.) Vertical velocities are central because they determine the thermodynamic environment governing phase changes of water, with both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena important. The spatial and temporal spectra of relevant vertical velocities includes scales both numerically resolved by climate models and below their resolution limit. The latter implies a requirement to parameterize these smaller scale motions in models. The scale dependence of vertical velocities and emerging observational constraints on their distribution provide new opportunities for representing aerosols, clouds, and precipitation in climate models. Success in doing so could provide important breakthroughs in understanding both climate forcing and sensitivity.

  11. The multi-viewing, multi-channel, multi-polarisation imager on board the future EUMETSAT Polar System - Second Generation and its application for the aerosol retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Munro, Rose; Lang, Ruediger; Lindstrot, Rasmus; Huckle, Roger; Marbach, Thierry; Poli, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol is a global phenomenon. Due to the small size of aerosol particles (typically, 0.1 - 10 micrometers) they are rarely observed by the naked eye. Nevertheless aerosol particles are present in atmospheric air in variable numbers (typically, 100-1000 particles per cubic centimeter of atmospheric air). The particles have different chemical composition, origin, shapes, and internal structure (e.g., dust particles covered by ice, etc.). They influence human health, air quality, climate, downwelling and upwelling radiation, clouds, and precipitation. It is therefore important to monitor aerosol properties on a global scale. Global scale information can only be provided by satellite observations and algorithms for the production of satellite-based aerosol products have been in use already for more than 40 years. In this work we present an update on the recently developed operational EUMETSAT aerosol retrieval algorithm for the Multi-viewing, multi-channel, multi-polarisation Imager (3MI) which will fly on board the future EUMETSAT Polar System Second Generation (EPS-SG), planned for launch in the 2021 timeframe. The 3MI is a two - dimensional push - broom radiometer dedicated to aerosol and cloud characterization for climate monitoring, air quality forecasting and numerical weather prediction with heritage from the POLDER instrument. The first three components of the Stokes vector of the reflected light (I, Q, and U) will be measured at 9 channels in the spectral range from 410 to 2130nm for up to 14 observation directions. Intensity measurements only will be performed at 763, 765, and 910nm. This enables the determination of the degree of linear polarization of reflected light and also the direction of the oscillations of the electric vector in the light beam. The 3MI design consists of a filter and polariser wheel rotating in front of the detectors. For design purposes the spectral channels have been split into VNIR and SWIR filters and polarisers with

  12. The Use of Nonlinear Acoustics as an Energy-Efficient Technique for Aerosol Removal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuen, W. T; Fu, S. C; Kwan, Joseph K. C; Chao, Christopher Y. H

    2014-01-01

    .... Unlike previous research, which used acoustics solely to cause aerosol agglomeration prior to aerosol removal in traditional duct collection systems, this article considers the acoustic streaming...

  13. Inter-comparison of laboratory smog chamber and flow reactor systems on organic aerosol yield and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, E. A.; El Haddad, I.; Keller, A.; Klein, F.; Kumar, N. K.; Pieber, S. M.; Corbin, J. C.; Slowik, J. G.; Brune, W. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-06-01

    A variety of tools are used to simulate atmospheric aging, including smog chambers and flow reactors. Traditional, large-scale smog chambers age emissions over the course of hours to days, whereas flow reactors rapidly age emissions using high oxidant concentrations to reach higher degrees of oxygenation than typically attained in smog chamber experiments. The atmospheric relevance of the products generated under such rapid oxidation warrants further study. However, no previously published studies have compared the yields and chemical composition of products generated in flow reactors and smog chambers from the same starting mixture. The yields and composition of the organic aerosol formed from the photo-oxidation of α-pinene and of wood-combustion emissions in a smog chamber (SC) and two flow reactors: a potential aerosol mass reactor (PAM) and a micro-smog chamber (MSC), were determined using aerosol mass spectrometry. Reactants were sampled from the SC and aged in the MSC and the PAM using a range of hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations and then photo-chemically aged in the SC. The chemical composition, as well as the maximum yields and emission factors, of the products in both the α-pinene and wood-combustion systems determined with the PAM and the SC agreed reasonably well. High OH exposures have been shown previously to lower yields by breaking carbon-carbon bonds and forming higher volatility species, which reside largely in the gas phase; however, fragmentation in the PAM was not observed. The yields determined using the PAM for the α-pinene system were slightly lower than in the SC, possibly from increased wall losses of gas phase species due to the higher surface area to volume ratios in the PAM, even when offset with better isolation of the sampled flow from the walls. The α-pinene SOA results for the MSC were not directly comparable, as particles were smaller than the optimal AMS transmission range. The higher supersaturation in the flow reactors

  14. Taser and Conducted Energy Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, Thomas G; Meriano, Tony

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that CEWs are an increasingly prevalent law enforcement tool, adopted to address a complex and challenging problem. The potential for serious injury from a single deployment of a CEW is extremely low. The debate regarding the link between these electrical weapons and sudden in-custody death is likely to continue because their use is often in complex and volatile situations. Any consideration of injuries has to be put into that context. One must also consider what injuries to a subject would result if an alternative force method was used. Furthermore, the potential benefits of CEWs, including reduction in injuries to the public and law-enforcement officers, need to be considered.

  15. Air guns: toys or weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sahin; Uzkeser, Mustafa; Katirci, Yavuz; Cakir, Zeynep; Bilir, Ozlem; Bilge, Fatih; Cakir, Murtaza

    2006-09-01

    Air guns and blank guns may appear relatively harmless at first glance, but they are, in fact, potentially destructive, even lethal, weapons. Approximately 2 to 2.5 million nonpowder firearms are sold annually, and again approximately 12.9 per 100,000 population are treated for such injuries in hospital emergency departments each year in the United States. Unfortunately, these guns are considered to be a toy for children. Therefore, incidents of air gun injuries are gradually increasing. Although such injuries may initially be considered trivial, it may signify severe internal tissue pathologies. These apparently trivial injuries may have catastrophic consequences if unnoticed. In this study, we report 4 cases with head injury due to a shot by these guns. The cases indicate that these people had used the guns belonging to their parents for the purpose of suicide. The cases also show that these machines are not innocent.

  16. Electronic eyebox for weapon sights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapiel, Stan; Greenhalgh, Catherine; Wagner, Kevin; Nobes, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    We expand the effective size of the eyebox of a magnified telescopic weapon sight by following the movements of the operator's eye to create a larger, `electronic eyebox'. The original eyebox of the telescope is dynamically relocated in space so that proper overlap between the pupil of the eye and the exit pupil of the device is maintained. Therefore, the operator will perceive the entire field of view of the instrument in a much bigger spatial region than the one defined by the original eyebox. Proof-of-the-concept results are presented with a more than 3.5X enlargement of the eyebox volume along with recommendations for the next phase of development.

  17. Performance EvaIuation System Design Based on BSC for the Acquisition of Weapons and Equipments%基于BSC的武器装备采购绩效评价体系设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹铁红; 谢文秀

    2014-01-01

    建立规范实用的武器装备采购绩效评价体系,是当前深入推进我军武器装备采购改革的迫切需要。在简要介绍平衡计分卡(balanced score card, BSC)主要内容和本质内涵的基础上,阐述基于 BSC 的武器装备采购绩效评价体系设计过程,建立了评价模型。%Currently,the driving for acquisition innovation in our army is urgently needed in es-tablishing the standard and applied performance evaluation system for the acquisition of weapons and equipments.On the basis of brief introduction of the content and essence of balanced score card (BSC),the process of performance evaluation system based on BSC is expatiated and the evaluation model are founded.

  18. Toward a nuclear weapons free world?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaranen, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

    1996-09-01

    Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

  19. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  20. Representation of the West African Monsoon System in the aerosol-climate model ECHAM6-HAM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanelle, Tanja; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bey, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    The West African Monsoon (WAM) is a major component of the global monsoon system. The temperature contrast between the Saharan land surface in the North and the sea surface temperature in the South dominates the WAM formation. The West African region receives most of its precipitation during the monsoon season between end of June and September. Therefore the existence of the monsoon is of major social and economic importance. We discuss the ability of the climate model ECHAM6 as well as the coupled aerosol climate model ECHAM6-HAM2 to simulate the major features of the WAM system. The north-south temperature gradient is reproduced by both model versions but all model versions fail in reproducing the precipitation amount south of 10° N. A special focus is on the representation of the nocturnal low level jet (NLLJ) and the corresponding enhancement of low level clouds (LLC) at the Guinea Coast, which are a crucial factor for the regional energy budget. Most global climate models have difficulties to represent these features. The pure climate model ECHAM6 is able to simulate the existence of the NLLJ and LLC, but the model does not represent the pronounced diurnal cycle. Overall, the representation of LLC is worse in the coupled model. We discuss the model behaviors on the basis of outputted temperature and humidity tendencies and try to identify potential processes responsible for the model deficiencies.

  1. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  2. [New challenges in the biological weapons convention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissonen, Susanna; Raijas, Tiina; Haikala, Olli; Hietala, Heikki; Virri, Markku; Nikkari, Simo

    2012-01-01

    Microbes and their toxins are biological weapons that can cause disease in humans, animals or plants, and which can be used with hostile intent in warfare and terrorism. Biological agents can be used as weapons of mass destruction and therefore, immense human and social and major economical damage can be caused. Rapid development of life sciences and technologies during the recent decades has posed new challenges to the Biological Weapons Convention. The Convention states that the States Parties to the BWC strive to ensure that the Convention remains relevant and effective, despite changes in science, technology or politics.

  3. The Spear: An Effective Weapon Since Antiquity

    OpenAIRE

    Robert E. Dohrenwend

    2012-01-01

    The spear is perhaps man’s oldest weapon, and may even be his oldest tool. Over the hundreds of thousands of years of the weapon’s existence, it evolved from a pointed stick into an efficient hunting missile, and then became the most effective hand-held bladed weapon humans ever devised. The spear and its use is the only martial art originally devised for use against species other than our own, and more than any other weapon, the spear emphasizes the relationship between hunting and warfare. ...

  4. Chemical Demilitarization Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (Chem Demil-ACWA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    access machines , two (2) rocket cutting and shearing lines, two (2) neutralization system sampling stations, and three (3) Supercritical Water Oxidation...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-243 Chemical Demilitarization-Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (Chem Demil-ACWA) As...Abbreviations for MDAP Programs Acq O&M - Acquisition-Related Operations and Maintenance ACAT - Acquisition Category ADM - Acquisition Decision

  5. Advanced Naval Surface fire support weapon employment against mobile targets

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Hung B.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Key threat trends have identified shortfalls in Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS), a mission area that is undergoing rapid evolution. The Navy's ability to effectively provide sea-based fire support to ground forces is profoundly challenged by mobile and reduced dwell time targets. Furthermore, longer range enemy weapon systems, which must be destroyed at greater ranges prior to their engagement of friendly forces, will make NSFS timel...

  6. 36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or...

  7. 43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives and dangerous weapons. 15.11... § 15.11 Explosives and dangerous weapons. No person shall carry, use or possess within the Preserve... other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond the...

  8. A different kind of weapon focus: simulated training with ballistic weapons reduces change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Eric T; Witt, Jessica K; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Attentional allocation is flexibly altered by action-related priorities. Given that tools - and specifically weapons - can affect attentional allocation, we asked whether training with a weapon or holding a weapon during search would affect change detection. In three experiments, participants searched for changes to agents, shootable objects, or environments in the popular flicker paradigm. Participants trained with a simulated weapon or watched a video from the same training perspective and then searched for changes while holding a weapon or a control object. Results show an effect of training, highlighting the importance of sensorimotor experience for the action-relevant allocation of attention, and a possible interaction between training and the object held during search. Simulated training with ballistic weapons reduces change blindness. This result has implications for the interaction between tool use and attentional allocation.

  9. Development of an Operational System for the Retrieval of Aerosol and Land Surface Properties from the Terra Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Kathleen A.

    2003-01-01

    An operational system to retrieve atmospheric aerosol and land surface properties using data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument, currently flying onboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, has been deployed. The system is in full operation, with new data products generated daily and distributed to science users worldwide. This paper describes the evolution of the system, from initial requirements definition and prototyping through design, implementation, testing, operational deployment, checkout and maintenance activities. The current status of the system and future plans for enhancement are described. Major challenges encountered during implementation are detailed.

  10. Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotblat, J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)

  11. Weapons dismantlement issues in independent Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, N.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kirk, E.J. [American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a seminar during September 1993, in Kiev, Ukraine, entitled ``Toward a Nuclear Free Future -- Barriers and Problems.`` It brought together Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Americans to discuss the legal, political, safeguards and security, economic, and technical dimensions of nuclear weapons dismantlement and destruction. US representatives initiated discussions on legal and treaty requirements and constraints, safeguards and security issues surrounding dismantlement, storage and disposition of nuclear materials, warhead transportation, and economic considerations. Ukrainians gave presentations on arguments for and against the Ukraine keeping nuclear weapons, Ukrainian Parliament non-approval of START I, alternative strategies for dismantling silos and launchers, and economic and security implications of nuclear weapons removal from the Ukraine. Participants from Belarus discussed proliferation and control regime issues, This paper will highlight and detail the issues, concerns, and possible impacts of the Ukraine`s dismantlement of its nuclear weapons.

  12. Computational Challenges in Nuclear Weapons Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillain, C F; Adams, T F; McCoy, M G; Christensen, R B; Pudliner, B S; Zika, M R; Brantley, P S; Vetter, J S; May, J M

    2003-08-29

    After a decade of experience, the Stockpile Stewardship Program continues to ensure the safety, security and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons. The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) program was established to provide leading edge, high-end simulation capabilities needed to meet the program's assessment and certification requirements. The great challenge of this program lies in developing the tools and resources necessary for the complex, highly coupled, multi-physics calculations required to simulate nuclear weapons. This paper describes the hardware and software environment we have applied to fulfill our nuclear weapons responsibilities. It also presents the characteristics of our algorithms and codes, especially as they relate to supercomputing resource capabilities and requirements. It then addresses impediments to the development and application of nuclear weapon simulation software and hardware and concludes with a summary of observations and recommendations on an approach for working with industry and government agencies to address these impediments.

  13. Aerosol Inlet Characterization Experiment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Robert L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kuang, Chongai [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Uin, Janek [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerosol Observation System inlet stack was characterized for particle penetration efficiency from 10 nm to 20 μm in diameter using duplicate scanning mobility particle sizers (10 nm-450 nm), ultra-high-sensitivity aerosol spectrometers (60 nm-μm), and aerodynamic particle sizers (0.5 μm-20 μm). Results show good model-measurement agreement and unit transmission efficiency of aerosols from 10 nm to 4 μm in diameter. Large uncertainties in the measured transmission efficiency exist above 4 μm due to low ambient aerosol signal in that size range.

  14. A Bioluminescence Assay System for Imaging Metal Cationic Activities in Urban Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Naganawa, Ryuichi; Murata, Shingo; Nakayama, Takayoshi; Miller, Simon; Senda, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    A bioluminescence-based assay system was fabricated for an efficient determination of the activities of air pollutants. The following four components were integrated into this assay system: (1) an 8-channel assay platform uniquely designed for simultaneously sensing multiple optical samples, (2) single-chain probes illuminating toxic chemicals or heavy metal cations from air pollutants, (3) a microfluidic system for circulating medium mimicking the human body, and (4) the software manimulating the above system. In the protocol, we briefly introduce how to integrate the components into the system and the application to the illumination of the metal cationic activities in air pollutants.

  15. Europium-155 in Debris from Nuclear Weapons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Lippert, Jørgen Emil

    1967-01-01

    The lithium-drifted germanium detector enables determination of europium-155 on a routine basis in environmental samples contaminated with debris from nuclear weapons. From measurements of europium-155, cesium-144, and strontium-90 in air filters collected between 1961 and 1966, the yield...... of europium-155 from weapons was estimated at 1400 atoms per 10$^{6}$ fissions, which is close to the yield of europium-155 from fast fission of uranium-238....

  16. [Medical aspects of common non-lethal weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Grove, Christina; Monticelli, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    The development and provision of non-lethal weapons (NLW) allow military and law enforcement personnel to exploit gradual engagement in countering potentially hazardous threats. Chemical, kinetic and electrical weapons systems are used to curb violence in civilian crowds. With inappropriate usage, these technologies can cause potentially fatal injuries that are not only of clinical, but also of legal relevance. In this context, the practicing physician is faced with treatment as well as assessment issues of new forms of injuries. In order to assure medical care and to be able to draw competent expert's conclusions, a detailed knowledge of the medical effects of these NLW is necessary. The review at hand presents today's most popular NLW and gives an overview of their possible injury potential and required treatments.

  17. Setup and first airborne application of an aerosol optical properties package for the In-service Aircraft Global Observing System IAGOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundke, Ulrich; Freedman, Andrew; Herber, Andreas; Mattis, Ina; Berg, Marcel; De Faira, Julia; Petzold, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric aerosol influences the climate twofold via the direct interaction with solar radiation and indirectly effecting microphysical properties of clouds. The latter has the largest uncertainty according to the last IPPC Report. A measured in situ climatology of the aerosol microphysical and optical properties is needed to reduce the reported uncertainty of the aerosol climate impact. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. The prototype of the IAGOS Aerosol Package (IAGOS-P2E) consists of two modified CAPS (Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift) instruments from Aerodyne Research, Inc. and one optical particle counter (Model Grimm Sky OPC 1.129). The CAPS PMex monitor provides a measurement of the optical extinction (the sum of scattering and absorption) of an ambient sample of particles. There is a choice of 5 different wavelengths - blue (450 nm), green (530 nm), red (630 nm), far red (660 nm) and near infrared (780 nm) - which match the spectral bands of most other particle optical properties measurement equipment. In our prototype setup we used the instrument operating at 630nm wavelength (red). The second CAPS instrument we have chosen is the CAPS NO2 monitor. This instrument provides a direct absorption measurement of nitrogen dioxide in the blue region of the electromagnetic spectrum (450 nm). Unlike standard chemiluminescence-based monitors, the instrument requires no conversion of NO2 to another species and thus is not sensitive to other nitro-containing species. In the final IAGOS Setup, up to 4 CAPS might be used to get additional aerosol properties using the

  18. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

  19. Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-06-04

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  20. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pitschmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  1. Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

  2. The bioscience revolution & the biological weapons threat: levers & interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greg

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December 2008, the US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism, released a report, World At Risk. The Report points to the fact that, not only is the use of a weapon of mass destruction in a terrorist attack before the end of 2013, more likely than not, but also to the fact that terrorists are more likely to be able to obtain and use biological weapons than nuclear. This paper examines the recommendations of the report in the context of the historic and geopolitical changes, in particular globalization. The authors highlight the "dual-use" dilemma, as described in the report, as the paradoxical use of technology developed for the benefit of mankind being used for sinister purposes. The mitigation of such a threat lies in broad stakeholder involvement and cooperation, including non-state actors, governments and the bio-tech industry itself. The importance of vigilance measures within the life science community is emphasized and, the authors propose, could include a web-based didactic course in bioterrorism and weapons of mass destruction identification. The site could outline safety protocols, have detailed disaster management tutorials, and could be specifically tailored for different subsets of industry and health professionals. The paper concludes with an endorsement of a multi-pronged approach including strong international guidelines and intelligence cooperation and preparatory measures such as the wide-spread use of detection systems as well as diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism detection at the local level.

  3. Armies of pestilence: CNS infections as potential weapons of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, B L; Ketai, L

    2015-06-01

    Infectious agents have been investigated, developed, and used by both governments and terrorist groups as weapons of mass destruction. CNS infections, though traditionally considered less often than respiratory diseases in this scenario, may be very important. Viruses responsible for encephalitides can be highly infectious in aerosol form. CNS involvement in anthrax is ominous but should change treatment. Brucellosis, plague, Q fever, and other bacteria can uncommonly manifest with meningoencephalitis and other findings. Emerging diseases may also pose threats. We review infectious agents of particular concern for purposes of biowarfare with respect to CNS manifestations and imaging features. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical. The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA and butylamine (BA reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25. Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3, contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3 was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2, as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3. Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM WEAPON TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1958-10-01

    The program of the Atomic Energy Commission on environmental contamination from weapons tests is designed for the overall evaluation of the hazard to humans from test operations. It is limited to studies of the deposition of activity at long range rather than the problems associated with immediate, close-in fallout. The program has largely been a study of Sr{sup 90}, since considerations based on experience and measurement indicate that it is the isotope of greatest potential hazard. Data are presented pertinent to the monitoring of long-range fallout, particularly Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137}. Values are tabulated for the fallout deposition, air concentrations, water concentrations, and the amounts in foods and human bone. In addition, results are given for some experimental investigations. The report of these results is not interpretative although certain papers that do attempt to interpret the present situation with respect to Sr{sup 90} in particular are reprinted. Bibliographies are presented covering the period since the 1957 hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy concerning the nature of radioactive fallout and its effects on man. A document list of submissions to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation is given to illustrate the work done in other countries. Several papers on the subject, which have not been generally available, are reprinted.

  6. Virtualization of AEGIS: A Study of the Feasibility of Applying Open Architecture Technology to the Surface Navy’s Most Complex Automated Weapon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    diagnostics system. Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE , 9(2), 40–45. Current version released August 2002 in IEEE Xplore . doi: 10.1109...Cramming more components onto integrated circuits. Electronics, 114–117. Reprinted January 1998 in Proceedings of the IEEE , 86(1), 82–85. doi: S 0018

  7. Evolution of microbial aerosol behaviour in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems--quantification of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Penicillium oxalicum viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthomme, A; Andrès, Y; Joubert, A; Simon, X; Duquenne, P; Bemer, D; Le Coq, L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an experimental set-up and a methodology to uniformly contaminate several filter samples with high concentrations of cultivable bacteria and fungi. An experimental set-up allows contaminating simultaneously up to four filters for range of velocities representative of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems. The test aerosol was composed of a microbial consortium of one bacterium (Staphylococcus epidermidis) and one fungus (Penicillium oxalicum) and aerosol generation was performed in wet conditions. Firstly, the experimental set-up was validated in regards to homogeneity of the air flows. The bioaerosol was also characterized in terms of number and particle size distribution using two particle counters: optical particle counter Grimm 1.109 (optical diameters) and TSI APS 3321 (aerodynamic diameters). Moreover, stabilities of the number of particles generated were measured. Finally, concentrations of cultivable microorganisms were measured with BioSamplers (SKC) downstream of the four filters.

  8. Aerosol and monsoon climate interactions over Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Lau, W. K.-M.; Ramanathan, V.; Wu, G.; Ding, Y.; Manoj, M. G.; Liu, J.; Qian, Y.; Li, J.; Zhou, T.; Fan, J.; Rosenfeld, D.; Ming, Y.; Wang, Y.; Huang, J.; Wang, B.; Xu, X.; Lee, S.-S.; Cribb, M.; Zhang, F.; Yang, X.; Zhao, C.; Takemura, T.; Wang, K.; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zhang, H.; Guo, J.; Zhai, P. M.; Sugimoto, N.; Babu, S. S.; Brasseur, G. P.

    2016-12-01

    biomass burning, and biogenic aerosols from vegetation are considered integral components of an intrinsic aerosol-monsoon climate system, subject to external forcing of global warming, anthropogenic aerosols, and land use and change. Future research on aerosol-monsoon interactions calls for an integrated approach and international collaborations based on long-term sustained observations, process measurements, and improved models, as well as using observations to constrain model simulations and projections.

  9. High-Resolution Modeling of the Predictability of Convective Systems, and Influences by Absorbing Aerosols Over Northern India and the Himalayas Foothills During Boreal Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K.-M.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Shi, Jainn; Tan, Qian; Chin, Mian; Matsui, Toshihisa; Bian, Huisheng

    2011-01-01

    The Himalayas foothills region (HFR) is an important component of the South Asian monsoon. To the south, the HFR borders the fertile, populous, and heavily polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). To the north, it rises to great height (approx. 4-5 km) to the Tibetan Plateau over a distance of less than 100 km. The HFR itself consists of complex mountainous terrain, with strong orographic forcing for precipitation. During the late spring and early summer, dust aerosol from the Thar and Middle East deserts , as well as moisture from the Arabian Sea were transported to the western part of the western part of the IGP and foothills spurs pre-monsoon severe thunderstorm over the region. During the monsoon season (mid June -August) convection from the Bay of Bengal, spread along the foothills northwestward to northern Pakistan. Recent climate model studies and preliminary observations have indicted not only the importance of dynamical forcing of precipitation in the HFR, but also possible strong impacts by the dense aerosols, from both local sources, and remote transport, that blanket the IGP from late spring up to the onset of the monsoon in June, and during monsoon breaks in July. In this work, we use the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (Nu-WRF) model to study the predictability ( 1-7 days) South Asian monsoon rainfall system. Results of 7 -day forecast experiments using an embedded domain of 27 km and 9 km resolution were conducted for the period June 11- July 15, 2008, with and without aerosol forcing are carried out to assess the intrinsic predictability of rainfall over the HFR, and possible impacts by aerosol direct effect, and possible connection of large-scale South Asian monsoon system.

  10. Semi-automated bacterial spore detection system with micro-fluidic chips for aerosol collection, spore treatment and ICAN DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Hisao; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Matsuzawa, Mitsuhiro; Sasaki, Yasuhiko; Togashi, Shigenori; Komano, Asuka; Seto, Yasuo

    2009-07-15

    A semi-automated bacterial spore detection system (BSDS) was developed to detect biological threat agents (e.g., Bacillus anthracis) on-site. The system comprised an aerosol sampler, micro-fluidic chip-A (for spore germination and cell lysis), micro-fluidic chip-B (for extraction and detection of genomic DNA) and an analyzer. An aerosol with bacterial spores was first collected in the collection chamber of chip-A with a velocity of 300 l/min, and the chip-A was taken off from the aerosol sampler and loaded into the analyzer. Reagents packaged in the chip-A were sequentially applied into the chamber. The genomic DNA extract from spore lyzate was manually transferred from chip-A to chip-B and loaded into the analyzer. Genomic DNA in chip-B was first trapped on a glass bead column, washed with various reagents, and eluted to the detection chamber by sequential auto-dispensing. Isothermal and chimeric primer-initiated amplification of nucleic acids (ICAN) with fluorescent measurement was adopted to amplify and detect target DNA. Bacillus subtilis was the stimulant of biological warfare agent in this experiment. Pretreatment conditions were optimized by examining bacterial target DNA recovery in the respective steps (aerosol collection, spore germination, cell lysis, and DNA extraction), by an off-chip experiment using a real-time polymerase chain reaction quantification method. Without the germination step, B. subtilis spores did not demonstrate amplification of target DNA. The detection of 10(4) spores was achieved within 2h throughout the micro-fluidic process.

  11. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  12. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  13. Primary Polymer Aging Processes Identified from Weapon Headspace Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D M; Bazan, J M; Ithaca, J G

    2002-03-25

    A current focus of our weapon headspace sampling work is the interpretation of the volatile chemical signatures that we are collecting. To help validate our interpretation we have been developing a laboratory-based material aging capability to simulate material decomposition chemistries identified. Key to establishing this capability has been the development of an automated approach to process, analyze, and quantify arrays of material combinations as a function of time and temperature. Our initial approach involves monitoring the formation and migration of volatile compounds produced when a material decomposes. This approach is advantageous in that it is nondestructive and provides a direct comparison with our weapon headspace surveillance initiative. Nevertheless, this approach requires us to identify volatile material residue and decomposition byproducts that are not typically monitored and reported in material aging studies. Similar to our weapon monitoring method, our principle laboratory-based method involves static headspace collection by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). SPME is a sorbent collection technique that is ideally suited for preconcentration and delivery of trace gas-phase compounds for analysis by GC. When combined with MS, detection limits are routinely in the low- and sub-ppb ranges, even for semivolatile and polar compounds. To automate this process we incorporated a robotic sample processor configured for SPME collection. The completed system will thermally process, sample, and analyze a material sample. Quantification of the instrument response is another process that has been integrated into the system. The current system screens low-milligram quantities of material for the formation or outgas of small compounds as initial indicators of chemical decomposition. This emerging capability offers us a new approach to identify and non-intrusively monitor decomposition mechanisms that are

  14. Correlates of weapon carrying among high school students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter

    2008-01-01

    Background Deaths and injuries arising from interpersonal violence among adolescents are major public health concerns in the United States. The bearing of weapons among adolescents is a critical factor in many of these deaths and injuries. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2005 United States Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System Survey data was carried out to examine the variables associated with self-reported history of weapon carrying on school property among high school students. We used logistic regression analysis to assess the associations. Results Of the 13,707 respondents who participated in the survey, 10.2% of males and 2.6% of females reported carrying a weapon on school property. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, males were more likely to report having carried a weapon than females (odds ratio (OR) = 5.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) [4.23, 7.62]). Self-reported race/ethnicity was also associated with weapon carrying. Other variables positively associated with weapon carrying at school were substance use (OR = 1.77; 95% CI [1.16, 2.68]), depression (OR = 1.44; 95% CI [1.10, 1.89]), suicidal ideation (OR = 1.64; 95% CI [1.23, 2.19]), having had property stolen or deliberately damaged at school (OR = 1.55; 95% CI [1.21, 1.98]), having been raped (OR = 1.70; 95% CI [1.22, 2.37]), having been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property (OR = 2.19; 95% CI [1.63, 2.95]), and having engaged in physical fighting (OR = 2.02; 95% CI [1.56, 2.63]). Conclusion This research identifies factors that are associated with weapon bearing among adolescents in the United States. These factors may be important in the design of interventions aimed at improving school safety and adolescent health. PMID:18605995

  15. Combat Effectiveness Analysis of a Certain Self-Propelled Cannon-Howitzer Weapon System(Battalion Level)%某型自行加榴炮武器系统(营级)作战效能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢漪; 许梅生

    2013-01-01

      通过对某型自行加榴炮系统(营级)作战任务剖面分析,给出在一次典型战斗过程中炮兵营系统的作战流程。采用ADC模型,对该型武器系统(营级)初始可用度、各节点可信度以及作战能力向量进行量化分析;并把武器系统的状态在执行任务过程中的变化看成是时间连续的马氏链,进而求取炮兵营在执行任务过程中作战效能的变化,为炮兵营作战行动提供科学依据。%Based on the analysis of one classical combat flow of Artillery Camp system on the combat mission section of a certain self-propelled cannon-howitzer. With the ADC model,it analyses particular iy and calculations on primary availability degree,node reliability and combat capacity about Artillery Camp;And take the appearance of the weapon system in the mission process as continuous-time Markov Chain,The change of combat effectiveness is attained during a little time as Artillery Camp implementing mission at final. The result will offer scientific proving for combat maneuver of Artillery Camp.

  16. Modern weapons and military equipment for issue no. 3-2015

    OpenAIRE

    ЙЕВТИЧ МИЛОШ М.

    2015-01-01

    Optimal features for concealed carry weapons. The specificity of jobs and tasks that require concealed carrying of weapons by officials require specific criteria when choosing personal weapons specialist.

  17. MODERN WEAPONS AND MILITARY EQUIPMENT FOR ISSUE NO. 3-2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Optimal features for concealed carry weapons. The specificity of jobs and tasks that require concealed carrying of weapons by officials require specific criteria when choosing personal weapons specialist.

  18. U.S. Nuclear Weapons Modernization - the Stockpile Life Extension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Donald

    2016-03-01

    Underground nuclear testing of U.S. nuclear weapons was halted by President George H.W. Bush in 1992 when he announced a moratorium. In 1993, the moratorium was extended by President Bill Clinton and, in 1995, a program of Stockpile Stewardship was put in its place. In 1996, President Clinton signed the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Twenty years have passed since then. Over the same time, the average age of a nuclear weapon in the stockpile has increased from 6 years (1992) to nearly 29 years (2015). At its inception, achievement of the objectives of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) appeared possible but very difficult. The cost to design and construct several large facilities for precision experimentation in hydrodynamics and high energy density physics was large. The practical steps needed to move from computational platforms of less than 100 Mflops/sec to 10 Teraflops/sec and beyond were unknown. Today, most of the required facilities for SSP are in place and computational speed has been increased by more than six orders of magnitude. These, and the physicists and engineers in the complex of labs and plants within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) who put them in place, have been the basis for underpinning an annual decision, made by the weapons lab directors for each of the past 20 years, that resort to underground nuclear testing is not needed for maintaining confidence in the safety and reliability of the U.S stockpile. A key part of that decision has been annual assessment of the physical changes in stockpiled weapons. These weapons, quite simply, are systems that invariably and unstoppably age in the internal weapon environment of radioactive materials and complex interfaces of highly dissimilar organic and inorganic materials. Without an ongoing program to rebuild some components and replace other components to increase safety or security, i.e., life extending these weapons, either underground testing would again be

  19. Using the OMI aerosol index and absorption aerosol optical depth to evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Randles, C. A.; Govindaraju, R.; Torres, O.; Campbell, J.; Spurr, R.

    2015-05-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV aerosol index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). MERRAero is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model that is radiatively coupled to the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) aerosol module and includes assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), aerosol retrievals from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain potential misplacement of plume height by the model. By sampling dust, biomass burning and pollution events in 2007 we have compared model-produced AI and AAOD with the corresponding OMI products, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols was deficient. As a result of this study over the Saharan dust region, we have obtained a new set of dust aerosol optical properties that retains consistency with the MODIS AOD data that were assimilated, while resulting in better agreement with aerosol absorption measurements from OMI. The analysis conducted over the southern African and South American biomass burning regions indicates that revising the spectrally dependent aerosol absorption properties in the near-UV region improves the modeled-observed AI comparisons

  20. Analysis of the design concept of 'Nora' family artillery weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas L. Paligorić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of the NORA family started as far as back to 1976 at the Military Technical Institute of the Yugoslav's People's Army. The programme covered development of several types of the main artillery weapon: the 152 mm NORA-A towed gun-howitzer, the 152 mm NORA-B self-propelled gun-howitzer and the 152 mm gun-howitzer with APU. Under the same programme, the conversion of the Russian 130 mm towed gun M46 into the 155 mm M46/84 gun (for export needs and the 152 mm M46/86 gun respectively (for the needs of the YPA was completed. Only the 152 mm M84 (NORA-A towed howitzer was introduced in service, while the development of the NORA-B and NORA-C weapons was carried on until 1992. After it had been suspended for many years, the development of the NORAB weapon was continued in 2003, followed by serial production of the 155 mm NORA-B52 self-propelled system for the export needs.

  1. Depleted-Uranium Weapons the Whys and Wherefores

    CERN Document Server

    Gsponer, A

    2003-01-01

    The only military application in which present-day depleted-uranium (DU) alloys out-perform tungsten alloys is long-rod penetration into a main battle-tank's armor. However, this advantage is only on the order of 10% and disappearing when the comparison is made in terms of actual lethality of complete anti-tank systems instead of laboratory-type steel penetration capability. Therefore, new micro- and nano-engineered tungsten alloys may soon out-perform existing DU alloys, enabling the production of tungsten munition which will be better than uranium munition, and whose overall life-cycle cost will be less due to the absence of the problems related to the radioactivity of uranium. The reasons why DU weapons have been introduced and used are analysed from the perspective that their radioactivity must have played an important role in the decision making process. It is found that DU weapons belong to the diffuse category of low-radiological-impact nuclear weapons to which emerging types of low-yield, i.e., fourth...

  2. Aglite lidar: a portable elastic lidar system for investigating aerosol and wind motions at or around agricultural production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Christian C.; Wilkerson, Thomas; Bingham, Gail E.; Zavyalov, Vladimir V.; Andersen, Jan M.; Wright, Cordell B.; Cornelsen, Scott S.; Martin, Randal S.; Silva, Philip J.; Hatfield, Jerry L.

    2009-02-01

    The Aglite Lidar is a portable scanning lidar that can be quickly deployed at agricultural and other air quality study sites. The purpose of Aglite is to map the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in aerosol plumes from agricultural and other sources. Aglite uses a high-repetition rate low-pulse energy 3-wavelength YAG laser with photon-counting detection together with a steerable pointing mirror to measure aerosol concentration with high spatial and temporal resolution. Aglite has been used in field campaigns in Iowa, Utah and California. The instrument is described, and performance and lidar sensitivity data are presented. The value of the lidar in aerosol plume mapping is demonstrated, as is the ability to extract wind-speed information from the lidar data.

  3. Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Alexander

    2003-09-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the non-literal nature of these images. Especially for dynamic crowd surveillance purposes it may be impossible to rapidly asses with certainty which individual in the crowd is the one carrying the observed weapon. Sensor fusion is an enabling technology that may be used to solve this problem. Through fusion the signal of the sensor that depicts the weapon can be displayed in the context provided by a sensor of a different modality. We propose an image fusion scheme in which non-literal imagery can be fused with standard color images such that the result clearly displays the observed weapons in the context of the original color image. The procedure is such that the relevant contrast details from the non-literal image are transferred to the color image without altering the original color distribution of this image. The result is a natural looking color image that fluently combines all details from both input sources. When an observer who performs a dynamic crowd surveillance task, detects a weapon in the scene, he will also be able to quickly determine which person in the crowd is actually carrying the observed weapon (e.g. "the man with the red T-shirt and blue jeans"). The method is illustrated by the fusion of thermal 8-12 μm imagery with standard RGB color images.

  4. The Proposal of Demand Estimation of Repairable Items for the Weapon Systems During the Initial Support Period: F-16 Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahtiyar Eren

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Every country that has military systems such as aircraft, radar, warship or tank has to meet the operational needs of those military systems in order to keep them ready for military operations. Logistics support needs are defined basically either before or after procurement. If they are defined before procurement, they are called "initial support requirement", otherwise called "sustainment support requirement". Due to the fact that new system will be added into the Turkish military inventory, it is focused on the initial support requirement phase. In addition to that, it is focused on repairable items since most of the material acquisition cost within the initial support budget is allocated to repairable items. In this study, within the scope of initial support requirements,the method that produces much better results in terms of quantity and cost perspective than the ones used in Turkey and USA is established and demonstrated by using real data set of F-16.

  5. Phenomenology and system engineering of micro- and nano-antenna FPA sensors for detection of concealed weapons and improvised explosive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, R.; Ferguson, S.

    2012-06-01

    The ability of millimetre wave and terahertz systems to penetrate clothing is well known. The fact that the transmission of clothing and the reflectivity of the body vary as a function of frequency is less so. Several instruments have now been developed to exploit this capability. The choice of operating frequency, however, has often been associated with the maturity and the cost of the enabling technology rather than a sound systems engineering approach. Top level user and systems requirements have been derived to inform the development of design concepts. Emerging micro and nano technology concepts have been reviewed and we have demonstrated how these can be evaluated against these requirements by simulation using OpenFx. Openfx is an open source suite of 3D tools for modeling, animation and visualization which has been modified for use at millimeter waves.

  6. Optical Trapping-Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy System for Single Aerosol Particle Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    pumping laser that is an Nd:YAG laser from Continuum Lasers (USA) and a narrow linewidth dye laser from Radiant Dye Laser (Germany). The Nd:YAG pumped... Radiant Dye Laser (Germany). The Nd:YAG pumped dye laser system has built-in second harmonic and third harmonic generations to create a UV laser beam...laser system consists of a pumping laser that is an Nd:YAG laser from Continuum Lasers (USA) and a narrow linewidth dye laser from Radiant Dye Laser

  7. On the impact of pacific ocean free tropospheric background aerosols at the surface of the earth-atmosphere system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFelice, T. P. [Dept. Geosciences, A.S.G., University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Individual tropospheric particles (0.03 to several {mu}m in diameter) were sampled using wire impactors on a DC-864 aircraft along and within Pacific Rim, from 125 degrees E to 120 degrees W and 70 degrees S to 70 degrees N, during the November 1989 and May 1990 Global Backscattering Experiment (GLOBE) deployments of NASA. A simple radiative balance model was used to determine the first order radiative effect of this aerosol layer at the surface. The results indicate that: (i) The background (optical thickness of {approx_equal}0.005) tropospheric aerosols between 2.4 - 12.2 km exert a warming tendency on surfaces with albedos {>=}0.02 in both the visible and infrared. (ii) There is an apparent increase in the coarse mode sulfur containing aerosol abundance compared to {approx_equal} 15 years ago, suggesting that the background aerosol layer exerted a stronger tendency of planetary warming {approx_equal} 15 years ago. [Spanish] Se muestrearon particulas troposfericas individuales (0.03 a varias {mu}m de diametro) usando impactadores de alambre en un avion DC-864 a lo largo y dentro de la region del Pacifico de 125 grados E a 120 grados W y 70 grados S a 70 grados N, durante los desplegamientos de NASA del Experimento Global de Retrospeccion (GLOBE) en noviembre de 1989 y mayo de 1990. Fue usado un modelo de balance simple de radiacion para determinar el efecto radiativo de primer orden de esta capa de aerosoles en la superficie. Los resultados indican que: (i) los aerosoles troposfericos de fondo (espesor optico de {approx_equal} 0.05) entre 2.4 - 12.2 km ejercen una tendencia al calentamiento sobre superficies con albedo {>=} 0.02, tanto en el visible como en el infrarrojo. (ii) hay un aparente aumento en el modo tosco del sulfuro conteniendo abundancia de aerosoles comparado con {approx_equal} hace 15 anos, sugiriendo que la capa de trasfondo de aerosoles ejercio una tendencia mas fuerte de calentamiento planetario {approx_equal} hace 15 anos.

  8. Data assimilation of dust aerosol observations for the CUACE/dust forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Niu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A data assimilation system (DAS was developed for the Chinese Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment – Dust (CUACE/Dust forecast system and applied in the operational forecasts of sand and dust storm (SDS in spring 2006. The system is based on a three dimensional variational method (3D-Var and uses extensively the measurements of surface visibility (phenomena and dust loading retrieval from the Chinese geostationary satellite FY-2C. By a number of case studies, the DAS was found to provide corrections to both under- and over-estimates of SDS, presenting a major improvement to the forecasting capability of CUACE/Dust in the short-term variability in the spatial distribution and intensity of dust concentrations in both source regions and downwind areas. The seasonal mean Threat Score (TS over the East Asia in spring 2006 increased from 0.22 to 0.31 by using the data assimilation system, a 41% enhancement. The forecast results with DAS usually agree with the dust loading retrieved from FY-2C and visibility distribution from surface meteorological stations, which indicates that the 3D-Var method is very powerful by the unification of observation and numerical model to improve the performance of forecast model.

  9. The NH4+-NO3--Cl--SO42--H2O aerosol system and its gas phase precursors at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin: How relevant are mineral cations and soluble organic acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebs, Ivonne; Metzger, Swen; Meixner, Franz X.; Helas, Günter; Hoffer, AndráS.; Rudich, Yinon; Falkovich, Alla H.; Moura, Marcos A. L.; da Silva, Rosiberto S.; Artaxo, Paulo; Slanina, Jacob; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2005-04-01

    Real-time measurements of ammonia, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide and the water-soluble inorganic aerosol species, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate were performed at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondônia, Brazil). The measurements were made during the late dry season (biomass burning), the transition period, and the onset of the wet season (clean conditions) using a wet-annular denuder (WAD) in combination with a Steam-Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC). Measurements were conducted from 12 September to 14 November 2002 within the framework of LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate: Aerosols From Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate). Real-time data were combined with measurements of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and low-molecular weight (LMW) polar organic acids determined on 12-, 24-, and 48-hours integrated filter samples. The contribution of inorganic species to the fine particulate mass (Dp ≤ 2.5 μm) was frequently below 20% by mass, indicating the preponderance of organic matter. The measured concentration products of NH3 × HNO3 and NH3 × HCl persistently remained below the theoretical equilibrium dissociation constants of the NH3/HNO3/NH4NO3 and NH3/HCl/NH4Cl systems during daytime (RH 90%) fine-mode NH4NO3 and NH4Cl are predicted to be formed in the aqueous aerosol phase. Probably, Cl- was driven out of the aerosol phase largely by reaction of pyrogenic KCl with HNO3 and H2SO4. As shown by an updated version of the equilibrium simplified aerosol model (EQSAM2), which incorporates mineral aerosol species and lumped LMW polar organic acids, daytime aerosol NH4+ was mainly balanced by organic compounds.

  10. Detecting necessary and sufficient parts for assembling a functional weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Solomon, Divya; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Adkins, Tracy; Sirakov, Nikolay M.

    2017-05-01

    Continuing our previous research to visually extract and visually and conceptually match weapons, this study develops a method to determine whether a set of weapon parts visually extracted from images taken from different scenes can be assembled as a firing weapon. This new approach identifies potential weapons in the ontology via tracing detected necessary and sufficient parts through their meronymic relation to the whole weapon. A fast algorithm for identifying potential weapons that can be assembled from a given set of detected parts is presented.

  11. Indoor aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morawska, L.; Afshari, Alireza; N. Bae, G.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by growing considerations of the scale, severity, and risks associated with human exposure to indoor particulate matter, this work reviewed existing literature to: (i) identify state-of-the-art experimental techniques used for personal exposure assessment; (ii) compare exposure levels...... reported for domestic/school settings in different countries (excluding exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and particulate matter from biomass cooking in developing countries); (iii) assess the contribution of outdoor background vs indoor sources to personal exposure; and (iv) examine scientific...... understanding of the risks posed by personal exposure to indoor aerosols. Limited studies assessing integrated daily residential exposure to just one particle size fraction, ultrafine particles, show that the contribution of indoor sources ranged from 19% to 76%. This indicates a strong dependence on resident...

  12. Research on Life Determination and Extension of Missile Weapon System Based on Multilevel Finite Element%基于多级有限元方法的导弹武器定寿延寿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常新龙; 张有宏; 岳春国; 余堰峰; 刘万雷

    2011-01-01

    提出了多级有限元的概念,将导弹结构定寿延寿工作划分为3个有限元分析步骤进行,在有限元分析的过程中考虑了导弹结构原始状态、老化缺陷状态及修理/换件的影响,对导弹结构强度及剩余寿命进行了科学准确的评判.利用该理论对含有老化和裂纹等损伤因素的药柱结构质量状态和对出现的裂纹损伤进行修复的效果进行了评价.结果表明,该方法科学合理,可为导弹武器系统定寿延寿工作提供一定的理论参考.%The concept of multilevel finite element was presented. The life determination and extension of missile structure was divided to three finite element analysis steps. In the finite element analysis, the influence of original state, weathering state, and repair or replacement of missile structure was considered. The structural strength and residual life of missile structure was estimated exactly. Using this method, the quality state of grain considering factors such as aging and crack damage and the effect of repair for crack damage were evaluated. The results showed that this method is scientific and can provide a reference for life determination and extension of missile weapon system.

  13. MesoDyn Simulation Study on Phase Diagram of Aerosol OT/isooctane/water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A simple model, i.e. sodium di(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) represented by one-head and two-tail beads tied together by a harmonic spring and water or isooctane by one bead, was put forward via Dissipative Particles Dynamics (DPD) simulation method. Using the changes of interfacial tension between water and oil phase, a ternary phase diagram of AOT/water/isooctane system was drawn. From the simulation, one conclusion is shown that DPD simulation can be considered as an adjunct to experiments.

  14. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K[sub a]-band system.

  15. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K{sub a}-band system.

  16. Investigation of solid particles in the mainstream aerosol of the Tobacco Heating System THS2.2 and mainstream smoke of a 3R4F reference cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, P; Cosandey, S; Goujon Ginglinger, C

    2017-11-01

    Combustion of biomass produces solid carbon particles, whereas their generation is highly unlikely when a biomass is heated instead of being burnt. For instance, in the Tobacco Heating System (THS2.2), the tobacco is heated below 350°C and no combustion takes place. Consequently, at this relatively low temperature, released compounds should form an aerosol consisting of suspended liquid droplets via a homogeneous nucleation process. To verify this assumption, mainstream aerosol generated by the heat-not-burn product, THS2.2, was assessed in comparison with mainstream smoke produced from the 3R4F reference cigarette for which solid particles are likely present. For this purpose, a methodology was developed based on the use of a commercial Dekati thermodenuder operating at 300°C coupled with a two-stage impactor to trap solid particles. If any particles were collected, they were subsequently analyzed by a scanning electron microscope and an electron dispersive X-ray. The setup was first assessed using glycerine-based aerosol as a model system. The removal efficiency of glycerin was determined to be 86 ± 2% using a Trust Science Innovation (TSI) scanning mobility particle sizer, meaning that quantification of solid particles can be achieved as long as their fraction is larger than 14% in number. From experiments conducted using the 3R4F reference cigarette, the methodology showed that approximately 80% in number of the total particulate matter was neither evaporated nor removed by the thermodenuder. This 80% in number was attributed to the presence of solid particles and/or low volatile liquid droplets. The particles collected on the impactor were mainly carbon based. Oxygen, potassium, and chloride traces were also noted. In comparison, solid particles were not detected in the aerosol of THS2.2 after passing through the thermodenuder operated at 300°C. This result is consistent with the fact that no combustion process takes place in THS2.2 and no formation and

  17. Desert dust and anthropogenic aerosol interactions in the Community Climate System Model coupled-carbon-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mahowald

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Coupled-carbon-climate simulations are an essential tool for predicting the impact of human activity onto the climate and biogeochemistry. Here we incorporate prognostic desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into the CCSM3.1 coupled carbon-climate model and explore the resulting interactions with climate and biogeochemical dynamics through a series of transient anthropogenic simulations (20th and 21st centuries and sensitivity studies. The inclusion of prognostic aerosols into this model has a small net global cooling effect on climate but does not significantly impact the globally averaged carbon cycle; we argue that this is likely to be because the CCSM3.1 model has a small climate feedback onto the carbon cycle. We propose a mechanism for including desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into a simple carbon-climate feedback analysis to explain the results of our and previous studies. Inclusion of aerosols has statistically significant impacts on regional climate and biogeochemistry, in particular through the effects on the ocean nitrogen cycle and primary productivity of altered iron inputs from desert dust deposition.

  18. Implementation of a True Enterprise Web Based System to Manage Low Level, Mixed, Weapons Grade, Transuranic and Hazardous Waste at Lawrence Livermore National Laboaratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J; Plunkett, J; Haigh, D; Plunkett, J; Haigh, D; Collins, J

    2003-11-21

    Faced with increasing challenges imposed by a new mixed waste treatment facility under construction, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) embarked on a yearlong process of finding and implementing a new system to replace its existing waste tracking software. After a review of several applications, including the IWTS system in use at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)a, LLNL decided to implement HazTrack. HazTrack represents a new generation of browser based enterprise level business applications that are replacing the hardcoded client-server software that has been so prevalent for the last 15 years. It is widely believed that the object-oriented application frameworks of these applications, such as the model view controller (MVC) framework for HazTrack will be at the core of leading-edge software technology in the twenty-first century. MVC applications adapt more readily to changes in business and technical requirements than do applications built using traditional programming techniques, anywhere from 2.5 to 12 times faster than propagating the same changes to programmatically implemented solutions. Because of this ability, the HazTrack team was able to rapidly modify the HazTrack application for management of radiological waste storage, including support for an unlimited number of dose conversion factors (DCF's) for calculation of Plutonium Equivalent (Pu-Eq) curies, nuclide tracking, nuclide distribution tracking, and storage area limits management. LLNL also required extensive security management features including a waste approval process with lockdown and audit trail capability that was also incorporated during the implementation, as well as a flexible access control architecture to facilitate customized user views and access rights to functions based on user groups. HazTrack supports the full range of waste handling activities including waste generation, characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal through its

  19. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  20. Morphological and elemental properties of urban aerosols among PM events and different traffic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, Shila; Chae, Hoseung; Lee, Kwangyul; Dan, Nguyen Phuoc; Khoi, Tran Tien; Park, Kihong

    2016-11-05

    Morphology and elemental composition of individual fine ambient particles varied among types of PM events and between two different urban environments having different major transportation systems (gasoline/diesel vehicles versus motorcycles). Carbonaceous particles were the most dominant in PM events, whereas S-rich particles were the highest in non-events at urban Gwangju in Korea. The aged soot, semi-volatile organic (SVO), and non-volatile organic (NVO) particles were more abundant in the polluted-long range transport (LTP) event than those in the dust-LTP event and non-event. In the dust-LTP event, the aged mineral dust particles outnumbered the fresh ones, suggesting the mineral dust particles were aged during their long-range transport. At HoChiMinh (HCM) in Vietnam, the fraction of carbonaceous particles was much higher than Gwangju (66% versus 30%) possibly due to more abundant two-stroke motor vehicles at HCM. Of the carbonaceous particles, combustion soot (19%) was the highest, followed by NVO (18%), SVO (17%), and biological particles (11%) at HCM, whereas SVO (11%) and NVO (10%) particles were the highest, followed by combustion soot particles (8%) at Gwangju. The higher fraction of mineral dust particles was also observed at HCM, indicating the sampling site was influenced by dust from unpaved roads and construction sites.